Proffit, William R.; Jackson, Tate H.; Turvey, Timothy A.
Introduction The characteristics of patients who seek and accept orthognathic surgery appear to be changing over time but have not been well documented in the 21st century. Methods Records for patients who had orthognathic surgery at the University of North Carolina from 1996 to 2000 and from 2006 to 2010 were reviewed to collect data for changes in the prevalence of patients with mandibular deficiency (Class II), maxillary deficiency or mandibular prognathism (Class III), long face, and asymmetry problems. The changes were compared with those in previous time periods and at other locations. Results Between 1996 and 2000 and between 2006 and 2010, the percentage of Class III patients increased from 35% to 54%, and the percentage of Class II patients decreased from 59% to 41%, while the percentages for long face and asymmetry showed little change. The decrease in Class II patients was accentuation of a long-term trend; the increase in Class III patients occurred only after the turn of the century. Conclusions A similar but less-marked change has been noted at some but not all other locations in the United States. It appears to be related primarily to an increase in the numbers of African Americans, Native Americans, Hispanics, and Asians who now are seeking surgical treatment, but it also has been affected by changes in where orthognathic surgery is performed, decisions by third-party payers (insurance and Medicaid) about coverage for treatment, and the availability of nonsurgical orthodontic treatment options for Class II patients. PMID:23726329
of this study is to evaluate the resource provision of the destination hospital of Scottish trauma patients exhibiting evidence of pre-hospital shock...Methods: Patients who sustained a traumatic injury between November 2008 and October 2010 were retrospectively identified from the Scottish Ambulance... Scottish trauma patients are transported to a hospital with full transfusion capability, although the majority lack surgical sub-specialty
Li, Mu-Xing; Jin, Zheng-Xiong; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Ying, Jian-Ming; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Mao, Xin-Xin; Bi, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Jian-Jun; Li, Zhi-Yu; Huang, Zhen; Zhang, Ye-Fan; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Xu-Hui; Hu, Han-Jie; Zhao, Dong-Bing; Wang, Ying-Yi; Cai, Jian-Qiang; Zhao, Hong
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with gastric cancer liver metastasis (GCLM) who received combined surgical resection. A retrospective analysis of 46 patients from two hospitals was conducted. Patients were dichotomized into two groups (high LNR and low LNR) by the median value of LNR. The overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed by the Kaplan–Meier method with the log-rank test. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to carry out the subsequent multivariate analyses. And the relationship between LNR and clinicopathological characteristics was assessed. The cut-off value defining elevated LNR was 0.347. With a median follow-up of 67.5 months, the median OS and RFS of the patients were 17 and 9.5 months, respectively. Six patients survived for >5 years after surgery. Patients with higher LNR had significantly shorter OS and RFS than those with lower LNR. In the multivariate analyses, higher LNR and multiple liver metastatic tumors were identified as the independent prognostic factors for both OS and RFS. Elevated LNR was significantly associated with advanced pN stage (P <0.001), larger primary tumor size (P = 0.046), the presence of microvascular invasion (P = 0.008), and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (P = 0.004). LNR may be prognostic indicator for patients with GCLM treated by synchronous surgical resection. Patients with lower LNR and single liver metastasis may gain more survival benefits from the surgical resection. Further prospective studies with reasonable study design are warranted. PMID:27100426
Aurell, J; Elmqvist, D
Sleep was studied in nine patients for two to four days after major non-cardiac surgery by continuous polygraphic recording of electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, and electromyogram. Presumed optimal conditions for sleep were provided by a concerted effort by staff to offer constant pain relief and reduce environmental disturbance to a minimum. All patients were severely deprived of sleep compared with normal. The mean cumulative sleep time (stage 1 excluded) for the first two nights, daytime sleep included, was less than two hours a night. Stages 3 and 4 and rapid eye movement sleep were severely or completely suppressed. The sustained wakefulness could be attributed to pain and environmental disturbance to only minor degree. Sleep time as estimated by nursing staff was often grossly misjudged and consistently overestimated when compared with the parallel polygraphic recording. The grossly abnormal sleep pattern observed in these patients may suggest some fundamental disarrangement of the sleep-wake regulating mechanism. PMID:3921096
Thompson, J S; Burrough, C A; Green, J L; Brown, G L
Routine nutritional screening of patients admitted to the surgical services confirms a substantial prevalence of malnutrition. Identification of the malnourished patient and the patient who is likely to become malnourished should be done as early as possible in the hospital stay and usually requires only simple, readily available parameters. Nutritional screening is only the first step in the optimal nutritional management of surgical patients. This information should be used to determine the need for further nutritional assessment, the appropriate consultation, and nutritional therapy.
Brown, C S; Stegman, M R
In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies.
Cohen, Seth M.; Haynes, David S.
This article discusses the surgical management of children receiving cochlear implants. It identifies preoperative considerations to select patients likely to benefit, contraindications, some new surgical techniques, complications, special considerations (otitis media, meningitis, head growth, inner ear malformations, and cochlear obstruction).…
The European Working Time Directive means safe patient hand over is imperative. It is the responsibility of every doctor and an issue of patient safety and clinical governance . The aims of this project were to improve the quality of patient handover between combined assessment unit (CAU) and surgical ward FY1 doctors. The Royal College of Surgeons England (RCSEng) guidelines on surgical patient handover  were used as the standard. Data was collected throughout November 2013. A handover tool was then introduced and attached to the front of patient notes when a patient was transferred from CAU to the surgical ward. The doctor handing over the patient and the ward doctor receiving the handover signed this document. Policy was also changed so that handover should take place once the patient had received senior review on the CAU and was deemed appropriate for transfer to the surgical ward. Data from the handover tool was collated and checked against the list of surgical admission for February 2014. The number of patients handed over improved from 15 % to 45%. The quality of patient handover also improved. 0 patient handovers in November 2013 included all of the information recommended by the RCSEng guidelines. 100% of the patient handovers in February 2014 contained all the recommended information. Introduction of a handover tool and formalisation of timing of patient handover helped to improve quality and number of patients being handed over. Further work needs to be done to improve safe handover of surgical patients, particularly out of hours.
Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph
Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified.
Amato-Vealey, Elaine J; Fountain, Patricia; Coppola, Deborah
Reduced surgical efficiency and productivity, delayed patient discharges, and prolonged use of hospital resources are the results of an OR that is unable to move patients to the postanesthesia care unit or other patient units. A primary reason for perioperative patient flow delay is the lack of hospital beds to accommodate surgical patients, which consequently causes backups of patients currently in the surgical suite. In one facility, implementing Six Sigma methodology helped to improve OR patient flow by identifying ways that frontline staff members could work more intelligently and more efficiently, and with less stress to streamline workflow and eliminate redundancy and waste in ways that did not necessitate reducing the number of employees. The results were improved employee morale, job satisfaction and safety, and an enhanced patient experience.
Van Poznak, Catherine; Estilo, Cherry
Cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) have been reported with an increasing frequency over the past few years. ONJ is most often identified in patients with cancer who are receiving intravenous bisphosphonate therapy but it has also been diagnosed in patients receiving oral bisphosphonates for nonmalignant conditions. The condition involves exposed bone of the maxilla or mandible. Although it is often associated with a recent dental surgical procedure, spontaneous ONJ can also occur. Patients commonly present with symptoms. Through case reporting and clinical experience, there is a suggestion that the incidence of ONJ in patients with cancer receiving intravenous bisphosphonates ranges between 1% and 10%. Management of ONJ focuses on maximizing oral health, conservative actions with mouth rinses, antibiotics, and avoidance of unnecessary invasive dental procedures. The currently available data on ONJ are reviewed here.
Perucca, E; Garratt, A; Hebdige, S; Richens, A
Plasma sodium and osmolality were determined in 80 adult epileptic patients receiving chronic treatment with carbamazepine and in 50 control patients treated with other anticonvulsant drugs. Mean plasma osmolality was significantly lower in the carbamazepine-treated patients but mean plasma sodium did not differ in the two groups. Hyponatraemia was found in five of the carbamazine-treated patients and hypo-osmolality in six. None of the control patients had hyponatraemia and only one had a borderline low osmolality. Three of the 13 patients receiving carbamazepine alone were hyponatraemic. Plasma sodium concentration correlated negatively with both daily carbamazepine dose and serum carbamazepine level. Free water clearance after an oral water load was determined in six patients on carbamazepine alone and in six normal subjects not receiving drug therapy. The capacity of some of the patients to excrete the water load was found to be grossly impaired. PMID:681958
Sánchez-Palomino, Paulino; Sánchez-Cobo, Paulino; Rodriguez-Archilla, Alberto; González-Jaranay, Maximino; Moreu, Gerardo; Calvo-Guirado, José-Luis; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel
Background Dual anti platelet therapy consists of administering antiplatelet (antiaggregant) drugs (clopidogrel and aspirin) to prevent thrombotic processes, as a preventative measure in patients with acute coronary disease, or in patients subjected to percutaneous coronary intervention. Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a protocol for performing dental extraction in patients receiving dual anti platelet therapy. Material and Methods Thirty-two patients undergoing dental extractions were included in the study. The variables evaluated were: collagen-epinephrine fraction, collagen- adenosine diphosphate fraction, surgical surface, post-surgical measures, and adverse effects. Alveolar sutures and gauzes impregnated with an antifibrinolytic agent (tranexamic acid), which the patient pressed in place for 30 minutes, were applied to all patients as post-surgical measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed with Student’s t-test to compare pairs of quantitative variables; simple regression analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results Collagen/epinephrine fraction was 264.53±55.624 seconds with a range of 135 to 300 seconds, and collagen/ADP fraction was 119.41±44.216 seconds, both values being higher than normal. As a result of the post-surgical measures taken, no patients presented postoperative bleeding, hematoma or infection. Conclusions Dental extraction was safe for patients receiving dual anti-platelet therapy when using sutures and gauze impregnated with tranexamic acid, which the patient pressed in place for 30 minutes. Key words: Aspirin, clopidogrel, tranexamic acid, dental extraction, platelet function. PMID:26241454
Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana
Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. The aim: of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. Material and methods: A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic “Mother Teresa” in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1st till December 31st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Results: Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Conclusion: Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI. PMID:27703296
Baranyai, Zsolt; Kulin, László; Jósa, Valéria; Mayer, Akos
Surgical infections are severe complications of surgical interventions and one of the most important patient safety issues. These are associated with increased morbidity, mortality, costs and decreased quality of life. Prevention of infections is essential, while one has to consider pre-, intra- and postoperative factors and procedures in the clinical practice. In this article we summarize the latest recommendations for clinicians based on the relevant published literature.
Stohs, Sidney J; Dudrick, Stanley J
This article presents an overview of the current knowledge, status, and use of supplements by patients before surgical operations, together with the benefits expected of the supplements by the patients. The indications, potential advantages and disadvantages, and the relationships with various aspects of the preoperative preparation and postoperative management of surgical patients are discussed, with emphasis on the significant percentage of this population that is deficient in fundamental nutrients. Recent revisions and recommendations for some of the macronutrients are presented, together with a summary of federal regulations and an oversight of supplements.
The article analyses the consequences of the paradigm shift in the surgical practice in the last fifty years. The earlier, paternalistic physician-patient relationship has been replaced by an equal one, which is based on informing the patient and involving him or her in the treatment decisions. This shift did not happen uniformly in various medical subspecialties. In this respect, surgery is more conservative than general medicine. The article analyses the most frequent problems of informing patients, and examines the major elements of information, together with their technical conditions in surgery. It reflects on specifics of surgical information disclosure and conditions of refusing medical interventions.
Sözeri, Elif; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç
Objective This study is aimed to determine factors that affect conditions of patients receiving chemotherapy in terms of experienced taste alteration. Materials and Methods In this descriptive study, 184 patients receiving chemotherapy were included in the sample. Data were collected during the period of December 2013 to May 2014 using “Patient Characteristics Identification Form” and “Chemotherapy-induced Taste Alteration Scale (CiTAS).” The data were analyzed using SPSS 20 (SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA) statistical software in terms of number, percentage, Mann-Whitney U test, and Kruskal-Wallis H test. Results The mean age of the patients was 55.5±11.8 and 57.1% of them were female. The clinical diagnosis of the patients were most frequently breast cancer (n=46), colorectal cancer (n=45), and lung cancer (n=25). Furthermore, 37.5% of the patients were in clinical stage II; 15.8% of the patients received paclitaxel+herceptin and 14.1% received gemcitabine+cisplatin chemotherapy protocols. Data demonstrated significant differences in mean scores (p<0.05) taken from “Decline in Basic Taste” and “Phantogeusia and Parageusia” subscales with patients with or without xerostomia. There were significant differences in the average scores of the subscales between those with and without a sore mouth “Discomfort” and “General taste alterations” (p<0.05). Conclusion It has been established that patients receiving chemotherapy experience substantial alteration in taste by exposure of different subscales of CiTAS. Analysis of scores collected from different subscales of CiTAS with respect to sociodemographic and pathological differences showed that patients with xerostomia and sore mouth experienced more severe taste alterations.
Nishi, Eriko; Takamizawa, Shigeru; Iio, Kenji; Yamada, Yasumasa; Yoshizawa, Katsumi; Hatata, Tomoko; Hiroma, Takehiko; Mizuno, Seiji; Kawame, Hiroshi; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Kosho, Tomoki
Trisomy 18 is a common chromosomal aberration syndrome involving growth impairment, various malformations, poor prognosis, and severe developmental delay in survivors. Although esophageal atresia (EA) with tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a potentially fatal complication that can only be rescued through surgical correction, no reports have addressed the efficacy of surgical intervention for EA in patients with trisomy 18. We reviewed detailed clinical information of 24 patients with trisomy 18 and EA who were admitted to two neonatal intensive care units in Japan and underwent intensive treatment including surgical interventions from 1982 to 2009. Nine patients underwent only palliative surgery, including six who underwent only gastrostomy or both gastrostomy and jejunostomy (Group 1) and three who underwent gastrostomy and TEF division (Group 2). The other 15 patients underwent radical surgery, including 10 who underwent single-stage esophago-esophagostomy with TEF division (Group 3) and five who underwent two-stage operation (gastrostomy followed by esophago-esophagostomy with TEF division) (Group 4). No intraoperative death or anesthetic complications were noted. Enteral feeding was accomplished in 17 patients, three of whom were fed orally. Three patients could be discharged home. The 1-year survival rate was 17%: 27% in those receiving radical surgery (Groups 3 and 4); 0% in those receiving palliative surgery (Groups 1 and 2). Most causes of death were related to cardiac complications. EA is not an absolute poor prognostic factor in patients with trisomy 18 undergoing radical surgery for EA and intensive cardiac management.
Hubay, C A; Weckesser, E C; Levy, R P
Eight patients admitted to a University hospital with acute surgical problems and related adrenal insufficiency were reviewed and three are presented in detail. Surgical stress and continued sepsis played major roles in the lack of responsiveness to usual modes of therapy until the adrenal insufficiency was corrected. The patients fell into three major clinical categories of adrenal insufficiency. Chronic illness and sepsis are shown to affect steroid production and metabolism, as well as adrenal responsiveness to ACTH. Pharmacologic amounts of steroids are often needed in patients with shock, gram negative sepsis and prolonged illnesses, even if normal or elevated serum cortisols are present. Therapeutic trials of cortisol administration are shown to be confusing when not accompanied by easily performed diagnostic tests of adrenal function. It is emphasized that a pretreatment serum cortisol should be obtained whenever possible. The evaluation of adrenal function is of lifelong importance to the patient. PMID:165792
Ramanathan, Rajesh; Duane, Therese M
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are common in surgical patients. CAUTI are associated with adverse patient outcomes, and negatively affects public safety reporting and reimbursement. Inappropriate catheter use and prolonged catheter duration are major risk factors for CAUTI. CAUTI pathogenesis and treatment are complicated by the presence of biofilms. Prevention strategies include accurate identification and tracking of CAUTIs, and the development of institutional guidelines for the appropriate use, duration, alternatives, and removal of indwelling urinary catheters.
The new Patients' Rights Act does not reflect rights of patients as professional obligations of physicians for the first time. It adopted common longtime jurisdiction, but in some respects it is going beyond. This law clearly extends the documentation requirements of physicians, especially concerning the extent of documentation. In surgical fields the requirements for enlightening physicians were more strongly worded than in previous jurisdiction. In medical facilities it is now mandatory to establish an internal quality management system.
Klek, Stanislaw; Waitzberg, Dan L
Parenteral nutrition is considered an essential element of the perioperative management of surgical patients. It is recommended in patients who require nutritional therapy but in whom the enteral route is contraindicated, not recommended or non-feasible. The new generation of lipid emulsions (LEs) based on olive and fish oils are safe and may improve clinical outcome in surgical patients. The increased provision of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish oil-containing LEs seems to be associated with fewer infectious complications and shorter ICU and hospital stays following major abdominal surgery. Increased provision of olive oil in the absence of fish oil may also exert beneficial effects, but a clear conclusion on this is limited due to the low number of available studies. Hence, at the moment, the evidence supports the use of n-3-polyunsaturated fatty acid-enriched LEs as a part of the parenteral nutrition regimen for selected groups of patients, such as those with major surgical trauma or those undergoing extended resections or liver transplantation.
Griveas, I; Germanidis, G; Visvardis, G; Morice, Y; Perelson, A S; Pawlotsky, J M; Papadopoulou, D
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequent in patients with end-stage renal disease treated by chronic dialysis, with a prevalence varying from 10-65% according to the geographical data. The prevalence is significantly associated with the duration of dialysis and the number of transfused blood products[1,2] and has dramatically declined with efficient blood screening. We studied patients with acute HCV infection in a dialysis unit. The diagnosis was based on both anti-HCV detection and HCV-RNA detection. Other virological tools including HCV genotype determination was also used to tailor treatment to the individual patient and determine its efficacy for a one-year follow-up period. Seventeen patients (7 male and 10 female, mean age: 63.7 +/- 11.6 SD) with acute hepatitis C were enrolled to our study. All of them were followed up for a period of one year after the diagnosis was established. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two separate HCV subtypes 1b, which were both responsible for this acute infection (see Figure 1). These types did not differ in their behavior on the clinical situation of our patients, as confirmed by the fact that in both groups of patients, there was only one patient who presented with acute illness. Six patients of our study group, three months after the acute infection, received pegylated interferon (Peg-IFNa2a) 135 mug for a six-month period. Four of them responded very well to therapy and at the first determination HCV RNA was below the cutoff point. One of our patients with very high HCV levels (HCV RNA > 50,000,000 IU/mL), despite receiving the same therapy, did not respond well and developed cirrhosis. In conclusion, it is clear from our experience that better information is needed about the current incidence, prevalence, and risk factors for HCV infection in dialysis patients. Algorithms for the diagnosis and management of hepatitis C should be developed by academic societies. Routine screening for hepatitis C also would allow
Asher, E F; Oliver, B G; Fry, D E
Urinary tract infection (UTI) continues to be a common nosocomial infection. From a 2-year city-county hospital experience, 212 nosocomial UTI were identified in 153 patients from 3747 admissions. Mean age was 54 years; 102 were men. Foley catheterization was an associated factor in 129 patients (84%). UTI was caused by 40 different species of bacteria. In 28 infections (13%), the UTI was polymicrobial. Only nine patients had bacteremia. The bacteriology of the UTI depended on whether the patient had received systemic antibiotics previously during the hospitalization. Prior antibiotic administration increased the probability of Pseudomonas and Serratia as pathogens. Thus, patients that have had antibiotic therapy demonstrate a distribution of pathogens that are different from patients not receiving antibiotics, and a distribution different from the community-acquired UTI. Continued emphasis on the shorter duration and more judicious use of systemic antibiotics for both prophylaxis and therapy is warranted.
Mullen, J L; Gertner, M H; Buzby, G P; Goodhart, G L; Rosato, E F
The substantial prevalence of malnutrition in the hospitalized patient population has only been recently recognized. Preoperative nutritional and immunological assessment was performed prospectively on admission in 64 consecutive surgical patients. Factors measured included weight loss, triceps skinfold, midarm muscle circumference, creatinine-height index, serum albumin level, serum transferrin level, total lymphocyte count, serum complement level, serum immunoelectrophoresis, lymphocyte T rosettes formation, neutrophil migration, and delayed hypersensitivity. Using these criteria for malnutrition, 97% of the patients had at least one abnormal measurement and 35% had at least three abnormal measurements. Patients were monitored for complications during their hospital course. Serum albumin level, serum transferrin level, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions were the only accurate prognostic indicators of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Substantial unrecognized malnutrition exists in the surgical patient population. An isolated indicator of malnutrition should be interpreted with caution. The visceral protein compartment (serum albumin and serum transferrin levels and delayed hypersensitivity) is the most accurate prognostic indicator of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Perioperative nutritional support may reduce operative morbidity and mortality in the malnourished operative candidate.
Fettiplace, Anna; Stainsby, Chris; Winston, Alan; Givens, Naomi; Puccini, Sarah; Vannappagari, Vani; Hsu, Ricky; Fusco, Jennifer; Quercia, Romina; Aboud, Michael
Introduction: Psychiatric symptoms (PSs) are reported to occur frequently in people living with HIV and may be associated with specific antiretrovirals. We analyzed PSs observed with dolutegravir (DTG) and other frequently prescribed anchor drugs. Methods: Selected PSs (insomnia, anxiety, depression, and suicidality) occurring in HIV-positive patients during DTG treatment across 5 randomized clinical trials (3 double-blind), in the Observational Pharmaco-Epidemiology Research & Analysis (OPERA) cohort, and among cases spontaneously reported to ViiV Healthcare were analyzed. Results: In clinical trials, PSs were reported at low and similar rates in patients receiving DTG or comparators [atazanavir, darunavir, efavirenz, or raltegravir (RAL)]. Insomnia was most commonly reported. The highest rates were observed in SINGLE (DTG 17%, efavirenz 12%), with consistently lower rates in the other trials (DTG: 3%–8% versus comparator: 3%–7%). More efavirenz-treated patients withdrew because of PSs than patients treated with other anchor drugs. In OPERA, history of PSs at baseline was lowest in efavirenz-treated patients compared with patients treated with DTG, RAL, or darunavir. Despite baseline differences, prevalence and incidence during treatment were similar across the 4 anchor drugs. Withdrawal rates for PSs were lowest for DTG (0%–0.6%) and highest for RAL (0%–2.5%). Spontaneously reported events were similar in nature to clinical trial data. Conclusions: Analysis of 3 different data sources shows that, similar to other frequently prescribed anchor drugs to treat HIV infection, PSs are also reported in DTG-treated patients. These events are reported with low frequency and rarely necessitate DTG discontinuation. PMID:27984559
Lee, Victoria S.; Zhou, Xiao Ping; Rahn, Douglas A., III; Wang, Emily Q.; Jiang, Jack J.
Nineteen PD patients who received deep brain stimulation (DBS), 10 non-surgical (control) PD patients, and 11 non-pathologic age- and gender-matched subjects performed sustained vowel phonations. The following acoustic measures were obtained on the sustained vowel phonations: correlation dimension (D[subscript 2]), percent jitter, percent shimmer,…
Weltz, C R; Morris, J B; Mullen, J L
One hundred patients underwent laparotomy for independent jejunal feeding tube placement. Neurologic disease was present in 50%, and obtundation (28) and oropharyngeal dysmotility (25) were the most common indications for enteral feeding. The post-pyloric route was chosen because of aspiration risk in almost all (94%) patients. Postoperative (30-day) mortality rate was 21%, because of cardiopulmonary failure in most (18). One death resulted directly from aspiration of tube feeds. Two surgical complications required reoperation: one wound dehiscence and one small bowel obstruction. Four wound infections occurred. Two patients underwent reoperation after tube removal, and four tubes required fluoroscopically guided reinsertion for peritubular drainage (2), removal (1), and occlusion (1). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 18 patients preoperatively and in eight postoperatively. None of the patients with feeding-related preoperative aspiration pneumonia (13) had a recurrence while fed by jejunostomy. Three patients developed postoperative aspiration pneumonia before initiation of jejunostomy feedings. Jejunostomy may be performed with low morbidity rate and substantial reduction of feeding-related aspiration pneumonia, and is the feeding route of choice in aspiration risk patients. PMID:1546899
Holliday, R L; Doris, P J
Critically ill surgical patients account for approximately half the patients in an active multidisciplinary critical care unit. Hypovolemia and sepsis are common in such patients and affect a number of organ systems. Monitoring these systems provides therapeutically relevant information that may decrease morbidity and improve patient survival. Circulatory hemodynamics may be assessed by direct measurement of the arterial blood pressure, central venous and pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and cardiac output determination; the data thus obtained are valuable in guiding fluid replacement in the hypovolemic individual. The respiratory status may be assessed by bedside spirometry and measurement of arterial blood gas tensions to gauge pulmonary function and the need for assisted ventilation. Renal dysfunction is common in such patients; careful analysis of both urine and blood may identify prerenal as opposed to renal and postrenal factors. Monitoring of the gastrointestinal tract, especially for hemorrhage, is important. Finally, careful attention to nutritional status and provision of adequate protein and energy intake by mouth or by vein is a vital component of the optimal care of these patients. PMID:115566
Macindo, John Rey B; Macabuag, Katherine R; Macadangdang, Carlo Miguel P; Macaranas, Margaux Valerie S; Macarilay, Marianne Jezelle Jem T; Madriñan, Natasha Nikki M; Villarama, Rouena S
Inadequate surgical knowledge potentiates anxiety; however, no methodology simultaneously addresses anxiety and surgical knowledge. Our quasi-experimental study determined the effectiveness of a three-dimensional (3-D) storybook in increasing surgical knowledge and decreasing anxiety among young children scheduled for planned or required major surgeries. We studied 20 randomly assigned participants who received either the 3-D storybook or traditional health teaching. A presurgical knowledge questionnaire and modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale assessed surgical knowledge and anxiety. Data were analyzed with one-way and repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that both groups had higher knowledge scores (F = 8.94; P = .008) and lower anxiety scores (F = 5.13; P = .036) after the intervention. The children who received information from the 3-D storybook exhibited a significantly higher posttest knowledge score (F = 11.71; P = .003) and lower anxiety score (F = 10.05; P = .005) than the traditionally educated group of children. The 3-D storybook effectively increased surgical knowledge and decreased anxiety and could be used as an alternative method to prepare pediatric surgical patients.
García-Morales, Esther; Lázaro-Martínez, José Luis; Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Cecilia-Matilla, Almudena; García-Álvarez, Yolanda; Beneit-Montesinos, Juan Vicente
Background The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of complications associated with primary closure in surgical procedures performed for diabetic foot osteomyelitis compared to those healed by secondary intention. In addition, further evaluation of the surgical digital debridement for osteomyelitis with primary closure as an alternative to patients with digital amputation was also examined in our study. Methods Comparative study that included 46 patients with diabetic foot ulcerations. Surgical debridement of the infected bone was performed on all patients. Depending on the surgical technique used, primary surgical closure was performed on 34 patients (73.9%, Group 1) while the rest of the 12 patients were allowed to heal by secondary intention (26.1%, Group 2). During surgical intervention, bone samples were collected for both microbiological and histopathological analyses. Post-surgical complications were recorded in both groups during the recovery period. Results The average healing time was 9.9±SD 8.4 weeks in Group 1 and 19.1±SD 16.9 weeks in Group 2 (p=0.008). The percentage of complications was 61.8% in Group 1 and 58.3% in Group 2 (p=0.834). In all patients with digital ulcerations that were necessary for an amputation, a primary surgical closure was performed with successful outcomes. Discussion Primary surgical closure was not associated with a greater number of complications. Patients who received primary surgical closure had faster healing rates and experienced a lower percentage of exudation (p=0.05), edema (p<0.001) and reinfection, factors that determine the delay in wound healing and affect the prognosis of the surgical outcome. Further research with a greater number of patients is required to better define the cases for which primary surgical closure may be indicated at different levels of the diabetic foot. PMID:23050062
Chen, Yang; Liu, Bao-Lin; Shang, Bin; Chen, Ai-Shan; Liu, Shi-Qing; Sun, Wei; Yin, Hong-Zhuan; Yin, Jian-Qiao; Su, Qi
AIM: To review the application of nutrition support in patients after surgery for colorectal cancer, and to propose appropriate nutrition strategies. METHODS: A total of 202 consecutive surgical patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of colon cancer or rectal cancer from January 2010 to July 2010, meeting the requirements of Nutrition Risk Screening 2002, were enrolled in our study. Laboratory tests were performed to analyze the nutrition status of each patient, and the clinical outcome variables, including postoperative complications, hospital stay, cost of hospitalization and postoperative outcome, were analyzed. RESULTS: The “non-risk” patients who did not receive postoperative nutrition support had a higher rate of postoperative complications than patients who received postoperative nutrition support (2.40 ± 1.51 vs 1.23 ± 0.60, P = 0.000), and had a longer postoperative hospital stay (23.00 ± 15.84 d vs 15.27 ± 5.89 d, P = 0.009). There was higher cost of hospitalization for patients who received preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) than for patients who did not receive preoperative TPN (62 713.50 ± 5070.66 RMB Yuan vs 43178.00 ± 3596.68 RMB Yuan, P = 0.014). Applying postoperative enteral nutrition significantly shortened postoperative fasting time (5.16 ± 1.21 d vs 6.40 ± 1.84 d, P = 0.001) and postoperative hospital stay (11.92 ± 4.34 d vs 15.77 ± 6.03 d, P = 0.002). The patients who received postoperative TPN for no less than 7 d had increased serum glucose levels (7.59 ± 3.57 mmol/L vs 6.48 ± 1.32 mmol/L, P = 0.006) and cost of hospitalization (47 724.14 ± 16 945.17 Yuan vs 38 598.73 ± 8349.79 Yuan, P = 0.000). The patients who received postoperative omega-3 fatty acids had a higher rate of postoperative complications than the patients who did not (1.33 ± 0.64 vs 1.13 ± 0.49, P = 0.041). High level of serum glucose was associated with a high risk of postoperative complications of infection. CONCLUSION: Appropriate
Meriggi, F; Forni, E
A posthepatitic cirrhotic patient may undergo elective or urgent abdominal operation for an extra-hepatic or hepatic disease. According to the high postoperative morbidity (61%), surgery is indicated only for symptomatic or complicated cholelithiasis. A surgical procedure for refractory ascites has been devised to create a permanent peritoneo-venous shunt by a one way pressure-sensitive valve (Leveen). The procedure is simple and brings a long lasting relief with recovery in strength and nutrition and improved kidney function. Sclerotherapy is widely used to treat acute variceal bleeding while repeated sclerotherapy is used in the long-term management to eradicate varices. When indicated, liver transplantation is the best treatment to prevent variceal bleeding recurrence. Also portosystemic shunts effectively prevent recurrent variceal bleeding. They are, however, major operations with an important morbidity and mortality, particularly in poor risk patients. The most advocated shunts today are the Warren distal splenorenal shunt and the Sarfeh portacaval shunt using a small diameter prosthetic H-graft. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) is a new treatment for portal hypertension and its complications. From a haemodynamic point of view it allows balanced hepatic perfusion. Postoperative mortality is rare; further bleeding and encephalopathy are reasonably acceptable. The most relevant complications concern dislocation of the prosthesis, stenosis and thrombosis of the shunt, which can be corrected by non-invasive dilatation. Encephalopathy is the main complication of surgical portosystemic shunts. It is usually controlled by protein diet restriction, and administration of lactulose or oral antibiotics. In severe forms the patients may be treated by an oesophageal transection with oesophagogastric devascularization, and by a postoperative suppression of the portosystemic shunt using external maneuvers. Posthepatitic liver cirrhosis is
Penzner, R.D.; Lipsett, J.A.
A retrospective analysis was done of 106 patients who received radiation therapy for brain metastasis. Dexamethasone therapy was instituted in 97 patients. Peptic ulcer disease developed in 5 of 89 patients (5.6 percent) who received a dosage of at least 12 mg a day, but did not occur in patients who received a lower dose or in those who did not receive steroids. The interval between institution of dexamethasone therapy and the development of peptic ulcer disease ranged from three to nine weeks. Two patients had perforated ulcers, one of whom required surgical resection. Peptic ulcer disease contributed to the general deterioration and death of three of the five patients. Overall, in 14 of the 89 patients (15.7 percent) a complication of steroid therapy developed in the form of peptic ulcer disease, steroid myopathy or diabetes mellitus (or a combination of these).
Bilfinger, Thomas; Keresztes, Roger; Albano, Denise; Nemesure, Barbara
BACKGROUND Five-year survival rates among stage IIIA lung cancer patients range between 2% and 15%, and there is currently no consensus regarding optimal treatment approaches for these patients. The current investigation evaluated survival outcomes among stage IIIA lung cancer patients receiving 2 different treatment modalities, neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection versus chemoradiation alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study is based on 127 patients attending the Lung Cancer Evaluation Center at Stony Brook Cancer Center between 2002 and 2014. Patients were treated either with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by resection or a regimen of chemoradiation alone. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare survival outcomes between groups and Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate treatment effects on survival, while adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS Approximately one-fourth (n=33) of patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery, whereas 94 patients received definitive chemoradiation. Patients in the surgical group were found to be significantly younger than those receiving chemoradiation alone (60.1 vs. 67.9 years, respectively; p=0.001). Five-year survival among patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection was significantly higher than that among patients receiving chemoradiation alone (63% vs. 19%, respectively; p<0.001), whereas the hazard ratio (HR) was 3-4 times greater in the latter group (HR=3.77, 95% confidence interval=1.87, 7.61). CONCLUSIONS Findings from this study indicate that preoperative chemotherapy followed by resection can improve survival outcomes for stage IIIA lung cancer patients compared with chemoradiation alone. The results reflect a select surgical group of patients; thus, the data highlight the need to develop new therapies that may result in more patients being viable surgical candidates.
Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia
We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tocilizumab, and provide a review of published cases. The patient exhibited no systemic symptoms and discreet cutaneous inflammatory signals at presentation. She was successfully treated with broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement.
Bossuyt, Veerle; Symmans, W Fraser
The use of neoadjuvant systemic therapy for the treatment of breast cancer patients is increasing. Pathologic response in the form of pathologic complete response (pCR) and grading systems of partial response, such as the residual cancer burden (RCB) system, gives valuable prognostic information for patients and is used as a primary endpoint in clinical trials. The breast cancer and pathology communities are responding with efforts to standardize pathology in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize the challenges that postneoadjuvant systemic therapy surgical specimens pose and how pathologists and the multidisciplinary team can work together to optimize handling of these specimens. Multidisciplinary communication is essential. A single, standardized approach to macroscopic and microscopic pathologic examination makes it possible to provide reliable response information. This approach employs a map of tissue sections to correlate clinical, gross, microscopic, and imaging findings in order to report the presence of pCR (ypT0 ypN0 and ypT0/is ypN0) versus residual disease, the ypT and ypN stage using the current AJCC/UICC staging system, and the RCB.
Goode, Victoria; Phillips, Elayne; DeGuzman, Pamela; Hinton, Ivora; Rovnyak, Virginia; Scully, Kenneth; Merwin, Elizabeth
Patient safety and the delivery of quality care are major concerns for healthcare in the United States. Special populations (eg, obese patients) need study in order to support patient safety, quantify risks, advance education for healthcare-workers, and establish healthcare policy. Obesity is a complex chronic disease and is considered the second leading cause of preventable death in the United States with approximately 300,000 deaths per year. Obesity is recognized by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) as a comorbid condition. These concerns emphasize the need to focus further research on the obese patient. Through the use of clinical and administrative data, this study examines the incidence of adverse outcomes in the obese surgical population through AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSI) and allows for the engagement PSIs as measures to guide and improve performance. In this study, the surgical population was overwhelmingly positive for obesity. Body mass index (BMI) was also a significant positive predictor for 2 of 3 postoperative outcomes. This finding suggests that as BMI reaches the classification of obesity, the risk of these adverse outcomes increases. It further suggests there exists a threshold BMI that requires anticipation of alterations to systems and processes to revise outcomes.
Laforgia, A; Corsalini, M; Stefanachi, G; Tafuri, S; Ballini, A; Pettini, F; Di Venere, D
The aim of the present study is to investigate the periodontal status of people with scleroderma and their response to non-surgical treatment protocol aimed at controlling the evolution of the disease. The response to non-surgical periodontal treatment was tested on patients belonging to a scleroderma group and a control group: the data show an improvement of the periodontal conditions of all these patients in response to treatment. When compared on the same diagram, a slight remission of the periodontal disease was obtained in both scleroderma and healthy patients. This highlights the benefit to soft tissues produced by non-surgical periodontal treatment also in patients affected by systemic diseases.
Inhibiting estrogen production is a common means of preventing breast cancer recurrence. The aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are becoming the preferred treatment over tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer. Like all adjuvant therapies, AIs have adverse events (AEs) associated with their use, many of which resemble symptoms common to menopause. Because of the greater efficacy of AIs in preventing breast cancer recurrence over tamoxifen, these AEs may be considered tolerable by many patients and often can be effectively managed and/or prevented. Educating patients about anticipated AEs may help them understand, accept, and cope with these AEs. This article reviews the AEs associated with different adjuvant AI treatments and highlights some strategies to manage them effectively. It also highlights the importance of patient education regarding AI therapy and involvement in treatment decisions, which may lead to better long-term adherence and ultimately to better outcomes.
Acker, Shannon N; Wathen, Beth; Roosevelt, Genie E; Hill, Lauren R S; Schubert, Anna; Reese, Jenny; Bensard, Denis D; Kulungowski, Ann M
Introduction The rapid response team (RRT) is a multidisciplinary team who evaluates hospitalized patients for concerns of nonemergent clinical deterioration. RRT evaluations are mandatory for children whose Pediatric Early Warning System (PEWS) score (assessment of child's behavior, cardiovascular and respiratory status) is ≥4. We aimed to determine if there were differences in characteristics of RRT calls between children who were admitted primarily to either medical or surgical services. We hypothesized that RRT activations would be called for less severely ill children with lower PEWS score on surgical services compared with children admitted to a medical service. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective review of all children with RRT activations between January 2008 and April 2015 at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. We evaluated the characteristics of RRT calls and made comparisons between RRT calls made for children admitted primarily to medical or surgical services. Results A total of 2,991 RRT activations were called, and 324 (11%) involved surgical patients. Surgical patients were older than medical patients (median: 7 vs. 4 years; p < 0.001). RRT evaluations were called for lower PEWS score in surgical patients compared with medical (median: 3 vs. 4, p < 0.001). Surgical patients were more likely to remain on the inpatient ward following the RRT (51 vs. 39%, p < 0.001) and were less likely to require an advanced airway than medical patients (0.9 vs. 2.1%; p = 0.412). RRT evaluations did not differ between day and night shifts (52% day vs. 48% night; p = 0.17). All surgical patients and all but one medical patient survived the event; surgical patients were more likely to survive to hospital discharge (97 vs. 91%, p < 0.001) Conclusions RRT activations are rare events among pediatric surgical patients. When compared with medical patients, RRT evaluation is requested for surgical patients with a lower PEWS
Dreizen, S; McCredie, K B; Bodey, G P; Keating, M J
Necrotizing dermatitis in patients being treated with cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be of several types. Microbial causes can include a variety of bacteria and fungi, the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gangrene from occlusive causes is not uncommon among cancer patients with coexisting atheromatous, thromboembolic, or obliterative vascular disease. Toxic gangrene is most commonly caused by extravasation of intravenously administered cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs but has also been associated with the use of coumarin congeners and the bite of the brown recluse spider. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an idiopathic condition that has been reported in association with myeloproliferative disorders. Finally, necrosis can be caused by the neoplasm itself, when its growth is so great that blood vessels are compressed and ischemia of the surrounding tissue results.
Wongkietkachorn, Apinut; Boonyawong, Pangpoom; Rhunsiri, Peera; Tantiphlachiva, Kasaya
Most patient education involves passive learning. To improve patient education regarding surgery, an active learning workshop-based teaching method is proposed. The objective of this study was to assess level of patient surgical knowledge, achievement of workshop learning objectives, patient apprehension about future surgery, and participant workshop satisfaction after completing a surgical training workshop. A four-station workshop (surgical scrub, surgical suture, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic surgery) was developed to teach four important components of the surgical process. Healthy, surgery-naive adolescents were enrolled to attend this 1-h workshop-based training program. Training received by participants was technically and procedurally identical to training received by actual surgeons. Pre- and post-workshop questionnaires were used to assess learning outcomes. There were 1312 participants, with a mean age 15.9 ± 1.1 years and a gender breakdown of 303 males and 1009 females. For surgical knowledge, mean pre-workshop and post-workshop scores were 6.1 ± 1.5 and 7.5 ± 1.5 (out of 10 points), respectively (p < 0.001). Out of 5 possible points, achievement of learning objectives, decreased apprehension about future surgery, and overall workshop satisfaction scores were all higher than 4.5. Active, hands-on patient education is an effective way to improve understanding of surgery-related processes. This teaching method may also decrease apprehension that patients or potential patients harbor regarding a future surgical procedure.
... found that just a few degrees of body cooling tripled the risk of surgical wound infection. His ... of wound infections. Sessler has found simple, risk-free and inexpensive interventions that improve patient health after ...
Herman, W W; Konzelman, J L; Sutley, S H
Despite approximately 40 years of experience with oral anticoagulant drugs, controversy still exists about the safety of dental treatment in a patient receiving this therapy. The authors review the topic in depth and offer detailed recommendations for the dental management of patients receiving coumarin anticoagulant therapy.
Baugh, Nancy; Zuelzer, Helen; Meador, Jill; Blankenship, Jolie
The number of surgical patients who are obese in the United States is rising, a trend that's likely to continue. Such patients are at higher risk than nonobese patients are for surgical site infections and other complications such as dehiscence, pressure ulcers, deep tissue injury, and rhabdomyolysis. This article details the factors that can contribute to such complications, including a high number of comorbidities, and offers practical suggestions for preventing them. Nurses should understand that special equipment, precautions, and protocols may be needed at every stage of care, and that obese patients aren't anomalies but rather a part of a growing population with particular needs.
Murthy, Somasheila I; Pappuru, Rajeev Reddy; Latha, K Madhavi; Kamat, Sripathi; Sangwan, Virender S
Surgery in the management of uveitis can be divided based on indication: either for therapeutic or can be for diagnostic purposes or to manage complications. The commonest indications include: Visual rehabilitation: surgery for removal of cataract, band keratopathy, corneal scars, pupillary membranes, removal of dense vitreous membranes, management of complications: anti-glaucoma surgery, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and chronic hypotony and diagnostic: aqueous tap, vitreous biopsy, tissue biopsy (iris, choroid). In this review, we shall describe the surgical technique for visual rehabilitation and for management of complications. PMID:23803480
Drucker, W R; Gavett, J W; Kirshner, R; Messick, W J; Ingersoll, G
The University of Rochester, Department of Surgery, in response to an experimental community-wide limit on hospital budgets, studied high-cost general surgical patients as a potential source of leverage for containment of hospital costs. It was found that a small number of patients impact significantly on hospital costs. In 1980, 3935 patients at Strong Memorial Hospital (SMH) had at least one contact with a general surgical patient care or intensive care unit; 261 patients (6.6%) had total 1980 charges of more than $20,000 each. They contributed 32% of the total of both general surgical charges and patient days. A subset of 2021 patients was selected to represent more precisely the general surgical patient. The 85 high-cost patients (4.2%) of this subset were chosen for intensive study. These patients generated a significant and disproportionate per cent of total (2021) general surgical charges (26.8%) and hospital days (27.6%). Average total charges were more than 8 times those of the complementary general surgical subset (1936). Nineteen of the 85 patients (22.3%) died in the hospital and 42 patients (49.4%) were dead within 2 1/2 years. Forty patients (of the 85) were then further identified as "complex", based on multiple, usually unrelated, illnesses and multiple annual admissions. Tending to be elderly with poor prognoses, 60% of them had died by April 1983. The major criterion of complexity was the lack of a well-focused medical problem; the cure for one problem simply relinquished primacy to another. A parallel study of hospital ancillary procedures disclosed a similar high-cost pattern. Of approximately 4000 ancillary procedures, 100 (2.5%) had annual charges of $100,000 or over, accounting for two-thirds of total 1980 ancillary charges. Roughly 20% of a single patient's ordered procedures accounted for 80% of the patient's ancillary charges, thus allowing concentrated study of a relatively small number of charges. Means for cost containment may be
Brangan, Sanja; Sonicki, Zdenko
A growing interest of general population to seek health information on the Internet and a growing body of health websites have been well documented in the recent health literature. Moreover, the Internet has become a popular mode of communication between healthcare providers and patients. This has resulted in many efforts to set specific quality guidelines for development of information for patients on the Internet, including different aspects of access to health information. This paper presents results of a study that explored the structure of information sources of surgical patients. Analysis of patient profiles shows that older patients rarely sought surgical information on the Internet, and mostly relied on communication with their doctors. This paper discusses various options of how to make this medium more attractive to patients and how to use the rich experience of the older patient generations to improve the quality of doctor-patient communication.
Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Ugalde-Morales, Emilio; Motola-Kuba, Daniel; Green, Dan
Cancer patients receiving chemotherapy have a high risk of malnutrition secondary to the disease and treatment, and 40-80 % of cancer patients suffer from different degrees of malnutrition, depending on tumour subtype, location, staging and treatment strategy. Malnutrition in cancer patients affects the patient's overall condition, and it increases the number of complications, the adverse effects of chemotherapy and reduces the quality of life. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight-loss prevalence depending on the tumour site and the gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of oncology patients receiving chemotherapy. We included 191 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Files of all patients were reviewed to identify symptoms that might potentially influence weight loss. The nutritional status of all patients was also determined. The cancer sites in the patients were as follows: breast (31·9 %); non-colorectal GI (18·3 %); colorectal (10·4 %); lung (5·8 %); haematological (13·1 %); others (20·5 %). Of these patients, 58 % experienced some degree of weight loss, and its prevalence was higher among the non-colorectal GI and lung cancer patients. Common symptoms included nausea (59·6 %), anorexia (46 %) and constipation (31·9 %). A higher proportion of patients with ≥ 5 % weight loss experienced anorexia, nausea and vomiting (OR 9·5, 2·15 and 6·1, respectively). In conclusion, these results indicate that GI symptoms can influence weight loss in cancer patients, and they should be included in early nutritional evaluations.
Watkins, E.B.; Findlay, P.; Gelmann, E.; Lane, H.C.; Zabell, A.
The oropharynx and hypopharynx are common sites of involvement in AIDS patients with mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma. The radiotherapist is often asked to intervene with these patients due to problems with pain, difficulty in swallowing, or impending airway obstruction. We have noted an unexpected decrease in normal tissue tolerance of the oropharyngeal mucosa to irradiation in AIDS patients treated in our department. Data on 12 patients with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma receiving oropharyngeal irradiation are presented here. Doses ranged from 1000 cGy to 1800 cGy delivered in 150-300 cGy fractions. Seven of eight patients receiving doses of 1200 cGy or more developed some degree of mucositis, four of these developed mucositis severe enough to require termination of treatment. All patients in this study received some form of systemic therapy during the course of their disease, but no influence on mucosal response to irradiation was noted. Four patients received total body skin electron treatments, but no effect on degree of mucositis was seen. Presence or absence of oral candidiasis was not an obvious factor in the radiation response of the oral mucosa in these patients. T4 counts were done on 9 of the 12 patients. Although the timing of the T4 counts was quite variable, no correlation with immune status and degree of mucositis was found. The degree of mucositis seen in these patients occurred at doses much lower than expected based on normal tissue tolerances seen in other patient populations receiving head and neck irradiations. We believe that the ability of the oral mucosa to repair radiation damage is somehow altered in patients with AIDS.
Wu, Hsin-Yun; Gong, Cihun-Siyong Alex; Lin, Shih-Pin; Chang, Kuang-Yi; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Ting, Chien-Kun
Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been applied to reduce postoperative pain in orthopedic surgical patients. Unfortunately, PCEA is occasionally accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The logistic regression (LR) model is widely used to predict vomiting, and recently support vector machines (SVM), a supervised machine learning method, has been used for classification and prediction. Unlike our previous work which compared Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with LR, this study uses a SVM-based predictive model to identify patients with high risk of vomiting during PCEA and comparing results with those derived from the LR-based model. From January to March 2007, data from 195 patients undergoing PCEA following orthopedic surgery were applied to develop two predictive models. 75% of the data were randomly selected for training, while the remainder was used for testing to validate predictive performance. The area under curve (AUC) was measured using the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC). The area under ROC curves of LR and SVM models were 0.734 and 0.929, respectively. A computer-based predictive model can be used to identify those who are at high risk for vomiting after PCEA, allowing for patient-specific therapeutic intervention or the use of alternative analgesic methods.
Powers, David B; Allan, Patrick F; Hayes, Curtis J; Michaelson, Peter G
Obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a medical condition that has received significant attention within the medical community and mainstream media due to its potentially serious physiological consequences and relatively frequent occurrence within the general population. From the military perspective, the impact on individual readiness for deployment, and the potential degradation of performance in critically important military duties, often results in tremendous expenditures of training resources, time, and expertise to replace the military member with a suitable substitute or release of the individual from active duty. This article reviews common surgical techniques for clinical management of OSAHS patients in a presentation format for primary care and sleep medicine specialists, as well as surgeons interested in the philosophies of surgical management of sleep disordered breathing. Presentation of risks and benefits of surgical treatment are discussed in a manner to facilitate communication between patient and health care provider.
Henn, Matthew C.; Lawrance, Christopher P.; Sinn, Laurie A.; Miller, Jacob R.; Schuessler, Richard B.; Moon, Marc R.; Melby, Spencer J.; Maniar, Hersh S.; Damiano, Ralph J.
Background In patients with atrial fibrillation(AF), the addition of surgical ablation to aortic valve replacement(AVR) does not increase procedural morbidity or mortality. However, efficacy in this population has not been carefully evaluated. This study compared outcomes between patients undergoing stand-alone Cox-Maze IV to those undergoing surgical ablation and concomitant AVR. Methods From January 2002 to May 2014, 188 patients received a stand-alone Cox-maze IV(n=113) or surgical ablation with concomitant AVR(n=75). In the concomitant AVR group, patients underwent Cox-maze IV(n=58), left-sided Cox-maze IV(n=3), or pulmonary vein isolation(n=14). Thirty-one perioperative variables were compared. Freedoms from AF on and off antiarrhythmic drugs were evaluated at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results Follow up was available in 97% of patients. Freedom from AF on and off antiarrhythmic drugs in patients receiving a stand-alone Cox-maze IV vs. concomitant AVR was not significantly different at any time point. The concomitant AVR group had more comorbidities, paroxysmal AF, pacemaker implantations(24% vs. 5%, p=0.002), and complications(25% vs. 5%, p<0.001). Freedoms from AF off antiarrhythmic drugs for patients receiving an AVR and pulmonary vein isolation at 1 year was only 50%, which was significantly lower than patients receiving an AVR and Cox-maze IV(94%, p=0.001). Conclusions A Cox-maze IV with concomitant AVR is as effective as a stand-alone Cox-maze IV in treating AF, even in an older population with more comorbidities. Pulmonary vein isolation was not as effective and is not recommended in this population. A Cox-maze IV should be considered all in patients undergoing AVR with a history of AF. PMID:26209496
Pototski, Mariele; Amenábar, José M
Antiplatelet and anticoagulant agents have been extensively researched and developed as potential therapies in the prevention and management of arterial and venous thrombosis. On the other hand, antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs have also been associated with an increase in the bleeding time and risk of postoperative hemorrhage. Because of this, some dentists still recommend the patient to stop the therapy for at least 3 days before any oral surgical procedure. However, stopping the use of these drugs exposes the patient to vascular problems, with the potential for significant morbidity. This article reviews the main antiplatelet and anticoagulant drugs in use today and explains the dental management of patients on these drugs, when subjected to minor oral surgery procedures. It can be concluded that the optimal INR value for dental surgical procedures is 2.5 because it minimizes the risk of either hemorrhage or thromboembolism. Nevertheless, minor oral surgical procedures, such as biopsies, tooth extraction and periodontal surgery, can safely be done with an INR lower than 4.0.
Rodrigues, Jussara Aparecida Souza do Nascimento; Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Eloah de Lucena; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito
Abstract Objectives: to analyze the occurrence and predisposing factors for surgical site infection in patients submitted to heart transplantation, evaluating the relationship between cases of infections and the variables related to the patient and the surgical procedure. Method: retrospective cohort study, with review of the medical records of patients older than 18 years submitted to heart transplantation. The correlation between variables was evaluated by using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test. Results: the sample consisted of 86 patients, predominantly men, with severe systemic disease, submitted to extensive preoperative hospitalizations. Signs of surgical site infection were observed in 9.3% of transplanted patients, with five (62.5%) superficial incisional, two (25%) deep and one (12.5%) case of organ/space infection. There was no statistically significant association between the variables related to the patient and the surgery. Conclusion: there was no association between the studied variables and the cases of surgical site infection, possibly due to the small number of cases of infection observed in the sample investigated. PMID:27579924
Carter, Chris; Snell, David
Critical illness in the developing world is a substantial burden for individuals, families, communities and healthcare services. The management of these patients will depend on the resources available. Simple conditions such as a fractured leg or a strangulated hernia can have devastating effects on individuals, families and communities. The recent Lancet Commission on Global Surgery and the World Health Organization promise to strengthen emergency and essential care will increase the focus on surgical services within the developing world. This article provides an overview of nursing the critically ill surgical patient in Zambia, a lower middle income country (LMIC) in sub-Saharan Africa.
Berenson, Ariana; Vardanyan, Suzie; David, Michael; Wang, James; Harutyunyan, Nika Manik; Gottlieb, Jillian; Halleluyan, Ran; Spektor, Tanya M; Udd, Kyle A; Eshaghian, Shahrooz; Nassir, Youram; Eades, Benjamin; Swift, Regina; Berenson, James R
New classes of drugs including the proteasome inhibitors (PI) bortezomib and, more recently, carfilzomib and the immunomodulatory agent lenalidomide have shown improved outcomes for multiple myeloma (MM) patients during the past decade. However, most of the studies reporting outcomes for patients receiving these drugs have relied on older data sets derived from large institutions that included patients not receiving their treatment at those facilities and represented only those eligible for clinical trials or were from sites where treatment options were limited. We have analyzed data from 258 MM patients who have received treatment with at least one of three agents: bortezomib, carfilzomib, and lenalidomide in a single clinic specializing in MM with respect to their responses and other outcomes to treatment regimens including these agents. Response rates were similar between these three drugs when used for the first time and again during subsequent treatment regimens. As expected, the clinical benefit rates (CBRs) were better for patients receiving their first treatment when compared to their use in subsequent treatment regimens. The CBRs were similar during their 2nd, 3rd, and 4th treatments containing these agents. Many patients refractory to these agents showed responses to regimens containing these same drugs when used in different combinations. In addition, patients refractory to one PI often responded to the other PI. The results of this study demonstrate that novel agents can be used repeatedly in novel combinations with significant clinical benefit for patients with MM.
Attempts to identify and describe perceived stress and coping responses of family and nonfamily significant others of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Significant others were asked to identify stressful events related to treatment factors, relationship factors, and perception of the patient's condition. Coping responses were categorized in…
Kamha, A; Alzeer, H; Elithy, M
A 29 year old male patient of Indian ancestry was admitted to an outside hospital with rapid deterioration of his level of consciousness. The patient required mechanical ventilation and transfer to MICU at Hamad Medical Corporation. The patient remained hypoxic. Chest X-ray, CT of chest, abdomen, pelvis and proximal areas of both lower limbs were performed. Pneumomediastinum, pneumoperitoneum, and extensive surgical emphysema were the diagnoses. PMID:21516154
Albeyoglu, Sebnem; Aldag, Mustafa; Ciloglu, Ufuk; Sargin, Murat; Oz, Tugba Kemaloglu; Kutlu, Hakan; Dagsali, Sabri
Objective The aim of this study was to describe the demographic, clinical and anatomic characteristics of coronary arteriovenous fistulas in adult patients who underwent open cardiac surgery and to review surgical management and outcomes. Methods Twenty-one adult patients (12 female, 9 male; mean age: 56.1±7.9 years) who underwent surgical treatment for coronary arteriovenous fistulas were retrospectively included in this study. Coronary angiography, chest X-ray, electrocardiography and transthoracic echocardiography were preoperatively performed in all patients. Demographic and clinical data were also collected. Postoperative courses of all patients were monitored and postoperative complications were noted. Results A total of 25 coronary arteriovenous fistulas were detected in 21 patients; the fistulas originated mainly from left anterior descending artery (n=9, 42.8%). Four (19.4%) patients had bilateral fistulas originating from both left anterior descending and right coronary artery. The main drainage site of coronary arteriovenous fistulas was the pulmonary artery (n=18, 85.7%). Twelve (57.1%) patients had isolated coronary arteriovenous fistulas and 4 (19.4%), concomitant coronary artery disease. Twenty (95.3%) of all patients were symptomatic. Seventeen patients were operated on with and 4 without cardiopulmonary bypass. There was no mortality. Three patients had postoperative atrial fibrillation. One patient had pericardial effusion causing cardiac tamponade who underwent reoperation. Conclusion The decision of surgical management should be made on the size and the anatomical location of coronary arteriovenous fistulas and concomitant cardiac comorbidities. Surgical closure with ligation of coronary arteriovenous fistulas can be performed easily with on-pump or off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, even in asymptomatic patients to prevent fistula related complications with very low risk of mortality and morbidity.
Hofstede, Stefanie N; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; van den Ende, Cornelia H M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Objectives National and international evidence-based guidelines for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with non-surgical treatments, followed by surgical intervention if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatments, but there are indications that these are not optimally used. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which all recommended non-surgical treatments were used by patients with hip or knee OA who receive(d) a total hip or knee replacement, as reported by patients and orthopaedic surgeons. Setting We performed two cross-sectional internet-based surveys among patients and orthopaedic surgeons throughout the Netherlands. Participants 195 OA patients either have undergone total knee arthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty no longer than 12 months ago or being on the waiting list for surgery with a confirmed date within 3 months and 482 orthopaedic surgeons were invited to participate. Primary and secondary outcome measures The use of recommended non-surgical treatments including education about OA/treatment options, lifestyle advice, dietary therapy, physical therapy, acetaminophen, NSAIDs and glucocorticoid injections. Results 174 OA patients (93%) and 172 orthopaedic surgeons (36%) completed the surveys. Most recommended non-surgical treatments were given to the majority of patients (eg, 80% education about OA, 73% physical therapy, 72% acetaminophen, 80% NSAIDs). However, only 6% of patients and 10% of orthopaedic surgeons reported using a combination of all recommended treatments. Dietary therapy was used least frequently. Only 11% of overweight and 30% of obese participants reported having received dietary therapy and 28% of orthopaedic surgeons reported to prescribe dietary therapy to overweight patients. Conclusions While most recommended non-surgical treatments were used frequently as single therapy, the combination is used in only a small percentage of OA patients. Especially, use of dietary therapy
Surgery in the patient with cirrhosis is problematic, as encephalopathy, ascites, sepsis and bleeding are common in the postoperative period. Accurate preoperative assessment and planning, and careful postoperative management have the potential to reduce the frequency and severity of such complications, and reduce the length of hospital stay, but there is little literature evidence to prove this. Operative mortality and other risks correlate with the severity of the liver disease, co-morbidities and the type of surgery. The Child-Turcott-Pugh (CTP) score or model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score may be used to determine the severity of the liver disease, but must also take into account recent changes in the patient's condition. Surgery that does not involve opening the peritoneum may have slightly better outcomes, as the risk of ascitic leak, sepsis and difficult fluid management are reduced. Mortality rates range from 10% in CTP-A patients to 82% in CTP-C patients. The presence of portal hypertension is an important negative predictor, especially in abdominal surgery, as refractory ascites may occur. Careful monitoring in the postoperative period and early intervention of complications are essential. Hepatic resections in cirrhosis are associated with other considerations such as leaving sufficient liver tissue to prevent liver failure, and are beyond the scope of this review.
Tewari, N; Awad, S; Macdonald, I A; Lobo, D N
In healthy surgical patients, preoperative fasting and major surgery induce development of insulin resistance (IR). IR can be present in up to 41% of obese patients without diabetes and this can rise in the postoperative period, leading to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Inflammation is implicated in the aetiology of IR. This review examines obesity-associated IR and its implications for the surgical patient. Searches of the Medline and Science Citation Index databases were performed using various key words in combinations with the Boolean operators AND, OR and NOT. Key journals, nutrition and metabolism textbooks and the reference lists of key articles were also hand searched. Adipose tissue has been identified as an active endocrine organ and the chemokines secreted as a result of macrophage infiltration have a role in the pathogenesis of IR. Visceral adipose tissue appears to be the most metabolically active, although results across studies are not consistent. Results from animal and human studies often provide conflicting results, which has rendered the pursuit of a common mechanistic pathway challenging. Obesity-associated IR appears, in part, to be related to inflammatory changes associated with increased adiposity. Postoperatively, the surgical patient is in a proinflammatory state, so this finding has important implications for the obese surgical patient.
Aoun, J P; Baroudi, J; Geahchan, N
The possibility of protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) was studied on one hundred consecutive patients admitted to the department of surgery at the Saint Georges Hospital, Beirut, during the months of April and June 1991, regardless of age, sex and socio-economic status. Data was completed on 94 of those cases. Multiple parameters were studied, including measurements of triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, mid-arm muscle circumference, percent weight loss, creatinine height index, serum albumin and transferrin levels and total lymphocyte count. We found a prevalence of 81%, 65%, 53% and 31% of PCM, if one, two, three or at least four abnormal parameters are used respectively, to assess malnutrition. Defining malnutrition as the presence of at least three abnormal parameters, we conclude that 53% of the patients, on admission to the department of surgery, had evidence of PCM. Further studies are required to assess the impact of this prevalence on length of stay, morbidity and mortality.
Lin, Yann-Sheng; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Yu, Ming-Chin; Hsu, Chih-Chieh; Chao, Tzu-Chieh
Abstract Background: the difference in the risk of thyroid malignancy for patients with multinodular goiter (MNG) and solitary nodular goiter (SNG) remains controversial. Although total thyroidectomy (TT) is the current preferred surgical option for MNG, permanent hypothyroidism in these patients may be a concern. Therefore, we discuss whether nontotal thyroidectomy is a reasonable alternative surgical option. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed for 1598 consecutive patients who underwent thyroid surgery for nodular goiter between January 2007 and December 2012. Numerous clinical parameters were collected and analyzed. Results: We reviewed 795 patients with MNG and 803 patients with SNG. The prevalence of malignancy on final pathology was significantly higher in the patients with MNG than in the patients with SNG (15.6% vs 10.1%, P = 0.001). However, a multivariate analysis revealed that this difference was insignificant (P = 0.50). Papillary carcinoma was the predominant type in both groups, but papillary microcarcinoma was more frequently found (41.1%) in the patients with MNG. The only multifocal cancers were of the papillary carcinoma histologic type, and the incidence of multifocal papillary carcinoma was significantly higher in the patients with MNG (23.4% vs 7.4%, P = 0.005). Reoperation was not required for the patients who underwent TT for goiter recurrence or incidental carcinoma. The overall rate of recurrence following nontotal thyroidectomy was 12.2%. Among the patients who underwent reoperation for goiter recurrence, 2 (20.0%) were complicated with permanent hypoparathyroidism. Among the patients who underwent a nontotal bilateral thyroidectomy, an average of 56.5% had permanent hypothyroidism. Conclusions: Multinodularity does not increase the risk of thyroid malignancy. However, patients with MNG who develop papillary carcinoma are at an increased risk of cancer multifocality. If a patient can tolerate lifelong thyroid hormone
Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R.
Abstract Background: Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Results: Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P < 0.001), resulting in an average saving of 0.20 units of allogeneic RBC per patient (weighted mean differences [WMD] = −0.20; 95% CI −0.22 to −0.18; P < 0.001), reduced risk of infection by 28% (RR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.97; P = 0.03), reduced length of hospital stay by 2.31 days (WMD = −2.31; 95% CI −2.50 to −2.11; P < 0.001), but did not significantly affect risk of mortality (RR = 0.92; 95% CI 0.63 to 1.34; P = 0.66). No statistical difference could be observed in the number of patients exposed to re-operation, plasma, platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Conclusions: Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery. PMID:27495095
Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A
Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients.
Oh, Heung-Kwon; Moon, Sang-Hui; Ryoo, Seungbum; Choe, Eun Kyung; Park, Kyu Joo
Perianal diseases are the most common reasons for surgery in HIV-positive patients. This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of these surgical procedures in Korean patients, focusing on wound healing and postoperative complications. Retrospective analysis was performed on 72 HIV-positive patients who underwent surgery by a single surgeon for benign anal disease between 1998 and 2011. Of these, 68.1% (49/72) of patients received surgery for condyloma acuminata, 19.4% (14/72) for anal fistulas, 6.9% (5/72) for hemorrhoids, and 5.6% (4/72) for perianal abscesses. Patients with condyloma acuminata received surgical excision with electrical coagulation, and all wounds healed completely within 3 months, though 16.3% (8/49) of these patients experienced recurrence. Twelve of the 49 patients (24.5%) who were treated for condyloma acuminata underwent simultaneous operations for concomitant anal fistulas (n = 6), hemorrhoids (n = 4), and perianal abscesses (n = 2). Overall, 3 postoperative complications developed following a total of 94 procedures, and there was no significant increase in complication rate for patients with a low CD4+ T-cell count ( < 200/µL) compared to those with a higher count. The results demonstrate favorable results following perianal surgery in HIV-positive Korean patients.
Lindley, Sarah W; Gillies, Elizabeth M; Hassell, Lewis A
Surgical pathologists use a variety of phrases to communicate varying degrees of diagnostic certainty which have the potential to be interpreted differently than intended. This study sought to: (1) assess the setting, varieties and frequency of use of phrases of diagnostic uncertainty in the diagnostic line of surgical pathology reports, (2) evaluate use of uncertainty expressions by experience and gender, (3) determine how these phrases are interpreted by clinicians and pathologists, and (4) assess solutions to this communication problem. We evaluated 1500 surgical pathology reports to determine frequency of use of uncertainty terms, identified those most commonly used, and looked for variations in usage rates on the basis of case type, experience and gender. We surveyed 76 physicians at tumor boards who were asked to assign a percentage of certainty to diagnoses containing expressions of uncertainty. We found expressions of uncertainty in 35% of diagnostic reports, with no statistically significant difference in usage based on age or gender. We found wide variation in the percentage of certainty clinicians assigned to the phrases studied. We conclude that non-standardized language used in the communication of diagnostic uncertainty is a significant source of miscommunication, both amongst pathologists and between pathologists and clinicians.
Chan, Vincy; Xiong, Chen; Colantonio, Angela
Data on the utilization of occupational therapy among patients with brain tumors have been limited to those with malignant tumors and small samples of patients outside North America in specialized palliative care settings. We built on this research by examining the characteristics of patients with brain tumors who received postacute occupational therapy services in Ontario, Canada, using health care administrative data. Between fiscal years 2004-2005 and 2008-2009, 3,199 patients with brain tumors received occupational therapy services in the home care setting after hospital discharge; 12.4% had benign brain tumors, 78.2% had malignant brain tumors, and 9.4% had unspecified brain tumors. However, patients with benign brain tumors were older (mean age=63.3 yr), and a higher percentage were female (65.2%). More than 90% of patients received in-home occupational therapy services. Additional research is needed to examine the significance of these differences and to identify factors that influence access to occupational therapy services in the home care setting.
Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Mohammadpour, Ali; Fathi, Mohammad
Introduction: The treatment quality of diseases can affect the patient's experience. Due to its different complications among cancer patients, the experience of chemotherapy is unique. The present study was conducted to explore the lived experience among cancer patients who had received chemotherapy. Methods: The study was conducted by a qualitative approach and a phenomenological method. In so doing, 12 cancer patients who had received chemotherapy were purposefully selected were interviewed using an in-depth method. After the required data were collected, they were analyzed by Tanner, Allen, Diekelmann method. Results: Analysis of the collected data indicated that the experience of chemotherapy appeared as “a new horizon in life” for the patients. Secondary themes of the new horizon in life included rebirth, understanding of life values, dependence, and need. Conclusion: According to the results of the study, it was concluded that in addition to taking into providing mental-spiritual support and reducing the complications of the treatment, nurses in chemotherapy wards should pay attention to the experiences of the patients receiving chemotherapy and enhance hope and positive attitude among them. PMID:26573050
Robb, Jessica L; Clapson, Brian J
The Canadian health care system was designed to ensure that all Canadian citizens would receive equal access to health care. However, in rural areas of Canada, patients are required to travel long distances and pay significant out-of-pocket expenses to access health care. The present study attempted to quantify the added out-of-pocket costs that rural Saskatchewan residents must pay to receive plastic surgical specialist care compared with urban residents of Saskatoon. A cost analysis was performed to generate a numerical value that would represent a minimum cost for patients travelling from three different locations within the province. The cost analysis performed in the present study approximated that the unfunded costs for common plastic surgical procedures are, at a minimum, 30 times greater for rural patients in La Ronge compared with their urban counterparts in Saskatoon. The fundamental principle of the Canadian health care system is equal access to necessary health care for all Canadians. Despite this, inequalities persist. The present cost-analysis study demonstrated that the unfunded (out-of-pocket) expenses for rural Saskatchewan patients seeking plastic surgical treatment is significantly higher than for their urban counterparts. These unfunded costs represent a significant barrier to health care access in Canada and serve to propagate inequalities in the nation's heath care system.
Shaw, J.H.; Galler, L.; Holdaway, I.M.; Holdaway, C.M.
We have determined the metabolic effects induced by the use of extradural blockage with 0.5 per cent bupivacaine hydrochloride in a group of surgical patients. Turnover rates of glucose and urea were determined isotopically using radioisotopes and studies were performed both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition. In the basal state, extradural blockade resulted in a decrease in the turnover rates of both glucose and urea. In addition, when extradural blockade was instituted while the patients were receiving total parenteral nutrition, there was also a significant fall in glucose turnover. We conclude that the use of extradural blockade is effective as a means of conserving bodily resources in surgical patients both in the basal state and during total parenteral nutrition.
Ford, Samuel J
The provision of mouth care on the general surgical ward and intensive care setting has recently gained momentum as an important aspect of patient care. Oropharyngeal morbidity can cause pain and disordered swallowing leading to reluctance in commencing or maintaining an adequate dietary intake. On the intensive care unit, aside from patient discomfort and general well-being, oral hygiene is integral to the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Chlorhexidine (0.2%) is widely used to decrease oral bacterial loading, dental bacterial plaque and gingivitis. Pineapple juice has gained favour as a salivary stimulant in those with a dry mouth or coated tongue. Tooth brushing is the ideal method of promoting oral hygiene. Brushing is feasible in the vast majority, although access is problematic in ventilated patients. Surgical patients undergoing palliative treatment are particularly prone to oral morbidity that may require specific but simple remedies. Neglect of basic aspects of patient care, typified by poor oral hygiene, can be detrimental to surgical outcome.
Wallwiener, C.; Hartkopf, A.; Kommoss, S.; Joachim, C.; Wallwiener, M.; Taran, F. A.; Brucker, S.
Purpose: To review a single-center experience over a 27-year period of managing uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS), focusing on surgical practice, adjuvant therapy and clinical outcome. Material and Methods: This was a retrospective study of women with histologically proven UCS treated at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Tübingen, Germany, between 1983 and 2010. Inpatient and outpatient records were reviewed; follow-up and survival data were ascertained. Results: The study population comprised 18 patients with UCS. Primary surgical treatment consisted of total abdominal hysterectomy in 12 patients (67 %) and laparoscopic total hysterectomy in 4 patients (22 %). Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed in 94 % of patients (17/18). Lymph nodes were evaluated in 15 patients (83 %). Positive pelvic lymph nodes were present in 2 patients (11 %). A total of 17 patients (94 %) received adjuvant therapy. Disease recurred in 7 (39 %) patients of our study group, with no recurrence noted in the 4 patients who underwent laparoscopic surgical staging. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was 48.7 months (95 % CI: 0.0–157.3) and median overall survival (OS) was 49.9 months (95 % CI: 0.0–108.2). The 5-year survival rate was 40 %. Conclusion: UCS is a rare and aggressive uterine neoplasm with high recurrence rates and metastatic potential. Surgical staging consisting of total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and systematic lymphadenectomy is the most important treatment for patients with UCS. Adjuvant radiation therapy appears to decrease pelvic recurrence, but there is a high incidence of distant recurrence, indicating the need for additional systemic treatment. PMID:26941453
Moon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Chung, Chun-Kee; Shin, Jung-won; Moon, Jangsup; Kang, Bong Su; Lee, Soon-Tae; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Chu, Kon; Jung, Ki-Young; Cho, Yong Won; Lee, Sang Kun
Background and Purpose It is crucial to make selection strategy to identify surgical candidates among medically refractory MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients. In our previous study, we suggested two or more concordance between noninvasive studies (EEG, ictal scalp EEG, interictal FDG-PET, and SPECT) as a new patient selection strategy for MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the surgical outcomes of MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients before and after the implementation of a new selection strategy. Methods From 1995 to 2011, we included 153 consecutive MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients who received focal resection and had a follow-up period of at least 2 years. These patients were divided into two groups according to their date of surgery (before and after July 2002). The old group consisted of 89 patients and the new one consisted of 53 patients. Clinical characteristics, presurgical evaluations, and pathology were reviewed. Results The new patient selection strategy led to a significant increase in the concordance between two or more modalities. The improvement in surgical outcome after 2002 was significant (seizure-free outcome, 47.2% vs. 75.5%; p = 0.001). Concordance between two or more presurgical evaluations and localizing PET were related to a seizure-free outcome in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions After a change in surgical strategy to select patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies, the seizure-free outcome improved up to 75.5%. MRI-negative neocortical epilepsy patients with two or more concordance between noninvasive studies seem to be good candidates for epilepsy surgery. PMID:28101477
Costello, John P; Weiderhold, Allison; Louis, Clauden; Shaughnessy, Conner; Peer, Syed M; Zurakowski, David; Jonas, Richard A; Nath, Dilip S
The objective of this study was to examine a large institutional experience of patients with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 in the setting of comorbid congenital heart disease and present the outcomes of surgical versus expectant management. It is a retrospective single-institution cohort study. Institutional review board approved this study. Thirteen consecutive trisomy 18 patients and three consecutive trisomy 13 patients (sixteen patients in total) with comorbid congenital heart disease who were evaluated by our institution's Division of Cardiovascular Surgery between January 2008 and December 2013 were included in the study. The primary outcome measures evaluated were operative mortality (for patients who received surgical management), overall mortality (for patients who received expectant management), and total length of survival during follow-up. Of the thirteen trisomy 18 patients, seven underwent surgical management and six received expectant management. With surgical management, operative mortality was 29 %, and 80 % of patients were alive after a median follow-up of 116 days. With expectant management, 50 % of patients died before hospital discharge. Of the three patients with trisomy 13, one patient underwent surgical management and two received expectant management. The patient who received surgical management with complete repair was alive at last follow-up over 2 years after surgery; both patients managed expectantly died before hospital discharge. Trisomy 13 and trisomy 18 patients with comorbid congenital heart disease can undergo successful cardiac surgical intervention. In this population, we advocate that nearly all patients with cardiovascular indications for operative congenital heart disease intervention should be offered complete surgical repair over palliative approaches for moderately complex congenital cardiac anomalies.
Balaguer-Martí, José-Carlos; Aloy-Prósper, Amparo; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David
Background In the third molar surgery, it is important to focus not only on surgical skills, but also on patient satisfaction. Classically studies have been focused on surgery and surgeon’s empathy, but there are non-surgical factors that may influence patient satisfaction. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on 100 patients undergoing surgical extractions of impacted mandibular third molars treated from October 2013 to July 2014 in the Oral Surgery Unit of the University of Valencia. A questionnaire (20 questions) with a 10-point Likert scale was provided. The questionnaire assessed the ease to find the center, the ease to get oriented within the center, the burocratic procedures, the time from the first visit to the date of surgical intervention, waiting time in the waiting room, the comfort at the waiting room, the administrative staff (kindness and efficiency to solve formalities), medical staff (kindness, efficiency, reliability, dedication), personal data care, clarity in the information received (about the surgery, postoperative care and resolution of the doubts), available means and state of facilities. Outcome variables were overall satisfaction, and recommendation of the center. Statistical analysis was made using the multiple linear regression analysis. Results Significant correlations were found between all variables and overall satisfaction. The multiple regression model showed that the efficiency of the surgeon and the clarity of the information were statistically significant to overall satisfaction and recommendation of the center. The kindness of the administrative staff, available means, the state of facilities and the comfort at the waiting room were statistically significant to the recommendation of the center. Conclusions Patient satisfaction directly depends on the efficiency of the surgeon and clarity of the clinical information received about the procedure. Appreciation of these predictive factors may help clinicians
Polo, J R; Luño, J; Menarguez, C; Gallego, E; Robles, R; Hernandez, P
A 48-year-old man receiving maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 1 year developed a clinical picture compatible with peritonitis. Three successive fluid cultures were negative, and only after filtration of a large volume of peritoneal fluid a fungus identified as a Rhizopus sp was isolated in cultures of the filtering devices. The same fungus was also isolated from the peritoneal catheter cuff. Intravenous amphotericin B was administered and both the abdominal and general conditions of the patient improved transiently. Twenty days after initiation of antifungal treatment, a clinical suspicion of intestinal perforation arose and an exploratory laparotomy was scheduled, but the patient died during the anesthetic induction. The patient never received deferoxamine; any conditions predisposing to mucormycosis, such as diabetes or immunosuppression, were also absent.
Amer, Syed; Horsley-Silva, Jennifer L; Menias, Christine O; Pannala, Rahul
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered upper gastrointestinal anatomy, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), can be more challenging compared to those with a normal anatomy. Detailed assessment of cross-sectional imaging features by the radiologist, especially the pancreaticobiliary anatomy, strictures, and stones, is very helpful to the endoscopist in planning the procedure. In addition, any information on enteral anastomoses (for e.g., gastrojejunal strictures and afferent limb obstruction) is also very useful. The endoscopist should review the operative note to understand the exact anatomy prior to procedure. RYGB, which is performed for medically complicated obesity, is the most commonly encountered altered anatomy ERCP procedure. Other situations include patients who have had a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a hepaticojejunostomy. Balloon-assisted deep enteroscopy (single and double-balloon enteroscopy) or rotational endoscopy is often used to traverse the length of the intestine to reach the papilla. In addition, ERCP in these patients is further challenging due to the oblique orientation of the papilla relative to the forward viewing endoscope and the limited enteroscopy-length therapeutic accessories that are currently available. Overall, reported therapeutic success is approximately 70-75% with a complication rate of 3-4%. Alternative approaches include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, laparoscopy-assisted ERCP, or surgery. Given the complexity, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy should be performed in close collaboration with body imagers, interventional radiology, and surgical services.
Magee, Mitchell J; Mack, Michael J
Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder of neuromuscular transmission affecting 2 out of every 100,000 people. Neurologists and surgeons still debate what role surgery should play in its management. Many patients who might benefit from thymectomy are denied the opportunity because of misconceptions, ignorance, or trepidation. By offering effective methods of less invasive thymectomy to these patients, a significant number of patients and treating neurologists previously unwilling to consider surgery may realize the benefits of this established, proven treatment alternative. The surgical approaches reviewed include: transcervical, videothoracoscopic, robotic-assisted, transsternal, and combined transcervical-transsternal maximal thymectomy.
Starkman, Jonathan S; Smith, Christopher P; Staskin, David R
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a symptom complex of urinary frequency, urinary urgency, and nocturia, with or without urgency incontinence. This syndrome is idiopathic in most instances without clearly defined pathophysiology. Studies clearly show that OAB negatively impacts health-related quality of life and impairs daily functioning in a large proportion of patients. Despite recent advances in drug delivery and improved tolerability of antimuscarinic drug class, a large percentage of patients remain refractory to conventional pharmacological therapy for this chronic condition. There are several unique and effective treatments that are available for this difficult population. We review the various surgical options within the urological armamentarium to treat patients with refractory OAB. PMID:20811558
Zamarrón Cassinello, Ma Dolores; Tárraga Mestre, Luis; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío
The main purpose of this article is to examine whether cognitive plasticity increases after cognitive training in Alzheimer's disease patients. Twenty six patients participated in this study, all of them diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease, 17 of them received a cognitive training program during 6 months, and the other 9 were assigned to the control group. Participants were assigned to experimental or control conditions for clinical reasons. In order to assess cognitive plasticity, all patients were assessed before and after treatment with three subtests from the "Bateria de Evaluación de Potencial de Aprendizaje en Demencias" [Assessment Battery of Learning Potential in Dementia] (BEPAD). After treatment, Alzheimer's disease patients improved their performance in all the tasks assessing cognitive plasticity: viso-spatial memory, audio-verbal memory and verbal fluency. However, the cognitive plasticity scores of the patients in the control group decreased. In conclusion, this study showed that cognitive stimulation programs can improve cognitive functioning in mildly demented patients, and patients who do not receive any cognitive interventions may reduce their cognitive functioning.
Wang, Fei; Xu, Boming; Li, Quanpeng; Zhang, Xiuhua; Jiang, Guobing; Ge, Xianxiu; Nie, Junjie; Zhang, Xiuyun; Wu, Ping; Ji, Jie; Miao, Lin
Abstract Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered anatomy is challenging. Results of ERCP in those patients varied. The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of various endoscopes-assisted ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Fifty-two patients with Billroth II reconstruction (group A), 20 patients with subtotal or total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y anastomosis (group B), 25 patients with pancreatoduodenectomy or Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy reconstruction (group C) were included. Gastroscope, duodenoscope, colonoscope, and double-balloon enteroscope were used. The endoscope insertion success rate of groups A, B, C was 96.2% (50/52), 85.0% (17/20), 80% (20/25), respectively. χ2 test showed that there was no significant difference between the 3 groups (P = 0.068). The mean insertion time was 36.7, 68.4, and 84.0 minutes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the insertion time of group C was significantly longer than that of groups B and C (both P <0.001). The endoscopic cannulation success rates of groups A, B, C were 90%, 82.4%, and 100%, respectively. χ2 test showed that there was no significant difference between the 3 groups (P = 0.144). The mean cannulation time was 19.4, 28.1, and 20.4 minutes, respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the cannulation time of group B was longer than that of groups A and C (P <0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). In total, 74 patients with successful biliary cannulation achieved the therapeutic goal; thus, the clinical success rate was 76.3% (74/97). Our study showed that ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy was safe and feasible. PMID:28033284
Nuño, Miriam; Ly, Diana; Mukherjee, Debraj; Ortega, Alicia; Black, Keith L.; Patil, Chirag G.
Background Thirty-day readmissions post medical or surgical discharge have been analyzed extensively. Studies have shown that complex interactions of multiple factors are responsible for these hospitalizations. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Medicare database of newly diagnosed elderly glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients who underwent surgical resection between 1991 and 2007. Hospitals were classified into high- or low-readmission rate cohorts using a risk-adjusted methodology. Bivariate comparisons of outcomes were conducted. Multivariate analysis evaluated differences in quality of care according to hospital readmission rates. Results A total of 1,273 patients underwent surgery in 338 hospitals; 523 patients were treated in 228 high-readmission hospitals and 750 in 110 low-readmission hospitals. Patient characteristics for high-versus low-readmission hospitals were compared. In a confounder-adjusted model, patients treated in high- versus low-readmission hospitals had similar outcomes. The hazard of mortality for patients treated at high- compared to low-readmission hospitals was 1.06 (95% CI, 0.095%–1.19%). While overall complications were comparable between high- and low-readmission hospitals (16.3% vs 14.3%; P = .33), more postoperative pulmonary embolism/deep vein thrombosis complications were documented in patients treated at high-readmission hospitals (7.5% vs 4.1%; P = .01). Adverse events and levels of resection achieved during surgery were comparable at high- and low-readmission hospitals. Conclusions For patients undergoing GBM resection, quality of care provided by hospitals with the highest adjusted readmission rates was similar to the care delivered by hospitals with the lowest rates. These findings provide evidence against the preconceived notion that 30-day readmissions can be used as a metric for quality of surgical and postsurgical care. PMID:26034614
Karlsson, Veronika; Bergbom, Ingegerd
Over the last decade, caring for patients who are conscious while receiving mechanical ventilator treatment has become common in Scandinavian intensive care units. Therefore, this study aimed to describe anesthetists', nurses', and nursing assistants' experiences of caring for such patients. Nine persons were interviewed. A hermeneutic method inspired by Gadamer's philosophy was used to interpret and analyze the interview text. Staff members found it distressing to witness and be unable to alleviate suffering, leading to ethical conflicts, feelings of powerlessness, and betrayal of the promises made to the patient. They were frustrated about their inability to understand what the patients were trying to say and often turned to colleagues for help. When caring for conscious patients, it takes time to get to know them and establish communication and a trusting relationship.
Nabbout, Philippe; Slobodov, Gennady; Culkin, Daniel J
Urolithiasis is a common condition in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Surgical management of stones in this population is more challenging and associated with lower clearance rates than the general population. The rate of complications - specifically infectious complications - is also high due to the chronic bacterial colonization. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) has a low clearance rate of 44-73 %. Percutaneous nephrolithotripsy is indicated for larger nephrolithiasis, but multiple procedures may be required to clear the stones. Ureteroscopy has been associated with low success rates because of difficulty in obtaining ureteral access. Historically, bladder stones were managed with open surgery or SWL. Recently, good results have been reported with the combination of endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques. Surgical management of urolithiasis in patients with SCI should be performed in high-volume centers in light of the technical challenges and higher rate of perioperative complications.
Addas, Bassam; Sherman, Elisabeth M S; Hader, Walter J
Gelastic epilepsy (GE) associated with hypothalamic hamartomas (HHs) is now a well-characterized clinical syndrome consisting of gelastic seizures starting in infancy, medically refractory seizures with or without the development of multiple seizure types, and behavioral and cognitive decline. It has been postulated that the development of the HH-GE syndrome is a result of a progressive epileptic encephalopathy or secondary epileptogenesis, which is potentially reversible with treatment of the HH. A variety of surgical options for the treatment of HHs exist, including open and endoscopic procedures, radiosurgery, interstitial radiotherapy, and stereotactic radiofrequency thermocoagulation. Surgical treatment can result in seizure freedom in up to 50% of patients and can be accompanied by significant improvements in behavior, cognition, and quality of life. Partial treatment of HHs may be sufficient to reduce seizure frequency and improve behavior and quality of life with less risk. A component of reversible cognitive dysfunction may be present in some patients with an HH-GE syndrome.
Boobes, Yousef; Bernieh, Bassam; Saadi, Hussein; Raafat Al Hakim, M; Abouchacra, Samra
Sirolimus is an immunosupressor of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) group. Recent studies have emphasized a potential impact of sirolimus on male gonadal function. We report our clinical experience with sirolimus-induced gonadal dysfunction and infertility in both male and female kidney transplant patients. Of the 170 kidney transplant patients, nine (5.3%) patients (six males and three females) were receiving sirolimus. Follow-up data for two male patients were not available. The one unmarried female patient developed amenorrhea post-transplantation and had resumption of her menstrual cycles after discontinuation of sirolimus. The remaining six married patients (four males and two females), who all had fathered or conceived children in the pre-transplantation period, developed gonadal dysfunction and infertility on average 5-12 months after transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in all four male patients with full recovery of the oligo/azospermia and restoration of fertility. Both married female patients developed amenorrhea post-transplantation. Sirolimus was discontinued in one female patient with resumption of her menstrual cycles. In this small population of patients treated with sirolimus, the prevalence rate of reversible gonadal dysfunction and infertility was significant in both males and females. Infertility secondary to sirolimus is under-diagnosed and should be studied further.
Alashek, Wiam A; McIntyre, Christopher W; Taal, Maarten W
Maintenance dialysis is associated with reduced survival when compared with the general population. In Libya, information about outcomes on dialysis is scarce. This study, therefore, aimed to provide the first comprehensive analysis of survival in Libyan dialysis patients. This prospective multicenter study included all patients in Libya who had been receiving dialysis for >90 days in June 2009. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected upon enrollment and survival status after 1 year was determined. Two thousand two hundred seventy-three patients in 38 dialysis centers were followed up for 1 year. The majority were receiving hemodialysis (98.8%). Sixty-seven patients were censored due to renal transplantation, and 46 patients were lost to follow-up. Thus, 2159 patients were followed up for 1 year. Four hundred fifty-eight deaths occurred, (crude annual mortality rate of 21.2%). Of these, 31% were due to ischemic heart disease, 16% cerebrovascular accidents, and 16% due to infection. Annual mortality rate was 0% to 70% in different dialysis centers. Best survival was in age group 25 to 34 years. Binary logistic regression analysis identified age at onset of dialysis, physical dependency, diabetes, and predialysis urea as independent determinants of increased mortality. Patients receiving dialysis in Libya have a crude 1-year mortality rate similar to most developed countries, but the mean age of the dialysis population is much lower, and this outcome is thus relatively poor. As in most countries, cardiovascular disease and infection were the most common causes of death. Variation in mortality rates between different centers suggests that survival could be improved by promoting standardization of best practice.
Garjón Parra, F J
Drug prescription has evolved to deal mainly with chronic diseases. Nowadays, repeating prescriptions using computers results in problems if this is not done with adequate control. Steps proposed for appropriate prescription are: defining the problem; specifying the objective; selecting the drug; initiating therapy with appropriate details; giving information; regular evaluation; considering cost; and using tools to reduce errors. Published recommendations for prescription, which have focused on elderly patients, include: avoiding polypharmacy; carrying out a regular medication review; stopping any current drugs that are not indicated and prescribing new drugs that have a clear indication; avoiding drugs that have deleterious effects; using dosages that are suitable for the age and renal function; using simple drug regimes and appropriate administration systems; considering non-pharmacological treatments; limiting the number of practitioners prescribing for each patient; and avoiding treating adverse drug reactions with further drugs. Examples of compliance with those recommendations in the Navarre Health Service, extracted from the prescription information system, are provided. The measures for improving prescription are: education, auditing, collaboration between health professionals and use of electronic tools.
Lacchini, Annie Jeanninne Bisso; Noal, Helena Carolina; Padoin, Stela Maris de Mello; Terra, Marlene Gomes
The following study aimed to understand the meanings on the discourse of a Nursing Surgical team regarding the care given to patients with mental disorders submitted to surgical procedures. For such comprehension, a theoretical-philosophical referential by Maurice Merleau-Ponty has been examined. Concerning a methodological approach Paul Ricouer's hermeneutics has been used. Eight nursing caregivers from a public hospital in southern Brazil were interviewed from August to September 2008. The results showed the necessity of stimulating nursing caregivers in the reflective process in acting, thinking, and observing care given to patients with mental disorder; as well as to offer emotional support for them. The caregivers displayed the necessity of understanding the human being receiving care in order to be able to give thorough care as a being-in-the-world.
Garg, Amit X; Suri, Rita S; Eggers, Paul; Finkelstein, Fredric O; Greene, Tom; Kimmel, Paul L; Kliger, Alan S; Larive, Brett; Lindsay, Robert M; Pierratos, Andreas; Unruh, Mark; Chertow, Glenn M
Most patients with end-stage kidney disease value their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and want to know how it will be affected by their dialysis modality. We extended the findings of two prior clinical trial reports to estimate the effects of frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis on additional measures of HRQoL. The Daily Trial randomly assigned 245 patients to receive frequent (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial randomly assigned 87 patients to receive frequent nocturnal (six times per week) or conventional (three times per week) home hemodialysis. All patients were on conventional hemodialysis prior to randomization, with an average feeling thermometer score of 70 to 75 (a visual analog scale from 0 to 100 where 100 is perfect health), an average general health scale score of 40 to 47 (a score from 0 to 100 where 100 is perfect health), and an average dialysis session recovery time of 2 to 3 hours. Outcomes are reported as the between-treatment group differences in one-year change in HRQoL measures and analyzed using linear mixed effects models. After one year in the Daily Trial, patients assigned to frequent in-center hemodialysis reported a higher feeling thermometer score, better general health, and a shorter recovery time after a dialysis session compared to standard thrice-weekly dialysis. After one year in the Nocturnal Trial, patients assigned to frequent home hemodialysis also reported a shorter recovery time after a dialysis session, but no statistical difference in their feeling thermometer or general health scores compared to standard home dialysis schedules. Thus, patients receiving day or nocturnal hemodialysis on average recovered approximately one hour earlier from a frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis session. Patients treated in an in-center dialysis facility reported better HRQoL with frequent compared to conventional hemodialysis.
Lee, Li-Ang; Lo, Yu-Lun; Yu, Jen-Fang; Lee, Gui-She; Ni, Yung-Lun; Chen, Ning-Hung; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Huang, Chung-Guei; Cheng, Wen-Nuan; Li, Hsueh-Yu
Snoring sounds generated by different vibrators of the upper airway may be useful indicators of obstruction sites in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). This study aimed to investigate associations between snoring sounds, obstruction sites, and surgical responses (≥50% reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] and <10 events/hour) in patients with OSAHS. This prospective cohort study recruited 36 OSAHS patients for 6-hour snoring sound recordings during in-lab full-night polysomnography, drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE), and relocation pharyngoplasty. All patients received follow-up polysomnography after 6 months. Fifteen (42%) patients with at least two complete obstruction sites defined by DISE were significantly, positively associated with maximal snoring sound intensity (40–300 Hz; odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05–1.49) and body mass index (OR, 1.48, 95% CI 1.02–2.15) after logistic regression analysis. Tonsil obstruction was significantly, inversely correlated with mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz; OR, 0.84, 95% CI 0.74–0.96). Moreover, baseline tonsil obstruction detected by either DISE or mean snoring sound intensity (301–850 Hz), and AHI could significantly predict the surgical response. Our findings suggest that snoring sound detection may be helpful in determining obstruction sites and predict surgical responses. PMID:27471038
Shutov, S A; Karagiulia, S R; Danishian, K I; Zorenko, V Iu; Grzhimolovskiĭ, A V; Polianskaia, T Iu; Shulutko, E M; Galstian, G M
The experience of treatment of 366 patients with haemophilia who were urgently hospitalized in hеmatological Scientific Center over the last 10 years is presented in the article. There were 114 (31.1%) patients with acute diseases of abdominal cavity organs, 150 (41%) patients with bleeding from upper gastrointestinal tract, 102 (27.9%) patients with acute hematomas of retroperitoneal space. Urgent operations were performed in 48 (22.2%) patients who were hospitalized with clinical symptoms of acute abdomen syndrome. It was developed the criteria of diagnosis and choice of treatment tactic on the basis of the received results. Application of presented algorithms led to improve the quality of urgent surgical care to patients with haemophilia.
Murff, Daniel; Co-Vu, Jennifer; O'Dell, Walter G.
Each year in the U.S., 7.4 million surgical procedures involving the major vessels are performed. Many of our patients require multiple surgeries, and many of the procedures include "surgical exploration". Procedures of this kind come with a significant amount of risk, carrying up to a 17.4% predicted mortality rate. This is especially concerning for our target population of pediatric patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and major pulmonary vessels. This paper offers a novel approach to surgical planning which includes studying virtual and physical models of pulmonary vasculature of an individual patient before operation obtained from conventional 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. These models would provide clinicians with a non-invasive, intricately detailed representation of patient anatomy, and could reduce the need for invasive planning procedures such as exploratory surgery. Researchers involved in the AirPROM project have already demonstrated the utility of virtual and physical models in treatment planning of the airways of the chest. Clinicians have acknowledged the potential benefit from such a technology. A method for creating patient-derived physical models is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature extracted from a CT scan with contrast of an adult human. Using a modified version of the NIH ImageJ program, a series of image processing functions are used to extract and mathematically reconstruct the vasculature tree structures of interest. An auto-generated STL file is sent to a 3D printer to create a physical model of the major pulmonary vasculature generated from 3D CT scans of patients.
Chao, Linda L.; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Rothlind, Johannes C.; Flenniken, Derek L.; Lindgren, Joselyn A.; Weiner, Michael W.
The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance. PMID:14600507
Grigorian, V A; Golovchenko, R N; Ustinov, A I
The case histories of 428 patients operated on for tuberculosis were analyzed. Three groups were identified. They were as follows: 1) 121 patients untreated with bactericidal drugs before surgery; 2) 247 patients treated less than 6 months before it; 3) 160 patients treated more than 6 months before surgery. Various complications due to resection of the lung were observed in 30 (7%) patients undergone surgery. They were 6.6, 6.8, and 7.5% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A clinical effect was achieved in 99.8% of cases. The late outcomes of surgical intervention were studied within 1 to 10 years in 354 patients, including 102, 119, and 133 patients in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Progressive and recurrent tuberculosis was revealed in 7 (6.8%), 11 (9.2%), and 18 (13.5%), respectively. Thus, immediate and late outcomes of surgical treatment were not worse in patients with tuberculomas untreated with bactericidal drugs before surgery than in those who receive long-term therapy that substantially reduces the duration of therapy, which is a most important task of modern phthisiology. So patients should be operated on when they are found to have pulmonary tuberculomas without signs of a progressive tuberculous process.
Madiba, T E; Haffejee, A A; Mokoena, T R
A prospective study of 71 patients with hyponatraemia was undertaken over an 18-month period in one surgical unit at King Edward VIII Hospital, Durban, to study the incidence and pattern of hyponatraemia. Electrolytes and urea values were measured serially in all patients. Hyponatraemia was defined as a serum sodium level of < 130 mmol/l. The incidence of hyponatraemia was 2.2%, the most common type being normovolaemic hypotonic hyponatraemia. Hyponatraemia was either mild (sodium level 120-130 mmol/l) or moderate (111-120 mmol/l). No patient had severe hyponatraemia (< 110 mmol/l). Hyponatraemia was corrected within 1-6 days using normal saline; in 73% of patients it was corrected within 24 hours. No patient developed neurological symptoms. A mortality rate of 28% was attributed to underlying illness, and hyponatraemia per se was asymptomatic in this study. Aggressive sodium correction was therefore not indicated.
Wenzel, John T; Schwenk, Eric S; Baratta, Jaime L; Viscusi, Eugene R
Management of acute postoperative pain is important to decrease perioperative morbidity and improve patient satisfaction. Opioids are associated with potential adverse events that may lead to significant risk. Uncontrolled pain is a risk factor in the transformation of acute pain to chronic pain. Balancing these issues can be especially challenging in opioid-tolerant patients undergoing surgery, for whom rapidly escalating opioid doses in an effort to control pain can be associated with increased complications. In the perioperative surgical home model, anesthesiologists are positioned to coordinate a comprehensive perioperative analgesic plan that begins with the preoperative assessment and continues through discharge.
Johns, M. W.; Egan, P.; Gay, T. J. A.; Masterton, J. P.
A questionary survey of symptoms and sleep habits at home among 100 adult male medical and surgical patients showed that the duration of sleep at night was similar to that reported for the general population, decreasing with age from 20 to 50 years and increasing again after 60 years. The duration of daytime sleep increased with age. The degree of sleep disturbance in different patients was compared in terms of the total duration of sleep and the time spent lying awake in bed at night. Increasing age, ischaemic heart disease, and neurotic illness were the main factors associated with long-term disturbances. PMID:5428715
Gillen, Jacob R.; Isbell, James M.; Michaels, Alex D.; Lau, Christine L.
Abstract Background: Risk factors for catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgical procedures have been well documented. However, the variables associated with CAUTIs in the cardiac surgical population have not been clearly defined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors associated with CAUTIs in patients undergoing cardiac procedures. Methods: All patients undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution from 2006 through 2012 (4,883 patients) were reviewed. Patients with U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria for CAUTI were identified from the hospital's Quality Assessment database. Pre-operative, operative, and post-operative patient factors were evaluated. Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to identify significant correlations between perioperative characteristics and CAUTIs. Results: There were 55 (1.1%) documented CAUTIs in the study population. On univariate analysis, older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, cardiogenic shock, urgent or emergent operation, packed red blood cell (PRBC) units transfused, and intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS) were all significantly associated with CAUTI [p<0.05]. On multivariable logistic regression, older age, female gender, diabetes mellitus, and ICU LOS remained significantly associated with CAUTI. Additionally, there was a significant association between CAUTI and 30-d mortality on univariate analysis. However, when controlling for common predictors of operative mortality on multivariable analysis, CAUTI was no longer associated with mortality. Conclusions: There are several identifiable risk factors for CAUTI in patients undergoing cardiac procedures. CAUTI is not independently associated with increased mortality, but it does serve as a marker of sicker patients more likely to die from other comorbidities or complications. Therefore, awareness of the high-risk nature of these patients should lead to
Guidry, Christopher; Politano, Amani; Rosenberger, Laura; McLeod, Matthew; Hranjec, Tjasa; Sawyer, Robert
Background: Aspergillus infections are associated commonly with immunocompromised states, such as transplantation and hematologic malignant disease. Although Aspergillus infections among patients having surgery occur primarily in transplant recipients, they are found in non-recipients of transplants, and have a mortality rate similar to that seen among transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospective data base collected from 1996 to 2010, in which we identified patients with Aspergillus infections. We compared demographic data, co-morbidities, and outcomes in non-transplant patients with those in abdominal transplant recipients. Continuous data were evaluated with the Student t-test, and categorical data were evaluated through χ2 analysis. Results: Twenty-three patients (11 transplant patients and 12 non-transplant patients) were identified as having had Aspergillus infections. The two groups were similar with regard to their demographics and co-morbidities, with the exceptions of their scores on the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II), of 23.6±8.1 points for transplant patients vs. 16.8±6.1 points for non-transplant patients (p=0.03); Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) of 16.6±8.3 points vs. 9.2±4.1 points, respectively (p=0.02); steroid use 91.0% vs. 25.0%, respectively (p=0.003); and percentage of infections acquired in the intensive care unit (ICU) 27.3% vs. 83.3%, respectively (p=0.01). The most common site of infection in both patient groups was the lung. The two groups showed no significant difference in the number of days from admission to treatment, hospital length of stay following treatment, or mortality. Conclusions: Although Aspergillus infections among surgical patients have been associated historically with solid-organ transplantation, our data suggest that other patients may also be susceptible to such infections, especially those in an ICU who are deemed to be critically ill
Thom, Bridgette; Benedict, Catherine; Carter, Jeanne; Corcoran, Stacie; Dickler, Maura N.; Goodman, Karyn A.; Margolies, Allison; Matasar, Matthew J.; Noy, Ariela; Goldfarb, Shari B.
Purpose A cancer and fertility program was established at a large cancer center to support clinicians in discussing treatment-related fertility risks and fertility preservation (FP) options with patients and in referring patients to reproductive specialists. The program provides resources, clinician education, and fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation. This study evaluated the program’s impact on patient satisfaction with information received. Patients and Methods Retrospective cross-sectional surveys assessed satisfaction before (cohort 1 [C1]) and after (cohort 2 [C2]) program initiation. Questionnaires were investigator-designed, gender-specific, and anonymous. Results Most C1 (150 males, 271 females) and C2 (120 males, 320 females) respondents were 2 years postdiagnosis; the most frequently reported cancers were testicular, breast, and lymphoma. A significant difference in satisfaction with the amount of information received was seen between C1 and C2. For males, satisfaction with information on fertility risks was high in both cohorts but significantly greater in C2 for information on sperm banking (χ2 = 9.3, P = .01) and finding a sperm bank (χ2 = 13.3, P = .001). For females, satisfaction with information was significantly greater in C2 for information on fertility risks (χ2 = 62.1, P < .001), FP options (χ2 = 71.9, P < .001), help with decision making (χ2 = 80.2, P < .001), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 60.5, P < .001). Among patients who received and read information materials, 96% of males and 99% of females found them helpful. Among C2 females, fertility clinical nurse specialist consultation was associated with significantly greater satisfaction with information on FP options (χ2 = 11.2, P = .004), help with decision making (χ2 = 10.4, P = .006), and finding a reproductive endocrinologist (χ2 = 22.6, P < .001), with 10% reporting lack of knowledge as a reason for not pursuing FP. Conclusion Improvements in
Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Bradley, J Andrew; Harper, Simon; Butler, Andrew; Jah, Asif; Huguet, Emmanuel; Praseedom, Raaj K; Allison, Michael; Gibbs, Paul
Acute umbilical hernia rupture in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and ascites is an unusual, but potentially life-threatening complication, with postoperative morbidity about 70% and mortality between 60%-80% after supportive care and 6%-20% after urgent surgical repair. Management options include primary surgical repair with or without concomitant portal venous system decompression for the control of the ascites. We present a retrospective analysis of our centre’s experience over the last 6 years. Our cohort consisted of 11 consecutive patients (median age: 53 years, range: 36-63 years) with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites. Appropriate patient resuscitation and optimisation with intravenous fluids, prophylactic antibiotics and local measures was instituted. One failed attempt for conservative management was followed by a successful primary repair. In all cases, with one exception, a primary repair with non-absorbable Nylon, interrupted sutures, without mesh, was performed. The perioperative complication rate was 25% and the recurrence rate 8.3%. No mortality was recorded. Median length of hospital stay was 14 d (range: 4-31 d). Based on our experience, the management of ruptured umbilical hernias in patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis and refractory ascites is feasible without the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt routinely in the preoperative period, provided that meticulous patient optimisation is performed. PMID:25780312
Tan, Y S; Nambiar, R; Yo, S L
The prevalence of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM) based on ten nutritional parameters was studied in 307 patients undergoing major elective surgical operations. These parameters included anthropometric measurements (weight/height, triceps skin fold thickness, arm muscle circumference) and biochemical (serum total proteins, albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, retinol binding protein) and immunological tests (total lymphocyte count and delayed hypersensitivity test). Using these criteria, the prevalence of PCM was high. Eighty-six percent of patients had at least one abnormal parameter. The prevalence of PCM as judged by weight/height and arm muscle circumference was 49% and 62% respectively. The incidence was higher in cancer than non cancer patients (63% vs 43%). Although serum albumin and total protein levels were normal in 93.5% of patients, acute serum protein markers such as transferrin, prealbumin and retinol binding protein were low in 20-30%. Lymphopenia of 1500 cells/cu mm or less was found in 18% and abnormal delayed hypersensitivity test in 60%. We found that only weight/height, serum protein, transferrin and lymphopenia had predictive values in postoperative morbidity and mortality. By identifying PCM patients early, adequate nutritional support can be given in order to reduce the risk of major surgical complications.
Łusiak-Szelachowska, Marzanna; Zaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej
The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K ≤ 1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K ≤ 1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K > 18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n = 15) treated with phages locally (n = 13) or locally/orally (n = 2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K ≤ 1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT.
Żaczek, Maciej; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Międzybrodzki, Ryszard; Kłak, Marlena; Fortuna, Wojciech; Letkiewicz, Sławomir; Rogóż, Paweł; Szufnarowski, Krzysztof; Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Owczarek, Barbara; Górski, Andrzej
Abstract The aim of our investigation was to verify whether phage therapy (PT) can induce antiphage antibodies. The antiphage activity was determined in sera from 122 patients from the Phage Therapy Unit in Wrocław with bacterial infections before and during PT, and in sera from 30 healthy volunteers using a neutralization test. Furthermore, levels of antiphage antibodies were investigated in sera of 19 patients receiving staphylococcal phages and sera of 20 healthy volunteers using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The phages were administered orally, locally, orally/locally, intrarectally, or orally/intrarectally. The rate of phage inactivation (K) estimated the level of phages' neutralization by human sera. Low K rates were found in sera of healthy volunteers (K≤1.73). Low K rates were detected before PT (K≤1.64). High antiphage activity of sera K>18 was observed in 12.3% of examined patients (n=15) treated with phages locally (n=13) or locally/orally (n=2) from 15 to 60 days of PT. High K rates were found in patients treated with some Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus faecalis phages. Low K rates were observed during PT in sera of patients using phages orally (K≤1.04). Increased inactivation of phages by sera of patients receiving PT decreased after therapy. These results suggest that the antiphage activity in patients' sera depends on the route of phage administration and phage type. The induction of antiphage activity of sera during or after PT does not exclude a favorable result of PT. PMID:24893003
Llau, Juan V; Ferrandis, Raquel; López Forte, Cristina
Among the drugs most widely consumed by patients are both antiplatelet agents (aspirin, clopidogrel, ticlopidine) and anticoagulants (acenocoumarol, warfarin, low molecular weight heparin, fondaparinux). The use of these drugs in the perioperative period is an essential concern in patient care due to the need to balance the risk of bleeding against thrombotic risk (arterial or venous), which is increased in surgical patients. The present review highlights three main aspects. Firstly, withdrawal of antiplatelet agents is recommended between 1 week and 10 days before surgery to minimize perioperative bleeding. However, this practice has been questioned because patients without the required antiplatelet coverage may be at greater risk of developing cardiac, cerebral or peripheral vascular complications. Therefore, the recommendation of systematic antiplatelet withdrawal for a specific period should be rejected. Currently, risks should be evaluated on an individual basis to minimize the time during which the patient remains without adequate antiplatelet protection. Secondly, thromboprophylaxis is required in most surgical patients due to the high prevalence of venous thromboembolic disease. This implies the use of anticoagulants and the practice of regional anesthesia has been questioned in these patients. However, with the safety recommendations established by the various scientific societies, this practice has been demonstrated to be safe. Finally, "bridge therapy" in patients anticoagulated with acenocoumarol should be performed on an individual basis rather than systematically without taking into account the thrombotic risks of each patient. The perioperative period involves high arterial and venous thrombotic risk and the optimal use of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants should be a priority to minimize this risk without increasing hemorrhagic risk. Multidisciplinary consensus is essential on this matter.
Di Girolamo, Stefano; Di Mauro, Roberta; Giacomini, Piergiorgio; Cantonetti, Maria
Objectives In onco-hematological diseases, the incidence of paranasal sinuses infection dramatically increase and requires a combination of medical and surgical therapy. Balloon dilatation surgery (DS) is a minimally invasive, tissue preserving procedure. The study evaluates the results of DS for rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised patients. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted in 110 hematologic patients with rhinosinusitis. Twenty-five patients were treated with DS technique and 85 patients with endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). We considered the type of anesthesia and the extent of intra- and postoperative bleeding. Patients underwent Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20) to evaluate changes in subjective symptoms and global patient assessment (GPA) questionnaire to value patient satisfaction. Results Local anesthesia was employed in 8 cases of DS and in 15 of ESS. In 50 ESS patients, an anterior nasal packing was placed and in 12 cases a repacking was necessary. In the DS group, nasal packing was required in 8 cases and in 2 cases a repacking was placed (P=0.019 and P=0.422, respectively). The SNOT-20 change score showed significant improvement of health status in both groups. However the DS group showed a major improvement in 3 voices: need to blow nose, runny nose, and facial pain/pressure. The 3-month follow-up GPA questionnaire showed an higher satisfaction of DS group. Conclusion Balloon DS represents a potentially low aggressive treatment and appears to be relatively safe and effective in onco-hematologic patients. All these remarks may lead the surgeon to consider a larger number of candidates for surgical procedure. PMID:25436050
Hu, Qiongyuan; Wang, Gefei; Ren, Jianan; Ren, Huajian; Li, Guanwei; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Li, Ranran; Guo, Kun; Deng, Youming; Li, Yuan; Hong, Zhiwu; Wu, Lei; Li, Jieshou
Abstract Recent studies have implied a prognostic value of the prognostic nutritional index (PNI) in postoperative septic complications of elective colorectal surgeries. However, the evaluation of PNI in contaminated surgeries for gastrointestinal (GI) fistula patients is lack of investigation. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive value of PNI in surgical site infections (SSIs) for GI fistula patients undergoing bowel resections. A retrospective review of 290 GI patients who underwent intestinal resections between November 2012 and October 2015 was performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for SSIs, and receiver operating characteristic cure was used to quantify the effectiveness of PNI. SSIs were diagnosed in 99 (34.1%) patients, with incisional infection identified in 54 patients (18.6%), deep incisional infection in 13 (4.5%), and organ/space infection in 32 (11.0%). receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined a PNI cut-off level of 45 corresponding to postoperative SSIs (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.72, 76% sensitivity, 55% specificity). Furthermore, a multivariate analysis indicated that the PNI < 45 [odd ratio (OR): 2.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09–4.61, P = 0.029] and leukocytosis (OR: 3.70, 95% CI: 1.02–13.42, P = 0.046) were independently associated with postoperative SSIs. Preoperative PNI is a simple and useful marker to predict SSIs in GI fistula patients after enterectomies. Measurement of PNI is therefore recommended in the routine assessment of patients with GI fistula receiving surgical treatment. PMID:27399098
Nantajit, Danupon; Trirussapanich, Pornwaree; Rojwatkarnjana, Sunanta; Soonklang, Kamonwan; Pattaranutraporn, Poompis; Laebua, Kanyanee; Chamchod, Sasikarn
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) or bile duct cancer is a rare cancer type in developed countries, while its prevalence is increased in southeast Asia, affecting ~33.4 men and ~12.3 women per 100,000 individuals. CCA is one of the most lethal types of cancer. Neo-adjuvant and adjuvant therapies have been shown to have limited efficacy in improving the overall prognosis of patients. Radiotherapy has been reported to prolong the survival times of patients with certain characteristics. The present study retrospectively evaluated the medical records and follow-up data from 27 CCA patients who received radiotherapy at Chulabhorn Hospital (Bangkok, Thailand) between 2008 and 2014. A total of 14 patients underwent surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Of the 27 CCA patients, 14 had intrahepatic CCA, 2 had extrahepatic CCA and 11 had hilar CCA. The 2-year survival rate was 40.7%. Tumor resectability, clinical symptoms and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score were found to be indicative of patient prognosis. In addition, the planning target volume and biologically effective radiotherapy dose were of prognostic value; however, initial treatment response was ambiguous in predicting survival time. The findings of the present study suggested that the currently used radiotherapy protocols for CCA may require modification to improve their efficacy. PMID:28105359
Gupta, Aditi; Dadheech, Gora; Yadav, Dharamveer; Sharma, Praveen; Gautam, Shiv
Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder with a complex pathophysiology and requires treatment that includes long term administration of antipsychotics that is said to be associated with metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of seven different antipsychotics prescribed to schizophrenic patients, on development of metabolic syndrome in the patients. A total of 210 patients with schizophrenia (30 patients in each drug therapy group) were recruited according to ICD-10 criteria and were assigned to receive the drug for 16 weeks. Measurement of anthropometric (body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure) and biochemical parameters (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, LDL, HDL) was done and the patients were subjected to ATP-III defined criteria for metabolic syndrome. Patients undergoing treatment with olanzapine were more prone to metabolic syndrome as the drug induces weight gain after 16 weeks of treatment. It also induces dyslipidemia (P < 0.001) and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Clozapine was found to be second most potent drug in inducing metabolic syndrome as the weight in clozapine treated patients increased after 16 weeks, along with a significant increase in glycemic (P < 0.001) and lipid parameters (P < 0.01). Aripriazole and amisulphride are comparatively safer drugs as their role in inducing metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenic patients was insignificant, although the impact of long term administration of these drugs needs to be explored. It is clear from the study that antipsychotic treatment induces metabolic syndrome so, it becomes important that the metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors should be surveillance regularly in schizophrenic patients undergoing antipsychotic treatment.
Elderly patients commonly receive statin drugs for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. Elderly patients also commonly receive antidepressant drugs, usually selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), for the treatment of depression, anxiety, or other conditions. SSRIs are associated with many pharmacokinetic drug interactions related to the inhibition of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways. There is concern that drugs that inhibit statin metabolism can trigger statin adverse effects, especially myopathy (which can be potentially serious, if rhabdomyolysis occurs). However, a detailed literature review of statin metabolism and of SSRI effects on CYP enzymes suggests that escitalopram, citalopram, and paroxetine are almost certain to be safe with all statins, and rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, and pravastatin are almost certain to be safe with all SSRIs. Even though other SSRI-statin combinations may theoretically be associated with risks, the magnitude of the pharmacokinetic interaction is likely to be below the threshold for clinical significance. Risk, if at all, lies in combining fluvoxamine with atorvastatin, simvastatin, or lovastatin, and even this risk can be minimized by using lower statin doses and monitoring the patient.
Taghavi, Sharven; Jayarajan, Senthil N; Mangi, Abeel A; Hollenbach, Kathryn; Dauer, Elizabeth; Sjoholm, Lars O; Pathak, Abhijit; Santora, Thomas A; Goldberg, Amy J; Rappold, Joseph F
As extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used for patients with cardiac and/or pulmonary failure, the need for noncardiac surgical procedures (NCSPs) in these patients will continue to increase. This study examined the NCSP required in patients supported with ECMO and determined which variables affect outcomes. The National Inpatient Sample Database was examined for patients supported with ECMO from 2007 to 2010. There were 563 patients requiring ECMO during the study period. Of these, 269 (47.8%) required 380 NCSPs. There were 149 (39.2%) general surgical procedures, with abdominal exploration/bowel resection (18.2%) being most common. Vascular (29.5%) and thoracic procedures (23.4%) were also common. Patients requiring NCSP had longer median length of stay (15.5 vs. 9.2 days, p = 0.001), more wound infections (7.4% vs. 3.7%, p = 0.02), and more bleeding complications (27.9% vs. 17.3%, p = 0.01). The incidences of other complications and inpatient mortality (54.3% vs. 58.2%, p = 0.54) were similar. On logistic regression, the requirement of NCSPs was not associated with mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-1.23, p = 0.17). However, requirement of blood transfusion was associated with mortality (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.06-2.74, p = 0.03). Although NCSPs in patients supported with ECMO does not increase mortality, it results in increased morbidity and longer hospital stay.
Letchmi, Santhna; Das, Srijit; Halim, Hasliza; Zakariah, Farid Azizul; Hassan, Hamidah; Mat, Samsiah; Packiavathy, Ruth
The fatigue that is observed in patients who are undergoing dialysis is usually associated with an impaired quality of life. The present cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2009 in three hemodialysis units in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In this study, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Depression Anxiety and Stress Score 21 were used to determine the level of fatigue, depression, anxiety, and stress of patients who were undergoing dialysis. The data were obtained from a calculated sample of 116 and a total of 103 respondents participated in the study. A total of 56 (54.4%) and 47 (45.6%) respondents experienced a high level and a low level of fatigue, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the duration of treatment and the level of fatigue. The respondents who had been receiving treatment for > 2 years experienced more fatigue, compared to the respondents who had been undergoing hemodialysis for > 2 years. There was a significant difference in relation to the age of the participants regarding the level of fatigue. No significant relationship between the sex of the participants, anemia, depression, anxiety, stress, and the level of fatigue was observed. Special attention needs to be paid to both the younger and older adults who are receiving treatment. In addition, proper planning is needed for the patients regarding their daily activities in order to reduce fatigue. Nurses who work in hemodialysis units are recommended to provide exercise classes or group therapy in order to boost the energy levels among patients who are undergoing dialysis. Health professionals should provide appropriate treatment for patients who are experiencing fatigue in order to prevent any other complications that could arise.
Kobayashi, Shigeto; Ishizuka, Shyugo; Tamura, Naoto; Takaya, Makiyo; Kaneda, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Hiroshi
Pranlukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor I antagonist (LTRAs) approved for treatment of asthma in Japan since 1995. Compared to other LTRAs, such as zafilukast and montelukast, only few cases with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) have been reported in association with treatment with pranlukast. We describe a 17-year-old Japanese male patient who developed CSS with a 13 month history of mild asthma receiving pranlukast for 11 months without systemic and/or inhaled corticosteroid administration prior to development of CSS. From the aspect of temporal relationship between treatment with pranlukast and development of CSS, a direct induction of CSS by pranlukast is suggested in our case.
Wang, Doris D.; Knox, Renatta; Rolston, John D.; Englot, Dario J.; Barkovich, A. James; Tihan, Tarik; Auguste, Kurtis I.; Knowlton, Robert C.; Cornes, Susannah B.; Chang, Edward F.
Objective Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a malformation of cortical development characterized by formation of an excessive number of small gyri. Sixty percent to 85% of patients with PMG have epilepsy that is refractory to medication, but surgical options are usually limited. We characterize a cohort of patient with polymicrogyria who underwent epilepsy surgery and document seizure outcomes. Methods A retrospective study of all patients with PMG who underwent epilepsy surgery (focal seizure foci resection and/or hemispherectomy) at our center was performed by review of all clinical data related to their treatment. Results We identified 12 patients (7 males and 5 female) with mean age of 18 (ranging from 3 months to 44 years) at time of surgery. Mean age at seizure onset was 8 years, with the majority (83%) having childhood onset. Six patients had focal, five had multifocal, and one patient had diffuse PMG. Perisylvian PMG was the most common pattern seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eight patients had other cortical malformations including hemimegalencephaly and cortical dysplasia. Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) often showed diffuse epileptic discharges that poorly lateralized but were focal on intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG). Eight patients underwent seizure foci resection and four underwent hemispherectomy. Mean follow-up was 7 years (ranging from one to 19 years). Six patients (50%) were seizure-free at last follow-up. One patient had rare seizures (Engel class II). Three patients were Engel class III, having either decreased seizure frequency or severity, and two patients were Engel class IV. Gross total resection of the PMG cortex trended toward good seizure control. Significance Our study shows that even in patients with extensive or bilateral PMG malformations, some may still be good candidates for surgery because the epileptogenic zone may involve only a portion of the malformation. Intracranial ECoG can provide additional localizing
Taware, C P; Kulkarni, S R
The Present article describes in short etiology of cleft lip and cleft palate. With this in-born defect, patient develops crucial problems with feeding, phonation, overall growth and development of affected and allied soft and hard tissue structures. This in turn results in deformity and asymmetry which is going to affect functional requirements as well as aesthetic outlook. Hence it really becomes mandatory to correct this defect surgically as early as possible, at stipulated timings so as to avoid present and future anticipated problems.
Saour, J N; Ali, H A; Mammo, L A; Sieck, J O
Over a 10-year period a uniform management plan for patients receiving long term oral anticoagulation therapy for prosthetic heart valves and needing dental procedures was instituted. Those undergoing dental extraction or gum hygiene in the presence of gross gum pathology (Group A) had their oral anticoagulation discontinued two days prior to the procedure which was carried out only if the INR was 1.5 or less on the day of the procedure. Patients who needed dental fillings or gum hygiene in the absence of gross gum pathology (Group B) continued their anticoagulation therapy and had these procedures completed provided the INR was 3.0 or less. The main outcome measured were valve thrombosis, thromboembolism and excessive bleeding requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion. In Group A, 240 procedures were carried out; 212 dental extractions and 28 dental hygiene in the presence of gross gum pathology. They had a brief period of under-anticoagulation (3-7 days) to an INR of 1.5 or less. In Group B, 156 procedures were performed. No patient developed valve thrombosis or thromboembolism. Two patients, both in Group A needed hospitalization for observation but no blood transfusion. This management plan was easy to implement. Patients needed one extra visit to the anticoagulation clinic within one week of the procedure. It was both safe and effective.
Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Escott, Phil; Walter, Garry
For this quantitative study, a cross-sectional design was used to assess patients' ratings regarding receiving difficult news pertaining to their psychiatric illness, such as deleterious lifestyle consequences and lifelong medications. One hundred inpatients were interviewed and completed the survey. Nearly all agreed they had a legal or moral right to information about their diagnosis, and most agreed they should be told their diagnosis. The majority believed the doctor was the best person to tell them their diagnosis, and more than half indicated that not providing a diagnosis was more concerning than be ing told. Approximately two fifths of patients indicated they would prefer to hear difficult news in the presence of key family members or over several sessions, and more than three quarters thought providing hope, regardless of circumstances, was important. The highest response rates were for staff to provide accurate and reliable information, be honest and answer patients' questions, and inform patients of their treatment options and side effects. These results indicate the importance of communicating accurate and timely information to patients in an empathic and understanding manner.
Hasegawa, Yoko; Sugahara, Kazuma; Fukuoka, Tatsuyuki; Saito, Shota; Sakuramoto, Ayumi; Horii, Nobuhide; Sano, Saori; Hasegawa, Kana; Nakao, Yuta; Nanto, Tomoki; Kadoi, Kanenori; Moridera, Kuniyasu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Domen, Kazuhisa; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu
Tongue pressure is reportedly associated with dysphagia. This study investigated relationships among characteristics of head and neck cancer, tongue pressure and dysphagia screening tests performed in patients with head and neck cancer during the acute phase after surgical resection. Fifty-seven patients (36 men, 21 women; age range 26-95 years) underwent surgical resection and dysphagia screening tests (Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test, Water Swallowing Test, Modified Water Swallowing Test and Food Test) and pre- and postoperative measurement of tongue pressure at 5 time points (preoperatively, and 1-2 weeks and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively). Progression of cancer (stage), tracheotomy, surgical reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and neck dissection were factors associated with postoperative tongue pressure. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-effect model, Spearman correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Tongue pressure was significantly reduced 1-2 weeks after surgery, and recovered over time. Changes in tongue pressure were significantly associated with stage, radiotherapy and reconstruction. All screening tests showed a significant relationship with tongue pressure. Analysis of ROC and area under the effect curve suggested that a tongue pressure of 15 kPa can be used as a cut-off value to detect dysphagia after surgery for head and neck cancer. Our results suggest that tongue pressure evaluation might offer a safe, useful and objective tool to assess dysphagia immediately postoperatively in patients with head and neck cancer.
Dolan, R.; Broadbent, P.
Objectives Ward round documentation provides one of the most important means of communication between healthcare professionals. We aimed to establish if the use of a problem based standardised proforma can improve documentation in acute surgical receiving. Methods Gold standards were established using the RCSE record keeping guidelines. We audited documentation for seven days using the following headings: patient name/identification number, subjective findings, objective findings, clinical impression/diagnosis, plan, diet status, discharge decision, discharge planning, signature, and grade. After the initial audit cycle, a ward round proforma was introduced using the above headings and re-audited over a seven day period. Results The pre-intervention arm contained 50 patients and the post intervention arm contained 47. The following headings showed an improvement in documentation compliance to 100%: patient name/identification number vs 96%, subjective findings vs 84%, objective findings vs 48%, plan vs 98%, signature vs 96%, and grade vs 62%. Documentation of the clinical impression/diagnosis improved to 98% vs 30%, diet status rose to 83% vs 16%, discharge decision to 66% vs 16%, and discharge planning to 40% vs 20%. Conclusions Standardised proformas improve the documentation of post-take ward round notes. This helps to clarify the onward management plan for all aspects of a patient's care and will help avoid adverse events and litigation. This should improve the quality and safety of Patient Care. PMID:26858834
Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Lalazaryan, Anasik; Rahimi, Alireza; Zadeh, Akbar Hassan
Background: Knowledge of correct information-seeking behavior by the patients can provide health specialists and health information specialists with valuable information in improving health care. This study aimed to investigate the passive receipt and active seeking of health information by diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: A survey method was used in this research on 6426 diabetic patients of whom 362 patients were selected by a no percentage stratified random sampling. The Longo information-seeking behavior questionnaire was used to collect data and they were analyzed by SPSS 20 software. Results: The most common information source by diabetic patients was practitioners (3.12). The minimum usage among the information sources were from charity organizations and emergency phone lines with a usage of close to zero. The amount of health information gained passively from each source has the lowest average of 4.18 and usage of this information in making health decision has the highest average score of 5.83. Analysis of the data related to active seeking of information showed that knowledge of available medical information from each source has the lowest average score of 3.95 and ability in using the acquired information for making medical decisions has the highest average score of 5.28. The paired t-test showed that differences between passive information receipt (41.68) and active information seeking (39.20) considered as statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Because diabetic patients are more passive information receivers than active information seekers, the health information must be distributed by passive means to these patients. In addition, information-seeking behavior during different time periods should be investigated; to identify more effective distribution of health information. PMID:26261828
Rolski, D.; Zawadzki, P.; Życińska, K.; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E.
Morphological and functional disturbances induced by postsurgical defects and loss of tissues in the stomatognathic system due to the treatment of tumors in the maxillofacial region determine the therapeutic needs of patients. The study aimed at clinical and epidemiological evaluation of patients under prosthetic treatment in order to establish the algorithm for rehabilitation. The study group was composed of the patients after midface surgery (45.74%); surgery in a lower part of the face (47.38%); mixed postoperative losses (3.44%); loss of face tissues and surgery in other locations in the head and neck region (3.44%). The supplementary treatment was applied in 69.63% of patients. Clinical and additional examinations were performed to obtain the picture of postoperative loss, its magnitude, and location to plan the strategy of prosthetic rehabilitation. The management algorithm for prosthetic rehabilitation in patients after surgical treatment of maxillofacial neoplasms was based on its division in stages. The location and magnitude of postoperative losses, as well as the implementation of supplementary treatment of the patients after treatment of maxillofacial tumors, influence the planning of prosthetic rehabilitation that plays a key role and facilitates the patients' return to their prior living situation, occupational and family lives. PMID:27747229
Atz, Andrew M.; Travison, Thomas G.; McCrindle, Brian W.; Mahony, Lynn; Quartermain, Michael; Williams, Richard V.; Breitbart, Roger E.; Lu, Minmin; Radojewski, Elizabeth; Margossian, Renee; Covitz, Wesley; Gersony, Welton M.
Objective To determine the effects of creation of a systemic to pulmonary venous atrial level communication (fenestration) at the time of the Fontan procedure on late outcomes. Background Fenestrations are frequently performed during Fontan procedures but late consequences are not well described. Methods Patient characteristics were compared between those with and without surgical fenestration among 536 subjects (mean 11.9 years) enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Fontan Cross-sectional Study. The status of the fenestration and the association of a currently patent fenestration with health status and measures of ventricular performance were investigated. Results Fenestration was performed in 361 patients (67%) and frequency differed by year and center (p<0.001 for each). After adjustment for center, age at Fontan, year of Fontan and prior superior cavopulmonary surgery, the fenestrated group had shorter length of Fontan hospital stay. At time of cross-sectional testing 8±3 years after Fontan, the fenestration remained open in 19% of subjects. Among those with confirmed fenestration closure, 59% were by catheter intervention, 1% by surgical intervention, and 40% had apparent spontaneous closure. Compared to those without evidence of a fenestration, subjects with a current fenestration were taking more medications (p=0.02) and had lower resting oxygen saturation (median 89 vs. 95%, p<.001). Functional health status, exercise performance, echocardiographic variables, prevalence of post Fontan stroke or thrombosis, and growth did not differ by current fenestration status. Discussion Surgical fenestration is associated with well demonstrated early postoperative benefits. This cross-sectional study found few associations between a persistent fenestration and deleterious later outcomes. PMID:21658565
Yli-Uotila, Tiina; Rantanen, Anja; Suominen, Tarja
Patient education in the public healthcare system does not necessarily meet the needs of patients with cancer. Because of this, they may turn to the Internet, or they are guided to electronic sources of social support. The purposes of this study were to describe what kind of social support patients with cancer receive from the Internet and its meaning for them. The data were collected using an online survey that consisted of open-ended questions based on a theory of online social support. The data were analyzed using an inductive content analysis. Online social support consisted of three categories: disease-related information from reliable sources, supportive interaction enhancing positive emotions, and practical tips for daily life with cancer. Three major categories related to the meaning of online social support were identified: peers helping make life easier, empowerment, and inadequate support. The findings can be utilized in tailoring educational interventions for patients with cancer. In the future, the long-lasting effects of online social support need to be examined.
Surgical errors recorded between 2002 and 2008 in a US medical liability insurance database have been analysed. Twenty-five wrong-patient procedures were recorded, resulting in 5 serious adverse events: three unnecessary prostatectomies were performed after prostate biopsy samples were mislabelled; vitrectomy was performed on the wrong patient in an ophthalmology department after confusion between two patients with identical names; and a child scheduled for adenoidectomy received a tympanic drain. There were also 107 wrong-site procedures, with one death resulting from implantation of a pleural drain on the wrong side. Another 38 patients experienced significant harm: 5 patients had surgery on the wrong vertebrae; 4 had chest tubes placed on the wrong side; 4 underwent vascular surgery at the wrong site; and 4 underwent resection of the wrong segment of the intestine. In addition, there were: 4 organ resection errors; 6 wrong-site or wrong-sided limb surgeries; 2 wrong-sided ovariectomies; 2 wrong-sided eye operations; 2 wrong-sided craniotomies; 2 wrong-sided ureteric procedures; 1 wrong-sided maxillofacial operation; and 2 radiation therapy field errors. Most errors were due to poor communication, incorrect diagnosis, or failure to implement a final set of preoperative checks. Other studies conducted in the United Kingdom and the United States have provided similar results, while data are lacking in France. The World Health Organization Surgical Safety Checklist is an effective way of preventing such errors but its adoption by healthcare professionals is variable. In practice, surgical errors involving the wrong patient or wrong body site are preventable. Final pre-operative checks must be applied methodically and systematically.This includes asking the patient to confirm his/her identity and the intended site of the operation. Healthcare staff must be aware of these measures.
Choudhury, Arindam; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Magoon, Rohan; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra
The difficult airway (DA) is a common problem encountered in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. However, the challenge is not only just establishment of airway but also maintaining a definitive airway for the safe conduct of cardiopulmonary bypass from initiation to weaning after surgical correction or palliation, de-airing of cardiac chambers. This review describes the management of the DA in a cardiac theater environment. The primary aims are recognition of DA both anatomical and physiological, necessary preparations for (and management of) difficult intubation and extubation. All patients undergoing cardiac surgery should initially be considered as having potentially DA as many of them have poor physiologic reserve. Making the cardiac surgical theater environment conducive to DA management is as essential as it is to deal with low cardiac output syndrome or acute heart failure. Tube obstruction and/or displacement should be suspected in case of a new onset ventilation problem, especially in the recovery unit. Cardiac anesthesiologists are often challenged with DA while inducing general endotracheal anesthesia. They ought to be familiar with the DA algorithms and possess skill for using the latest airway adjuncts. PMID:28074820
Ahmad, Muayyad M; Al-Daken, Laila Ismae'l; Ahmad, Huthaifa M
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of life (QoL) for patients in medical-surgical wards in Jordanian hospitals. A cross-sectional design was performed. The data were collected between January and April 2011 through individual interviews (n = 746) using the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form (MOS-SF-36) and Charlson's Co-morbidity Index (CCI). The private and public hospitals in the three largest cities in Jordan were represented. The MANOVA test was used to examine the health status based on patients' co-morbidity level. The results showed that QoL for patients with severe co-morbidity has been affected negatively in many aspects more than both patients with no co-morbidity and patients with mild co-morbidity. However, although it is difficult to change the demographic characteristics, it is possible to improve the health status of patients with multiple co-morbidities, which will result in having a better QoL.
Gunnerson, Kyle J.; Shaw, Andrew D.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Bihorac, Azra; Al-Khafaji, Ali; Kashani, Kianoush; Lissauer, Matthew; Shi, Jing; Walker, Michael G.; Kellum, John A.
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication in surgical patients. Existing biomarkers and clinical prediction models underestimate the risk for developing AKI. We recently reported data from two trials of 728 and 408 critically ill adult patients in whom urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 (NephroCheck, Astute Medical) was used to identify patients at risk of developing AKI. Here we report a preplanned analysis of surgical patients from both trials to assess whether urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor–binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) accurately identify surgical patients at risk of developing AKI. STUDY DESIGN We enrolled adult surgical patients at risk for AKI who were admitted to one of 39 intensive care units across Europe and North America. The primary end point was moderate-severe AKI (equivalent to KDIGO [Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes] stages 2–3) within 12 hours of enrollment. Biomarker performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, integrated discrimination improvement, and category-free net reclassification improvement. RESULTS A total of 375 patients were included in the final analysis of whom 35 (9%) developed moderate-severe AKI within 12 hours. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for [TIMP-2]•[IGFBP7] alone was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.90; p < 0.0001). Biomarker performance was robust in sensitivity analysis across predefined subgroups (urgency and type of surgery). CONCLUSION For postoperative surgical intensive care unit patients, a single urinary TIMP2•IGFBP7 test accurately identified patients at risk for developing AKI within the ensuing 12 hours and its inclusion in clinical risk prediction models significantly enhances their performance. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Prognostic study, level I. PMID:26816218
Lu, Huai-wu; Zhang, Bing-zhong; Wang, Li-juan; Lin, Zhong-qiu
Background The impact of hyperglycemia on survival of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) for bulky early stage cervical cancer (BESCC) has not been explored. Method Records of patients who received NACT and radical hysterectomy in our institution between January 2005 and June 2010 were reviewed. Results In total, 347 patients were included. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range: 4–65). Patients with hyperglycemia (fasting blood glucose ≥ 100 mg/dl) had shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) (univariate hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.16, 3.28], P = 0.010) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (univariate HR = 2.24, 95% CI [1.33, 3.78], P = 0.002) compared with those with euglycemia (fasting blood glucose <100 mg/dl). In multivariate analysis, positive surgical margins, parametrium invasion, node metastasis, hyperglycemia and complete response to NACT independently predicted recurrence and cancer-specific death. To further validate the prognostic value of hyperglycemia, we conducted a subgroup analysis based on patient baseline characteristics and prognostic effect of hyperglycemia remained significant in all subgroups. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, euglycemia before NACT, squamous cell tumor and pre-treatment squamous cell carcinoma antigen levels < 3.5 ng/ml were identified as independent predictors of complete response after NACT. Conclusions FBG ≥100 mg/dl is a negative prognostic predictor for cervical cancer patients receiving NACT for BESCC. Patients with hyperglycemia are less likely to achieve complete response after NACT. Our findings underscore the clinical utility of hyperglycemia screening of for cervical cancer patients. PMID:27851819
Smailes, S T; Ives, M; Richardson, P; Martin, R V; Dziewulski, P
The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of complications and dysphagia in relation to the timing of tracheostomy and tracheostomy technique in 49 consecutive adult burn patients. We analysed prospectively collected data. Bronchoscopy was used to diagnose tracheal stenosis and a modified Evans blue dye test was used to diagnose dysphagia. Eighteen patients received a percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) and thirty-one patients received an open surgical tracheostomy (OST). Eight patients developed significant complications (16%) following tracheostomy, there is no difference in the incidence of complications; post op infection, stoma infection or tracheal stenosis between PDT and OST groups. Patients with full thickness neck burn who developed complications had a tracheostomy significantly earlier following autografting (p=0.05). Failed extubation is associated with dysphagia (p=0.02) whereas prolonged intubation and ventilation prior to tracheostomy independently predicts dysphagia (p=0.03). We conclude that there is no difference in the complication rates for PDT and OST in our burn patients. We recommend early closure of neck burns and tracheostomy through fully adherent autograft or at least 10 days after grafting to reduce stomal infections. For patients with no neck burn, we support early tracheostomy to reduce the likelihood of dysphagia.
Heggland, Liv-Helen; Øgaard, Torvald; Mikkelsen, Aslaug; Hausken, Kjell
The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a new, brief, easy-to-administer self-reported instrument designed to assess patient participation in decision making in surgical treatment. We describe item generation, psychometric testing, and validity of the instrument. The final scale consisted of four factors: information dissemination (5 items), formulation of options (4 items), integration of information (4 items), and control (3 items). The analysis demonstrated a reasonable level of construct validity and reliability. The instrument applies to patients in surgical wards and can be used to identify the health services that are being provided and the areas that could strengthen patient participation. PMID:22830010
Lopes, Renato D; Guimarães, Patricia O; Kolls, Bradley J; Wojdyla, Daniel M; Bushnell, Cheryl D; Hanna, Michael; Easton, J Donald; Thomas, Laine; Wallentin, Lars; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Held, Claes; de Barros E Silva, Pedro Gabriel Melo; Alexander, John H; Granger, Christopher B; Diener, Hans-Christoph
We investigated the frequency and characteristics of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), factors associated with risk of ICH, and outcomes post-ICH overall and by randomized treatment. We identified patients in ARISTOTLE with ICH who received ≥1 dose of study drug (n=18,140). ICH was adjudicated by a central committee. Cox regression models were used to identify factors associated with ICH. ICH occurred in 174 patients; most ICH events were spontaneous (71.2%) versus traumatic (28.8%). Apixaban resulted in significantly less ICH (0.33%/year), regardless of type and location, than warfarin (0.80%/year). Independent factors associated with increased risk of ICH were enrollment in Asia or Latin America, older age, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack, and aspirin use at baseline. Among warfarin-treated patients, the median (25th, 75th) time from most recent international normalized ratio (INR) to ICH was 13 (6, 21) days. Median INR prior to ICH was 2.6 (2.1, 3.0); 78.5% of patients had a pre-ICH INR <3.0. After ICH, the modified Rankin scale at discharge was ≥4 in 55.7%, and mortality at 30 days was 43.3%. No difference was observed in the rates of all-cause death post-ICH, regardless of treatment. ICH occurred at a rate of 0.80%/year with warfarin regardless of INR control and 0.33%/year with apixaban, and was associated with high short-term morbidity and mortality. This highlights the clinical relevance of reducing ICH by using apixaban rather than warfarin and avoiding concomitant aspirin, especially in patients with older age.
Chiodini, Paolo; Zoccali, Carmine; Borrelli, Silvio; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Di Iorio, Biagio; Santoro, Domenico; Giancaspro, Vincenzo; Abaterusso, Cataldo; Gallo, Ciro; Conte, Giuseppe; Minutolo, Roberto
Summary Background and objectives Prognosis in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients under regular nephrology care is rarely investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements We prospectively followed from 2003 to death or June 2010 a cohort of 1248 patients with CKD stages 3 to 5 and previous nephrology care ≥1 year in 25 Italian outpatient nephrology clinics. Cumulative incidence of ESRD or death before ESRD were estimated using the competing-risk approach. Results Estimated rates (per 100 patient-years) of ESRD and death 8.3 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.4 to 9.2) and 5.9 (95% CI 5.2 to 6.6), respectively. Risk of ESRD and death increased progressively from stages 3 to 5. ESRD was more frequent than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, whereas the opposite was true in stage 3 CKD. Younger age, lower body mass index, proteinuria, and high phosphate predicted ESRD, whereas older age, diabetes, previous cardiovascular disease, ESRD, proteinuria, high uric acid, and anemia predicted death (P < 0.05 for all). Among modifiable risk factors, proteinuria accounted for the greatest contribution to the model fit for either outcome. Conclusions In patients receiving continuity of care in Italian nephrology clinics, ESRD was a more frequent outcome than death in stage 4 and 5 CKD, but the opposite was true in stage 3. Outcomes were predicted by modifiable risk factors specific to CKD. Proteinuria used in conjunction with estimated GFR refined risk stratification. These findings provide information, specific to CKD patients under regular outpatient nephrology care, for risk stratification that complement recent observations in the general population. PMID:21817127
Inada, Taku; Imamura, Hirotoshi; Kawamoto, Michi; Sekiya, Hiroaki; Imai, Yukihiro; Tani, Shoichi; Adachi, Hidemitsu; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Mineharu, Yohei; Asai, Katsunori; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Ogura, Takenori; Shibata, Teishiki; Beppu, Mikiya; Agawa, Yuji; Shimizu, Kanpei; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Haruhiko
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection, which mainly invades the lungs and central nervous system. In Japan, most cases of cryptococcosis are caused by Cryptococcus neoformans(C. neoformans). Until now, only three cases which the infectious agent was Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii(C. gattii)have been reported. As compared with cryptococcosis caused by C. neoformans, which is often observed in immunocompromised hosts, cryptococcosis caused by C. gattii occurs predominantly in immunocompetent hosts and is resistant to antifungal drugs. Here, we report a case of refractory cerebral cryptococcoma that was successfully treated by surgical resection of the lesions. A 33-year-old man with no medical history complained of headache, hearing disturbance, and irritability. Pulmonary CT showed a nodular lesion in the left lung. Cerebrospinal fluid examination with Indian ink indicated cryptococcal meningitis, and PCR confirmed infection with C. gattii. C. gattii is usually seen in the tropics and subtropics. Since this patient imported trees and soils from abroad to feed stag beetles, parasite or fungal infection was, as such, suspected. Although he received 2 years of intravenous and intraventricular antifungal treatment, brain cryptococcomas were formed and gradually increased. Because of the refractory clinical course, the patient underwent surgical resection of the cerebral lesions. With continuation of antifungal drugs for 6 months after the surgeries, Cryptococcus could not be cultured from cerebrospinal fluid, and no lesions were seen on MR images. If cerebral cryptococcosis responds poorly to antifungal agents, surgical treatment of the cerebral lesion should be considered.
This compares outcome measures of current pectus excavatum (PEx) treatments, namely the Nuss and Ravitch procedures, in pediatric and adult patients. Original investigations that stratified PEx patients based on current treatment and age (pediatric = 0–21; adult 17–99) were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures were: operation duration, analgesia duration, blood loss, length of stay (LOS), outcome ratings, complications, and percentage requiring reoperations. Adult implant patients (18.8%) had higher reoperation rates than adult Nuss or Ravitch patients (5.3% and 3.3% respectively). Adult Nuss patients had longer LOS (7.3 days), more strut/bar displacement (6.1%), and more epidural analgesia (3 days) than adult Ravitch patients (2.9 days, 0%, 0 days). Excluding pectus bar and strut displacements, pediatric and adult Nuss patients tended to have higher complication rates (pediatric - 38%; adult - 21%) compared to pediatric and adult Ravitch patients (12.5%; 8%). Pediatric Ravitch patients clearly had more strut displacements than adult Ravitch patients (0% and 6.4% respectively). These results suggest significantly better results in common PEx surgical repair techniques (i.e. Nuss and Ravitch) than uncommon techniques (i.e. Implants and Robicsek). The results suggest slightly better outcomes in pediatric Nuss procedure patients as compared with all other groups. We recommend that symptomatic pediatric patients with uncomplicated PEx receive the Nuss procedure. We suggest that adult patients receive the Nuss or Ravitch procedure, even though the long-term complication rates of the adult Nuss procedure require more investigation. PMID:24506826
Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C.
Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH). This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC). The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24–35). Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123) at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6), 5.4 (SD = 1.9) and 6.5 (SD = 1.7), respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703–0.926). This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice. PMID:27494617
Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Downey, John R; McDonald, Kathryn; Morton, John M
Objective To examine the relationship between hospital volume and in-hospital adverse events. Data Sources Patient safety indicator (PSI) was used to identify hospital-acquired adverse events in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database in abdominal aortic aneurysm, coronary artery bypass graft, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass from 2005 to 2008. Study Design In this observational study, volume thresholds were defined by mean year-specific terciles. PSI risk-adjusted rates were analyzed by volume tercile for each procedure. Principal Findings Overall, hospital volume was inversely related to preventable adverse events. High-volume hospitals had significantly lower risk-adjusted PSI rates compared to lower volume hospitals (p < .05). Conclusion These data support the relationship between hospital volume and quality health care delivery in select surgical cases. This study highlights differences between hospital volume and risk-adjusted PSI rates for three common surgical procedures and highlights areas of focus for future studies to identify pathways to reduce hospital-acquired events. PMID:22091561
Kier, R.; Chambers, S.K. )
Pelvic radiation therapy for cervical or vaginal cancer often leads to ovarian failure. To remove the ovaries from the radiation portal and preserve their function, they can be transposed to the lateral abdomen. Serial imaging studies in 14 patients who had undergone ovarian transposition (five bilateral, nine unilateral) were reviewed. Images obtained included 32 CT scans, 20 sonograms, and one MR image. Most transposed ovaries were located along the paracolic gutters near the iliac crests, creating an extrinsic mass effect on adjacent bowel. Detection of surgical clips on the ovary on CT scans allowed confident recognition of all 19 transposed ovaries. Cysts in the transposed ovaries, noted on most imaging studies, did not correlate with complications of pain or hormonal dysfunction. In one case, a large physiologic cyst in a transposed ovary distorted the cecum and was mistaken for a mucocele of the appendix. In another case, a large ovarian cyst was thought to be tumor recurrence or a lymphocele. These findings indicate that although the transposed ovaries can be recognized on CT scans by the surgical clips attached to the ovaries, the appearance of the ovary does not predict reliably the development of complications.
Grant, Scott B; Modi, Parth K; Singer, Eric A
Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is "qualitative futility" which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician-patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient-physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision.
Rodríguez Peralta, Laura I; Mañas Vera, Ma Reyes; García Delgado, Manuel J; Pérez de la Cruz, Antonio J
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) improves the quality of life of the patients although it has complications. Catheter-related infections and mechanical complications are the most frequent ones. We report the case of endocarditis over catheter in a man suffering from short bowel and receiving HPN. The special features of the case are firstly the catheter was a remaining fragment on the right atrial and secondly the infection was caused by Trichoderma longibrachiatum, an isolated fact regarding this pathology so far. Conventional surgery was applied to take the catheter out. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum were isolated from the surgical specimen. The extraction of the infected catheter along with antibiotic therapy led to the complete recovery of the subject. Ochrobactrum anthropi and Trichoderma longibrachiatum are unusual microorganisms but they are acquiring more relevance. Although there is no agreement about intravascular retained catheter management, the most recommended approach consists on monitoring them and removing the device in case of complications.
Pyshkina, L I; Khatagova, D T; Kabanov, A A; Darvish, N A; Alibekova, Zh M
Objectives. To study the cerebral and central hemodynamics in patients with stenotic lesions of inner carotid arteries (ICA) before and after reconstructive surgery. Material and methods. Fifty-nine patients, aged from 46 to 78 years, with >50% atherosclerotic stenosis of ICA who underwent preventive carotid endarterectomy (CEAE) were examined. The isolate stenosis of ICA was identified in 13.6% of patients, concomitant lesions of brachiocephalic arteries in 86.4%. Atherosclerotic lesions of coronary arteries were found in 91.1% of patients and those of arteries of lower extremities in 45.8%. In 25.5% of patients, the heart surgery was performed before the current hospitalization. Heterogeneous atherosclerotic plaques with dense or hyperdense components were more frequents in symptomatic stenosis (63.3%). The maximal stenosis was identified in heterogeneous hyperechogenic plaques, the minimal ones in homogenous hypoechogenic plaques. Parameters of central hemodynamics were better in patients with 2nd stage of reconstructive surgeries. The emission fraction decreased proportionally to the degree of stenosis. The parameters of cerebral hemodynamics were significantly decreased in ICA stenosis and improved in the early post-surgery period. Results. CEAE promoted the improvement of cognitive functions and the recovery of motor functions. The best positive dynamics was recorded in asymptomatic ICA stenosis. Poor outcome (transitory ischemic attacks, urgent surgery, restenosis) was found in patients with low levels of central and cerebral hemodynamics 12-24 months after the discharge. Moreover, smoking and the degree of stenosis predicted poor outcome. Conclusions. Surgical treatment in combination with the complex pharmacotherapy (hypotensive drugs, antiaggregants and statins) had the maximal effect, including the remote period.
Huang, Zhu; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Han, Wei
Abstract Uveitic glaucoma (UG) is secondary glaucoma, present as a clinical challenge in both diagnosis and management. We report a case of complex UG, which initially presented as pupillary block and rupture of the anterior lens capsule. We performed cataract extraction with preservation of posterior capsule. Then, the case turned to aphakic malignant glaucoma. We performed anterior vitrectomy with posterior capsule resection in this case. After the second operation, the patient had a satisfactory recovery. Specifically, ultrasonographic biomicroscopy was useful during the diagnosis process and follow-up period in this case. UG presenting as pupillary block, rupture of the anterior lens capsule, and aqueous misdirection seldom presents in clinical practice. Earlier and more active surgical intervention may be necessary for effective preservation of visual function in complex cases of UG. PMID:26252285
Edmonds, Joseph L
Mitochondrial diseases are primary defects in bio-energy metabolism. They are a heterogeneous group of diseases. The specific constellation of symptoms that will manifest in the effected individual depends on the type of genetic defect in the mitochondria. The goals of medical management, expressed in a highly simplified fashion, are to maintain a normal acid-base balance and to avoid those medical conditions and situations that add extra stress to a compromised bio-energy production system. Infection is a common stress that may cause a crisis in a patient with mitochondrial dysfunction. Treatment and avoidance of infections is a goal of both medical and surgical management. Common childhood illness such as otitis media, tonsillitis and sinusitis are example of such stress inducing infections.
Scott, David A.; Tung, Hon-Ming Andrew; Slater, Reuben
Abstract: Preoperative anemia and nadir hemoglobin (Hb) during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) have been identified as significant risk factors for blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to confirm the association between preoperative anemia, perioperative fluid management, and blood transfusion. In addition, the proportion of elective cardiac surgery patients presenting for surgery with anemia was identified to examine whether the opportunity exists for timely diagnosis and intervention. Data from referral until hospital discharge were comprehensively reviewed over a 12-month period for all nonemergency cardiac surgical patients operated on in our institution. Of the 342 patients identified, elective cases were referred a median of 35 days before preoperative clinic and operated on a median of 14 days subsequently. Subacute cases had a median of 3 days from referral to surgery. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for anemia, 24.2% of elective and 29.6% of subacute patients were anemic. Blood transfusion was administered to 46.2% of patients during their admission. Transfusion was more likely in patients who were female (odds ratio [OR]: 2.45, 95%confidence interval [CI]: 1.28–4.70), had a low body mass index (BMI) (OR: .89, 95% CI: .84–.94), preoperative anemia (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.59–10.24), or renal impairment (OR: 5.44, 95% CI: 2.42–12.22). Hemodilution minimization strategies reduced the Hb fall during CPB, but not transfusion rates. This study identifies a high prevalence of preoperative anemia with sufficient time for elective referrals to undergo appropriate diagnosis and interventions. It also confirms that low red cell mass (anemia and low BMI) and renal impairment are predictors of perioperative blood transfusion. Perfusion strategies to reduce hemodilution are effective at minimizing the intraoperative fall in Hb concentration but did not influence transfusion rate. PMID:26543251
... the Surgical Safety Institute of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient Safety... HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Relinquishment From Surgical Safety Institute AGENCY: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ),...
Grant, Scott B.; Modi, Parth K.
Futility has been a contentious topic in medicine for several decades. Surgery in critical or end-of-life situations often raises difficult questions about futility. In this article, we discuss the definition of futility, methods for resolving futility disputes, and some ways to reframe the futility debate to a more fruitful discussion about the goals of care, better communication between surgeon and patient/surrogate, and palliative surgical care. Many definitions of futile therapy have been discussed. The most controversial of these is “qualitative futility” which describes a situation in which the treatment provided is likely to result in an unacceptable quality of life. This is an area of continued controversy because it has been impossible to identify universally held beliefs about acceptable quality of life. Many authors have described methods for resolving futility disputes, including community standards and legalistic multi-step due process protocols. Others, however, have abandoned the concept of futility altogether as an unhelpful term. Reframing the issue of futility as one of inadequate physician–patient communication, these authors have advocated for methods of improving communication and strengthening the patient–physician relationship. Finally, we discuss the utilization of consultants who may be of use in resolving futility disputes: ethics committees, palliative care specialists, pastoral care teams, and dedicated patient advocates. Involving these specialists in a futility conflict can help improve communication and provide invaluable assistance in arriving at the appropriate treatment decision. PMID:24849199
Isbell, James M.; Deppen, Stephen; Putnam, Joe B.; Nesbitt, Jonathan C.; Lambright, Eric S.; Dawes, Aaron; Massion, Pierre P.; Speroff, Theodore; Jones, David R.; Grogan, Eric L.
Background atients undergoing resections for suspicious pulmonary lesions have a 9-55% benign rate. Validated prediction models exist to estimate the probability of malignancy in a general population and current practice guidelines recommend their use. We evaluated these models in a surgical population to determine the accuracy of existing models to predict benign or malignant disease. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of our thoracic surgery quality improvement database (2005-2008) to identify patients who underwent resection of a pulmonary lesion. Patients were stratified into subgroups based on age, smoking status and fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) results. The probability of malignancy was calculated for each patient using the Mayo and SPN prediction models. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and calibration curves were used to measure model performance. Results 89 patients met selection criteria; 73% were malignant. Patients with preoperative PET scans were divided into 4 subgroups based on age, smoking history and nodule PET avidity. Older smokers with PET-avid lesions had a 90% malignancy rate. Patients with PET- non-avid lesions, or PET-avid lesions with age<50 years or never smokers of any age had a 62% malignancy rate. The area under the ROC curve for the Mayo and SPN models was 0.79 and 0.80, respectively; however, the models were poorly calibrated (p<0.001). Conclusions Despite improvements in diagnostic and imaging techniques, current general population models do not accurately predict lung cancer among patients ref erred for surgical evaluation. Prediction models with greater accuracy are needed to identify patients with benign disease to reduce non-therapeutic resections. PMID:21172518
Huang, Nai-Si; Liu, Meng-Ying; Chen, Jia-Jian; Yang, Ben-Long; Xue, Jing-Yan; Quan, Chen-Lian; Mo, Miao; Liu, Guang-Yu; Shen, Zhen-Zhou; Shao, Zhi-Min; Wu, Jiong
The aim of the study was to review the surgical trends in breast cancer treatment in China over the past 15 years and to explore the possible factors related to the choice of surgical modality.The medical records of 18,502 patients with unilateral early stage breast cancer who underwent surgery from January 1999 to December 2013 at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. The utilization of different surgical modalities and the associated clinicopathological factors were analyzed. Furthermore, the prognostic role of surgical modality was also evaluated.The median patient age was 50.0 years. According to the pTNM staging system, 12.5% of the patients were classified as stage 0; 30.2% as stage I; 40.0% as stage II; and 17.3% as stage III. In total, 9.3% of the patients could not be staged. Overall, 67.1% of the breast cancer cases were estrogen receptor (ER) positive. The pattern of breast cancer surgery has changed tremendously over the past 15 years (P < 0.001). The pattern of mastectomy has shifted from radical mastectomy to modified radical mastectomy and simple mastectomy + sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 81.7% of the patients underwent mastectomy without immediate reconstruction, 15.2% underwent breast-conserving surgery (BCS), and 3.7% received immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy. Age, TNM staging, and pathological characteristics greatly affected the choice of surgical modality. The 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates for the mastectomy, BCS, and reconstruction groups were 87.6%, 93.2%, and 91.7%, respectively (P < 0.001); the RFS rate was likely affected by distant recurrence instead of loco-regional recurrence. We also identified improved RFS over time, stratified by surgical modality and tumor stage. Multivariate Cox-regression analysis revealed that time of treatment, tumor stage, tumor grade, LVI status, and ER status were independent prognostic factors for RFS in our cohort, whereas surgical modality was not
Ziegler, T R; Young, L S; Manson, J M; Wilmore, D W
Recombinant human methionyl growth hormone (Protropin) (Genetech, Inc., San Francisco, CA) administered to normal volunteers receiving hypocaloric parenteral nutrition minimized weight loss and induced positive nitrogen balance. To evaluate whether growth hormone (GH) can promote anabolism in surgical patients, 11 stable malnourished individuals were studied. In the initial trial, subjects received a constant parenteral infusion of a hypocaloric diet that provided approximately 1100 kcal/24 hr and 1.3 g protein/kg/24 hr for at least 2 weeks. During 1 week, GH 10 mg was given subcutaneously daily, whereas the other week served as the control. Daily balance studies demonstrated that administration of GH resulted in significant retention of nitrogen (+3.4 g/24 h) and phosphorus (+218 mg/24 h), despite provision of only 60% of caloric requirements. With GH, serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and potassium fell, whereas glucose and insulin tended to rise, and levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 increased three to fourfold. Weight gain occurred with GH and was associated with positive mineral and water balance. Six patients received GH (10 mg subcutaneously daily) for 13-25 consecutive days after an initial control week. Significant nitrogen and phosphorus retention occurred over the entire period of GH administration, and no significant side effects were observed. In these depleted patients, GH caused significant and sustained nitrogen retention over a wide range of nutritional support. GH appears to enhance the efficacy of parenteral nutrition in stable individuals requiring repletion of body protein. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:3133995
Cazares-Rangel, Joel; Zalles-Vidal, Cristian; Davila-Perez, Roberto
Background: The literature on diagnosis and management prior to transfer paediatric surgical patients to a tertiary care center is scarce. In referral centers, it is common to receive patients previously subjected to inadequate or inappropriate health care. Aim: Analyze the prevalence of misdiagnosis and quality of management in patients before being referred and factors related to misdiagnosis and inadequate management. Design: Prospective, longitudinal, comparative study between patients with appropriate and inappropriate submission diagnosis and between patients with adequate or inadequate treatment. Setting: Third level care hospital, Mexico City. Participants: Newborn to adolescents referred to Paediatric Surgery Department. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Misdiagnosis and quality of management prior to being referred. Result: Two hundred patients were evaluated. Correlation between submission diagnosis and final diagnosis showed that 70% were correct and 30% incorrect; 48.5% were properly managed and 51.5% inappropriately managed. Incorrect diagnosis was more frequent when referred from first-or second-level hospitals and in inflammatory conditions. Patients referred by paediatricians had a higher rate of adequate management. Conclusion: We present the frequency of incorrect diagnosis and inadequate patient management in a highly selected population. Sample size should be increased as well as performing these studies in other hospital settings in order to determine whether the results are reproducible. PMID:24959495
Li, Xuefang; Xu, Jian-Xin
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most deadly types of cancer since it typically spreads rapidly and can seldom be detected in its early stage. Pancreatic cancer therapy is thus a challenging task, and appropriate prognosis or assessment for pancreatic cancer therapy is of critical importance. In this work, based on available clinical data in Niu et al. (2013) we develop a mathematical prognosis model that can predict the overall survival of pancreatic cancer patients who receive immunotherapy. The mathematical model incorporates pancreatic cancer cells, pancreatic stellate cells, three major classes of immune effector cells CD8+ T cells, natural killer cells, helper T cells, and two major classes of cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). The proposed model describes the dynamic interaction between tumor and immune cells. In order for the model to be able to generate appropriate prognostic results for disease progression, the distribution and stability properties of equilibria in the mathematical model are computed and analysed in absence of treatments. In addition, numerical simulations for disease progression with or without treatments are performed. It turns out that the median overall survival associated with CIK immunotherapy is prolonged from 7 to 13months compared with the survival without treatment, this is consistent with the clinical data observed in Niu et al. (2013). The validity of the proposed mathematical prognosis model is thus verified. Our study confirms that immunotherapy offers a better prognosis for pancreatic cancer patients. As a direct extension of this work, various new therapy methods that are under exploration and clinical trials could be assessed or evaluated using the newly developed mathematical prognosis model.
Koitschev, Assen; Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl Ulrich; Braun, Angelika; Gekeler, Florian; Greppmaier, Udo; Sachs, Helmut; Peters, Tobias; Wilhelm, Barbara; Zrenner, Eberhart; Besch, Dorothea
In hereditary retinal diseases photoreceptors progressively degenerate, often causing blindness without therapy being available. Newly developed subretinal implants can substitute functions of photoreceptors. Retina implant extraocular surgical technique relies strongly on cochlear-implant know-how. However, a completely new surgical approach providing safe handling of the photosensor array had to be developed. The Retina Implant Alpha IMS consisting of a subretinal microphotodiode array and cable linked to a cochlear-implant-like ceramic housing was introduced via a retroauricular incision through a subperiosteal tunnel above the zygoma into the orbit using a specially designed trocar. Implant housing was fixed in a bony bed within a tight subperiosteal pocket in all patients. Primary outcomes were patient short term safety as well as effectiveness. Nine patients participated in the first part of the multicenter trial and received the subretinal visual implant in one eye. In all cases microphotodiode array pull-through procedure and stable positioning were possible without affecting the device function. No intraoperative complications were encountered. The minimally invasive suprazygomatic tunneling technique for the sensor unit as well as a subperiosteal pocket fixation of the implant housing provides a safe extraocular implantation approach of a subretinal device with a transcutaneous extracorporeal power supply. PMID:26783453
Shapiro, A; Cooper, D L
General guidelines exist for the use of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) to maintain haemostasis during surgery in congenital haemophilia A and B patients with high responding inhibitors (CHwI). Individual surgical plans are required and based upon historical therapy response, adverse events and anticipated procedure. Surgical interventions are feasible, yet it remains unclear how many US hemophilia treatment centres (HTCs) perform procedures in this fragile population. To better understand the US HTC surgical experience in CHwI patients and the number/types of procedures performed, a 21-question survey was sent to 133 US HTCs, with follow-up for response clarification and to non-responders. 98/133 HTCs (74%) responded, with 87 currently treating CHwI patients. In the last decade, 76/85 HTCs performed 994 surgeries on CHwI patients. Sites were experienced in the following procedures: central line insertion/removal (73 HTCs), dental (58), orthopaedic (52), abdominal (23), cardiovascular (14) and otolaryngologic (11). Experience with orthopaedic surgeries included synovectomies - arthroscopic (23 HTCs), radioisotopic (22), and open (7); joint replacement (18); fracture repair (14); and arthrodesis (8). Treatment modalities included rFVIIa bolus (83 HTCs) or continuous infusions (9), plasma-derived activated prothrombin complex concentrate (pd-aPCC) (55), antifibrinolytics (51), topical haemostatic agents (29), factor VIII (16) and fibrin sealants (14). Protocols for bypassing agents were used by 31/92 (33%) HTCs. Most US HTCs surveyed care for CHwI patients (74%) and have experience in minor surgery; fewer HTCs reported complex orthopaedic surgical experience. Identification of best practices and surgical barriers is required to guide future initiatives to support these patients.
Lai, Yutian; Du, Heng; Wang, Xin; Shen, Cheng; Huang, Jian; Li, Weiming; Che, Guowei
To investigate the association between the clinical characteristics and clinical modes of surgically treated lung cancer patients, we conducted a retrospective study with 1097 lung cancer patients receiving pulmonary resection between 2012 and 2013.A physical examination or screening (PES) group (n = 267) and a symptomatic (SY) group (n = 830) were established depending on the new clinical mode (sequence of physical examination, early detection and sequential medical treatment) and the conventional mode (hospitalization due to occurrence of relevant symptoms), respectively.A higher proportion of patients referred to our unit directly form a junior medical unit is found in PES group (43.8%, 117/267 vs 13.6%, 113/830) (P < 0.001) and 37.5% (100/267) patients in PES group spent <1 months from detection or first medical visit to diagnosis compared with 15.4% (128/830) patient in SY group (P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of PES patients versus SY patients received video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) resection (67.8%, 183/267 vs 42.6%, 352/830; P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of PES patients versus SY patients chose sublobar resection (16.9%, 45/267 vs 7.6%, 63/830; P < 0.001). A significantly higher proportion of PES patients versus SY patients are at stage 0 or I (64.4%, 172/267 vs 40.7%, 338/830; P < 0.000). The postoperative incidence rate of complications in 30 days is significantly higher in SY group than in PES group (34.9% vs 27.3%; P = 0.022).Helping to early diagnosis and surgical treatment, early tumor detection via PES may contribute to significantly higher proportions of early-stage lung cancer, use of VATS pulmonary resection, and sublobectomy as well as lower complication rate.
Bruny, Jennifer; Ziegler, Moritz
Innovation is a crucial part of surgical history that has led to enhancements in the quality of surgical care. This comprises both changes which are incremental and those which are frankly disruptive in nature. There are situations where innovation is absolutely required in order to achieve quality improvement or process improvement. Alternatively, there are innovations that do not necessarily arise from some need, but simply are a new idea that might be better. All change must assure a significant commitment to patient safety and beneficence. Innovation would ideally enhance patient care quality and disease outcomes, as well stimulate and facilitate further innovation. The tensions between innovative advancement and patient safety, risk and reward, and demonstrated effectiveness versus speculative added value have created a contemporary "surgical conundrum" that must be resolved by a delicate balance assuring optimal patient/provider outcomes. This article will explore this delicate balance and the rules that govern it. Recommendations are made to facilitate surgical innovation through clinical research. In addition, we propose options that investigators and institutions may use to address competing priorities.
Mangiante, Gerardo; Padoan, Roberto; Mengardo, Valentina; Bencivenga, Maria; de Manzoni, Giovanni
The acute abdomen (AA) still remains a challenging situation for surgeons. New pathological conditions have been imposed to our attention in this field in recent years. The definition of abdominal compartmental syndrome (ACS) in surgical practice and the introduction of new biological matrices, with the concepts of tension-free (TS) repair of incisional hernias, prompted us to set up new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with AA. Thus we reviewed the cases of AA that we observed in recent years in which we performed a laparostomy in order to prevent or to treat an ACS. They are all cases of acute abdomen (AA), but from different origin, including chronic diseases, as in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and acute pancreatitis. In all the cases, the open abdominal cavity was covered with a polyethylene sheet. The edges of the wound were sutured to the plastic sheet, and a traction exerted by a device that causes a negative pressure was added. This method was adopted in several cases without randomization, and resulted in excellent patient's outcomes.
Byrne, T A; Morrissey, T B; Gatzen, C; Benfell, K; Nattakom, T V; Scheltinga, M R; LeBoff, M S; Ziegler, T R; Wilmore, D W
.05). GH administration altered substrate oxidation (respiratory quotient = 0.94 +/- 0.02 GH vs. 1.17 +/- 0.05 STD, p < or = 0.0002) and the use of available energy, resulting in a 66% increase in the efficiency of protein deposition (13.37 +/- 0.8 g/1000 kcal vs. 8.04 g +/- 3.06 g/1000 kcal, p < or = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: GH administration accelerated protein gain in stable adult patients receiving aggressive nutritional therapy without a significant increase in body fat or a disproportionate expansion of ECW. GH therapy accelerated nutritional repletion and, therefore, may shorten the convalescence of the malnourished patient requiring a major surgical procedure. PMID:8215633
Prevalence and Characteristics of Surgical Site Infections Caused by Gram-negative Rod-shaped Bacteria from the Family Enterobacteriacae and Gram-positive Cocci from the Genus Staphylococcus in Patients who Underwent Surgical Procedures on Selected Surgical Wards.
Tomaszewska-Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kołomecki, Krzysztof; Wieloch-Torzecka, Maria
Surgical site infections on surgical wards are the most common cause of postoperative complications. Prevalence of surgical site infections depends on the surgical specialization. Analysis of the causes of surgical site infections allows to conclude that microorganisms from the patient's own microbiota - Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriacae and from the patient's skin microbiota - Gram-positive cocci - Staphylococcus are the most common agents inducing surgical site infections. The aim of the study was to assess prevalence and characteristics of surgical site infections caused by Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria from the family Eneterobacteriacae and Gram-positive cocci from the genus Staphylococcus in patients who underwent surgical procedures at the Regional Specialist Hospital named after M. Copernika in Łódź on selected surgical wards.
Lohmann, A; Kasperk, R; Schumpelick, V
This is a report on the surgical intervention in 79 patients with acute pancreatitis, who were operated in the Department of Surgery of the University Clinic RWTH Aachen in the period from 1986 to 1993. The main objective was the stratification of pancreatitis according to the Ranson-Score, the analysis of the surgical treatment and the timing of operation depending on the clinical condition. The average Ranson-score was 3.3 (median 3). 56 patients had necroses, which were removed because of the deteriorating clinical condition. In these cases the average Ranson-score was 4.2 (median 4). Seven patients (8.9% of the total number and 12.5% of the patients with necroses of the pancreas) died. This small number is the result of a severity-adapted management in a modern intensive care-unit and the good cooperation with the Department of Internal Medicine.
Heikkinen, Katja; Suomi, Reima; Jääskeläinen, Miika; Kaljonen, Anne; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Salanterä, Sanna
The use and evaluation of Web sites in ambulatory surgery patients' education are rare; hence, innovative approaches to educate these patients should be adopted and evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the creation of and evaluate the utility and usability of an ambulatory orthopedic surgical patient education Web site. A descriptive study design was used. The evaluators were 72 ambulatory orthopedic surgery patients receiving education through a Web site. The data were collected after education preoperatively and 2 weeks postoperatively. Two instruments were used: "Patients' Evaluation of Education" and "Diary of the Use of the Website." Web site evaluators' scores for utility of the Web site ranged from 57.56 to 87.87 of 100. Utility of the Web site evaluations was significantly higher (P < .05) 2 weeks postoperatively than immediately after the operation. Web site evaluators' scores for usability of the Web site ranged from 85.69 to 88.32. The use of this program as educational material for orthopedic surgery patients was supported by the patients' opinions of the usability and utility of the Web site.
Bisphosphonates(BPs)have been widely used for the treatment of hypercalcemia associated with cancer, multiple myeloma bone diseases, and bone metastasis of solid cancers. Many cases of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ)have been reported in Japan. We report a case of a patient who developed BRONJ after tooth extraction even though the administration of BPs had been discontinued for 23 months. The patient was a 74-year-old woman who had received intravenous BPs from 2003 through 2008. She underwent tooth extraction in 2010. The bone in the extraction socket was exposed for more than 8 weeks. A clinical diagnosis of BRONJ was made. Discontinuation of BPs before surgical dental treatment did not appear to prevent BRONJ in this patient who had received intravenous BPs.
Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank
Intravenous pamidronate is widely used to treat children with moderate to severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Changes in the appearance of osteoclasts have previously been noted in children receiving pamidronate and have been interpreted as signs of toxicity. In this study, we analyzed osteoclast parameters in paired iliac bone specimens before and after 2-4 yr of cyclical intravenous pamidronate therapy in 44 pediatric OI patients (age range: 1.4-17.5 yr; 21 girls). During pamidronate treatment, average osteoclast diameter and the mean number of nuclei present per osteoclast increased by 18% (p = 0.02) and 43% (p < 0.001), respectively. The number of samples containing large osteoclasts (LOcs, diameter > 50 mum) increased from 6 (14%) before treatment to 23 (52%) after pamidronate therapy (p < 0.001 by chi(2) test). Post-treatment samples containing LOcs had a greater core width (p = 0.04) and a higher cancellous bone volume per tissue volume (p < 0.001), because cancellous bone volume had increased more during pamidronate treatment (p < 0.001). Osteoclast number and surface were higher in samples with LOcs, but there was no difference in cancellous bone formation parameters. The presence of LOcs was independent of OI type, type of collagen type I mutation, lumbar spine BMD, and other clinical or biochemical measures. In conclusion, this study did not show any indication that LOcs during pamidronate treatment are indicative of toxicity. It seems more likely that the observed abnormalities in osteoclast morphology are part of the mechanism of action of this drug.
Uekuzu, Yoshihiro; Higashiguchi, Takashi; Futamura, Akihiko; Ito, Akihiro; Mori, Naoharu; Murai, Miyo; Ohara, Hiroshi; Awa, Hiroko; Chihara, Takeshi
There have been few detailed reports on respiratory depression due to overdoses of opioids in terminal cancer patients. We investigated the situation of treatment with opioid antagonists for respiratory depression that occurred after administration of opioid at optimal doses in terminal cancer patients, to clarify pathological changes as well as causative factors. In 2443 terminal cancer patients receiving opioids, 7 patients (0.3%) received opioid antagonists: 6, morphine (hydrochloride, 5; sulfate, 1); 1, oxycodone. The median dosage of opioids was 13.3 mg/d, as converted to morphine injection. Respiratory depression occurred on this daily dose in 4 patients and after changed dose and route in 3 patients. Opioids were given through the vein in 6 patients and by the enteral route in 1 patient. Concomitant drugs included nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 3 patients and zoledronic acid in 2 patients. In morphine-receiving patients, renal functions were significantly worsened at the time of administration of an opioid antagonist than the day before the start of opioid administration. These findings indicate that the proper use of opioids was safe and acceptable in almost all terminal cancer patients. In rare cases, however, a risk toward respiratory depression onset is indicated because morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide become relatively excessive owing to systemic debility due to disease progression, especially respiratory and renal dysfunctions. At the onset of respiratory depression, appropriate administration of an opioid antagonist mitigated the symptoms. Thereafter, opioid switching or continuous administration at reduced dosages of the same opioids prevented the occurrence of serious adverse events.
Azimi, Parisa; Benzel, Edward C; Montazeri, Ali
Does the Finneson-Cooper score reflect the true value of predicting surgical success before discectomy? The aim of this study was to identify reliable predictors for surgical success two year after surgery for patients with LDH. Prospective analysis of 154 patients with LDH who underwent single-level lumbar discectomy was performed. Pre- and post-surgical success was assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) over a 2-year period. The Finneson-Cooper score also was used for evaluation of the clinical results. Using the ODI, surgical success was defined as a 30% (or more) improvement on the ODI score from the baseline. The ODI was considered the gold standard in this study. Finally, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power of the Finneson-Cooper score in predicting surgical success were calculated. The mean age of the patients was 49.6 (SD = 9.3) years and 47.4% were male. Significant improvement from the pre- to post-operative ODI scores was observed (P < 0.001). Post-surgical success was 76.0% (n = 117). The patients' rating on surgical success assessments by the ODI discriminated well between sub-groups of patients who differed with respect to the Finneson-Cooper score. Regarding patients' surgical success, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the Finneson-Cooper ratings correlated with success rate. The findings indicated that the Finneson-Cooper score was reflective of surgical success before discectomy.
Almeida, Ana Isabel; Correia, Marta; Camilo, Maria; Ravasco, Paula
Nutritional evaluation may predict clinical outcomes, such as hospital length of stay (LOS). We aimed to assess the value of nutritional risk and status methods, and to test standard anthropometry percentiles v. the 50th percentile threshold in predicting LOS, and to determine nutritional status changes during hospitalisation and their relation with LOS. In this longitudinal prospective study, 298 surgical patients were evaluated at admission and discharge. At admission, nutritional risk was assessed by Nutritional Risk Screening-2002 (NRS-2002), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and nutritional status by Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), involuntary % weight loss in the previous 6 months and anthropometric parameters; % weight loss and anthropometry were reassessed at discharge. At admission, risk/undernutrition results by NRS-2002 (P< 0.001), MUST (P< 0.001), % weight loss (P< 0.001) and SGA (P< 0.001) were predictive of longer LOS. A mid-arm circumference (MAC) or a mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMA) under the 15th and the 50th percentile, which was considered indicative of undernutrition, did predict longer LOS (P< 0.001); conversely, there was no association between depleted triceps skinfold (TSF) and longer LOS. In-hospital, there was a high prevalence of weight, muscle and fat losses, associated with longer LOS. At discharge, patients with a simultaneous negative variation in TSF+MAC+MAMA (n 158, 53 %) had longer LOS than patients with a TSF+MAC+MAMA positive variation (11 (8-15) v. 8 (7-12) d, P< 0.001). We concluded that at risk or undernutrition evaluated by all methods, except TSF and BMI, predicted a longer LOS. Moreover, MAC and MAMA measurements and their classification according to the 50th percentile threshold seem reliable undernutrition indicators.
The basic law of patient autonomy represents a new point of reference for surgeons in terms of their obligation to inform the patient and obtain consent. The main contribution of this new law is its explicit recognition of the patients autonomy in decision-making in medicine, leading to new obligations among health professionals in matters of information and consent. Nevertheless, because of the special characteristics of surgery, these legal principles need to be contextualized within the reality of surgical practice in order to harmonize rights, obligations and ethical values. In light of this new law, the present article aims to provide a reflection on the complexities of providing information in surgical practice with a view to identifying areas of conflict and making recommendations for their resolution.
Selvaggi, Francesco; Pellino, Gianluca; Sciaudone, Guido; Corte, Angela Della; Candilio, Giuseppe; Campitiello, Ferdinando; Canonico, Silvestro
Surgical site complications (SSC) negatively affect costs of care and prolong length of stay. Crohn's disease (CD) is a risk factor for SSC. CD patients often need surgery, sometimes requiring stoma. Our primary aim was to compare the effects on SSC of a portable device for NPWT (PICO, Smith & Nephew, London, UK) with gauze dressings after elective surgery for CD. Secondary aims were manageability and safety of PICO and its feasibility as home therapy. Between 2010 and 2012, 50 patients were assigned to treatment with either PICO (n = 25) or conventional dressings (n = 25). Each patient completed 12-month follow-up. Parameters of interests for primary aim were SSC, surgical complications, and readmission rates. Data on difficulties in managing PICO and device-related complications were also collected. Patients receiving PICO had less SSC, resulting in shorter hospital stay. At last follow-up, readmission rates were lower with PICO. No differences were observed in surgical complications between groups. No patients reported difficulties in managing the device. Among patients discharged with PICO, none needed to come back to the hospital for device malfunctioning or inability to manage it. PICO reduces SSC and length of stay in selected CD patients compared with conventional dressings. The device is safe and user friendly.
Single ventricle heart patients are among the most challenging for pediatric cardiologists to treat, and typically undergo a palliative course of three open-heart surgeries starting immediately after birth. We will present recent tools for modeling blood flow in single ventricle heart patients using a multiscale approach that couples a 3D Navier-Stokes domain to a 0D closed loop lumped parameter network comprised of circuit elements. This coupling allows us to capture the effect of changes in local geometry, such as shunt sizes, on global circulatory dynamics, such as cardiac output. A semi-implicit numerical method is formulated to solve the coupled system in which flow and pressure information is passed between the two domains at the inlets and outlets of the model. A finite element method with outflow stabilization is applied in the 3D Navier-Stokes domain, and the LPN system of ordinary differential equations is solved numerically using a Runge-Kutta method. These tools are coupled via automated scripts to a derivative-free optimization method. Optimization is used to systematically explore surgical designs using clinically relevant cost functions for two stages of single ventricle repair. First, we will present results from optimization of the first stage Blalock Taussig Shunt. Second, we will present results from optimization of a new Y-graft design for the third stage of single ventricle repair called the Fontan surgery. The Y-graft is shown, in simulations, to successfully improve hepatic flow distribution, a known clinical problem. Preliminary clinical experience with the Y-graft will be discussed.
de Paula, L.K.; de Oliveira Ruellas, A.C.; Paniagua, B.; Styner, M.; Turvey, T.; Zhu, H.; Wang, J.; Cevidanes, L.H.S.
The purpose of this study was to apply a novel method to evaluate surgical outcomes at 1 year after orthognathic surgery for Class III patients undergoing two different surgical protocols. Fifty patients divided equally into two groups (maxillary advancement only and combined with mandibular setback) had cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans taken pre-surgery, at splint removal, and at 1-year post-surgery. An automatic cranial base superimposition method was used to register, and shape correspondence was applied to assess, the overall changes between pre-surgery and splint removal (surgical changes) and between splint removal and 1-year post-surgery at the end of orthodontic treatment (post-surgical adaptations). Post-surgical maxillary adaptations were exactly the same for both groups, with 52% of the patients having changes >2 mm. Approximately half of the post-surgical changes in the maxilla for both groups were vertical. The two-jaw group showed significantly greater surgical and post-surgical changes in the ramus, chin, and most of the condylar surfaces (P < 0.05). Post-surgical adaptation on the anterior part of the chin was also more significant in the two-jaw group (P < 0.05). Regardless of the type of surgery, marked post-surgical adaptations were observed in the regions evaluated, which explain the adequate maxillary–mandibular relationship at 1-year post-surgery on average, with individual variability. PMID:23403336
McDonald, G R; Schaff, H V; Pyeritz, R E; McKusick, V A; Gott, V L
Until recently, surgical correction of Marfan defects of the aortic root has been undertaken with some hesitancy because of the high perioperative risk. The Division of Medical Genetics at Johns Hopkins follows about 300 patients with the Marfan syndrome, and during the past 8 years 13 of these were referred to the senior author (V.L.G.) for aortic valve replacement and repair of the ascending aorta. Preoperatively, four of the 13 patients were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class IV (3/4 required emergency operation), three patients were in Class III, and six were in Class II. The aortic diameter at the mid-valve level ranged from 5.3 cm to 8.2 cm on M-mode echocardiography. The first two patients received a separate Björk-Shiley prosthesis and a woven Teflon graft and the last 11 patients had a composite valve-graft with direct coronary implantation. There were no hospital deaths. Follow-up ranges from 6 months to 8.1 years and is complete for all 13 patients (mean of 23 months). Two late deaths occurred 2 and 20 months postoperatively from presumed arrhythmia and two late deaths occurred at 4 and 6 months from endocarditis. The actuarial survival rate at 3 years is 61%. Some pathologists claim that the incidence of dissection of the aorta does not increase with increasing aortic dilatation in the Marfan patient. Six of our 13 patients, however, had aortic dissection at the time of surgery (two DeBakey Type I, three Type II, and one Type III). With the low hospital mortality that can now be achieved in the Marfan patient, and with the relatively high incidence of clinically unrecognized dissection, we fell that strong consideration should be given to earlier prophylactic repair in these patients. Operation may be indicated even in the asymptomatic Marfan patient with an aortic root diameter greater than 5.5 cm.
Barrio, Pablo; Miquel, Laia; Moreno-España, Jose; Martínez, Alicia; Ortega, Lluisa; Teixidor, Lidia; Manthey, Jakob; Rehm, Jürgen; Gual, Antoni
primary health care services for other reasons. The aim of the present study is to describe the differential characteristics of AD patients in primary care, distinguishing between those who receive treatment and those who do not, and their reasons for not seeking it. In a cross-sectional study patients were evaluated by their general practitioner (GP) and interviewed by a member of the research team. Sociodemographic, diagnostic and clinical data were collected. From 1,372 patients interviewed in Catalonia, 118 (8.6%) were diagnosed as AD. These patients showed a lower socioeconomic status (48.3% vs 33.3%, odds ratio 2.02), higher unemployment rates (32.2% vs 19.2 %, odds ratio 2.11), and greater psychological distress and disability. Patients with AD receiving treatment (16.9%), were older (44 vs 36 years of age), reported higher unemployment rates (66% vs 25.5%, odds ratio 6.32) and higher daily alcohol consumption (61.5 vs 23.7 grams), suggesting a more advanced disease. Patients with AD in general showed a higher degree of comorbidity compared to other patients, with patients in treatment showing the most elevated level. The main reasons given for not seeking treatment were shame, fear of giving up drinking and barriers to treatment. Taken together, the data suggest the need to implement earlier strategies for the detection and treatment of AD.
Zahoor, B A; Piercey, J E; Wall, D R; Tetsworth, K D
Mucormycosis as a consequence of trauma is a devastating complication; these infections are challenging to control, with a fatality rate approaching 96% in immunocompromised patients. We present a case where a proactive approach was successfully employed to treat mucormycosis following complex polytrauma. Aggressive repeated surgical debridement, in combination with appropriate antifungal therapy, proved successful in this instance. In our opinion, mucormycosis in trauma mandates an aggressive surgical approach. This prevents ascending dissemination of mucormycosis and certainly reduces the risk of patient mortality as a direct result. Anti-fungal therapy should be used secondarily as an adjunct together with surgical debridement, or as an alternative when surgical intervention is not feasible.
Monreal, M; Callejas, J M; Lisbona, C; Martorell, A; Lerma, R; Boabaid, R; Mejía, S
We present a retrospective review of a series of patients from our Service submitted to surgical extra-anatomical grafts. Correlation between diverse variants and ulterior obliteration by thrombosis or infection of the surgical wounds is analyzed. The series included 133 patients surgically treated between 1986 and 1991. The studied variants were: sex, age, type of graft, the material used, length and type of anesthesia, presentation of hypotension during the surgical intervention, diabetes, platelet recount. Fourteen patients (11%) presented early graft obliteration and 15 (11%) presented an infection of their surgical wound. Only the platelet variant showed statistical differences in patients presenting infection. A high recount of platelets could be a factor risk of infection.
Pessis, Rachel; Lantieri, Laurent; Britto, Jonathan A; Leguerinel, Caroline; Wolkenstein, Pierre; Hivelin, Mikaël
Patients with orbito-temporal neurofibromatosis (OTNF) bear a heavy burden of surgical care. We studied 47 consecutive patients with OTNF from the French Neurofibromatosis 1 Referral Center cohort (n > 900), over a 15-year period to determine the clinical features most likely to predict repeat surgery and longer duration of surgical care. Forty-seven patients (5.2% of the NF1 patients' cohort) underwent 79 procedures with a 4.8 years average follow-up. Soft-tissue surgery had a high revision rate (19/45 patients), skeletal surgery did not (2/13 patients). Transosseous wire canthopexy and facial aesthetic unit remodeling were associated with stable outcome. Ptosis repair carried an unfavorable outcome, particularly in the presence of sphenoid dysplasia. Stable skeletal remodeling was achieved with polyethylene implants and/or cementoplasty. Multiple procedures were undertaken in 70% of patients and were predicted by the NF volume, canthopexy, skeletal dysplasia, or a Jackson's classification 2 and/or 3; but not by declining visual acuity. A classification based upon predictive risk of repeated procedures is proposed: Group 1: Isolated soft tissue infiltration not requiring levator palpebrae or canthal surgery; Group 2: Soft tissue involvement requiring ptosis repair or canthopexy, or NF great axis over 4.5 cm; Group 3: Presence of sphenoid dysplasia with pulsatile proptosis, regardless of visual acuity.
Urschel, Harold C; Urschel, Betsey Bradley
Dr Robert R. Shaw arrived in Dallas to practice Thoracic Surgery in 1937, as John Alexander's 7th Thoracic Surgical Resident from Michigan University Medical Center. Dr Shaw's modus operandi was, "You can accomplish almost anything, if you don't care who gets the credit." He was a remarkable individual who cared the most about the patient and very little about getting credit for himself. From 1937 to 1970, Dr Shaw established one of the largest lung cancer surgical centers in the world in Dallas, Texas. It was larger than M.D. Anderson and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospitals put together regarding the surgical treatment of lung cancer patients. To accomplish this, he had the help of Dr Donald L. Paulson, who trained at the Mayo Clinic and served as Chief of Thoracic Surgery at Brook Army Hospital during the Second World War. Following the War, because of his love for Texas, he ended up as a partner of Dr Shaw in Dallas. Together, they pursued the development of this very large surgical lung cancer center. Dr Shaw and his wife Ruth went to Afghanistan with Medico multiple times to teach men modern cardiac and thoracic surgery. They also served as consultants on Medico's Ship of Hope in Africa. Dr Shaw initiated multiple new operations including: 1) resection of Pancoast's cancer of the lung after preoperative irradiation; 2) upper lobe of the lung bronchoplasty, reattaching (and saving) the lower lobe to prevent the "disabling" pneumonectomy; and 3) resections of pulmonary mucoid impaction of the lung in asthmatics. Because of his humility and giving "the credit to others," Dr Shaw was never President of a major medical or surgical association.
In this study, women with breast cancer who have had surgery and are scheduled to undergo radiation therapy will be randomly assigned to one of two different stretching and relaxation programs or to a control group that will receive usual care.
Robinson, Jamie R.; Davis, Sharon E.; Cronin, Robert M.; Jackson, Gretchen P.
Patient portal research has focused on medical outpatient settings, with little known about portal use during hospitalizations or by surgical patients. We measured portal adoption among patients admitted to surgical services over two years. Surgical services managed 37,025 admissions of 31,310 unique patients. One-fourth of admissions (9,362, 25.3%) involved patients registered for the portal. Registration rates were highest for admissions to laparoscopic/gastrointestinal (55%) and oncology/endocrine (50%) services. Portal use occurred during 1,486 surgical admissions, 4% of all and 16% of those registered at admission. Inpatient portal use was associated with patients who were white, male, and had longer lengths of stay (p < 0.01). Viewing health record data and secure messaging were the most commonly used functions, accessed in 4,836 (72.9%) and 1,626 (24.5%) user sessions. Without specific encouragement, hospitalized surgical patients are using our patient portal. The surgical inpatient setting may provide opportunities for patient engagement using patient portals. PMID:28269956
Farouk, Ahmed; Nady, Mohammed Alaa; Abdel Hafez, Mohammed Farouk
Background Bullous lung disease is characterized by formation of blebs, bullae and emphysema. We investigate the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of bullous lung disease and compare between conventional thoracotomy versus video assisted thoracoscopic approach in surgical management of such patients. Methods This study was a prospective case control study and it was carried out on 21 patients (16 males and 5 females) with bullous lung disease selected as candidate for surgical interference. This was in addition to 21 apparently healthy age and sex matched subjects selected as control group. Plasma levels of α1-antitrypsin were estimated using commercially available ELISA assay kit, while plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), β-carotene, vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E were estimated using spectrophotometric methods. Conventional thoracotomy approach was done in thirteen patients, while, videothoracoscopic approach was done in eight patients. Results There were significant higher plasma levels of MDA (P<0.001) and lower plasma levels of β-carotene (P<0.01), vitamin A, vitamin C and vitamin E (P<0.001 for each) among patients with bullous lung disease when compared with the control group. There was non-significant difference regarding the air leakage and the hospital stay among patients with bullous lung disease who managed via conventional thoracotomy approach when compared with those managed via videothoracoscopic approach. Conclusions This study proves that the oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of bullous lung disease. Also there are no significant outcome differences between conventional thoracotomy versus video assisted thoracoscopic approach in surgical treatment of such patients. PMID:27867571
McCurdy, Heather M
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a cancer with increasing incidence in the veteran population. This type of cancer can be treated with transarterial chemoembolization, an invasive procedure performed by specially trained interventional radiologists. The most common serious complications are liver failure, sepsis secondary to ischemic cholecystitis or liver abscess, gastrointestinal bleeding, and death. However, nursing staff and physicians often have little or no experience in caring for patients in the hospital who have had this procedure. Patient safety can be threatened by this lack of knowledge. Sources of threat to patient safety are described by the Institute of Medicine as falling into 4 categories: management, workforce, work processes, and organizational culture. To promote patient safety, defenses need to be deployed to address each category. In this article, the author provides a case example, describes threats to the patient's safety, and describes a plan to improve the care of all patients undergoing this procedure.
Mahadevappa, Omprakash Heggadahalli; Mysore, Venkataram; Viswanath, Vishalakshi; Thurakkal, Salim; Majid, Imran; Talwar, Suresh; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J; Chatterjee, Manas; Bhat, M Ramesh; Barua, Shyamanta; Ganjoo, Anil
Background: The current standard recommendation is to avoid surgical interventions in patients taking oral isotretinoin. However, this recommendation has been questioned in several recent publications. Aim: To document the safety of cosmetic and surgical interventions, among patients receiving or recently received oral isotretinoin. Materials and Methods: Association of Cutaneous Surgeons, India, in May 2012, initiated this study, at 11 centers in different parts of India. The data of 183 cases were collected monthly, from June 2012 to May 2013. Of these 61 patients had stopped oral isotretinoin before surgery and 122 were concomitantly taking oral isotretinoin during the study period. In these 183 patients, a total of 504 interventions were performed. These included 246 sessions of chemical peels such as glycolic acid, salicylic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and combination peels; 158 sessions of lasers such as ablative fractional laser resurfacing with erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet and CO2, conventional full face CO2 laser resurfacing, laser-assisted hair reduction with long-pulsed neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet, diode laser, and LASIK surgery; 27 sessions of cold steel surgeries such as microneedling, skin biopsy, subcision, punch elevation of scars, excision of skin lesion, and wisdom tooth extraction; 1 session of electrosurgery. Results: No significant side effects were noted in most patients. 2 cases of keloid were documented which amounted to 0.4% of side effects in 504 interventions, with a significant P value of 0.000. Reversible transient side effects were erythema in 10 interventions and hyperpigmentation in 15. Conclusion: The study showed that performing dermatosurgical and laser procedures in patients receiving or recently received isotretinoin is safe, and the current guidelines of avoiding dermatosurgical and laser interventions in such patients taking isotretinoin need to be revised. PMID:27398012
Reina, Delia; Cerdà, Dacia; Güell, Elena; Martínez Montauti, Joaquín; Pineda, Antonio; Corominas, Hèctor
Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are susceptible to severe infections such as leishmaniasis. As L. infantum is endemic in the Mediterranean region, it is necessary to rule this infectious process out in any RA patient presenting with fever and pancytopenia. An early diagnosis based on a high suspicion can prevent a fatal outcome.
Steineck, Gunnar; Börjeson, Sussanne
Objective. To evaluate if consumption of emesis-related care and eating capacity differed between patients receiving verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or standard care only during radiotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomized to verum (n = 100) or sham (n = 100) acupuncture (telescopic blunt sham needle) (median 12 sessions) and registered daily their consumption of antiemetics and eating capacity. A standard care group (n = 62) received standard care only and delivered these data once. Results. More patients in the verum (n = 73 of 89 patients still undergoing radiotherapy; 82%, Relative Risk (RR) 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01–1.50) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 79 of 95; 83%, RR 1.24, CI 1.03–1.52) did not need any antiemetic medications, as compared to the standard care group (n = 42 out of 63; 67%) after receiving 27 Gray dose of radiotherapy. More patients in the verum (n = 50 of 89; 56%, RR 1.78, CI 1.31–2.42) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 58 of 94 answering patients; 62%, RR 1.83, CI 1.20–2.80) were capable of eating as usual, compared to the standard care group (n = 20 of 63; 39%). Conclusion. Patients receiving acupuncture had lower consumption of antiemetics and better eating capacity than patients receiving standard antiemetic care, plausible by nonspecific effects of the extra care during acupuncture. PMID:28270851
Stoffer, S.S.; Szpunar, W.E.; Meier, D.A.
Forty-five consecutive patients on thyroid hormone treatment without obvious indication were evaluated. Twenty-five of these cases were found to have no evidence of thyroid disease. Biochemical testing was not helpful in making the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in the majority of thyroid-treated hypothyroid patients. Normal technetium images were obtained in 25 patients, 22 of which had no thyroid disease. In contrast, abnormal technetium images were obtained in 20 patients, 16 of whom were thought to be hypothyroid, and one of whom developed a goiter within 2 mo after discontinuing levothyroxine. The use of technetium imaging seems useful for the rapid (20 min) evaluation of those patients likely to benefit from discontinuing thyroid medication.
We sought to determine whether lutein supplementation will slow visual function decline in patients with retinitis pigmentosa receiving vitamin A. DESIGN: Randomized, controlled, double-masked trial of 225 nonsmoking patients, aged 18 to 60 years, evaluated over a 4-year interval. Patients received ...
Moug, SJ; Stechman, M; McCarthy, K; Pearce, L; Myint, PK; Hewitt, J
Introduction Older patients (>65 years of age) admitted as general surgical emergencies increasingly require improved recognition of their specific needs relative to younger patients. Two such needs are frailty and cognitive impairment. These are evolving research areas that the emergency surgeon increasingly requires knowledge of to improve short- and long-term patient outcomes. Methods This paper reviews the evidence for frailty and cognitive impairment in the acute surgical setting by defining frailty and cognitive impairment, introducing methods of diagnosis, discussing the influence on prognosis and proposing strategies to improve older patient outcomes. Results Frailty is present in 25% of the older surgical population. Using frailty-scoring tools, frailty was associated with a significantly longer hospital stay and higher mortality at 30 and 90 days after admission to an acute surgical unit. Cognitive impairment is present in a high number of older acute surgical patients (approximately 70%), whilst acute onset cognitive impairment, termed delirium, is documented in 18%. However, patients with delirium had significantly longer hospital stays and higher in-hospital mortality than those with cognitive impairment. Conclusions Improved knowledge of frailty and delirium by the emergency surgeon allows the specialised needs of older surgical patients to be taken into account. Early recognition, and consideration of minimally invasive surgery or radiological intervention alongside potentially transferable successful elective interventions such as comprehensive geriatric assessment, may help to improve short- and long-term patient outcomes in this vulnerable population. PMID:26890834
Klassen, Oliver; Schmidt, Martina E.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen
Abstract Background Muscle dysfunction and sarcopenia have been associated with poor performance status, an increased mortality risk, and greater side effects in oncologic patients. However, little is known about how performance is affected by cancer therapy. We investigated muscle strength in breast cancer patients in different adjuvant treatment settings and also compared it with data from healthy individuals. Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 255) from two randomized controlled exercise trials, staged 0–III and aged 54.4 ± 9.4 years, were categorized into four groups according to their treatment status. In a cross‐sectional design, muscle function was assessed bilaterally by isokinetic dynamometry (0°, 60°, 180°/s) as maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and maximal isokinetic peak torque (MIPT) in shoulder rotators and knee flexors and extensors. Additionally, muscular fatigue index (FI%) and shoulder flexibility were evaluated. Healthy women (N = 26), aged 53.3 ± 9.8 years, were tested using the same method. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate the impact of different cancer treatments on skeletal muscle function with adjustment for various clinical and socio‐demographic factors. Results Consistently, lower muscle strength was measured in shoulder and knee strength in patients after chemotherapy. On average, patients had up to 25% lower strength in lower extremities and 12–16% in upper extremities in MVIC and MIPT during cancer treatment compared with healthy women. No substantial difference between patient groups in shoulder strength, but significantly lower shoulder flexibility in patients with radical mastectomy was measured. Chemotherapy‐treated patients had consistently higher FI%. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Breast cancer patients showed markedly impaired muscle strength and joint dysfunctions before and after anticancer treatment. The significant differences between patients
Lombraña, María A; Capetta, María E; Ugarte, Alejandro; Correa, Viviana; Giganti, Jorge; Saubidet, Cristian Lopez; Stryjewski, Martin E
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with an increasing prevalence. Appropriate treatment of the disease and prevention of chronic complications reduce morbidity and mortality in a cost-effective manner. These actions should be measured through the use of validated indicators for quality of care. The goal of this study was to assess the quality of care in diabetic patients under pharmacologic treatment in a private university hospital. A retrospective study was conducted in adult patients who bought insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents during a 3 month period; demographic and clinical data were obtained for 12 consecutive months following the buying period. The study included 305 adult patients; most were males (60%), with type 2 diabetes (95%), and using oral hipoglycemic agents (86%). Control of blood pressure was registered in 80%, foot exam in 5%, eye exam in 27%, HbA1C blood level in 85%, complete lipid profile in 82%, microalbuminuria in 27% and creatinine clearance in 22% of patients, respectively. Mean values were HbA1C 7.1(+/- 1.6)%, and < or = 7% in 66%, LDL 113 (+/- 33.6) mg/dl and <100 mg/dl in 30%, BP 136-79 mm Hg and < 130-80 mm Hg in 46% of patients, respectively. This study emphasizes the need for quality of care assessment through validated indicators and points out the aspects that should be improved within a health care system.
Lynn, K L; Mitchell, T R; Shepperd, J
Studies in 144 patients on maintenace hemodialysis have shown that serum ferritin concentration is influenced by the period the patient has been on dialysis, the presence of liver disease and to some extent the underlying diagnosis. It was observed that parenteral iron therapy could still produce an increase in hemoglobin concentration when the serum ferritin was as high as 60--55 micrograms/l. This suggests that the target serum ferritin, whatever the route of iron replacement, should be at least 55 micrograms/l. The higher levels of ferritin at which an increase in hemoglobin concentration can occur, together with the variable increment in serum ferritin after parenteral iron, indicates that the simple relationship between serum ferritin and marrow iron stores may be distrubed in some patients.
Malik, Razia; Iacoune, John
Topiramate is an anticonvulsant that is labeled for the management of several seizure types in children >2 years of age. With the exception of cognitive dysfunction, nephrolithiasis, weight loss, and paresthesia, adverse effects in children are similar to other those noted with other anticonvulsants. We describe a 33-month-old child with complex partial seizures and secondary generalization who received topiramate 45 mg orally twice daily (6.2 mg/kg/d) for approximately 4 weeks before admission. He developed asymptomatic metabolic acidosis that was evidenced by a decrease in HCO3−, which was unresponsive to treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The child was weaned off topiramate and the metabolic acidosis resolved 48 hours after its discontinuation. PMID:23118685
Nishikawa, Hiroki; Nishijima, Norihiro; Enomoto, Hirayuki; Sakamoto, Azusa; Nasu, Akihiro; Komekado, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Takashi; Kita, Ryuichi; Kimura, Toru; Iijima, Hiroko; Nishiguchi, Shuhei; Osaki, Yukio
Aims: To investigate variables before sorafenib therapy on the clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients receiving sorafenib and to further assess and compare the predictive performance of continuous parameters using time-dependent receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. Patients and methods: A total of 225 HCC patients were analyzed. We retrospectively examined factors related to overall survival (OS) and progression free survival (PFS) using univariate and multivariate analyses. Subsequently, we performed time-dependent ROC analysis of continuous parameters which were significant in the multivariate analysis in terms of OS and PFS. Total sum of area under the ROC in all time points (defined as TAAT score) in each case was calculated. Results: Our cohort included 175 male and 50 female patients (median age, 72 years) and included 158 Child-Pugh A and 67 Child-Pugh B patients. The median OS time was 0.68 years, while the median PFS time was 0.24 years. On multivariate analysis, gender, body mass index (BMI), Child-Pugh classification, extrahepatic metastases, tumor burden, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were identified as significant predictors of OS and ECOG-performance status, Child-Pugh classification and extrahepatic metastases were identified as significant predictors of PFS. Among three continuous variables (i.e., BMI, AST and AFP), AFP had the highest TAAT score for the entire cohort. In subgroup analyses, AFP had the highest TAAT score except for Child-Pugh B and female among three continuous variables. Conclusion: In continuous variables, AFP could have higher predictive accuracy for survival in HCC patients undergoing sorafenib therapy. PMID:28261338
Burney, Richard O.; Behr, Barry; Milki, Amin A.; Westphal, Lynn M.; Lathi, Ruth B.
Purpose To investigate the hypothesis that surgical treatment of endometriosis in infertile patients may improve pregnancy rates by improving embryo quality. Methods We conducted a retrospective evaluation of 30 infertile patients treated with in vitro fertilization (IVF) before and after surgery for endometriosis. Patients served as their own controls and only cycles with similar stimulation protocols were compared. Results Using standard visual evaluation, embryo quality on day 3 was similar before and after surgical treatment of endometriosis. Fifty seven percent of patients had stage I–II endometriosis and 43% had stage III–IV disease. No patients had a live birth after the first IVF cycle and 43% of patients had a live birth with the IVF cycle after surgery. Conclusions Surgical treatment of endometriosis does not alter embryo quality in patients with infertility treated with IVF. PMID:19214735
Froberg, Lonnie; Helgstrand, Frederik; Clausen, Caroline; Steinmetz, Jacob; Eckardt, Henrik
Objective: Exsanguination due to coagulopathy and vascular injury is a common cause of death among trauma patients. Arterial injury can be treated either by angiography and embolization or by explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. The purpose of this study was to compare 30-day mortality and blood product consumption in trauma patients with active arterial haemorrhage in the abdominal and/or pelvic region treated with either angiography and embolization or explorative laparotomy and surgical packing. Material and Methods: From January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2011 2,173 patients with an ISS of >9 were admitted to the Trauma Centre of Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark. Of these, 66 patients met the inclusion criteria: age above 15 years and active arterial haemorrhage from the abdominal and/or pelvic region verified by a CT scan at admission. Gender, age, initial oxygen saturation, pulse rate and respiratory rate, mechanism of injury, ISS, Probability of Survival, treatment modality, 30-day mortality and number and type of blood products applied were retrieved from the TARN database, patient records and the Danish Civil Registration System. Results: Thirty-one patients received angiography and embolization, and 35 patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and surgical packing. Gender, age, initial oxygen saturation, pulse rate and respiratory rate, ISS and Probability of Survival were comparable in the two groups. Conclusion: A significant increased risk of 30-day mortality (P = 0.04) was found in patients with active bleeding treated with explorative laparotomy and surgical packing compared to angiography and embolization when data was adjusted for age and ISS. No statistical significant difference (P > 0.05) was found in number of transfused blood products applied in the two groups of patients. PMID:27512332
Medical surgical nurses may not have the time or resources to provide effective pre- and post-operative instructions for patients in today's healthcare system. And, making timely physical assessments following discharge from the hospital is not always straightforward. Therefore, the risk for readmission associated with post-surgical complications is a concern. At present, mobile healthcare technologies and patient care are precipitously evolving and may serve as a resource to enhance communication between the healthcare provider and patient. A mobile telephone text message (short message service [SMS]) intervention for abdominal surgical patients may foster effective education (communication) and timely self-reported physical assessment in the home environment hence preventing deleterious outcomes. The aim of this research proposal is to identify the feasibility of using a SMS intervention via smart phones to improve health outcomes via timely communication, reach large numbers of at-risk surgical patients and, establish and sustain uniform protocols in a cost-efficient manner.
Bodem, Jens Philipp; Kargus, Steffen; Eckstein, Stefanie; Saure, Daniel; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian
As the most suitable approach for preventing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in patients undergoing surgical tooth extraction is still under discussion, the present study evaluates the incidence of BRONJ after surgical tooth extraction using a standardized surgical protocol in combination with an adjuvant perioperative treatment setting in patients who are at high-risk for developing BRONJ. High-risk patients were defined as patients who received intravenous bisphosphonate (BP) due to a malignant disease. All teeth were removed using a standardized surgical protocol. The perioperative adjuvant treatment included intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis starting at least 24 h before surgery, a gastric feeding tube and mouth rinses with chlorhexidine (0.12%) three times a day. In the follow-up period patients were examined every 4 weeks for the development of BRONJ. Minimum follow-up was 12 weeks. In 61 patients a total number of 184 teeth were removed from 102 separate extraction sites. In eight patients (13.1%) BRONJ developed during the follow-up. A higher risk for developing BRONJ was found in patients where an additional osteotomy was necessary (21.4% vs. 8.0%; p = 0.0577), especially for an osteotomy of the mandible (33.3% vs. 7.3%; p = 0.0268). Parameters including duration of intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, the use of a gastric feeding tube and the duration of intravenous BP therapy showed no statistical impact on the development of BRONJ. Furthermore, patients currently undergoing intravenous BP therapy showed no higher risk for BRONJ compared with patients who have paused or completed their intravenous BP therapy (p = 0.4232). This study presents a protocol for surgical tooth extraction in high-risk BP patients in combination with a perioperative adjuvant treatment setting, which reduced the risk for postoperative BRONJ to a minimum. However, the risk for BRONJ increases significantly if an additional osteotomy is necessary
Sartelli, Massimo; Malangoni, Mark A; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M; Griffiths, Ewen A; Di Bella, Stefano; McFarland, Lynne V; Eltringham, Ian; Shelat, Vishal G; Velmahos, George C; Kelly, Ciarán P; Khanna, Sahil; Abdelsattar, Zaid M; Alrahmani, Layan; Ansaloni, Luca; Augustin, Goran; Bala, Miklosh; Barbut, Frédéric; Ben-Ishay, Offir; Bhangu, Aneel; Biffl, Walter L; Brecher, Stephen M; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Caínzos, Miguel A; Canterbury, Laura A; Catena, Fausto; Chan, Shirley; Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R; Clanton, Jesse; Coccolini, Federico; Cocuz, Maria Elena; Coimbra, Raul; Cook, Charles H; Cui, Yunfeng; Czepiel, Jacek; Das, Koray; Demetrashvili, Zaza; Di Carlo, Isidoro; Di Saverio, Salomone; Dumitru, Irina Magdalena; Eckert, Catherine; Eckmann, Christian; Eiland, Edward H; Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz; Faro, Mario; Ferrada, Paula; Forrester, Joseph Derek; Fraga, Gustavo P; Frossard, Jean Louis; Galeiras, Rita; Ghnnam, Wagih; Gomes, Carlos Augusto; Gorrepati, Venkata; Ahmed, Mohamed Hassan; Herzog, Torsten; Humphrey, Felicia; Kim, Jae Il; Isik, Arda; Ivatury, Rao; Lee, Yeong Yeh; Juang, Paul; Furuya-Kanamori, Luis; Karamarkovic, Aleksandar; Kim, Peter K; Kluger, Yoram; Ko, Wen Chien; LaBarbera, Francis D; Lee, Jae Gil; Leppaniemi, Ari; Lohsiriwat, Varut; Marwah, Sanjay; Mazuski, John E; Metan, Gokhan; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Frederick Alan; Nord, Carl Erik; Ordoñez, Carlos A; Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira; Petrosillo, Nicola; Portela, Francisco; Puri, Basant K; Ray, Arnab; Raza, Mansoor; Rems, Miran; Sakakushev, Boris E; Sganga, Gabriele; Spigaglia, Patrizia; Stewart, David B; Tattevin, Pierre; Timsit, Jean Francois; To, Kathleen B; Tranà, Cristian; Uhl, Waldemar; Urbánek, Libor; van Goor, Harry; Vassallo, Angela; Zahar, Jean Ralph; Caproli, Emanuele; Viale, Pierluigi
In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients.
Lupear, Susan Krauser; Overstreet, Maria; Krau, Stephen D
Despite focused attention to improve the quality and safety of patient care, and the financial impact pressure ulcers (PUs) can have on a health care provider or institution, evidence supports that PUs continue to occur in other patient populations during admission to the hospital. An example of a patient population in which evidence indicates that the development of PUs occurs, is patients who have a surgical procedure. The article discusses a project designed to identify potential knowledge deficits among perioperative nurses of indicators for PU development in the surgical patient population.
Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with discogenic low back pain (DLBP). Overview of Literature Specific diagnosis of DLBP remains difficult. Worsening of pain on flexion is a reported symptom of DLBP. This study sought to determine whether symptoms predict surgical outcomes for patients with DLBP. Methods We investigated 127 patients with low back pain (LBP) and no dominant radicular pain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to select patients with disc degeneration at only one level. If pain was provoked during discography, we performed fusion surgery (87 patients). Visual analogue scale score and responses to a questionnaire regarding symptoms including worsening of pain on flexion or extension were assessed. Symptom sites before surgery were categorized into LBP alone, or LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain. We followed 77 patients (average 3.0 years) and compared symptoms before surgery with surgical outcome. Results Sixty-three patients with a good outcome showed postsurgical pain relief (≥60% pain relief) and 14 patients with a poor outcome did not (<60% pain relief). In patients with good outcomes, worsening of LBP was evident in 65% of cases on flexion and in 35% on extension. However, these findings were not significantly different from those in patients with poor outcomes. The percentage of patients with LBP alone was significantly lower and the percentage of patients with LBP plus referred inguinal or leg pain was significantly higher in the group with good surgical outcome compared with patients in the group with poor surgical outcome (p<0.05). Conclusions Worsening of pain on extension may be a symptom of DLBP. Surgical outcomes were superior in patients with both LBP and either referred inguinal or leg pain compared with those having LBP alone. PMID:27340531
Bariliak, Iu R
Eighty two patients with glottic tumors extending to the anterior commissure underwent surgical treatment: 11 patients for cordectomy in its classic form, 11 patients for fronto-lateral cordectomy, 59 patients for extended cordectomy, and 1 patient for hemilaryngectomy according to Otan. Analysis of the postoperative clinical state of the patients suggests that surgery for vocal cord carcinoma involving the anterior commissure should not necessarily include tracheostomy and laryngeal tamponade.
Shaikh, Safiya Imtiaz; Kumari, R. Vasantha; Hegade, Ganapati; Marutheesh, M.
Anticoagulants remain the primary strategy for the prevention and treatment of thrombosis. Unfractionated heparin, low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), fondaparinux, and warfarin have been studied and employed extensively with direct thrombin inhibitors typically reserved for patients with complications or those requiring interventions. Novel oral anticoagulants have emerged from clinical development and are expected to replace older agents with their ease to use and more favorable pharmacodynamic profiles. Increasingly, anesthesiologists are being requested to anesthetize patients who are on some form of anticoagulants and hence it is important to have sound understanding of pharmacology, dosing, monitoring, and toxicity of anticoagulants. We searched the online databases including PubMed Central, Cochrane, and Google Scholar using anticoagulants, perioperative management, anesthetic considerations, and LMWH as keywords for the articles published between 1994 and 2015 while writing this review. In this article, we will review the different classes of anticoagulants and how to manage them in the perioperative settings. PMID:28298749
Ismail, Waleed A; Al-Enzy, Saleh A; Alsurayei, Saqer A; Ismail, Ali E
Infliximab is a chimerical monoclonal antibody that inhibits pro-inflammatory activity of tumour-necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and it is the primary biological agent used in the treatment of moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis (UC). We report a case of vitiligo following infliximab administration in a patient with refractory UC. The case serves as a reminder of adverse cutaneous reactions induced by TNFα-antagonist therapy.
Klassina, S Ia; Dudnik, E N; Oshovskaia, B L; Sytin, G N; Fudin, N A; Sudakov, K V
It is shown that suggestive psychotherapy based on verbal suggestions provides a tool for individual correction of the patient's functional state. It reduces sympathetic and promotes parasympathetic influences, decreases high initial level of psychoemotional tension, and normalizes relationship between cardiac and respiratory rhythms. Also, suggestive psychotherapy has beneficial effect on the psychological sphere and subjective feeling of well-being, reduces anxiety, strengthens the sense of confidence and hope for a cure.
Conforte, J J; Alves, C P; Sánchez, M del P R; Ponzoni, D
This study assessed the impact of oral and maxillofacial trauma and surgical treatment on the quality of life of patients. The study included 66 patients (age range 18-65 years) with facial fractures; 33 required surgical treatment and 33 required conservative (non-surgical) treatment. Quality of life was evaluated by applying the Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (OHIP-14) immediately after diagnosis of the trauma (T1), 30 days after surgery or trauma (T2), and 90 days after surgery or trauma (T3). For the control group (conservative treatment), there was a change in quality of life at T1 and T2. A change in quality of life was found for all of the surgical patients, regardless of the type of fracture and the observation period analyzed. There was no statistical difference when T1, T2, and T3 were compared in cases of zygomatic, Le Fort I, and nasal fractures, however there was an improvement in the quality of life of patients with mandibular fractures (P=0.0102) and multiple facial fractures (P=0.0097) at T3. Facial trauma caused the greatest impact on the quality of life of surgical patients at T1. The surgical treatment significantly improved quality of life for patients with mandibular and multiple facial fractures.
Harrison, Claire; Mesa, Ruben; Ross, David; Mead, Adam; Keohane, Clodagh; Gotlib, Jason; Verstovsek, Srdan
Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by bone marrow fibrosis, progressive anemia and extramedullary hematopoiesis, primarily manifested as splenomegaly. Patients also experience debilitating constitutional symptoms, including sequelae of splenomegaly, night sweats and fatigue. Ruxolitinib (INC424, INCB18424, Jakafi, Jakavi), a JAK1 and JAK2 inhibitor, was approved in November 2011 by the US FDA for the treatment of intermediate- or high-risk MF, and more recently in Europe and Canada for the treatment of MF-related splenomegaly or symptoms. These approvals were based on data from two randomized Phase III studies: COMFORT-I randomized against placebo, and COMFORT-II randomized against best available therapy. In these studies, ruxolitinib rapidly improved multiple disease manifestations of MF, reducing splenomegaly and improving quality of life of patients and potentially prolonging survival. However, as with other chemotherapies, ruxolitinib therapy is associated with some adverse events, such as anemia and thrombocytopenia. The aims of this article are to provide a brief overview of ruxolitinib therapy, to discuss some common adverse events associated with ruxolitinib therapy and to provide clinical management recommendations to maximize patients' benefit from ruxolitinib.
Gajjar, Radha; Miller, Steven D; Meyers, Kevin E; Ginsberg, Jill P
Cyclophosphamide continues to have an important role in the treatment of renal disease, including nephrotic syndrome and lupus nephritis, despite known complications of gonadotoxicity and potential infertility in both male and female patients. It is important that the physician recommending this therapy mitigates the effect of the drug on fertility by adhering to recommendations on dosing limits and offering fertility-preserving strategies. In addition to well-established methods, such as sperm banking and embryo cryopreservation, advances in reproductive technology have yielded strategies such as oocyte cryopreservation, resulting in more fertility-preserving options for the pediatric patient. Despite these advances, there continues to be a significant barrier to referral and access to sperm banks and fertility specialists. These issues are further complicated by ethical issues associated with the treatment of pediatric patients. In this review we explore the development of recommended dosing limits and include a discussion of the available fertility-preserving methods, strategies for increasing access to fertility specialists, and the ethical considerations facing the pediatric healthcare provider.
Hutchinson, James A; Ahrens, Norbert; Riquelme, Paloma; Walter, Lisa; Gruber, Michael; Böger, Carsten A; Farkas, Stefan; Scherer, Marcus N; Broichhausen, Christiane; Bein, Thomas; Schlitt, Hans-J; Fändrich, Fred; Banas, Bernhard; Geissler, Edward K
Administering immunoregulatory cells as medicinal agents is a revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Isolating, propagating, and modifying cells before applying them to patients allows complementation of specific cellular functions, which opens astonishing new possibilities for gain-of-function antigen-specific treatments in autoimmunity, chronic inflammatory disorders, and transplantation. This critical review presents a systematic assessment of the potential clinical risks posed by cell-based immunotherapy, focusing on treatment of renal transplant recipients with regulatory macrophages as a concrete example.
Waloki, M; Roseveare, C; Tikolevu, L; Ram, S; Bissell, K
Contexte: Hôpital national du Ministère de la santé des Fidji et services de rééducation post accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC).Objectifs: Décrire les patients admis pour AVC à l'hôpital Colonial War Memorial (CWMH) de janvier 2010 à décembre 2012 et les services de rééducation fréquentés pendant et après l'hospitalisation.Schéma: Etude rétrospective descriptive grâce aux dossiers des patients.Résultats: Sur 328 patients admis pour AVC, 54% étaient des hommes, 55% appartenaient à l'ethnie i-Taukei et 16% était âgés de <50 ans ; 75% avaient une hypertension, 41% un diabète et 37% les deux pathologies ; 23% (n = 76) sont décédés. Parmi les survivants, 58% (n = 146) ont bénéficié d'une rééducation pendant leur séjour au CWMH. Après leur sortie, 10% (n = 26) ont bénéficié d'une rééducation à l'hôpital national de rééducation et six ont bénéficié de l'aide de rééducateurs communautaires. Un peu plus de la moitié des survivants (52%) sont restés au CWMH moins d'une semaine (séjour médian 6 jours ; IQR 4–11).Conclusion: La durée de séjour et l'accès à la rééducation ont été insuffisants pour plus de la moitié des survivants d'AVC. Après leur sortie, très peu ont eu accès aux services de rééducation disponibles du Ministère de la santé. Il est crucial de revoir les procédures de suivi de l'utilisation de la rééducation par les patients et de chercher pourquoi ils n'accèdent pas à ces services, qui sont vitaux en termes de guérison et de restauration de leurs fonctions.
Lechler, Philipp; Sturm, Sarah; Boese, Christoph Kolja; Bockmann, Benjamin; Schwarting, Tim; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Lahner, Matthias; Frink, Michael
Elastic intramedullary nailing (ESIN) has been proposed as an alternative minimal-invasive method for the operative management of mid-shaft fractures of the clavicle. However, a relevant complication rate has been reported in previous cohorts. The present retrospective single-centre study aimed to analyse the complications following ESIN in adult patients with clavicular mid-shaft fractures (Allman type I) and their impact on functional and patient-perceived outcome measures. Results were compared to a control group receiving locking plate osteosynthesis. The clinical course and outcome of operatively managed patients with clavicular mid-shaft fractures were retrospectively analysed. Patients were assigned to group A (ESIN) and group B (plate fixation). Radiological, functional (Constant Murley Shoulder Outcome Score (CS), the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) Score, the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS)), and patient perceived aesthetic and clinical outcome were measured. A total of 47 (33 male, 14 female) operatively managed patients with a mean age of 26.7 ± 14.9 years and a follow up time of 38.1 ± 19.4 months were analysed. 36 patients were treated by ESIN (Group A), whereas 11 patients received open reduction and internal plate fixation (Group B). Patients were operatively treated with a mean delay of 7.4 ± 9.3 days (group A: 6.6 ± 8.7 days, group B: 10.2 ± 11.1 days, p=0.326) between trauma and the surgical index procedure. There were no significant differences in the functional (CS: p=0.338, DASH: p=0.247, OSS: p=0.434) and patient-perceived (p=0.346) outcome measures between both groups. Surgical complications were noted in 14 patients (group A: 12, group B: 2) and non-union in 4 patients (group A: 3, group B: 1). There was no correlation between the recorded complications as assessed by the Clavien and Dindo classification and the functional as well as the patient-perceived outcome measures. Despite a relevant incidence rate of surgical
... inconveniences and patient travel issues. They believe the CfC should be expanded so that urgent (nonemergency... inconveniences and patient travel issues. After considering the public comments and the potential negative impact... patient prior to the start of the surgical procedure. With this new requirement, ASCs will have ample...
Monahan, Janean Carter
A surgical experience can be stressful for any patient. When the patient is an adolescent, however, the surgical experience can create significant stress, which is related to normal adolescent development. Perioperative nursing care should address what adolescent patients perceive as stressful and should provide a safe environment so that a successful surgical outcome can be achieved. To accomplish this, a nursing model specific to perioperative nursing practice should be developed to guide nurses when providing care to adolescents. The Adolescent Perioperative System Stability Model based on the Neuman Systems Model provides a framework for defining scope of practice and organizing nursing care that is appropriate for the adolescent during a surgical experience. In addition to guiding nursing practice, this model provides direction and guidance for future studies of adolescents in the perioperative setting.
Hara, Tsuyoshi; Kubo, Akira; Kogure, Eisuke; Ishii, Takaya
[Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to observe physical function, physique (only BMI), and nutrition status (evaluated by serum albumin levels) from before surgery to after discharge among perioperative patients with gastrointestinal tract cancer and to examine the effect of difference in surgical site (i.e., stomach, colon, and rectum) in these patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study subjects were 70 patients who underwent surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer [36 males and 34 females, aged 59.3 ± 11.4 years (mean ± SD)]. The subjects were classified into three levels according to surgical site (stomach, colon, and rectum). We evaluated patients' physical function, physique, and nutrition status in the three points: before surgery, after surgery, and after discharge. The 6-minute walk distance was measured for physical function. Body mass index was measured for physique. The serum albumin level was measured for nutrition status. [Results] Significant declines in 6-minute walk distance, body mass index, and serum albumin were observed after surgery among the study subjects. In addition, a significant decline in body mass index was observed after discharge compared with before surgery. Regarding body mass index, a significant interaction between surgical site and evaluation times was observed for ANOVA. [Conclusion] These results suggest that BMI after discharge is significantly less than that before surgery and that body mass index changes from before surgery to after surgery are efficacy the difference of surgical site in patients who undergo surgical treatment for gastrointestinal tract cancer.
Kumar, K.R. Ashok; Sarvagna, Jagadesh; Gadde, Praveen; Chikkaboriah, Shwetha
Introduction Hemostasis is a fundamental management issue post-operatively in minor oral surgical procedures. To ensure safety and therapeutic efficacy in patients, under oral anti coagulant therapy, is complicated by necessity for frequent determination of prothrombin time or international normalised ratio. Aim The aim of the study was to determine whether early hemostasis achieved by using Hemcon Dental Dressing (HDD) will affect post-operative care and surgical healing outcome in minor oral surgical procedures. Materials and Methods A total of 30 patients, aged 18 years to 90 years, except those allergic to seafood, who consented to participate, were enrolled into this study. Patients were required to have two or more surgical sites so that they would have both surgical and control sites. All patients taking Oral Anticoagulation Therapy (OAT) were included for treatment in the study without altering the anticoagulant regimens. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for the same. The collected data was subjected to statistical analysis using unpaired t-test. Results All HDD surgically treated sites achieved hemostasis in 1.49 minutes and control wounds in 4.06 minutes (p < 0.001). Post-operative pain at HDD treated sites (1.87,1.27 on 1st and 3rd day respectively) was significantly lower than the control sites (4.0,1.87 on 1st and 3rd day respectively) p-value (0.001, 0.001 respectively). HDD treated oral surgery wounds achieved statistically significant improved healing both at 1st and 3rd post-operative days (p <0.0001). Conclusion The HDD has been proven to be a clinically effective hemostatic dressing material that significantly shortens bleeding time following minor oral surgical procedures under local anaesthesia, including those patients taking OAT. Patients receiving the HDD had improved surgical wound healing as compared to controls. PMID:27790577
Hofstede, Stefanie N.; Marang-van de Mheen, Perla J.; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P. M.; van den Ende, Cornelia H. M.; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.; van Bodegom-Vos, Leti
Introduction International evidence-based guidelines for the management of patients with hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) recommend to start with (a combination of) non-surgical treatments, and using surgical intervention only if a patient does not respond sufficiently to non-surgical treatment options. Despite these recommendations, there are strong indications that non-surgical treatments are not optimally used in orthopaedic practice. To improve the adoption of non-surgical treatments, more insight is needed into barriers and facilitators of these treatments. Therefore, this study assessed which barriers and facilitators are associated with the use and prescription of different non-surgical treatments before hip and knee OA in orthopaedic practice among patients and orthopaedic surgeons in the Netherlands. Materials and Methods We performed two internet-based surveys among 172 orthopaedic surgeons and 174 OA patients. Univariate association and multivariable regression techniques are used to identify barriers and facilitators associated with the use of non-surgical treatments. Results Most barriers and facilitators among patients were associated with the use of physical therapy, lifestyle advice and dietary therapy. Among orthopaedic surgeons, most were associated with prescription of acetaminophen, dietary therapy and physical therapy. Examples of barriers and facilitators among patients included “People in my environment had positive experiences with a surgery” (facilitator for education about OA), and “Advice of people in my environment to keep on moving” (facilitator for lifestyle and dietary advice). For orthopaedic surgeons, examples were “Lack of knowledge about guideline” (barrier for lifestyle advice), “Agreements/ deliberations with primary care” and “Easy communication with a dietician” (facilitators for dietary therapy). Also the belief in the efficacy of these treatments was associated with increased prescription. Conclusions
Clemens, Mark W.; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Butler, Charles E.; Hunt, Kelly K.; Fanale, Michelle A.; Horwitz, Steven; Weisenburger, Dennis D.; Liu, Jun; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi; Parkash, Vinita; Ning, Jing; Sohani, Aliyah R.; Ferry, Judith A.; Mehta-Shah, Neha; Dogan, Ahmed; Liu, Hui; Thormann, Nora; Di Napoli, Arianna; Lade, Stephen; Piccolini, Jorge; Reyes, Ruben; Williams, Travis; McCarthy, Colleen M.; Hanson, Summer E.; Nastoupil, Loretta J.; Gaur, Rakesh; Oki, Yasuhiro; Young, Ken H.
Purpose Breast implant–associated anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a rare type of T-cell lymphoma that arises around breast implants. The optimal management of this disease has not been established. The goal of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of different therapies used in patients with BI-ALCL to determine an optimal treatment approach. Patients and Methods In this study, we applied strict criteria to pathologic findings, assessed therapies used, and conducted a clinical follow-up of 87 patients with BI-ALCL, including 50 previously reported in the literature and 37 unreported. A Prentice, Williams, and Peterson model was used to assess the rate of events for each therapeutic intervention. Results The median and mean follow-up times were 45 and 30 months, respectively (range, 3 to 217 months). The median overall survival (OS) time after diagnosis of BI-ALCL was 13 years, and the OS rate was 93% and 89% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Patients with lymphoma confined by the fibrous capsule surrounding the implant had better event-free survival (EFS) and OS than did patients with lymphoma that had spread beyond the capsule (P = .03). Patients who underwent a complete surgical excision that consisted of total capsulectomy with breast implant removal had better OS (P = .022) and EFS (P = .014) than did patients who received partial capsulectomy, systemic chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Conclusion Surgical management with complete surgical excision is essential to achieve optimal EFS in patients with BI-ALCL. PMID:26628470
Troyanovich, Stephan J; Stroink, Ann R; Kattner, Keith A; Dornan, Wayne A; Gubina, Irina
A retrospective review of medical records and radiographs of patients receiving anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) without anterior plating and with anterior plating was performed. The objective of the study was to determine whether a difference exists in cervical lordotic alignment between subjects undergoing single-level ACDF with and without anterior cervical plating instrumentation for symptomatic cervical disc disease. Collapse or settling of grafted bone into the vertebral endplates with resulting kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine is a commonly described complication of anterior discectomy and fusion. Despite the increasing use of instrumentation for the treatment of cervical spine injuries and degenerative conditions, little is known regarding lordotic alignment of the cervical spine in patients who receive plating instrumentation compared with conventional fusion without plating. Accumulating evidence suggests that plating is superior to non-plating techniques in patients with multiple level cervical disc lesions in regard to fusion, return to work rates, and complication rates; however, little is known about maintenance of lordotic curve alignment in single- and multiple-level procedures. Neutral lateral cervical radiographs of 57 patients who underwent single-level ACDF between 1994 and 1999 with anterior screw plates (n = 26), and conventional single-level fusion without anterior screw plates (n = 21) were retrospectively assessed. Measurements were made on weight-bearing lateral cervical radiographs to assess overall sagittal spinal alignment and intersegmental sagittal alignment at the surgical site before surgery, immediately after surgery, 4 to 12 weeks after surgery, and 12+ months after surgery. The average magnitude of overall lordosis measured between C2 and C7 decreased 4.2 degrees in the non-plated group, while being preserved in the plated group. This finding did not reach statistical significance in the long-term follow
Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun
Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229
Rowe-Jones, Julian M
The purpose of facial aesthetic surgery is to improve the patient's psychological well-being. To achieve this, the surgeon must understand the patient's body image and their aesthetic and psychological expectations. These factors must be judged in the context of their cultural background. The patient's cultural values must also be understood to optimize the doctor-patient relationship.
Bruera, E; Neumann, C M
During the past 10 years there have been major changes in the management of the most common symptoms of terminal cancer. Opioid agonists remain the mainstay in the management of cancer pain. Slow-release preparations are currently available for several of these agents. The increased use of opioids has led to the recognition of opioid-induced neurotoxic effects and to the development of effective adjuvant drugs and other strategies to counteract these side effects. A number of drugs are available for the management of symptoms of cachexia, including corticosteroids and progestational drugs. Prokinetic drugs, either alone or in combination with other agents such as corticosteroids, are highly effective in the treatment of chronic nausea. For patients with asthenia, it should first be determined whether there are any reversible causes; if not, corticosteroids and psychostimulants may diminish the symptoms. Haloperidol, other neuroleptics and benzodiazepines may be required to manage hyperactive delirium. Oxygen and opioids are effective in treating dyspnea, whereas there is limited evidence that benzodiazepines provide any relief of this symptom. More research on the assessment and management of these devastating clinical symptoms of cancer is badly needed. PMID:9676549
Wu, Xiang-Song; Wu, Wen-Guang; Li, Mao-Lan; Yang, Jia-Hua; Ding, Qi-Chen; Zhang, Lin; Mu, Jia-Sheng; Gu, Jun; Dong, Ping; Lu, Jian-Hua; Liu, Ying-Bin
AIM: To investigate the effect of being overweight on the surgical results of patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Comprehensive electronic searches of the PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases were conducted. Studies were identified that included patients with surgical complications from gastric cancer who were classified as normal weight [body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m2] or overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). The operative time, retrieved lymph nodes, blood loss, and long-term survival were analyzed. A subgroup analysis was conducted based on whether patients received laparoscopic or open gastrectomy procedures. All statistical tests were performed using ReviewerManager 5.1.2 software. RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 23 studies with 20678 patients (15781 with BMI < 25 kg/m2; 4897 with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Overweight patients had significantly increased operation times [MD: -29.14; 95%CI: -38.14-(-20.21); P < 0.00001], blood loss [MD: -194.58; 95%CI: -314.21-(-74.95); P = 0.001], complications (RR: 0.75; 95%CI: 0.66-0.85; P < 0.00001), anastomosis leakages (RR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.42-0.82; P = 0.002), and pancreatic fistulas (RR: 0.486; 95%CI: 0.34-0.63; P < 0.00001), whereas lymph node retrieval was decreased significantly in the overweight group (MD: 1.69; 95%CI: 0.75-2.62; P < 0.0001). In addition, overweight patients had poorer long-term survival (RR: 1.14; 95%CI: 1.07-1.20; P < 0.0001). No significant difference was detected for the mortality and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis demonstrates that a high BMI not only increases the surgical difficulty and complications but also impairs the long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:23901238
de Tayrac, Renaud; Letouzey, Vincent; Marès, Pierre
Genital prolapse is a functional pathology presenting with numerous urinary, genito-sexual, and anorectal symptoms. These symptoms are responsible for an alteration of the quality of life, sometimes associated to a real anxiety-depressive syndrome. Because of these complex intricacies, the management of these disorders became multidisciplinary. Tools to measure the impact of prolapse symptoms on the quality of life became a necessity. Such instruments should allow a correlation of the functional symptomatology at the anatomic stage, raise a surgical indication based on the functional disturbance and evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of the various therapeutic procedures. Two validated self-questionnaires in French (short versions of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory [PFDI-20] and the Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire [PFIQ-7]) are presently available. Moreover, the physician has the legal obligation to provide detailed presurgical information on frequent and severe hazards, expected benefits, functional consequences, therapeutic alternatives and the consequences of nonintervention. Before surgery takes place, the surgical approach, the benefit of using synthetic prostheses, the possibility of uterine and/or ovarian conservation, and some risky conditions such as smoking, obesity and estrogen deficiency should be discussed.
Colbert, Serryth; Williams, John V; Mackenzie, Neil; Brennan, Peter A
We present a case of allergy to a hospital thermally-printed red plastic allergy alert bracelet in a 48 year old lady admitted to the day surgery unit. Two hours postoperatively, an intensely itchy area of erythema and oedema was seen extending from her left wrist distally to the fingers. The bracelet was removed and the rash resolved overnight without further complication. A diagnosis of contact dermatitis was made, secondary to exposure to an agent within the bracelet. We discuss the safety implications for surgical patients unable to wear an identification bracelet and the steps that may be taken to minimise the risk of harm from misidentification. We believe this to be the first documented case of an allergy to a patient identification bracelet in the medical literature.
Fuji Lai; Louw, Deon
Surgery is at a crossroads of complexity. However, there is a potential path toward patient safety. One such course is to leverage computer and robotic assist techniques in the reduction and interception of error in the perioperative environment. This white paper attempts to facilitate the road toward realizing that promise by outlining a research agenda. The paper will briefly review the current status of surgical robotics and summarize any conclusions that can be reached to date based on existing research. It will then lay out a roadmap for future research to determine how surgical robots should be optimally designed and integrated into the perioperative workflow and process. Successful movement down this path would involve focused efforts and multiagency collaboration to address the research priorities outlined, thereby realizing the full potential of surgical robotics to augment human capabilities, enhance task performance, extend the reach of surgical care, improve health care quality, and ultimately enhance patient safety.
Austin, Paul N
The majority of the evidence indicates preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia reduces the incidence of many perioperative complications. Among the results of inadvertent perioperative hypothermia are increased bleeding, myocardial events, impaired wound healing, and diminished renal function. Most researchers agree there is an increased incidence of surgical site infections in patients who experience inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Forced-air warming is effective in preventing inadvertent perioperative hypothermia. Paradoxically, forced-air warmers have been implicated in causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. The results of investigations suggest these devices harbor pathogens and cause unwanted airflow disturbances. However, no significant increases in bacterial counts were found when forced-air warmers were used according to the manufacturer's directions. The results of one study suggested the incidence of surgical site infections in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty was increased when using a forced-air warmer. However these researchers did not control for other factors affecting the incidence of surgical site infections in these patients. Current evidence does not support forced-air warmers causing surgical site infections in patients undergoing total knee or hip arthroplasty. Clinicians must use and maintain these devices as per the manufacturer's directions. They may consider using alternative warming methods. Well-conducted studies are needed to help determine the role of forced-air warmers in causing infections in these patients.
Silva, João M.; Oliveira, Amanda M. Ribas R.; Segura, Juliano Lopes; Ribeiro, Marcel Henrique; Sposito, Carolina Nacevicius; Toledo, Diogo O.; Rezende, Ederlon; Malbouisson, Luiz M. Sá
Background. This study evaluated whether large venous-arterial CO2 gap (PCO2 gap) preoperatively is associated to poor outcome. Method. Prospective study which included adult high-risk surgical patients. The patients were pooled into two groups: wide [P(v-a)CO2] versus narrow [P(v-a)CO2]. In order to determine the best value to discriminate hospital mortality, it was applied a ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve for the [P(v-a)CO2] values collected preoperatively, and the most accurate value was chosen as cut-off to define the groups. Results. The study included 66 patients. The [P(v-a)CO2] value preoperatively that best discriminated hospital mortality was 5.0 mmHg, area = 0.73. Preoperative patients with [P(v-a)CO2] more than 5.0 mmHg presented a higher hospital mortality (36.4% versus 4.5% P = 0.004), higher prevalence of circulatory shock (56.8% versus 22.7% P = 0.01) and acute renal failure postoperatively (27.3% versus 4.5% P = 0.02), and longer hospital length of stays 20.0 (14.0–30.0) versus 13.5 (9.0–25.0) days P = 0.01. Conclusions. The PCO2 gap values more than 5.0 mmHg preoperatively were associated with worse postoperatively outcome. PMID:22007204
Fragiadakis, Gabriela K.; Gaudillière, Brice; Ganio, Edward A.; Aghaeepour, Nima; Tingle, Martha; Nolan, Garry P.; Angst, Martin S.
Background Recovery after surgery is highly variable. Risk-stratifying patients based on their predicted recovery profile will afford individualized perioperative management strategies. Recently, application of mass cytometry in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty revealed strong immune correlates of surgical recovery in blood samples collected shortly after surgery. However, the ability to interrogate a patient’s immune state before surgery and predict recovery is highly desirable in perioperative medicine. Methods To evaluate a patient’s pre-surgical immune state, cell-type specific intracellular signaling responses to ex-vivo ligands (LPS, IL-6, IL-10, IL-2/GM-CSF) were quantified by mass cytometry in pre-surgical blood samples. Selected ligands modulate signaling processes perturbed by surgery. Twenty-three cell surface and 11 intracellular markers were used for the phenotypic and functional characterization of major immune cell subsets. Evoked immune responses were regressed against patient-centered outcomes contributing to protracted recovery including functional impairment, postoperative pain, and fatigue. Results Evoked signaling responses varied significantly and defined patient-specific pre-surgical immune states. Eighteen signaling responses correlated significantly with surgical recovery parameters (|R|=0.37–0.70; FDR<0.01). Signaling responses downstream of the TLR4 receptor in CD14+ monocytes were particularly strong correlates, accounting for 50% of observed variance. Pre-surgical immune correlates mirrored correlates previously described in post-surgical samples. Conclusion Convergent findings in pre- and post-surgical analyses provide validation of reported immune correlates and suggest a critical role of the TLR4 signaling pathway in monocytes for the clinical recovery process. The comprehensive assessment of patients’ preoperative immune state is promising for predicting important recovery parameters and may lead to clinical tests using
Branco, B C; Montero-Baker, M F; Mills, J L
The present review addresses the pros and cons of the current, wide variety of therapeutic options available for the treatment of acute limb ischemia (ALI). Despite five prospective randomized controlled trials comparing catheter directed thrombolysis and open surgical revascularization, no single treatment strategy can yet be considered optimal for patients with ALI. This report includes 20 years of published data to evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of thrombolytic agents and adjunctive endovascular techniques when compared to open surgical revascularization.
Negosanti, Luca; Sgarzani, Rossella; Nejad, Parissa; Pinto, Valentina; Tavaniello, Beatrice; Palo, Stefano; Oranges, Carlo Maria; Fabbri, Erich; Michelina, Veronica Vietti; Zannetti, Guido; Morselli, Paolo Giovanni; Cipriani, Riccardo
The treatment of complex wounds often requires multiple surgical debridement and eventually reconstruction with skin grafts or flaps, under local or general anesthesia. When the patient's general conditions contraindicate surgical procedures, topical negative pressure with vacuum assisted closure (VAC)) device can achieve wound healing with reduction of healing time and simpler management. We treated with VAC device four patients with complex wounds and important contraindications to surgery. In all the patients, we used VAC device with common protocol of topical negative pressure. The healing was obtained in a period variable between 18 and 40 days; the results were satisfactory in three cases, one patient developed an aesthetically unpleasant scar. We present our experience to propose VAC when surgical procedures are contraindicated.
Redelman-Sidi, Gil; Grommes, Christian; Papanicolaou, Genovefa
Bordetella bronchiseptica is a gram negative coccobacillus that can be transmitted from domestic animals and cause severe infections in immunocompromised patients. A 56-year-old man with a left parietal glioblastoma was treated with resection, radiation and concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy. He received bevacizumab for progression, and dose dense metronomic temozolomide was added for additional progression. He developed chronic cough and was diagnosed with B. bronchiseptica infection. This is the first reported case of B. bronchiseptica infection in a patient receiving temozolomide. The infection was likely acquired from an infected kitten. Patients receiving temozolomide should be counseled on the risks of acquiring zoonotic infections, including B. bronchiseptica, from their pets.
Tamura, T; Aiso, K; Johnston, K E; Black, L; Faught, E
We hypothesized that elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations (hyperhomocysteinemia) exist in patients receiving antiepileptic drugs (AED), and a long-term administration of AED may result in an increased risk of occlusive vascular disease in these patients. A total of 62 patients who received AED monotherapy (phenytoin, lamotrigine, carbamazepine or valproate) participated in this study. Blood concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B-12 and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP, a coenzyme form of vitamin B-6) were measured, and thermolabile genotypes of 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) were also determined. Of 62 patients, only seven (11.4%) had hyperhomocysteinemia. Of 20 patients who received phenytoin, three (15.0%) had hyperhomocysteinemia, whereas 85% of these had plasma folate concentrations below the normal range. However, erythrocyte folate concentrations were abnormally low in only 25% of the patients who received phenytoin. Valproate administration increased serum vitamin B-12 concentrations. Over 55% of the entire patients had PLP concentrations below the normal range, although the reason is unknown. Only three patients had the homozygous thermolabile genotype of MTHFR; therefore, meaningful statistical analysis was not possible in this study. However, one patient with homozygous genotype who received phenytoin therapy had hyperhomocysteinemia with poor folate nutritional status, and the other two had normal homocysteine concentrations with normal folate status. Our data suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is not a serious clinical concern in epileptic patients when folate nutriture is adequate.
Aznar-Arasa, L; Figueiredo, R; Valmaseda-Castellón, E; Gay-Escoda, C
Encountering patients who are fearful and anxious is common in dental practice and these factors can increase the complexity of dental procedures. A prospective cohort study was performed to assess whether patient anxiety influences the difficulty of impacted lower third molar extraction and to identify other predictive factors of surgical difficulty; 102 extractions done under local anaesthesia were assessed. Several preoperative variables were recorded (demographic, anatomical, and surgical) and patient anxiety was assessed through the use of various questionnaires. Extraction difficulty was measured using the operation time (OT) and a 100-mm visual analogue scale (difficulty VAS) completed by the surgeon. Patients with deep impacted third molars that required bone removal and tooth sectioning showed higher levels of preoperative anxiety. Significant correlations were found between questionnaire scores and the surgical difficulty (OT and difficulty VAS). OT was also related to age, depth of impaction, third molar angulations, proximity of the third molar roots to the mandibular canal, hard and soft tissue coverage, and the need to perform an ostectomy and tooth sectioning. Impacted lower third molar extraction is significantly more difficult in anxious patients. Other demographic, radiological, and surgical factors were also found to be significantly related to the surgical difficulty.
Menahem, Benjamin; Lim, Chetana; Lahat, Eylon; Salloum, Chady; Osseis, Michael; Lacaze, Laurence; Compagnon, Philippe; Pascal, Gerard
Background The management of pancreatic trauma is complex. The aim of this study was to report our experience in the management of pancreatic trauma. Methods All patients hospitalized between 2005 and 2013 for pancreatic trauma were included. Traumatic injuries of the pancreas were classified according to the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) in five grades. Mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Results A total of 30 patients were analyzed (mean age: 38±17 years). Nineteen (63%) patients had a blunt trauma and 12 (40%) had pancreatic injury ≥ grade 3. Fifteen patients underwent exploratory laparotomy and the other 15 patients had nonoperative management (NOM). Four (13%) patients had a partial pancreatectomy [distal pancreatectomy (n=3) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (n=1)]. Overall, in hospital mortality was 20% (n=6). Postoperative mortality was 27% (n=4/15). Mortality of NOM group was 13% (n=2/15) in both cases death was due to severe head injury. Among the patients who underwent NOM, three patients had injury ≥ grade 3, one patient had a stent placement in the pancreatic duct and two patients underwent endoscopic drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst. Conclusions Operative management of pancreatic trauma leads to a higher mortality. This must not be necessarily related to the pancreas injury alone but also to the associated injuries including liver, spleen and vascular trauma which may cause impaired outcome more than pancreas injury. PMID:28124001
Weng, Shu-Wen; Liao, Chien-Chang; Yeh, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ta-Liang; Lane, Hsin-Long; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Shih, Chun-Chuan
Objective To investigate the risk of epilepsy in stroke patients receiving and not receiving acupuncture treatment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting This study was based on Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database that included information on stroke patients hospitalised between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2004. Participants We identified 42 040 patients hospitalised with newly diagnosed stroke who were aged 20 years and above. Primary and secondary outcome measures We compared incident epilepsy during the follow-up period until the end of 2009 in stroke patients who were and were not receiving acupuncture. The adjusted HRs and 95% CIs of epilepsy associated with acupuncture were calculated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression. Results Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment (9.8 per 1000 person-years) experienced a reduced incidence of epilepsy compared to those who did not receive acupuncture treatment (11.5 per 1000 person-years), with an HR of 0.74 (95% CI 0.68 to 0.80) after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and coexisting medical conditions. Acupuncture treatment was associated with a decreased risk of epilepsy, particularly among stroke patients aged 20–69 years. The log-rank test probability curve indicated that stroke patients receiving acupuncture treatment had a reduced probability of epilepsy compared with individuals who did not receive acupuncture treatment during the follow-up period (p<0.0001). Conclusions Stroke patients who received acupuncture treatment had a reduced risk of epilepsy compared with those not receiving acupuncture treatment. However, the protective effects associated with acupuncture treatment require further validation in prospective cohort studies. PMID:27412100
Braybrooke, Jason; Ahn, Henry; Gallant, Aimee; Ford, Michael; Bronstein, Yigel; Finkelstein, Joel; Yee, Albert
A prospective observational study was conducted on patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal disorders. The study purpose was to evaluate the effect of wait time to surgery on patient derived generic and disease specific functional outcome following surgery. A prolonged wait to surgery may adversely affect surgical outcome. Although there is literature on the effect of wait time to surgery in surgical fields such as oncology, cardiac, opthamologic, and total joint arthroplasty, little is known regarding the effect of wait time to surgery as it pertains to the spinal surgical population. Consecutive patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative disorders were recruited. Short-Form 36 and Oswestry disability questionnaires were administered (pre-operatively, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively). Patients completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the wait time to surgery. The study cohort consisted of 70 patients with follow-up in 53/70 (76%). Time intervals from the onset of patient symptoms to initial consultation by family physician through investigations, spinal surgical consultation and surgery were quantified. Time intervals were compared to patient specific improvements in reported outcome following surgery using Cox Regression analysis. The effect of patient and surgical parameters on wait time was evaluated using the median time as a reference for those patients who had either a longer or shorter wait. Significant improvements in patient derived outcome were observed comparing post-operative to pre-operative baseline scores. The greatest improvements were observed in aspects relating to physical function and pain. A longer wait to surgery was associated with less improvement in outcome following surgery (SF-36 domains of BP, GH, RP, VT). A longer wait time to surgery negatively influences the results of posterior lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative conditions
Rodríguez-Colorado, S; Villagrán, R; Escobar-Del Barco, L; Villalobos-Acosta, S; Kunhardt-Rasch, J; Delgado-Urdapilleta, J
Postoperative acute urinary retention was evaluated in the patients who underwent Pereyra procedure. Comparison of suprapubic and urethral catheterization. Between January 1994 and July 1995, fifty two patients with urinary stress incontinence underwent Pereyra procedure, 31 female patient with suprapubic drainage (cistofix Ch 15) and 17 urethral catherization with a latex foley catheter. Sponatneous micturition and urinary retention was evaluated until the catheter was removed. Mean age was 43.8 years (32 a 66), the duration of suprapubic vesical drainage with suprapubic catheter were 3 days in 58.6% of the patients, and more than 3 days in 41.29%. Recatheterizacion in the patients with urethral drainage was more frequent. Urinary retention after 7 days was present in 23.99% with suprapubic vesical drainage and 28.5% with urethral catheter. Recatheterization is more frequent in patients with urethral catheter.
Ueda, Y; Kurita, T; Matsuda, Y; Ito, S; Nakashima, T
Labyrinthine fistula is one of the most common complications of chronic otitis media associated with cholesteatoma. The optimal management of labyrinthine fistula, however, remains controversial. Between 1995 and 2005, labyrinthine fistulae were detected in 31 (6 per cent) patients in our institution. The canal wall down technique was used in 27 (87 per cent) patients. The cholesteatoma matrix was completely removed in the first stage in all patients. Bone dust and/or temporalis fascia was inserted to seal the fistula in 29 (94 per cent) patients. A post-operative hearing test was undertaken in 27 patients; seven (26 per cent) patients showed improved hearing, 17 (63 per cent) showed no change and three (11 per cent) showed a deterioration. The study findings indicate that there are various treatment strategies available for cholesteatoma, and that the treatment choice should be based on such criteria as auditory and vestibular function, the surgeon's ability and experience, and the location and size of the fistula.
Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi
Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368
Jiang, Z M; Zhang, S Y; Wang, X R; Yang, N F; Zhu, Y; Wilmore, D
Available lipid emulsions made from soybean or safflower oil are classified as long-chain triglycerides (LCT). In contrast, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsions have different physical properties and are metabolized by other biochemical pathways. To compare the differences between these two fat emulsions, the authors studied 12 surgical patients and 6 volunteers. These subjects were randomly assigned to receive parenteral nutrition with MCT or LCT emulsion. Measurement of arterial and venous concentration differences across the forearm demonstrated that muscle utilization was significantly improved with MCT administration. There was also a trend toward improved nitrogen balance in the MCT group, and less weight loss in the postoperative period also was observed in this group. During the fat clearance test, the serum ketone concentrations were significantly higher in the MCT than the LCT group. The improvement in nitrogen retention may be associated with increasing ketone and insulin levels. Fat emulsions containing 50% MCT are safe for use in parenteral nutrition and may provide an alternate fuel that improves protein metabolism.
Jiang, Z M; Zhang, S Y; Wang, X R; Yang, N F; Zhu, Y; Wilmore, D
Available lipid emulsions made from soybean or safflower oil are classified as long-chain triglycerides (LCT). In contrast, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) emulsions have different physical properties and are metabolized by other biochemical pathways. To compare the differences between these two fat emulsions, the authors studied 12 surgical patients and 6 volunteers. These subjects were randomly assigned to receive parenteral nutrition with MCT or LCT emulsion. Measurement of arterial and venous concentration differences across the forearm demonstrated that muscle utilization was significantly improved with MCT administration. There was also a trend toward improved nitrogen balance in the MCT group, and less weight loss in the postoperative period also was observed in this group. During the fat clearance test, the serum ketone concentrations were significantly higher in the MCT than the LCT group. The improvement in nitrogen retention may be associated with increasing ketone and insulin levels. Fat emulsions containing 50% MCT are safe for use in parenteral nutrition and may provide an alternate fuel that improves protein metabolism. PMID:8439215
Elder, Benjamin D.; Sankey, Eric W.; Goodwin, C. Rory; Kosztowski, Thomas A.; Lo, Sheng-Fu L.; Bydon, Ali; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Witham, Timothy F.; Sciubba, Daniel M.
Study Design Retrospective review. Objective To describe the surgical outcomes in patients with high preoperative Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) secondary to spinal giant cell tumors (GCT) and evaluate the impact of en bloc versus intralesional resection and preoperative embolization on postoperative outcomes. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 14 patients with GCTs of the spine who underwent surgical treatment prior to the use of denosumab. A univariate analysis was performed comparing the patient demographics, perioperative characteristics, and surgical outcomes between patients who underwent en bloc marginal (n = 6) compared with those who had intralesional (n = 8) resection. Results Six patients underwent en bloc resections and eight underwent intralesional resection. Preoperative embolization was performed in eight patients. All patients were alive at last follow-up, with a mean follow-up length of 43 months. Patients who underwent en bloc resection had longer average operative times (p = 0.0251), higher rates of early (p = 0.0182) and late (p = 0.0389) complications, and a higher rate of surgical revision (p = 0.0120). There was a 25% (2/8 patients) local recurrence rate for intralesional resection and a 0% (0/6 patients) local recurrence rate for en bloc resection (p = 0.0929). Conclusions Surgical excision of spinal GCTs causing significant instability, assessed by SINS, is associated with high intraoperative blood loss despite embolization and independent of resection method. En bloc resection requires a longer operative duration and is associated with a higher risk of complications when compared with intralesional resection. However, the increased morbidity associated with en bloc resection may be justified as it may minimize the risk of local recurrence. PMID:26835198
Morel, Véronique; Joly, Dominique; Villatte, Christine; Dubray, Claude; Durando, Xavier; Daulhac, Laurence; Coudert, Catherine; Roux, Delphine; Pereira, Bruno; Pickering, Gisèle
Background Neuropathic pain following surgical treatment for breast cancer with or without chemotherapy is a clinical burden and patients frequently report cognitive, emotional and quality of life impairment. A preclinical study recently showed that memantine administered before surgery may prevent neuropathic pain development and cognitive dysfunction. With a translational approach, a clinical trial has been carried out to evaluate whether memantine administered before and after mastectomy could prevent the development of neuropathic pain, the impairment of cognition and quality of life. Method A randomized, pilot clinical trial included 40 women undergoing mastectomy in the Oncology Department, University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Memantine (5 to 20 mg/day; n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) was administered for four weeks starting two weeks before surgery. The primary endpoint was pain intensity measured on a (0–10) numerical rating scale at three months post-mastectomy. Results Data analyses were performed using mixed models and the tests were two-sided, with a type I error set at α = 0.05. Compared with placebo, patients receiving memantine showed at three months a significant difference in post-mastectomy pain intensity, less rescue analgesia and a better emotional state. An improvement of pain symptoms induced by cancer chemotherapy was also reported. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the beneficial effect of memantine to prevent post-mastectomy pain development and to diminish chemotherapy-induced pain symptoms. The lesser analgesic consumption and better well-being of patients for at least six months after treatment suggests that memantine could be an interesting therapeutic option to diminish the burden of breast cancer therapy. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01536314 PMID:27050431
... Hospital Patients to Receive Visitors and to Designate Surrogate Decision Makers for Medical Emergencies... unable to act as a legal surrogate if their partner is incapacitated. For all of these Americans,...
Flythe, Jennifer E.; Powell, Jill D.; Poulton, Caroline J.; Westreich, Katherine D.; Handler, Lara; Reeve, Bryce B.; Carey, Timothy S.
Background Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) receiving dialysis have poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Physical symptoms are highly prevalent among dialysis-dependent patients and play important roles in HRQoL. A range of symptom assessment tools have been used in dialysis-dependent patients, but there has been no previous systematic assessment of the existing symptom measures’ content, validity, and reliability. Study Design systematic review of the literature Settings & Population ESRD patients on maintenance dialysis Selection Criteria for Studies instruments with ≥3 physical symptoms previously used in dialysis-dependent patients and evidence of validity or reliability testing Intervention patient-reported physical symptom assessment instrument Outcomes instrument symptom-related content, validity, and reliability Results From 3,148 screened abstracts, 89 full-text articles were eligible for review. After article exclusion and further article identification via reference reviews, 58 articles on 23 symptom assessment instruments with documented reliability or validity testing were identified. Of the assessment instruments, 43.5% were generic and 56.5% were ESRD-specific. Symptoms most frequently assessed were fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and appetite. The instruments varied widely in respondent time burden, recall period, and symptom attributes. Few instruments considered recall periods less than 2 weeks and few assessed a range of symptom attributes. Psychometric testing was completed for congruent validity (70%), known group validity (25%), responsiveness (30%), internal consistency (78%), and test-retest reliability (65%). Content validity was assessed in dialysis populations in 57% of the 23 instruments. Limitations Consideration of physical symptoms only and exclusion of single symptom-focused instruments Conclusions The number of available instruments focused exclusively on physical symptoms in
Introduction Condylotomy is a surgical procedure that has been used as an option to treat temporomandibular disorder (TMD) patients. This technique has the advantage of avoiding intra-capsular alterations that might be found involving other surgical procedures. Its use, even when unilateral, has positive effect on treatment of both joints. Methods In order to better evaluate the benefits of a clinical-surgical treatment for TMD, the present report describes the case of a psoriatic arthritis patient. The case was clinically characterized by dental malloclusion, and imaging exams showed joint degeneration of the right mandibular condyle. The patient was treated by condylotomy technique after a prosthetic oral rehabilitation. Results No clinical-radiological signs or symptoms of progression of articular disease were observed within a period of 16 months after surgery. Furthermore, there was functional stability of the temporomandibular joint, total absence of local pain and improvement of mouth opening. Conclusion The present study suggests that condylotomy can be considered as a valid option for the management of TMD, since it has low surgical morbidity and favorable clinical outcomes. In this case, the patient had a medical diagnosis of systemic disease presenting general pain and pain at the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), in addition of causal agent of TMD (dental malloclusion). The difficulty of finding a single etiology (malocclusion vs. systemic disease) did not exclude the indication of a clinical-surgical treatment to re-establish the balance of TMJ. PMID:23556553
Gilon, Y; Raskin, S; Heymans, O; Poirrier, R
Maxillomandibular advancement is an integral part of the surgical treatment of patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea. A number of publications report its efficacy and have attempted to define predictive success criteria. However, few authors have shown an interest in the surgical specificity of this intervention and in the difficulties that can be encountered, which differ from those seen in conventional orthognathic surgery. In this article, a series of patients treated with maxillomandibular osteotomy to correct obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (n = 17) are compared with patients who underwent surgery for the correction of dentofacial disharmonies (n = 33). Observations emphasized the importance of respecting a strict surgical and postsurgical protocol to avoid any technical traps linked to maxillomandibular advancement, both in preoperative simulations and during and after surgery. Results concerning sleep parameters will be the subject of a future publication.
Voytko, Mary Lou; Murray, Rhonda; Higgs, Casey J
Animal models of menopause have been used to further define the cognitive processes that respond to hormone therapy and to investigate parameters that may influence the cognitive effects of estrogen. Many investigations in animals have focused on memory; however, the effects of hormone therapy on executive function and attention processes have not been well studied. Thus, the purpose of this set of investigations was to assess the effects of estrogen therapy alone or with progesterone on executive and attention processes in middle-aged ovariectomized monkeys. Monkeys were preoperatively trained on a modified version of the Wisconsin card sort task and on a visual cued reaction time task. Hormone therapy was initiated at the time of ovariectomy and cognitive function was reassessed at 2, 12, and 24 weeks postoperatively. Relative to monkeys receiving either of the estrogen therapies, monkeys receiving placebo were impaired in their ability to shift a cognitive set in the Wisconsin card sort task and were impaired in shifting visuospatial attention in the visual cued reaction time task. Our findings are consistent with clinical studies that indicate that hormone therapy can improve executive function and attention processes in postmenopausal women.
Dembinski, Rolf; Kauczok, Jens; Deisz, Robert; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot
Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial wound care comprises topical treatment of less severely injured skin and surgical debridement of severely burned areas. The first 24 hours of intensive care are focused on calculated fluid delivery to provide stable hemodynamics and avoid progression of local edema formation. In the further course wound treatment with split-thickness skin grafts is the major aim of surgical therapy. Critical care is focused on the avoidance of complications like infections and ventilator associated lung injury. Therefore, lung-protective ventilation strategies, weaning and sedation protocols, and early enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the treatment.
McElroy, L. M.; Woods, D. M.; Yanes, A. F.; Skaro, A. I.; Daud, A.; Curtis, T.; Wymore, E.; Holl, J. L.; Abecassis, M. M.; Ladner, D. P.
Objective Efforts to improve patient safety are challenged by the lack of universally agreed upon terms. The International Classification for Patient Safety (ICPS) was developed by the World Health Organization for this purpose. This study aimed to test the applicability of the ICPS to a surgical population. Design A web-based safety debriefing was sent to clinicians involved in surgical care of abdominal organ transplant patients. A multidisciplinary team of patient safety experts, surgeons and researchers used the data to develop a system of classification based on the ICPS. Disagreements were reconciled via consensus, and a codebook was developed for future use by researchers. Results A total of 320 debriefing responses were used for the initial review and codebook development. In total, the 320 debriefing responses contained 227 patient safety incidents (range: 0–7 per debriefing) and 156 contributing factors/hazards (0–5 per response). The most common severity classification was ‘reportable circumstance,’ followed by ‘near miss.’ The most common incident types were ‘resources/organizational management,’ followed by ‘medical device/equipment.’ Several aspects of surgical care were encompassed by more than one classification, including operating room scheduling, delays in care, trainee-related incidents, interruptions and handoffs. Conclusions This study demonstrates that a framework for patient safety can be applied to facilitate the organization and analysis of surgical safety data. Several unique aspects of surgical care require consideration, and by using a standardized framework for describing concepts, research findings can be compared and disseminated across surgical specialties. The codebook is intended for use as a framework for other specialties and institutions. PMID:26803539
Dalla Paola, Luca; Carone, Anna; Morisi, Claudio; Cardillo, Sara; Pattavina, Marco
Ulceration of the plantar aspect of the first metatarsophalangeal joint is a common localization in the diabetic foot. Conservative treatment of this lesion is a challenging problem, performed through the soft tissues and osseous debridement. The present study included a cohort of 28 patients affected by diabetes mellitus and a first ray lesion penetrating the bone. After surgical debridement with removal of the infected bone, we positioned antibiotic-loaded bone cement and stabilized the treated area with an external fixator. All patients with critical limb ischemia had their vascular disease treated before the procedure. The mean follow-up was 12.2 ± 6.9 months. Four patients developed a relapse of the ulceration after the procedure. In the postoperative period, 1 patient (3.57%) developed dehiscence of the surgical site and underwent a second procedure. In the follow-up period, 2 patients (7.14%) experienced bone cement dislocation. In 1 of these patients, a new ulceration was observed dorsally to the surgical site. The approach was surgical revision with bone cement replacement and stabilization with a new external fixator. In the other patient, given the absence of ulcerations, the cement was removed, and arthrodesis with internal stabilization using 2 cannulated screws was performed. One patient (3.57%), who had developed a relapse of ulceration after recurrent critical ischemia, underwent a percutaneous revascularization procedure and transmetatarsal amputation. During the follow-up period, no ulceration recurrences, transfer ulcerations, shoe fit problems, or gait abnormalities were detected in the other 24 patients. Our study presents the results of a technique requiring a 1-stage surgical approach to a relatively common problem, which is often difficult to solve.
Uldrick, Thomas S.; Wyvill, Kathleen M.; Kumar, Pallavi; O'Mahony, Deirdre; Bernstein, Wendy; Aleman, Karen; Polizzotto, Mark N.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Marshall, Vickie; Whitby, Denise; Little, Richard F.; Yarchoan, Robert
Purpose Alternatives to cytotoxic agents are desirable for patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) contributes to KS pathogenesis. We evaluated the humanized anti–VEGF-A monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, in patients with HIV-KS. Patients and Methods Patients with HIV-KS who either experienced progression while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for at least 1 month or did not regress despite HAART for at least 4 months were administered bevacizumab 15 mg/kg intravenously on days 1 and 8 and then every 3 weeks. The primary objective was assessment of antitumor activity using modified AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) criteria for HIV-KS. HIV-uninfected patients were also eligible and observed separately. Results Seventeen HIV-infected patients were enrolled. Fourteen patients had been receiving effective HAART for at least 6 months (median, 1 year). Thirteen patients had advanced disease (ACTG T1), 13 patients had received prior chemotherapy for KS, and seven patients had CD4 count less than 200 cells/μL. Median number of cycles was 10 (range, 1 to 37 cycles); median follow-up was 8.3 months (range, 3 to 36 months). Of 16 assessable patients, best tumor responses observed were complete response (CR) in three patients (19%), partial response (PR) in two patients (12%), stable disease in nine patients (56%), and progressive disease in two patients (12%). Overall response rate (CR + PR) was 31% (95% CI, 11% to 58.7%). Four of five responders had received prior chemotherapy for KS. Over 202 cycles, grade 3 to 4 adverse events at least possibly attributed to therapy included hypertension (n = 7), neutropenia (n = 5), cellulitis (n = 3), and headache (n = 2). Conclusion Bevacizumab is tolerated in patients with HIV-KS and has activity in a subset of patients. PMID:22430271
Fox, Amy M.; Dosoretz, Arie P.; Mauch, Peter M.; Chen, Yu-Hui; Fisher, David C.; LaCasce, Ann S.; Freedman, Arnold S.; Silver, Barbara; Ng, Andrea K.
Purpose: This study sought to quantify the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients receiving mediastinal radiation therapy (RT) and to identify predictive factors for RP. Methods and Materials: We identified 75 patients with newly diagnosed HL treated with mediastinal RT and 17 patients with relapsed/refractory HL treated with mediastinal RT before or after transplant. Lung dose-volumetric parameters including mean lung dose and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy were calculated. Factors associated with RP were explored by use of the Fisher exact test. Results: RP developed in 7 patients (10%) who received mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Grade 1 in 6 cases). A mean lung dose of 13.5 Gy or greater (p = 0.04) and percentage of lungs receiving 20 Gy of 33.5% or greater (p = 0.009) significantly predicted for RP. RP developed in 6 patients (35%) with relapsed/refractory HL treated with peri-transplant mediastinal RT (Grade 3 in 4 cases). Pre-transplant mediastinal RT, compared with post-transplant mediastinal RT, significantly predicted for Grade 3 RP (57% vs. 0%, p = 0.015). Conclusions: We identified threshold lung metrics predicting for RP in HL patients receiving mediastinal RT as part of initial therapy, with the majority of cases being of mild severity. The risk of RP is significantly higher with peri-transplant mediastinal RT, especially among those who receive pre-transplant RT.
Lara, F J Pérez; Carranque, G; Oehling, H; Hernández, J M; Oliva, H
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has been related with certain psychological dimensions. The influence of mood, emotional intelligence, and perceived quality of life on clinical symptoms and outcome of antireflux surgery was evaluated in GERD patients with and without hiatal hernia. The study included 61 patients who were diagnosed with GERD between 2003 and 2008: 16 of them without hiatal hernia (group A) and 45 of them with hiatal hernia (group B). All of these patients had undergone laparoscopic antireflux surgery. Patients were clinically examined and evaluated with the following instruments: Short Form (SF)-36 Health Survey, Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale, and Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS)-24. Proportions were compared by using the chi-squared test; averages were compared by using the Student's t-test (with Bonferroni's correction). In general, our patients intervened for GERD showed results lower than normal or close to the lower limit of normal in the administered tests. Patients in the group without hernia were younger (P < 0.001) and with lower American Society of Anaesthesiologists risk. They showed higher scores in the SF-36 dimensions: Physical Functioning, Physical Role and Emotional Role, and lower scores in the Social Role (P < 0.001). They showed lower scores in the Emotional dimension of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (P = 0.0068) and worse results in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression subscales of Anxiety (P < 0.001) and Depression (not significant). Men in the group without hernia showed higher scores than men in the group with hernia in the TMMS subscales corresponding to Emotional Clarity and Emotional Repair (P < 0.001). Women in the group with hernia showed higher scores than women in the group without hernia regarding Emotional Clarity (P = 0.0012). GERD patients showed poor results in all the tests, and patients without hiatal hernia compared with patients with hernia showed
Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K
Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients.
A case report is presented which demonstrates the effectiveness of comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with orthognathic surgery in the correction of malocclusion and reduction in the sequelae of Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). The patient's severe OSA was improved to very mild as evaluated by full overnight polysomnogram. The orthodontic treatment included the expansion of both dental arches and mandibular advancement surgery. There was significant improvement in the patient's sleep continuity and architecture with the elimination of obstructive apneas. PMID:27668098
De La Rosa, Gisela Del Carmen; Donado, Jorge Hernando; Restrepo, Alvaro Humberto; Quintero, Alvaro Mauricio; González, Luis Gabriel; Saldarriaga, Nora Elena; Bedoya, Marisol; Toro, Juan Manuel; Velásquez, Jorge Byron; Valencia, Juan Carlos; Arango, Clara Maria; Aleman, Pablo Henrique; Vasquez, Esdras Martin; Chavarriaga, Juan Carlos; Yepes, Andrés; Pulido, William; Cadavid, Carlos Alberto
Introduction Critically ill patients can develop hyperglycaemia even if they do not have diabetes. Intensive insulin therapy decreases morbidity and mortality rates in patients in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) and decreases morbidity in patients in a medical ICU. The effect of this therapy on patients in a mixed medical/surgical ICU is unknown. Our goal was to assess whether the effect of intensive insulin therapy, compared with standard therapy, decreases morbidity and mortality in patients hospitalised in a mixed ICU. Methods This is a prospective, randomised, non-blinded, single-centre clinical trial in a medical/surgical ICU. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intensive insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 80 and 110 mg/dl (4.4 to 6.1 mmol/l) or standard insulin therapy to maintain glucose levels between 180 and 200 mg/dl (10 and 11.1 mmol/l). The primary end point was mortality at 28 days. Results Over a period of 30 months, 504 patients were enrolled. The 28-day mortality rate was 32.4% (81 of 250) in the standard insulin therapy group and 36.6% (93 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (Relative Risk [RR]: 1.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85 to 1.42). The ICU mortality in the standard insulin therapy group was 31.2% (78 of 250) and 33.1% (84 of 254) in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 1.06; 95%CI: 0.82 to 1.36). There was no statistically significant reduction in the rate of ICU-acquired infections: 33.2% in the standard insulin therapy group compared with 27.17% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 0.82; 95%CI: 0.63 to 1.07). The rate of hypoglycaemia (≤ 40 mg/dl) was 1.7% in the standard insulin therapy group and 8.5% in the intensive insulin therapy group (RR: 5.04; 95% CI: 1.20 to 21.12). Conclusions IIT used to maintain glucose levels within normal limits did not reduce morbidity or mortality of patients admitted to a mixed medical/surgical ICU. Furthermore, this therapy increased the
Moon, Myung-Sang; Lee, Sang-Yup; Jeon, Dal-Jae; Yoon, Min-Geun; Kim, Sung-Sim; Moon, Hanlim
Background To assess the preoperative nutritional status of patients with various disorders and to provide data for pre- and postoperative patient management plans, particularly in the elderly. There is no published information on age-matched and disease-matched preoperative nutritional/immunologic status for orthopedic patients, especially in the elderly, in Jeju. Methods In total, 331 patients with four categories of orthopedic conditions were assessed: 92 elective surgery patients, 59 arthroplasty patients, 145 patients with fractures, and 35 infection patients. Malnutrition was defined as body mass index (BMI) below 18 kg/m2 of expected body weight (below 20% of normal), serum albumin/globulin ratio below 1.5 (normal range, 1.5 to 2.3), albumin level below 3.5 g/dL, total lymphocyte count below 1,500 cells/mm3, and lymphocyte/monocyte ratio below 5 versus 1. Results In 92 elective surgery patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 15 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,486 cells)/monocytes (465 cells) ratio was 6.1, and the albumin (4.4 g/dL)/globulin (2.5 g/dL) ratio as a protein quotient was 1.7. Among the 59 hip and knee arthroplasty patients, the average BMI was 25 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g/dL, lymphocytes (2,038 cells)/monocytes (391 cells) ratio was 6.6, and albumin (4.1 g/dL)/globulin (2.4 g/dL) ratio was 1.6. No subject showed malnutrition. Among the 145 fracture patients, the average BMI was 23 kg/m2. The hemoglobin level was 13 g/dL, monocytes (495 cells)/lymphocytes (1,905 cells) ratio was 1 versus 4.6, and albumin (4.1 d/gL)/globulin (2.5 d/gL) ratio was 1.6. However, both ratios decreased after 70 years of age. Among the 17 of 35 infection patients, albumin levels were below 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, lymphocytes (1,532 cells)/monocytes (545 cells) ratio was 2.4 versus 1, and albumin (3.0 g/dL)/globulin (3.3 g/dL) ratio was 0.9, while in 18 patients albumin levels were over 3.5 g/dL, the average BMI was 22 kg/m2, hemoglobin was 12 g
Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Ramlawi, Basel; Reardon, Michael J.
In general, treatment for symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiac papillary fibroelastoma is surgical resection—particularly of left-sided lesions, because of the risk of systemic embolization. However, few institutions have enough experience with these tumors to validate this approach. We present our institutional experience with papillary fibroelastoma and discuss our current approach. We searched our institution's cardiac tumor database, identified all patients diagnosed with cardiac papillary fibroelastoma from 1992 through 2014, and recorded the clinical and pathologic characteristics of each case. We found 14 patients (mean age, 60.5 ± 12.3 yr) who had 18 lesions. Eleven patients (79%) were symptomatic; however, we could not always definitively associate their symptoms with a cardiac tumor. Most lesions were solitary and ≤1.5 cm in diameter; half involved the left side of the heart. All 18 lesions were surgically excised. There were no operative or 30-day deaths, and no patient needed valve replacement postoperatively. There was one late death; at one year, another 3 patients were lost to follow-up, and the others were alive without tumor recurrence. Because of the embolic risk inherent to intracardiac masses and our relatively good postoperative outcomes, we recommend the surgical resection of all left-sided papillary fibroelastomas in surgical candidates, and we discuss with patients the advisability of resecting right-sided lesions. PMID:27127431
King, Michelle; Rieff, Mollie; Krapf, Jill; Goldstein, Andrew T.
Abstract Introduction Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis, usually affecting the anogenital skin in women. This chronic inflammation can cause scarring of genitalia including narrowing of the introitus and phimosis of the clitoris. These architectural changes can lead to recurrent tearing during intercourse (vulvar granuloma fissuratum) and decreased clitoral sensation. Surgical correction of vulvar granuloma fissuratum (VGF) and clitoral phimosis can be performed, but there is little data on the patient satisfaction and complications following these surgical procedures. Aim To evaluate patient experience and outcomes in women undergoing surgical correction of scarring caused by anogenital LS. Methods A retrospective chart review of patients at a vulvar disorders clinic was performed to identify women who had undergone surgical correction of clitoral phimosis or lysis of vulvar adhesions for VGF due to LS. Twenty‐eight women were contacted via telephone between 4 and 130 months postoperatively. An eight‐question survey was used to determine patient experience and outcomes. Main Outcome Measures All participants completed an eight‐question survey to evaluate patient satisfaction with the surgery, effects on clitoral sensation, orgasm and pain with intercourse, postoperative symptoms or complications, and the presence of recurrent vulvar scarring. Results Participants reported that they were either very satisfied (44%) or satisfied (40%) with the procedure. Of the women who experienced decreased clitoral sensation prior to surgery, 75% endorsed increased clitoral sensitivity postoperatively. Of the women who had dyspareunia prior to surgery, the majority of women reported having pain‐free sex (33%) or improved but not completely pain‐free sex (58%) after surgery. There were no complications or symptoms made worse by the surgical procedures. Conclusions This study shows high patient satisfaction and low complication risk associated
Ellore, Vijaya Prasad Kamavaram; Ramagoni, Naveen Kumar; Taranatha, Mahantesha; Nara, Asha; Gunjalli, Gururaj; Bhat, Ashwin Devasya
Pre-surgical orthopedic appliances are mainly used to retract and align the protruded and deviated pre-maxilla and to facilitate initial lip repair. This article presents a case report of a five year old male child patient with bilateral cleft lip and palate in whom a special custom made pre-surgical orthopedic appliance was delivered. Use of a special custom made presurgical orthopedic appliance for repositioning pre-maxilla in bilateral cleft lip and palate patient is discussed in this article. PMID:23293501
Makker, Robina; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh; Bapna, Rk
Increased pulmonary vascular resistance can be detrimental to the cardiac output in post-operative cardiac surgical patients. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy by systemic pharmacologic agents is non-selective. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator and does not cause systemic hypotension. In this prospective study, 14 adult post-operative cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension underwent inhaled nitric oxide therapy and their hemodynamic changes were evaluated. Inhaled nitric oxide was administered in doses of 5 ppm-25 ppm. The result was a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance from 456.57 +/- 137.13 to 357.64 +/- 119.80 dynes-sec- Continued. - See Free Full Text.
Motta, Alexandre; Louro, Rafael Seabra; Medeiros, Paulo José D'Albuquerque; Capelli, Jonas
This article describes the surgical and orthodontic treatment of a girl with facial deformities and functional involvement. The left temporomandibular joint was ankylosed, and the lower third of the face was markedly deficient, with mandibular retrusion and severe laterognathism to the left side. Mouth-opening was limited, and the patient had problems speaking and chewing. Two surgical procedures had been performed previously at another institution. We treated the patient with condylar surgery while she was still growing, followed by orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery after growth was complete. Twelve-year follow-up records are presented.
Smoking is proven to have an adverse effect on an individual's health. Long term use of tobacco products has a cumulative effect leading to compromised physiology of several body systems. Clinical research studies support the premise that tobacco users are at an increased risk for surgical complications. Individuals with a history of tobacco abuse present a challenge to the nurse. Throughout the perioperative phase the nurse initiates interventions to prevent or minimize complications. This article presents a general overview of the adverse effects of tobacco on the surgical patient and nursing interventions when caring for a patient with a history of tobacco abuse.
Chaudhary, Nabin; Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Yan, He
Abstract Background: Data regarding the clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) and an anticoagulant in addition to DAPT (DAPT + vitamin K antagonist [VKA]) after coronary stent implantation are still controversial. Therefore, in order to solve this issue, we aim to compare the adverse clinical outcomes in AF patients receiving DAPT and DAPT + VKA after percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting (PCI-S). Methods: Observational studies comparing the adverse clinical outcomes such as major bleeding, major adverse cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction, all-cause mortality, and stent thrombosis (ST) in AF patients receiving DAPT + VKA therapy, and DAPT after PCI-S have been searched from Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the pooled effect on discontinuous variables, and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3. Results: Eighteen studies consisting of a total of 20,456 patients with AF (7203 patients received DAPT + VKA and 13,253 patients received DAPT after PCI-S) were included in this meta-analysis. At a mean follow-up period of 15 months, the risk of major bleeding was significantly higher in DAPT + VKA group, with OR 0.62 (95% CI 0.50–0.77, P < 0.0001). There was no significant differences in myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular event between DAPT + VKA and DAPT, with OR 1.27 (95% CI 0.92–1.77, P = 0.15) and OR 1.17 (95% CI 0.99–1.39, P = 0.07), respectively. However, the ST, stroke, and all-cause mortality were significantly lower in the DAPT + VKA group, with OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.03–3.81, P = 0.04), 1.59 (95% CI 1.08–2.34, P = 0.02), and 1.41 (95% CI 1.03–1.94, P = 0.03), respectively. Conclusion: At a mean follow-up period of 15 months, DAPT + VKA was associated with significantly lower risk of stroke, ST, and
Góngora, Enrique; Sundt, Thoralf M
Diabetes is a well-known risk factor for morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease. Currently, diabetics represent approximately a quarter of patients requiring coronary revascularization in the USA. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze the available data in surgical revascularization of diabetic patients with coronary artery disease. The review will also examine new developments in myocardial revascularization and assess their probable impact on the long-term outcome of diabetic patients.
Frolov, G A; Popkova, N L; Kalashnikov, A V
Analysis of the results of surgical treatment in 105 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis revealed that 25 patients had postoperative complications. Complications, outcomes, dysfunctions, and life quality were analyzed in late postoperative periods after 4 types of operations: segmentectomy (n = 52), lobectomy (n = 26), pulmonectomy (n = 12), palliative operations (n = 15). The best immediate and long-term results were achieved after segmentectomy in patients with antibiotic-sensitive forms of MBT.
Smith, Ashley D.; Zhang, Yan; Barber, Robert C.; Minshall, Christian T.; Huebinger, Ryan M.
The examination of the pulmonary microbiome in patients with non-chronic disease states has not been extensively examined. Traditional culture based screening methods are often unable to identify bacteria from bronchoalveolar lavage samples. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies allows for a culture-independent molecular based analysis to determine the microbial composition in the lung of this patient population. For this study, the Ion Torrent PGM system was used to assess the microbial complexity of culture negative bronchoalveolar lavage samples. A group of samples were identified that all displayed high diversity and similar relative abundance of bacteria. This group consisted of Hydrogenophaga, unclassified Bacteroidetes, Pedobacter, Thauera, and Acinetobacter. These bacteria may be representative of a common non-pathogenic pulmonary microbiome associated within this population of patients. PMID:27898681
Barlow, Jonathan D.; Abboud, Joseph
Young patients with glenohumeral arthritis are an ongoing treatment challenge. They typically have high demands of their shoulders, require long-term durability due to their young age, and often have altered local anatomy, through their disease process (instability arthropathy, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, etc.) or from previous surgery (capsulorraphy arthropathy, chondrolysis, etc.). Workup to evaluate underlying causes of early arthritis, and to exclude infectious causes are necessary. When nonoperative management fails, arthroscopic debridement, hemiarthroplasty (isolated, with glenoid reaming, or with biological interposition), and total shoulder arthroplasty are treatment options available to the treating surgeon. Debridement or hemiarthroplasty can provide pain relief for a subset of patients, but results have not been reproducible across the literature and have not been durable over time. Total shoulder arthroplasty provides the most reliable pain relief, but long-term glenoid loosening and wear continue to lead to high revision rates in this patient population. PMID:26980987
Sabolch, Aaron; Else, Tobias; Griffith, Kent A.; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Williams, Andrew; Miller, Barbra S.; Worden, Francis; Jolly, Shruti
Purpose: Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy known for high rates of local recurrence, though the benefit of postoperative radiation therapy (RT) has not been established. In this study of grossly resected ACC, we compare local control of patients treated with surgery followed by adjuvant RT to a matched cohort treated with surgery alone. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively identified patients with localized disease who underwent R0 or R1 resection followed by adjuvant RT. Only patients treated with RT at our institution were included. Matching to surgical controls was on the basis of stage, surgical margin status, tumor grade, and adjuvant mitotane. Results: From 1991 to 2011, 360 ACC patients were evaluated for ACC at the University of Michigan (Ann Arbor, MI). Twenty patients with localized disease received postoperative adjuvant RT. These were matched to 20 controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to stage, margins, grade, or mitotane. Median RT dose was 55 Gy (range, 45-60 Gy). Median follow-up was 34 months. Local recurrence occurred in 1 patient treated with RT, compared with 12 patients not treated with RT (P=.0005; hazard ratio [HR] 12.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.62-97.88). However, recurrence-free survival was no different between the groups (P=.17; HR 1.52; 95% CI 0.67-3.45). Overall survival was also not significantly different (P=.13; HR 1.97; 95% CI 0.57-6.77), with 4 deaths in the RT group compared with 9 in the control group. Conclusions: Postoperative RT significantly improved local control compared with the use of surgery alone in this case-matched cohort analysis of grossly resected ACC patients. Although this retrospective series represents the largest study to date on adjuvant RT for ACC, its findings need to be prospectively confirmed.
Olakowski, Marek; Hładoń, Aleksandra; Seweryn, Mariusz; Ciosek, Jakub; Świątkiewicz, Wojciech
In Polish society Stereotypes about the surgeons are deeply rooted, which could really affect their relationship with the patient and the entire treatment process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the results of an opinion survey on the image of the surgeon and operative treatment.
Lin, Tso-Chou; Lu, Chih-Cherng; Hsu, Che-Hao; Pergolizz, Joseph V.; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Ho, Shung-Tai
Abstract Delayed extubation occurs after isoflurane anesthesia, especially following prolonged surgical duration. We aimed to determine the arterial blood concentrations of isoflurane and the correlation with end-tidal concentrations for predicting emergence from general anesthesia. Thirty-four American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I–II gynecologic patients were included. General anesthesia was maintained with a fixed 2% inspiratory isoflurane in 6 L/minute oxygen, which was discontinued after surgery. One milliliter of arterial blood was obtained for the determination of isoflurane concentration by gas chromatography at 20 and 10 minutes before and 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes after discontinuation, in addition to the time of eye opening to verbal command, defined as awakening. Inspiratory and end-tidal concentrations were simultaneously detected by an infrared analyzer. The mean awakening arterial blood concentration of isoflurane was 0.20%, which was lower than the simultaneous end-tidal concentration 0.23%. The differences between arterial and end-tidal concentrations during emergence fell into an acceptable range (±1.96 standard deviation). After receiving a mean time of 108-minute general anesthesia, the time to eye opening after discontinuing isoflurane was 18.5 minutes (range 11–30, median 18 minutes), without statistical significance with anesthesia duration (P = 0.078) and body mass index (P = 0.170). We demonstrated the awakening arterial blood concentration of isoflurane in female patients as 0.20%. With well-assisted ventilation, the end-tidal concentration could be an indicator for the arterial blood concentration to predict emergence from shorter duration of isoflurane anesthesia. PMID:27472727
Partridge, Judith; Harari, Danielle; Gossage, Jessica; Dhesi, Jugdeep
This review provides the clinician with a summary of the causes, implications and potential treatments for the management of anaemia in the older surgical patient. The prevalence of anaemia increases with age and is frequently identified in older surgical patients. Anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Allogenic blood transfusion is commonly used to treat anaemia but involves inherent risks and may worsen outcomes. Various strategies for the correction of pre- and postoperative anaemia have evolved. These include correction of nutritional deficiencies and the use of intravenous iron and erythropoesis stimulating therapy. Clear differences exist between the elective and emergency surgical populations and the translation of research findings into these individual clinical settings requires more work. This should lead to a standardized approach to the management of this frequently encountered clinical scenario.
Walsh, David J; Jones, Christopher A; Wood, Samuel H
Essure (Bayer) received approval from the U.S. Food and Drugs Administration as a permanent non-hormonal contraceptive implant in November 2002. While the use of Essure in the management of hydrosalpinx prior to in vitro fertilization (IVF) remains off-label, it has been used specifically for this purpose since at least 2007. Although most published reports on Essure placement before IVF have been reassuring, clinical experience remains limited, and no randomized studies have demonstrated the safety or efficacy of Essure in this context. In fact, no published guidelines deal with patient selection or counseling regarding the Essure procedure specifically in the context of IVF. Although Essure is an irreversible birth control option, some patients request the surgical removal of the implants for various reasons. While these patients could eventually undergo hysterectomy, at present no standardized technique exists for simple Essure removal with conservation of the uterus. This article emphasizes new aspects of the Essure procedure, as we describe the first known association between the placement of Essure implants and the subsequent development of fluid within the uterine cavity, which resolved after the surgical removal of both devices. PMID:26473113
Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Dowdy, Sean C.; Borah, Bijan J.; Haas, Lindsey R.; Mariani, Andrea; Martin, Janice R.; Weaver, Amy L.; McGree, Michaela E.; Cliby, William A.; Podratz, Karl C.
Objective Technological advances in surgical management of endometrial cancer (EC) may allow for novel risk modification in surgical site infection (SSI). Methods Perioperative variables were abstracted from EC cases surgically staged between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2008. Primary outcome was SSI, as defined by American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. Counseling and global models were built to assess perioperative predictors of superficial incisional SSI and organ/space SSI. Thirty-day cost of SSI was calculated. Results Among 1369 EC patients, 136 (9.9%) had SSI. In the counseling model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score >2, preoperative anemia (hematocrit <36%), and laparotomy. In the global model, significant predictors of superficial incisional SSI were obesity, ASA score >2, smoking, laparotomy, and intraoperative transfusion. Counseling model predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, preoperative glucose >110 mg/dL, and prior methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection. Global predictors of organ/space SSI were older age, smoking, vascular disease, prior MRSA infection, greater estimated blood loss, and lymphadenectomy or bowel resection. SSI resulted in a $5447 median increase in 30-day cost. Conclusions Our findings are useful to individualize preoperative risk counseling. Hyperglycemia and smoking are modifiable, and minimally invasive surgical approaches should be the preferred surgical route because they decrease SSI events. Judicious use of lymphadenectomy may decrease SSI. Thirty-day postoperative costs are considerably increased when SSI occurs. PMID:23558053
Wu, Qin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Li, Guanwei; Anjum, Nadeem; Hu, Dong; Li, Yuan; Wu, Xiuwen; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Zhao, Yunzhao; Li, Jieshou
Thrombocytopenia is common among surgical critically ill patients. The relationship between the duration of thrombocytopenia and mortality is not well studied. This retrospective 12-month cohort study was designed to evaluate the association between persistent thrombocytopenia and mortality among surgical critically ill patients to determine the risk factors for persistent thrombocytopenia. The study included adult patients consecutively admitted to the surgical intensive care unit (SICU) at our institution. Patients with a diagnosis of thrombocytopenia were identified from a prospective critical care database. We defined patients with persistent thrombocytopenia as those with thrombocytopenia lasting more than 7 consecutive days. The primary outcome of this study was 28-day mortality and the secondary outcomes were lengths of SICU stay and hospital stay. Fifty-one patients experienced persistent thrombocytopenia and 71 experienced nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Among patients with persistent thrombocytopenia, mortality was significantly higher, and SICU and hospital stays were longer than those with nonpersistent thrombocytopenia. Risk factor analysis failed to predict which patients with thrombocytopenia would develop into persistent thrombocytopenia. Persistent thrombocytopenia is a clinically significant disorder and is associated with poorer outcomes. Future studies are needed to further define this process.
Objective. To assess whether acute stroke patients in rural hospitals receive less occupational therapy and physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. Design. Retrospective case-control study of health data in patients ≤10 days after stroke. Setting. Occupational therapy and physiotherapy services in four rural hospitals and one metropolitan hospital. Participants. Acute stroke patients admitted in one health district. Main Outcome Measures. Frequency and duration of face-to-face and indirect therapy sessions. Results. Rural hospitals admitted 363 patients and metropolitan hospital admitted 378 patients. Mean age was 73 years. Those in rural hospitals received more face-to-face (p > 0.0014) and indirect (p = 0.001) occupational therapy when compared to those in the metropolitan hospital. Face-to-face sessions lasted longer (p = 0.001). Patients admitted to the metropolitan hospital received more face-to-face (p > 0.000) and indirect (p > 0.000) physiotherapy when compared to those admitted to rural hospitals. Face-to-face sessions were shorter (p > 0.000). Almost all were seen within 24 hours of referral. Conclusions. Acute stroke patients in Australian rural hospital may receive more occupational therapy and less physiotherapy than those in metropolitan hospitals. The dose of therapy was lower than recommended, and the referral process may unnecessarily delay the time from admission to a patient's first therapy session. PMID:27752389
Pajardi, Giorgio; Bortot, Paola; Ponti, Veronica; Novelli, Chiara
We investigated the clinical usefulness of oral supplementation with a combination product containing alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins in 180 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. Patients in Group A (n = 60) served as controls and did not receive any treatment either before or after surgery. Patients in Group B (n = 60) received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months both before and after surgery (totaling 6 months of supplementation). Patients in Group C (n = 60) received oral supplementation twice a day for 3 months before surgery only. Patients in Group B showed significantly lower nocturnal symptoms scores compared with Group A subjects at both 40 days and 3 months after surgery (both P values <0.05). Moreover, patients in Group B had a significantly lower number of positive Phalen's tests at 3 months compared with the other study groups (P < 0.05). We conclude that oral supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid, curcumin phytosome, and B-group vitamins twice a day both before and after surgery is safe and effective in CTS patients scheduled to undergo surgical decompression of the median nerve. PMID:24563654
Hwang, T L; Huang, S L; Chen, M F
The effects of early postoperative nasoduodenal feeding on nutrition and metabolic response were studied using 24 patients after biliary surgery. The patients were randomly divided into two groups with 12 in each group. Group I was fed via a nasoduodenal tube from the first postoperative day but control group II was not fed until the fourth postoperative day. The hospital blenderized tube feeding diet provided the enteric nutrition (17% protein, 33% fat and 50% carbohydrate). The nutritional status of the 2 groups was compared over a one week period. The changes in nitrogen balance were measured daily for 8 days. The group fed early had a significantly reduced negative nitrogen balance when compared to the group whose feeding was started later. (-1.91 +/- 1.05 g/day vs -5.84 +/- 0.48 g/day). There was no difference in serum albumin and transferrin levels, but serum prealbumin levels in the group fed early were more desirable than those of the control group (from 15.8 +/- 2.5 mg/dl to 28.9 +/- 3.8 mg/dl vs from 18.0 +/- 2.0 mg/dl to 25.9 +/- 3.9 mg/dl). Total lymphocyte count was also better in the group fed early than in the controls (from 1,325 +/- 204 cells/mm3 to 2,655 +/- 584 cells/mm3 vs from 1,277 +/- 188 cells/mm3 to 1,877 +/- 440 cells/mm3). All the patients in group I felt better than those in group II during the study course. These results indicated that those patients provided with early nasoduodenal feeding after a biliary operation displayed a better nitrogen balance, and a faster increase in short half life visceral protein and total lymphocyte count.
Sivolella, Stefano; De Biagi, Marleen; Brunello, Giulia; Berengo, Mario; Pengo, Vittorio
The development of new orally administered anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, in the past few years has focused on avoiding some of the drawbacks associated with warfarin. This work aims to illustrate the main features of the most commonly used new oral anticoagulants, reviewing the current literature on the management of patients taking these drugs and needing oral and implant surgery, and discussing the currently proposed related guidelines.
Zelenock GB. Hypothermia is an independent predictor of mortality in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms . Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2004;38(1):37-42. 8...Factors affecting mortality rates in patients with abdominal vascular injuries. J Trauma. 2001;50 (6):1020-1026. 5. Cushman JG, Feliciano DV, Renz BM...Ann Surg. 1997;226(4):439-447. 12. Johnson JW, Gracias VH, Schwab CW, et al. Evolution in damage control for exsanguinating penetrating abdominal
Carroll, Timothy G; Carroll, Megan G
BACKGROUND Methemoglobinemia due to the administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim has been documented in a series of case reports. However, all of these reports are on adult patients, and all patients received at least daily administration of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim for the treatment of active or suspected infection. CASE REPORT Herein we report the development of methemoglobinemia in a pediatric patient receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim three times weekly for the prophylaxis of opportunistic infections. CONCLUSIONS The clinician should always consider sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, even when administered for opportunistic infection prophylaxis at reduced doses and intervals, as a possible cause of methemoglobinemia.
Weisberg, Risa B.; Beard, Courtney; Moitra, Ethan; Dyck, Ingrid; Keller, Martin B.
Background We examined the adequacy of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders over up to 5 years of follow-up. Method Five hundred thirty-four primary care patients at 15 US sites, who screened positive for anxiety symptoms, were assessed for anxiety disorders. Those meeting anxiety disorder criteria were offered participation and interviewed again at six and 12 months postintake, and yearly thereafter for up to 5 years. We utilized existing definitions of appropriate pharmacotherapy and created definitions of potentially adequate psychotherapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Results At intake, of 534 primary care participants with anxiety disorders, 19% reported receiving appropriate pharmacotherapy and 14% potentially adequate CBT. Overall, 28% of participants reported receiving potentially adequate anxiety treatment, whether pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both. Over up to five years of follow-up, appropriate pharmacotherapy was received by 60% and potentially adequate CBT by 36% of the sample. Examined together, 69% of participants received any potentially adequate treatment during the follow-up period. Over the course of follow-up, primary care patients with MDD, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and with medicaid/medicare were more likely to receive appropriate anxiety treatment. Ethnic minority members were less likely to receive potentially adequate care. Conclusions Potentially adequate anxiety treatment was rarely received by primary care patients with anxiety disorders at intake. Encouragingly, rates improved over the course of the study. However, potentially adequate CBT remained much less utilized than pharmacotherapy and racial-ethnic minority members were less likely to received care, suggesting much room for improved dissemination of quality treatment. PMID:24190762
Logan, Deirdre E; Rose, John B
The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in anticipatory emotional distress, coping strategies, post-operative pain perception, and patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) use among adolescent surgical patients. One hundred and two 12-18-year-old adolescents undergoing surgeries with overnight hospital stay were recruited. Participants completed pre-operative measures of anxiety and anticipated pain. Post-operatively, they reported on coping skills, post-operative anxiety, and pain. Data on PCA use were recorded from medical records. Girls reported higher levels of pre-operative state anxiety and anticipated more pain. After surgery, girls and boys differed on their lowest daily pain ratings and average daily pain ratings, with girls reporting more pain in both cases. Reports of highest daily pain were similar across genders. Gender was found to moderate the relationship between anticipatory distress and post-operative pain, such that higher anticipatory distress before surgery predicted more post-operative pain for girls, but not for boys. Patterns of PCA use did not vary by gender on post-operative days 0 or 1. Findings suggest that adolescent boys' and girls' pain experiences are different in several important respects, although somewhat less divergent than has been reported in samples of adult males and females. Results have implications for the development of targeted intervention strategies to help adolescents cope effectively with acute post-operative pain.
Scheitler, L E; Hart, N; Phillips, G; Weinberg, J B
Anticoagulation therapy is used to treat patients with a variety of hemostatic disorders in an attempt to prevent thrombus formation. A thorough understanding of the patient's medical history is essential before dental treatment that may require alteration of this anticoagulation therapy. Alteration of anticoagulation therapy should be undertaken only after consultation with the patient's physician because some patients are at greater risk than others for thrombus formation or hemorrhage. This case of a 29-year-old man with plasminogen activator deficiency illustrates how consultation can result in a coordinated treatment plan for medical and dental management formulated to help ensure safe surgical treatment for these medically compromised patients.
Sundareswaran, Kartik S; de Zelicourt, Diane; Pekkan, Kerem; Jayaprakash, Gopinath; Kim, David; Whited, Brian; Rossignac, Jarek; Fogel, Mark A; Kanter, Kirk R; Yoganathan, Ajit P
Single ventricle congenital heart defects, which are characterized by cyanotic mixing between the oxygenated and de-oxygenated blood, afflict 2 per every 1000 live births. These defects are surgically treated by connecting the superior and inferior vena cava to the pulmonary arteries. However, such a configuration (also known as the total cavopulmonary connection), results in high energy losses and therefore the optimization of this connection prior to the surgery could significantly improve post-operative performance. In this paper, a surgical planning framework is proposed. It is exemplified on a patient with pre and post surgical MRI data. A pediatric surgeon performed a "virtual surgery" on the reconstruction of the patient's anatomy prior to the actual surgery. Post-operative hemodynamics in the virtually designed post-surgical anatomy and in the actual one are computed using computational fluid dynamics and compared to each other. This framework provides the surgeon to envision numerous scenarios of possible surgical options, and accordingly predict the post operative hemodynamics.
Gavrilov, A O; Seĭdinov, Sh M; Iusupov, A A
Treatment results of 1219 patients of elderly and senile age, hospitalized in surgical departments of Turkestan during 2001-2008 were analyzed. Demographic characteristics, spectrum of profile pathology as well as concurrent diseases were given. Operative activity and average hospital stay, hospital lethality and complication rates were defined.
Zimpfer, David G.; DeMocker, Janice D.
Although a connection between physical health and emotional well-being has long been recognized, health caregivers have only recently begun to focus on the influence of illness or disability on attitudes and behaviors. Groups have been organized for therapeutic, supportive, or orientational purposes with general medical-surgical patients. Group…
Taheri, Ahmad Reza; Farahvash, Mohamad Reza; Fathi, Hamid Reza; Ghanbarzadeh, Koorosh; Faridniya, Bijan
BACKGROUND Surgery, as the main approach in higher stages of gynecomastia, has different techniques regarding the staging of the disease. The more the grade of gynecomastia, the more complicated the used surgical techniques, conventionally. This study assessed the success rate of the simplest surgical technique in higher grades of gynecology as well as the satisfaction rate in patients and surgeon to offer using the technique for higher grades of the disease. METHODS To evaluate the success and the satisfaction rates of periareolar incision and liposuction among patients with grade II and III gynecomastia, this cross-sectional study was conducted. RESULTS The satisfaction rate was the main concern of the present study. The patients had a mean satisfaction score of 8.1±1.396 with the range of 5-10 from total 10 score. The majority of the patients expressed their satisfaction by 9 score. The total mean of physician satisfaction score was 8.36 at all levels. CONCLUSION Like aesthetic reasons which lead individuals to seek solutions for their annoying gynecomastia, aesthetic satisfaction is a prominent concern for people who undergo surgical approach. So, the least surgical scar and complications are absolutely the most area of focus in this regard. PMID:27853693
Holland, Luke C; Navaratnarajah, Manoraj; Taggart, David P
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: In patients with angina pectoris refractory to medical therapy, does surgical sympathectomy improve clinical outcomes? A total of 528 papers were identified using the search protocol described, of which 6 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. There were 5 case series and 1 prospective cohort study. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. All 5 of the case series demonstrated an improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance or quality of life in patients undergoing surgical sympathectomy. An early case series investigating an open approach had a high morbidity and mortality rate, but the 4 other series used a minimally invasive technique and had low morbidity and zero perioperative mortality rates. The cohort study compared surgical sympathectomy with transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMR) and concluded TMR to be superior. However, this study looked only at unilateral sympathectomy, whereas all 5 case series focused on bilateral surgery. We conclude that the best currently available evidence does suggest that patients report an improvement in their symptoms and quality of life following surgical sympathectomy, but the low level of this evidence does not allow for a statistically proved recommendation.
Uygur, Safak; Tuncer, Serhan
Raynaud's phenomenon is a common clinical disorder consisting of recurrent, long-lasting and episodic vasospasm of the fingers and toes often associated with exposure to cold. In this article, we present a case of partial fingertip necrosis following digital surgical procedure in a patient with primary Raynaud's phenomenon.
Nilsen, Stacy L; Stone, Wendy L; Burleson, Stephanie L
Nurses report a negative, stereotypical, and moralistic view of substance-abusing patients. Unaddressed bias may impede delivery of quality care. There is limited research of the needs specific to medical-surgical nursing staff interacting with substance-abusing patients. Nursing therapeutic commitment refers to the degree the nurse feels prepared with an adequate knowledge base, professional support, and personal ownership of a patient condition. Low therapeutic commitment correlates with job dissatisfaction. The Drug and Drug Problems Perceptions Questionnaire assesses healthcare provider attitude and therapeutic commitment to patients using or abusing medication or illicit substances. This therapeutic commitment survey serves as a staff needs assessment for a targeted educational innovation. The results show that the medical and surgical nursing staff has a constructive attitude and a moderately high degree of therapeutic commitment to the drug-abusing patient population, similar to more specialized multidisciplinary, mental healthcare workers. This study showed that medical-surgical nurses feel professionally responsible and clinically supported with patients with primary or comorbid drug abuse. Consistent with established results, focused and ongoing education on the risk factors, outcomes, and physical and psychological effects of illicit substances is necessary to improve therapeutic commitment to drug-dependent patients.
Böhm, K; Carstens, C
Between 1974 and 1991, 100 equinovarus deformities in 65 patients with myelomeningocele have been primary operated at the authors clinic. Aim of our treatment was a plantigrade position of the foot, to give the possibility of an orthetic supply. 75% of our patients reached this result after the first operation, 25% had to be operated once more. The incision was done in the way of Cincinnati. According to the level and type of paralysis the operative treatment had to be adapted. We could reach good results of treatment in group 1 (thoracal to L2) with 64% of plantigrade feed as well as in group 3 (L5 to sacral) with 61%. Group 2 (L4 to L5) was worse with 32%. Within all types of paralysis there was a better result while doing a tenotomy. Paralysed muscles should be cut, innervated muscles should be extended to keep the function. Important is the reconstruction of a balance of the muscles. While you have a forefoot varus, a plentiful medial release is necessary. After the operation a cast was given for 8 to 12 weeks, followed by special shoes and nightly storage in stales. Corresponding to the treatment of idiopathic equinovarus deformity the beginning of therapy should be started after birth and should be completed while the child begins to verticalize.
Macduff, C; Mackenzie, T; Hutcheon, A; Melville, L; Archibald, H
The aim of this study was to establish the effectiveness of scalp cooling in preventing alopecia for patients with breast cancer who received the trial combination chemotherapy of Epirubicin and Docetaxel. Doubt remains about the general effectiveness of scalp cooling in preventing hair loss for patients receiving chemotherapy. There is very little information available about its specific effectiveness with combinations of Taxanes and Anthracycline drugs. Of the 40 patients who received this drug combination, 10 were included in a pilot study whereas the remaining 30 constituted the main study sample. A randomized controlled study was undertaken whereby the intervention group received scalp cooling via gel cool caps and the control group received no specific preventative intervention. Nurses assessed participants' hair loss using a modified version of the WHO scale at seven time points and also recorded hair loss photographically. Two independent experts rated the photographs using the same scale. Patients self-reported in relation to overall hair loss, hair condition, levels of emotional upset, negativity about appearance, hair re-growth and wig use. Significantly greater hair loss was apparent in the control group during most of the treatment period. However, the level of protection afforded by the cool caps was relatively poor with this chemotherapy combination. The marginal benefits of scalp cooling in this context must be clearly explained to patients.
Shim, Woo Hyun; Xu, Hai; Choi, Chang-Min; Kim, Hyeong Ryul; Lee, Jung Bok
Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if preoperative quantitative computed tomography (CT) features including texture and histogram analysis measurements are associated with tumor recurrence in patients with surgically resected adenocarcinoma of the lung. Methods The study included 194 patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma who underwent preoperative CT between January 2013 and December 2013. Quantitative CT feature analysis of the lung adenocarcinomas were performed using in-house software based on plug-in package for ImageJ. Ten quantitative features demonstrating the tumor size, attenuation, shape and texture were extracted. The CT parameters obtained from 1-mm and 5-mm data were compared using intraclass correlation coefficients. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods were used to investigate the association between tumor recurrence and preoperative CT findings. Results The 1-mm and 5-mm data were highly correlated in terms of diameter, perimeter, area, mean attenuation and entropy. Circularity and aspect ratio were moderately correlated. However, skewness and kurtosis were poorly correlated. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that area (odds ratio [OR], 1.002 for each 1-mm2 increase; P = 0.003) and mean attenuation (OR, 1.005 for each 1.0-Hounsfield unit increase; P = 0.022) were independently associated with recurrence. The receiver operating curves using these two independent predictive factors showed high diagnostic performance in predicting recurrence (C-index = 0.81, respectively). Conclusion Tumor area and mean attenuation are independently associated with recurrence in patients with surgically resected adenocarcinoma of the lung. PMID:28068363
Sheĭko, V D; Oganezian, A H
The results of examination and treatment of 56 patients, having local accumulations of liquid (IAL) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), were analyzed. Transcutaneous puncture-draining sanation was performed in 47 (83.9%) patients; 7 (12.5%)--were treated without surgical intervention; in 2 (3.6%)--open operative interventions were done. SIRS was revealed in 31 (55.4%) patients, the signs of the LAL infectioning in accordance to the ultrasonographic investigation data, computeric tomography (CT) without SIRS was observed in 2 (93.6%), the compression features--in 45 (80.4%). Application of surgical tactics proposed in accordance to the data of the ultrasonographic monitoring of LAL, the signs of compression and the SIRS presence with determination of contents and infectioning have had permitted to improve the treatment results in patients, suffering SAP.
Urrutia, Julio; Postigo, Roberto; Larrondo, Roberto; Martin, Aliro San
Vertebral hemangiomas (VHs) are frequently asymptomatic lesions found incidentally during investigations for other spinal problems. Symptomatic VHs are less common, and there are few reports of compressive VHs in the literature. VHs with aggressive behavior present with low signal intensity on T1-weighted and high signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI. We present a case series of four patients with compressive VH, all of whom were neurologically compromised. Each of the four patients underwent preoperative arterial embolization followed by surgical treatment of their VHs. All patients recovered normal motor function after surgery. At follow-up (average 53 months), one patient had a recurrent tumor requiring reoperation and radiotherapy. Although it is rare, aggressive VH can be a devastating condition. Total surgical resection or subtotal resection with radiotherapy may be warranted.
Nolli, M; Barbieri, A; Pinna, C; Pasetto, A; Nicosia, F
We report a clinical and neuroradiological description of a severe case of Wernicke's encephalopathy in a surgical patient. After colonic surgery for neoplasm, he was treated for a long time with high glucose concentration total parenteral nutrition. In the early post-operative period, the patient showed severe encephalopathy with ataxia, ophthalmoplegia and consciousness disorders. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm the clinical suspicion of Wernicke's encephalopathy. The radiological feature showed hyperintense lesions which were symmetrically distributed along the bulbo-pontine tegmentum, the tectum of the mid-brain, the periacqueductal grey substance, the hypothalamus and the medial periventricular parts of the thalamus. This progressed to typical Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome with ataxia and memory and cognitive defects. Thiamine deficiency is a re-emerging problem in non-alcoholic patients and it may develop in surgical patients with risk factors such as malnutrition, prolonged vomiting and long-term high glucose concentration parenteral nutrition.
Hansen, Melissa Voigt
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively
Breik, O; Cheng, A; Sambrook, Pj; Goss, An
New anticoagulants are being introduced into the market. These drugs are orally administered, have predictable pharmacokinetics and dose response, do not require monitoring and have an acceptable safety profile when used appropriately, and so avoid many of the disadvantages and possible complications of warfarin and heparin. Dabigatran is the most widely used, and has been approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration. The use of dabigatran will likely increase in the coming years, and so it is important for dentists to be aware of its mechanism of action, the possible complications, and how to reverse the bleeding if it occurs. This review discusses dabigatran and reports on our experience of five cases, and provides practical clinical advice on how to manage patients on dabigatran who require dental treatment, particularly extractions.
Monroe, Heidi; Plylar, Peggy; Krugman, Mary
Higher patient acuities and more novice nurses on medical-surgical units have Educators focused on achieving positive outcomes with changes in patient condition. An educational program was developed to enhance nurses' knowledge, skill, and confidence in assessing hemodynamics, recognizing early signs of instability, and administering vasoactive medications. The program was successful with significant knowledge improvement as well as an increased use of the Medical Emergency Team while maintaining a low number of code calls.
Jun, Hyo Sub; Ahn, JunHyong; Song, Joon Ho
Cases of spontaneous regression of cerebral aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping have been rarely reported. This paper reports the regression of an aneurysm remnant after incomplete surgical clipping during postsurgical follow-up. A 50-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage because of rupture of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. An emergency clipping of the aneurysm was performed. A cerebral angiography, which was performed two weeks postoperatively, revealed an aneurysm remnant. The patient refused additional treatment and was discharged without apparent neurological deficit. One-year follow up cerebral angiography demonstrated a partially regressed aneurysm remnant. PMID:28184353
Doherty, Carole; Saunders, Mark N K
This research explores how elective surgical patients make sense of their hospitalization experiences. We explore sensemaking using longitudinal narrative interviews (n=72) with 38 patients undergoing elective surgical procedures between June 2010 and February 2011. We consider patients' narratives, the stories they tell of their prior expectations, and subsequent post-surgery experiences of their care in a United Kingdom (UK) hospital. An emergent pre-surgery theme is that of a paradoxical position in which they choose to make themselves vulnerable by agreeing to surgery to enhance their health, this necessitating trust of clinicians (doctors and nurses). To make sense of their situation, patients draw on technical (doctors' expert knowledge and skills), bureaucratic (National Health Service as a revered institution) and ideological (hospitals as places of safety), discourses. Post-operatively, themes of 'chaos' and 'suffering' emerge from the narratives of patients whose pre-surgery expectations (and trust) have been violated. Their stories tell of unmet expectations and of inability to make shared sense of experiences with clinicians who are responsible for their care. We add to knowledge of how patients play a critical part in the co-construction of safety by demonstrating how patient-clinician intersubjectivity contributes to the type of harm that patients describe. Our results suggest that approaches to enhancing patients' safety will be limited if they fail to reflect patients' involvement in the negotiated process of healthcare. We also provide further evidence of the contribution narrative inquiry can make to patient safety.
Carlson, Matthew L; Archibald, David J; Graner, Darlene E; Kasperbauer, Jan L
Large projecting ventral cervical osteophytes are associated with senile degenerative skeletal disease, post-traumatic osteophytogenesis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). The vast majority of patients with cervical osteophytes are asymptomatic. However, in a small subset this condition may lead to upper aerodigestive compromise manifesting as dysphagia and/or airway obstruction. Conservative medical therapy is usually sufficient, but patients with intractable disease may require surgical intervention, including tracheostomy, feeding tube placement, or osteophytectomy. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who presented to a tertiary referral center over a decade (1998-2008) with complaints of dysphagia and/or respiratory compromise and underwent osteophytectomy for treatment of recalcitrant symptoms. A total of nine patients met criteria. Six patients were diagnosed with DISH, two with trauma-associated osteophytogenesis, and one with senile degenerative vertebral disease. The mean age was 68 years and included seven males and two females. All patients had symptoms of dysphagia and two had simultaneous airway complaints. All patients underwent an anterolateral approach for osteophyte decompression, one of which required concurrent tracheostomy. Following surgery, 100% of patients had significant improvement in dysphagia and respiratory complaints. Eight of nine patients returned to an unrestricted diet and only one required postoperative abstinence from bulky foods; both patients with additional airway complaints were successfully decannulated after surgery. Degenerative conditions and DISH may lead to osteophyte-associated dysphagia and/or airway complaints. Surgical decompression through osteophytectomy is an effective alternative to tracheostomy and feeding tube in carefully selected patients and should be considered for surgically fit patients who fail conservative medical management.
Locatelli, M; Bertani, G; Carrabba, G; Rampini, P; Zavanone, M; Caroli, M; Sala, E; Ferrante, E; Gaini, S M; Spada, A; Mantovani, G; Lania, A
In western countries, the process of "ageing of the population" is increasingly forcing clinical medicine to find answers for pathologies affecting the elder segments of our community. In this respect, pituitary adenomas often raise difficult questions on surgical indications, since little is known about postoperative morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. The transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS), which is considered the gold standard for surgical resection of the majority of functioning and non-functioning pituitary adenomas, is supposed to be a low morbidity and mortality procedure in adult patients. However, only a few contradicting data are available in the literature about elderly patients. In this paper we retrospectively analyze a cohort of 43 consecutive patients aged more than 65 years, operated on for pituitary adenomas at our Institution in the years 1998-2007. These patients were treated by transsphenoidal endonasal approach (TNS) for resection of non-functioning pituitary adenomas (n = 31), GH-secreting adenomas (n = 4) and ACTH-secreting adenomas (n = 8). Clinical records reported a macroadenoma with tumour-related mass symptoms in about 80 % of patients; single or multiple pituitary deficits were present in 44 % of patients. Regarding comorbidities, cardiac disease was the most frequently observed (86 %); assessment of anaesthesiological risk indicated a moderate to severe ASA score in most patients, 11 % showing a 4-5 score. On the basis of current criteria, our retrospective analysis revealed that cure was achieved in 54 % of patients. The outcome was similar to that observed in the general population of patients undergoing transphenoidal surgery in our centre, without differences in the rate of surgical and endocrinological cure, minor and major surgical complications and hospitalization duration. In particular, no significant anaesthesiological complications were observed and no patient developed either permanent diabetes
Bonfils, S; Landor, J H; Mignon, M; Hervoir, P
Hospital records and follow-up information on 92 patients with surgically proven Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have been reviewed, and data relating to symptomatology, age and sex incidence, pathologic findings, and early and late results of surgical procedures have been summarized. The postoperative mortality rate was 15%, and was adversely affected by previous peptic ulcer surgery, by the necessity of urgent operation for complications of peptic ulcer, and by employment of a procedure that failed to control acid secretion. Thirteen patients were found to have primary gastrinomas of the duodenum and an additional 13 patients had islet cell hyperplasia without evidence of frank neoplasm; prognosis in these two groups appears to be particularly favorable. Despite the current availability of effective nonoperative measures for control of gastric hypersecretion, surgical exploration is warranted in all patients to determine location and extent of tumor and to attempt to control the ulcer diathesis by resection of tumor. Long-term therapy with H2 receptor antagonists is advised for patients whose hypersecretory state has not been alleviated by tumor resection or whose gastrinoma cannot be removed. Total gastrectomy is still indicated in patients whose tumors are not amenable to resection and who are resistant to, or cannot follow, a rigid medical regimen.
Bonfils, S; Landor, J H; Mignon, M; Hervoir, P
Hospital records and follow-up information on 92 patients with surgically proven Zollinger-Ellison syndrome have been reviewed, and data relating to symptomatology, age and sex incidence, pathologic findings, and early and late results of surgical procedures have been summarized. The postoperative mortality rate was 15%, and was adversely affected by previous peptic ulcer surgery, by the necessity of urgent operation for complications of peptic ulcer, and by employment of a procedure that failed to control acid secretion. Thirteen patients were found to have primary gastrinomas of the duodenum and an additional 13 patients had islet cell hyperplasia without evidence of frank neoplasm; prognosis in these two groups appears to be particularly favorable. Despite the current availability of effective nonoperative measures for control of gastric hypersecretion, surgical exploration is warranted in all patients to determine location and extent of tumor and to attempt to control the ulcer diathesis by resection of tumor. Long-term therapy with H2 receptor antagonists is advised for patients whose hypersecretory state has not been alleviated by tumor resection or whose gastrinoma cannot be removed. Total gastrectomy is still indicated in patients whose tumors are not amenable to resection and who are resistant to, or cannot follow, a rigid medical regimen. PMID:7030236
Valente, Katarina Papera; Silva, Naira Marceli Fraga; Faioli, Amanda Barcelos; Barreto, Marina Abelha; de Moraes, Rafael Araújo Guedes; Guandalini, Valdete Regina
ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the correlation between thickness of the muscle adductor pollicis and anthropometric measurements, body mass index and Subjective Global Assessment in the nutritional assessment of surgical patients. Methods The study population comprised patients admitted to the general and reconstructive surgery unit of a university hospital in the city of Vitória (ES), Brazil. The inclusion criteria were patients evaluated in the first 48 hours of admission, aged ≥20 years, hemodynamically stable, with no edema or ascites. Data analysis was performed using the software Statistical Package for Social Science 21.0, significance level of 5%. Results The sample consisted of 150 patients that were candidates to surgery, mean age of 42.7±12.0 years. The most common reasons for hospitalization were surgical procedures, gastrintestinal diseases and neoplasm. Significant association was observed between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and Subjective Global Assessment (p=0.021) and body mass index (p=0.008) for nutritional risk. Significant correlation was found between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and arm muscle circumference, corrected arm muscle area, calf circumference and body mass index. There were no significant correlations between thickness of adductor pollicis muscle and triceps skinfold and age. Conclusion The use of thickness of adductor pollicis muscle proved to be an efficient method to detect malnutrition in surgical patients and it should be added to the screening process of hospitalized patients, since it is easy to perform, inexpensive and noninvasive. PMID:27074229
Russell, David G.; Kimura, Melissa N.; Cowie, Harriet R.; de Groot, Caroline M.M.; McMinn, Elise A.P.; Sherson, Matthew W.
Objective The purpose of this case series is to report on symptomatic and quality of life (QoL) changes in 7 older adult chiropractic patients who were receiving care using Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Clinical Features Seven patients were selected from 2 chiropractic offices in Auckland, New Zealand. Patients were included if they were older adults receiving AMCT care and for whom at least 2 QoL assessments had been performed. The patients, aged 69-80 years, primarily received care for a variety of musculoskeletal complaints. Intervention and Outcomes The patients reported improvements in their presenting complaints as well as a number of nonmusculoskeletal symptoms. Each patient demonstrated clinical improvements in their RAND 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) results. The average improvement in QoL measured using a SF-36 questionnaire was 8.0 points in the physical component and 4.1 points in the mental component. Four cases had a second progress evaluation using the SF-36 and showed an overall improvement of 5.2 in the physical and 9.8 in the mental components from baseline. Conclusion This case series describes an improvement in QoL, as measured by the SF-36 instrument, as well as subjectively reported improvements in both musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal symptoms in 7 older adults receiving chiropractic care. PMID:27069434
McHugh, Seamus Mark; Corrigan, Mark; Dimitrov, Borislav; Cowman, Seamus; Tierney, Sean; Humphreys, Hilary; Hill, Arnold
Introduction: Surgical site infection accounts for 20% of all health care-associated infections (HCAIs); however, a program incorporating the education of surgeons has yet to be established across the specialty. Methods: An audit of surgical practice in infection prevention was carried out in Beaumont Hospital from July to November 2009. An…
Boyle, Diane K; Cramer, Emily; Potter, Catima; Gatua, Mary W; Stobinski, James X
Specialty certification enhances patient safety in health care by validating that practice is consistent with standards of excellence. The purpose of this research was to explore the relationship between direct-care, specialty-certified nurses employed in perioperative units, surgical intensive care units (SICUs), and surgical units and nursing-sensitive patient outcomes in SICUs and surgical units. Lower rates of central-line-associated bloodstream infections in SICUs were significantly associated with higher rates of CPAN (certified postanesthesia nurse) (β = -0.09, P = .05) and CNOR/CRNFA (certified nurse operating room/certified RN first assistant) (β = -0.17, P = .00) certifications in perioperative units. Unexpectedly, higher rates of CNOR/CRNFA certification in perioperative units were associated with higher rates of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (β = 0.08, P = .03) and unit-acquired pressure ulcers (β = 0.13, P = .00), possibly because of a higher risk of pressure ulcers in the patient population. Additional research is needed to clarify this relationship. Our findings lend credence to perioperative, SICU, and surgical nurses participating in lifelong learning and continuous professional development, including achievement of specialty certification.
Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972
Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis are serious complications of non-surgical patients, but scarcity of data documenting prophylaxis means antithrombotic therapy is rarely used. Prediction of risk is complicated by the variation in the medical conditions associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE), and lack of data defining risk in different groups. Accurate risk assessment is further confounded by inherited or acquired factors for VTE, additional risk due to medical interventions, and interactions between risk factors. Acquired and inherited risk factors may underlie thromboembolic complications in a range of conditions, including pregnancy, ischaemic stroke, myocardial infarction and cancer. Risk stratification may be feasible in non-surgical patients by considering individual risk factors and their cumulative effects. Current risk assessment models require expansion and modification to reflect emerging evidence in the non-surgical field. A large on-going study of prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin in non-surgical patients will clarify our understanding of the components of risk, and assist in developing therapy recommendations.
Kryzhanivs'ka, A Ie
The results of treatment of 127 patients, suffering cervix uteri cancer stage IIB in period of 1998 - 2012 yrs, were analyzed. Complications of surgical stage of the combined treatment have had occurred in 40.9% patients, including 40.5% patients, to whom neoadjuvant chemotherapy was conducted and in 41.5%--radiation therapy (RTH). The main postoperative complications--retroperitoneal lymphatic cysts--were revealed in 35.4% patients. The factors, raising the risk of postoperative complications occurrence, are following: the primary tumor spreading, metastatic affection of lymphatic nodes of pelvic cavity, preoperative conduction of RTH or chemotherapy.
Porciúncula, Guilherme Machado; Koerich, Leonardo; Eidson, Lindsey; Gandini Junior, Luiz Gonzaga; Gonçalves, João Roberto
This case report describes the interdisciplinary treatment of a 19-year-old Brazilian man with a Class I malocclusion, a hyperdivergent profile, an anterior open bite, and signs of temporomandibular joint internal derangement. The treatment plan included evaluation with a temporomandibular joint specialist and a rheumatologist, orthodontic appliances, and maxillomandibular surgical advancement with counterclockwise rotation. Cone-beam computed tomography images were taken before and after surgery at different times and superimposed at the cranial base to assess the changes after orthognathic surgery and to monitor quantitatively the internal derangement of the temporomandibular joints and surgical relapse. Our protocol can improve the orthodontist's understanding of surgical instability, demonstrate the clinical value of cone-beam computed tomography analysis beyond the multiplanar reconstruction, and guide patient management for the best outcome possible.
Liao, T-L; Chen, Y-M; Chen, D-Y
Increasing evidence indicates that the risk of cryptococcal infections is increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the association between cryptococcosis and immunosuppressive medications in RA patients is still uncertain and little is known about risk factors for cryptococcal disease among RA patients. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to investigate the epidemiology of RA patients with cryptococcosis in a medical centre during the period 2001-14. We estimated ORs with 95% CI for cryptococcosis according to co-morbidities and immunosuppressive medications by using backward stepwise logistic regression. Among 9132 newly diagnosed RA patients, 20 (0.22%) were newly diagnosed with cryptococcal infection after RA identification. All cryptococcosis cases had been receiving corticosteroid treatment for some time (3.9±3.3 years) before infection. After full adjustment, chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR (aOR) 2.72, 95% CI 1.04-7.08, p 0.041) was a significant risk factor for cryptococcosis in RA patients. Exposure to adalimumab (monoclonal anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies) (aOR 4.50, 95% CI 1.03-19.66, p 0.046) were significantly associated with increased risks of cryptococcosis. Time to cryptococcosis diagnosis among RA patients receiving anti-TNF biologicals was shorter than in patients not receiving anti-TNF biologicals (1.5±1.2 years versus 8.4±5.5 years, p<0.001). Among RA patients, the risk for development of cryptococcosis was higher among those who had chronic kidney disease and were receiving the monoclonal anti-TNF antibody adalimumab. Therefore, we suggest that cryptococcal infection should be suspected in RA patients with risk factors.
Godoy, Ilda; Tanni, Suzana Erico; Hernández, Carme; Godoy, Irma
Purpose Long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is one of the main treatments for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Patients receiving LTOT may have less than optimal home conditions and this may interfere with treatment. The objective of this study was, through home visits, to identify the characteristics of patients receiving LTOT and to develop knowledge regarding the home environments of these patients. Methods Ninety-seven patients with a mean age of 69 plus or minus 10.5 years were evaluated. This study was a cross-sectional descriptive analysis. Data were collected during an initial home visit, using a questionnaire standardized for the study. The results were analyzed retrospectively. Results Seventy-five percent of the patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and 11% were active smokers. The patients’ mean pulse oximetry values were 85.9% plus or minus 4.7% on room air and 92% plus or minus 3.9% on the prescribed flow of oxygen. Most of the patients did not use the treatment as prescribed and most used a humidifier. The extension hose had a mean length of 5 plus or minus 3.9 m (range, 1.5–16 m). In the year prior to the visit, 26% of the patients received emergency medical care because of respiratory problems. Few patients reported engaging in leisure activities. Conclusion The home visit allowed us to identify problems and interventions that could improve the way LTOT is used. The most common interventions related to smoking cessation, concentrator maintenance and cleaning, use of a humidifier, and adjustments of the length of the connector hose. Therefore, the home visit is a very important tool in providing comprehensive care to patients receiving LTOT, especially those who show lack of adequate progress and those who show uncertainty about the treatment method. PMID:22848155
Yeh, Chun-Nan; Hsieh, Feng-Jen; Chiang, Kun-Chun; Chen, Jen-Shi; Yeh, Ta-Sen; Jan, Yi-Yin; Chen, Miin-Fu
Background Several unfavorable prognostic factors have been proposed for peripheral cholangiocarcinoma (PCC) in patients undergoing hepatectomy, including gross type of tumor, vascular invasion, lymph node metastasis, a high carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and a positive resection margin. However, the clinical effect of a positive surgical margin on the survival of patients with PCC after hepatectomy still needs to be clarified due to conflicting results. Methods A total of 224 PCC patients who underwent hepatic resection with curative intent between 1977 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-nine patients had a positive resection margin, with 62 having a microscopically positive margin and 27 a grossly positive margin (R2). The clinicopathological features, outcomes, and recurrence pattern were compared with patients with curative hepatectomy. Results PCC patients with hepatolithiasis, periductal infiltrative or periductal infiltrative mixed with mass-forming growth, higher T stage, and more advanced stage tended to have higher positive resection margin rates after hepatectomy. PCC patients who underwent curative hepatectomy had a significantly higher survival rate than did those with a positive surgical margin. When PCC patients underwent hepatectomy with a positive resection margin, the histological grade of the tumor, nodal positivity, and chemotherapy significantly affected overall survival. Locoregional recurrence was the most common pattern of recurrence. Conclusion A positive resection margin had an unfavorable effect on overall survival in PCC patients undergoing hepatectomy. In these patients, the prognosis was determined by the biology of the tumor, including differentiation and nodal positivity, and chemotherapy increased overall survival. PMID:25552905
Schulman, S; Angerås, U; Bergqvist, D; Eriksson, B; Lassen, M R; Fisher, W
The definition of major bleeding varies between studies on surgical patients, particularly regarding the criteria for surgical wound-related bleeding. This diversity contributes to the difficulties in comparing data between trials. The Scientific and Standardization Committee (SSC), through its subcommittee on Control of Anticoagulation, of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis has previously published a recommendation for a harmonized definition of major bleeding in non-surgical studies. That definition has been adopted by the European Medicines Agency and is currently used in several non-surgical trials. A preliminary proposal for a parallel definition for surgical studies was presented at the 54(th) Annual Meeting of the SSC in Vienna, July 2008. Based on those discussions and further consultations with European and North American surgeons with experience from clinical trials a definition has been developed that should be applicable to all agents that interfere with hemostasis. The definition and the text that follows have been reviewed and approved by relevant co-chairs of the subcommittee and by the Executive Committee of the SSC. The intention is to seek approval of this definition from the regulatory authorities to enhance its incorporation into future clinical trial protocols.
Gibbs, Verna C
The three surgical patient safety events, wrong site surgery, retained surgical items (RSI) and surgical fires are rare occurrences and thus their effects on the complex modern operating room (OR) are difficult to study. The likelihood of occurrence and the magnitude of risk for each of these surgical safety events are undefined. Many providers may never have a personal experience with one of these events and training and education on these topics are sparse. These circumstances lead to faulty thinking that a provider won't ever have an event or if one does occur the provider will intuitively know what to do. Surgeons are not preoccupied with failure and tend to usually consider good outcomes, which leads them to ignore or diminish the importance of implementing and following simple safety practices. These circumstances contribute to the persistent low level occurrence of these three events and to the difficulty in generating sufficient interest to resource solutions. Individual facilities rarely have the time or talent to understand these events and develop lasting solutions. More often than not, even the most well meaning internal review results in a new line to a policy and some rigorous enforcement mandate. This approach routinely fails and is another reason why these problems are so persistent. Vigilance actions alone have been unsuccessful so hospitals now have to take a systematic approach to implementing safer processes and providing the resources for surgeons and other stakeholders to optimize the OR environment. This article discusses standardized processes of care for mitigation of injury or outright prevention of wrong site surgery, RSI and surgical fires in an action-oriented framework illustrating the strategic elements important in each event and focusing on the responsibilities for each of the three major OR agents-anesthesiologists, surgeons and nurses. A Surgical Patient Safety Checklist is discussed that incorporates the necessary elements to
Nair, Krishna Kumar Mohanan; Ganapathi, Sanjay; Sasidharan, Bijulal; Thajudeen, Anees; Pillai, Harikrishnan Sivadasan; Tharakan, Jaganmohan; Titus, Thomas; Kumaran, Ajitkumar Valaparambil; Sivasubramonian, Sivasankaran; Krishnamoorthy, Kavassery Mahadevan
Background: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after surgical repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is often asymptomatic and may be detected by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). The severity of RV dysfunction is more after intracardiac repair with transannular patch (TAP). Methods: One hundred seventy-three adult patients who have undergone surgical repair for TOF were prospectively analyzed for RV function using 2D echocardiography and TDI. RV function was compared between patients who have undergone intracardiac repair with and without TAP. Results: In both the patient sub-groups, TDI derived myocardial performance index (MPI) and myocardial velocities were abnormal even when 2D echocardiography derived RV functional area change was normal. TDI derived MPI was significantly higher (0.5 ± 0.1 vs. 0.4 ± 0 P < 0.001) and Systolic tricuspid annular velocity (Sa) (9.2 ± 1.3 vs. 10.8 ± 1.6 P < 0.001) was significantly lower in the TAP group. Older age at surgery and severity of pulmonary regurgitation on follow-up were among the significant predictors of TDI derived MPI. Conclusions: Asymptomatic RV dysfunction in surgically repaired adult TOF atients can be detected by TDI. Extent of RV dysfunction was significantly greater with patients requiring TAP, in those operated at older age, and in patients with severe pulmonary regurgitation. PMID:23626431
Liang, Chengwei; Yang, Fengjian; Lin, Weilong; Fan, Yongqian
Aim: To compare the efficacies of four surgical treatments, i.e., total hip arthroplasty (THA), internal fixation (IF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and artificial femoral head replacement (artificial FHR), by performing a network meta-analysis based on Harris hip score (HHS) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: In strict accordance with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were screened and selected from a larger group of studies that were retrieved through a comprehensive search of scientific literature databases, further complimented by manual search. The resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 3680 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 15 RCTs were eventually incorporated into this meta-analysis, containing 1781 elderly patients who had undergone various surgical treatments for femoral neck fracture (THA group = 604; HA group = 604; IF group = 495; artificial FHR group = 78). Our major result revealed a statistically significant difference in HHS of femoral neck fracture when HA and IF groups were compared with THA. No differences were detected in the HHS of femoral neck fracture undergoing artificial FHR and THA. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value of HHS, in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture after surgery, revealed that IF has the highest value. Conclusions: The current network meta-analysis results suggest that IF is the superlative surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture patients, and IF significantly improves the HHS in femoral neck fracture patients. PMID:26221216
Langmayr, J J; Ortler, M; Dessl, A; Twerdy, K; Aichner, F; Felber, S
Spinal cord compression due to extradural and subdural haemorrhage is a neurosurgical emergency. Differences in clinical presentation in relation to localisation of the haematoma, value of MRI as a diagnostic tool, surgical treatment, and prognosis were investigated in a retrospective case series of eight patients with extradural (n = four) and subdural (n = four) haematomas. Results of MRI were compared with operative findings and proved to be of high sensitivity in defining the type of bleeding and delineating craniocaudal extension and ventrodorsal location. Surgical treatment by decompressive laminectomy, haematoma evacuation, and postoperative high dose corticosteroids resulted in resolution of symptoms in five patients and improvement in the clinical situation in two patients. One patient with a chronic subdural haematoma had a second operation because of arachnoidal adhesions. One patient presented with a complete cord transection syndrome due to an acute subdural haematoma and remained paraplegic. It is concluded that prompt, reliable, and non-invasive diagnosis by MRI leads to efficient surgical treatment and a favourable outcome in this rare condition. Images PMID:7561928
Yehia, Baligh R; Schranz, Asher J; Momplaisir, Florence; Keller, Sara C; Gross, Robert; Frank, Ian; Metlay, Joshua P; Brady, Kathleen A
Receiving care at multiple clinics may compromise the therapeutic patient-provider alliance and adversely affect the treatment of people living with HIV. We evaluated 12,759 HIV-infected adults in Philadelphia, PA between 2008 and 2010 to determine the effects of using multiple clinics for primary HIV care. Using generalized estimating equations with logistic regression, we examined the relationship between receiving care at multiple clinics (≥ 1 visit to two or more clinics during a calendar year) and two outcomes: (1) use of ART and (2) HIV viral load ≤ 200 copies/mL for patients on ART. Overall, 986 patients (8 %) received care at multiple clinics. The likelihood of attending multiple clinics was greater for younger patients, women, blacks, persons with public insurance, and for individuals in their first year of care. Adjusting for sociodemographic factors, patients receiving care at multiple clinics were less likely to use ART (AOR = 0.62, 95 % CI 0.55-0.71) and achieve HIV viral suppression (AOR = 0.78, 95 % CI 0.66-0.94) than individuals using one clinic. Qualitative data are needed to understand the reasons for visiting multiple clinics.
Patel, N.; Rivera, A.; Tristani, L.; Lazariu, V.; Vandewall, H.; McNutt, L. A.
Despite the theoretical risk of serotonin toxicity (ST) with linezolid, “real-world” clinical evaluations of the risk of ST in patients receiving linezolid have been limited to case reports and noncomparator studies. An observational, matched-cohort study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ST among hospitalized patients who received linezolid or vancomycin at the Upstate New York Veterans Affairs Healthcare Network (Veterans Integrated Service Network 2 [VISN-2]). Matching criteria included VISN-2 hospital, hospital ward, prior hospital length of stay, age, and baseline platelet counts. The patients' electronic medical records were evaluated for symptoms consistent with ST and the Hunter serotonin toxicity criteria (HSTC) using an intensive, natural word search algorithm. The study included 251 matched pairs. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between groups. Over half of the study population received at least one concurrent medication with serotonergic activity. Receipt of agents with serotonergic activity was more pronounced in the vancomycin group, and the higher frequency was due to concomitant antihistamine and antiemetic use. Antidepressant use, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), was similar between groups. No patients in either group were found to meet the criteria using the word search algorithm for ST. Fewer linezolid patients than vancomycin patients met the HSTC overall (3.2% versus 8.8%) and when stratified by receipt of a concurrent serotonergic agent (4.3% versus 12.4%). Of the patients meeting the HSTC, most had past or present comorbidities that may have contributed to or overlapped the HSTC. This study of hospitalized patients revealed comparably low frequencies of adverse events potentially related to ST among patients who received linezolid or vancomycin. PMID:24041888
Madhavan, Karthik; Chieng, Lee Onn; Foong, Hanyao; Wang, Michael Y
OBJECTIVE Cervical spondylotic myelopathy usually presents in the 5th decade of life or later but can also present earlier in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. As life expectancy continues to increase in the United States, the preconceived reluctance toward operating on the elderly population based on older publications must be rethought. It is a known fact that outcomes in the elderly cannot be as robust as those in the younger population. There are no publications with detailed meta-analyses to determine an acceptable level of outcome in this population. In this review, the authors compare elderly patients older than 75 years to a nonelderly population, and they discuss some of the relevant strategies to minimize complications. METHODS In accordance with PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, the authors performed a PubMed database search to identify English-language literature published between 1995 and 2015. Combinations of the following phrases that describe the age group ("elderly," "non-elderly," "old," "age") and the disease of interest as well as management ("surgical outcome," "surgery," "cervical spondylotic myelopathy," "cervical degenerative myelopathy") were constructed when searching for relevant articles. Two reviewers independently assessed the outcomes, and any disagreement was discussed with the first author until it was resolved. A random-effects model was applied to assess pooled data due to high heterogeneity between studies. The mean difference (MD) and odds ratio were calculated for continuous and dichromatic parameters, respectively. RESULTS Eighteen studies comprising elderly (n = 1169) and nonelderly (n = 1699) patients who received surgical treatment for cervical spondylotic myelopathy were included in this meta-analysis. Of these studies, 5 were prospective and 13 were retrospective. Intraoperatively, both groups required a similar amount of operation time (p = 0.35). The elderly
Ye, Sheng; Xu, Dan; Zhang, Chenmei; Li, Mengyao
Purpose. The study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of antipyretic therapy on mortality in critically ill patients with sepsis requiring mechanical ventilation. Methods. In this study, we employed the multiparameter intelligent monitoring in intensive care II (MIMIC-II) database (version 2.6). All patients meeting the criteria for sepsis and also receiving mechanical ventilation treatment were included for analysis, all of whom suffer from fever or hyperthermia. Logistic regression model and R language (R version 3.2.3 2015-12-10) were used to explore the association of antipyretic therapy and mortality risk in critically ill patients with sepsis receiving mechanical ventilation treatment. Results. A total of 8,711 patients with mechanical ventilator were included in our analysis, and 1523 patients died. We did not find any significant difference in the proportion of patients receiving antipyretic medication between survivors and nonsurvivors (7.9% versus 7.4%, p = 0.49). External cooling was associated with increased risk of death (13.5% versus 9.5%, p < 0.001). In our regression model, antipyretic therapy was positively associated with mortality risk (odds ratio [OR]: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.20–1.66, p < 0.001). Conclusions. The use of antipyretic therapy is associated with increased risk of mortality in septic ICU patients requiring mechanical ventilation. External cooling may even be deleterious. PMID:28386165
Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazushi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Wakatsuki, Akihiko
Hypomagnesemia is one side effect in patients receiving cisplatin. However, there are few reports of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia in Japan. We retrospectively investigated the incidence of hypomagnesemia and nephrotoxicity in patients undergoing radiation therapy who were treated with cisplatin alone (dosage: 40 mg/m(2), administration interval: 1 week) for cervical cancer. Thirty-two patients undergoing radiation therapy who received cisplatin alone for cervical cancer between January 2012 and May 2016 at Aichi Medical University Hospital were included. We measured patients' serum magnesium and creatinine levels on the day before cisplatin was administered. We utilized the RIFLE criteria (categorized into "risk", "injury", "failure", "loss", and "end-stage kidney disease") to define levels of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and classified cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity into "risk" or "injury". Eighteen patients (56.3%) had cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia, the majority of which occurred after the 4th treatment cycle. The number of patients with moderate renal dysfunction classified as "risk" in the hypomagnesemia group was not significantly higher than in the non-hypomagnesemia group (hypomagnesemia group=27.8%, non-hypomagnesemia group=7.1%; p=0.20). This survey sheds light on the incidence rates of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cisplatin alone. We recommend monitoring the serum magnesium levels during cisplatin administration to prevent hypomagnesemia.
Bekelis, Kimon; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Su, Yin; Lanzino, Giuseppe; Lawton, Michael T; MacKenzie, Todd A
OBJECTIVE The impact of treatment method-surgical clipping or endovascular coiling-on the cost of care for patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is debated. Here, the authors investigated the association between treatment method and long-term Medicare expenditures in elderly patients with aneurysmal SAH. METHODS The authors performed a cohort study of 100% of the Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who had undergone treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms in the period from 2007 to 2012. To control for measured confounding, the authors used propensity score-adjusted multivariable regression analysis with mixed effects to account for clustering at the hospital referral region (HRR) level. An instrumental variable (regional rates of coiling) analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding by creating pseudo-randomization on the treatment method. RESULTS During the study period, 3210 patients underwent treatment for ruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 1206 (37.6%) had surgical clipping and 2004 (62.4%) had endovascular coiling. The median total Medicare expenditures in the 1st year after admission for SAH were $113,000 (IQR $77,500-$182,000) for surgical clipping and $103,000 (IQR $72,900-$159,000) for endovascular coiling. When the authors adjusted for unmeasured confounders by using an instrumental variable analysis, clipping was associated with increased 1-year Medicare expenditures by $19,577 (95% CI $4492-$34,663). CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of Medicare patients with aneurysmal SAH, after controlling for unmeasured confounding, surgical clipping was associated with increased 1-year expenditures in comparison with endovascular coiling.
Forshaw, Kristy; Carey, Mariko; Robinson, Sancha; Kerridge, Ross; Proietto, Anthony; Sanson-Fisher, Rob
With population growth and aging, it is expected that the demand for surgical services will increase. However, increased complexity of procedures, time pressures on staff, and the demand for a patient-centered approach continue to challenge a system characterized by finite health care resources. Suboptimal care is reported in each phase of surgical care, from the time of consent to discharge and long-term follow-up. Novel strategies are thus needed to address these challenges to produce effective and sustainable improvements in surgical care across the care pathway. The eHealth programs represent a potential strategy for improving the quality of care delivered across various phases of care, thereby improving patient outcomes. This discussion paper describes (1) the key functions of eHealth programs including information gathering, transfer, and exchange; (2) examples of eHealth programs in overcoming challenges to optimal surgical care across the care pathway; and (3) the potential challenges and future directions for implementing eHealth programs in this setting. The eHealth programs are a promising alternative for collecting patient-reported outcome data, providing access to credible health information and strategies to enable patients to take an active role in their own health care, and promote efficient communication between patients and health care providers. However, additional rigorous intervention studies examining the needs of potential role of eHealth programs in augmenting patients’ preparation and recovery from surgery, and subsequent impact on patient outcomes and processes of care are needed to advance the field. Furthermore, evidence for the benefits of eHealth programs in supporting carers and strategies to maximize engagement from end users are needed. PMID:26330206
Kamal, Faiza; Fazal, Muhammad Irfan; Cheema, Muhammad Arshad
Nutritional assessment, as a method to identify malnourishment, has long been documented as an essential component of patient management which predicts adverse outcomes. The objective of the study was to find out the frequency of malnutrition and its association with the frequency of complications and deaths postoperatively. This study included all patients who were operated upon in a general surgical unit of Mayo Hospital, Lahore from June to August, 2013. Evaluation of 280 patients showed that 112 (40%) of the patients were malnourished, 90 (32%) were at risk of being malnourished and remaining 78 (28%) of the patients had normal nutritional status, according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Thirteen percent (13%) malnourished and 2 (3%) of the normally nourished patients died within 30 days of operation (p=0.001). Incidence of complications in malnourished patients was 23 (20.53%) as compared to normally nourished patients (5.12%, p=0.006). Malnutrition is very common in patients admitted to surgery wards of our hospitals. It adversely effects the outcome of surgical operations by increasing complications and mortality.
Background Evidence-based care should improve acute stroke outcomes with the same magnitude of effect for stroke patients of all ages. However, there is evidence to suggest that, in some instances, older stroke patients may receive poorer quality care than younger patients. Our aim was to systematically review evidence of the quality of care provided to patients with acute stroke related to their age. Quality of care was determined by compliance with recommended care processes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ageline and the Cochrane Library databases to identify publications (1995-2009) that reported data on acute stroke care process indicators by patient age. Data extracted included patient demographics and process indicator compliance. Included publications were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, and a comparison was made of the risk of bias according to studies' findings. The evidence base for reported process indicators was determined, and meta-analysis was undertaken for studies with sufficient similarity. Results Nine from 163 potential studies met the inclusion criteria. Of the 56 process indicators reported, eleven indicators were evidence-based. Seven of these indicators (64%) showed significantly poorer care for older patients compared to younger ones, while younger patients received comparatively inferior care for only antihypertensive therapy at discharge. Our findings are limited by the variable methodological quality of included studies. Conclusion Patients' age may be a factor in the care they receive after an acute stroke. However, the possible influence of patients' age on clinicians' decision-making must be considered in terms of the many complex issues that surround the provision of optimal care for older patients with acute stroke. PMID:21729329
McFadden, Brook L.; Hammil, Sarah L.; Constantine, Melissa L.; Tarr, Megan E.; Kenton, Kimberly S.; Abed, Husam T.; Sung, Vivian W.; Rogers, Rebecca G.
Introduction and hypothesis We aimed to determine patient recall of specific surgical risks and benefits discussed during consent for midurethral sling (MUS) surgery immediately after consent and at 6 weeks follow-up. Specifically we sought to determine whether or not women recalled specific risks related to the placement of mesh. Methods Surgeons consented patients for MUS in their usual fashion during audio recorded consent sessions. After consent and again at 6 weeks postoperatively, women completed a checklist of risks, benefits, alternatives, and general procedural items covered during consent. In addition, women completed the Decision Regret Scale for Pelvic Floor Disorders (DRS-PFD). Audio files were used to verify specific risks, benefits, alternatives, and procedural items discussed at consent. Recall of specific risks, benefits, and alternatives were correlated with DRS-PFD scores. Results Sixty-three women completed checklists immediately post consent and at 6 weeks postoperatively. Six-week recall of benefits, alternatives, and description of the operation did not change. Surgical risk recall as measured by the patient checklist deteriorated from 92 % immediately post consent to 72 % at 6 weeks postoperatively (p < .001). Recall of the risk for mesh erosion declined from 91 to 64 % (p < .001). Recall that mesh was placed during the MUS procedure declined from 98 to 84 % (p = .01). DRS-PFD scores were correlated with poorer surgical risk recall and surgical complications (r =.31, p = .02). Conclusions Recall of MUS surgery risks deteriorated overtime. Specifically, women forgot that mesh was placed or might erode. Further investigations into methods and measures of adequate consent that promote recall of long-term surgical risks are needed. PMID:23818127
Ron, I G; Kalmus, Y; Kalmus, Z; Inbar, M; Chaitchik, S
To assess any difference in the incidence of alopecia during treatment and of skull metastases during follow-up among breast cancer patients undergoing scalp cooling during chemotherapy and those treated at ambient temperatures. A series of 35 breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were consecutively assigned either to a scalp cooling regimen (19 patients) or to an ambient temperature regimen (16 patients). Hypothermia was administered with electrically cooled caps (SCS II: Amit Technology, Jerusalem) for 1 h after treatment. A significant difference (P = 0.014) was detected in the incidence of alopoecia: 48% (9 patients) of those who had undergone cooling suffered alopoecia, while 81% (13 patients) of the group who had not undergone cooling lost scalp hair. Patient comfort levels were high. Follow-up (median time 14 months) has disclosed no scalp metastases. The implementation of routine scalp hypothermia as part of adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, especially in cancers without tendencies to bone metastases, should be seriously considered.
Patient responsibilities in primary health care are controversial and, by comparison, the responsibilities of high need patients are less clear. This paper aims to suggest why high need patients receiving targeted entitlements in primary health care are free to have prima facie special responsibilities; why, given this freedom, these patients morally have special responsibilities; what these responsibilities are, and how publicly funded health systems ought to be able to respond when these remain unmet. It is suggested that the special responsibilities and their place in public policy acquire moral significance as a means to discharge a moral debt, share special knowledge, and produce desirable consequences in regard to personal and collective interests. Special responsibilities magnify ordinary patient responsibilities and require patients not to hesitate regarding attendance for primary health care. Persistent patient disregard of special responsibilities may necessitate limiting the scope of these responsibilities, removing system barriers, or respecifying special rights.
Navidian, Ali; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Keykha, Roghaieh
Background: Patient satisfaction is the most important criterion in evaluating the quality of care. Besides, its assessment in patients with severe mental disorder treated by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is highly appropriate. The ECT is accompanied by lower satisfaction and may exacerbate the patients’ condition. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the effect of supportive nursing care on the satisfaction of patients receiving ECT. Patients and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted in the education center of Baharan psychiatric hospital, Zahedan, Iran. Seventy hospitalized patients receiving ECT were randomly divided into two groups of control (n = 35) and intervention (n = 35).The socio-personal and Webster Satisfaction Questionnaire were used as data collection tools. The intervention group received supportive nursing care by nurses trained in informational, emotional, and physical aspects. The control group received only regular nursing care. The levels of satisfaction were measured and compared between groups, before and after the intervention. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software, and Chi-square, independent and paired t tests, as well as covariance analysis were performed. Results: The results showed similarities in socio-personal characteristics of both groups. However, there was a significant difference (P < 0.001) between the means of satisfaction in the groups, predominantly for the intervention group. In other words, a significant difference (P < 0.001) was observed between the means of satisfaction of the intervention (54.71 ± 5.27) and control (36.28 ± 7.00) groups after intervention by controlling the effect of socio-personal variables. Conclusions: Results of the current study confirmed the effect of supportive nursing care on increasing the level of satisfaction in ECT receiving patients, recommending the use of this therapeutic method. PMID:26473077
Naik, M I; Tenguria, R K; Haq, E
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus, is one of the most important and widespread parasitic zoonoses. One of the problems that can be encountered after treating CE patients is the risk of post-surgical relapses or treatment failure, thus a long-term clinical and serological follow-up is required to evaluate the success or failure of therapy. In the present study immunological markers have been identified to indicate the effectiveness of pharmacological and surgical treatments. The relationship between serum cytokine levels and the outcome of chemotherapy and surgery was evaluated in 50 patients with CE. Serum interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) before and after pharmacological and surgical treatment. Serum cytokine levels of IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were elevated in a significant proportion of patients during the active stage of disease. IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-γ were measurable in 41 (82%), 37 (74%) and 25 (50%) patients before the treatment. Clinical and radiological assessment of patients 2 years after pharmacological treatment has shown that 48 of 50 patients responded to treatment. IL-4 and IL-10 levels were decreased significantly (P< 0.05) in these patients. Conversely, patients who did not respond showed high levels of IL-4 and IL-10 and undetectable levels of IFN-γ. Hence these results suggest that serum IL-4 and IL-10 detection may be useful in the follow-up of patients with CE.
Choi, Ik Sung; Lee, Yu Ji; Wi, Yu Mi; Kwan, Byung Soo; Jung, Kae Hwa; Hong, Woong Pyo; Kim, June Myong
The ratio of the area under the free (unbound) concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (fAUC/MIC) was proposed to be the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic index most strongly linked to the antibacterial effect of colistin against Acinetobacter baumannii. A retrospective study of patients who received colistin to treat pneumonia caused by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) A. baumannii over a 4-year period was performed to assess the impact of the colistin MIC on mortality. A total of 227 patients were included in the analysis. The 7-day and 14-day mortality rates of patients with XDR A. baumannii pneumonia receiving colistin therapy were 15.0% and 23.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, days from index culture to first dose of colistin, underlying tumour and septic shock at presentation were independent predictors of mortality in patients with XDR A. baumannii pneumonia receiving colistin therapy. In the univariate analysis, the colistin dose based on ideal body weight (IBW) correlated with patient outcome. Therefore, the use of IBW appeared to be more appropriate to calculate the colistin dosage. In addition, these results highlight the clinical significance of colistin MIC in patients with XDR A. baumannii pneumonia receiving colistin therapy. Although MICs were in the 'susceptible' range, patients infected with isolates with high colistin MICs showed a poorer clinical response rate than patients infected with isolates with low colistin MICs. Further clinical studies are needed to evaluate the roles of colistin MIC for predicting mortality in XDR A. baumannii pneumonia with a high colistin MIC.
Akyüz, Elif; Erdemir, Firdevs
The purpose of this study was to determine the opinions and expectations of patients and nurses about privacy during a hospital admission for surgery. The study explored what enables and maintains privacy from the perspective of Turkish surgical patients and nurses. The study included 102 adult patients having surgery and 47 nurses caring for them. Data were collected via semistructured questionnaire by face-to-face interviews. The results showed that patients were mostly satisfied by the respect shown to their privacy by the nurses but were less confident of the confidentiality of their personal data. It was found that patients have expectations regarding nursing approaches and attitudes about acknowledging and respecting patient autonomy and confidentiality. It is remarkable that while nurses focused on the physical dimension of privacy, patients focused on informational and psychosocial dimensions of privacy, as well as its physical dimension.
Camarda, Robert; Foley, Laura Little; Givertz, Michael M; Cahalin, Lawrence P
Background and Purpose: The projected increase in persons with advanced heart failure and associated costs warrant the examination of exercise in patients receiving inotropic therapy. Literature supports the use of exercise and inotropic therapy in the treatment of patients with advanced heart failure. The purposes of this paper are to illustrate the use of exercise prescription and outcomes assessment with a 6-minute walk test in a patient with acute decompensated heart failure receiving tailored therapy with dobutamine and to discuss potential relationships resulting in observed improvements. Case Description: A 67-year old man was admitted to an acute care hospital with acute decompensated heart failure for tailored medical therapy including dobutamine. The patient received 14 days of tailored medical therapy, of which 12 days included exercise training by a physical therapist. Outcomes: Functional outcomes showed a clinically significant improvement in distance walked and improvement in the cardiorespiratory response. The improvement in estimated peak oxygen consumption was 7% greater than that predicted to be from tailored medical therapy. Discussion: Exercise was safely provided to a patient hospitalized with advanced heart failure on continuous inotropic therapy. The 6-minute walk test was effectively used to prescribe exercise and examine patient outcomes. PMID:21637393
Guimarães, Joao Antonio Matheus; de Souza Portes Meirelles, Ricardo; Júnior, Luiz Augusto Peçanha Tavares; Goldsztajn, Flávio; Rocha, Tito; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Barros
Objectives: To present the outcomes from definitive surgical treatment for unstable fractures of the pelvic ring in children undergoing surgical reduction and stabilization. Methods: We studied 10 patients with immature skeletons who suffered unstable fractures of the pelvic ring and were treated between March 2004 and January 2008. The study was retrospective, based on clinical and radiographic evaluations. Results: The mean age at the time of the trauma was 8.8 years (2 to 13 years). Seven patients were female and three was male. There were eight cases of trauma caused by being run over, and one case each of a motorcycle accident and falling from a height. Five patients had other associated injuries such as fractures of the clavicle, femoral diaphysis, proximal humerus, lower leg bones, olecranon and bladder injury. All the patients evaluated showed an excellent clinical outcome. The pelvic asymmetry before surgery ranged from 0.7 to 2.9 cm (mean 1.45 cm), and dropped to values between 0.2 and 0.9 cm (mean 0.39 cm) after reduction. In no case was any change observed in pelvic asymmetry measured in the immediate postoperative period and at the end of follow-up. Conclusion: Pelvic ring fractures in skeletally immature patients are rare and surgical treatment is unusual. Several authors have questioned conservative treatment because of the complications encountered. Bone remodeling does not seem enough to cause an improvement in pelvic asymmetry, and this justifies the choice of surgical treatment for reduction and correction of pelvic ring deformities. PMID:27026968
Katanuma, Akio; Yane, Kei; Osanai, Manabu; Maguchi, Hiroyuki
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in patients with surgically altered anatomy involves challenging procedures for ERCP endoscopists. In these patients, the anatomical structure of the intestine is substantially altered, and an endoscope needs to be inserted into the long afferent limb. Moreover, the papilla is observed in the opposite view from the normal anatomy. Recently, a balloon-assisted enteroscope (BAE) has been developed and made available for use in daily practice. The two types of BAE are single-balloon enteroscope (SBE), which is inserted with one balloon attached to the overtube using a balloon-assisted method, and double-balloon enteroscope (DBE), which is inserted with two balloons, one attached to the overtube and the other attached to the tip of the enteroscope. In addition, short-type DBE (short-DBE) and short-type SBE (short-SBE) with a working length of approximately 150 cm, which could be used with various ERCP accessories, are commercially available or under development. Notably, the success rate of ERCP through coordinated manipulation with a balloon was remarkably improved with the use of BAE, even in patients with surgically altered anatomy. Here, we report the current status and procedures of ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy.
RATIONALE: Acupressure wristbands may prevent or reduce nausea and caused by chemotherapy. It is not yet known whether standard care is more effective with or without acupressure wristbands in controlling acute and delayed nausea. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying how well acupressure wristbands work with or without standard care in controlling nausea in young patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. |
Sanders, Sara; Butcher, Howard K.; Swails, Peggy; Power, James
The purpose of this study was to investigate how caregivers respond to the end stages of dementia with the assistance from hospice. Data were collected from 27 family caregivers over the course of 10 months, with each caregiver being interviewed up to 4 times during the time that the patient received hospice care. Chart review data were also…
Redd, William H.; And Others
Investigated use of cognitive/attentional distraction (via commercially available video games) to control conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Video game-playing resulted in significantly less nausea. The introduction and withdrawal of the opportunity to play video games produced significant changes (reduction…
Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.
The study included 26 patients with FIGO stage Ia1-Ib1 cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing surgery (transabdominaltrachelectomy). To visualize sentinel lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-labelled nanocolloid was performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes using hand-held gamma probe was carried out to determine the radioactive counts over the draining lymph node basin. The sentinel lymph node detection in cervical cancer patients contributes to the accurate clinical assessment of the pelvic lymph node status, precise staging of the disease and tailoring of surgical treatment to individual patient.
Cross, M J; Vandersluis, R; Wood, D; Banff, M
Complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in the adult is a rare injury. This report discusses complete rupture of the hamstring tendons in nine patients treated by late operative repair. All patients were referred from outside centers for a second opinion after failed nonoperative treatment. The diagnosis was made quite easily on clinical grounds and was confirmed at surgery. Surgical treatment in all cases consisted of reattachment of the hamstring tendons to the origin on the ischium, and in all cases it was necessary to perform neurolysis of the sciatic nerve. Good results were achieved in all cases, at follow-up all patients were satisfied with the surgery.
Wahab, Mohamed Abdel; El Hanafy, Ehab; El Nakeeb, Ayman; Ali, Mahmoud Abdelwahab
AIM To evaluate the clinicopathological features and the surgical outcomes of patients with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) over a 15-year period. METHODS This is a retrospective study including 22 patients with a pathologic diagnosis of FL-HCC who underwent hepatectomy over a 15-year period. Tumor characteristics, survival and recurrence were evaluated. RESULTS There were 11 male and 11 female with a median age of 29 years (range from 21 to 58 years). Two (9%) patients had hepatitis C viral infection and only 2 (9%) patients had alpha-fetoprotein level > 200 ng/mL. The median size of the tumors was 12 cm (range from 5-20 cm). Vascular invasion was detected in 5 (23%) patients. Four (18%) patients had lymph node metastases. The median follow up period was 42 mo and the 5-year survival was 65%. Five (23%) patients had a recurrent disease, 4 of them had a second surgery with 36 mo median time interval. Vascular invasion is the only significant negative prognostic factor CONCLUSION FL-HCC has a favorable prognosis than common HCC and should be suspected in young patients with non cirrhotic liver. Aggressive surgical resection should be done for all patients. Repeated hepatectomy should be considered for these patients as it has a relatively indolent course. PMID:28289511
Kothari, Manish Kundanmal; Tikoo, Agnivesh; Nene, Abhay Madhusudan
Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the factors affecting immediate postoperative mortality in elderly patients with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Overview of Literature Treatment of spinal tuberculosis in the elderly involves consideration of age and co-morbidities, and often leads to an extended conservative management. Surgical intervention in these patients becomes a complex decision. There are no studies on risk factors of mortality in surgically treated elderly with tuberculous spondylodiscitis. Methods Two hundred and seventy-six patients with spondylodiscitis were operated between 2005 and 2015. 20 consecutive patients over 70 years of age with and proven tuberculosis who met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were included. Demographic, clinical and radiological profile data with operative details of instrumentation, blood loss, surgical duration, and mortality were noted. There were 20 patients (6 males, 14 females) with a mean age of 73.5 years. The patients were divided into those with mortality (M) and those who survived (non-mortality, NM). Various variables were statistically tested for immediate postoperative medical complications and mortality. Results There were four mortalities (20%). Age, sex, number of medical co-morbidities, American Society of Anaesthesiologists grade, Frankel grade C or worse, number of vertebrae involved, number of levels fused, blood loss and operative time did not have statistically significant impact on immediate postoperative mortality. Only preoperative immobility duration was statistically higher in the M group (p=0.016) than in the NM group. Conclusions Preoperative immobility is associated with immediate postoperative mortality in elderly patients with spinal tuberculosis undergoing surgery. The findings identify preoperative immobility as a risk factor for mortality, which could contribute to a more detailed prognostic discussion between surgeon and patient before surgery. PMID:27790320
Yamashita, Masaomi; Murata, Yasuaki; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ataka, Hiromi; Hirayama, Jiro; Ozawa, Tomoyuki; Morinaga, Tatsuo; Arai, Hajime; Mimura, Masaya; Kamoda, Hiroto; Orita, Sumihisa; Miyagi, Masayuki; Miyashita, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Sameda, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Tomoaki; Hanaoka, Eiji; Suzuki, Miyako; Suzuki, Munetaka; Aihara, Takato; Ito, Toshinori; Inoue, Gen; Yamagata, Masatsune; Toyone, Tomoaki; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Takahashi, Kazuhisa
Purpose The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI. Materials and Methods One hundred and seven patients who received conservative treatment such as exercise and medication (n=56) or surgical treatment (n=51) were included. Low back pain and leg pain scores, walking distance, and ABI were measured before treatment and after 3 months of conservative treatment alone or surgical treatment followed by conservative treatment. Results Low back pain, leg pain, and walking distance significantly improved after both treatments (p<0.05). ABI significantly increased in each group (p<0.05). Conclusion This is the first investigation of changes in ABI after treatment in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. Improvement of the spinal nerve roots by medication and decompression surgery may improve the supply of blood flow to the lower leg in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis. PMID:23709437
Harmouche, Rola; Cheriet, Farida; Labelle, Hubert; Dansereau, Jean
A method for the construction of a patient-specific model of a scoliotic torso for surgical planning via inter-patient registration is presented. Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) of a generic model are registered to surface topography (TP) and X-ray data of a test patient. A partial model is first obtained via thin-plate spline registration between TP and X-ray data of the test patient. The MRIs from the generic model are then fit into the test patient using articulated model registration between the vertebrae of the generic model's MRIs in prone position and the test patient's X-rays in standing position. A non-rigid deformation of the soft tissues is performed using a modified thin-plate spline constrained to maintain bone rigidity and to fit in the space between the vertebrae and the surface of the torso. Results show average Dice values of 0:975 +/- 0:012 between the MRIs following inter-patient registration and the surface topography of the test patient, which is comparable to the average value of 0:976 +/- 0:009 previously obtained following intra-patient registration. The results also show a significant improvement compared to rigid inter-patient registration. Future work includes validating the method on a larger cohort of patients and incorporating soft tissue stiffness constraints. The method developed can be used to obtain a geometric model of a patient including bone structures, soft tissues and the surface of the torso which can be incorporated in a surgical simulator in order to better predict the outcome of scoliosis surgery, even if MRI data cannot be acquired for the patient.
Duffour, J; Gourgou, S; Seitz, J F; Senesse, P; Boutet, O; Castera, D; Kramar, A; Ychou, M
This study assessed the efficacy of combined prophylactic and curative anti-diarrhoeal medication in advanced colorectal patients treated by irinotecan. Thirty-four pre-treated eligible patients were evaluated. There were 44% women, the median age was 65 and 38% of the patients had a 0 performance status. The patients received sucralfate(4g/d) and nifuroxazide(600 mg/d) prophylactic treatment on days 0-7. In the case of severe diarrhoea, preventive treatment was replaced by loperamide(12 mg/d) and diosmectite (9 g/d). Grade 3 delayed diarrhoea occurred in 18% of patients (90% CI: [9.5-28.9]) and 4.6% of cycles. No grade 4 delayed diarrhoea was observed. Twenty-nine patients (85%) received the preventive treatment at cycle 1, while 14% (90% CI: [6.2-25.7]) experienced grade 3 delayed diarrhoea in 3.7% of cycles for a median 4.5 days. The objective response rate was 8% (90% CI [1.4-23.1]) among the 25 assessable patients. Preventive combined treatment is effective in reducing the incidence of severe delayed diarrhoea, and it should be proposed to patients treated with mono-therapy Campto(r) and evaluated in poly-chemotherapy protocols.
Wright Nunes, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Ikizler, T Alp; Cavanaugh, Kerri L
Health numeracy is linked to important clinical outcomes. Kidney disease management relies heavily on patient numeracy skills across the continuum of kidney disease care. Little data are available eliciting stakeholder perspectives from patients receiving dialysis about the construct of health numeracy. Using focus groups, we asked patients receiving hemodialysis open-ended questions to identify facilitators and barriers to their understanding, interpretation, and application of numeric information in kidney care. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis. Twelve patients participated with a mean (standard deviation) age of 56 (12) years. All were African American, 50% were women, and 83% had an annual income <$20,000/year. Although patients felt numbers were critical to every aspect in life, they noted several barriers to understanding, interpreting and applying quantitative information specifically to manage their health. Low patient self-efficacy related to health numeracy and limited patient-provider communication about quantitatively based feedback, were emphasized as key barriers. Through focus groups of key patient stakeholders we identified important modifiable barriers to effective kidney care. Additional research is needed to develop tools that support numeracy-sensitive education and communication interventions in dialysis.
Sasaki, Tsubasa; Kawagoe, Izumi
Since the launch of pure oxycodone injections in May 2012, it has been possible to use oxycodone without opioid rotation. Although an extremely important step showing progress, very few studies regarding the use of pure oxycodone injections have been performed. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of pure oxycodone injections in 31 terminally ill cancer patients receiving home care. The difficulty in oral oxycodone intake was the main reason for changing to pure oxycodone injections. The mean administered period of subcutaneous pure oxycodone was 5.6 ± 6.7 days. One out of 5 patients receiving pure oxycodone injections complained of worsening sleepiness. However, other symptoms improved. In addition, in cases wherein pure oxycodone injection was the initiating opioid, 1 out of 6 patients showed no improvement of respiratory discomfort, while other symptoms improved. It was difficult to evaluate more patients because of the short period for administration. Although 5 patients experienced skin problems, they were successfully managed by changing the injection site. Of these 5 patients, 2 patients had sensitive skin, with a previous history of alcohol rash. In conclusion, our study suggests that pure oxycodone injections are beneficial over oral oxycodone treatment for terminally ill cancer patients. However, further evaluation of skin problems associated with pure oxycodone injections is required by performing larger studies.
Moglia, Andrea; Turini, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Vincenzo; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco
This work presents a simulator based on patient specific data for bimanual surgical robots. Given a bimanual robot with a particular geometry and kinematics, and a patient specific virtual anatomy, the aim of this simulator was to evaluate if a dexterous movability was obtainable to avoid collisions with the surrounding virtual anatomy in order to prevent potential damages to the tissues during the real surgical procedure. In addition, it could help surgeons to find the optimal positioning of the robot before entering the operative room. This application was tested using a haptic device to reproduce the interactions of the robot with deformable organs. The results showed good performances in terms of frame rate for the graphic, haptic, and dynamic processes.
Biggers, J A; Remmers, A R; Glassford, D M; Lindley, J D; Sarles, H E; Fish, J C
Thirty-three bovine grafts were placed in 28 patients for vascular access for hemodialysis. The indications were lack of shunt sites and anticoagulation with Coumadin in patients without vessels suitable for construction of a primary arteriovenous fistula. All but one of the grafts were loops placed in the forearm. There were 20 complications associated with the 33 procedures. Three patients required replacement of the initial graft in the early postoperative period due to thrombosis. One additional patient required two graft replacements and eventual anticoagulation with Coumadin before a successful result was obtained. There have been no serious ischemic problems. Presently, there are 27 functional bovine grafts, and 68 per cent of these are currently used for vascular access for dialysis. Patient acceptance of the fistulas has been good. The loop bovine graft fistula in the arm is an excellent means for vascular access in the patient receiving hemodialysis.
Abdallah, Nihad; Conn, Rory; Latif Marini, Abdel
Physical health monitoring is an integral part of caring for patients with mental health problems. It is proven that serious physical health problems are more common among patients with severe mental health illness (SMI), this monitoring can be challenging and there is a need for improvement. The project aimed at improving the physical health monitoring among patients with SMI who are receiving antipsychotic medications. The improvement process focused on ensuring there is a good communication with general practitioners (GPs) as well as patient's education and education of care home staff. GP letters requesting physical health monitoring were updated; care home staff and patients were given more information about the value of regular physical health monitoring. There was an improvement in patients' engagement with the monitoring and the monitoring done by GPs was more adherent to local and national guidelines and was communicated with the mental health service.
Bharadwaj, Vineet; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha
Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used quite frequently among the bipolar patients in developing countries, very little data are available with regard to its effectiveness from the developing countries. Aim: A retrospective case note review was carried out of bipolar disorder patients who were given ECT. Materials and Methods: Details of demographic and clinical profile, indications for ECT, response patterns, adverse effects, etc. were recorded. Results: Among all the patients who received ECT, 18% were diagnosed to have bipolar disorder. ECT was administered most commonly for mania with psychotic symptoms, followed by severe depression with psychotic symptoms. Comorbid physical problems were seen in many patients. Nearly 90% of patients in both the subgroups showed more than 50% response (based on reduction in the standardized rating scales) with ECT. Few patients (22%) reported some kind of side effects. Conclusions: ECT is useful in the management of acute phase of mania and depression. PMID:22556436
Healy, JR; Thoma, BN; Peahota, MM; Ahamadi, M; Schmidt, L; Cavarocchi, NC; Kraft, WK
The literature on the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy is sparse. A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model for vancomycin in ECMO patients was developed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling on the concentration–time profiles of 14 ECMO patients who received intravenous vancomycin. Model selection was based on log‐likelihood criterion, goodness of fit plots, and scientific plausibility. Identification of covariates was done using a full covariate model approach. The pharmacokinetics of vancomycin was adequately described with a two‐compartment model. Parameters included clearance of 2.83 L/hr, limited central volume of distribution 24.2 L, and low residual variability 0.67%. Findings from the analysis suggest that standard dosing recommendations for vancomycin in non‐ECMO patients are adequate to achieve therapeutic trough concentrations in ECMO patients. This further shows that ECMO minimally affects the PK of vancomycin in adults including in higher‐weight patients. PMID:27639260
Verma, Hemkant; Pandey, Siddharth; Sheoran, Kapil Dev; Marwah, Sanjay
Introduction. Ileal perforation peritonitis is a frequently encountered surgical emergency in the developing countries. The choice of a procedure for source control depends on the patient condition as well as the surgeon preference. Material and Methods. This was a prospective observational study including 41 patients presenting with perforation peritonitis due to ileal perforation and managed with ileostomy. Demographic profile and operative findings in terms of number of perforations, site, and size of perforation along with histopathological findings of all the cases were recorded. Results. The majority of patients were male. Pain abdomen and fever were the most common presenting complaints. Body mass index of the patients was in the range of 15.4–25.3 while comorbidities were present in 43% cases. Mean duration of preoperative resuscitation was 14.73 + 13.77 hours. Operative findings showed that 78% patients had a single perforation; most perforations were 0.6–1 cm in size and within 15 cm proximal to ileocecal junction. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 29.2% patients. On histopathological examination, nonspecific perforations followed by typhoid and tubercular perforations respectively were the most common. Conclusion. Patients with ileal perforations are routinely seen in surgical emergencies and their demography, clinical profile, and intraoperative findings may guide the choice of procedure to be performed. PMID:26247059
Doğan, R; Yüksel, M; Cetin, G; Süzer, K; Alp, M; Kaya, S; Unlü, M; Moldibi, B
Of 1055 patients treated surgically for pulmonary hydatid disease, most (950) had isolated lung cysts, the other 105 having both liver and lung cysts. The chest radiograph was most valuable in diagnosis; the Casoni and Weinberg tests and blood eosinophil counts were found to be diagnostically unreliable. One thousand and seventy seven primary operations were performed. Cystotomy and capitonnage were carried out in 906 patients, 40 of whom also had decortication of the pleura. Other procedures included cystotomy with wedge resection of locally damaged lung (29 patients) and cyst removal with capitonnage by Ugon's method (33) or the Perez-Fontana procedure (8) and with costal resection for osteomyelitis in two cases. More radical surgery was carried out in 99 patients for longstanding infection or severe lung destruction. Postoperative complications occurred in 37 patients (3.5%) and the 30 day mortality rate was 1.7%. It is concluded that a lung conserving surgical operation is the treatment of choice for most patients with pulmonary hydatid disease. In patients with coexisting liver cysts the thoracic transpleural approach allowed the lung and liver cysts to be removed at the same session. Images PMID:2705149
Silva, R; Martins, M M; Jardim, H G
The postoperative visit as a quality indicator for surgical patient care, demands some consideration from perioperative nurses. We evaluated the nursing perioperative interventions on postoperative visits, and adjusted them to the needs of the patients with postoperative pain. Our study indicated that 73% of patients visited didn't have postoperative pain whereas 27% had pain. The pain is aggravated when the patient is mobilised, one of the most common signs and symptoms being gastrointestinal changes. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures were used in pain management. The results showed that the percentage of patients with postoperative visits needs to be improved. We aim to have high quality perioperative nursing interventions which raise levels of patient satisfaction.
Borges, Paulo Alvim; de Carvalho Neto, José Thomé; Letaif, Olavo Biraghi; Marcon, Raphael Martus; Cristante, Alexandre Fogaça
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the severity of deformities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis contributes to patients’ decision regarding whether to undergo an operation. METHODS: We evaluated body image factors in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients. We evaluated the magnitude of the main scoliotic curve, gibbosity (magnitude and location), shoulder height asymmetry and patient’s age. We analyzed the correlation of these data with the number of years the patient was willing to trade for surgery, as measured by the time-trade-off method. RESULTS: A total of 52 patients were studied. We did not find a correlation between any of the parameters that were studied and the number of years that the patient would trade for the surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The magnitude of body deformities in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis does not interfere with the decision to undertake surgical treatment. PMID:28355357
The change in patient population leads to an inevitable transformation among the healthcare system. Over the past decades, thoracic surgical technique has been evolving from conventional open thoracotomy to minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Thoracic nursing team of Prince of Wales Hospital (PWH) grows together with the evolution and aims at providing holistic and quality care to patients require thoracic operation. In order to enhance patient post-operative recovery, few strategies have been implemented including early mobilization, staff training and clinical audit. On the other hand, nursing case management approach was proved to be a cost-effective method in managing patients. It is also suitable for thoracic patients, especially for those who are suffering from thoracic neoplasm. It is believed that, the introduction of nursing case management approach would provide a better holistic care to the thoracic patients. PMID:26941973
Symeonidis, Panagiotis D; Clark, David
The importance of malnutrition in elderly hip fracture patients has long been recognised. All patients operated upon for a hip fracture over a five-year period were assessed according to two nutritional markers : a) serum albumin levels and b) peripheral blood total lymphocyte count. Patients were subdivided into groups according to the four possible combinations of these results. Outcomes according to four clinical outcome parameters were validated: a) waiting time to operation b) length of hospitalisation, c) in-hospital mortality, and d) one-year postoperative mortality. Significant differences were found between malnourished patients and those with normal laboratory values with regard to surgical delay and one year postoperative mortality. Malnourished patients were also more likely to be hospitalised longer than a month and to die during their hospital stay, but the difference was not significant. The combination of serum albumin level and total lymphocyte count can be used as an independent prognostic factor in hip fracture patients.
Suresh, S; Schaldenbrand, K; Wallis, B; De Oliveira, G S
Summary The development of analgesic interventions in paediatric surgical patients is often limited by the inherent difficulties of conducting large randomized clinical trials to test interventions in those patients. Regional anaesthesia is a valid strategy to improve postoperative pain in the adult surgical population, but the effects of regional anaesthesia on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric patients are currently not well defined. The main objective of the current review was to systematically evaluate the use of regional anaesthesia techniques to minimize postoperative pain in paediatric patients. A systematic search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of the regional anaesthesia techniques on postoperative pain outcomes in paediatric surgical patients' procedures. Seventy-three studies on 5125 paediatric patients were evaluated. Only few surgical procedures had more than one small randomized controlled trial favouring the use of regional anaesthesia to minimize postoperative pain (ophthalmological surgery, cleft lip repair, inguinal hernia, and urological procedures). Additional evidence is required to support the use of specific regional anaesthesia techniques to improve postoperative pain for several surgical procedures (craniectomy, adenotonsillectomy, appendectomy, cardiac surgery, umbilical hernia repair, upper and lower extremity) in paediatric patients. Currently, only a very limited number of regional anaesthesia techniques have demonstrated significant improvement on postoperative pain outcomes for a restricted number of surgical procedures. More studies are needed in order to establish regional anaesthesia as a valid strategy to improve analgesia in the paediatric surgical population.
Zakutayeva, V. P.; Matiks, N. I.
The changes in the myocardial contractile function with hypokinesia in surgical tuberculosis patients are discussed. The phase nature of the changes is noted, specifically the changes in the various systoles, diastole, and other parts of the cardiac cycle. The data compare these changes during confinement in bed with no motor activity to and with a return to motor activity after leaving the in-bed regimen.
Meziane, Mohammed; El Jaouhari, Sidi Driss; ElKoundi, Abdelghafour; Bensghir, Mustapha; Baba, Hicham; Ahtil, Redouane; Aboulaala, Khalil; Balkhi, Hicham; Haimeur, Charki
Context: Adverse events (AEs) are a persistent and an important reason for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. They lead to death, disability at the time of discharge, unplanned ICU admission (UIA), and prolonged hospital stay. They impose large financial costs on health-care systems. Aims: This study aimed to determine the incidence, patient characteristics, type, preventability, and outcome of UIA following elective surgical AE. Settings and Design: This is a single-center prospective study. Methods: Analysis of 15,372 elective surgical procedures was performed. We defined UIA as an ICU admission that was not anticipated preoperatively but was due to an AE occurring within 5 days after elective surgery. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis using SPSS software version 18 was used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 75 UIA (0.48%) recorded during the 2-year study period. The average age of patients was 54.64 ± 18.02 years. There was no sex predominance, and the majority of our patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologist classes 1 and 2. Nearly 29% of the UIA occurred after abdominal surgery and 22% after a trauma surgery. Regarding the causes of UIA, we observed that 44 UIA (58.7%) were related to surgical AE, 24 (32%) to anesthetic AE, and 7 (9.3%) to postoperative AE caused by care defects. Twenty-three UIA were judged as potentially preventable (30.7%). UIA was associated with negative outcomes, including increased use of ICU-specific interventions and high mortality rate (20%). Conclusions: Our analysis of UIA is a quality control exercise that helps identify high-risk patient groups and patterns of anesthesia or surgical care requiring improvement.
Rubin, Brian; Reddy, Daniel J; Kalman, Peter G
This article is the result of a debate. The motion proposed was "Infrainguinal endovascular procedures should be reserved for patients who do not have good open surgical options.'' Arguments in favor of the motion were offered by Daniel J. Reddy of Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, MI, and arguments against the motion were offered by Peter Kalman of Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, IL.
Almahdi, Basil; Sultan, Pervez; Sohanpal, Imrat; Brandner, Brigitta; Collier, Tracey; Shergill, Sukhi S; Cregg, Roman; Averbeck, Bruno B
Evidence suggests that some aspects of schizophrenia can be induced in healthy volunteers through acute administration of the non-competitive NMDA-receptor antagonist, ketamine. In probabilistic inference tasks, patients with schizophrenia have been shown to ‘jump to conclusions’ (JTC) when asked to make a decision. We aimed to test whether healthy participants receiving ketamine would adopt a JTC response pattern resembling that of patients. The paradigmatic task used to investigate JTC has been the ‘urn’ task, where participants are shown a sequence of beads drawn from one of two ‘urns’, each containing coloured beads in different proportions. Participants make a decision when they think they know the urn from which beads are being drawn. We compared performance on the urn task between controls receiving acute ketamine or placebo with that of patients with schizophrenia and another group of controls matched to the patient group. Patients were shown to exhibit a JTC response pattern relative to their matched controls, whereas JTC was not evident in controls receiving ketamine relative to placebo. Ketamine does not appear to promote JTC in healthy controls, suggesting that ketamine does not affect probabilistic inferences. PMID:22389244
Abe, Keiichi; Yamashita, Ryuko; Kondo, Keiko; Takayama, Keiko; Yokota, Osamu; Sato, Yoshiki; Kawai, Mitsumasa; Ishizu, Hideki; Nakashima, Tadao; Hayashi, Hideki; Nakata, Kenji; Asaba, Hiroyuki; Kadota, Koichi; Tanaka, Kazuyoshi; Morisada, Yumi; Oshima, Etsuko; Terada, Seishi
Background/Aims Most patients with dementia suffer from dysphagia in the terminal stage of the disease. In Japan, most elderly patients with dysphagia receive either tube feeding or total parenteral nutrition. Methods In this study, we investigated the factors determining longer survival with artificial nutrition. Various clinical characteristics of 168 inpatients receiving artificial nutrition without oral intake in psychiatric hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan, were evaluated. Results Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the duration of artificial nutrition was associated with a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube, diagnosis of mental disorder, low MMSE score, and absence of decubitus. Conclusion Patients with mental disorders survived longer than those with dementia diseases on artificial nutrition. A PEG tube and good nutrition seem to be important for long-term survival. PMID:27843445
Bourke, J.; Turkington, D.; Thomas, G.; McComb, J.; Tynan, M.
Objectives—To increase awareness of the potential for disabling anxiety and depression in patients receiving shocks from implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Patients and methods—ICDs are implanted in patients at this hospital for control of serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias inadequately controlled by drug treatment, who are unsuitable for map guided antiarrhythmic surgery. All are reviewed regularly at a dedicated ICD clinic and are advised to make contact between visits if they experience shocks. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were not actively sought, nor was a patient support group operating at the time of this data collection. When overt psychopathology was identified, patients were referred to a designated psychiatrist for management. Results—Over a six year period, six (17%) of 35 patients with ICDs developed florid psychiatric problems after experiencing shocks. None had premorbid psychiatric predisposition. Of the six patients suffering severe psychiatric problems, four were men, their age range was 30-63 years, and left ventricular ejection fraction was 18-40%. All shocks were appropriate for clinical arrhythmias and ranged in frequency from two in six months to 111 in 24 hours. All six patients manifested severe anxiety, focused on fear of future shocks. Depression was also evident in three patients and two had become housebound. All responded within weeks to anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs, combined with relaxation and cognitive therapies. Ongoing psychiatric therapy was refused by one patient, and was required for between three and 18 months in the remainder. One patient died and one received a cardiac transplant during the follow up period (median 27.5 months, range 8-43). Conclusions—Because ICD implantation occurs against a complex medical background with inevitable psychological stress, all such patients should be considered at high risk for developing psychopathology. Keywords: implantable cardioverter
Tarasów, Eugeniusz; Kochanowicz, Jan; Brzozowska, Joanna; Mariak, Zenon; Walecki, Jerzy
Summary Background: In MR spectroscopy, we evaluated cerebral metabolic changes in patients 2–4 years after clipping or endovascular therapy of intracranial aneurysms. Material/Metodhs: A prospective study was conducted in 36 patients after SAH, treated surgically (n=23) or by endovascular embolisation (n=13). Control group consisted of 20 healthy volunteers. The clinical evaluation was based on the Glasgow Coma Scale, Hunt and Hess grade, and Glasgow Outcome Scale. MR spectroscopy was performed with 1.5T system with PRESS sequence, at echo time of 35 ms, in frontal lobes unchanged in MR examination. Ratios of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), myo-inositol (mI) and glutamine/glutamate complex (Glx) to creatine were assessed. Results: Only a slight, statistically insignificant reduction of NAA/Cr and an insignificant increase of mI/Cr were noted; other metabolite ratios were close to the ones in the control group. Similar results were obtained in patients after surgical clipping and after endovascular therapy. Only in patients with aneurysms of anterior communicating artery complex (AcoA), the NAA/Cr ratio showed a significant reduction as compared to that of non-AcoA patients and of the control group. No significant changes of metabolite ratios were found in patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms, with regard to aneurysm lateralisation. Conclusions: Surgical clipping and endovascular embolisation of ICA, MCA and posterior circulatory aneurysms do not induce changes in metabolite concentration in frontal lobes assessed in MR spectroscopy. In patients with AcoA aneurysms, 2–4 years after obliteration, there were found persistent metabolic changes in unchanged brain tissue of the frontal lobes, corresponding to neuronal damage (dysfunction). PMID:22802800
Bekibele, C O; Kehinde, A O; Ajayi, B G K
Infective endophthalmitis can follow contamination from eyelid of surgical eye patients. Information about peri-ocular skin bacterial isolates and their determinants would help in planning appropriate interventions. This study aimed to determine the upper lid skin bacterial count and factors related to high counts if any, among surgical eye patients. A cross section of consenting new surgical eye patients seen at the Eye clinic of the University College Hospital Ibadan between May and July 2006 was studied. They were interviewed with a standard questionnaire, and swab of the upper eyelid skin taken. Specimens were Gram-stained, bacterial counts and culture were carried out using standard techniques. A total of 80 subjects were studied, age range 13 to 87 years (mean 57.8 +/- 15.8) years. Females were 42 (52.5%) while males were 38 (47.5%). Bacterial culture was obtained from 76 (95.0%) of those studied, with 24 (30.0%) having Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to gentamycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid combination while 52 (65.0%) had coagulase negative Staphylococcus. The mean bacterial count was 218 +/- 321 colony forming units (CFUs) per ml. Higher bacterial counts (> 50 CFUs per ml) were found amongst non-literates, patients older than 60 years of age, and male gender. Older age and male gender remained significantly associated with a high bacterial count using the logistic regression model (OR = 4.9, P = 0.03 and OR = 8.06, P = 0.005 respectively). The conclusion reached was that risk of having positive bacterial culture from the upper lid skin increases with older patient age and male sex of eye surgery patients. Adequate care should be taken to ensure proper skin preparation of elderly and male patients to prevent contamination of operation site.
Daumit, Gail L.; McGinty, Emma E.; Pronovost, Peter; Dixon, Lisa B.; Guallar, Eliseo; Ford, Daniel E.; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Boonyasai, Romsai T.; Thompson, David
Objective This study explored the risk of patient safety events and associated nonfatal physical harms and mortality in a cohort of persons with serious mental illness. This group experiences high rates of medical comorbidity and premature mortality and may be at high risk of adverse patient safety events. Methods Medical record review was conducted for medical-surgical hospitalizations occurring during 1994–2004 in a community-based cohort of Maryland adults with serious mental illness. Individuals were eligible if they died within 30 days of a medical-surgical hospitalization and if they also had at least one prior medical-surgical hospitalization within five years of death. All admissions took place at Maryland general hospitals. A case-crossover analysis examined the relationships among patient safety events, physical harms, and elevated likelihood of death within 30 days of hospitalization. Results A total of 790 hospitalizations among 253 adults were reviewed. The mean number of patient safety events per hospitalization was 5.8, and the rate of physical harms was 142 per 100 hospitalizations. The odds of physical harm were elevated in hospitalizations in which 22 of the 34 patient safety events occurred (p<.05), including medical events (odds ratio [OR]=1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.3–1.7) and procedure-related events (OR=1.6, CI=1.2–2.0). Adjusted odds of death within 30 days of hospitalization were elevated for individuals with any patient safety event, compared with those with no event (OR=3.7, CI=1.4–10.3). Conclusions Patient safety events were positively associated with physical harm and 30-day mortality in nonpsychiatric hospitalizations for persons with serious mental illness. PMID:27181736
Palese, Alvisa; Bresadola, Vittorio; Lorenzis, Katia; Costaperaria, Giuliana; Comuzzi, Chiara
Several factors contribute to the ill defined concept of complexity: critical patients, emergency situations, severity, intensity of care, dependency. The aim of this work is to assess nurses' perception of surgical patients' complexity, to obtain bottom-up data to validate a new model (of the Federazione Nazionale Collegi IPASVI) that measures the patients complexity. Data were collected over two months, by interviewing 64 nurses caring for surgical patients in 8 wards of the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Patients' complexity (Low, Medium and High) and the explicit criteria adopted for the process of qualification, are formulated according to a priority ranking. Nurses were interviewed in 8 index days over 2 months. Criteria were independently classified by 3 nurses and any discrepancies discussed. Data on 1287 patients collected. 729 patients (56.6%) were classified as low complexity; 393 (30.6%) medium and 165 (12.8%) highly complex. The judgement is influenced by patients' age (p<0.01) but not sex. An high complexity score was assigned to patients with abdominal, soft tissues and vascular and gastrointestinal oncological surgery. 1291 different criteria were reported (2.89 +/- 1.88--range 1-15--for patient). The more frequent criteria were dependency in ADLs, need of strict monitoring/surveillance; presence of devices (such as cvc, pumps etc), and type of illness. The criteria expressed, only partially fit in the reference model. The judgement of complexity is based more on clinical problems and patients' dependency than on patients' ability to adapt to the illness and participate to his/her care.
Hung, Peir-Haur; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chung, Mu-Chi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Chung, Chi-Jung
The association between urothelial carcinoma (UC) and subsequent ESRD incidence has not been confirmed. This was a population-based study using claims data from the Taiwan National Health Institutes from 1998 to 2010. The study cohort consisted of 26,017 patients with newly diagnosed UC and no history of ESRD, and the comparison cohort consisted of 208,136 matched enrollees without UC. The incidence of ESRD was ascertained through cross-referencing with a registry for catastrophic illnesses. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the risk of ESRD associated with UC and UC subtype. A total of 979 patients (3.76%) from the UC group and 1,829 (0.88%) from the comparison group developed ESRD. Multivariable analysis indicated that compared with the comparison group, the hazard ratios (HRs) for ESRD were 7.75 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.84 to 8.78) and 3.12 (95% CI: 6.84 to 8.78) in the cohort with upper urinary tract UC (UT-UC) and bladder UC (B-UC), respectively. In addition, there were significantly increased risks for ESRD in UC patients receiving and not receiving nephrouretectomies or aristolochic acids (AA). Moreover, the UC patients receiving segmental ureterectomy and ureteral reimplantation had approximately 1.3-fold and 2.4-fold increased risk for ESRD after control for confounders, respectively. Thus, our data indicate that UT-UC and B-UC independently increased the risk for ESRD in patients after considering about nephrouretectomies or aristolochic acids (AA). In addition, UC patients receiving segmental ureterectomy and ureteral reimplantation had increased risk for ESRD. PMID:27533250
Estberg, L; Case, J T; Walters, R F; Cardiff, R D; Galuppo, L D
The objectives of the current project were to: (1) identify limitations of search sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for free-text surgical diagnoses included in electronic patient records maintained at the University of California, Davis, Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), (2) develop procedural or programmable recommendations for removing these limitations, and (3) provide guidelines for effective search strategies for users performing aggregate searches using the VMTH clinical information system. Search sensitivity corresponds to detection sensitivity (the capacity of a search term to 'identify' a relevant document) and search PPV indicates the proportion of retrieved documents that are relevant. All horses submitted to the VMTH for a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder requiring surgical intervention in 1995 were identified using procedure codes for billing purposes and stored in the electronic patient record. Patient records and surgical reports were reviewed for causes of GI disorders, and variation in naming of these disorders. Key word searches were performed for four GI disorders, and search performance was evaluated by estimating search sensitivity and PPV. Search sensitivity ranged from 33% to 98%, and PPV ranged from 2% to 74%. The procedural recommendation that would likely have the greatest influence on minimizing these search limitations would be more uniform naming of GI disorders. This would free searchers from having to anticipate all of the exact word combinations that could be used in the relevant documents, and also minimize retrieval of irrelevant documents.
Romero, Paola Severo; de Souza, Emiliane Nogueira; Rodrigues, Juliane; Moraes, Maria Antonieta
The study aims to verify quality of life of elderly patients submitted to cardiac surgery, and correlating surgical risk to health-related quality of life instrument domains. Prospective cohort study, performed at a cardiology hospital. It included elderly patients who had undergone elective cardiac surgery. Pre- and postoperative quality of life was evaluated by applying the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Old (WHOQOL-OLD) scale and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire. Surgical risk was stratified using the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE). Fifty-four patients, mostly men (64.8%), were included, with a mean age of 69.3 ± 5.7 years. The eight domains of the SF-36 questionnaire, and the four facets presented for the WHOQOL-OLD scale showed improved quality of life 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). No difference was found in the association of EuroSCORE with the domains of the health-related quality of life instruments. The data showed improved quality of life of elderly people submitted to cardiac surgery, unrelated to surgical risk.
Miyahara, Shunsuke; Okita, Yutaka
Marfan syndrome is a heritable, systemic disorder of the connective tissue with a high penetrance, named after Dr. Antoine Marfan. The most clinically important manifestations of this syndrome are cardiovascular pathologies which cause life-threatening events, such as acute aortic dissections, aortic rupture and regurgitation of the aortic valve or other artrioventricular valves leading to heart failure. These events play important roles in the life expectancy of patients with this disorder, especially prior to the development of effective surgical approaches for proximal ascending aortic disease. To prevent such catastrophic aortic events, a lower threshold has been recommended for prophylactic interventions on the aortic root. After prophylactic root replacement, disease in the aorta beyond the root and distal to the arch remains a cause for concern. Multiple surgeries are required throughout a patient's lifetime that can be problematic due to distal lesions complicated by dissection. Many controversies in surgical strategies remain, such as endovascular repair, to manage such complex cases. This review examines the trends in surgical strategies for the treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with Marfan syndrome, and current perspectives in this field.
Harvey, Richard P
Excision of non-palpable breast tumors in cancer patients has been routinely performed using surgical clips and wires placed under mammographic or ultrasound guidance. An alternative method exists for performing these surgeries without surgical wires and this approach has become more widely used at Oncology Centers in the United States. Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) performs many of their breast surgeries with radioactive seeds and has enjoyed favorable outcomes along with an enhanced patient experience. There are some inherent difficulties with using radioactive seeds, and seed tracking can be a problem during surgical procedures. When a seed is misplaced, an extensive search is conducted in an effort to locate the misplaced seed. Every attempt to recover these radioactive seeds should be made unless patient safety is jeopardized. If the seed is unrecoverable, then a dose assessment must be performed and corrective action determined. It is important to have adequate policies and procedures in place to prevent these rare occurrences. They should be treated as a radioactive medical event.
Rusanen, Jaana; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Tervonen, Osmo; Raustia, Aune
The aim of this study was to evaluate temporomandibular joints (TMJ) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients who had undergone surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment in a three-year follow-up study. Subjects consisted of 20 patients (40 TMJ), 16 females and four males (mean age 33.7 years, range 19-53 years), with severe temporomandibular disorders (TMD) referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Department at Oulu University Hospital due to skeletal jaw discrepancy. All patients underwent extensive surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment between 1996 and 2003. Clinical stomatognathic examination and MRI examinations were performed before the surgical/orthodontic or orthodontic treatment and one year after the completion of the treatment. The average treatment time was 23 months (range 12-34 months). MRI revealed a marked decrease, especially in the number of TMJ with joint effusion after the treatment. There were only a few changes in the number of diagnosed disk dislocations before and after the treatment. In five joints with anterior disk dislocation with reduction (r-ADD), a change to anterior disk dislocation without reduction (nr-ADD) was found. In 25 of the 40 condyles, the condylar configuration was normal on MRI before the treatment and in 19 condyles one year after the treatment. TMD signs and symptoms according to the Helkimo dysfunction index showed a statistically significant decrease after the treatment.
Santini, L; Robert, D; Lagier, A; Giovanni, A; Dessi, P; Fakhry, N
The aim of this study was to analyze the causal mechanisms of severe swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer. Twenty-six patients with severe swallowing disorders at ≥12 months after treatment for oropharyngeal cancer were analyzed retrospectively using videofluoroscopy. Fourteen patients (54%) had been treated with surgery (±postoperative radiotherapy), while 12 patients (46%) had been treated with (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy analysis showed a localized alteration in the surgical excision area resulting in impaired tongue root retraction in the surgical group (P=0.012), while general impairment of the pharyngeal, laryngeal, and upper oesophagus sphincter was found in the non-surgical group. Aspirations in the surgical group most often occurred after swallowing, while in the non-surgical group, they occurred during and after swallowing (P=0.039). This analysis by videofluoroscopy provides important insights into the mechanisms giving rise to swallowing disorders after the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.
Domínguez González, M A Nieves; López-Pardo Pardo, M A Estrella; Rey Liste, M A Teresa; García Sixto, M A Montserrat
The aims of this study were to homogenize priority 1 surgical indications in Galician hospitals and propose a methodology designed to ensure that that the waiting times of priority 1 patients do not exceed 30 days. The priority 1 surgical indications of the distinct surgical services in Galicia were obtained and reviewed and were then sent for validation to the scientific societies. To reduce waiting times to less than 30 days, a procedure of periodic patient monitoring was established, with allocation of tasks to all the parties involved. Comparison of the mean waiting times before and after the implantation of periodic monitoring showed that this procedure reduced the mean waiting time by 55.7%. The mean waiting time was reduced in all the surgical specialities except one. In almost all of the surgical specialities, the procedure established reduced the number of patients on the waiting lists and the mean waiting time to less than 30 days.
Guerra, Germano; Testa, Domenico; Montagnani, Stefania; Tafuri, Domenico; Salzano, Francesco Antonio; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Salzano, Giovanni; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Piombino, Pasquale; Motta, Gaetano
The neoplasms of the salivary glands account for 2% of head and neck tumors and the most common form is the Pleomorphic adenoma (PA). Parotid gland is affected from 80% to 90% of cases. In elderly these tumors occur mostly in females. These benign tumors are composed of epithelial and myoepithelial cells that are arranged with various morphological patterns and subtypes. The classification of these tumors is also based on the amount and nature of the stroma. In literature there is an almost complete consensus that, in the major salivary glands, PAs are enclosed by a layer of fibrous tissue often called "capsule" but there is disagreement about the form, extension and thickness of this layer. The treatment is surgical and there are two main different surgical approaches: an enucleation (local dissection) or so-called subtotal superficial parotidectomy and lateral or superficial total parotidectomy. Histopathological characteristics of PAs especially of capsular alterations such as thin capsule areas, capsule-free regions, capsule penetration, satellite nodules and pseudopodia in the different subtypes are important for the choice of surgical treatment and the first explanation for tumor recurrence. In our study we describe a morphological features of 84 cases of pleomorphic adenoma of parotid gland from elderly patients treated by a surgical "enucleation like" method called nucleoresection.
Neuman, Heather B.; O’Connor, Erin S.; Weiss, Jennifer; LoConte, Noelle K.; Greenblatt, David Y.; Greenberg, Caprice C.; Smith, Maureen A.
Background Age-related disparities in colon cancer treatment exist, with older patients less likely to receive recommended therapy. However, few studies have focused on receipt of surgery. The objective was to describe patterns of surgery in colon cancer patients ≥80 years and examine outcomes with and without colectomy. Methods Medicare beneficiaries ≥80 years with colon cancer diagnosed from 1992–2005 were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results- Medicare database. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilized to assess factors associated with non-operative management. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis determined one-year overall and colon cancer-specific survival. Results Of 31,574 patients, 80% underwent colectomy. 46% occurred during an urgent/emergent admission, with decreased 1-year overall survival (70% vs. 86% during an elective admission). Factors most predictive of non-operative management include older age, black race, more hospital admissions, use of home oxygen, use of a wheel chair, being frail and dementia. For both operative and non-operative patients, one-year overall survival was lower than colon cancer-specific survival (colectomy 78% vs. 89%; no colectomy 58% vs. 78%). Conclusions Most older colon cancer patients are receiving surgery, with improved outcomes compared to non-operative management. However, many patients not selected for surgery die of unrelated causes, reflecting good surgical selection. Patients undergoing surgery during an urgent/emergent admission have an increased short-term mortality. As earlier detection of colon cancer may increase the proportion of older patients undergoing elective surgery, these findings have policy implications for colon cancer screening and suggest that age should not be the only factor driving cancer screening recommendations. PMID:22893570
Resnic, F S; Blake, G J; Ohno-Machado, L; Selwyn, A P; Popma, J J; Rogers, C
Vascular closure devices offer advantages over traditional means of obtaining hemostasis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in terms of patient comfort and time to ambulation. We investigate whether such devices also reduce the risk of vascular complications in selected patient populations. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent PCI at our institution between January 1998 and December 1999. Of 3,151 consecutive patients, 3,027 were eligible to receive vascular closure devices. Of these, 1,485 received a closure device and 1,409 received glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists. The overall vascular complication rate, as defined by the need for surgical repair or transfusion, or the development of arteriovenous fistula, pseudoaneurysm, or large hematoma, was 4.20%. By univariate analysis, the use of closure devices was associated with a lower vascular complication rate (3.03% vs 5.52%; p = 0.002) and a shorter length of hospital stay (2.77 vs 3.97 days, p <0.001). Multivariate analysis showed a significant reduction in vascular complications with closure devices (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.007). For the subgroup of patients receiving glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists, the use of closure devices was associated with an even more pronounced reduction in the risk of vascular complications (odds ratio 0.45, p <0.008). Thus, the use of closure devices in selected patients undergoing PCI is associated with a low rate of vascular complications and decreased length of stay. This benefit was most marked for patients receiving glycoprotein IIb-IIIa antagonists.
Kawara, Fumiaki; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Morita, Yoshinori; Uda, Atsushi; Masuda, Atsuhiro; Saito, Masaya; Ooi, Makoto; Ishida, Tsukasa; Kondo, Yasuyuki; Yoshida, Shiei; Okuno, Tatsuya; Yano, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Masaru; Kutsumi, Hiromu; Hayakumo, Takanobu; Yamashita, Kazuhiko; Hirano, Takeshi; Hirai, Midori; Azuma, Takeshi
AIM To elucidate the factors associated with residual gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms in patients receiving proton pump inhibitor (PPI) maintenance therapy in clinical practice. METHODS The study included 39 GERD patients receiving maintenance PPI therapy. Residual symptoms were assessed using the Frequency Scale for Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) questionnaire and the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS). The relationships between the FSSG score and patient background factors, including the CYP2C19 genotype, were analyzed. RESULTS The FSSG scores ranged from 1 to 28 points (median score: 7.5 points), and 19 patients (48.7%) had a score of 8 points or more. The patients’ GSRS scores were significantly correlated with their FSSG scores (correlation coefficient = 0.47, P < 0.005). In erosive esophagitis patients, the FSSG scores of the CYP2C19 rapid metabolizers (RMs) were significantly higher than the scores of the poor metabolizers and intermediate metabolizers (total scores: 16.7 ± 8.6 vs 7.8 ± 5.4, P < 0.05; acid reflux-related symptom scores: 12 ± 1.9 vs 2.5 ± 0.8, P < 0.005). In contrast, the FSSG scores of the CYP2C19 RMs in the non-erosive reflux disease patients were significantly lower than those of the other patients (total scores: 5.5 ± 1.0 vs 11.8 ± 6.3, P < 0.05; dysmotility symptom-related scores: 1.0 ± 0.4 vs 6.0 ± 0.8, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Approximately half of the GERD patients receiving maintenance PPI therapy had residual symptoms associated with a lower quality of life, and the CYP2C19 genotype appeared to be associated with these residual symptoms. PMID:28373773
Kubo, Yumi; Floege, Anna; Chertow, Glenn M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.
Background and objectives Uncontrolled secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in patients with ESRD is a risk factor for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA; calciphylaxis). Design, setting, participants, & measurements Adverse event reports collected during the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial were used to determine the frequency of CUA in patients receiving hemodialysis who had moderate to severe sHPT, as well as the effects of cinacalcet versus placebo. CUA events were collected while patients were receiving the study drug. Results Among the 3861 trial patients who received at least one dose of the study drug, 18 patients randomly assigned to placebo and six assigned to cinacalcet developed CUA (unadjusted relative hazard, 0.31; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.13 to 0.79; P=0.014). Corresponding cumulative event rates (95% CI) at year 4 were 0.011% (0.006% to 0.018%) and 0.005% (0.002% to 0.010%). By multivariable analysis, other factors associated with CUA included female sex, higher body mass index, higher diastolic BP, and history of dyslipidemia or parathyroidectomy. Median (10%, 90% percentile) plasma parathyroid hormone concentrations proximal to the report of CUA were 796 (225, 2093) pg/ml and 410 (71, 4957) pg/ml in patients randomly assigned to placebo and cinacalcet, respectively. Active use of vitamin K antagonists was recorded in 11 of 24 patients with CUA, nine randomly assigned to placebo, and two to cinacalcet, in contrast to 5%–7% at any one time point in patients in whom CUA was not reported. Conclusion Cinacalcet appeared to reduce the incidence of CUA in hemodialysis recipients who have moderate to severe sHPT. PMID:25887067
Nikbakhsh, Novin; Sadeghi, Mohsen Vakili; Ramzani, Elham; Moudi, Sussan; Bijani, Ali; Yousefi, Roya; Moudi, Marjan; Gholinia, Hemmat
Background: Considering the incidence and prevalence rates of gastric cancer in Mazandaran Province of Iran, this research was performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of olanzapine in symptom relief and quality of life (QOL) improvement of gastric patients receiving chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was conducted on thirty new cases of gastric cancer patients whose treatment protocol was planned on chemotherapy and were allocated into two groups by simple random sampling. Intervention group (15 patients) received olanzapine tablets (2.5–10 mg/day) a day before the beginning of chemotherapy; in the 1st day of chemotherapy to 8 weeks after chemotherapy, besides the routine treatment regimens. The control group received only the routine treatment regimens. The patients were followed for 8 weeks after intervention. All of the patients were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and WHO-QOL-BREF questionnaires; further, Rhodes index was used to evaluate nausea and vomiting (N/V) status. Results: All the recruited patients continued the allocated interventions (no lost to follow-up). N/V decreased in the case group, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.438). The patients' appetite and body mass index increased (P = 0.006). Anxiety and depression subscales of HADS had significant differences between the two groups (P < 0.001) in the 4th and 8th week after treatment. Among the different subdomains of QOL, only physical health improved significantly after intervention (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed in other subdomains and also total QOL score (P > 0.05). No significant increase was observed in fasting and 2-h postprandial blood glucose and lipid profile (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Olanzapine can be considered as an effective drug to increase appetite and decrease anxiety and depression in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:28163734
Galicia-Basart, Maria; Alcalde-Rodrigo, Maria; Segarra-Medrano, Alfons; Suñé-Negre, Josep-Maria; Montoro-Ronsano, José-Bruno
Background Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Cinacalcet could be a therapeutic option although its use is controversial in patients not receiving dialysis. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and safety of cinacalcet in patients with CKD and SHPT without renal replacement treatment (RRT) and without renal transplantation (RT). Methods A retrospective observational study was conducted. Patients were included if they had collected cinacalcet, under off-label use, during 2010 and 2011. Patients selected were followed from the beginning of cinacalcet therapy for one year of treatment. Results A total of 37 patients were included with CKD stage 3 (38%), 4 (51%) and 5 (11%). Baseline mean PTH value was 400.86 ± 168.60 mg/dl. At 12 months, a 67% of patients achieved at least a 30% reduction in their PTH value (p<0.001; CI 49.7–83.6), and the overall mean reduction of PTH values was 38% (p< 0.001; IC -49.1, -27.5). A 28% of the patients achieved KDOQI PTH goals (p = 0.003, CI 12%-50%). At 12 months, mean serum calcium values decreased by 6% and mean serum phosphorus values increased by 13%. A 19% of patients experienced hypocalcemia episodes while an increase of 24% in hyperphosphatemia episodes was observed. A 25% of patients finished cinacalcet before a year of treatment. Main withdrawal reasons were: gastrointestinal and other discomfort (8%), hypocalcaemia (8%), non-compliance (3%), interactions (3%) and excess of efficacy (3%). Conclusions Cinacalcet was effective in patients with CKD and SHPT not receiving dialysis. Electrolytic imbalances could be managed with administration of vitamin D and analogues or phosphate binders. PMID:27588942
Panza, Julio A.; Velazquez, Eric J.; She, Lilin; Smith, Peter K.; Nicolau, José C.; Favaloro, Roberto R.; Gradinac, Sinisa; Chrzanowski, Lukasz; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Howlett, Jonathan G.; Jasinski, Marek; Hill, James A.; Szwed, Hanna; Larbalestier, Robert; Desvigne-Nickens, Patrice; Jones, Robert H.; Lee, Kerry L.; Rouleau, Jean L.
Background Patients with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction have higher operative risk with CABG. However, those whose early risk is surpassed by subsequent survival benefit have not been identified. Objective To examine the impact of anatomic variables associated with poor prognosis on the effect of coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) in ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods All 1,212 patients in the STICH surgical revascularization trial were included. Patients had coronary artery disease (CAD), ejection fraction (EF) ≤35%, and were randomized to CABG plus medical therapy or optimal medical therapy alone (OMT). This study focused on 3 prognostic factors: presence of 3-vessel CAD; EF below the median (27%); and end-systolic volume index (ESVI) above the median (79 ml/m2). Patients were categorized as having 0–1 or 2–3 of these factors. Results Patients with 2–3 prognostic factors (n= 636) had reduced mortality with CABG, as compared to OMT (HR=0.71, 95% CI=0.56–0.89; p=0.004); CABG had no such effect in patients with 0–1 factors (HR=1.08, 95% CI=0.81–1.44; p=0.591). There was a significant interaction between the number of factors and the effect of CABG on mortality (p=0.022). Although 30-day risk with CABG was higher, a net beneficial effect of CABG over OMT was observed at >2years in patients with 2–3 factors (HR=0.53, 95% CI=0.37–0.75; p#x0003C;0.001), but not in those with 0–1 factors (HR=0.88, 95% CI=0.59–1.31; p=0.535). Conclusions Patients with more advanced ischemic cardiomyopathy receive greater benefit from CABG. This supports the indication for surgical revascularization in patients with more extensive CAD and worse myocardial dysfunction and remodeling. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595) PMID:25104523
With the development of population aging in our country, the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer is increasing. The risk of developing gastrointestinal cancer in elderly over 75 years was 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal cancer was 7-8 times of the general population. As compared to non-elderly, the incidence of gastric cancer was not decreased obviously but the total incidence of colorectal cancer was increased more quickly. Therefore, screening of gastrointestinal cancer should be performed in the elderly for early discovery, diagnosis and treatment. Because of the insidious onset of the illness in elderly patients, gastrointestinal cancers are mostly diagnosed at advanced or late stage (stage III or IV). Well differentiated cancer is more common, such as papillary or tubular adenocarcinoma. Lauren type, Borrmann II or III are more common in gastric cancer, which are relatively favorable. Compared with non-elderly patients, many elderly patients also suffer from comorbid diseases with higher operation risk and postoperative complication rates. Therefore, we must pay great attention to the perioperative management and the surgical operation for the elderly patients. In this paper, several key issues involved the development trend of incidence and mortality of gastrointestinal cancer, the clinicopathological characteristics, the comorbidity and surgical treatment in the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer will be elaborated, aiming at promoting further attention to the clinical therapeutic strategies, management measures and prognostic factors for the elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
Anaissie, James; Yafi, Faysal A
The introduction of the inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) has revolutionized the treatment of patients with both Peyronie's disease (PD) and erectile dysfunction (ED). A thorough literature review was performed in order to review the surgical strategies used to treat PD, using the PubMed online database with the keywords "penile prosthesis", "surgical management" and "Peyronie's disease". Patient satisfaction rates of 72-100% and partner satisfaction rates of 89% have been reported in the literature, although strong preoperative education may be needed to prepare patients for risks such as penile shortening, seen in up to 54% of patients. Three-piece IPPs are most commonly used, and when comparing the two most popular models (AMS 700 CX vs. Coloplast Titan), no significant differences were seen in functional outcomes or patient satisfaction. Simple insertion of an IPP has been shown to resolve curvature in 33-90% of patients, but surgeons may often need to also utilize ancillary straightening procedures for residual curvatures. Manual modeling can correct residual curvature with an 86-100% success rate, but with a 4% risk of urethral injury. When the post-modeling residual curvature exceeds 30 degrees, a plaque-releasing incision or plication is recommended to further reduce curvature. Grafting is recommended if the resulting incisional defect is larger than two centimeters. Alternative straightening techniques such as plication prior to IPP insertion, endoscopic plaque resection, the "scratch technique" and bone saw plaque incision have also been described.
Opanasenko, M S; Levanda, L I; Kononenko, V A; KYimenko, V I; Tereshkovych, O V; Kalenychenko, M I; Konik, V M; Obrems'ka, O K; Demus, R S; Kshanovs'kyĭ, O E
Actual issue, concerning coexistent pulmonary tuberculosis and diabetes mellitus, was studied. The data about the rate of various types of diabetes mellitus in phthysiosurgery were adduced. The results of surgical treatment of 116 patients, suffering pulmonary tuberculosis on the diabetes mellitus background, were summarized. Total efficacy of the treatment have constituted 96.0%. The surgical complications rate was 12.2%.
Yanagimoto, Hiromi; Teramatsu, Tsuyoshi; Goto, Junko; Yanagisawa, Masahiko; Harii, Norikazu; Suzuki, Masahiko; Hanawa, Takehisa; Matsuda, Kenichi; Oguchi, Toshio
Variation in protein binding ratio (PBR) of teicoplanin (TEIC) was investigated in continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) patients. TEIC is classified as a high PBR drug (≧90%), and it was reported that the PBR of TEIC decreased with an decrease in the serum albumin level in hypoalbuminemia patients. However, few reports can be found about the variation of PBR of TEIC for CHDF patient. An antibiotic activity is directly determined by the level of unbound antibiotics species (Cfree) in the target site, namely, an increase in the Cfree enhances the risks of TEIC as well as the therapeutic effect against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, both the total concentration (Ctotal) and Cfree of TEIC were determined and the PBRs were compared between a patient with normal albumin level, hypoalbuminemia patients and CHDF patients. Similarly to the previous report, the lowering of PBR of TEIC was demonstrated in the hypoalbuminemia patients. On the other hand, the CHDF patients showed lower value of PBR suggesting some change in the protein binding ability, although showed higher values of serum albumin level in comparison with the hypoalbuminemia patients. It was not necessary to measure the Cfree value for the hypoalbuminemia patient routinely, but the monitoring of Cfree as well as Ctotal for the CHDF patients can be important for the proper TEIC use because of the potential specialty of PBR.
Rocha-Navarro, Miriam L.; Acosta-Veloz, Anselmo L.; Juárez-Hernández, Angélica
Objective: To investigate the class, type, position, diagnosis and most common procedures used in the surgical removal of third molars, and evaluate the sex and age distribution in a representative sample of Mexican patients. Study Design: A retrospective descriptive study was made covering the period 1993-2008 in relation to 9148 extracted third molars in 3206 patients treated in the Dental School of Salle Bajío University, A.C. (Mexico). Patients of either sex and aged 11-59 years, with at least one third molar programmed for surgical removal, were included in the study. A descriptive statistical study was made. Results: The mean patient age was 27.6 ± 10.6 years. There were 2093 females (65.3%) and 1111 males (34.6%). In relation to the 4025 upper molars, extraction was decided for prophylactic reasons in 3827 cases (95.08%). Type A presentations were recorded in 1929 cases (47.9%), with a vertical position in 1931 teeth (48%). In relation to the 5123 lower third molars, extraction was likewise most often indicated for prophylactic reasons (4424 cases, 86.36%). A total of 2353 teeth corresponded to type A (45.9%), 2545 were class I cases (49.7%), and a mesioangular position was observed in 1850 cases (36.1%). Conclusions: The present study shows that in Mexican patients, upper third molars most often correspond to type A and class I, with a vertical position, while lower third molars predominantly correspond to type A and class I, with a mesioangular position. This information can help dental surgeons take better decisions before and after surgery, to the benefit of their patients. Key words:Third molars, retrospective review, surgical removal. PMID:22143723
Oztemür, Zekeriya; Bulut, Okay; Korkmaz, Murat; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Oztürk, Hayati; Tezeren, Gündüz; Günaydın, Ilhan
Radiation synovectomy (RS) is one of many therapeutic options used for recurrent joint synovitis. Our aim was to analyze the effect of the surgical synovectomy combined with yttrium 90 ((90)Y) in the treatment for recurrent joint synovitis. A surgical combined RS procedure was used on 32 knees of 30 patients. They were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 7 knees of 7 patients (5 women and 2 men) with a mean age of 40.7 years in whom RS was combined with the open synovectomy. Group 2 consisted of 25 knees of 23 patients (21 men and 2 women) with a mean age of 45.5 years in whom RS was combined with the arthroscopic synovectomy. Arthroscopic synovectomy or open surgery biopsy was carried out for all cases who diagnosed of having synovitis. A scintigraphic examination was conducted within 24 h after the RS procedure to investigate the systemic leakage of (90)Y in all patients. The outcome of treatment was assessed based on self-reporting using the visual analogue scale (VAS) of night pain, rest pain, activity pain, effusion, and satisfactory scores. The average follow-up period was 4.15 years. There was a significant difference between before and after treatment in terms of outcome parameters' VAS scores in both groups (p < 0.05). But there was no statistically significant difference between open and arthroscopic synovectomy groups in terms of outcome parameters (p > 0.05). Satisfactory outcome was excellent in 3 patients (42.8 %) in group 1 and 8 patients (32 %) in group 2. Surgical synovectomy with combined (90)Y could treat recurrent joint synovitis successfully. There was no statistically significant difference between open and arthroscopic synovectomy techniques combined with RS procedure.
Chen, Yu-Li; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Ming-Cheng; Lin, Han-Wei; Huang, Ching-Ting; Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Chen, Chi-An; Cheng, Wen-Fang
Aside from tumor cells, ovarian cancer-related ascites contains the immune components. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a combination of clinical and immunological parameters can predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer. Ascites specimens and medical records from 144 ovarian cancer patients at our hospital were used as the derivation group to select target clinical and immunological factors to generate a risk-scoring system to predict patient survival. Eighty-two cases from another hospital were used as the validation group to evaluate this system. The surgical status and expression levels of interleukin 17a (IL17a) and IL21 in ascites were selected for the risk-scoring system in the derivation group. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves of the overall score for disease-free survival (DFS) of the ovarian cancer patients were 0.84 in the derivation group, 0.85 in the validation group, and 0.84 for all the patients. The AUROC curves of the overall score for overall survival (OS) of cases were 0.78 in the derivation group, 0.76 in the validation group, and 0.76 for all the studied patients. Good correlations between overall risk score and survival of the ovarian cancer patients were demonstrated by sub-grouping all participants into four groups (P for trend <0.001 for DFS and OS). Therefore, acombination of clinical and immunological parameters can provide a practical scoring system to predict the survival of patients with ovarian carcinoma. IL17a and IL21 can potentially be used as prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers.
Collins, J P; McCarthy, I D; Hill, G L
In order to evaluate the reliability of anthropometry in assessing protein stores we have compared, in 10 normal adults and 82 surgical patients with varying degrees of weight loss, measurements of weight/height, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, and arm muscle area with direct measurements of body nitrogen using in vivo neutron activation analysis. Anthropometry is reliable for the assessment of protein nutrition in groups of patients (for 100 patients 95% confidence limits are +/- 30 g nitrogen) but the magnitude of variance shown makes it inappropriate for assessing the individual as a single measurement (95% confidence limits are +/- 300 g nitrogen). Repeat measurements were made after 2 weeks on 35 patients and there was no correlation between changes in body nitrogen and changes in the anthropometric measurements. Anthropometry is not reliable in following changes in body nitrogen in individual patients over short periods of time.
Objectives The first non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant (NOAC) introduced to the market in Japan was dabigatran in March 2011, and three more NOACs, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban, have since become available. Randomized controlled trials of NOACs have revealed that intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) occurs less frequently with NOACs compared with warfarin. However, the absolute incidence of ICH associated with NOACs has increased with greater use of these anticoagulants, and we wanted to explore the incidence, clinical characteristics, and treatment course of patients with NOACs-associated ICH. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the characteristics of symptomatic ICH patients receiving NOACs between March 2011 and September 2014. Results ICH occurred in 6 patients (5 men, 1 woman; mean ± SD age, 72.8 ± 3.2 years). Mean time to onset was 146.2 ± 111.5 days after starting NOACs. Five patients received rivaroxaban and 1 patient received apixaban. None received dabigatran or edoxaban. Notably, no hematoma expansion was observed within 24 h of onset in the absence of infusion of fresh frozen plasma, activated prothrombin complex concentrate, recombinant activated factor VIIa or hemodialysis. When NOAC therapy was initiated, mean HAS-BLED and PANWARDS scores were 1.5 ± 0.5 and 39.5 ± 7.7, respectively. Mean systolic blood pressure was 137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg within 1 month before spontaneous ICH onset. Conclusion Six symptomatic ICHs occurred early in NOAC therapy but hematoma volume was small and did not expand in the absence of infusion of reversal agents or hemodialysis. The occurrence of ICH during NOAC therapy is possible even when there is acceptable mean systolic blood pressure control (137.8 ± 15.9 mmHg) and HAS-BLED score ≤ 2. Even stricter blood pressure lowering and control within the acceptable range may be advisable to prevent ICH during NOAC therapy. PMID:26171862
Sammut, D; Elliot, C A; Kiely, D G; Armstrong, I J; Martin, L; Wilkinson, J; Sephton, P; Jones, J; Hamilton, N; Hurdman, J; McLellan, E; Sabroe, I; Condliffe, R
Catheter-related blood stream infection (CR-BSI) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) receiving intravenous iloprost via an indwelling central line has previously not been fully described. Recent studies have suggested a link between the pH of prostanoid infusions and the rate and nature of CR-BSI. We have investigated CR-BSI in patients receiving intravenous iloprost at our unit. Databases and hospital records were interrogated for all patients receiving intravenous iloprost between September 2007 and June 2012. Fifty-nine patients received intravenous iloprost via an indwelling central catheter with a total of 23,072 treatment days. There were 15 episodes of CR-BSI, identified using a systematic screening protocol, involving 11 patients giving an overall CR-BSI rate of 0.65/1,000 treatment days. CR-BSI rate for Gram-positive organisms was 0.26/1,000 treatment-days and for Gram-negative organisms was 0.39/1,000 treatment-days. The pH of iloprost in typical dosing regimens was comparable to the pH used in standard-diluent treprostinil and dissimilar to alkaline epoprostenol infusions. The proportion of Gram-negative CR-BSI was similar to that reported for standard-diluent treprostinil. CRP was normal on admission in 33 % of cases of confirmed CR-BSI and remained normal in 13 % of cases. CR-BSI rates with intravenous iloprost are comparable to those observed for other prostanoids. The high proportion of Gram-negative organisms observed and the neutral pH of iloprost infusions support the previously hypothesised link between pH and antimicrobial activity. Although usually elevated during a CR-BSI, CRP may be normal in early infection and a normal result cannot completely exclude infection.
Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas
Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID
Benamira, Lina Zahra; Maniakas, Anastasios; Alzahrani, Musaed; Saliba, Issam
Background Superior canal dehiscence (SCD) is a benign condition in which a surgical treatment may be considered depending on the patients’ tolerance of their symptoms. In this study, we aim to identify driving factors behind the patients’ choice of a surgical management over watchful waiting. Methods Sixty-two patients with cochlear and/or vestibular symptoms and a temporal bone high-resolution CT (HRCT) scan showing SCD were included in the study. All patients have been offered either surgical management or watchful waiting. Results Of these, 28 elected surgery and 34 declined it. The operated group showed more cochlear (6.6 vs. 2.4) symptoms than the non-operated group (P < 0.001) except for hypoacousis, but no significant difference (P = 0.059) was found for the number of vestibular symptoms between both groups (3.4 vs. 1.1). Footstep and eating hyperacousis were both present in 57.1% of operated vs. 3% of non-operated patients (P < 0.001). Oscillopsia with effort and with walking was found in 50% and 35.7% of operated patients, respectively, but none in the non-operated group (P < 0.001). Hearing tuning fork at malleolus and Valsalva and pneumatic speculum induced vertigo showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.003, P < 0.001, P = 0.010 respectively). Cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) thresholds, air and bone conduction thresholds, and mean air-bone gap (ABG) were similar in the two populations (P > 0.05). The average dehiscence size was 4.7 mm (2.0 - 8.0 mm) and 3.8 mm (1.3 - 7.7 mm) in the operated and non-operated patients, respectively (P = 0.421). Conclusions The natures of cochleovestibular signs and symptoms were shown to be key factors in patients’ choice of a surgical management whereas paraclinical tests seem to be less significant in the patients’ decision for a surgical treatment. PMID:25780478
Serio-Melvin, Maria; Yoder, Linda H; Gaylord, Kathryn M
Nursing plays a critical role in the comprehensive burn care delivered at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research, otherwise known as the US Army's Burn Center serving the Department of Defense. This center serves as a model for burn units nationally and internationally. It also provides a challenging and innovative work environment for military and civilian nurses. Nurses in the Burn Center contribute to innovations in acute, rehabilitative, and psychological care for patients with burns. This article provides an overview of the complex nursing care provided to burn patients treated at the Burn Center.
Subramani, Yamini; Wong, Jean; Nagappa, Mahesh; Chung, Frances
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disease affecting millions of people worldwide. Untreated OSA can lead to about a 2-fold increase in medical expenses, mainly because of cardiovascular morbidity. OSA is highly prevalent in the surgical population, with an increased risk of perioperative complications. This article describes the perioperative and long-term social and economic benefits of preoperative screening for OSA. Screening patients to identify high-risk OSA is important to decrease the adverse outcomes and associated health care costs in the perioperative period. Screening for OSA is particularly relevant because most patients are undiagnosed at the time of surgery.
Tolkach, A B; Dolgikh, V T; Reĭs, B A; Shikunova, L G; Konvaĭ, V D; Malykhin, A G; Ktinidi, L I
Twenty-four patients aged 16-67 years with surgical sepsis developing as a result of pancreonecrosis, gynecological diseases, urological sepsis. closed abdominal injury, and suppurative inflammation of soft tissues were examined. Endotoxemia caused pronounced disorders in metabolism, particularly purine metabolism, and the associated lipid peroxidation processes. Plasmapheresis exerted a positive effect in patients with high concentration of medium molecular-weight polypeptides (more than 0.32 arb. units) in the blood, decreasing the mortality by 40.5%. At lower concentrations of these polypeptides in the blood (less than 0.32 arb. units) plasmapheresis is inefficient.
Il'icheva, E A; Zudaev, V P; Roĭ, T A; Makhutov, V N; Tarnueva, I F; Moshkova, E S
Quality of life of 89 patients with diffuse toxic goiter was analyzed before surgical intervention and at different terms after thyroidectomy or terminal subtotal resection of the thyroid gland using questionnaire SF-36. It was found that quality of life of patients with diffuse toxic goiter was lower than that of respondents without such pathology. The indices of quality of life one year after thyroidectomy (terminal subtotal resection of the thyroid gland) remained depending on the duration of the disease and complications of thyrotoxicosis, became reliably larger as compared with preoperative level due to social activity and emotional state.
Brooks, Brandon S; Barman, Joydip; Ponce, Brent A; Sides, Alisa; Vetter, Thomas R
Background Obtaining patient informed consent for a regional analgesia block on the day of surgery can result in surgical case delays. We hypothesized that implementing a preoperative electronic surgical order, undertaking patient education, and obtaining informed consent for a regional block in our preoperative assessment clinic prior to the day of surgery would reduce surgical case delays attributed to our regional anesthesia pain service and increase the percentage of patients for whom our regional anesthesia pain service was requested to provide a block. Methods A prospective two-group time-series design, with a nonrandomized, pre- and post-intervention data collection strategy, was applied. Based upon the surgeons’ newly implemented preoperative electronic outpatient orders, patients were identified by our preoperative assessment clinic staff to receive educational materials. The attending anesthesiologist in the preoperative assessment clinic then obtained written informed consent. Block-related delay and utilization data were analyzed with conventional inferential statistics. Results We observed a 14.8% (95% CI: 9.4%, 20.1%; P<0.001) decrease in surgical case delays, attributed to the regional nerve block, in the post- vs pre-intervention group. In addition, there was a 9.9% (95% CI: 4.7%, 15.1%); P<0.001) increase in the proportion of patients for whom a regional nerve block was ordered by our three high-volume orthopedic surgeons in the post- vs pre-intervention time periods. Conclusion When performed before the day of surgery, a surgeon’s electronic order, patient education, and informed consent for regional postoperative analgesia can improve patient throughput, thereby reducing block-related operating room delays. The preoperative assessment clinic can serve as a venue to achieve this goal, thereby adding value by decreasing downstream delays on the day of surgery. PMID:27785096
Moe, Sharon M; Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M; Parfrey, Patrick S; Block, Geoffrey A; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Floege, Jürgen; Herzog, Charles A; London, Gerard M; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Wheeler, David C; Dehmel, Bastian; Goodman, William G; Drüeke, Tilman B
Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%-29%.
Abdalla, Safa; Chertow, Glenn M.; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Block, Geoffrey A.; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Floege, Jürgen; Herzog, Charles A.; London, Gerard M.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Wheeler, David C.; Dehmel, Bastian; Goodman, William G.; Drüeke, Tilman B.
Fractures are frequent in patients receiving hemodialysis. We tested the hypothesis that cinacalcet would reduce the rate of clinical fractures in patients receiving hemodialysis using data from the Evaluation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events trial, a placebo-controlled trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism to receive cinacalcet or placebo for ≤64 months. This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the trial whose primary end point was all-cause mortality and non-fatal cardiovascular events, and one of the secondary end points was first clinical fracture event. Clinical fractures were observed in 255 of 1935 (13.2%) patients randomized to placebo and 238 of 1948 (12.2%) patients randomized to cinacalcet. In an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, the relative hazard for fracture (cinacalcet versus placebo) was 0.89 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.75 to 1.07). After adjustment for baseline characteristics and multiple fractures, the relative hazard was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.98). Using a prespecified lag-censoring analysis (a measure of actual drug exposure), the relative hazard for fracture was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90). When participants were censored at the time of cointerventions (parathyroidectomy, transplant, or provision of commercial cinacalcet), the relative hazard was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.58 to 0.87). Fracture rates were higher in older compared with younger patients and the effect of cinacalcet appeared more pronounced in older patients. In conclusion, using an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis, cinacalcet did not reduce the rate of clinical fracture. However, when accounting for differences in baseline characteristics, multiple fractures, and/or events prompting discontinuation of study drug, cinacalcet reduced the rate of clinical fracture by 16%–29%. PMID:25505257
Giangregorio, Maeve; Mott, Sandra; Tong, Elizabeth; Handa, Sonia; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Connor, Jean Anne
The study aim was to evaluate present practice of maintaining PICC line patency in pediatric heart failure patients receiving continuous inotropes by comparing one cohort receiving low dose continuous heparin with one receiving no heparin. A case control retrospective chart review compared the two cohorts on duration of patency (measured in days) and need for thrombolytic agents. Median duration of patency for the heparin group was 24 days versus 16 days for the no heparin group (p=0.07). Use of thrombolytic agents was 28% in the heparin group compared to 50% in the no heparin group (p=0.08). Although not statistically significant, findings were clinically significant and supportive of current practice.
Downer, S. M.; Cody, M. M.; McCluskey, P.; Wilson, P. D.; Arnott, S. J.; Lister, T. A.; Slevin, M. L.
OBJECTIVES--To determine what proportion of oncology patients receiving conventional medical treatment also use complementary treatments; to assess which complementary treatments are the most popular and to assess patients' motivation for using them; to evaluate associated advantages and risks. DESIGN--Postal screening questionnaire followed by semistructured interview. SETTING--Two hospitals in inner London. SUBJECTS--600 unselected oncology patients aged 18 or over who had known their diagnosis of cancer for at least three months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Prevalence and demography of use of complementary therapies; patients' motivation and expectations of complementary therapies; areas of satisfaction and dissatisfaction associated with conventional and complementary therapies. RESULTS--415 (69%) patients returned the questionnaire. 16% had used complementary therapies. The most popular were healing, relaxation, visualisation, diets, homoeopathy, vitamins, herbalism, and the Bristol approach. Patients using complementary therapies tended to be younger, of higher social class, and female. Three quarters used two or more therapies. Therapies were mostly used for anticipated antitumour effect. Ill effects of diets and herb treatments were described. Satisfaction with both conventional and complementary therapies was high, although diets often caused difficulties. Patients using complementary therapies were less satisfied with conventional treatments, largely because of side effects and lack of hope of cure. Benefits of complementary therapies were mainly psychological. CONCLUSIONS--A sizeable percentage of patients receiving conventional treatments for cancer also use complementary therapies. Patient satisfaction with complementary therapies, other than dietary therapies, was high even without the hoped for anticancer effect. Patients reported psychological benefits such as hope and optimism. PMID:8038672
Jian, Fangfang; Bian, Liuguan; Sun, Shouyue; Yang, Jun; Chen, Xiao; Chen, Yufan; Ma, Qinyun; Miao, Fei; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Sun, Qingfang
Thickened pituitary stalks (TPSs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) result from diverse pathologies; therefore, it is essential to make specific diagnoses for clinical decision-making. The diagnoses and indications for surgical biopsies in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and TPSs are thoroughly discussed in this paper. Thirty-seven patients with CDI and TPSs were retrospectively reviewed. The mean age at the diagnosis of CDI was 29.0 ± 15.9 years (range 8.0-63.3), and the median duration of follow-up was 5.5 ± 2.8 years (range 0.7-13.0). Anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies were documented in 26 (70.3 %) patients. All patients had a TPS on MRI at the diagnosis of CDI, and 21 (56.8 %) patients exhibited radiological changes during the follow-up. Of these 21 patients, 11 exhibited increases in the thickness of the stalk, and two patients exhibited reversals of the TPSs. Involvements of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, basal ganglia or supersellar, and pineal gland were found in four, three, one, and 1 patient, respectively. Ultimately, clear diagnoses were established in 17 patients who underwent biopsies, nine of whom had germinomas, six of whom had Langerhans cell histiocytosis, one of whom had a granular cell tumor, and one of whom had Erdheim-Chester disease. Patients with CDI and TPSs should submit to periodic clinic follow-ups with serial MRI assessments to establish anterior pituitary deficiencies and to detect radiological progressions that are appropriate for surgical biopsies. Endoscopic-assisted microsurgery via the supraorbital keyhole approach is a good choice for the biopsy of pituitary stalk lesions.
Robbins, W.A.; Cassel, M.J.; Wyrobek, A.J.
Induction of genetic damage in germ cells of young patients receiving chemo- or radiotherapy for cancers with probable cure, such as Hodgkin`s disease, is cause for concern. These young patients may someday desire children, and germ cell alterations presenting as numerical chromosomal abnormalities in sperm may place their future offspring at risk. To address this concern, we measured aneuploidy in sperm from eight young Hodgkin`s disease patients: four pre-treatment, four during treatment, and three over a 45 month period following treatment with NOVP (Novantrone, Oncovin, Vinblastine and Prednisone). Patients ranged in stage of disease from IA-IIEB and none had received prior radiation or chemotherapy. Using multi-chromosome sperm FISH with repetitive sequence probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 8, we found a significant 2-4 fold increase in particular numerical chromosomal abnormalities during treatment which were limited in persistence post-treatment. Additionally, pre-treatment Hodgkin`s disease patients showed elevations in some numerical chromosomal abnormalities when compared to a healthy reference group. In several men, the fraction of aneuploid sperm did not return to healthy reference group levels even after completion of therapy. These results show that elevated sperm aneuploidy occurs in germ cells of young cancer patients during chemotherapy and suggest caution to prevent conceptions during this period. The elevated sperm aneuploidy appears transient, but in some cases never returns to healthy reference group levels.
Ng, Laura; Heck, Wendy; Lavsa, Stacey; Crowther, David; Atkinson, Brad; Xiao, Lianchun; Araujo, John
Sipuleucel-T is an immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. It offers a new mechanism to treat prostate cancer without the side effects of hormone therapies and chemotherapies. In previous studies sipuleucel-T did not delay disease progression, but demonstrated an overall survival benefit compared to placebo. While clinical trials have evaluated the effects of sipuleucel-T on overall survival and progression, more studies are needed to evaluate its effectiveness and role in the management of prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to identify the incidence and possible predictors for disease progression in patients receiving sipuleucel-T. A retrospective review of patients who received sipuleucel-T between 1 September 2010 and 11 October 2011 was conducted (n = 36). Patients who changed therapy or died within 120 days were classified as experiencing rapid progression. Potential predictors of rapid progression were examined using logistic regression. Seven patients met criteria for rapid progression. Progression occurred in 72.2% of all patients. The median days to progression was 158. No significant predictors of rapid progression were identified. Currently no predictors have been found to be associated with rapid progression in prostate cancer patients on sipuleucel-T.
Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Lin, Hau-De
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is uncommon in patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Long-term outcome and adverse predictors for outcomes in AMI patients with CS receiving percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) are unclear. A total of 482 AMI patients who received PCI were collected, including 53 CS and 429 non-CS. Predictors for AMI patients with CS including recurrent MI, cardiovascular (CV) mortality, all-cause mortality, and repeated-PCI were analyzed. The CS group had a lower central systolic pressure and central diastolic pressure (both P < 0.001). AMI patients with hypertension history were less prone to develop CS (P < 0.001). Calcium channel blockers and statins were less frequently used by the CS group than the non-CS group (both P < 0.05) after discharge. Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score, CV mortality, and all-cause mortality were higher in the CS group than the non-CS group (all P < 0.005). For patients with CS, stroke history was a predictor of recurrent MI (P = 0.036). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and diabetes were predictors of CV mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, SYNTAX score, and stroke history were predictors for all-cause mortality (all P < 0.05). CS, age, and current smoking were predictors for repeated-PCI (all P < 0.05). PMID:28251160
Miyamura, Satoshi; Ota, Haruka; Okamoto, Michio; Namba, Jiro; Yamamoto, Koji
Avulsion fractures of the calcaneus are relatively uncommon and are seen most frequently in elderly or osteoporotic patients. A surgical method that avoids displacement of the avulsed fragment after fixation has not been developed. We report the cases of 3 patients (a 73-year-old male, an 85-year-old male, and an 81-year-old female) treated by open reduction and internal fixation using titanium wire and cannulated cancellous screws. The posterior approach was used by way of a vertical midline incision. The fracture was fixed with 2 screws, and then a titanium wire was passed through the holes of the cannulated screws. A small incision on the lateral side of planter was added for the exit and return of the wire. The wire knot was bent inside the proximal Achilles tendon bursa in 2 patients and was directed to the plantar side in 1 to avoid irritation. Bony union was achieved without repeat displacement of the fragment in all 3 patients. Normal ankle function was restored, and the patients recovered the activities of daily living almost to the original level. Although an additional plantar incision is required, this surgical technique provides strong internal fixation.
Kopchak, A V
The analysis of immediate and long-term results of the surgical treatment of 286 patients, operated for traumatic mandibular fractures in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, National O. O. Bogomolets Medical University. In 67% of patients the anatomical shape of the bone was adequately restored. The presence of residual displacements in other cases was determined by the fracture type and localization, the technical complexity of the surgical intervention, lack of fixation rigidity under certain functional load conditions. In long terms of observation the infection and inflammatory complications were observed in 13.4% of patients, delayed unition and non-unition of bone fragments occurred--in 4.7%, arthosis with persistent dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint--in 6.7%, fibrous ankylosis--in 1.3%. Secondary displacement of fragments was observed in 23.5% of patients due to insufficient stiffness and reliaability of the bone-fixatorsystem. The non-precise reposition of fragments and secondary displacements in the early and late postoperative period were the main cause of occlusal disturbances of various severities, noted in 28% of operated patients, limitation of mouth opening (10%), TMJ disorders and changes in masticatory stereotype (33%), the sensation of pain and discomfort in tough food chewing (35%). A statistical analysis of the effectiveness of different osteosynthesis methods depending on the type and localization of the fracture was carried out and recommendations for usage of fixation devices in clinical practice were given.
Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Høybye, Mette Terp
Today, hospitals offer surgical treatment within a short hospital admission. This brief interaction may challenge the well-being of old patients. The aim of this study was to explore how the well-being of old hospitalized patients was affected by the interaction with staff during a fast-track surgical treatment and hospital admission for colon cancer. We used an ethnographic methodology with field observations and unstructured interviews focusing on one patient at a time (n=9) during a full day; the hours ranging from 7:45 a.m. to 8 p.m. Participants were between 74 and 85 years of age and of both sexes. The study was reported to the Danish Data Protection Agency with reference number (2007-58-0010). The encounter between old patients and the staff was a main theme in our findings elucidating a number of care challenges. The identified care challenges illustrated "well-being as a matter of different perspectives," "vulnerability in contrast to well-being," and "staff mix influencing the care encounter." The experience of well-being in old cancer patients during hospital admission was absent or challenged when staff did not acknowledge their individual vulnerability and needs.
Pumberger, M; Froemel, D; Aichmair, A; Hughes, A P; Sama, A A; Cammisa, F P; Girardi, F P
The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical predictors of surgical outcome in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). We reviewed a consecutive series of 248 patients (71 women and 177 men) with CSM who had undergone surgery at our institution between January 2000 and October 2010. Their mean age was 59.0 years (16 to 86). Medical records, office notes, and operative reports were reviewed for data collection. Special attention was focused on pre-operative duration and severity as well as post-operative persistence of myelopathic symptoms. Disease severity was graded according to the Nurick classification. Our multivariate logistic regression model indicated that Nurick grade 2 CSM patients have the highest chance of complete symptom resolution (p < 0.001) and improvement to normal gait (p = 0.004) following surgery. Patients who did not improve after surgery had longer duration of myelopathic symptoms than those who did improve post-operatively (17.85 months (1 to 101) vs 11.21 months (1 to 69); p = 0.002). More advanced Nurick grades were not associated with a longer duration of symptoms (p = 0.906). Our data suggest that patients with Nurick grade 2 CSM are most likely to improve from surgery. The duration of myelopathic symptoms does not have an association with disease severity but is an independent prognostic indicator of surgical outcome.
Chen, S F; Kato, Y; Kumar, A; Tan, G W; Oguri, D; Oda, J; Watabe, T; Imizu, S; Sano, H; Wang, Z X
Intraoperative rerupture (IOR) during clipping of cerebral aneurysms is a difficult complication of microneurosurgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of IOR and analyze the strategies for controlling profound hemorrhage. A total of 165 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms and 46 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) treated surgically between April 2010 and March 2011, were reviewed. The data were collected with regard to age, sex, presence of symptoms, confounding factors and strategy for controlling intraoperative hemorrhage was analyzed in terms of location of aneurysms, timing of rupture and severity of IOR. 211 patients with 228 aneurysms were treated in this series. There were a total of six IORs which represented an IOR rate of 2.84% per patient and 2.63% per aneurysm. The highest ruptures rates occurred in patients with internal carotid artery aneurysms (25%). Surgeries in the group with ruptured aneurysms had a much higher rate of IOR compared with surgeries in the group with unruptured aneurysms. Of the six IOR aneurysms, one occurred during predissection, four during microdissection and one during clipping. One was major IOR, three were moderate and two were minor. Intraoperative rupture of an intracranial aneurysm can be potentially devastating in vascular neurosurgery. Aneurysm location, presence of SAH and surgical experience of the operating surgeon seem to be important factors affecting the incidence of IOR.
Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis
To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis. PMID:23533326
Bellanova, Laura; Paul, Laurent; Docquier, Pierre-Louis
To achieve local control of malignant pediatric bone tumors and to provide satisfactory oncological results, adequate resection margins are mandatory. The local recurrence rate is directly related to inappropriate excision margins. The present study describes a method for decreasing the resection margin width and ensuring that the margins are adequate. This method was developed in the tibia, which is a common site for the most frequent primary bone sarcomas in children. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT) were used for preoperative planning to define the cutting planes for the tumors: each tumor was segmented on MRI, and the volume of the tumor was coregistered with CT. After preoperative planning, a surgical guide (patient-specific instrument) that was fitted to a unique position on the tibia was manufactured by rapid prototyping. A second instrument was manufactured to adjust the bone allograft to fit the resection gap accurately. Pathologic evaluation of the resected specimens showed tumor-free resection margins in all four cases. The technologies described in this paper may improve the surgical accuracy and patient safety in surgical oncology. In addition, these techniques may decrease operating time and allow for reconstruction with a well-matched allograft to obtain stable osteosynthesis.
SANTOS, Letácio José Freire; GARCIA, João Batista dos Santos; PACHECO, Jairo Sousa; VIEIRA, Érica Brandão de Morais; dos SANTOS, Alcione Miranda
Background The rectum cancer is associated with high rates of complications and morbidities with great impact on the lives of affected individuals. Aim To evaluate quality of life, pain, anxiety and depression in patients treated for medium and lower rectum cancer, submitted to surgical intervention. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study. Eighty-eight records of patients with medium and lower rectum cancer, submitted to surgical intervention were selected, and enrolled. Forty-seven patients died within the study period, and the other 41 were studied. Question forms EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 were used to assess quality of life. Pain evaluation was carried out using the Visual Analogical Scale, depression and anxiety were assessed through Depression Inventories and Beck's Anxiety, respectively. The correlation between pain intensity, depression and anxiety was carried out, and between these and the EORTC QLQ-C30 General Scale for Health Status and overall quality of life, as well as the EORTC QLQ-CR38 functional and symptom scales. Results Of the 41 patients of the study, 52% presented pain, depression in 47%, and anxiety in 39%. There was a marking positive correlation between pain intensity and depression. There was a moderate negative correlation between depression and general health status, and overall quality of life as well as pain intensity with the latter. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between future depression perspective and sexual function, and also a strong positive correlation between depression and sexual impairments. A positive correlation between anxiety and gastro-intestinal problems, both statistically significant, was observed. Conclusion Evaluation scales showed detriment on quality life evaluation, besides an elevated incidence of pain, depression, and anxiety; a correlation among these, and factors which influence on the quality of life of post-surgical medium and lower rectum cancer patients was
Ersoy, Omer Faik; Karaca, Serdar; Kayaoglu, Huseyin Ayhan; Ozkan, Namik; Celik, Alper; Ozum, Turkay
Pilonidal sinus disease is a benign disorder with an unidentified etiology and is observed mainly in young adults. It is an important health problem because it causes work loss. Although various nonsurgical treatment options have been tried up to date, there is a consensus on surgical intervention to treat the disease today. The optimal surgical method should be simple, associated with short hospital stay and low recurrence rates. In this study, patients who have undergone different surgical treatment methods due to pilonidal disease were retrospectively analyzed. The medical records of 175 patients who were operated on between 2002 and 2005 at the General Surgery Departments of Gaziosmanpasa University Medical School and Bartin State Hospital for pilonidal disease were reviewed for treatment option, postoperative complications, hospitalization time, work-off periods, and recurrence rates. The patients consisted of 150 (85.3%) males with a mean age of 26.47 +/- 7.78 years. Marsupialization was applied to 82 (46.9%), unroofing to 20 (14.7%), primary closure to 29 (16.6%), and Limberg flap to 44 (25.1%) patients. The longest hospitalization period of 3.61 +/- 1.08 days was observed in the Limberg flap group. The longest return to work period (20.12 +/- 5.1 days) was observed in the marsupialization group. Both differences were significant. The highest complication rate was observed among the primary closure group (31%) followed by the patients treated by Limberg flap technique (15.8%). In the primary closure group, infection was detected in five (17.2%) and wound dehiscence in four (13.8%) individuals. The highest complication rates (31.03%) and recurrences (13.8%) were observed in the primary closure group. Various operative methods utilized in the treatment of pilonidal disease are associated with a number of advantages and disadvantages. Postoperative complication rates of unroofing and marsupialization are low, but require long wound care. In our study, we did
Gralla, Richard J; Thatcher, Nick
There is increasing awareness of the need for accurate assessment of quality of life in patients with lung cancer who are on clinical trials and in patient management. Self-reported multidimensional, validated, quality-of-life instruments assess physical, functional, psychological, social, and spiritual dimensions associated with lung cancer and its treatment. Such validated instruments are now available and are being utilized more frequently in clinical trials assessing the value of particular anticancer therapies. Such findings may influence the treatment of choice for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly in the advanced-disease setting where survival benefits from current treatments are modest, and the majority of patients present with three or more symptoms. Recently, a number of studies assessing quality of life in NSCLC have been published providing more insight into the effects of the disease and its treatment on the patient's perspective. Quality-of-life instruments that include patient reported outcomes ("PROS") and quality-of-life and symptom assessment are the only way to evaluate this crucial aspect of cancer care. As an example, Fossella and colleagues reported notable findings from the largest prospective evaluation (the TAX 326 trial) of quality of life using validated instruments in patients with NSCLC who received chemotherapy. Patients who received a docetaxel plus platinum combination regimen reported modest benefits in both quality of life and in disease-related parameters, such as pain control, weight loss, and performance status, compared to patients randomly assigned to the combination of vinorelbine and cisplatin. Compliance with the PRO assessment was high, supporting the feasibility of prospective quality-of-life evaluations in NSCLC. Important goals include building on these results by including quality-of-life assessment in all major clinical trials, and demonstrating feasible ways to incorporate this evaluation
Chaushu, S; Becker, A; Zeltser, R; Vasker, N; Chaushu, G
This study assessed patient perceptions of immediate post-operative recovery after the surgical exposure of impacted maxillary teeth with an open-eruption technique. Thirty patients (24 females and six males) underwent surgical exposure of 39 impacted maxillary teeth using this technique. After surgery the patients were contacted by telephone daily for 7 days, to complete a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire, which assessed their perception of recovery in four main areas: pain, oral function, general activity, and other symptoms. Severe pain was reported by 30 per cent of the patients in the first post-operative day (POD 1), which declined to 6.7 per cent by POD 6. Consumption of analgesics declined gradually over the post-operative days (POD 1: 80 per cent, POD 7: 20 per cent). Difficulty in eating required 5 days to reach minimal levels; enjoying everyday food, 2.5 days; school attendance, limitations in daily routine, swallowing, and speech, 2 days each; swelling, bad taste/smell, 1.5 days each; within 1 day all other measures attained minimal levels. The need for bone removal during the exposure resulted in delayed recovery with regard to the ability to eat. In general, females reported delayed recovery for pain. The present data may serve as basic guidelines against which future studies which assess post-operative management of patients after surgical exposure of impacted teeth by an open-eruption technique may be compared.
Kim, Min Kyoung; Yi, Myung Sub; Kang, Hyun; Choi, Geun-Joo
Abstract Remifentanil and nitrous oxide (N2O) are 2 commonly used anesthetic agents. Both these agents are known risk factors for postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). However, remifentanil and N2O have not been directly compared in a published study. Remifentanil can induce acute tolerance or hyperalgesia, thus affecting postoperative pain. The objective of this retrospective study is to compare the effects of remifentanil and N2O on PONV and pain in patients receiving intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) after thyroidectomy. We analyzed the electronic medical records of 992 patients receiving fentanyl-based IV-PCA after thyroidectomy at Chung-Ang University Hospital from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2016. We categorized the patients according to anesthetic agents used: group N2O (n = 745) and group remifentanil (n = 247). The propensity score matching method was used to match patients in the 2 groups based on their covariates. Finally, 128 matched subjects were selected from each group. There were no differences between groups for all covariates after propensity score matching. The numeric rating scale for nausea (0.55 ± 0.88 vs 0.27 ± 0.76, P = 0.01) was higher and complete response (88 [68.8%] vs 106 [82.8%], P = 0.001) was lower in group N2O compared with group remifentanil on postoperative day 0. However, the visual analog scale score for pain (3.47 ± 2.02 vs 3.97 ± 1.48, P = 0.025) was higher in group remifentanil than group N2O on postoperative day 0. In patients receiving IV-PCA after thyroidectomy, postoperative nausea was lower but postoperative pain was higher in group remifentanil. PMID:27741140
Zaloga, G P; Chernow, B; Smallridge, R C; Zajtchuk, R; Hall-Boyer, K; Hargraves, R; Lake, C R; Burman, K D
Thyroid hormone alterations (known as the "sick-euthyroid syndrome") are common following major surgery, but the time course for appearance and recovery from these alterations has not previously been longitudinally studied in a large group of surgical patients. The authors prospectively studied 59 patients undergoing major surgery (coronary artery bypass grafting, pneumonectomy, or subtotal colectomy). Compared with preoperative values, the mean serum T4, T3, free T3, and TSH concentrations decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) following surgery. Serum reverse T3 and T3 resin uptake index increased, while free T4 levels remained unchanged. These changes were seen within 6 hours of surgery and normalized by 1 week after surgery. Although the serum TSH response to TRH was normal before and after surgery in 56 of the 59 patients, the maximal TRH-induced increase in serum TSH and the integrated serum TSH response to TRH were suppressed in the early perioperative period. This postoperative TSH suppression correlated with elevated postoperative plasma dopamine concentrations (r = 0.57, p less than 0.05). Three patients with compensated primary hypothyroidism were detected in the study and represent the first documentation of serial thyroid hormone and TSH levels in hypothyroid patients undergoing major surgery. These patients had similar changes in thyroid hormone values compared with euthyroid patients. The serum TSH response to TRH was suppressed into the normal range in two of these patients on the day following surgery. The authors conclude that the sick-euthyroid syndrome occurs within a few hours of major surgery and remits with convalescence. Postoperative decreases in serum TSH may mask the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. Surgical consultants should be aware of these rapid postoperative changes so that thyroid function tests are properly interpreted in patients who have undergone major surgery. PMID:3872103
Matsushima, T; Fujiwara, S; Nagata, S; Fujii, K; Fukui, M; Kitamura, K; Hasuo, K
Surgical results of paediatric patients with Moyamoya disease who were treated by indirect revascularization procedures are reported. Encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis (EDAS), encephalomyo-arterio-synangiosis (EMAS), and/or encephalo-myo-synangiosis (EMS) were performed on 47 sides of 29 children with Moyamoya disease. The results of those non-anastomotic EC-IC bypass procedures were evaluated clinically, angiographically, and by computed tomography (CT). Postoperative external carotid angiograms showed a good collateral formation through EDAS, EMAS, or EMS in about 70-80 percent of all surgically treated sides. The symptoms such as TIA, RIND, and/or involuntary movements disappeared in the cases with a good collateral formation but not in those with insufficient development of the collateral circulation. The indirect EC-IC bypass surgery seems effective for most of the children with Moyamoya disease who present with ischaemic signs.
Burke, J P
Errors in antimicrobial prophylaxis for surgical patients remain one of the most frequent types of medication errors in hospitals. Failure to administer the first dose of antimicrobial prophylaxis within the 2-h window of time before incision is associated with 2- to 6-fold increases in rates of surgical site infection. Optimal use of antimicrobial prophylaxis includes proper case selection; use of appropriate agents; proper dosing, route of administration, timing, and duration; and intraoperative dosing when appropriate. Effective use of antimicrobial prophylaxis also requires monitoring of and feedback on patterns of use. Programs to improve antimicrobial prophylaxis should be multidisciplinary and should aim to improve use of medications, not simply to change physician practice patterns. The LDS Hospital experience demonstrates the clinical and financial benefits of such a program and also shows the pitfalls of and great difficulties associated with changing systems of care.
Hata, T; Fujiwara, K; Furukawa, H; Tsushima, Y; Yoshitaka, H; Kuinose, M; Minami, H; Ishida, A; Tamura, K; Totsugawa, T; Kanemitsu, H; Ozawa, M
Recent reports have shown that aortic valve replacement in elderly patients over 65 years with atherosclerotic aortic stenosis and a small aortic annulus is possible by using a small sized bioprosthesis (Carpentier-Edwards pericardial valve). Here we present out surgical technique. Firstly, the native calcified aortic valve was removed completely to gain total exposure of the surrounding aortic root and sinus of Valsalva like Bentall procedure. Secondly, a small sized bioprosthesis was implanted with intermittent noneverting mattress 2-0 sutures with spaghetti and small polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) felt. Aortic annulus is the dilated by inserting Hegar dilator sizing from 25 to 27 mm. Therefore, aortic valve replacement for small aortic annulus in intra- or supra-annular position should be easily accomplished. Good surgical results and hemodynamic state were achieved in 25 consecutive cases using this technique.
Saad, Mehdi; Psimaras, Dimitri; Tafani, Camille; Sallansonnet-Froment, Magali; Calvet, Jean-Henri; Vilier, Alice; Tigaud, Jean-Marie; Bompaire, Flavie; Lebouteux, Marie; de Greslan, Thierry; Ceccaldi, Bernard; Poirier, Jean-Michel; Ferrand, François-Régis; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Huillard, Olivier; Goldwasser, François; Taillia, Hervé; Maisonobe, Thierry; Ricard, Damien
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neurotoxicity (CIPN) is a common, potentially severe and dose-limiting adverse effect; however, it is poorly investigated at an early stage due to the lack of a simple assessment tool. As sweat glands are innervated by small autonomic C-fibers, sudomotor function testing has been suggested for early screening of peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to evaluate Sudoscan, a non-invasive and quantitative method to assess sudomotor function, in the detection and follow-up of CIPN. Eighty-eight patients receiving at least two infusions of Oxaliplatin only (45.4%), Paclitaxel only (14.8%), another drug only (28.4%) or two drugs (11.4%) were enrolled in the study. At each chemotherapy infusion the accumulated dose of chemotherapy was calculated and the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc) was carried out. Small fiber neuropathy was assessed using Sudoscan (a 3-min test). The device measures the Electrochemical Skin Conductance (ESC) of the hands and feet expressed in microSiemens (µS). For patients receiving Oxaliplatin mean hands ESC changed from 73 ± 2 to 63 ± 2 and feet ESC from 77 ± 2 to 66 ± 3 µS (p < 0.001) while TNSc changed from 2.9 ± 0.5 to 4.3 ± 0.4. Similar results were observed in patients receiving Paclitaxel or another neurotoxic chemotherapy. During the follow-up, ESC values of both hands and feet with a corresponding TNSc < 2 were 70 ± 2 and 73 ± 2 µS respectively while they were 59 ± 1.4 and 64 ± 1.5 µS with a corresponding TNSc ≥ 6 (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0003 respectively). This preliminary study suggests that small fiber neuropathy could be screened and followed using Sudoscan in patients receiving chemotherapy.
Du, Zhongli; Zhang, Wencheng; Zhou, Yuling; Yu, Dianke; Chen, Xiabin; Chang, Jiang; Qiao, Yan; Zhang, Meng; Huang, Ying; Wu, Chen; Xiao, Zefen; Tan, Wen; and others
Purpose: To investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene are associated with survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy or surgery only. Methods and Materials: Four tagSNPs of ATM were genotyped in 412 individuals with clinical stage III or IV ESCC receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy, and in 388 individuals with stage I, II, or III ESCC treated with surgery only. Overall survival time of ESCC among different genotypes was estimated by Kaplan-Meier plot, and the significance was examined by log-rank test. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for death from ESCC among different genotypes were computed by a Cox proportional regression model. Results: We found 2 SNPs, rs664143 and rs664677, associated with survival time of ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy. Individuals with the rs664143A allele had poorer median survival time compared with the rs664143G allele (14.0 vs 20.0 months), with the HR for death being 1.45 (95% CI 1.12-1.89). Individuals with the rs664677C allele also had worse median survival time than those with the rs664677T allele (14.0 vs 23.5 months), with the HR of 1.57 (95% CI 1.18-2.08). Stratified analysis showed that these associations were present in both stage III and IV cancer and different radiation therapy techniques. Significant associations were also found between the SNPs and locosregional progression or progression-free survival. No association between these SNPs and survival time was detected in ESCC patients treated with surgery only. Conclusion: These results suggest that the ATM polymorphisms might serve as independent biomarkers for predicting prognosis in ESCC patients receiving radiation therapy.
Gomez, Daniel R.; Poenisch, Falk; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Sheu, Tommy; Chang, Joe Y.; Memon, Nada; Mohan, Radhe; Rozner, Marc A.; Dougherty, Anne H.
Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving
Shin, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Hee Jin; Jang, Hye Ryoun; Lee, Jung Eun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Huh, Wooseong; Jung, Sin-Ho; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Kim, Yoon-Goo; Kim, Dae Joong; Oh, Ha Young
Renal functional decline that is frequently seen during chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment can exert adverse effects on overall prognosis. It, however, is difficult to distinguish vulnerable patients who may experience renal dysfunction because most previous CHB studies were conducted in relatively healthy individuals. In this retrospective observational study, renal functional decline in CHB patients receiving oral antiviral agents for more than 6 months was analyzed and risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression were determined. Renal functional decline was defined when the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) decreased by more than 25% from baseline and rapid CKD progression was defined as eGFR decreased by more than 5 mL/min/1.73 m2/y among patients who experienced renal functional decline. A total of 4178 patients were followed up for a median 23 months. Antiviral agents included lamivudine (17.0%), adefovir (3.7%), entecavir (70.4%), telbivudine (0.6%), tenofovir (4.0%), or clevudine (4.3%). Renal functional decline occurred in 706 (16.9%) patients. Based on multivariate Cox regression analysis, age, hypertension, diabetes, history of liver or kidney transplantation, underlying underlying CKD, and simultaneous administration of diuretics increased the hazard ratio for renal functional decline; however, clevudine reduced risk. The eGFR significantly increased over time in patients receiving telbivudine or clevudine compared with lamivudine. Among the 3175 patients followed up for more than 1 year, 407 (12.8%) patients experienced rapid CKD progression. Patients with rapid CKD progression showed lower serum albumin, higher total bilirubin, and prolonged prothrombin time compared with patients with stable renal function, but hepatitis B envelope antigen positivity and hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid level did not differ between the control and rapid CKD progression groups. Age, diabetes, kidney transplantation, underlying CKD, and
Tao, Hong; Cai, Yiran; Shi, Liang; Tang, Junfang; Liu, Zhidong; Wang, Zitong; Bai, Lianqi
Background Recent research into lung cancer‐related driver genes has identified a distinctive molecular subtype of non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) – anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)‐positive NSCLC. We evaluated the clinical features and survival rates of ALK‐positive lung adenocarcinoma patients who had undergone surgery but had not received ALK inhibitor therapy, along with the characteristics of patients with distant metastases. Methods Clinical data of 40 patients with ALK‐positive, postsurgical lung adenocarcinoma were retrospectively analyzed. Relationships between the patients’ clinical characteristics, distant metastases, and their disease‐free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were assessed. Results Most patients were relatively young, never‐smokers, had peripheral tumors, and the tumors were either moderately or poorly differentiated. The most common organ of distant metastases was the brain. The median time from surgery to brain metastasis was 17.2 months. The median OS following brain metastasis was 9.4 months. DFS in patients with early stage disease, peripheral tumors, no lymph node metastases, and treated with adjuvant therapy was significantly longer than for those with late stage disease (P = 0.015), central tumors (P = 0.000), lymph node metastases (P = 0.026), and not treated with adjuvant therapy (P = 0.000). Patients with early stage disease, peripheral tumors, and treated with adjuvant therapy obtained markedly longer OS than those with late stage disease (P = 0.021), central tumors (P = 0.003), and not treated with adjuvant therapy (P = 0.006). Conclusion Patients with ALK‐positive surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma have distinctive clinical characteristics. The brain is the most common site of extrapulmonary metastasis. Survival is associated with stage, tumor location, and the administration of adjuvant therapy. PMID:27779369
Objectives To compare the efficacy of intravenous ondansetron (4 mg, 2 mL) and granisetron (2 mg, 2 mL) for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in patients during oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Materials and Methods A prospective, randomized, and double blind clinical study was carried out with 60 patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Patients were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Approximately two minutes before induction of general anesthesia, each patient received either 4 mg (2 mL) ondansetron or 2 mg (2 mL) granisetron intravenously in a double blind manner. Balanced anesthetic technique was used for all patients. Patients were assessed for episodes of nausea, retching, vomiting, and the need for rescue antiemetic at intervals of 0-2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. Incidence of complete response and adverse effects were assessed at 24 hours postoperatively. Data was tabulated and subjected to statistical analysis using the chi-square test, unpaired t-test, or the Mann-Whitney U-test as appropriate. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for incidence of PONV or the need for rescue antiemetic. Both study drugs were well tolerated with minimum adverse effects; the most common adverse effect was headache. The overall incidence of complete response in the granisetron group (86.7%) was significantly higher than the ondansetron group (60.0%). Conclusion Granisetron at an intravenous dose of 2 mg was found to be safe, well tolerated, and more effective by increasing the incidence of complete response compared to 4 mg intravenous ondansetron when used for antiemetic prophylaxis in maxillofacial surgery patients receiving general anesthesia. Benefits of granisetron include high receptor specificity and high potency, which make it a