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Sample records for surveillance case definition

  1. Revised surveillance case definition for HIV infection--United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2014-04-11

    Following extensive consultation and peer review, CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have revised and combined the surveillance case definitions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection into a single case definition for persons of all ages (i.e., adults and adolescents aged ≥13 years and children aged <13 years). The revisions were made to address multiple issues, the most important of which was the need to adapt to recent changes in diagnostic criteria. Laboratory criteria for defining a confirmed case now accommodate new multitest algorithms, including criteria for differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection and for recognizing early HIV infection. A confirmed case can be classified in one of five HIV infection stages (0, 1, 2, 3, or unknown); early infection, recognized by a negative HIV test within 6 months of HIV diagnosis, is classified as stage 0, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is classified as stage 3. Criteria for stage 3 have been simplified by eliminating the need to differentiate between definitive and presumptive diagnoses of opportunistic illnesses. Clinical (nonlaboratory) criteria for defining a case for surveillance purposes have been made more practical by eliminating the requirement for information about laboratory tests. The surveillance case definition is intended primarily for monitoring the HIV infection burden and planning for prevention and care on a population level, not as a basis for clinical decisions for individual patients. CDC and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists recommend that all states and territories conduct case surveillance of HIV infection using this revised surveillance case definition.

  2. A pilot asthma incidence surveillance system and case definition: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Martin, Pilar; Mavunda, Kunjana; Rodriguez, Diana; Zhang, Guoyan; Brown, Clive

    2009-01-01

    Surveillance for incident asthma in the general population could provide timely information about asthma trends and new, emerging etiologic factors. We sought to determine the feasibility of an asthma incidence surveillance system using voluntary reporting of asthma by outpatient clinics and emergency departments (EDs). Voluntary reporting occurred from July 2002 through June 2006. We classified reported asthma based on a case definition adapted from one developed by the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. We validated the case definition by having pulmonologists review data from participant interviews, medical record abstractions, and pulmonary function test (PFT) results. The positive predictive value (PPV) of meeting any of the case definition criteria for asthma was 80% to 82%. The criterion of taking at least one rescue and one controller medication had the highest PPV (97% to 100%). Only 7% of people meeting the incident case definition had a PFT documented in their medical record, limiting the usefulness of PFT results for case classification. Compared with pediatric participants, adult participants were more likely to be uninsured and to obtain asthma care at EDs. The surveillance system cost $5129 per enrolled person meeting the incident case definition and was difficult to implement in participating clinics and EDs because asthma reporting was not mandatory and informed consent was necessary. The project was useful in evaluating the case definition's validity and in describing the participants' characteristics and health-care use patterns. However, without mandatory reporting laws, reporting of incident asthma in the general population by clinicians is not likely to be a feasible method for asthma surveillance.

  3. Validation of a surveillance case definition for arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Jeffrey J; Harrold, Leslie R; Helmick, Charles G; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Emani, Srinivas; Yood, Robert A

    2005-02-01

    To assess whether self-reports of chronic joint symptoms or doctor-diagnosed arthritis can validly identify persons with clinically verifiable arthritis. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a telephone health survey, defines a case of arthritis as a self-report of chronic joint symptoms (CJS) and/or doctor-diagnosed arthritis (DDx). A sample of health plan enrollees aged 45-64 years and >/= 65 years with upcoming annual physical examinations were surveyed by telephone using the 2002 BRFSS CJS and DDx questions. Based on responses (CJS+, DDx-; CJS-, DDx+; CJS+, DDx+; CJS-, DDx-), respondents were recruited to undergo a standardized clinical history and physical examination for arthritis (the gold standard for clinical validation). Weighted sensitivities and specificities of the case definition were calculated to adjust for sampling. Of 2180 persons completing the telephone questionnaire, 389 were examined; of these, 258 met the case definition and 131 did not. For those examined and aged 45 to 64 years (n = 179), 96 persons had arthritis confirmed, of whom 76 met the case definition. Among those examined and aged >/= 65 (n = 210), 150 had arthritis confirmed, of whom 124 met the case definition. Among those without clinical arthritis, 45 of 83 of those aged 45 to 64 years and 40 of 60 of those aged >/= 65 did not meet the case definition. For those aged 45 to 64 years, the weighted sensitivity of the case definition in this sample was 77.4% and the weighted specificity was 58.8%; for those aged >/= 65, the sensitivity was 83.6% and specificity 70.6%. CJS+ had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than DDx+ in the younger age group; CJS+ and DDx+ behaved more comparably in the older age group. The case definition based on self-reported CJS and/or DDx appeared to be sensitive in identifying arthritis, but specificity was lower than desirable for those under age 65 years. Better methods of ascertaining arthritis by self-report are needed. Until

  4. Using administrative databases in the surveillance of depressive disorders--case definitions.

    PubMed

    Alaghehbandan, Reza; Macdonald, Don; Barrett, Brendan; Collins, Kayla; Chen, Yue

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of provincial administrative databases in carrying out surveillance on depressive disorders. Electronic medical records (EMRs) at 3 family practice clinics in St. John's, NL, Canada, were audited; 253 depressive disorder cases and 257 patients not diagnosed with a depressive disorder were selected. The EMR served as the "gold standard," which then was compared to these same patients investigated through the use of various case definitions applied against the provincial hospital and physician administrative databases. Variables used in the development of the case definitions were depressive disorder diagnoses (either in hospital or physician claims data), date of diagnosis, and service provider type [general practitioner (GP) vs. psychiatrist]. Of the 120 case definitions investigated, 26 were found to have a kappa statistic greater than 0.6, of which 5 case definitions were considered the most appropriate for surveillance of depressive disorders. Of the 5 definitions, the following case definition, with a 77.5% sensitivity and 93% specificity, was found to be the most valid ([ ≥1 hospitalizations OR ≥1 psychiatrist visit related to depressive disorders any time] OR ≥2 GP visits related to depressive disorders within the first 2 years of diagnosis). This study found that provincial administrative databases may be useful for carrying out surveillance on depressive disorders among the adult population. The approach used in this study was simple and resulted in rather reasonable sensitivity and specificity.

  5. Enhancing case definitions for surveillance of human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Osadebe, Lynda; Hughes, Christine M; Shongo Lushima, Robert; Kabamba, Joelle; Nguete, Beatrice; Malekani, Jean; Pukuta, Elisabeth; Karhemere, Stomy; Muyembe Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy Okitolonda, Emile; Reynolds, Mary G; McCollum, Andrea M

    2017-09-01

    Human monkeypox (MPX) occurs at appreciable rates in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) has a similar presentation to that of MPX, and in areas where MPX is endemic these two illnesses are commonly mistaken. This study evaluated the diagnostic utility of two surveillance case definitions for MPX and specific clinical characteristics associated with laboratory-confirmed MPX cases. Data from a cohort of suspect MPX cases (identified by surveillance over the course of a 42 month period during 2009-2014) from DRC were used; real-time PCR diagnostic test results were used to establish MPX and VZV diagnoses. A total of 333 laboratory-confirmed MPX cases, 383 laboratory-confirmed VZV cases, and 36 cases that were determined to not be either MPX or VZV were included in the analyses. Significant (p<0.05) differences between laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases were noted for several signs/symptoms including key rash characteristics. Both surveillance case definitions had high sensitivity and low specificities for individuals that had suspected MPX virus infections. Using 12 signs/symptoms with high sensitivity and/or specificity values, a receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that models for MPX cases that had the presence of 'fever before rash' plus at least 7 or 8 of the 12 signs/symptoms demonstrated a more balanced performance between sensitivity and specificity. Laboratory-confirmed MPX and VZV cases presented with many of the same signs and symptoms, and the analysis here emphasized the utility of including 12 specific signs/symptoms when investigating MPX cases. In order to document and detect endemic human MPX cases, a surveillance case definition with more specificity is needed for accurate case detection. In the absence of a more specific case definition, continued emphasis on confirmatory laboratory-based diagnostics is warranted.

  6. Update of the Case Definitions for Population-Based Surveillance of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Paul I.; Page, Roy C.; Wei, Liang; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Genco, Robert J.

    2018-01-01

    Background This report adds a new definition for mild periodontitis that allows for better descriptions of the overall prevalence of periodontitis in populations. In 2007, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in partnership with the American Academy of Periodontology developed and reported standard case definitions for surveillance of moderate and severe periodontitis based on measurements of probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (AL) at interproximal sites. However, combined cases of moderate and severe periodontitis are insufficient to determine the total prevalence of periodontitis in populations. Methods The authors proposed a definition for mild periodontitis as ≥2 interproximal sites with AL ≥3 mm and ≥2 interproximal sites with PD ≥4 mm (not on the same tooth) or one site with PD ≥5 mm. The effect of the proposed definition on the total burden of periodontitis was assessed in a convenience sample of 456 adults ≥35 years old and compared with other previously reported definitions for similar categories of periodontitis. Results Addition of mild periodontitis increases the total prevalence of periodontitis by ≈31% in this sample when compared with the prevalence of severe and moderate disease. Conclusion Total periodontitis using the case definitions in this study should be based on the sum of mild, moderate, and severe periodontitis. PMID:22420873

  7. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Dinesh L B; Wimalaratna, Harith; Agampodi, Suneth B; Liyanapathirana, Veranja C; Piyarathna, Thibbotumunuwe A C L; Goonapienuwala, Bimba L

    2009-04-22

    Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The study population consisted of patients with undiagnosed acute febrile illness who were admitted to the medical wards of the Teaching Hospital Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. The subjects were screened to diagnose leptospirosis according to the leptospirosis case definition. MAT was performed on blood samples taken from each patient on the 7th day of fever. Leptospirosis case definition was evaluated in regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, using a MAT titre >or= 1:800 for confirming leptospirosis. A total of 123 patients were initially recruited of which 73 had clinical features compatible with the surveillance case definition. Out of the 73 only 57 had a positive MAT result (true positives) leaving 16 as false positives. Out of the 50 who didn't have clinical features compatible with the case definition 45 had a negative MAT as well (true negatives), therefore 5 were false negatives. Total number of MAT positives was 62 out of 123. According to these results the test sensitivity was 91.94%, specificity 73.77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 78.08% and 90% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the test was 82.93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800.

  8. Evaluation of the Components of the North Carolina Syndromic Surveillance System Heat Syndrome Case Definition.

    PubMed

    Harduar Morano, Laurel; Waller, Anna E

    To improve heat-related illness surveillance, we evaluated and refined North Carolina's heat syndrome case definition. We analyzed North Carolina emergency department (ED) visits during 2012-2014. We evaluated the current heat syndrome case definition (ie, keywords in chief complaint/triage notes or International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ ICD-9-CM] codes) and additional heat-related inclusion and exclusion keywords. We calculated the positive predictive value and sensitivity of keyword-identified ED visits and manually reviewed ED visits to identify true positives and false positives. The current heat syndrome case definition identified 8928 ED visits; additional inclusion keywords identified another 598 ED visits. Of 4006 keyword-identified ED visits, 3216 (80.3%) were captured by 4 phrases: "heat ex" (n = 1674, 41.8%), "overheat" (n = 646, 16.1%), "too hot" (n = 594, 14.8%), and "heatstroke" (n = 302, 7.5%). Among the 267 ED visits identified by keyword only, a burn diagnosis or the following keywords resulted in a false-positive rate >95%: "burn," "grease," "liquid," "oil," "radiator," "antifreeze," "hot tub," "hot spring," and "sauna." After applying the revised inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 9132 heat-related ED visits: 2157 by keyword only, 5493 by ICD-9-CM code only, and 1482 by both (sensitivity = 27.0%, positive predictive value = 40.7%). Cases identified by keywords were strongly correlated with cases identified by ICD-9-CM codes (rho = .94, P < .001). Revising the heat syndrome case definition through the use of additional inclusion and exclusion criteria substantially improved the accuracy of the surveillance system. Other jurisdictions may benefit from refining their heat syndrome case definition.

  9. Surveillance of paediatric traumatic brain injuries using the NEISS: choosing an appropriate case definition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Meghan C; Wheeler, Krista K; Shi, Junxin; Smith, Gary A; Groner, Jonathan I; Haley, Kathryn J; Xiang, Huiyun

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the definition of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and compare TBI case ascertainment using NEISS vs. ICD-9-CM diagnosis coding. Two data samples from a NEISS participating emergency department (ED) in 2008 were compared: (1) NEISS records meeting the recommended NEISS TBI definition and (2) Hospital ED records meeting the ICD-9-CM CDC recommended TBI definition. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were calculated for the NEISS definition using the ICD-9-CM definition as the gold standard. Further analyses were performed to describe cases characterized as TBIs in both datasets and to determine why some cases were not classified as TBIs in both datasets. There were 1834 TBI cases captured by the NEISS and 1836 TBI cases captured by the ICD-9-CM coded ED record, but only 1542 were eligible for inclusion in NEISS. There were 1403 cases classified as TBIs by both the NEISS and ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. The NEISS TBI definition had a sensitivity of 91.0% (95% CI = 89.6-92.4%) and positive predictive value of 76.5% (95% CI = 74.6-78.4%). Using the NEISS TBI definition presented in this paper would standardize and improve the accuracy of TBI research using the NEISS.

  10. Case Definitions for Conditions Identified by Newborn Screening Public Health Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Sontag, Marci K; Sarkar, Deboshree; Comeau, Anne M; Hassell, Kathryn; Botto, Lorenzo D; Parad, Richard; Rose, Susan R; Wintergerst, Kupper A; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Singh, Sikha; Yusuf, Careema; Ojodu, Jelili; Copeland, Sara; Hinton, Cynthia F

    2018-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) identifies infants with rare conditions to prevent death or the onset of irreversible morbidities. Conditions on the Health and Human Services Secretary's Recommended Uniform Screening Panel have been adopted by most state NBS programs, providing a consistent approach for identification of affected newborns across the United States. Screen-positive newborns are identified and referred for confirmatory diagnosis and follow-up. The designation of a clinically significant phenotype precursor to a clinical diagnosis may vary between clinical specialists, resulting in diagnostic variation. Determination of disease burden and birth prevalence of the screened conditions by public health tracking is made challenging by these variations. This report describes the development of a core group of new case definitions, along with implications, plans for their use, and links to the definitions that were developed by panels of clinical experts. These definitions have been developed through an iterative process and are piloted in NBS programs. Consensus public health surveillance case definitions for newborn screened disorders will allow for consistent categorization and tracking of short- and long-term follow-up of identified newborns at the local, regional, and national levels.

  11. Case Definitions for Conditions Identified by Newborn Screening Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Sontag, Marci K.; Sarkar, Deboshree; Comeau, Anne M.; Hassell, Kathryn; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Parad, Richard; Rose, Susan R.; Wintergerst, Kupper A.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Singh, Sikha; Yusuf, Careema; Ojodu, Jelili; Copeland, Sara; Hinton, Cynthia F.

    2018-01-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) identifies infants with rare conditions to prevent death or the onset of irreversible morbidities. Conditions on the Health and Human Services Secretary’s Recommended Uniform Screening Panel have been adopted by most state NBS programs, providing a consistent approach for identification of affected newborns across the United States. Screen-positive newborns are identified and referred for confirmatory diagnosis and follow-up. The designation of a clinically significant phenotype precursor to a clinical diagnosis may vary between clinical specialists, resulting in diagnostic variation. Determination of disease burden and birth prevalence of the screened conditions by public health tracking is made challenging by these variations. This report describes the development of a core group of new case definitions, along with implications, plans for their use, and links to the definitions that were developed by panels of clinical experts. These definitions have been developed through an iterative process and are piloted in NBS programs. Consensus public health surveillance case definitions for newborn screened disorders will allow for consistent categorization and tracking of short- and long-term follow-up of identified newborns at the local, regional, and national levels.

  12. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Maria M; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily L; Kulik, Tobias B; Keyrouz, Salah G; Zipfel, Gregory J; Warren, David K

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD) DESIGN Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 SETTING Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary-care center PATIENTS Patients with an EVD were included. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. METHODS We reviewed the charts of patients with positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. RESULTS We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 cases of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture-positive cases and 11 cases based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were gram-positive commensals (79.2%); however, 45% showed growth of only 1 colony on 1 piece of media. Approximately 60% of the ventriculitis cases by the NHSN definition met the Honda criteria, approximately 56% met the Gozal criteria, and 23% met Citerio's definition. Cases defined using Honda versus Gozal definitions had a moderate agreement (κ=0.528; P<.05) whereas comparisons of Honda versus Citerio definitions (κ=0.338; P<.05) and Citerio versus Gozal definitions (κ=0.384; P<.05) had only fair agreements. CONCLUSIONS The agreement between published ventriculostomy-associated infection (VAI) definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:574-579.

  13. Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network (MD STARnet): case definition in surveillance for childhood-onset Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Katherine D; Cunniff, Chris; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Ciafaloni, Emma; Miller, Timothy; Matthews, Dennis; Cwik, Valerie; Druschel, Charlotte; Miller, Lisa; Meaney, F John; Sladky, John; Romitti, Paul A

    2010-09-01

    The Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network (MD STARnet) is a multisite collaboration to determine the prevalence of childhood-onset Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy and to characterize health care and health outcomes in this population. MD STARnet uses medical record abstraction to identify patients with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy born January 1, 1982 or later who resided in 1 of the participating sites. Critical diagnostic elements of each abstracted record are reviewed independently by >4 clinicians and assigned to 1 of 6 case definition categories (definite, probable, possible, asymptomatic, female, not Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy) by consensus. As of November 2009, 815 potential cases were reviewed. Of the cases included in analysis, 674 (82%) were either ''definite'' or ''probable'' Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. These data reflect a change in diagnostic testing, as case assignment based on genetic testing increased from 67% in the oldest cohort (born 1982-1987) to 94% in the cohort born 2004 to 2009.

  14. Impact of revising the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System definition for catheter-related bloodstream infection in ICU: reproducibility of the National Healthcare Safety Network case definition in an Australian cohort of infection control professionals.

    PubMed

    Worth, Leon J; Brett, Judy; Bull, Ann L; McBryde, Emma S; Russo, Philip L; Richards, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Effective and comparable surveillance for central venous catheter-related bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) in the intensive care unit requires a reproducible case definition that can be readily applied by infection control professionals. Using a questionnaire containing clinical cases, reproducibility of the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS) surveillance definition for CLABSI was assessed in an Australian cohort of infection control professionals participating in the Victorian Hospital Acquired Infection Surveillance System (VICNISS). The same questionnaire was then used to evaluate the reproducibility of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition for CLABSI. Target hospitals were defined as large metropolitan (1A) or other large hospitals (non-1A), according to the Victorian Department of Human Services. Questionnaire responses of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NHSN surveillance experts were used as gold standard comparator. Eighteen of 21 eligible VICNISS centers participated in the survey. Overall concordance with the gold standard was 57.1%, and agreement was highest for 1A hospitals (60.6%). The proportion of congruently classified cases varied according to NNIS criteria: criterion 1 (recognized pathogen), 52.8%; criterion 2a (skin contaminant in 2 or more blood cultures), 83.3%; criterion 2b (skin contaminant in 1 blood culture and appropriate antimicrobial therapy instituted), 58.3%; non-CLABSI cases, 51.4%. When survey questions regarding identification of cases of CLABSI criterion 2b were removed (consistent with the current NHSN definition), overall percentage concordance increased to 62.5% (72.2% for 1A centers). Further educational interventions are required to improve the discrimination of primary and secondary causes of bloodstream infection in Victorian intensive care units. Although reproducibility of the CLABSI case definition is relatively poor, adoption of the revised NHSN definition

  15. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome clinical findings: evaluating a surveillance case definition.

    PubMed

    Knust, Barbara; Macneil, Adam; Rollin, Pierre E

    2012-05-01

    Clinical cases of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) can be challenging to differentiate from other acute respiratory diseases, which can lead to delays in diagnosis, treatment, and disease reporting. Rapid onset of severe disease occurs, at times before diagnostic test results are available. This study's objective was to examine the clinical characteristics of patients that would indicate HPS to aid in detection and reporting. Test results of blood samples from U.S. patients suspected of having HPS submitted to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1998-2010 were reviewed. Patient information collected by case report forms was compared between HPS-confirmed and test-negative patients. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were calculated for individual clinical findings and combinations of variables. Of 567 patients included, 36% were HPS-confirmed. Thrombocytopenia, chest x-rays with suggestive signs, and receiving supplemental oxygenation were highly sensitive (>95%), while elevated hematocrit was highly specific (83%) in detecting HPS. Combinations that maximized sensitivity required the presence of thrombocytopenia. Using a national sample of suspect patients, we found that thrombocytopenia was a highly sensitive indicator of HPS and should be included in surveillance definitions for suspected HPS. Using a sensitive suspect case definition to identify potential HPS patients that are confirmed by highly specific diagnostic testing will ensure accurate reporting of this disease.

  16. Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network (MD STARnet): Case Definition in Surveillance for Childhood-Onset Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Katherine D.; Cunniff, Chris; Kantamneni, Jiji R.; Ciafaloni, Emma; Miller, Timothy; Matthews, Dennis; Cwik, Valerie; Druschel, Charlotte; Miller, Lisa; Meaney, F. John; Sladky, John; Romitti, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    The Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance Tracking and Research Network (MD STARnet) is a multisite collaboration to determine the prevalence of childhood-onset Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy and to characterize health care and health outcomes in this population. MD STARnet uses medical record abstraction to identify patients with Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy born January 1, 1982 or later who resided in one of the participating sites. Critical diagnostic elements of each abstracted record are reviewed independently by ≥4 clinicians and assigned to 1 of 6 case definition categories (definite, probable, possible, asymptomatic, female, not Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy) by consensus. As of November 2009, 815 potential cases were reviewed. Of the cases included in analysis, 674 (82%) were either “definite” or “probable” Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy. These data reflect a change in diagnostic testing, as case assignment based on genetic testing increased from 67% in the oldest cohort (born 1982–1987) to 94% in the cohort born 2004–2009. PMID:20817884

  17. Chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology in Central America: a provisional epidemiologic case definition for surveillance and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lozier, Matthew; Turcios-Ruiz, Reina Maria; Noonan, Gary; Ordunez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    SYNOPSIS Over the last two decades, experts have reported a rising number of deaths caused by chronic kidney disease (CKD) along the Pacific coast of Central America, from southern Mexico to Costa Rica. However, this specific disease is not associated with traditional causes of CKD, such as aging, diabetes, or hypertension. Rather, this disease is a chronic interstitial nephritis termed chronic kidney disease of nontraditional etiology (CKDnT). According to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) mortality database, there are elevated rates of deaths related to kidney disease in many of these countries, with the highest rates being reported in El Salvador and Nicaragua. This condition has been identified in certain agricultural communities, predominantly among male farmworkers. Since CKD surveillance systems in Central America are under development or nonexistent, experts and governmental bodies have recommended creating standardized case definitions for surveillance purposes to monitor and characterize this epidemiological situation. A group of experts from Central American ministries of health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and PAHO held a workshop in Guatemala to discuss CKDnT epidemiologic case definitions. In this paper, we propose that CKD in general be identified by the standard definition internationally accepted and that a suspect case of CKDnT be defined as a person age < 60 years with CKD, without type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypertensive diseases, and other well-known causes of CKD. A probable case of CKDnT is defined as a suspect case with the same findings confirmed three or more months later.

  18. Confirmed clinical case of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional causes in agricultural communities in Central America: a case definition for surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Alejandro; Álvarez-Estévez, Guillermo; Cerdas-Calderón, Manuel; Cruz-Trujillo, Zulma; Mena, Elio; Reyes, Marina; Sandoval-Diaz, Mabel; Sánchez-Polo, Vicente; Valdés, Régulo; Ordúnez, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Over the last 20 years, many reports have described an excess of cases of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Pacific coastal area of Central America, mainly affecting male farmworkers and signaling a serious public health problem. Most of these cases are not associated with traditional risk factors for CKD, such as aging, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. This CKD of nontraditional causes (CKDnT) might be linked to environmental and/or occupational exposure or working conditions, limited access to health services, and poverty. In response to a resolution approved by the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) in 2013, PAHO, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Latin American Society of Nephrology and Hypertension (SLANH) organized a consultation process in order to expand knowledge on the epidemic of CKDnT and to develop appropriate surveillance instruments. The Clinical Working Group from SLANH was put in charge of finding a consensus definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT. The resulting definition establishes mandatory criteria and exclusion criteria necessary for classifying a case of CKDnT. The definition includes a combination of universally accepted definitions of CKD and the main clinical manifestations of CKDnT. Based on the best available evidence, the Clinical Working Group also formulated general recommendations about clinical management that apply to any patient with CKDnT. Adhering to the definition of a confirmed clinical case of CKDnT and implementing it appropriately is expected to be a powerful instrument for understanding the prevalence of the epidemic, evaluating the results of interventions, and promoting appropriate advocacy and planning efforts.

  19. Concordance between European and US case definitions of healthcare-associated infections

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) is a valuable measure to decrease infection rates. Across Europe, inter-country comparisons of HAI rates seem limited because some countries use US definitions from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC/NHSN) while other countries use European definitions from the Hospitals in Europe Link for Infection Control through Surveillance (HELICS/IPSE) project. In this study, we analyzed the concordance between US and European definitions of HAI. Methods An international working group of experts from seven European countries was set up to identify differences between US and European definitions and then conduct surveillance using both sets of definitions during a three-month period (March 1st -May 31st, 2010). Concordance between case definitions was estimated with Cohen’s kappa statistic (κ). Results Differences in HAI definitions were found for bloodstream infection (BSI), pneumonia (PN), urinary tract infection (UTI) and the two key terms “intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection” and “mechanical ventilation”. Concordance was analyzed for these definitions and key terms with the exception of UTI. Surveillance was performed in 47 ICUs and 6,506 patients were assessed. One hundred and eighty PN and 123 BSI cases were identified. When all PN cases were considered, concordance for PN was κ = 0.99 [CI 95%: 0.98-1.00]. When PN cases were divided into subgroups, concordance was κ = 0.90 (CI 95%: 0.86-0.94) for clinically defined PN and κ = 0.72 (CI 95%: 0.63-0.82) for microbiologically defined PN. Concordance for BSI was κ = 0.73 [CI 95%: 0.66-0.80]. However, BSI cases secondary to another infection site (42% of all BSI cases) are excluded when using US definitions and concordance for BSI was κ = 1.00 when only primary BSI cases, i.e. Europe-defined BSI with ”catheter” or “unknown” origin and US-defined laboratory-confirmed BSI (LCBI), were

  20. Sensitivity and Specificity of Suspected Case Definition Used during West Africa Ebola Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Champaloux, Steven W.; Keïta, Sakoba; Martel, Lise; Bilivogui, Pepe; Knust, Barbara; McCollum, Andrea M.

    2018-01-01

    Rapid early detection and control of Ebola virus disease (EVD) is contingent on accurate case definitions. Using an epidemic surveillance dataset from Guinea, we analyzed an EVD case definition developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and used in Guinea. We used the surveillance dataset (March–October 2014; n = 2,847 persons) to identify patients who satisfied or did not satisfy case definition criteria. Laboratory confirmation determined cases from noncases, and we calculated sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. The sensitivity of the defintion was 68.9%, and the specificity of the definition was 49.6%. The presence of epidemiologic risk factors (i.e., recent contact with a known or suspected EVD case-patient) had the highest sensitivity (74.7%), and unexplained deaths had the highest specificity (92.8%). Results for case definition analyses were statistically significant (p<0.05 by χ2 test). Multiple components of the EVD case definition used in Guinea contributed to improved overall sensitivity and specificity. PMID:29260687

  1. Three case definitions of malaria and their effect on diagnosis, treatment and surveillance in Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Montanari, R M; Bangali, A M; Talukder, K R; Baqui, A; Maheswary, N P; Gosh, A; Rahman, M; Mahmood, A H

    2001-01-01

    In countries where malaria is endemic, routine blood slide examinations remain the major source of data for the public health surveillance system. This approach has become inadequate, however, as the public health emphasis has changed from surveillance of laboratory-confirmed malaria infections to the early detection and treatment of the disease. As a result, it has been advocated that the information collected about malaria be changed radically and should include the monitoring of morbidity and mortality, clinical practice and quality of care. To improve the early diagnosis and prompt treatment (EDPT) of malaria patients, three malaria case definitions (MCDs) were developed, with treatment and reporting guidelines, and used in all static health facilities of Cox's Bazar district, Bangladesh (population 1.5 million). The three MCDs were: uncomplicated malaria (UM); treatment failure malaria (TFM); and severe malaria (SM). The number of malaria deaths was also reported. This paper reviews the rationale and need for MCDs in malaria control programmes and presents an analysis of the integrated surveillance information collected during the three-year period, 1995-97. The combined analysis of slide-based and clinical data and their related indicators shows that blood slide analysis is no longer used to document fever episodes but to support EDPT, with priority given to SM and TFM patients. Data indicate a decrease in the overall positive predictive value of the three MCDs as malaria prevalence decreases. Hence the data quantify the extent to which the mainly clinical diagnosis of UM leads to over-diagnosis and over-treatment in changing epidemiological conditions. Also the new surveillance data show: a halving in the case fatality rate among SM cases (from 6% to 3.1%) attributable to improved quality of care, and a stable proportion of TFM cases (around 7%) against a defined population denominator. Changes implemented in the EDPT of malaria patients and in the

  2. Challenges in congenital syphilis surveillance: how are congenital syphilis investigations classified?

    PubMed

    Introcaso, Camille E; Gruber, DeAnn; Bradley, Heather; Peterman, Thomas A; Ewell, Joy; Wendell, Debbie; Foxhood, Joseph; Su, John R; Weinstock, Hillard S; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2013-09-01

    Congenital syphilis is a serious, preventable, and nationally notifiable disease. Despite the existence of a surveillance case definition, congenital syphilis is sometimes classified differently using an algorithm on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's case reporting form. We reviewed Louisiana's congenital syphilis electronic reporting system for investigations of infants born from January 2010 to October 2011, abstracted data required for classification, and applied the surveillance definition and the algorithm. We calculated the sensitivities and specificities of the algorithm and Louisiana's classification using the surveillance definition as the surveillance gold standard. Among 349 congenital syphilis investigations, the surveillance definition identified 62 cases. The algorithm had a sensitivity of 91.9% and a specificity of 64.1%. Louisiana's classification had a sensitivity of 50% and a specificity of 91.3% compared with the surveillance definition. The differences between the algorithm and the surveillance definition led to misclassification of congenital syphilis cases. The algorithm should match the surveillance definition. Other state and local health departments should assure that their reported cases meet the surveillance definition.

  3. Case definition for progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy following treatment with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Mentzer, Dirk; Prestel, Jürgen; Adams, Ortwin; Gold, Ralf; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hengel, Hartmut; Kieseier, Bernd C; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte

    2012-09-01

    Novel immunosuppressive/modulating therapies with monoclonal antibodies (MABs) have been associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a potentially fatal disease of the brain caused by the JC virus. Taking the complex diagnostic testing and heterogeneous clinical presentation of PML into account, an agreed case definition for PML is a prerequisite for a thorough assessment of PML. A working group was established to develop a standardised case definition for PML which permits data comparability across clinical trials, postauthorisation safety studies and passive postmarketing surveillance. The case definition is designed to define levels of diagnostic certainty of reported PML cases following treatment with MABs. It was subsequently used to categorise retrospectively suspected PML cases from Germany reported to the Paul-Ehrlich-Institute as the responsible national competent authority. The algorithm of the case definition is based on clinical symptoms, PCR for JC virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid, brain MRI, and brain biopsy/autopsy. The case definition was applied to 119 suspected cases of PML following treatment with MABs and is considered to be helpful for case ascertainment of suspected PML cases for various MABs covering a broad spectrum of indications. Even if the available information is not yet complete, the case definition provides a level of diagnostic certainty. The proposed case definition permits data comparability among different medicinal products and among active as well as passive surveillance settings. It may form a basis for meaningful risk analysis and communication for regulators and healthcare professionals.

  4. Evaluation of a surveillance case definition for anogenital warts, Kaiser Permanente northwest.

    PubMed

    Naleway, Allison L; Weinmann, Sheila; Crane, Brad; Gee, Julianne; Markowitz, Lauri E; Dunne, Eileen F

    2014-08-01

    Most studies of anogenital wart (AGW) epidemiology have used large clinical or administrative databases and unconfirmed case definitions based on combinations of diagnosis and procedure codes. We developed and validated an AGW case definition using a combination of diagnosis codes and other information available in the electronic medical record (provider type, laboratory testing). We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) of this case definition compared with manual medical record review in a random sample of 250 cases. Using this case definition, we calculated the annual age- and sex-stratified prevalence of AGW among individuals 11 through 30 years of age from 2000 through 2005. We identified 2730 individuals who met the case definition. The PPV of the case definition was 82%, and the average annual prevalence was 4.16 per 1000. Prevalence of AGW was higher in females compared with males in every age group, with the exception of the 27- to 30-year-olds. Among females, prevalence peaked in the 19- to 22-year-olds, and among males, the peak was observed in 23- to 26-year-olds. The case definition developed in this study is the first to be validated with medical record review and has a good PPV for the detection of AGW. The prevalence rates observed in this study were higher than other published rates, but the age- and sex-specific patterns observed were consistent with previous reports.

  5. Validation of a Case Definition for Pediatric Brain Injury Using Administrative Data.

    PubMed

    McChesney-Corbeil, Jane; Barlow, Karen; Quan, Hude; Chen, Guanmin; Wiebe, Samuel; Jette, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    Health administrative data are a common population-based data source for traumatic brain injury (TBI) surveillance and research; however, before using these data for surveillance, it is important to develop a validated case definition. The objective of this study was to identify the optimal International Classification of Disease , edition 10 (ICD-10), case definition to ascertain children with TBI in emergency room (ER) or hospital administrative data. We tested multiple case definitions. Children who visited the ER were identified from the Regional Emergency Department Information System at Alberta Children's Hospital. Secondary data were collected for children with trauma, musculoskeletal, or central nervous system complaints who visited the ER between October 5, 2005, and June 6, 2007. TBI status was determined based on chart review. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated for each case definition. Of 6639 patients, 1343 had a TBI. The best case definition was, "1 hospital or 1 ER encounter coded with an ICD-10 code for TBI in 1 year" (sensitivity 69.8% [95% confidence interval (CI), 67.3-72.2], specificity 96.7% [95% CI, 96.2-97.2], PPV 84.2% [95% CI 82.0-86.3], NPV 92.7% [95% CI, 92.0-93.3]). The nonspecific code S09.9 identified >80% of TBI cases in our study. The optimal ICD-10-based case definition for pediatric TBI in this study is valid and should be considered for future pediatric TBI surveillance studies. However, external validation is recommended before use in other jurisdictions, particularly because it is plausible that a larger proportion of patients in our cohort had milder injuries.

  6. Assessment of the accuracy and consistency in the application of standardized surveillance definitions: A summary of the American Journal of Infection Control and National Healthcare Safety Network case studies, 2010-2016.

    PubMed

    Wright, Marc-Oliver; Allen-Bridson, Katherine; Hebden, Joan N

    2017-06-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definitions are the most widely used criteria for health care-associated infection (HAI) surveillance. NHSN participants agree to conduct surveillance in accordance with the NHSN protocol and criteria. To assess the application of these standardized surveillance specifications and offer infection preventionists (IPs) opportunities for ongoing education, a series of case studies, with questions related to NHSN definitions and criteria were published. Beginning in 2010, case studies with multiple-choice questions based on standard surveillance criteria and protocols were written and published in the American Journal of Infection Control with a link to an online survey. Participants anonymously submitted their responses before receiving the correct answers. The 22 case studies had 7,950 respondents who provided 27,790 responses to 75 questions during the first 6 years. Correct responses were selected 62.5% of the time (17,376 out of 27,290), but ranged widely (16%-87%). In a subset analysis, 93% of participants self-identified as IPs (3,387 out of 3,640), 4.5% were public health professionals (163 out of 3,640), and 2.5% were physicians (90 out of 3,640). IPs responded correctly (62%) more often than physicians (55%) (P = .006). Among a cohort of voluntary participants, accurate application of surveillance criteria to case studies was suboptimal, highlighting the need for continuing education, competency development, and auditing. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy of Zika virus disease case definition during simultaneous Dengue and Chikungunya epidemics.

    PubMed

    Braga, José Ueleres; Bressan, Clarisse; Dalvi, Ana Paula Razal; Calvet, Guilherme Amaral; Daumas, Regina Paiva; Rodrigues, Nadia; Wakimoto, Mayumi; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Brito, Carlos; Bispo de Filippis, Ana Maria; Brasil, Patrícia

    2017-01-01

    Zika is a new disease in the American continent and its surveillance is of utmost importance, especially because of its ability to cause neurological manifestations as Guillain-Barré syndrome and serious congenital malformations through vertical transmission. The detection of suspected cases by the surveillance system depends on the case definition adopted. As the laboratory diagnosis of Zika infection still relies on the use of expensive and complex molecular techniques with low sensitivity due to a narrow window of detection, most suspected cases are not confirmed by laboratory tests, mainly reserved for pregnant women and newborns. In this context, an accurate definition of a suspected Zika case is crucial in order for the surveillance system to gauge the magnitude of an epidemic. We evaluated the accuracy of various Zika case definitions in a scenario where Dengue and Chikungunya viruses co-circulate. Signs and symptoms that best discriminated PCR confirmed Zika from other laboratory confirmed febrile or exanthematic diseases were identified to propose and test predictive models for Zika infection based on these clinical features. Our derived score prediction model had the best performance because it demonstrated the highest sensitivity and specificity, 86·6% and 78·3%, respectively. This Zika case definition also had the highest values for auROC (0·903) and R2 (0·417), and the lowest Brier score 0·096. In areas where multiple arboviruses circulate, the presence of rash with pruritus or conjunctival hyperemia, without any other general clinical manifestations such as fever, petechia or anorexia is the best Zika case definition.

  8. Revision of clinical case definitions: influenza-like illness and severe acute respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Qasmieh, Saba; Mounts, Anthony Wayne; Alexander, Burmaa; Besselaar, Terry; Briand, Sylvie; Brown, Caroline; Clark, Seth; Dueger, Erica; Gross, Diane; Hauge, Siri; Hirve, Siddhivinayak; Jorgensen, Pernille; Katz, Mark A; Mafi, Ali; Malik, Mamunur; McCarron, Margaret; Meerhoff, Tamara; Mori, Yuichiro; Mott, Joshua; Olivera, Maria Teresa da Costa; Ortiz, Justin R; Palekar, Rakhee; Rebelo-de-Andrade, Helena; Soetens, Loes; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Zhang, Wenqing; Vandemaele, Katelijn

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The formulation of accurate clinical case definitions is an integral part of an effective process of public health surveillance. Although such definitions should, ideally, be based on a standardized and fixed collection of defining criteria, they often require revision to reflect new knowledge of the condition involved and improvements in diagnostic testing. Optimal case definitions also need to have a balance of sensitivity and specificity that reflects their intended use. After the 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza pandemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) initiated a technical consultation on global influenza surveillance. This prompted improvements in the sensitivity and specificity of the case definition for influenza – i.e. a respiratory disease that lacks uniquely defining symptomology. The revision process not only modified the definition of influenza-like illness, to include a simplified list of the criteria shown to be most predictive of influenza infection, but also clarified the language used for the definition, to enhance interpretability. To capture severe cases of influenza that required hospitalization, a new case definition was also developed for severe acute respiratory infection in all age groups. The new definitions have been found to capture more cases without compromising specificity. Despite the challenge still posed in the clinical separation of influenza from other respiratory infections, the global use of the new WHO case definitions should help determine global trends in the characteristics and transmission of influenza viruses and the associated disease burden. PMID:29403115

  9. Comparing External Ventricular Drains-Related Ventriculitis Surveillance Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Maria; Munigala, Satish; Church, Emily; Kulik, Tobias; Keyrouz, Salah; Zipfel, Gregory; Warren, David K.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the agreement between the current National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definition for ventriculitis and others found in the literature among patients with an external ventricular drain (EVD). Design Retrospective cohort study from January 2009 to December 2014 Setting Neurology and neurosurgery intensive care unit of a large tertiary care center. Patients Patients with an EVD. Patients with an infection prior to EVD placement or a permanent ventricular shunt were excluded. Methods We reviewed the charts of patients with a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures and/or abnormal CSF results while they had an EVD in place and applied various ventriculitis definitions. Results We identified 48 patients with a total of 52 episodes of ventriculitis (41 CSF culture positive episodes and 11 episodes based on abnormal CSF test results) using the NHSN definition. The most common organisms causing ventriculitis were Gram positive commensals (79.2%), however 45% of these had growth of only one colony on one piece of media. About 60% of the ventriculitis episodes by NHSN definition met Honda criteria, about 56% met Gozal criteria and 23% met Citerio’s definition. Honda vs. Gozal had a moderate agreement (Ƙ=0.528, p< 0.05) whereas Honda vs Citerio (Ƙ=0.338, p< 0.05) and Citerio vs Gozal (Ƙ=0.384, p< 0.05) comparisons had only fair agreements. Conclusions Agreement between published VAI definitions in this cohort was moderate to fair. A VAI surveillance definition that better defines contaminants is needed for more homogenous application of surveillance definitions between institutions and better comparison of rates. PMID:28219470

  10. Hepatitis E virus infection in Europe: surveillance and descriptive epidemiology of confirmed cases, 2005 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Aspinall, Esther J; Couturier, Elisabeth; Faber, Mirko; Said, Bengü; Ijaz, Samreen; Tavoschi, Lara; Takkinen, Johanna; Adlhoch, Cornelia

    2017-06-29

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an under-recognised cause of acute hepatitis in high-income countries. The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of testing, diagnosis, surveillance activities, and data on confirmed cases in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). A semi-structured survey was developed and sent to 31 EU/EEA countries in February 2016, 30 responded. Twenty of these countries reported that they have specific surveillance systems for HEV infection. Applied specific case definition for HEV infection varied widely across countries. The number of reported cases has increased from 514 cases per year in 2005 to 5,617 in 2015, with most infections being locally acquired. This increase could not be explained by additional countries implementing surveillance for HEV infections over time. Hospitalisations increased from less than 100 in 2005 to more than 1,100 in 2015 and 28 fatal cases were reported over the study period. EU/EEA countries are at different stages in their surveillance, testing schemes and policy response to the emergence of HEV infection in humans. The available data demonstrated a Europe-wide increase in cases. Standardised case definitions and testing policies would allow a better understanding of the epidemiology of HEV as an emerging cause of liver-related morbidity. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  11. Proposed epidemiological case definition for serious skin infection in children.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Cathryn E; Baker, Michael G

    2010-04-01

    Researching the rising incidence of serious skin infections in children is limited by the lack of a consistent and valid case definition. We aimed to develop and evaluate a good quality case definition, for use in future research and surveillance of these infections. We tested the validity of the existing case definition, and then of 11 proposed alternative definitions, by assessing their screening performance when applied to a population of paediatric skin infection cases identified by a chart review of 4 years of admissions to a New Zealand hospital. Previous studies have largely used definitions based on the International Classification of Diseases skin infection subchapter. This definition is highly specific (100%) but poorly sensitive (61%); it fails to capture skin infections of atypical anatomical sites, those secondary to primary skin disease and trauma, and those recorded as additional diagnoses. Including these groups produced a new case definition with 98.9% sensitivity and 98.8% specificity. Previous analyses of serious skin infection in children have underestimated the true burden of disease. Using this proposed broader case definition should allow future researchers to produce more valid and comparable estimates of the true burden of these important and increasing infections.

  12. Clinical case definition for the diagnosis of acute intussusception.

    PubMed

    Bines, Julie E; Ivanoff, Bernard; Justice, Frances; Mulholland, Kim

    2004-11-01

    Because of the reported association between intussusception and a rotavirus vaccine, future clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines will need to include intussusception surveillance in the evaluation of vaccine safety. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a clinical case definition for the diagnosis of acute intussusception. A clinical case definition for the diagnosis of acute intussusception was developed by analysis of an extensive literature review that defined the clinical presentation of intussusception in 70 developed and developing countries. The clinical case definition was then assessed for sensitivity and specificity using a retrospective chart review of hospital admissions. Sensitivity of the clinical case definition was assessed in children diagnosed with intussusception over a 6.5-year period. Specificity was assessed in patients aged <2 years admitted with bowel obstruction and in patients aged <19 years presenting with symptoms that may occur in intussusception. The clinical case definition accurately identified 185 of 191 assessable cases as "probable" intussusception and six cases as "possible" intussusception (sensitivity, 97%). No case of radiologic or surgically proven intussusception failed to be identified by the clinical case definition. The specificity of the definition in correctly identifying patients who did not have intussusception ranged from 87% to 91%. The clinical case definition for intussusception may assist in the prompt identification of patients with intussusception and may provide an important tool for the future trials of enteric vaccines.

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 22, Number 9, September 2015

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE MONTHLY REPORT PAGE 2 PAGE 6 PAGE 12 Assessment of ICD-9-based case definitions for influenza -like illness surveillance...appropriate when there is a need to maximize specifi city. Assessment of ICD-9-based Case Definitions for Influenza -like Illness Surveillance Angelia A. Eick...matched to the spec- imen; if such a match was not possible, T A 8 L E 1. ICD-9 codes for original influenza -like illness case definition ICD-9 code

  14. Surveillance versus clinical adjudication: differences persist with new ventilator-associated event definition.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Kathleen M; Boyer, Anthony F; Schoenberg, Noah; Babcock, Hilary M; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-06-01

    The National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) has recently supported efforts to shift surveillance away from ventilator-associated pneumonia to ventilator-associated events (VAEs) to decrease subjectivity in surveillance and minimize concerns over clinical correlation. The goals of this study were to compare the results of an automated surveillance strategy using the new VAE definition with a prospectively performed clinical application of the definition. All patients ventilated for ≥2 days in a medical and surgical intensive care unit were evaluated by 2 methods: retrospective surveillance using an automated algorithm combined with manual chart review after the NHSN's VAE methodology and prospective surveillance by pulmonary physicians in collaboration with the clinical team administering care to the patient at the bedside. Overall, a similar number of events were called by each method (69 vs 67). Of the 1,209 patients, 56 were determined to have VAEs by both methods (κ = .81, P = .04). There were 24 patients considered to be a VAE by only 1 of the methods. Most discrepancies were the result of clinical disagreement with the NHSN's VAE methodology. There was good agreement between the study teams. Awareness of the limitations of the surveillance definition for VAE can help infection prevention personnel in discussions with critical care partners about optimal use of these data. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Lyme Disease Surveillance in New York State: an Assessment of Case Underreporting.

    PubMed

    White, J; Noonan-Toly, C; Lukacik, G; Thomas, N; Hinckley, A; Hook, S; Backenson, P B

    2018-03-01

    Despite the mandatory nature of Lyme disease (LD) reporting in New York State (NYS), it is believed that only a fraction of the LD cases diagnosed annually are reported to public health authorities. Lack of complete LD case reporting generally stems from (i) lack of report of provider-diagnosed cases where supportive laboratory testing is not ordered or results are negative (i.e. provider underreporting) and (ii) incomplete case information (clinical laboratory reporting only with no accompanying clinical information) such that cases are considered 'suspect' and not included in national and statewide case counts (i.e. case misclassification). In an attempt to better understand LD underreporting in NYS, a two-part study was conducted in 2011 using surveillance data from three counties. Case misclassification was assessed by obtaining medical records on suspect cases and reclassifying according to the surveillance case definition. To assess provider underreporting, lists of patients for whom ICD-9-CM code 088.81 (LD) had been used were reported to NYS Department of Health (NYSDOH). These lists were matched to the NYSDOH case reporting system, and medical records were requested on patients not previously reported; cases were then classified according to the case definition. When including both provider underreporting and case misclassification, approximately 20% (range 18.4-24.6%) more LD cases were identified in the three-county study area than were originally reported through standard surveillance. The additional cases represent a minimum percentage of unreported cases; the true percentage of unreported cases is likely higher. Unreported cases were more likely to have a history of erythema migrans (EM) rash and were more likely to be young paediatric cases. Results of the study support the assertion that LD cases are underreported in NYS. Initiatives to increase reporting should highlight the importance of reporting clinically diagnosed EM and be targeted to those

  16. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    PubMed

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P T; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-03-01

    Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency.

  17. Meeting the International Health Regulations (2005) surveillance core capacity requirements at the subnational level in Europe: the added value of syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Rosenkötter, Nicole; Riesgo, Luis Garcia-Castrillo; Fischer, Matthias; Krämer, Alexander; Lippert, Freddy K; Vergeiner, Gernot; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2015-02-07

    The revised World Health Organization's International Health Regulations (2005) request a timely and all-hazard approach towards surveillance, especially at the subnational level. We discuss three questions of syndromic surveillance application in the European context for assessing public health emergencies of international concern: (i) can syndromic surveillance support countries, especially the subnational level, to meet the International Health Regulations (2005) core surveillance capacity requirements, (ii) are European syndromic surveillance systems comparable to enable cross-border surveillance, and (iii) at which administrative level should syndromic surveillance best be applied? Despite the ongoing criticism on the usefulness of syndromic surveillance which is related to its clinically nonspecific output, we demonstrate that it was a suitable supplement for timely assessment of the impact of three different public health emergencies affecting Europe. Subnational syndromic surveillance analysis in some cases proved to be of advantage for detecting an event earlier compared to national level analysis. However, in many cases, syndromic surveillance did not detect local events with only a small number of cases. The European Commission envisions comparability of surveillance output to enable cross-border surveillance. Evaluated against European infectious disease case definitions, syndromic surveillance can contribute to identify cases that might fulfil the clinical case definition but the approach is too unspecific to comply to complete clinical definitions. Syndromic surveillance results still seem feasible for comparable cross-border surveillance as similarly defined syndromes are analysed. We suggest a new model of implementing syndromic surveillance at the subnational level. In this model, syndromic surveillance systems are fine-tuned to their local context and integrated into the existing subnational surveillance and reporting structure. By enhancing

  18. Does the Reliability of Reporting in Injury Surveillance Studies Depend on Injury Definition?

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Matthew; Williams, Sean; Kemp, Simon P.T.; Fuller, Colin; Taylor, Aileen; Brooks, John; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Background: Choosing an appropriate definition for injury in injury surveillance studies is essential to ensure a balance among reporting reliability, providing an accurate representation of injury risk, and describing the nature of the clinical demand. Purpose: To provide guidance on the choice of injury definition for injury surveillance studies by comparing within- and between-team variability in injury incidence with >24-hour and >7-day time-loss injury definitions in a large multiteam injury surveillance study. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Injury data were reported for 2248 professional rugby union players from 15 Premiership Rugby clubs over 12 seasons. Within-team percentage coefficient of variation and mean between-team standard deviation (expressed as a percentage coefficient of variation) in injury incidence rates (injuries per 1000 player match hours) were calculated. For both variables, a comparison was made between >24-hour and >7-day injury incidence rates in terms of the magnitude of the observed effects. Results: The overall mean incidence across the population with a >24-hour time-loss injury definition was approximately double the reported incidence with the >7-day definition. There was a 10% higher between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with the >24-hour time-loss definition versus the >7-day definition. Conclusion: There was a likely higher degree of between-team variation in match injury incidence rates with a >24-hour time-loss definition than with a >7-day definition of injury. However, in professional sports settings, it is likely that the benefits of using a more inclusive definition of injury (improved understanding of clinical demand and the appropriate and accurate reporting of injury risk) outweigh the small increase in variation in reporting consistency. PMID:29581994

  19. 2012 Sexually Transmitted Diseases Surveillance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Data Appendix Tables A1 - A4 STD Surveillance Case Definitions Contributors Related Links STD Home STD Data & Statistics NCHHSTP Atlas Interactive STD Data - 1996-2013 STD Health Equity HIV/AIDS Surveillance & Statistics Follow STD STD on Twitter STD on Facebook File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  20. [Analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the National Surveillance System in 2007.].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hao-jie; Chang, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    To improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease. Data was collected through China Disease Reporting Information System (CDRIS) and National Sentinel Surveillance Sites on bacillary dysentery. Data from the CDRIS was compared with the data from the National Sentinel Surveillance to identify the exiting problems. Data from the monitoring sites showed that the detection rate of infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection was 1%, less than that of other age groups. The highest rates were seen in children aged 3 through 9 years. Rate on misdiagnosis in all age group was 23.38%, when using the surveillance case definition of clinical cases and suspect case. The rate of misdiagnosis on infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection by clinical diagnosis was 50%. It showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei were dominant with the positive rates as 57.21% and 42.41%, respectively. From the national sentinel surveillance sites, the confirmed cases taking up 43.39% which did not match the figure from the CDRIS. The diagnostic criterion for bacillary dysentery fit well on other age groups in surveillance system except on infants. Active surveillance on bacillary dysentery that combining both clinical and laboratory diagnosis seems quite necessary on CDRIS, especially for infants.

  1. Ciguatera fish poisoning and environmental change: a case for strengthening health surveillance in the Pacific?

    PubMed

    Derne, Bonnie; Fearnley, Emily; Goater, Sarah; Carter, Karen; Weinstein, Philip

    2010-09-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), a significant public health problem in the Pacific, is intrinsically linked to the health of coral reef ecosystems. Incidence data on CFP could therefore be used, in theory, as indicators of disruption to coral reefs. Some disruptions, such as increasing sea surface temperatures, result from global environmental change--therefore suggesting that CFP is likely to become an increasing public health problem in the region. The proactive management of increasing numbers of cases will depend on an understanding of the ecology of the disease, sound health surveillance systems to report cases of CFP including appropriate case definitions, and quantifiable correlations between case numbers and environmental variables. Here, we briefly review the knowledge about these components in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), including summarising regional variation in symptoms of CFP cases, investigating media as an enhanced surveillance tool, and summarising regional environmental drivers of CFP cases. We conclude that CFP could be an important indicator of the health of reef ecosystems in the face of global climate change and more novel approaches such as combining environmental and health data, need to be implemented to improve surveillance of CFP.

  2. Human surveillance for West Nile virus infection in Ontario in 2000

    PubMed Central

    Ford-Jones, E. Lee; Fearon, Margaret; Leber, Chuck; Dwight, Prabo; Myszak, Moira; Cole, Beverly; Greene, Pam Baker; Artes, Sheila; McGeer, Allison; D'Cunha, Colin; Naus, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Background The first reports of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the United States in 1999 prompted Ontario to establish a surveillance protocol to monitor for the possible spread of the virus into the province. Surveillance components included evaluation of dead birds, sentinel chickens, mosquito pools and human disease. We report the results of human surveillance in 2000. Methods Between July 1 and Oct. 31, 2000, an active surveillance program was undertaken in which designated site coordinators in sentinel hospitals identified patients who met the suspect case definition (fever and fluctuating level of consciousness [encephalopathy], with or without muscle weakness). During the same period, following province-wide distribution of educational material, all other patients tested for WNV antibodies were identified through review of provincial laboratory reports (laboratory-based enhanced passive surveillance). Results Of the 60 hospitals contacted, 59 agreed to participate in the active surveillance program; 52 provided information on a regular (weekly) basis, and 7 submitted fewer than 8 reports. Thirty-six (61%) of the sentinel sites reported suspect cases. In total, 188 patients were tested (130 identified through active surveillance and 58 through enhanced passive surveillance). Patients identified through active surveillance were more likely than those identified through passive surveillance to meet the suspect case definition (43% [n = 56] v. 7% [n = 4]), to be admitted to hospital (75% [n = 99] v. 16% [n = 9]), to have a longer hospital stay (mean 25 v. 3 days), to have had a second (convalescent) serum sample collected (37% [n = 48] v. 31% [n = 18]), to have had a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample banked (56% [n = 73] v. 14% [n = 8]) and to have had a discharge diagnosis reported (79% [n = 103] v. 28% [n = 16]). Of the 60 patients (32%) who met the suspect case definition, 34 (57% [31 active, 3 passive]) had a discharge diagnosis of encephalitis. Of these

  3. Testosterone Therapy on Active Surveillance and Following Definitive Treatment for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Golla, Vishnukamal; Kaplan, Alan L

    2017-07-01

    Previously considered an absolute contraindication, the use of testosterone therapy in men with prostate cancer has undergone an important paradigm shift. Recent data has changed the way we approach the treatment of testosterone deficiency in men with prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize and analyze the literature surrounding effects of testosterone therapy on patients being treated in an active surveillance protocol as well as following definitive treatment for prostate cancer. The conventional notion that defined the relationship between increasing testosterone and prostate cancer growth was based on limited studies and anecdotal case reports. Contemporary evidence suggests testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency does not increase prostate cancer risk or the chances of more aggressive disease at prostate cancer diagnosis. Although the studies are limited, men who received testosterone therapy for localized disease did not have higher rates of recurrences or worse clinical outcomes. Current review of the literature has not identified adverse progression events for patients receiving testosterone therapy while on active surveillance/watchful waiting or definitive therapies. The importance of negative effects of testosterone deficiency on health and health-related quality of life measures has pushed urologists to re-evaluate the role testosterone plays in prostate cancer. This led to a paradigm shift that testosterone therapy might in fact be a viable option for a select group of men with testosterone deficiency and a concurrent diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  4. Child Maltreatment Surveillance Improvement Opportunities: A Wake County, North Carolina Pilot Project.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Meghan E; Fliss, Mike D; Proescholdbell, Scott K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND As child maltreatment often occurs in private, child welfare numbers underestimate its true prevalence. Child maltreatment surveillance systems have been used to ascertain more accurate counts of children who experience maltreatment. This manuscript describes the results from a pilot child maltreatment surveillance system in Wake County, North Carolina. METHODS We linked 2010 and 2011 data from 3 sources (Child Protective Services, Raleigh Police Department, and Office of the Chief Medical Examiner) to obtain rates of definite and possible child maltreatment. We separately analyzed emergency department visits from 2010 and 2011 to obtain counts of definite and possible child maltreatment. We then compared the results from the surveillance systems to those obtained from Child Protective Services (CPS) data alone. RESULTS In 2010 and 2011, rates of definite child maltreatment were 11.7 and 11.3 per 1,000 children, respectively, when using the linked data, compared to 10.0 and 9.5 per 1,000 children using CPS data alone. The rates of possible maltreatment were 25.3 and 23.8 per 1,000, respectively. In the 2010 and 2011 emergency department data, there were 68 visits and 84 visits, respectively, that met the case definition for maltreatment. LIMITATIONS While 4 data sources were analyzed, only 3 were linked in the current surveillance system. It is likely that we would have identified more cases of maltreatment had more sources been included. CONCLUSION While the surveillance system identified more children who met the case definition of maltreatment than CPS data alone, the rates of definite child maltreatment were not considerably higher than official reports. Rates of possible child maltreatment were much higher than both the definite case definition and child welfare records. Tracking both definite and possible case definitions and using a variety of data sources provides a more complete picture of child maltreatment in North Carolina. ©2018 by the

  5. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  6. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on similarities and differences among circumpolar

  7. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey – representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge

  8. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; On Behalf Of The International Circumpolar Surveillance-Tuberculosis Working Group

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis is highly prevalent in many Arctic areas. Members of the International Circumpolar Surveillance Tuberculosis (ICS-TB) Working Group collaborate to increase knowledge about tuberculosis in Arctic regions. Objective To establish baseline knowledge of tuberculosis surveillance systems used by ICS-TB member jurisdictions. Design Three questionnaires were developed to reflect the different surveillance levels (local, regional and national); all 3 were forwarded to the official representative of each of the 15 ICS-TB member jurisdictions in 2013. Respondents self-identified the level of surveillance conducted in their region and completed the applicable questionnaire. Information collected included surveillance system objectives, case definitions, data collection methodology, storage and dissemination. Results Thirteen ICS-TB jurisdictions [Canada (Labrador, Northwest Territories, Nunavik, Nunavut, Yukon), Finland, Greenland, Norway, Sweden, Russian Federation (Arkhangelsk, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug, Yakutia (Sakha Republic), United States (Alaska)] voluntarily completed the survey - representing 2 local, 7 regional and 4 national levels. Tuberculosis reporting is mandatory in all jurisdictions, and case definitions are comparable across regions. The common objectives across systems are to detect outbreaks, and inform the evaluation/planning of public health programmes and policies. All jurisdictions collect data on confirmed active tuberculosis cases and treatment outcomes; 11 collect contact tracing results. Faxing of standardized case reporting forms is the most common reporting method. Similar core data elements are collected; 8 regions report genotyping results. Data are stored using customized programmes (n=7) and commercial software (n=6). Nine jurisdictions provide monthly, bi-annual or annual reports to principally government and/or scientific/medical audiences. Conclusion This review successfully establishes baseline knowledge on

  9. How to: Surveillance of Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    Krutova, M; Kinross, P; Barbut, F; Hajdu, A; Wilcox, M H; Kuijper, E J

    2018-05-01

    The increasing incidence of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) in healthcare settings in Europe since 2003 has affected both patients and healthcare systems. The implementation of effective CDI surveillance is key to enable monitoring of the occurrence and spread of C. difficile in healthcare and the timely detection of outbreaks. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of key components of effective CDI surveillance and to provide some practical recommendations. We also summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, to illustrate strengths and weaknesses of CDI surveillance in Europe. For the definition of key components of CDI surveillance, we consulted the current European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) CDI-related guidance documents and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) protocol for CDI surveillance in acute care hospitals. To summarize the recent and current national CDI surveillance activities, we discussed international multicentre CDI surveillance studies performed in 2005-13. In 2017, we also performed a new survey of existing CDI surveillance systems in 33 European countries. Key components for CDI surveillance are appropriate case definitions of CDI, standardized CDI diagnostics, agreement on CDI case origin definition, and the presentation of CDI rates with well-defined numerators and denominators. Incorporation of microbiological data is required to provide information on prevailing PCR ribotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility to first-line CDI treatment drugs. In 2017, 20 European countries had a national CDI surveillance system and 21 countries participated in ECDC-coordinated CDI surveillance. Since 2014, the number of centres with capacity for C. difficile typing has increased to 35 reference or central laboratories in 26 European countries. Incidence rates of CDI, obtained from a standardized CDI surveillance system, can be used as an important

  10. Drug Overdose Surveillance Using Hospital Discharge Data

    PubMed Central

    Bunn, Terry L.; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. Methods We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000–2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Results Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. Conclusion The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison. PMID:25177055

  11. Drug overdose surveillance using hospital discharge data.

    PubMed

    Slavova, Svetla; Bunn, Terry L; Talbert, Jeffery

    2014-01-01

    We compared three methods for identifying drug overdose cases in inpatient hospital discharge data on their ability to classify drug overdoses by intent and drug type(s) involved. We compared three International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code-based case definitions using Kentucky hospital discharge data for 2000-2011. The first definition (Definition 1) was based on the external-cause-of-injury (E-code) matrix. The other two definitions were based on the Injury Surveillance Workgroup on Poisoning (ISW7) consensus recommendations for national and state poisoning surveillance using the principal diagnosis or first E-code (Definition 2) or any diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3). Definition 3 identified almost 50% more drug overdose cases than did Definition 1. The increase was largely due to cases with a first-listed E-code describing a drug overdose but a principal diagnosis that was different from drug overdose (e.g., mental disorders, or respiratory or circulatory system failure). Regardless of the definition, more than 53% of the hospitalizations were self-inflicted drug overdoses; benzodiazepines were involved in about 30% of the hospitalizations. The 2011 age-adjusted drug overdose hospitalization rate in Kentucky was 146/100,000 population using Definition 3 and 107/100,000 population using Definition 1. The ISW7 drug overdose definition using any drug poisoning diagnosis/E-code (Definition 3) is potentially the highest sensitivity definition for counting drug overdose hospitalizations, including by intent and drug type(s) involved. As the states enact policies and plan for adequate treatment resources, standardized drug overdose definitions are critical for accurate reporting, trend analysis, policy evaluation, and state-to-state comparison.

  12. A comparison of self-report and health care provider data to assess surveillance definitions of influenza-like illness in outpatients.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Angela M; Loeb, Mark; Dolovich, Lisa; Brazil, Kevin; Russell, Margaret L

    2012-01-01

    Several surveillance definitions of influenza-like illness (ILI) have been proposed, based on the presence of symptoms. Symptom data can be obtained from patients, medical records, or both. Past research has found that agreements between health record data and self-report are variable depending on the specific symptom. Therefore, we aimed to explore the implications of using data on influenza symptoms extracted from medical records, similar data collected prospectively from outpatients, and the combined data from both sources as predictors of laboratory-confirmed influenza. Using data from the Hutterite Influenza Prevention Study, we calculated: 1) the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of individual symptoms within surveillance definitions; 2) how frequently surveillance definitions correlated to laboratory-confirmed influenza; and 3) the predictive value of surveillance definitions. Of the 176 participants with reports from participants and medical records, 142 (81%) were tested for influenza and 37 (26%) were PCR positive for influenza. Fever (alone) and fever combined with cough and/or sore throat were highly correlated with being PCR positive for influenza for all data sources. ILI surveillance definitions, based on symptom data from medical records only or from both medical records and self-report, were better predictors of laboratory-confirmed influenza with higher odds ratios and positive predictive values. The choice of data source to determine ILI will depend on the patient population, outcome of interest, availability of data source, and use for clinical decision making, research, or surveillance.

  13. A case definition and photographic screening tool for the facial phenotype of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Astley, S J; Clarren, S K

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that a quantitative, multivariate case definition of the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) facial phenotype could be derived from photographs of individuals with FAS and to demonstrate how this case definition and photographic approach could be used to develop efficient, accurate, and precise screening tools, diagnostic aids, and possibly surveillance tools. Frontal facial photographs of 42 subjects (from birth to 27 years of age) with FAS were matched to 84 subjects without FAS. The study population was randomly divided in half. Group 1 was used to identify the facial features that best differentiated individuals with and without FAS. Group 2 was used for cross validation. In group 1, stepwise discriminant analysis identified three facial features (reduced palpebral fissure length/inner canthal distance ratio, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip) as the cluster of features that differentiated individuals with and without FAS in groups 1 and 2 with 100% accuracy. Sensitivity and specificity were unaffected by race, gender, and age. The phenotypic case definition derived from photographs accurately distinguished between individuals with and without FAS, demonstrating the potential of this approach for developing screening, diagnostic, and surveillance tools. Further evaluation of the validity and generalizability of this method will be needed.

  14. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Daughton, Ashlynn R; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2-8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009-2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.

  15. An international survey of cerebral palsy registers and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldsmith, Shona; McIntyre, Sarah; Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Blair, Eve; Cans, Christine; Watson, Linda; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2016-01-01

    AIM To describe cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance programmes and identify similarities and differences in governance and funding, aims and scope, definition, inclusion/exclusion criteria, ascertainment and data collection, to enhance the potential for research collaboration. METHOD Representatives from 38 CP surveillance programmes were invited to participate in an online survey and submit their data collection forms. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize information submitted. RESULTS Twenty-seven surveillance programmes participated (25 functioning registers, two closed owing to lack of funding). Their aims spanned five domains: resource for CP research, surveillance, aetiology/prevention, service planning, and information provision (in descending order of frequency). Published definitions guided decision making for the definition of CP and case eligibility for most programmes. Consent, case identification, and data collection methods varied widely. Ten key data items were collected by all programmes and a further seven by at least 80% of programmes. All programmes reported an interest in research collaboration. INTERPRETATION Despite variability in methodologies, similarities exist across programmes in terms of their aims, definitions, and data collected. These findings will facilitate harmonization of data and collaborative research efforts, which are so necessary on account of the heterogeneity and relatively low prevalence of CP. PMID:26781543

  16. Surveillance for West Nile, Dengue, and Chikungunya Virus Infections, Veneto Region, Italy, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Barzon, Luisa; Capelli, Gioia; Angheben, Andrea; Pacenti, Monia; Napoletano, Giuseppina; Piovesan, Cinzia; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Martini, Simone; Rigoli, Roberto; Cattelan, Anna M.; Rinaldi, Roberto; Conforto, Mario; Russo, Francesca; Palù, Giorgio; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, in Veneto Region, Italy, surveillance of summer fevers was conducted to promptly identify autochthonous cases of West Nile fever and increase detection of imported dengue and chikungunya in travelers. Surveillance highlighted the need to modify case definitions, train physicians, and when a case is identified, implement vector control measures PMID:22469230

  17. Was infectious syphilis being misclassified in remote Australian outbreaks? Evidence that informed modification of the national case definition.

    PubMed

    Preston-Thomas, Annie; Ryder, Nathan; Harmen, Sonia; Fagan, Patricia

    2015-12-31

    To assess the ability of the national case definition to identify infectious syphilis during an outbreak affecting predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in a remote Australian region. A retrospective case series study of all non-congenital syphilis cases in the region notified between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 was performed. The national infectious syphilis case definition was compared with an expanded case definition derived from experienced clinician assessment and the definition proposed in the Interim Guidelines for the Public Health Management of Syphilis Outbreaks in Remote Populations in Australia from the Communicable Diseases Network Australia (CDNA). Two hundred and forty syphilis cases were notified, of which 44 (18.3%) were symptomatic. The national case definition classified 106 (44.2%) cases as infectious, compared with 182 (75.8%) using the clinician-derived expanded case definition and 165 (68.8%) by the interim guidelines case definition. Seven confirmed and 6 probable cases were diagnosed as a result of contact tracing of probable infectious cases identified using the expanded case definition. The national case definition for infectious syphilis applied in this remote Australian outbreak underestimated infectious cases when compared with experienced clinicians' evaluation by up to 76 cases (42%) and was inadequate to monitor the magnitude of a syphilis outbreak in such a setting. This may compromise surveillance and resource allocation decisions, and could reduce the capacity to interrupt transmission and contain an outbreak. A revised national case definition, informed by this analysis, was released by CDNA in July 2015.

  18. Comparison of severe acute respiratory illness (sari) and clinical pneumonia case definitions for the detection of influenza virus infections among hospitalized patients, western Kenya, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Makokha, Caroline; Mott, Joshua; Njuguna, Henry N; Khagayi, Sammy; Verani, Jennifer R; Nyawanda, Bryan; Otieno, Nancy; Katz, Mark A

    2016-07-01

    Although the severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) case definition is increasingly used for inpatient influenza surveillance, pneumonia is a more familiar term to clinicians and policymakers. We evaluated WHO case definitions for severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) and pneumonia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) for children aged <5 years and Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illnesses (IMAI) for patients aged ≥13 years) for detecting laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized ARI patients. Sensitivities were 84% for SARI and 69% for IMCI pneumonia in children aged <5 years and 60% for SARI and 57% for IMAI pneumonia in patients aged ≥13 years. Clinical pneumonia case definitions may be a useful complement to SARI for inpatient influenza surveillance. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    DOE PAGES

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; ...

    2016-07-08

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  20. Novel use of flu surveillance data: Evaluating potential of sentinel populations for early detection of influenza outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Daughton, Ashlynn R.; Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we comparemore » pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. In conclusion, this study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results.« less

  1. Novel Use of Flu Surveillance Data: Evaluating Potential of Sentinel Populations for Early Detection of Influenza Outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Velappan, Nileena; Abeyta, Esteban; Priedhorsky, Reid; Deshpande, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Influenza causes significant morbidity and mortality each year, with 2–8% of weekly outpatient visits around the United States for influenza-like-illness (ILI) during the peak of the season. Effective use of existing flu surveillance data allows officials to understand and predict current flu outbreaks and can contribute to reductions in influenza morbidity and mortality. Previous work used the 2009–2010 influenza season to investigate the possibility of using existing military and civilian surveillance systems to improve early detection of flu outbreaks. Results suggested that civilian surveillance could help predict outbreak trajectory in local military installations. To further test that hypothesis, we compare pairs of civilian and military outbreaks in seven locations between 2000 and 2013. We find no predictive relationship between outbreak peaks or time series of paired outbreaks. This larger study does not find evidence to support the hypothesis that civilian data can be used as sentinel surveillance for military installations. We additionally investigate the effect of modifying the ILI case definition between the standard Department of Defense definition, a more specific definition proposed in literature, and confirmed Influenza A. We find that case definition heavily impacts results. This study thus highlights the importance of careful selection of case definition, and appropriate consideration of case definition in the interpretation of results. PMID:27391232

  2. Evaluation of an expanded case definition for vaccine-modified measles in a school outbreak in South Korea in 2010.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Hu, Jae Kyung; Song, Kyung Min; Cho, Heeyeon; Yoon, Hee Sook; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Han Jung; Kim, Kisoon; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have described the clinical characteristics of vaccine-modified measles to assess the performance of an expanded case definition in a school outbreak that occurred in 2010. The sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values were evaluated. Among 74 cases of vaccine-modified measles, 47 (64%) met the original case definition. Fever and rash were observed in 73% (54/74); fever was the most common (96%, 71/74) presenting symptom, and rash was noted in 77% (57/74) of the cases. The original case definition showed an overall sensitivity of 63.5% and a specificity of 100.0%. The expanded case definition combining fever and rash showed a higher sensitivity (72.9%) but a lower specificity (88.2%) than the original. The presence of fever and one or more of cough, coryza, or conjunctivitis scored the highest sensitivity among the combinations of signs and symptoms (77.0%), but scored the lowest specificity (52.9%). The expanded case definition was sensitive in identifying suspected cases of vaccine-modified measles. We suggest using this expanded definition for outbreak investigation in a closed community, and consider further discussions on expanding the case definition of measles for routine surveillance in South Korea.

  3. Identifying newly acquired cases of hepatitis C using surveillance: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sacks-Davis, R; VAN Gemert, C; Bergeri, I; Stoove, M; Hellard, M

    2012-11-01

    Surveillance of newly acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is crucial for understanding the epidemiology of HCV and informing public health practice. However, monitoring such infections via surveillance systems is challenging because they are commonly asymptomatic. A literature review was conducted to identify methodologies used by HCV surveillance systems to identify newly acquired infections; relevant surveillance systems in 15 countries were identified. Surveillance systems used three main strategies to identify newly acquired infections: (1) asking physicians to classify cases; (2) identifying symptomatic cases or cases with elevated alanine aminotransferases; and (3) identifying cases with documented evidence of anti-HCV antibody seroconversion within a specific time-frame. Case-ascertainment methods varied with greater completeness of data in enhanced compared to passive surveillance systems. Automated systems that extract and link testing data from multiple laboratory and clinic databases may provide an opportunity for collecting testing histories for individuals that is less resource intensive than enhanced surveillance.

  4. Integrated cluster- and case-based surveillance for detecting stage III zoonotic pathogens: an example of Nipah virus surveillance in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naser, A M; Hossain, M J; Sazzad, H M S; Homaira, N; Gurley, E S; Podder, G; Afroj, S; Banu, S; Rollin, P E; Daszak, P; Ahmed, B-N; Rahman, M; Luby, S P

    2015-07-01

    This paper explores the utility of cluster- and case-based surveillance established in government hospitals in Bangladesh to detect Nipah virus, a stage III zoonotic pathogen. Physicians listed meningo-encephalitis cases in the 10 surveillance hospitals and identified a cluster when ⩾2 cases who lived within 30 min walking distance of one another developed symptoms within 3 weeks of each other. Physicians collected blood samples from the clustered cases. As part of case-based surveillance, blood was collected from all listed meningo-encephalitis cases in three hospitals during the Nipah season (January-March). An investigation team visited clustered cases' communities to collect epidemiological information and blood from the living cases. We tested serum using Nipah-specific IgM ELISA. Up to September 2011, in 5887 listed cases, we identified 62 clusters comprising 176 encephalitis cases. We collected blood from 127 of these cases. In 10 clusters, we identified a total of 62 Nipah cases: 18 laboratory-confirmed and 34 probable. We identified person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus in four clusters. From case-based surveillance, we identified 23 (4%) Nipah cases. Faced with thousands of encephalitis cases, integrated cluster surveillance allows targeted deployment of investigative resources to detect outbreaks by stage III zoonotic pathogens in resource-limited settings.

  5. Defining Polio: Closing the Gap in Global Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tajaldin, Bachir; Almilaji, Khaled; Langton, Paul; Sparrow, Annie

    2015-01-01

    By late 2012 the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) had nearly eradicated this ancient infectious disease. Successful surveillance programs for acute flaccid paralysis however rely on broad governmental support for implementation. With the onset of conflict, public health breakdown has contributed to the resurgence of polio in a number of regions. The current laboratory based case definition may be a contributory factor in these regions. We sought to compare case definition rates using strict laboratory based criteria to rates obtained using the clinical criteria in modern day Syria. We also sought to examine this distribution of cases by sub-region. We examined the World Health Organization (WHO) reported figures for Syria from 2013-2014 using laboratory based criteria. We compared these with cases obtained when clinical criteria were applied. In addition we sought data from the opposition controlled Assistance Coordination Unit which operates in non-Government controlled areas where WHO data maybe incomplete. Cases were carefully examined for potential overlap to avoid double reporting. Whilst the WHO data clearly confirmed the polio outbreak in Syria, it did so with considerable delay and with under reporting of cases, particularly from non-government controlled areas. In addition, laboratory based case definition led to a substantial underestimate of polio (36 cases) compared with those found with the clinically compatible definition (an additional 46 cases). Rates of adequate diagnostic specimens from suspected cases are well below target, no doubt reflecting the effect of conflict in these areas. We have identified a gap in the surveillance of polio, a global threat. The current laboratory based definition, in the setting of conflict and insecurity, leads to under diagnosis of polio with potential delays and inadequacies in coordinating effective responses to contain outbreaks and eradicate polio. Breakdown in public health measures as a contributing

  6. Evaluation of a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsia Public Health Surveillance System in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Fill, Mary-Margaret A; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Bloch, Karen C; Dunn, John R; Schaffner, William; Jones, Timothy F

    2017-09-01

    Spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are endemic in Tennessee, with ∼2,500 cases reported during 2000-2012. Because of this substantial burden of disease, we performed a three-part evaluation of Tennessee's routine surveillance for SFG rickettsioses cases and deaths to assess the system's effectiveness. Tennessee Department of Health (TDH) SFG rickettsioses surveillance records were matched to three patient series: 1) patients with positive serologic specimens from a commercial reference laboratory during 2010-2011, 2) tertiary medical center patients with positive serologic tests during 2007-2013, and 3) patients identified from death certificates issued during 1995-2014 with SFG rickettsiosis-related causes of death. Chart reviews were performed and patients were classified according to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' case definition. Of 254 SFG Rickettsia -positive serologic specimens from the reference laboratory, 129 (51%) met the case definition for confirmed or probable cases of rickettsial disease after chart review. The sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 45%. Of the 98 confirmed or probable cases identified from the medical center, the sensitivity of the TDH surveillance system to detect cases was 34%. Of 27 patients identified by death certificates, 12 (44%) were classified as confirmed or probable cases; four (33%) were reported to TDH, but none were correctly identified as deceased. Cases of SFG rickettsioses were underreported and fatalities not correctly identified. Efforts are needed to improve SFG rickettsiosis surveillance in Tennessee.

  7. Validation of two case definitions to identify pressure ulcers using hospital administrative data

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chester; Jiang, Jason; Eastwood, Cathy A; Wong, Holly; Weaver, Brittany; Quan, Hude

    2017-01-01

    Objective Pressure ulcer development is a quality of care indicator, as pressure ulcers are potentially preventable. Yet pressure ulcer is a leading cause of morbidity, discomfort and additional healthcare costs for inpatients. Methods are lacking for accurate surveillance of pressure ulcer in hospitals to track occurrences and evaluate care improvement strategies. The main study aim was to validate hospital discharge abstract database (DAD) in recording pressure ulcers against nursing consult reports, and to calculate prevalence of pressure ulcers in Alberta, Canada in DAD. We hypothesised that a more inclusive case definition for pressure ulcers would enhance validity of cases identified in administrative data for research and quality improvement purposes. Setting A cohort of patients with pressure ulcers were identified from enterostomal (ET) nursing consult documents at a large university hospital in 2011. Participants There were 1217 patients with pressure ulcers in ET nursing documentation that were linked to a corresponding record in DAD to validate DAD for correct and accurate identification of pressure ulcer occurrence, using two case definitions for pressure ulcer. Results Using pressure ulcer definition 1 (7 codes), prevalence was 1.4%, and using definition 2 (29 codes), prevalence was 4.2% after adjusting for misclassifications. The results were lower than expected. Definition 1 sensitivity was 27.7% and specificity was 98.8%, while definition 2 sensitivity was 32.8% and specificity was 95.9%. Pressure ulcer in both DAD and ET consultation increased with age, number of comorbidities and length of stay. Conclusion DAD underestimate pressure ulcer prevalence. Since various codes are used to record pressure ulcers in DAD, the case definition with more codes captures more pressure ulcer cases, and may be useful for monitoring facility trends. However, low sensitivity suggests that this data source may not be accurate for determining overall prevalence, and

  8. Epidemic cholera in Latin America, 1991-1993: implications of case definitions used for public health surveillance.

    PubMed

    Koo, D; Traverso, H; Libel, M; Drasbek, C; Tauxe, R; Brandling-Bennett, D

    1996-06-01

    This report presents the various cholera case definitions used by the affected countries of Latin America, shows the numbers of cholera cases and deaths attributable to cholera (as reported by Latin American countries to PAHO through 1993), and describes some regional trends in cholera incidence. The information about how cholera cases were defined was obtained from an October 1993 PAHO questionnaire. In all, 948429 cholera cases were reported to PAHO by affected Latin American countries from January 1991 through December 1993, the highest annual incidences being registered in Peru (1991 and 1992) and Guatemala (1993). The case-fatality rate over the three-year period, and also in 1993, was 0.8%. A general downward trend in the incidence of cholera was observed in most South American countries, while the incidence increased in most Central American countries. A good deal of variation was noted in the definitions used for reporting cholera cases, hospitalized cholera cases, and cholera-attributable deaths. Because of these variations, broad intercountry comparisons (including disease burden calculations and care quality assessments based on case-fatality rates) are difficult to make, and even reported trends within a single country need to be evaluated with care. The situation is likely to be complicated in the future by the arrival of V. cholerae O139 in Latin America, creating a need to distinguish between it and the prevailing O1 strain. For purposes of simplicity, wide acceptance, and broad dissemination of case data, the following definitions are recommended: Confirmed case of O1 cholera: laboratory-confirmed infection with toxigenic V. cholerae O1 in any person who has diarrhea. Confirmed case of O139 cholera: laboratory-confirmed infection with toxigenic V. cholerae O139 in any person who has diarrhea. Clinical case of cholera: acute watery diarrhea in a person over 5 years old who is seeking treatment. Death attributable to cholera: death within one week of

  9. Status of global virologic surveillance for rubella viruses.

    PubMed

    Abernathy, Emily S; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Jin, Li; Brown, David; Komase, Katsuhiro; Mori, Yoshio; Xu, Wenbo; Zhu, Zhen; Siqueira, Marilda M; Shulga, Sergey; Tikhonova, Nina; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Incomserb, Patcha; Smit, Sheilagh B; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bwogi, Josephine; Lim, Wilina W L; Woo, Gibson K S; Triki, Hinda; Jee, Youngmee; Mulders, Mick N; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Ahmed, Hinda; Ramamurty, Nalini; Featherstone, David; Icenogle, Joseph P

    2011-07-01

    The suspected measles case definition captures rubella cases. Therefore, measles surveillance will be improved in the course of the control and eventual elimination of rubella transmission. One aspect of rubella control, virologic surveillance, is reviewed here. A systematic nomenclature for rubella viruses (RVs) based on 13 genotypes has been established and is updated when warranted by increases in information about RVs. From 2005 through 2010, the genotypes of RVs most frequently reported were 1E, 1G, and 2B, and genotypes 1a, 1B, 1C, 1h, 1j, and 2C were less frequently reported. Virologic surveillance can support rubella control and elimination. Synopses of rubella virologic surveillance in various countries, regions, and globally are given, including characterization of viruses from imported cases in a country that has eliminated rubella and studies of endemic viruses circulating in countries without rubella control objectives. Current challenges are discussed. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  10. Use of diagnosis codes for detection of clinically significant opioid poisoning in the emergency department: A retrospective analysis of a surveillance case definition.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Joseph M; Harmon, Katherine J; Schult, Genevieve C; Staton, Catherine A; Waller, Anna E

    2016-02-08

    Although fatal opioid poisonings tripled from 1999 to 2008, data describing nonfatal poisonings are rare. Public health authorities are in need of tools to track opioid poisonings in near real time. We determined the utility of ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes for identifying clinically significant opioid poisonings in a state-wide emergency department (ED) surveillance system. We sampled visits from four hospitals from July 2009 to June 2012 with diagnosis codes of 965.00, 965.01, 965.02 and 965.09 (poisoning by opiates and related narcotics) and/or an external cause of injury code of E850.0-E850.2 (accidental poisoning by opiates and related narcotics), and developed a novel case definition to determine in which cases opioid poisoning prompted the ED visit. We calculated the percentage of visits coded for opioid poisoning that were clinically significant and compared it to the percentage of visits coded for poisoning by non-opioid agents in which there was actually poisoning by an opioid agent. We created a multivariate regression model to determine if other collected triage data can improve the positive predictive value of diagnosis codes alone for detecting clinically significant opioid poisoning. 70.1 % of visits (Standard Error 2.4 %) coded for opioid poisoning were primarily prompted by opioid poisoning. The remainder of visits represented opioid exposure in the setting of other primary diseases. Among non-opioid poisoning codes reviewed, up to 36 % were reclassified as an opioid poisoning. In multivariate analysis, only naloxone use improved the positive predictive value of ICD-9-CM codes for identifying clinically significant opioid poisoning, but was associated with a high false negative rate. This surveillance mechanism identifies many clinically significant opioid overdoses with a high positive predictive value. With further validation, it may help target control measures such as prescriber education and pharmacy monitoring.

  11. Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H; Murphy, A; Leong, W; Leydon, J; Tresise, P; Gerrard, M; Chibo, D; Birch, C; Andrews, R; Catton, M

    2000-12-01

    Laboratory-supported influenza surveillance is important as part of pandemic preparedness, for identifying and isolating candidate vaccine strains, for supporting trials of anti-influenza drugs and for refining the influenza surveillance case definition in practice. This study describes the implementation of laboratory-supported influenza surveillance in Victorian sentinel general practices and provides an estimate of the proportion of patients with an influenza-like illness proven to have influenza. During 1998 and 1999, 25 sentinel general practices contributed clinical surveillance data and 16 metropolitan practices participated in laboratory surveillance. Serological, virus-antigen detection, virus culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction procedures were used to establish the diagnosis of influenza. Two laboratories at major teaching hospitals in Melbourne provided additional data on influenza virus identification. General practice sentinel surveillance and laboratory identification of influenza provided similar data on the pattern of influenza in the community between May and September. The clinical suspicion of influenza was confirmed in 49 to 54 per cent of cases seen in general practice.

  12. Potential Misclassification of Urinary Tract-Related Bacteremia Upon Applying the 2015 Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection Surveillance Definition From the National Healthcare Safety Network.

    PubMed

    Greene, M Todd; Ratz, David; Meddings, Jennifer; Fakih, Mohamad G; Saint, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated the surveillance definition of catheter-associated urinary tract infection to include only urine culture bacteria of at least 1 × 10(5) colony-forming units/mL. Our findings suggest that the new surveillance definition may fail to capture clinically meaningful catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

  13. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  14. Evaluation of the novel respiratory virus surveillance program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS).

    PubMed

    Armour, Patricia A; Nguyen, Linh M; Lutman, Michelle L; Middaugh, John P

    2013-01-01

    Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable.

  15. An Ontology to Improve Transparency in Case Definition and Increase Case Finding of Infectious Intestinal Disease: Database Study in English General Practice

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as “diarrheal disease” and “acute infectious gastroenteritis” are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. Objective This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding. Methods We compared three IID case definitions: (1) Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) definition based on mapping to the Ninth International Classification of Disease (ICD-9), (2) newer ICD-10 definition, and (3) ontological case definition. We calculated incidence rates and examined the contribution of four supporting concepts related to IID: symptoms, investigations, process of care (eg, notification to public health authorities), and therapies. We created a formal ontology using ontology Web language. Results The ontological approach identified 5712 more cases of IID than the ICD-10 definition and 4482 more than the RCGP RSC definition from an initial cohort of 1,120,490. Weekly incidence using the ontological definition was 17.93/100,000 (95% CI 15.63-20.41), whereas for the ICD-10 definition the rate was 8.13/100,000 (95% CI 6.70-9.87), and for the RSC definition the rate was 10.24/100,000 (95% CI 8.55-12.12). Codes from the four supporting concepts were generally consistent across our three IID case definitions: 37.38% (3905/10,448) (95% CI 36.16-38.5) for the ontological definition, 38.33% (2287/5966) (95% CI 36.79-39.93) for the RSC definition, and 40.82% (1933/4736) (95% CI 39.03-42.66) for the ICD-10 definition. The proportion of

  16. Surveillance of congenital rubella and rubella infections in pregnancy in EU/EEA countries, 2012: Current status and future perspective to monitor elimination.

    PubMed

    Giambi, C; Montaño-Remacha, C; Celentano, L Pastore; Derrough, T

    2015-09-11

    Rubella elimination and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) prevention are targets for achievement by 2015 in the WHO-EURO Region. This paper describes the existing surveillance systems for CRS and rubella in pregnancy in order to critically interpret the findings in relation to the 2012 WHO-EURO surveillance guidelines. In 2012 we conducted a survey to collect information on surveillance of CRS and rubella in pregnancy in 29 EU/EEA countries. Questionnaires explored the characteristics of the surveillance systems, case definition, epidemiological investigation and follow-up of cases, reference laboratories and types of tests performed. Twenty-eight countries had surveillance systems for CRS, mostly nationwide, mandatory, passive and case-based; 23 collected information on the origin of the infection; 11 reported asymptomatic infections; 6 required zero-reporting. Case definitions varied among countries, although 24 used the EU definition. Laboratories reported cases in 18 countries. Twenty countries collected information on pregnancy within the rubella surveillance system and 5 had specific surveillance for rubella in pregnancy. Two countries did not monitor outcomes of suspected infections in pregnancy; infants with CRS were monitored in all the remaining countries; asymptomatic infected infants in 15; stillbirths and fetal deaths in 13; therapeutic and spontaneous abortions in 8 and 7. Twenty-seven countries had a national reference laboratory for CRS and rubella in pregnancy; genotyping was performed in 15. The current surveillance systems allow adequate CRS monitoring in EU. Further efforts are needed to improve their quality, including uniform case definitions, collection of information on the origin of infection, and promotion of reporting from laboratories. Follow-up of pregnant women with suspected infection should be strengthened because it is an entry point for CRS, including detection of fetal deaths, stillbirths and abortions. Laboratory capacity for

  17. Healthcare-associated infection surveillance and bedside alerts.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Berger, Angelika; Koller, Walter; Blacky, Alexander; Mandl, Harald; Unterasinger, Lukas; Rappelsberger, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Expectations and requirements concerning the identification and surveillance of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are increasing, calling for differentiated automated approaches. In an attempt to bridge the "definition swamp" of these infections and serve the needs of different users, we improved the monitoring of nosocomial infections (MONI) software to create better surveillance reports according to consented national and international definitions, as well as produce infection overviews on complex clinical matters including alerts for the clinician's ward and bedside work. MONI contains and processes surveillance definitions for intensive-care-unit-acquired infections from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, Sweden, as well as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA. The latest release of MONI also includes KISS criteria of the German National Reference Center for Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections. In addition to these "classic" surveillance criteria, clinical alert criteria--which are similar but not identical to the surveillance criteria--were established together with intensivists. This is an important step to support both infection control and clinical personnel; and--last but not least--to foster co-evolution of the two groups of definitions: surveillance and alerts.

  18. Importance of Enhanced Surveillance for Prevention of Pertussis in Children.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Angela; Godoy, Pere; Toledo, Diana; Soldevila, Núria; García-Cenoz, Manuel; Farrús, Gloria; Crespo, Inma; Caylà, Joan A; Sala, Maria Rosa; Camps, Neus; Barrabeig, Irene; Alvarez, Josep

    2015-07-01

    Bordetella pertussis infection causes considerable morbidity, even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Surveillance of pertussis is usually passive and based on mandatory reporting. We assessed the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of pertussis cases detected by passive or enhanced surveillance. A prospective population-based study was carried out from January 2012 to December 2013 in Catalonia and Navarre, 2 Spanish regions with a total population of 8.2 million. For each confirmed case, variables of age, sex, clinical symptoms, laboratory results and vaccination status were investigated. Associations between the variables studied and the type of surveillance were assessed by odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted OR (aOR). In children <18 years of age, passive surveillance was the most important source of detection (95.7% in <1 year). In children 5-10 years of age, passive surveillance detected 67.5% of cases. In those ≥18 years, enhanced surveillance was the most frequent source of case detection (82.5%). Inspiratory whoop (aOR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.40-2.70), apnea (aOR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.28-2.87) and posttussive vomiting (aOR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.04-1.96) were symptoms included in the clinical case definition that were associated with passive surveillance. Underreporting of symptomatic cases is important not only in adults, but also in children >1 year of age and suggests that providing clinics with free, fast laboratory diagnostic tests, together with enhanced surveillance of family contacts of any age is necessary to better determine existing cases. Enhanced surveillance may be helpful to better understand transmission patterns in the family and in the community.

  19. Systematic review of validated case definitions for diabetes in ICD-9-coded and ICD-10-coded data in adult populations.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Bushra; Jette, Nathalie; Metcalfe, Amy; Cunningham, Ceara Tess; Quan, Hude; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Butalia, Sonia; Rabi, Doreen

    2016-08-05

    With steady increases in 'big data' and data analytics over the past two decades, administrative health databases have become more accessible and are now used regularly for diabetes surveillance. The objective of this study is to systematically review validated International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-based case definitions for diabetes in the adult population. Electronic databases, MEDLINE and Embase, were searched for validation studies where an administrative case definition (using ICD codes) for diabetes in adults was validated against a reference and statistical measures of the performance reported. The search yielded 2895 abstracts, and of the 193 potentially relevant studies, 16 met criteria. Diabetes definition for adults varied by data source, including physician claims (sensitivity ranged from 26.9% to 97%, specificity ranged from 94.3% to 99.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) ranged from 71.4% to 96.2%, negative predictive value (NPV) ranged from 95% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.8 to 0.9), hospital discharge data (sensitivity ranged from 59.1% to 92.6%, specificity ranged from 95.5% to 99%, PPV ranged from 62.5% to 96%, NPV ranged from 90.8% to 99% and κ ranged from 0.6 to 0.9) and a combination of both (sensitivity ranged from 57% to 95.6%, specificity ranged from 88% to 98.5%, PPV ranged from 54% to 80%, NPV ranged from 98% to 99.6% and κ ranged from 0.7 to 0.8). Overall, administrative health databases are useful for undertaking diabetes surveillance, but an awareness of the variation in performance being affected by case definition is essential. The performance characteristics of these case definitions depend on the variations in the definition of primary diagnosis in ICD-coded discharge data and/or the methodology adopted by the healthcare facility to extract information from patient records. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. Fatal adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs detected by all-case post-marketing surveillance in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miura, Yuji; Kami, Masahiro

    2015-06-01

    All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs is usually conducted on all patients in Japan. The present study investigates whether all-case post-marketing surveillance identifies fatal adverse drug reactions undetected before market entry. We examined fatal adverse drug reactions identified via all-case post-marketing surveillance by reviewing the disclosed post-marketing surveillance results, and determined the time points in which the fatal adverse drug reactions were initially reported by reviewing drug labels. We additionally scanned emergency alerts on the Japanese regulatory authority website to assess the relationship between all-case post-marketing surveillance and regulatory action. Twenty-five all-case post-marketing surveillances were performed between January 1999 and December 2009. Eight all-case post-marketing surveillances with final results included information on all fatal cases. Of these, the median number of patients was 1287 (range: 106-4998), the median number of fatal adverse drug reactions was 14.5 (range: 4-23). Of the 111 fatal adverse drug reactions detected in the eight post-marketing surveillances, only 28 (25.0%) and 22 (19.6%) were described on the initial global and the initial Japanese drug label, respectively, and 58 (52.3%) fatal adverse drug reactions were first described in the all-case post-marketing surveillance reports. Despite this, the regulatory authority issued only four warning letters, and two of these were prompted by case reports from the all-case post-marketing surveillance. All-case post-marketing surveillance of newly approved anticancer drugs in Japan was useful for the rigorous compilation of non-specific adverse drug reactions, but it rarely detected clinically significant fatal adverse drug reactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An Ontology to Improve Transparency in Case Definition and Increase Case Finding of Infectious Intestinal Disease: Database Study in English General Practice.

    PubMed

    de Lusignan, Simon; Shinneman, Stacy; Yonova, Ivelina; van Vlymen, Jeremy; Elliot, Alex J; Bolton, Frederick; Smith, Gillian E; O'Brien, Sarah

    2017-09-28

    Infectious intestinal disease (IID) has considerable health impact; there are 2 billion cases worldwide resulting in 1 million deaths and 78.7 million disability-adjusted life years lost. Reported IID incidence rates vary and this is partly because terms such as "diarrheal disease" and "acute infectious gastroenteritis" are used interchangeably. Ontologies provide a method of transparently comparing case definitions and disease incidence rates. This study sought to show how differences in case definition in part account for variation in incidence estimates for IID and how an ontological approach provides greater transparency to IID case finding. We compared three IID case definitions: (1) Royal College of General Practitioners Research and Surveillance Centre (RCGP RSC) definition based on mapping to the Ninth International Classification of Disease (ICD-9), (2) newer ICD-10 definition, and (3) ontological case definition. We calculated incidence rates and examined the contribution of four supporting concepts related to IID: symptoms, investigations, process of care (eg, notification to public health authorities), and therapies. We created a formal ontology using ontology Web language. The ontological approach identified 5712 more cases of IID than the ICD-10 definition and 4482 more than the RCGP RSC definition from an initial cohort of 1,120,490. Weekly incidence using the ontological definition was 17.93/100,000 (95% CI 15.63-20.41), whereas for the ICD-10 definition the rate was 8.13/100,000 (95% CI 6.70-9.87), and for the RSC definition the rate was 10.24/100,000 (95% CI 8.55-12.12). Codes from the four supporting concepts were generally consistent across our three IID case definitions: 37.38% (3905/10,448) (95% CI 36.16-38.5) for the ontological definition, 38.33% (2287/5966) (95% CI 36.79-39.93) for the RSC definition, and 40.82% (1933/4736) (95% CI 39.03-42.66) for the ICD-10 definition. The proportion of laboratory results associated with a positive test

  2. Evaluation of the Novel Respiratory Virus Surveillance Program: Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS)

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Linh M.; Lutman, Michelle L.; Middaugh, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Infections caused by respiratory viruses are associated with recurrent epidemics and widespread morbidity and mortality. Routine surveillance of these pathogens is necessary to determine virus activity, monitor for changes in circulating strains, and plan for public health preparedness. The Southern Nevada Health District in Las Vegas, Nevada, recruited five pediatric medical practices to serve as sentinel sites for the Pediatric Early Warning Sentinel Surveillance (PEWSS) program. Methods Sentinel staff collected specimens throughout the year from ill children who met the influenza-like illness case definition and submitted specimens to the Southern Nevada Public Health Laboratory for molecular testing for influenza and six non-influenza viruses. Results Laboratory results were analyzed and reported to the medical and general communities in weekly bulletins year-round. PEWSS data were also used to establish viral respiratory seasonal baselines and in influenza vaccination campaigns. The surveillance program was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems. PEWSS met three of six program usefulness criteria and seven of nine surveillance system attributes, which exceeded the CDC Guidelines evaluation criteria for a useful and complete public health surveillance program. Conclusion We found that PEWSS is a useful and complete public health surveillance system that is simple, flexible, accessible, and stable. PMID:23997308

  3. [Poliomyelitis case surveillance data management in Burkina Faso].

    PubMed

    Drabo, Koiné Maxime; Nana, Félicité; Kouassi, Kouassi Lazare; Konfé, Salifou; Hien, Hervé; Saizonou, Jacques; Ouedraogo, Tinoaga Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The global initiative for poliomyelitis eradication can only remain relevant if survey systems are regularly assessed. In order to identify shortcomings and to propose improvement, the data collection and transmission during case investigation were assessed in the Banfora health district in Burkina Faso. The survey targeted six (6) primary health centres, the district laboratory and the national laboratory, all involved in the poliomyelitis surveillance system. Data from registers, forms documenting suspected cases, stool sample forms and weekly reports were collected by means of a data grid. Data from actors involved in the poliomyelitis case investigation system were collected by means of an individual questionnaire. The reactivity of investigating suspected cases was satisfactory with a median alert questionnaire notification time of 18 hours. The completeness of the reporting system was satisfactory. Nevertheless, the promptness of data management by primary heath centres and the national laboratory remained unsatisfactory. Evaluation of data management revealed logistic and organization shortcomings. The overall efficacy of the poliomyelitis surveillance could be improved by using management tools for laboratory supplies, collecting data related to the homes of suspected cases and implementing a cold chain maintenance plan.

  4. Sensitivity, Specificity, and Public-Health Utility of Clinical Case Definitions Based on the Signs and Symptoms of Cholera in Africa.

    PubMed

    Nadri, Johara; Sauvageot, Delphine; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Baltazar, Cynthia S; Banla Kere, Abiba; Bwire, Godfrey; Coulibaly, Daouda; Kacou N'Douba, Adele; Kagirita, Atek; Keita, Sakoba; Koivogui, Lamine; Landoh, Dadja E; Langa, Jose P; Miwanda, Berthe N; Mutombo Ndongala, Guy; Mwakapeje, Elibariki R; Mwambeta, Jacob L; Mengel, Martin A; Gessner, Bradford D

    2018-04-01

    During 2014, Africa reported more than half of the global suspected cholera cases. Based on the data collected from seven countries in the African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol), we assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of clinical cholera case definitions, including that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) using culture confirmation as the gold standard. The study was designed to assess results in real-world field situations in settings with recent cholera outbreaks or endemicity. From June 2011 to July 2015, a total of 5,084 persons with suspected cholera were tested for Vibrio cholerae in seven different countries of which 35.7% had culture confirmation. For all countries combined, the WHO case definition had a sensitivity = 92.7%, specificity = 8.1%, positive predictive value = 36.1%, and negative predictive value = 66.6%. Adding dehydration, vomiting, or rice water stools to the case definition could increase the specificity without a substantial decrease in sensitivity. Future studies could further refine our findings primarily by using more sensitive methods for cholera confirmation.

  5. Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance inaugural annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Zurynski, Yvonne A; McRae, Jocelynne E; Quinn, Helen E; Wood, Nicholas J; Macartney, Kristine K

    2016-09-30

    The Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network is a hospital-based active surveillance system employing prospective case ascertainment of selected uncommon vaccine preventable diseases and potential adverse events following immunisation (AEFI). PAEDS enhances other Australian surveillance systems by providing prospective detailed clinical and laboratory data for the same child. Specialist surveillance nurses screen hospital admissions, emergency department records, laboratory and other data, to prospectively identify hospitalised children aged under 15 years in 5 paediatric tertiary referral hospitals in New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia and Queensland. Standardised protocols and case definitions are used across all sites. Conditions under surveillance include vaccine preventable diseases: acute flaccid paralysis, varicella, pandemic and seasonal influenza and pertussis, and potential AEFIs: febrile seizures and intussusception. PAEDS also conducts surveillance for acute childhood encephalitis. Since August 2007, PAEDS has recruited a total of 6,227 hospitalised cases in total, for all conditions. From January to December 2014, there were 1,220 cases recruited across all conditions. Key outcomes include: enhanced acute flaccid paralysis surveillance to reach World Health Organization targets; supporting varicella and influenza vaccination in children; confirmation of a known low risk of febrile seizures following the 1st dose of measles-mumps-rubella vaccine but no increased risk of febrile seizures after measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine, and a slightly increased risk of developing intussusception 1-7 days after rotavirus vaccination in infants aged less than 3 months. Acute childhood encephalitis data facilitated rapid investigation and response to the enterovirus 71 outbreak in 2013-2014. PAEDS provides unique policy-relevant data. This is the first of planned PAEDS annual reports to Communicable Diseases

  6. Developing a new national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Magill, Shelley S; Klompas, Michael; Balk, Robert; Burns, Suzanne M; Deutschman, Clifford S; Diekema, Daniel; Fridkin, Scott; Greene, Linda; Guh, Alice; Gutterman, David; Hammer, Beth; Henderson, David; Hess, Dean R; Hill, Nicholas S; Horan, Teresa; Kollef, Marin; Levy, Mitchell; Septimus, Edward; VanAntwerpen, Carole; Wright, Don; Lipsett, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    In September 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Surveillance Definition Working Group to organize a formal process for leaders and experts of key stakeholder organizations to discuss the challenges of VAP surveillance definitions and to propose new approaches to VAP surveillance in adult patients (Table 1). The charges to the Working Group were to (1) critically review a draft, streamlined VAP surveillance definition developed for use in adult patients; (2) suggest modifications to enhance the reliability and credibility of the surveillance definition within the critical care and infection prevention communities; and (3) propose a final adult surveillance definition algorithm to be implemented in the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN), taking into consideration the potential future use of the definition algorithm in public reporting, interfacility comparisons, and pay-for-reporting and pay-for-performance programs. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  7. Sensitivity of the Dengue Surveillance System in Brazil for Detecting Hospitalized Cases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the dengue surveillance system in detecting hospitalized cases in ten capital cities in Brazil from 2008 to 2013 using a probabilistic record linkage of two independent information systems hospitalization (SIH-SUS) adopted as the gold standard and surveillance (SINAN). Sensitivity was defined as the proportion of cases reported to the surveillance system amid the suspected hospitalized cases registered in SIH-SUS. Of the 48,174 hospitalizations registered in SIH-SUS, 24,469 (50.7%) were reported and registered in SINAN, indicating an overall sensitivity of 50.8% (95%CI 50.3–51.2). The observed sensitivity for each of the municipalities included in the study ranged from 22.0% to 99.1%. The combination of the two data sources identified 71,161 hospitalizations, an increase of 97.0% over SINAN itself. Our results allowed establishing the proportion of underreported dengue hospitalizations in the public health system in Brazil, highlighting the use of probabilistic record linkage as a valuable tool for evaluating surveillance systems. PMID:27192405

  8. Surveillance guidelines for disease elimination: A case study of canine rabies

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Sunny E.; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meslin, François X.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Haydon, Daniel T.; Hampson, Katie

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance is a critical component of disease control programmes but is often poorly resourced, particularly in developing countries lacking good infrastructure and especially for zoonoses which require combined veterinary and medical capacity and collaboration. Here we examine how successful control, and ultimately disease elimination, depends on effective surveillance. We estimated that detection probabilities of <0.1 are broadly typical of rabies surveillance in endemic countries and areas without a history of rabies. Using outbreak simulation techniques we investigated how the probability of detection affects outbreak spread, and outcomes of response strategies such as time to control an outbreak, probability of elimination, and the certainty of declaring freedom from disease. Assuming realistically poor surveillance (probability of detection <0.1), we show that proactive mass dog vaccination is much more effective at controlling rabies and no more costly than campaigns that vaccinate in response to case detection. Control through proactive vaccination followed by 2 years of continuous monitoring and vaccination should be sufficient to guarantee elimination from an isolated area not subject to repeat introductions. We recommend that rabies control programmes ought to be able to maintain surveillance levels that detect at least 5% (and ideally 10%) of all cases to improve their prospects of eliminating rabies, and this can be achieved through greater intersectoral collaboration. Our approach illustrates how surveillance is critical for the control and elimination of diseases such as canine rabies and can provide minimum surveillance requirements and technical guidance for elimination programmes under a broad-range of circumstances. PMID:23260376

  9. Surveillance guidelines for disease elimination: a case study of canine rabies.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Sunny E; Lembo, Tiziana; Cleaveland, Sarah; Meslin, François X; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Putra, Anak Agung Gde; Haydon, Daniel T; Hampson, Katie

    2013-05-01

    Surveillance is a critical component of disease control programmes but is often poorly resourced, particularly in developing countries lacking good infrastructure and especially for zoonoses which require combined veterinary and medical capacity and collaboration. Here we examine how successful control, and ultimately disease elimination, depends on effective surveillance. We estimated that detection probabilities of <0.1 are broadly typical of rabies surveillance in endemic countries and areas without a history of rabies. Using outbreak simulation techniques we investigated how the probability of detection affects outbreak spread, and outcomes of response strategies such as time to control an outbreak, probability of elimination, and the certainty of declaring freedom from disease. Assuming realistically poor surveillance (probability of detection <0.1), we show that proactive mass dog vaccination is much more effective at controlling rabies and no more costly than campaigns that vaccinate in response to case detection. Control through proactive vaccination followed by 2 years of continuous monitoring and vaccination should be sufficient to guarantee elimination from an isolated area not subject to repeat introductions. We recommend that rabies control programmes ought to be able to maintain surveillance levels that detect at least 5% (and ideally 10%) of all cases to improve their prospects of eliminating rabies, and this can be achieved through greater intersectoral collaboration. Our approach illustrates how surveillance is critical for the control and elimination of diseases such as canine rabies and can provide minimum surveillance requirements and technical guidance for elimination programmes under a broad-range of circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public health surveillance of fatal child maltreatment: analysis of 3 state programs.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Wirtz, Stephen J; Verhoek-Oftedahl, Wendy; Palusci, Vincent J

    2008-02-01

    We sought to describe approaches to surveillance of fatal child maltreatment and to identify options for improving case ascertainment. Three states--California, Michigan, and Rhode Island--used multiple data sources for surveillance. Potential cases were identified, operational definitions were applied, and the number of maltreatment deaths was determined. These programs identified 258 maltreatment deaths in California, 192 in Michigan, and 60 in Rhode Island. Corresponding maltreatment fatality rates ranged from 2.5 per 100,000 population in Michigan to 8.8 in Rhode Island. Most deaths were identified by child death review teams in Rhode Island (98%), Uniform Crime Reports in California (56%), and child welfare agency data in Michigan (44%). Compared with the total number of cases identified, child welfare agency (the official source for maltreatment reports) and death certificate data underascertain child maltreatment deaths by 55% to 76% and 80% to 90%, respectively. In all 3 states, more than 90% of cases ascertained could be identified by combining 2 data sources. No single data source was adequate for thorough surveillance of fatal child maltreatment, but combining just 2 sources substantially increased case ascertainment. The child death review team process may be the most promising surveillance approach.

  11. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the 21st Century: An Integrated Web-Based Surveillance and Case Management System

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Gillian; Cocoros, Noelle; Cranston, Kevin; DeMaria, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts Virtual Epidemiologic Network (MAVEN) was deployed in 2006 by the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, Bureau of Infectious Disease to serve as an integrated, Web-based disease surveillance and case management system. MAVEN replaced program-specific, siloed databases, which were inaccessible to local public health and unable to integrate electronic reporting. Disease events are automatically created without human intervention when a case or laboratory report is received and triaged in real time to state and local public health personnel. Events move through workflows for initial notification, case investigation, and case management. Initial development was completed within 12 months and recent state regulations mandate the use of MAVEN by all 351 jurisdictions. More than 300 local boards of health are using MAVEN, there are approximately one million events, and 70 laboratories report electronically. MAVEN has demonstrated responsiveness and flexibility to emerging diseases while also streamlining routine surveillance processes and improving timeliness of notifications and data completeness, although the long-term resource requirements are significant. PMID:24587547

  12. Objective Sepsis Surveillance Using Electronic Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Chanu; Kadri, Sameer; Huang, Susan S.; Murphy, Michael V.; Li, Lingling; Platt, Richard; Klompas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the accuracy of surveillance of severe sepsis using electronic health record clinical data vs claims and to compare incidence and mortality trends using both methods. DESIGN We created an electronic health record–based surveillance definition for severe sepsis using clinical indicators of infection (blood culture and antibiotic orders) and concurrent organ dysfunction (vasopressors, mechanical ventilation, and/or abnormal laboratory values). We reviewed 1,000 randomly selected medical charts to characterize the definition’s accuracy and stability over time compared with a claims-based definition requiring infection and organ dysfunction codes. We compared incidence and mortality trends from 2003–2012 using both methods. SETTING Two US academic hospitals. PATIENTS Adult inpatients. RESULTS The electronic health record–based clinical surveillance definition had stable and high sensitivity over time (77% in 2003–2009 vs 80% in 2012, P=.58) whereas the sensitivity of claims increased (52% in 2003–2009 vs 67% in 2012, P=.02). Positive predictive values for claims and clinical surveillance definitions were comparable (55% vs 53%, P=.65) and stable over time. From 2003 to 2012, severe sepsis incidence imputed from claims rose by 72% (95% CI, 57%–88%) and absolute mortality declined by 5.4% (95% CI, 4.6%–6.7%). In contrast, incidence using the clinical surveillance definition increased by 7.7% (95% CI, −1.1% to 17%) and mortality declined by 1.7% (95% CI, 1.1%–2.3%). CONCLUSIONS Sepsis surveillance using clinical data is more sensitive and more stable over time compared with claims and can be done electronically. This may enable more reliable estimates of sepsis burden and trends. PMID:26526737

  13. Locating People Diagnosed With HIV for Public Health Action: Utility of HIV Case Surveillance and Other Data Sources.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mabel; Mattson, Christine L; Scheer, Susan; Udeagu, Chi-Chi N; Buskin, Susan E; Hughes, Alison J; Jaenicke, Thomas; Wohl, Amy Rock; Prejean, Joseph; Wei, Stanley C

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) case surveillance and other health care databases are increasingly being used for public health action, which has the potential to optimize the health outcomes of people living with HIV (PLWH). However, often PLWH cannot be located based on the contact information available in these data sources. We assessed the accuracy of contact information for PLWH in HIV case surveillance and additional data sources and whether time since diagnosis was associated with accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance and successful contact. The Case Surveillance-Based Sampling (CSBS) project was a pilot HIV surveillance system that selected a random population-based sample of people diagnosed with HIV from HIV case surveillance registries in 5 state and metropolitan areas. From November 2012 through June 2014, CSBS staff members attempted to locate and interview 1800 sampled people and used 22 data sources to search for contact information. Among 1063 contacted PLWH, HIV case surveillance data provided accurate telephone number, address, or HIV care facility information for 239 (22%), 412 (39%), and 827 (78%) sampled people, respectively. CSBS staff members used additional data sources, such as support services and commercial people-search databases, to locate and contact PLWH with insufficient contact information in HIV case surveillance. PLWH diagnosed <1 year ago were more likely to have accurate contact information in HIV case surveillance than were PLWH diagnosed ≥1 year ago ( P = .002), and the benefit from using additional data sources was greater for PLWH with more longstanding HIV infection ( P < .001). When HIV case surveillance cannot provide accurate contact information, health departments can prioritize searching additional data sources, especially for people with more longstanding HIV infection.

  14. How reliable are national surveillance data? Findings from an audit of Canadian methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Leslie; Collet, Jun Chen; Mitchell, Robyn; Pelude, Linda; Henderson, Elizabeth; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Leduc, Stephanie; Ghahreman, Saeed; Weir, Christine; Gravel, Denise

    2012-03-01

    The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) has conducted surveillance for incident cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in sentinel hospitals since 1995. In 2007, a reliability audit of the 2005 data was conducted. In 2005, 5,652 cases were submitted to the CNISP from 43 hospitals. A proportional sample of submitted forms (up to 25) from each site were randomly selected. Stratified random sampling was used to obtain the comparison data. The original data were compared with the reabstracted data for congruence on 7 preselected variables. Reabstracted data were received from 30 out of 43 hospitals (70%), providing 443 of the 598 case forms requested (74%). Of these, 397 (90%) had matching case identification numbers. Overall, the percentage of discordant responses was 7.0%, ranging from 3.5% for sex and up to 23.7% for less well-defined variables (eg, where MRSA was acquired). Our findings suggest that, in general, the 2005 MRSA data are reliable. However to improve reliability a data quality framework with quality assurance practices, including ongoing auditing should be integrated into the CNISP's surveillance programs. Providing training to data collectors and standard definitions with practical examples may help to improve data quality, especially for those variables that require clinical judgment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Identifying hospital-onset Escherichia coli bacteraemia cases from English mandatory surveillance: the case for applying a two-day post-admission rule.

    PubMed

    Davies, J; Johnson, A P; Hope, R

    2017-11-01

    A national voluntary surveillance programme has shown year-on-year increases in the number of bacteraemias caused by Escherichia coli. Mandatory surveillance of E. coli bacteraemia was introduced in 2011 with the aim of improving the quantity and quality of data collected. In contrast to the other national mandatory surveillance programmes, cases are not currently categorized based upon time of onset in relation to hospital admission. To assess the case for applying time-of-onset categorization to cases of E. coli bacteraemia in England. Data for all cases of E. coli bacteraemia reported to Public Health England between April 2012 and March 2016 were extracted from the national mandatory surveillance database. Cases were categorized as hospital-onset if positive blood cultures were obtained two or more days after admission. Approximately 21% of cases were categorized as hospital-onset. However, the proportion of hospital-onset cases decreased by 1% in each successive 12-month period, from 23% in 2012/13 to 20% in 2015/16 (P<0.001). Approximately one-fifth of E. coli bacteraemia cases reported via mandatory surveillance were identified as hospital-onset. Given that prevention and control strategies will vary by setting, the routine feedback of this information will prove important in informing infection prevention and control efforts. The categorization of this subset of cases represents an important step towards better understanding of the epidemiology of E. coli bacteraemia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Testing a symptom-based surveillance system at high-profile gatherings as a preparatory measure for bioterrorism.

    PubMed

    Osaka, K; Takahashi, H; Ohyama, T

    2002-12-01

    We tested symptom-based surveillance during the G8 conference in 2000 as a means of detecting outbreaks, including bio-terrorism attacks, promptly. Five categories of symptoms (skin and haemorrhagic, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological and unexplained) were adopted for the case definition of the surveillance. The surveillance began I week before the conference, and continued until 1 week after the conference ended. We could not detect any outbreaks during this surveillance. Compared to the existing diagnosis-based surveillance system, symptom-based surveillance has the advantages of timeliness and simplicity. However, poor specificity and difficulties in determining epidemic threshold were important limitations of this system. To increase the specificity of surveillance, it is essential to incorporate rapid laboratory diagnoses into the system.

  17. Public Health Surveillance of Fatal Child Maltreatment: Analysis of 3 State Programs

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Covington, Theresa M.; Wirtz, Stephen J.; Verhoek-Oftedahl, Wendy; Palusci, Vincent J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to describe approaches to surveillance of fatal child maltreatment and to identify options for improving case ascertainment. Methods. Three states—California, Michigan, and Rhode Island—used multiple data sources for surveillance. Potential cases were identified, operational definitions were applied, and the number of maltreatment deaths was determined. Results. These programs identified 258 maltreatment deaths in California, 192 in Michigan, and 60 in Rhode Island. Corresponding maltreatment fatality rates ranged from 2.5 per 100000 population in Michigan to 8.8 in Rhode Island. Most deaths were identified by child death review teams in Rhode Island (98%), Uniform Crime Reports in California (56%), and child welfare agency data in Michigan (44%). Compared with the total number of cases identified, child welfare agency (the official source for maltreatment reports) and death certificate data underascertain child maltreatment deaths by 55% to 76% and 80% to 90%, respectively. In all 3 states, more than 90% of cases ascertained could be identified by combining 2 data sources. Conclusions. No single data source was adequate for thorough surveillance of fatal child maltreatment, but combining just 2 sources substantially increased case ascertainment. The child death review team process may be the most promising surveillance approach. PMID:17538060

  18. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Wendy W; Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Clinical condition-syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions.

  19. Contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in the Obala health district

    PubMed Central

    Vouking, Marius Zambou; Binde, Thierry; Tadenfok, Carine Nouboudem; Ekani, Jean Marie Edengue; Ekra, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The establishment of effective community-based surveillance is an essential objective of all disease surveillance systems. Several studies and reports have found that the situation is far from optimal in several developing countries such as Cameroon. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study to assess the contribution of community health workers to surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Obala health district. The performance of community health workers was measured using: the number of cases referred to the health center, the percentage of accomplished referrals, the percentage of cases referred by community health workers confirmed by the staff of health centers. A questionnaire containing forty-seven questions (open-ended and closed-ended) was used for interviews with community health workers. The data were analyzed using SPSS 21 and Excel 2007. Counts and percentages are reported. Results The study showed that the age ranged of community health workers was from 24 to 61 years with an average of 37.9 years ± 6.7 years. The most represented age group was between 40 and 50 with a percentage of 38.6%. The male sex was more represented than the female sex (61.4% vs 38.6%) or a sex ratio male man of 1.7. Forty-five percent of community health workers were selected at a village meeting, 93.1% of community health workers were involved in the surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and 87% experienced at least one preventable disease. Only 45.8% of them had the case definitions of the four diseases. Analysis of community health workers attendance at organized health committee meetings showed that 79% of community health workers attended at least one health committee meeting in 2015 and only 49% were monitored in 2015. Community health workers reported 42 suspected cases of measles, 37 of which actually went to the nearest Health Center, a baseline rate of 88%. Conclusion Community health workers play a key role in the control of

  20. Value of syndromic surveillance within the Armed Forces for early warning during a dengue fever outbreak in French Guiana in 2006

    PubMed Central

    Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Chaudet, Hervé; Texier, Gaetan; Ardillon, Vanessa; Ravachol, Françoise; Deparis, Xavier; Jefferson, Henry; Dussart, Philippe; Morvan, Jacques; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    Background A dengue fever outbreak occured in French Guiana in 2006. The objectives were to study the value of a syndromic surveillance system set up within the armed forces, compared to the traditional clinical surveillance system during this outbreak, to highlight issues involved in comparing military and civilian surveillance systems and to discuss the interest of syndromic surveillance for public health response. Methods Military syndromic surveillance allows the surveillance of suspected dengue fever cases among the 3,000 armed forces personnel. Within the same population, clinical surveillance uses several definition criteria for dengue fever cases, depending on the epidemiological situation. Civilian laboratory surveillance allows the surveillance of biologically confirmed cases, within the 200,000 inhabitants. Results It was shown that syndromic surveillance detected the dengue fever outbreak several weeks before clinical surveillance, allowing quick and effective enhancement of vector control within the armed forces. Syndromic surveillance was also found to have detected the outbreak before civilian laboratory surveillance. Conclusion Military syndromic surveillance allowed an early warning for this outbreak to be issued, enabling a quicker public health response by the armed forces. Civilian surveillance system has since introduced syndromic surveillance as part of its surveillance strategy. This should enable quicker public health responses in the future. PMID:18597694

  1. Development of a Gestational Age-Specific Case Definition for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Battersby, Cheryl; Longford, Nick; Costeloe, Kate; Modi, Neena

    2017-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preventive and therapeutic research, surveillance, and quality improvement initiatives are hindered by variations in case definitions. To develop a gestational age (GA)-specific case definition for NEC. We conducted a prospective 34-month population study using clinician-recorded findings from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between December 2011 and September 2014 across all 163 neonatal units in England. We split study data into model development and validation data sets and categorized GA into groups (group 1, less than 26 weeks' GA; group 2, 26 to less than 30 weeks' GA; group 3, 30 to less than 37 weeks' GA; group 4, 37 or more weeks' GA). We entered GA, birth weight z score, and clinical and abdominal radiography findings as candidate variables in a logistic regression model, performed model fitting 1000 times, averaged the predictions, and used estimates from the fitted model to develop an ordinal NEC score and cut points to develop a dichotomous case definition based on the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curves [AUCs] and positive predictive values [PPVs]. Abdominal radiography performed to investigate clinical concerns. Ordinal NEC likelihood score, dichotomous case definition, and GA-specific probability plots. Of the 3866 infants, the mean (SD) birth weight was 2049.1 (1941.7) g and mean (SD) GA was 32 (5) weeks; 2032 of 3663 (55.5%) were male. The total included 2978 infants (77.0%) without NEC and 888 (23.0%) with NEC. Infants with NEC in group 1 were less likely to present with pneumatosis (31.1% vs 47.2%; P = .01), blood in stool (11.8% vs 29.6%; P < .001), or mucus in stool (2.1% vs 5.6%; P = .048) but more likely to present with gasless abdominal radiography findings (6.3% vs 0.9%; P = .009) compared with infants with NEC in group 3. In the ordinal NEC score analysis, we allocated 3 points to pneumatosis, 2

  2. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  3. Case definition and classification of leukodystrophies and leukoencephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Vanderver, Adeline; Prust, Morgan; Tonduti, Davide; Mochel, Fanny; Hussey, Heather M; Helman, Guy; Garbern, James; Eichler, Florian; Labauge, Pierre; Aubourg, Patrick; Rodriguez, Diana; Patterson, Marc C; Van Hove, Johan L K; Schmidt, Johanna; Wolf, Nicole I; Boespflug-Tanguy, Odile; Schiffmann, Raphael; van der Knaap, Marjo S

    2015-04-01

    An approved definition of the term leukodystrophy does not currently exist. The lack of a precise case definition hampers efforts to study the epidemiology and the relevance of genetic white matter disorders to public health. Thirteen experts at multiple institutions participated in iterative consensus building surveys to achieve definition and classification of disorders as leukodystrophies using a modified Delphi approach. A case definition for the leukodystrophies was achieved, and a total of 30 disorders were classified under this definition. In addition, a separate set of disorders with heritable white matter abnormalities but not meeting criteria for leukodystrophy, due to presumed primary neuronal involvement and prominent systemic manifestations, was classified as genetic leukoencephalopathies (gLE). A case definition of leukodystrophies and classification of heritable white matter disorders will permit more detailed epidemiologic studies of these disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation of an outbreak of anemia cases at an Army trinitrotoluene munitions production plant from 2004 to 2005 and subsequent surveillance 2005-2013.

    PubMed

    Mallon, Timothy M; Ortiz, Jose M; Candler, William H; Rogers, Gregory; Hillburn, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Investigate an outbreak of anemia that occurred at an Army trinitrotoluene (TNT) munitions production facility in 2004-2005 and describe subsequent medical surveillance efforts between 2005 and 2013. A retrospective, cross-sectional investigation of anemia cases and exposure levels was conducted to target corrective engineering and administrative changes needed to reduce TNT levels and anemia cases. Mean TNT exposure levels decreased from 1.2 to 0.08 mg/m(3) between 2004 and 2012, but the trend was not statistically significant. Anemia cases rose from 17 to 38 between 2004 and 2011 and cases declined from 4 to 0 between 2012 and 2013. The overall trend in cases was not statistically significant. TNT levels rose at a munitions plant until ventilation changes reduced exposures. Despite this, anemia cases continued to rise until the commander held workers accountable for failing to wear PPE and motivated them to wear respirators to avoid a loss in pay. The case definition of anemia was revised to be consistent with the case definition used by private physicians who practiced in the community. Better coveralls are needed, which are easy to wear, reduce static discharge, and prevent TNT skin absorption. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  5. The Need for European Surveillance of CDI.

    PubMed

    Wiuff, Camilla; Banks, A-Lan; Fitzpatrick, Fidelma; Cottom, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Since the turn of the millennium, the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has continued to challenge. Over the last decade there has been a growing awareness that improvements to surveillance are needed. The increasing rate of CDI and emergence of ribotype 027 precipitated the implementation of mandatory national surveillance of CDI in the UK. Changes in clinical presentation, severity of disease, descriptions of new risk factors and the occurrence of outbreaks all emphasised the importance of early diagnosis and surveillance.However a lack of consensus on case definitions, clinical guidelines and optimal laboratory diagnostics across Europe has lead to the underestimation of CDI and impeded comparison between countries. These inconsistencies have prevented the true burden of disease from being appreciated.Acceptance that a multi-country surveillance programme and optimised diagnostic strategies are required not only to detect and control CDI in Europe, but for a better understanding of the epidemiology, has built the foundations for a more robust, unified surveillance. The concerted efforts of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) CDI networks, has lead to the development of an over-arching long-term CDI surveillance strategy for 2014-2020. Fulfilment of the ECDC priorities and targets will no doubt be challenging and will require significant investment however the hope is that both a national and Europe-wide picture of CDI will finally be realised.

  6. A computer case definition for sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cecilia P; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2010-06-01

    To facilitate studies of medications and sudden cardiac death, we developed and validated a computer case definition for these deaths. The study of community dwelling Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30-74 years of age utilized a linked database with Medicaid inpatient/outpatient files, state death certificate files, and a state 'all-payers' hospital discharge file. The computerized case definition was developed from a retrospective cohort study of sudden cardiac deaths occurring between 1990 and 1993. Medical records for 926 potential cases had been adjudicated for this study to determine if they met the clinical definition for sudden cardiac death occurring in the community and were likely to be due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The computerized case definition included deaths with (1) no evidence of a terminal hospital admission/nursing home stay in any of the data sources; (2) an underlying cause of death code consistent with sudden cardiac death; and (3) no terminal procedures inconsistent with unresuscitated cardiac arrest. This definition was validated in an independent sample of 174 adjudicated deaths occurring between 1994 and 2005. The positive predictive value of the computer case definition was 86.0% in the development sample and 86.8% in the validation sample. The positive predictive value did not vary materially for deaths coded according to the ICO-9 (1994-1998, positive predictive value = 85.1%) or ICD-10 (1999-2005, 87.4%) systems. A computerized Medicaid database, linked with death certificate files and a state hospital discharge database, can be used for a computer case definition of sudden cardiac death. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Outbreak bias in illness reporting and case confirmation in ciguatera fish poisoning surveillance in south Florida.

    PubMed

    Begier, Elizabeth M; Backer, Lorraine C; Weisman, Richard S; Hammond, Roberta M; Fleming, Lora E; Blythe, Donna

    2006-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by eating coral reef fish contaminated with ciguatoxins and is the most common marine poisoning. However, existing surveillance systems capture few cases. To improve regional ciguatera surveillance in South Florida, this study compared ciguatera illnesses in the Florida Poison Information Center-Miami (FPICM) call database to ciguatera cases in the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) disease surveillance systems. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify predictors of when FPICM reported ciguatera illnesses to FDOH and whether FDOH confirmed reported ciguatera cases. FPICM staff preferentially reported ciguatera illnesses that were of shorter duration (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.84 per additional illness day; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74, 0.97); outbreak-associated (AOR = 7.0; 95% CI 2.5, 19.5); and clinically more severe (AOR = 21.6; 95% CI 2.3, 198.5). Among ciguatera illnesses reported to FDOH, outbreak-associated illnesses were more likely than single, sporadic illnesses to become confirmed surveillance cases (crude OR = 11.1; 95% CI 2.0, 62.5). The over-representation of outbreak-associated ciguatera cases underestimates the true contribution of sporadic illnesses to ciguatera disease burden. This bias should be considered when evaluating surveillance systems that include both outbreak-associated and sporadic illness reports.

  8. Influenza-like illness surveillance on Twitter through automated learning of naïve language.

    PubMed

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems.

  9. Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance on Twitter through Automated Learning of Naïve Language

    PubMed Central

    Gesualdo, Francesco; Stilo, Giovanni; Agricola, Eleonora; Gonfiantini, Michaela V.; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Velardi, Paola; Tozzi, Alberto E.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter has the potential to be a timely and cost-effective source of data for syndromic surveillance. When speaking of an illness, Twitter users often report a combination of symptoms, rather than a suspected or final diagnosis, using naïve, everyday language. We developed a minimally trained algorithm that exploits the abundance of health-related web pages to identify all jargon expressions related to a specific technical term. We then translated an influenza case definition into a Boolean query, each symptom being described by a technical term and all related jargon expressions, as identified by the algorithm. Subsequently, we monitored all tweets that reported a combination of symptoms satisfying the case definition query. In order to geolocalize messages, we defined 3 localization strategies based on codes associated with each tweet. We found a high correlation coefficient between the trend of our influenza-positive tweets and ILI trends identified by US traditional surveillance systems. PMID:24324799

  10. Central line-associated bloodstream infections in adult hematology patients with febrile neutropenia: an evaluation of surveillance definitions using differential time to blood culture positivity.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Joshua T; Elinder-Camburn, Anna; McClymont, Catherine; Anderson, Deverick J; Bilkey, Mary; Williamson, Deborah A; Berkahn, Leanne; Roberts, Sally A

    2013-01-01

    We used differential time to positivity between central and peripheral blood cultures to evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of the National Healthcare Safety Network central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance definition among hematology patients with febrile neutropenia. The PPV was 27.7%, which suggests that, when the definition is applied to this population, CLABSI rates will be substantially overestimated.

  11. Surveillance for Q Fever Endocarditis in the United States, 1999-2015.

    PubMed

    Straily, Anne; Dahlgren, F Scott; Peterson, Amy; Paddock, Christopher D

    2017-11-13

    Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii. In some persons, particularly those with cardiac valve disease, infection with C. burnetii can cause a life-threatening infective endocarditis. There are few descriptive analyses of Q fever endocarditis in the United States. Q fever case report forms submitted during 1999-2015 were reviewed to identify reports describing endocarditis. Cases were categorized as confirmed or probable using criteria defined by the Council for State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE). Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were analyzed. Of 140 case report forms reporting endocarditis, 49 met the confirmed definition and 36 met the probable definition. Eighty-two percent were male and the median age was 57 years (range, 16-87 years). Sixty-seven patients (78.8%) were hospitalized, and 5 deaths (5.9%) were reported. Forty-five patients (52.9%) had a preexisting valvulopathy. Eight patients with endocarditis had phase I immunoglobulin G antibody titers >800 but did not meet the CSTE case definition for Q fever endocarditis. These data summarize a limited set of clinical and epidemiological features of Q fever endocarditis collected through passive surveillance in the United States. Some cases of apparent Q fever endocarditis could not be classified by CSTE laboratory criteria, suggesting that comparison of phase I and phase II titers could be reexamined as a surveillance criterion. Prospective analyses of culture-negative endocarditis are needed to better assess the clinical spectrum and magnitude of Q fever endocarditis in the United States. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Trichinellosis surveillance--United States, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nana O; Hall, Rebecca L; Montgomery, Susan P; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-16

    Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by nematodes in the genus Trichinella, which are among the most widespread zoonotic pathogens globally. Infection occurs following consumption of raw or undercooked meat infected with Trichinella larvae. Clinical manifestations of the disease range from asymptomatic infection to fatal disease; the common signs and symptoms include eosinophilia, fever, periorbital edema, and myalgia. Trichinellosis surveillance has documented a steady decline in the reported incidence of the disease in the United States. In recent years, proportionally fewer cases have been associated with consumption of commercial pork products, and more are associated with meat from wild game such as bear. 2008-2012. Trichinellosis has been a nationally notifiable disease in the United States since 1966 and is reportable in 48 states, New York City, and the District of Columbia. The purpose of national surveillance is to estimate incidence of infection, detect outbreaks, and guide prevention efforts. Cases are defined by clinical characteristics and the results of laboratory testing for evidence of Trichinella infection. Food exposure histories are obtained at the local level either at the point of care or through health department interview. States notify CDC of cases electronically through the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (available at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss). In addition, states are asked to submit a standardized supplementary case report form that captures the clinical and epidemiologic information needed to meet the surveillance case definition. Reported cases are summarized weekly and annually in MMWR. During 2008-2012, a total of 90 cases of trichinellosis were reported to CDC from 24 states and the District of Columbia. Six (7%) cases were excluded from analysis because a supplementary case report form was not submitted or the case did not meet the case definition. A total of 84 confirmed trichinellosis cases, including

  13. Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in China, September 2006-December 2009.

    PubMed

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S; Hadler, Stephen C; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W; Novak, Ryan T; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li; Luo, Huiming

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006-December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children <5 years of age. Laboratory testing confirmed bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children <5 years old. Active surveillance with laboratory confirmation has provided a population-based estimate of the number of probable bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country.

  14. The impact of alternative diagnoses on the utility of influenza-like illness case definition to detect the 2009 H1N1 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Rumoro, Dino P; Bayram, Jamil D; Silva, Julio C; Shah, Shital C; Hallock, Marilyn M; Gibbs, Gillian S; Waddell, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the impact of excluding cases with alternative diagnoses on the sensitivity and specificity of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) influenza-like illness (ILI) case definition in detecting the 2009 H1N1 influenza, using Geographic Utilization of Artificial Intelligence in Real-Time for Disease Identification and Alert Notification, a disease surveillance system. Retrospective cross-sectional study design. Emergency department of an urban tertiary care academic medical center. 1,233 ED cases, which were tested for respiratory viruses from September 5, 2009 to May 5, 2010. The main outcome measures were positive predictive value, negative predictive value, sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the ILI case definition (both including and excluding alternative diagnoses) to detect H1N1. There was a significant decrease in sensitivity (chi2 = 9.09, p < 0.001) and significant improvement in specificity (chi2 = 179, p < 0.001), after excluding cases with alternative diagnoses. When early detection of an influenza epidemic is of prime importance, pursuing alternative diagnoses as part of CDC's ILI case definition may not be warranted for public health reporting due to the significant decrease in sensitivity, in addition to the resources required for detecting these alternative diagnoses.

  15. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  16. Developing a new, national approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events*.

    PubMed

    Magill, Shelley S; Klompas, Michael; Balk, Robert; Burns, Suzanne M; Deutschman, Clifford S; Diekema, Daniel; Fridkin, Scott; Greene, Linda; Guh, Alice; Gutterman, David; Hammer, Beth; Henderson, David; Hess, Dean; Hill, Nicholas S; Horan, Teresa; Kollef, Marin; Levy, Mitchell; Septimus, Edward; VanAntwerpen, Carole; Wright, Don; Lipsett, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    To develop and implement an objective, reliable approach to surveillance for ventilator-associated events in adult patients. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened a Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) Surveillance Definition Working Group in September 2011. Working Group members included representatives of stakeholder societies and organizations and federal partners. The Working Group finalized a three-tier, adult surveillance definition algorithm for ventilator-associated events. The algorithm uses objective, readily available data elements and can identify a broad range of conditions and complications occurring in mechanically ventilated adult patients, including but not limited to VAP. The first tier definition, ventilator-associated condition (VAC), identifies patients with a period of sustained respiratory deterioration following a sustained period of stability or improvement on the ventilator, defined by changes in the daily minimum fraction of inspired oxygen or positive end-expiratory pressure. The second tier definition, infection-related ventilator-associated complication (IVAC), requires that patients with VAC also have an abnormal temperature or white blood cell count, and be started on a new antimicrobial agent. The third tier definitions, possible and probable VAP, require that patients with IVAC also have laboratory and/or microbiological evidence of respiratory infection. Ventilator-associated events surveillance was implemented in January 2013 in the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network. Modifications to improve surveillance may be made as additional data become available and users gain experience with the new definitions.

  17. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007-2011.

    PubMed

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony; Onyi, Stella Chioma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98-2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90-2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS.

  18. Surveillance of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Bernatsky, S; Lix, L; Hanly, J G; Hudson, M; Badley, E; Peschken, C; Pineau, C A; Clarke, A E; Fortin, P R; Smith, M; Bélisle, P; Lagace, C; Bergeron, L; Joseph, L

    2011-04-01

    There is growing interest in developing tools and methods for the surveillance of chronic rheumatic diseases, using existing resources such as administrative health databases. To illustrate how this might work, we used population-based administrative data to estimate and compare the prevalence of systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases (SARDs) across three Canadian provinces, assessing for regional differences and the effects of demographic factors. Cases of SARDs (systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, primary Sjogren's, polymyositis/dermatomyositis) were ascertained from provincial physician billing and hospitalization data. We combined information from three case definitions, using hierarchical Bayesian latent class regression models that account for the imperfect nature of each case definition. Using methods that account for the imperfect nature of both billing and hospitalization databases, we estimated the over-all prevalence of SARDs to be approximately 2-3 cases per 1,000 residents. Stratified prevalence estimates suggested similar demographic trends across provinces (i.e. greater prevalence in females-versus-males, and in persons of older age). The prevalence in older females approached or exceeded 1 in 100, which may reflect the high burden of primary Sjogren's syndrome in this group. Adjusting for demographics, there was a greater prevalence in urban-versus-rural settings. In our work, prevalence estimates had good face validity and provided useful information about potential regional and demographic variations. Our results suggest that surveillance of some rheumatic diseases using administrative data may indeed be feasible. Our work highlights the usefulness of using multiple data sources, adjusting for the error in each.

  19. Description of hospitalized cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection on the basis of the national hospitalized-case surveillance, 2009-2010, Japan.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tomoe; Sunagawa, Tomimasa; Taniguchi, Kiyosu; Yahata, Yuichiro; Kamiya, Hajime; Yamamoto, Kumi Ueno; Yasui, Yoshinori; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection analyzed on the basis of surveillance data collected from July 24, 2009, the date on which the hospital-based surveillance of influenza cases was implemented in Japan, to September 5, 2010. During the study period, 13,581 confirmed cases were reported. Among those cases with information regarding the reason for hospitalization, 39% were admitted to hospitals for non-therapeutic purposes such as medical observation and laboratory testing. The overall hospitalization rate was 5.8 cases per 100,000 population when cases hospitalized for non-therapeutic purposes were excluded. While those aged under 20 years accounted for over 85% of hospitalized cases, the largest proportion of fatal cases was observed in those aged over 65 years. The overall case fatality rate for all hospitalized cases was 1.5%. The year-round surveillance for hospitalized influenza-like illness cases was launched in 2011, and it was expected that this surveillance system could add value by monitoring changes in the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized cases of seasonal influenza.

  20. Computer-assisted expert case definition in electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Walker, Alexander M; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N; Weiss, Lisa S; Shen, Rongjun; Sobel, Rachel E; Bate, Andrew; Reynolds, Robert F

    2016-02-01

    To describe how computer-assisted presentation of case data can lead experts to infer machine-implementable rules for case definition in electronic health records. As an illustration the technique has been applied to obtain a definition of acute liver dysfunction (ALD) in persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The technique consists of repeatedly sampling new batches of case candidates from an enriched pool of persons meeting presumed minimal inclusion criteria, classifying the candidates by a machine-implementable candidate rule and by a human expert, and then updating the rule so that it captures new distinctions introduced by the expert. Iteration continues until an update results in an acceptably small number of changes to form a final case definition. The technique was applied to structured data and terms derived by natural language processing from text records in 29,336 adults with IBD. Over three rounds the technique led to rules with increasing predictive value, as the experts identified exceptions, and increasing sensitivity, as the experts identified missing inclusion criteria. In the final rule inclusion and exclusion terms were often keyed to an ALD onset date. When compared against clinical review in an independent test round, the derived final case definition had a sensitivity of 92% and a positive predictive value of 79%. An iterative technique of machine-supported expert review can yield a case definition that accommodates available data, incorporates pre-existing medical knowledge, is transparent and is open to continuous improvement. The expert updates to rules may be informative in themselves. In this limited setting, the final case definition for ALD performed better than previous, published attempts using expert definitions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surveillance of traumatic firefighter fatalities: an assessment of four systems.

    PubMed

    Estes, Chris R; Marsh, Suzanne M; Castillo, Dawn N

    2011-01-01

    Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003-2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts.

  2. Surveillance for laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases of cyclosporiasis--United States, 1997-2008.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rebecca L; Jones, Jeffrey L; Herwaldt, Barbara L

    2011-04-08

    Cyclosporiasis is an enteric disease caused by the parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis. Cyclosporiasis is reported most commonly in tropical and subtropical regions. In the United States, outbreaks of cyclosporiasis associated with various types of imported fresh produce have been documented and described since the mid-1990s. No molecular tools are available for linking C. cayetanensis cases. National data regarding laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases (i.e., cases not linked to documented outbreaks) have not been summarized previously. This summary includes laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases that occurred during 1997-2008 and were reported to CDC by 2009. In January 1999, cyclosporiasis became a nationally notifiable disease, and, as of 2008, it was a reportable condition in 37 states, New York City (NYC), and the District of Columbia. For 1997-2008, CDC was notified of laboratory-confirmed cases via two active surveillance systems (the Cyclospora Sentinel Surveillance Network and the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network), two passive systems (the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System and the Public Health Laboratory Information System), and informal mechanisms (e.g., electronic mail). CDC was notified of 1,110 laboratory-confirmed sporadic cases of cyclosporiasis that occurred during 1997-2008. The overall population-adjusted incidence rates ranged from a low of 0.01 cases per 100,000 persons in 1997 to a high of 0.07 in 2002. Of the 1,110 cases, 849 (76.5%) were reported by seven states: 498 (44.9%) occurred in residents of Florida (228 cases), NYC (200 cases), and elsewhere in New York state (70 cases); and >50 cases were reported by each of five other states (Connecticut, Georgia, Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania). Overall, the case-patients' median age was 44 years (range: 3 months-96 years); 50.5% were female, 47.2% were male, and the sex was unknown for 2.3%. A total of 372 case-patients (33.5%) had a documented history of

  3. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 3 2), 1.0 (target: 3 2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: 3 2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 3 2), 0.6 (target: 3 2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: 3 2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by all

  4. Proposed terms and concepts for describing and evaluating animal-health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Hoinville, L J; Alban, L; Drewe, J A; Gibbens, J C; Gustafson, L; Häsler, B; Saegerman, C; Salman, M; Stärk, K D C

    2013-10-01

    The information provided by animal-health surveillance helps to reduce the impact of animal diseases. The widespread movement of animals and their products around the world results in an increasing risk that disease will spread. There is, therefore, a need for exchange between countries of comparable information about disease incidence; the exchange must be based on a common understanding of surveillance approaches and how surveillance systems are designed and implemented. Establishing agreed-upon definitions of surveillance terms would be a first step in achieving this standardisation, and will enhance transparency and confidence. To this end, a workshop was held with the aim of agreeing upon key terms and concepts for animal-health surveillance. In this paper, we describe the methods used at the workshop and summarise the discussions. A complete list of all the proposed definitions including lists of characteristics that can be used to describe surveillance activities and attributes for evaluation of surveillance is available in the workshop report (available at http://www.defra.gov.uk/ahvla-en/disease-control/surveillance/icahs-workshop/). Some important issues were highlighted during these discussions; of particular note was the importance of economic efficiency as an evaluation attribute. Some remaining inconsistencies in the proposed use of terms are highlighted (including the definition of 'risk-based surveillance' and the use of the term 'event-based surveillance'). Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mapping HIV/STI behavioural surveillance in Europe

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Used in conjunction with biological surveillance, behavioural surveillance provides data allowing for a more precise definition of HIV/STI prevention strategies. In 2008, mapping of behavioural surveillance in EU/EFTA countries was performed on behalf of the European Centre for Disease prevention and Control. Method Nine questionnaires were sent to all 31 member States and EEE/EFTA countries requesting data on the overall behavioural and second generation surveillance system and on surveillance in the general population, youth, men having sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDU), sex workers (SW), migrants, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), and sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics patients. Requested data included information on system organisation (e.g. sustainability, funding, institutionalisation), topics covered in surveys and main indicators. Results Twenty-eight of the 31 countries contacted supplied data. Sixteen countries reported an established behavioural surveillance system, and 13 a second generation surveillance system (combination of biological surveillance of HIV/AIDS and STI with behavioural surveillance). There were wide differences as regards the year of survey initiation, number of populations surveyed, data collection methods used, organisation of surveillance and coordination with biological surveillance. The populations most regularly surveyed are the general population, youth, MSM and IDU. SW, patients of STI clinics and PLWHA are surveyed less regularly and in only a small number of countries, and few countries have undertaken behavioural surveys among migrant or ethnic minorities populations. In many cases, the identification of populations with risk behaviour and the selection of populations to be included in a BS system have not been formally conducted, or are incomplete. Topics most frequently covered are similar across countries, although many different indicators are used. In most countries, sustainability

  6. Postmarketing surveillance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Meirik, O

    1988-01-01

    Authorities in developing countries need to monitor the possible adverse consequences of the increasing use of drugs in their countries. Definite differences exist in the risk-benefit ratios for developed and developing countries, particularly with fertility-regulating drugs. Some physicians believe that the increased risk of thrombosis associated with oral contraceptives (OCs) should not be considered as important in developing countries due to the fact that the background level of venous thrombosis is so low in developing countries that even a 50- or 100-fold increase in relative risk would neither be detectable nor important compared to the risk of unwanted pregnancy. In addition, evidence exists of geographically linked factors in the etiology of some adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Authorities in Brazil, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Venezuela have established voluntary ADR reporting systems. Several developing countries also actively follow the World Health Organization's International Drug Monitoring Program and have access to its data base. A number of other methodological approaches to postmarketing surveillance are in use in addition to voluntary ADR reporting systems. These include cross-sectional surveys, studies of temporal and geographic correlations of diseases and drug use, and case-control and cohort studies. Each of these approaches offers specific advantages. Postmarketing surveillance should begin at the time new drugs, including contraceptive methods are introduced. Surveillance needs to be an integral part of plans for the introduction of new contraceptive methods in settings where the infrastructure to carry out such surveillance is in place. 3 major public sector agencies, Family Health International, the Population Council, and the World Health Organization, developed a plan to obtain funding for the postmarketing surveillance of a contraceptive implant, Norplant-R. A controlled cohort study will be conducted in

  7. Epidemiology of measles in Southwest Nigeria: an analysis of measles case-based surveillance data from 2007 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Fatiregun, Akinola A; Adebowale, Ayodeji S; Fagbamigbe, Adeniyi F

    2014-03-01

    In Nigeria, a system of measles case-based surveillance with laboratory confirmation of suspected cases was introduced in 2005 as one of the strategies for the control of measles morbidity and mortality. In this report, we provide an epidemiological distribution of confirmed cases of measles reported from the southwest of the country between 2007 and 2012, and predict the expected number of cases for the ensuing years. A descriptive analysis of persons and place and time of confirmed measles cases (laboratory and epidemiological link) reported in the case-based surveillance data was carried out. Using an additive time series model, we predicted the expected number of cases to the year 2015, assuming that current interventional efforts were sustained. From the 10 187 suspected cases investigated during the time period, 1631 (16.0%) cases of measles were confirmed. The annual incidence rose from <1 case per million in 2007 to 23 cases per million in 2011. Cases were confirmed from all six states within the zone and most (97.4%) were in individuals aged less than 20 years. Seasonal variation existed with peaks of infection in the first and second quarters of the year. There was an increasing trend in the number of expected cases based on projections. Case-based surveillance provided an insight into understanding the epidemiology of measles infection in Southwest Nigeria. There is a need to work out alternate strategies for control of measles and to strengthen the surveillance system.

  8. Adult encephalitis surveillance: experiences from an Australian prospective sentinel site study.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, K; Paterson, B J; Levi, C; Givney, R; Loewenthal, M; DE Malmanche, T; Lai, K; Granerod, J; Durrheim, D N

    2015-11-01

    Few countries routinely collect comprehensive encephalitis data, yet understanding the epidemiology of this condition has value for clinical management, detecting novel and emerging pathogens, and guiding timely public health interventions. When this study was conducted there was no standardized diagnostic algorithm to aid identification of encephalitis or systematic surveillance for adult encephalitis. In July 2012 we tested three pragmatic surveillance options aimed at identifying possible adult encephalitis cases admitted to a major Australian hospital: hospital admissions searches, clinician notifications and laboratory test alerts (CSF herpes simplex virus requests). Eligible cases underwent structured laboratory investigation and a specialist panel arbitrated on the final diagnosis. One hundred and thirteen patients were initially recruited into the 10-month study; 20/113 (18%) met the study case definition, seven were diagnosed with infectious or immune-mediated encephalitis and the remainder were assigned alternative diagnoses. The laboratory alert identified 90% (102/113) of recruited cases including six of the seven cases of confirmed encephalitis suggesting that this may be a practical data source for case ascertainment. The application of a standardized diagnostic algorithm and specialist review by an expert clinical panel aided diagnosis of patients with encephalitis.

  9. [Stewardship of public health surveillance in the health system in Colombia: a case study].

    PubMed

    López, Yolanda Lucía; González, Claudia; Gallego, Berta Natalia; Moreno, Ana Lida

    2009-12-01

    With the reform of the Colombian health system in 1993, public health surveillance continued to be a governmental responsibility under the stewardship of the Ministry of Social Protection along with state and local health authorities. The effectiveness of the development and organization of state and municipality public health surveillance programs will be studied as they have evolved under the general social security system in Colombia. Qualitative study and case-study method are applied to several institutions as they function in 5 states and 11 counties, ten years after the health system reforms. Public health authorities have reduced resources for providing advice, technical assistance, supervision and control of the process of the public health surveillance. Weaknesses in administrative control are common. Quantity and quality of human resources, as well as, staffing and financial resources are inadequate to meet the responsibilities that have been assigned to each state and county. The public health surveillance has prioritized the notification and registration of cases, and the strength of development of particular areas occasionally has been subject to the particular interests of officials in charge, particularly in the public hospitals. Little commitment or interest is shown by mayors, insurance companies, and institutions providing health services that are supposed to be involved with monitoring. A lack of cross-institutional collaboration is apparent in the development of health services surveillance. The implementation of public health surveillance at state and local levels is weak due to problems with the governmental stewardship. These weaknesses are manifested in the lack of regulation, financing and control of the health system.

  10. Child development in primary care: a surveillance proposal.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Renato; Ferreira, José Paulo; Sukiennik, Ricardo; Halpern, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate a child development surveillance tool proposal to be used in primary care, with simultaneous use of the Denver II scale. This was a cross-sectional study of 282 infants aged up to 36 months, enrolled in a public daycare in a countryside community in Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil. Child development was assessed using the surveillance tool and the Denver II scale. The prevalence of probable developmental delay was 53%; most of these cases were in the alert group and 24% had normal development, but with risk factors. At the Denver scale, the prevalence of suspected developmental delay was 32%. When risk factors and sociodemographic variables were assessed, no significant difference was observed. The evaluation of this surveillance tool resulted in objective and comparable data, which were adequate for a screening test. It is easily applicable as a screening tool, even though it was originally designed as a surveillance tool. The inclusion of risk factors to the scoring system is an innovation that allows for the identification of children with suspected delay in addition to developmental milestones, although the definition of parameters and choice of indicators should be thoroughly studied. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Population-based Surveillance for Bacterial Meningitis in China, September 2006–December 2009

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yixing; Yin, Zundong; Shao, Zhujun; Li, Manshi; Liang, Xiaofeng; Sandhu, Hardeep S.; Hadler, Stephen C.; Li, Junhong; Sun, Yinqi; Li, Jing; Zou, Wenjing; Lin, Mei; Zuo, Shuyan; Mayer, Leonard W.; Novak, Ryan T.; Zhu, Bingqing; Xu, Li

    2014-01-01

    During September 2006–December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory–based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children <5 years of age. Laboratory testing confirmed bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children <5 years old. Active surveillance with laboratory confirmation has provided a population-based estimate of the number of probable bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country. PMID:24377388

  12. Characteristics of fatal abusive head trauma among children in the USA: 2003-2007: an application of the CDC operational case definition to national vital statistics data.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sharyn E; Kegler, Scott R; Annest, Joseph L; Mercy, James A

    2012-06-01

    In March of 2008, an expert panel was convened at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to develop code-based case definitions for abusive head trauma (AHT) in children under 5 years of age based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) nature and cause of injury codes. This study presents the operational case definition and applies it to US death data. National Center for Health Statistics National Vital Statistics System data on multiple cause-of-death from 2003 to 2007 were examined. Inspection of records with at least one ICD-10 injury/disease code and at least one ICD-10 cause code from the AHT case definition resulted in the identification of 780 fatal AHT cases, with 699 classified as definite/presumptive AHT and 81 classified as probable AHT. The fatal AHT rate was highest among children age <1 year with a peak in incidence that occurred at 1-2 months of age. Fatal AHT incidence rates were higher for men than women and were higher for non-Hispanic African-Americans compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Fatal AHT incidence was relatively constant across seasons. This report demonstrates that the definition can help to identify population subgroups at higher risk for AHT defined by year and month of death, age, sex and race/ethnicity. This type of definition may be useful for various epidemiological applications including research and surveillance. These activities can in turn inform further development of prevention activities, including educating parents about the dangers of shaking and strategies for managing infant crying.

  13. Case based measles surveillance in Pune: evidence to guide current and future measles control and elimination efforts in India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V M; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S; Banpel, R V; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.

  14. Case Based Measles Surveillance in Pune: Evidence to Guide Current and Future Measles Control and Elimination Efforts in India

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339

  15. Estimating HIV incidence and detection rates from surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Posner, Stephanie J; Myers, Leann; Hassig, Susan E; Rice, Janet C; Kissinger, Patricia; Farley, Thomas A

    2004-03-01

    Markov models that incorporate HIV test information can increase precision in estimates of new infections and permit the estimation of detection rates. The purpose of this study was to assess the functioning of a Markov model for estimating new HIV infections and HIV detection rates in Louisiana using surveillance data. We expanded a discrete-time Markov model by accounting for the change in AIDS case definition made by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993. The model was applied to quarterly HIV/AIDS surveillance data reported in Louisiana from 1981 to 1996 for various exposure and demographic subgroups. When modeling subgroups defined by exposure categories, we adjusted for the high proportion of missing exposure information among recent cases. We ascertained sensitivity to changes in various model assumptions. The model was able to produce results consistent with other sources of information in the state. Estimates of new infections indicated a transition of the HIV epidemic in Louisiana from (1) predominantly white men and men who have sex with men to (2) women, blacks, and high-risk heterosexuals. The model estimated that 61% of all HIV/AIDS cases were detected and reported by 1996, yet half of all HIV/non-AIDS cases were yet to be detected. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that the model was robust to several uncertainties. In general, the methodology provided a useful and flexible alternative for estimating infection and detection trends using data from a U.S. surveillance program. Its use for estimating current infection will need further exploration to address assumptions related to newer treatments.

  16. Fatigue after stroke: the development and evaluation of a case definition.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joanna; Mead, Gillian; Greig, Carolyn; Young, Archie; Lewis, Susan; Sharpe, Michael

    2007-11-01

    While fatigue after stroke is a common problem, it has no generally accepted definition. Our aim was to develop a case definition for post-stroke fatigue and to test its psychometric properties. A case definition with face validity and an associated structured interview was constructed. After initial piloting, the feasibility, reliability (test-retest and inter-rater) and concurrent validity (in relation to four fatigue severity scales) were determined in 55 patients with stroke. All participating patients provided satisfactory answers to all the case definition probe questions demonstrating its feasibility For test-retest reliability, kappa was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.57-0.94, P<.01) and for inter-rater reliability kappa was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.62-0.99, P<.01). Patients fulfilling the case definition also had substantially higher fatigue scores on four fatigue severity scales (P<.001) indicating concurrent validity. The proposed case definition is feasible to administer and reliable in practice, and there is evidence of concurrent validity. It requires further evaluation in different settings.

  17. Case based rubella surveillance in Abia State, South East Nigeria, 2007–2011

    PubMed Central

    Umeh, Chukwuemeka Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Rubella infection has the potential of causing severe fetal birth defects collectively called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) if the mother is infected early in pregnancy. However, little is known about rubella and CRS epidemiology in Nigeria and rubella vaccines are still not part of routine childhood immunization in Nigeria. Methods. Analysis of confirmed cases of rubella in Abia State, Nigeria from 2007 to 2011 detected through Abia State Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response system. Results. Of the 757 febrile rash cases, 81(10.7%) tested positive for rubella immunoglobulin M (IgM). New rubella infection decreased from 6.81/1,000,000 population in 2007 to 2.28/1,000,000 in 2009 and increased to 6.34/1,000,000 in 2011. The relative risk of rubella was 1.5 (CI [0.98–2.28]) times as high in females compared to males and 1.6 times (CI [0.90–2.91]) as high in rural areas compared to urban areas. Eighty six percent of rubella infections occurred in children less than 15 years with a high proportion of cases occurring between 5 and 14 years. Conclusion. Rubella infection in Abia State, Nigeria is predominantly in those who are younger than 15 years old. It is also more prevalent in females and in those living in rural areas of the state. Unfortunately, there is no surveillance of CRS in Nigeria and so the public health impact of rubella infection in the state is not known. Efforts should be made to expand the rubella surveillance in Nigeria to incorporate surveillance for CRS. PMID:25289179

  18. Surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis in the Marches region (Italy): 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    D'Errico, Marcello M; Barbadoro, Pamela; Bacelli, Sonia; Esposto, Elisabetta; Moroni, Vania; Scaccia, Federica; Tantucci, Luana; Prospero, Emilia

    2008-01-01

    Background The last case of poliomyelitis due to transmission of indigenous wild poliovirus occurred in Italy in 1982, however, it is important to guarantee a high quality surveillance as there is a risk of importation of cases from areas where polio is endemic. Stopping poliovirus transmission is pursued through a combination of high infant immunization coverage and surveillance for wild poliovirus through reporting and laboratory testing of all cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children under fifteen years of age. The aim of this study was to describe and to evaluate 11 years of active surveillance in the Marches (Italy) in terms of: incidence, aetiology and clinical manifestation of AFP cases. Methods The active Acute Flaccid Paralysis surveillance has been carried out in the Marches region since February 1997 by the Chair of Hygiene which established a regional hospital network. Active surveillance involves 15 hospital centres. Results In the considered period, 0–15 years population varied between 187,051 in 1997 to 201,625 in 2007, so the number of AFP expected cases is 2 per year. From February 1997 to October 2007, 27 cases were found with rates of 1.0/100,000 in 1997; 2.0/100,000 in 1998; 1.0/100,000 in 1999; 0.5/100,000 in 2000; 2.5/100,000 in 2001; 1.0/100,000 in 2002; 0 in 2003; 0.5/100,000 in 2004; 1.5/100,000 in 2005; 2.0/100,000 in 2006; 1.5/100,000 in 2007. In 29.6% of cases two stool samples were collected in 14 days from the symptoms onset. The 60-days follow-up is available for 23 out of 27 cases reported. In 44.5% of cases the definite diagnosis was Guillain Barrè syndrome. Conclusion In general, the surveillance activity is satisfactory even if in presence of some criticalities in biological samples collection. The continuation of surveillance, in addition to the maintenance of current levels of performance, will tend to a further and more detailed sensitization of all workers involved, in order to obtain spontaneous and prompt

  19. Case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Brurberg, Kjetil Gundro; Fønhus, Marita Sporstøl; Larun, Lillebeth; Flottorp, Signe; Malterud, Kirsti

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and explore how the validity of case definitions can be evaluated in the absence of a reference standard. Design Systematic review. Setting International. Participants A literature search, updated as of November 2013, led to the identification of 20 case definitions and inclusion of 38 validation studies. Primary and secondary outcome measure Validation studies were assessed for risk of bias and categorised according to three validation models: (1) independent application of several case definitions on the same population, (2) sequential application of different case definitions on patients diagnosed with CFS/ME with one set of diagnostic criteria or (3) comparison of prevalence estimates from different case definitions applied on different populations. Results A total of 38 studies contributed data of sufficient quality and consistency for evaluation of validity, with CDC-1994/Fukuda as the most frequently applied case definition. No study rigorously assessed the reproducibility or feasibility of case definitions. Validation studies were small with methodological weaknesses and inconsistent results. No empirical data indicated that any case definition specifically identified patients with a neuroimmunological condition. Conclusions Classification of patients according to severity and symptom patterns, aiming to predict prognosis or effectiveness of therapy, seems useful. Development of further case definitions of CFS/ME should be given a low priority. Consistency in research can be achieved by applying diagnostic criteria that have been subjected to systematic evaluation. PMID:24508851

  20. Driving towards malaria elimination in Botswana by 2018: progress on case-based surveillance, 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Motlaleng, M; Edwards, J; Namboze, J; Butt, W; Moakofhi, K; Obopile, M; Manzi, M; Takarinda, K C; Zachariah, R; Owiti, P; Oumer, N; Mosweunyane, T

    2018-04-25

    Background: Reliable information reporting systems ensure that all malaria cases are tested, treated and tracked to avoid further transmission. Botswana aimed to eliminate malaria by 2018, and surveillance is key. This study focused on assessing the uptake of the new malaria case-based surveillance (CBS) system introduced in 2012, which captures information on malaria cases reported in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on routine data focusing on Ngami, Chobe and Okavango, three high-risk districts in Botswana. Aggregated data variables were extracted from the IDSR and compared with data from the CBS. Results: The IDSR reported 456 malaria cases in 2013 and 1346 in 2014, of which respectively only 305 and 884 were reported by the CBS. The CBS reported 34% fewer cases than the IDSR system, indicating substantial differences between the two systems. The key malaria indicators with the greatest variability among the districts included in the study were case identification number and date of diagnosis. Conclusion: The IDSR and CBS systems are essential for malaria elimination, as shown by the significant gaps in reporting between the two systems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into these discrepancies. Strengthening the CBS system will help to reach the objective of malaria elimination in Botswana.

  1. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  2. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition.

    PubMed

    McCunney, Robert J; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W David; Mundt, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose "Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines" (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting.

  3. Wind turbines and health: An examination of a proposed case definition

    PubMed Central

    McCunney, Robert J.; Morfeld, Peter; Colby, W. David; Mundt, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Renewable energy demands have increased the need for new wind farms. In turn, concerns have been raised about potential adverse health effects on nearby residents. A case definition has been proposed to diagnose “Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines” (AHE/IWT); initially in 2011 and then with an update in 2014. The authors invited commentary and in turn, we assessed its scientific merits by quantitatively evaluating its proposed application. We used binomial coefficients to quantitatively assess the potential of obtaining a diagnosis of AHE/IWT. We also reviewed the methodology and process of the development of the case definition by contrasting it with guidelines on case definition criteria of the USA Institute of Medicine. The case definition allows at least 3,264 and up to 400,000 possibilities for meeting second- and third-order criteria, once the limited first-order criteria are met. IOM guidelines for clinical case definitions were not followed. The case definition has virtually no specificity and lacks scientific support from peer-reviewed literature. If applied as proposed, its application will lead to substantial potential for false-positive assessments and missed diagnoses. Virtually any new illness that develops or any prevalent illness that worsens after the installation of wind turbines within 10 km of a residence could be considered AHE/IWT if the patient feels better away from home. The use of this case definition in the absence of a thorough medical evaluation with appropriate diagnostic studies poses risks to patients in that treatable disorders would be overlooked. The case definition has significant potential to mislead patients and its use cannot be recommended for application in any health-care or decision-making setting. PMID:26168947

  4. Acute flaccid paralysis and its differential diagnosis in in kurdistan province, Western iran; an 11-year surveillance.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-04-01

    The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). This observational study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2010 at the Kurdistan Center for Disease Control and the Department of Pediatrics. All children who fulfilled the WHO definition for AFP were included in our study. The stool samples of all the children were sent for poliovirus isolation. All the patients were evaluated for 60 days after the onset of symptoms to identify the signs of residual weakness. One-hundred thirty nine children aged <15 years were reported to the Center for Diseases Control with AFP. In 138 (99%) stool samples no poliovirus was isolated. None of the patients was diagnosed as having acute poliomyelitis or polio-compatible paralysis. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequent final diagnosis (79 cases) followed by Transverse Myelitis (7 cases) and Encephalitis (6 cases). By detecting 1.3 to 3.6 (mean 3.2) AFP cases per 100 000 population in Kurdistan during the study period, we achieved the WHO target for AFP surveillance. All performance indicators but one consistently met the WHO requirements and therefore demonstrated the effectiveness of the AFP surveillance program in Kurdistan. The effective surveillance system in Kurdistan and its evaluation may serve as a model for the surveillance of other infectious diseases.

  5. Stakeholder Perceptions of Cyberbullying Cases: Application of the Uniform Definition of Bullying.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Suthamjariya, Nina; Selkie, Ellen

    2018-04-01

    The Uniform Definition of Bullying was developed to address bullying and cyberbullying, and to promote consistency in measurement and policy. The purpose of this study was to understand community stakeholder perceptions of typical cyberbullying cases, and to evaluate how these case descriptions align with the Uniform Definition. In this qualitative case analysis we recruited stakeholders commonly involved in cyberbullying. We used purposeful sampling to identify and recruit adolescents and young adults, parents, and professionals representing education and health care. Participants were asked to write a typical case of cyberbullying and descriptors in the context of a group discussion. We applied content analysis to case excerpts using inductive and deductive approaches, and chi-squared tests for mixed methods analyses. A total of 68 participants contributed; participants included 73% adults and 27% adolescents and young adults. A total of 650 excerpts were coded from participants' example cases and 362 (55.6%) were consistent with components of the Uniform Definition. The most frequently mentioned component of the Uniform Definition was Aggressive Behavior (n = 218 excerpts), whereas Repeated was mentioned infrequently (n = 19). Most participants included two to three components of the Uniform Definition within an example case; none of the example cases included all components of the Uniform Definition. We found that most participants described cyberbullying cases using few components of the Uniform Definition. Findings can be applied toward considering refinement of the Uniform Definition to ensure stakeholders find it applicable to cyberbullying. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Should clinical case definitions of influenza in hospitalized older adults include fever?

    PubMed

    Falsey, Ann R; Baran, Andrea; Walsh, Edward E

    2015-08-01

    Influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Fever is included in all standard definitions of influenza-like illness (ILI), yet older patients may have diminished febrile response to infection. Therefore, we examined the utility of various thresholds to define fever for case definitions of influenza in persons ≥ 65 years of age. Data from two prospective surveillance studies for respiratory viral infection in adults hospitalized with acute cardiopulmonary illnesses with or without fever were examined. The highest temperature reported prior to admission or measured during the first 24 h after admission was recorded. The diagnosis of influenza was made by a combination of viral culture, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, antigen testing, and serology. A total of 2410 subjects (66% ≥ 65 years of age) were enrolled; 281 had influenza (261 influenza A, 19 influenza B, and one mixed influenza A and B). The commonly used definition of ILI (fever ≥ 37·8°C and cough) resulted in 57% sensitivity and 71% specificity in older adults. Receiver operating characteristic curves examining the various temperature thresholds combined with cough and/or sore throat showed the optimal balance between sensitivity and specificity to be 37·9°C (AUC 0·71) and 37·3°C (AUC 0·66), in younger and older persons, respectively. Clinical decision rules using the presence of cough and fever may be helpful when screening for influenza or empiric antiviral treatment when rapid influenza testing is not available; however, lower fever thresholds may be considered for elderly subjects. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Screening and surveillance. OSHA's medical surveillance provisions.

    PubMed

    Papp, E M; Miller, A S

    2000-02-01

    The OSH Act requires OSHA to include provisions for medical examinations of employees in its standards. However, the specific test and examinations criteria are not outlined in the OSH Act. Instead, each standard has specific medical surveillance requirements. These are specific to the adverse health effects triggered by exposure to the hazardous substance. The OSHA uses the term medical surveillance to refer to its employee examination and testing provisions. Most occupational health professionals call this activity employee screening and reserve the term surveillance for aggregate analysis of population data. It is important to remember this distinction when referring to OSHA standards. Many standards are challenged in court resulting in changes to medical surveillance provisions of the standards. Some court decisions support OSHA's language. In either case, the court often sets precedents for future standards.

  8. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  9. Analysis of the surveillance situation for viral encephalitis and meningitis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Donoso Mantke, O; Vaheri, A; Ambrose, H; Koopmans, M; de Ory, F; Zeller, H; Beyrer, K; Windorfer, A; Niedrig, M

    2008-01-17

    Infective processes in the brain, spinal cord and meninges are considered to be the main causes of encephalitis, myelitis and meningitis. However, most cases remain unexplained. The incidence of different viral aetiologies (zoonotic and non-zoonotic) is especially poorly estimated, due to the lack of a standard case definition and of agreed diagnostic algorithms, including harmonised diagnostic methods and sample collection. It is important to clarify the incidence of viral encephalitis/meningitis and to optimise the diagnosis of infectious neurological illness, particularly to ensure early recognition of outbreaks or emerging infectious such a West Nile encephalitis. The European Network for Diagnostics of 'Imported' Viral Diseases (ENIVD) has analysed the present surveillance situation for viral encephalitis/meningitis in Europe. Here we give an overview of the existing epidemiological sources of information in European Union (EU) Member States, mapping the laboratory capacity and identifying key requirements for a possible future surveillance study at European level. The data presented will help design a harmonised/standardised Europe-wide surveillance study investigating patients with encephalitis and/or meningitis in order to obtain more information on the role of infections in these rarely analysed syndromes, both from a clinical and an epidemiological perspective.

  10. Pontiac fever: an operational definition for epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Tossa, Paul; Deloge-Abarkan, Magali; Zmirou-Navier, Denis; Hartemann, Philippe; Mathieu, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Pontiac fever is usually described in epidemic settings. Detection of Pontiac fever is a marker of an environmental contamination by Legionella and should thereby call for prevention measures in order to prevent outbreak of Legionnaire's disease. The objective of this study is to propose an operational definition of Pontiac fever that is amenable to epidemiological surveillance and investigation in a non epidemic setting. Methods A population of 560 elderly subjects residing in 25 nursing homes was followed during 4 months in order to assess the daily incidence of symptoms associated, in the literature, with Pontiac fever. The water and aerosol of one to 8 showers by nursing home were characterized combining conventional bacterial culture of Legionella and the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique that used oligonucleotides probes specific for Legionellaceae. A definition of Pontiac fever was devised based on clinical symptoms described in epidemic investigations and on their timing after the exposure event. The association between incidence of Pontiac fever and shower contamination levels was evaluated to test the relevance of this definition. Results The proposed definition of Pontiac fever associated the following criteria: occurrence of at least one symptom among headache, myalgia, fever and shivers, possibly associated with other 'minor' symptoms, within three days after a shower contaminated by Legionella, during a maximum of 8 days (minimum 2 days). 23 such cases occurred during the study (incidence rate: 0.125 cases per person-year [95% CI: 0.122–0.127]). A concentration of Legionella in water equal to or greater than 104.L-1 (FISH method) was associated with a significant increase of incidence of Pontiac fever (p = 0.04). Conclusion Once validated in other settings, the proposed definition of Pontiac fever might be used to develop epidemiological surveillance and help draw attention on sources of Legionella. PMID:16646972

  11. Case Finding Using Syndromic Surveillance Data During an Outbreak of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O26 Infections, Oregon, 2015.

    PubMed

    Hines, Jonas Z; Bancroft, June; Powell, Melissa; Hedberg, Katrina

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes an estimated 265 000 infections in the United States annually. Of emerging non-O157:H7 STEC serotypes, O26 is the most commonly recognized. During an outbreak of STEC O26 in Oregon in 2015, we used syndromic surveillance data to supplement case finding by laboratory reporting. From 157 records retrieved by querying syndromic surveillance data, we detected 4 confirmed and 5 suspected cases. However, none of the suspected cases were confirmed by stool culture, and by the time that the data were being analyzed, the confirmed cases were already known to investigators. Syndromic surveillance data can potentially supplement case finding during outbreaks of foodborne disease. To be an effective case-finding strategy, timely completion of all steps, including collecting specimens from suspected cases, should be performed in real time.

  12. SARS Surveillance during Emergency Public Health Response, United States, March–July 2003

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John T.; Van Beneden, Chris; Parashar, Umesh D.; Griffin, Patricia M.; Anderson, Larry J.; Bellini, William J.; Benson, Robert F.; Erdman, Dean D.; Klimov, Alexander; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peret, Teresa C.T.; Talkington, Deborah F.; Thacker, W. Lanier; Tondella, Maria L.; Sampson, Jacquelyn S.; Hightower, Allen W.; Nordenberg, Dale F.; Plikaytis, Brian D.; Khan, Ali S.; Rosenstein, Nancy E.; Treadwell, Tracee A.; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Fiore, Anthony E.; Durant, Tonji M.; Perz, Joseph F.; Wasley, Annemarie; Feikin, Daniel; Herndon, Joy L.; Bower, William A.; Kilbourn, Barbara W.; Levy, Deborah A.; Coronado, Victor G.; Buffington, Joanna; Dykewicz, Clare A.; Khabbaz, Rima F.; Chamberland, Mary E.

    2004-01-01

    In response to the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the United States established national surveillance using a sensitive case definition incorporating clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory criteria. Of 1,460 unexplained respiratory illnesses reported by state and local health departments to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from March 17 to July 30, 2003, a total of 398 (27%) met clinical and epidemiologic SARS case criteria. Of these, 72 (18%) were probable cases with radiographic evidence of pneumonia. Eight (2%) were laboratory-confirmed SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infections, 206 (52%) were SARS-CoV negative, and 184 (46%) had undetermined SARS-CoV status because of missing convalescent-phase serum specimens. Thirty-one percent (124/398) of case-patients were hospitalized; none died. Travel was the most common epidemiologic link (329/398, 83%), and mainland China was the affected area most commonly visited. One case of possible household transmission was reported, and no laboratory-confirmed infections occurred among healthcare workers. Successes and limitations of this emergency surveillance can guide preparations for future outbreaks of SARS or respiratory diseases of unknown etiology. PMID:15030681

  13. Evaluating Social Media Networks in Medicines Safety Surveillance: Two Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Coloma, Preciosa M; Becker, Benedikt; Sturkenboom, Miriam C J M; van Mulligen, Erik M; Kors, Jan A

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in whether social media can capture patient-generated information relevant for medicines safety surveillance that cannot be found in traditional sources. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential contribution of mining social media networks for medicines safety surveillance using the following associations as case studies: (1) rosiglitazone and cardiovascular events (i.e. stroke and myocardial infarction); and (2) human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine and infertility. We collected publicly accessible, English-language posts on Facebook, Google+, and Twitter until September 2014. Data were queried for co-occurrence of keywords related to the drug/vaccine and event of interest within a post. Messages were analysed with respect to geographical distribution, context, linking to other web content, and author's assertion regarding the supposed association. A total of 2537 posts related to rosiglitazone/cardiovascular events and 2236 posts related to HPV vaccine/infertility were retrieved, with the majority of posts representing data from Twitter (98 and 85%, respectively) and originating from users in the US. Approximately 21% of rosiglitazone-related posts and 84% of HPV vaccine-related posts referenced other web pages, mostly news items, law firms' websites, or blogs. Assertion analysis predominantly showed affirmation of the association of rosiglitazone/cardiovascular events (72%; n = 1821) and of HPV vaccine/infertility (79%; n = 1758). Only ten posts described personal accounts of rosiglitazone/cardiovascular adverse event experiences, and nine posts described HPV vaccine problems related to infertility. Publicly available data from the considered social media networks were sparse and largely untrackable for the purpose of providing early clues of safety concerns regarding the prespecified case studies. Further research investigating other case studies and exploring other social media platforms are necessary to further characterise

  14. High definition versus standard definition white light endoscopy for detecting dysplasia in patients with Barrett's esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sami, S S; Subramanian, V; Butt, W M; Bejkar, G; Coleman, J; Mannath, J; Ragunath, K

    2015-01-01

    High-definition endoscopy systems provide superior image resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of high definition compared with standard definition endoscopy system for detecting dysplastic lesions in patients with Barrett's esophagus. A retrospective cohort study of patients with non-dysplastic Barrett's esophagus undergoing routine surveillance was performed. Data were retrieved from the central hospital electronic database. Procedures performed for non-surveillance indications, Barrett's esophagus Prague C0M1 classification with no specialized intestinal metaplasia on histology, patients diagnosed with any dysplasia or cancer on index endoscopy, and procedures using advanced imaging techniques were excluded. Logistic regression models were constructed to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals comparing outcomes with standard definition and high-definition systems. The high definition was superior to standard definition system in targeted detection of all dysplastic lesions (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval 1.27-8.40) as well as overall dysplasia detected on both random and target biopsies (odds ratio 2.36, 95% confidence interval 1.50-3.72). More non-dysplastic lesions were detected with the high-definition system (odds ratio 1.16, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.33). There was no difference between high definition and standard definition endoscopy in the overall (random and target) high-grade dysplasia or cancers detected (odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.83-1.04). Trainee endoscopists, number of biopsies taken, and male sex were all significantly associated with a higher yield for dysplastic lesions. The use of the high-definition endoscopy system is associated with better targeted detection of any dysplasia during routine Barrett's esophagus surveillance. However, high-definition endoscopy cannot replace random biopsies at present time. © 2014 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  15. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area.

    PubMed

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-07-06

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  16. Surveillance perspective on Lyme borreliosis across the European Union and European Economic Area

    PubMed Central

    van den Wijngaard, Cees C; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Simões, Mariana; Rood, Ente; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Zeller, Herve; Van Bortel, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most prevalent tick-borne disease in Europe. Erythema migrans (EM), an early, localised skin rash, is its most common presentation. Dissemination of the bacteria can lead to more severe manifestations including skin, neurological, cardiac, musculoskeletal and ocular manifestations. Comparison of LB incidence rates in the European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) and Balkan countries are difficult in the absence of standardised surveillance and reporting procedures. We explored six surveillance scenarios for LB surveillance in the EU/EEA, based on the following key indicators: (i) erythema migrans, (ii) neuroborreliosis, (iii) all human LB manifestations, (iv) seroprevalence, (v) tick bites, and (vi) infected ticks and reservoir hosts. In our opinion, neuroborreliosis seems most feasible and useful as the standard key indicator, being one of the most frequent severe LB manifestations, with the possibility of a specific case definition. Additional surveillance with erythema migrans as key indicator would add value to the surveillance of neuroborreliosis and lead to a more complete picture of LB epidemiology in the EU/EEA. The other scenarios have less value as a basis for EU-level surveillance, but can be considered periodically and locally, as they could supply complementary insights. PMID:28703098

  17. Bacterial Meningitis Surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2005–2010: Successes and Challenges of a Regional Network

    PubMed Central

    Teleb, Nadia; Pilishvili, Tamara; Van Beneden, Chris; Ghoneim, Amani; Amjad, Khawaja; Mostafa, Amani; Estighamati, Abdul Reza; Smeo, Mohamed Najib; Barkia, Abdelaziz; ElKhatib, Mutaz; Mujaly, Abdellatif; Ashmony, Hossam; Jassim, Kifah Ahmed; Hajjeh, Rana A.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To describe epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region countries and assist in introduction of new bacterial vaccines. Study design A laboratory-based sentinel surveillance was established in 2004, and up to 10 countries joined the network until 2010. Personnel at participating hospitals and national public health laboratories received training in surveillance and laboratory methods and used standard clinical and laboratory-confirmed case definitions. Results Over 22 000 suspected cases of meningitis were reported among children ≤5 years old and >6600 among children >5 years old. In children ≤5 years old, 921 of 13 125 probable cases (7.0%) were culture-confirmed. The most commonly isolated pathogens were S pneumoniae (27% of confirmed cases), N meningitidis (22%), and H influenzae (10%). Among culture-confirmed case-patients with known outcome, case-fatality rate was 7.0% and 12.2% among children ≤5 years old and those >5 years old, respectively. Declining numbers of Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis cases within 2 years post-Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine introduction were observed in Pakistan. Conclusions Bacterial meningitis continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Surveillance networks for bacterial meningitis ensure that all sites are using standardized methodologies. Surveillance data are useful to monitor impact of various interventions including vaccines, but maintaining data quality requires consistent reporting and regular technical support. PMID:23773590

  18. Clinical malaria case definition and malaria attributable fraction in the highlands of western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Afrane, Yaw A; Zhou, Guofa; Githeko, Andrew K; Yan, Guiyun

    2014-10-15

    In African highland areas where endemicity of malaria varies greatly according to altitude and topography, parasitaemia accompanied by fever may not be sufficient to define an episode of clinical malaria in endemic areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of malaria interventions, age-specific case definitions of clinical malaria needs to be determined. Cases of clinical malaria through active case surveillance were quantified in a highland area in Kenya and defined clinical malaria for different age groups. A cohort of over 1,800 participants from all age groups was selected randomly from over 350 houses in 10 villages stratified by topography and followed for two-and-a-half years. Participants were visited every two weeks and screened for clinical malaria, defined as an individual with malaria-related symptoms (fever [axillary temperature≥37.5°C], chills, severe malaise, headache or vomiting) at the time of examination or 1-2 days prior to the examination in the presence of a Plasmodium falciparum positive blood smear. Individuals in the same cohort were screened for asymptomatic malaria infection during the low and high malaria transmission seasons. Parasite densities and temperature were used to define clinical malaria by age in the population. The proportion of fevers attributable to malaria was calculated using logistic regression models. Incidence of clinical malaria was highest in valley bottom population (5.0% cases per 1,000 population per year) compared to mid-hill (2.2% cases per 1,000 population per year) and up-hill (1.1% cases per 1,000 population per year) populations. The optimum cut-off parasite densities through the determination of the sensitivity and specificity showed that in children less than five years of age, 500 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the malaria attributable fever cases for this age group. In children between the ages of 5-14, a parasite density of 1,000 parasites per μl of blood could be used to define the

  19. [Syndromic surveillance in circumstances of bioterrorism threat--the essence, application abilities and superiority over a traditional epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Osemek, Paweł; Kocik, Janusz; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2009-12-01

    This article provides a short review about trends of developing current syndromic surveillance systems. To improve methods of early detection of natural or bioterrorism-related outbreaks, it has to be established a new way of epidemiological thinking, which uses innovative real-time surveillance systems. Syndromic surveillance has been created for an early detection, to monitor the temporo-spatial spread of an outbreak, and to provide prompt data for immediate analysis and feedback to public health authorities. It supports timely decision making process for countermeasure procedures. Framework of syndromic surveillance system requires a proper electronic infrastructure to be build up. Optimal syndrome definitions and data sources for continuing specific diseases outbreak surveillance have not been determined so far. Systems of interest might enhance collaboration among clinical providers, primary care providers, emergency services, information-systems professionals and public health agencies. However economic scope of this undertakings effectively limits ability to implement it in Polish public health service right now. Besides, syndromic surveillance cannot replace traditional public health surveillance with a post-factum epidemiological investigation and laboratory analysis. It can be a useful supplement.

  20. Driving towards malaria elimination in Botswana by 2018: progress on case-based surveillance, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, J.; Namboze, J.; Butt, W.; Moakofhi, K.; Obopile, M.; Manzi, M.; Takarinda, K. C.; Zachariah, R.; Owiti, P.; Oumer, N.; Mosweunyane, T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Reliable information reporting systems ensure that all malaria cases are tested, treated and tracked to avoid further transmission. Botswana aimed to eliminate malaria by 2018, and surveillance is key. This study focused on assessing the uptake of the new malaria case-based surveillance (CBS) system introduced in 2012, which captures information on malaria cases reported in the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study based on routine data focusing on Ngami, Chobe and Okavango, three high-risk districts in Botswana. Aggregated data variables were extracted from the IDSR and compared with data from the CBS. Results: The IDSR reported 456 malaria cases in 2013 and 1346 in 2014, of which respectively only 305 and 884 were reported by the CBS. The CBS reported 34% fewer cases than the IDSR system, indicating substantial differences between the two systems. The key malaria indicators with the greatest variability among the districts included in the study were case identification number and date of diagnosis. Conclusion: The IDSR and CBS systems are essential for malaria elimination, as shown by the significant gaps in reporting between the two systems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into these discrepancies. Strengthening the CBS system will help to reach the objective of malaria elimination in Botswana. PMID:29713590

  1. 14 CFR 91.227 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast... Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements. (a) Definitions. For the..., Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service...

  2. 14 CFR 91.227 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast... Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements. (a) Definitions. For the..., Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service...

  3. 14 CFR 91.227 - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast... Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out equipment performance requirements. (a) Definitions. For the..., Extended Squitter Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Service...

  4. A Global Cancer Surveillance Framework Within Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance: Making the Case for Population-Based Cancer Registries.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Marion; Znaor, Ariana; Mery, Les; Bray, Freddie

    2017-01-01

    The growing burden of cancer among several major noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) requires national implementation of tailored public health surveillance. For many emerging economies where emphasis has traditionally been placed on the surveillance of communicable diseases, it is critical to understand the specificities of NCD surveillance and, within it, of cancer surveillance. We propose a general framework for cancer surveillance that permits monitoring the core components of cancer control. We examine communalities in approaches to the surveillance of other major NCDs as well as communicable diseases, illustrating key differences in the function, coverage, and reporting in each system. Although risk factor surveys and vital statistics registration are the foundation of surveillance of NCDs, population-based cancer registries play a unique fundamental role specific to cancer surveillance, providing indicators of population-based incidence and survival. With an onus now placed on governments to collect these data as part of the monitoring of NCD targets, the integration of cancer registries into existing and future NCD surveillance strategies is a vital requirement in all countries worldwide. The Global Initiative for Cancer Registry Development, endorsed by the World Health Organization, provides a means to enhance cancer surveillance capacity in low- and middle-income countries. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Cholera public health surveillance in the Republic of Cameroon-opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwa, Moise Chi; Liang, Song; Mbam, Leonard Mbam; Mouhaman, Arabi; Teboh, Andrew; Brekmo, Kaousseri; Mevoula, Onana; Morris, John Glenn

    2016-01-01

    In Cameroon, cholera has periodically resurfaced since it was first reported in 1971. In 2003, Cameroon adapted the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy to strengthen surveillance in the country. This study was an in-depth description and assessment of the structure, core and support functions, and attributes of the current cholera surveillance system in Cameroon. It also discussed its strengths and challenges with hope that lessons learned could improve the system in Cameroon and in other countries in Africa implementing the IDSR strategy. Semi-structured key informant interviews, peer reviewed articles, and government record review were conducted in the Far North and Centre Regions of Cameroon. We used the matrix and conceptual framework from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, WHO Regional Office for Africa Technical Guidelines to frame the study. Site visits included the WHO country office, the ministry of public health (MoPH), two Regional Public Health Delegations (RPHDs), eight health districts (HDs) and health facilities (HFs) including two labs. Cholera surveillance is passive but turns active during outbreaks and follows a hierarchical structure. Cholera data are collected at HFs and sent to HDs where data are compiled and sent to the RPHD in paper format. RPHDs de-identify, digitalize, and send the data to the MoPH via internet and from there to the WHO. The case definition was officially changed in 2010 but the outdated definition was still in use in 2013. Nationally, there are 3 laboratories that have the ability to confirm cholera cases; the lack of laboratory capacity at HFs hampers case and outbreak confirmation. The absence of structured data analysis at the RPHD, HD, and HF further compounds the situation, making the goal of IDSR of data analysis and rapid response at the HD very challenging. Feedback is strongest at the central level (MoPH) and non-existent at the levels

  6. Mass gathering enhanced syndromic surveillance for the 8th Micronesian Games in 2014, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia.

    PubMed

    White, Paul; Saketa, Salanieta; Johnson, Eliaser; Gopalani, Sameer V; Edward, Eliashib; Loney, Charles; Mercier, Alize; Toatu, Tebuka; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Hoy, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Pohnpei State's Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels. The surveillance was implemented using the web-based Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance Open-ESSENCE (SAGES-OE) application that was customized for the Games. Data were summarized in daily situation reports (SitReps) issued to key stakeholders and posted on PacNet, a Pacific public health e-mail network. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was the most common syndrome reported (55%, n  = 225). Most syndrome cases (75%) were among people from Pohnpei. Only 30 cases out of a total of 408 syndrome cases (7%) presented with acute fever and rash, despite the large and ongoing measles outbreak at the time. No new infectious disease outbreak was recorded during the Games. Peaks in diarrhoeal and ILI cases were followed up and did not result in widespread transmission. The technology was a key feature of the enhanced surveillance. The introduction of the web-based tool greatly improved the timeliness of data entry, analysis and SitRep dissemination, providing assurance to the Games organizers that communicable diseases would not adversely impact the Games.

  7. Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Its Differential Diagnosis in in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; an 11-Year Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods This observational study was conducted from January 2000 to December 2010 at the Kurdistan Center for Disease Control and the Department of Pediatrics. All children who fulfilled the WHO definition for AFP were included in our study. The stool samples of all the children were sent for poliovirus isolation. All the patients were evaluated for 60 days after the onset of symptoms to identify the signs of residual weakness. Findings One-hundred thirty nine children aged <15 years were reported to the Center for Diseases Control with AFP. In 138 (99%) stool samples no poliovirus was isolated. None of the patients was diagnosed as having acute poliomyelitis or polio-compatible paralysis. Guillain-Barré syndrome was the most frequent final diagnosis (79 cases) followed by Transverse Myelitis (7 cases) and Encephalitis (6 cases). By detecting 1.3 to 3.6 (mean 3.2) AFP cases per 100 000 population in Kurdistan during the study period, we achieved the WHO target for AFP surveillance. All performance indicators but one consistently met the WHO requirements and therefore demonstrated the effectiveness of the AFP surveillance program in Kurdistan. Conclusion The effective surveillance system in Kurdistan and its evaluation may serve as a model for the surveillance of other infectious diseases. PMID:25535530

  8. Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, A; Ravel, A; Murray, R; McCormick, R; Savelli, C; Finley, R; Parmley, J; Agunos, A; Majowicz, S E; Gilmour, M

    2012-10-01

    Salmonella enteritidis has emerged as the most prevalent cause of human salmonellosis in Canada. Recent trends of S. enteritidis subtypes and their potential sources were described by integrating Salmonella data from several Canadian surveillance and monitoring programmes. A threefold increase in S. enteritidis cases from 2003 to 2009 was identified to be primarily associated with phage types 13, 8 and 13a. Other common phage types (4, 1, 6a) showed winter seasonality and were more likely to be associated with cases linked to international travel. Conversely, phage types 13, 8 and 13a had summer seasonal peaks and were associated with cases of domestically acquired infections. During agri-food surveillance, S. enteritidis was detected in various commodities, most frequently in chicken (with PT13, PT8 and PT13a predominating). Antimicrobial resistance was low in human and non-human isolates. Continued integrated surveillance and collaborative prevention and control efforts are required to mitigate future illness.

  9. Integrated surveillance and potential sources of Salmonella Enteritidis in human cases in Canada from 2003 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    NESBITT, A.; RAVEL, A.; MURRAY, R.; McCORMICK, R.; SAVELLI, C.; FINLEY, R.; PARMLEY, J.; AGUNOS, A.; MAJOWICZ, S. E.; GILMOUR, M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Salmonella Enteritidis has emerged as the most prevalent cause of human salmonellosis in Canada. Recent trends of S. Enteritidis subtypes and their potential sources were described by integrating Salmonella data from several Canadian surveillance and monitoring programmes. A threefold increase in S. Enteritidis cases from 2003 to 2009 was identified to be primarily associated with phage types 13, 8 and 13a. Other common phage types (4, 1, 6a) showed winter seasonality and were more likely to be associated with cases linked to international travel. Conversely, phage types 13, 8 and 13a had summer seasonal peaks and were associated with cases of domestically acquired infections. During agri-food surveillance, S. Enteritidis was detected in various commodities, most frequently in chicken (with PT13, PT8 and PT13a predominating). Antimicrobial resistance was low in human and non-human isolates. Continued integrated surveillance and collaborative prevention and control efforts are required to mitigate future illness. PMID:22166269

  10. Emergency department injury surveillance and aetiological research: bridging the gap with the two-stage case-control study design.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Brent E

    2011-04-01

    To provide an overview of the two-stage case-control study design and its potential application to ED injury surveillance data and to apply this approach to published ED data on the relation between brain injury and bicycle helmet use. Relevant background is presented on injury aetiology and case-control methodology with extension to the two-stage case-control design in the context of ED injury surveillance. The design is then applied to data from a published case-control study of the relation between brain injury and bicycle helmet use with motor vehicle involvement considered as a potential confounder. Taking into account the additional sampling at the second stage, the adjusted and corrected odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the brain injury-helmet use relation is presented and compared with the estimate from the entire original dataset. Contexts where the two-stage case-control study design might be most appropriately applied to ED injury surveillance data are suggested. The adjusted odds ratio for the relation between brain injury and bicycle helmet use based on all data (n = 2833) from the original study was 0.34 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.46) compared with an estimate from a two-stage case-control design of 0.35 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.48) using only a fraction of the original subjects (n = 480). Application of the two-stage case-control study design to ED injury surveillance data has the potential to dramatically reduce study time and resource costs with acceptable losses in statistical efficiency.

  11. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Gómez, Cristhian; Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information.

  12. Introduction of software tools for epidemiological surveillance in infection control in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Motoa, Gabriel; Vallejo, Marta; Blanco, Víctor M; Correa, Adriana; de la Cadena, Elsa; Villegas, María Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAI) are a challenge for patient safety in the hospitals. Infection control committees (ICC) should follow CDC definitions when monitoring HAI. The handmade method of epidemiological surveillance (ES) may affect the sensitivity and specificity of the monitoring system, while electronic surveillance can improve the performance, quality and traceability of recorded information. Objective: To assess the implementation of a strategy for electronic surveillance of HAI, Bacterial Resistance and Antimicrobial Consumption by the ICC of 23 high-complexity clinics and hospitals in Colombia, during the period 2012-2013. Methods: An observational study evaluating the introduction of electronic tools in the ICC was performed; we evaluated the structure and operation of the ICC, the degree of incorporation of the software HAI Solutions and the adherence to record the required information. Results: Thirty-eight percent of hospitals (8/23) had active surveillance strategies with standard criteria of the CDC, and 87% of institutions adhered to the module of identification of cases using the HAI Solutions software. In contrast, compliance with the diligence of the risk factors for device-associated HAIs was 33%. Conclusions: The introduction of ES could achieve greater adherence to a model of active surveillance, standardized and prospective, helping to improve the validity and quality of the recorded information. PMID:26309340

  13. Tuberculous meningitis: a uniform case definition for use in clinical research.

    PubMed

    Marais, Suzaan; Thwaites, Guy; Schoeman, Johan F; Török, M Estée; Misra, Usha K; Prasad, Kameshwar; Donald, Peter R; Wilkinson, Robert J; Marais, Ben J

    2010-11-01

    Tuberculous meningitis causes substantial mortality and morbidity in children and adults. More research is urgently needed to better understand the pathogenesis of disease and to improve its clinical management and outcome. A major stumbling block is the absence of standardised diagnostic criteria. The different case definitions used in various studies makes comparison of research findings difficult, prevents the best use of existing data, and limits the management of disease. To address this problem, a 3-day tuberculous meningitis workshop took place in Cape Town, South Africa, and was attended by 41 international participants experienced in the research or management of tuberculous meningitis. During the meeting, diagnostic criteria were assessed and discussed, after which a writing committee was appointed to finalise a consensus case definition for tuberculous meningitis for use in future clinical research. We present the consensus case definition together with the rationale behind the recommendations. This case definition is applicable irrespective of the patient's age, HIV infection status, or the resources available in the research setting. Consistent use of the proposed case definition will aid comparison of studies, improve scientific communication, and ultimately improve care. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Definitions Are Important: The Case of Linear Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Abraham; Shvartsman, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment in a linear algebra course. The aim of the experiment was to promote the students' understanding of the studied concepts focusing on their definitions. It seems to be a given that students should understand concepts' definitions before working substantially with them. Unfortunately, in many cases they do…

  15. Evaluation of an influenza-like illness case definition in the diagnosis of influenza among patients with acute febrile illness in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Wierzba, Thomas F; Sovann, Ly; Blair, Patrick J; Putnam, Shannon D

    2010-11-07

    Influenza-like illness (ILI) is often defined as fever (>38.0°C) with cough or sore throat. In this study, we tested the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of this case definition in a Cambodia patient population. Passive clinic-based surveillance was established at nine healthcare centers to identify the causes of acute undifferentiated fever in patients aged two years and older seeking treatment. Fever was defined as tympanic membrane temperature >38°C lasting more than 24 hours and less than 10 days. Influenza virus infections were identified by polymerase chain reaction. From July 2008 to December 2008, 2,639 patients were enrolled. From 884 (33%) patients positive for influenza, 652 presented with ILI and 232 acute fever patients presented without ILI. Analysis by age group identified no significant differences between influenza positive patients from the two groups. Positive predictive values (PPVs) varied during the course of the influenza season and among age groups. The ILI case definition can be used to identify a significant percentage of patients with influenza infection during the influenza season in Cambodia, assisting healthcare providers in its diagnosis and treatment. However, testing samples based on the criteria of fever alone increased our case detection by 34%.

  16. Development of a surveillance case definition for heat-related illness using 911 medical dispatch data.

    PubMed

    Bassil, Kate L; Cole, Donald C; Moineddin, Rahim; Gournis, Effie; Schwartz, Brian; Craig, Alan M; Lou, W Y Wendy; Rea, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The adverse effects of hot weather on public health are of increasing concern. A surveillance system using 911 medical dispatch data for the detection of heat-related illness (HRI) could provide new information on the impact of excessive heat on the population. This paper describes how we identified medical dispatch call codes, called "determinants", that could represent HRI events. Approximately 500 medical dispatch determinants were reviewed in focus groups composed of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) paramedics, dispatchers, physicians, and public health epidemiologists. Each group was asked to select those determinants that might adequately represent HRI. Selections were then assessed empirically using correlations with daily mean temperature over the study period (June 1-August 31,2005). The focus groups identified 12 determinant groupings and ranked them according to specificity for HRI. Of these, "Heat/cold exposure" was deemed the most specific. The call determinant groupings with the clearest positive associations with daily mean temperature empirically were "Heat/cold exposure" (Spearman's correlation coefficient (SCC) 0.71, p < 0.0001) and "Unknown problem (man down)" (SCC 0.21, p = 0.04). Within each grouping, the determinant "Unknown status (3rd party caller)" showed significant associations, SCC = 0.34 (p = 0.001) and SCC = 0.22 (p = 0.03) respectively. Clinically-informed expertise and empirical evidence both contributed to identification of a group of 911 medical dispatch call determinants that plausibly represent HRI events. Once evaluated prospectively, these may be used in public health surveillance to better understand environmental health impacts on human populations and inform targeted public health interventions.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) case reporting in the World Health Organization European Region in 2006.

    PubMed

    Devaux, I; Alix, J; Likatavicius, G; Herida, M; Nielsen, S S; Hamers, F F; Nardone, A

    2008-09-25

    This article presents information on HIV and AIDS case reporting systems as part of a survey on HIV/AIDS surveillance practices in the World Health Organization (WHO) European Region. A standardised questionnaire was sent to the 53 national correspondents of the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS(EuroHIV). The HIV and AIDS case reporting section of the questionnaire comprised four parts: data collection system, HIV/AIDS case definition for surveillance, variables collected, and evaluation of surveillance systems). Individual-based data collection systems for HIV case reports have been implemented in 43 of 44 countries in the WHO European Region and for AIDS case reports in all the countries. For HIV case reports, a coded identifier is used in 28 countries, and full names are used in 11 countries. The European AIDS case definition has been adopted in 35 countries(80%). Information on molecular epidemiology is available in 30 countries, and HIV drug resistance is monitored in 11 countries.HIV/AIDS case reporting systems have been evaluated for underreporting in 17 countries and for completeness in 11 countries.This article outlines the future needs for HIV/AIDS surveillance and presents recommendations on how to improve data comparability across European countries in the WHO region.

  18. Difficulties in clinical diagnosis of measles: proposal for modified clinical case definition.

    PubMed

    Ferson, M J; Young, L C; Robertson, P W; Whybin, L R

    1995-10-02

    To examine the accuracy of clinical diagnosis of measles and to develop an improved measles clinical case definition. Case survey. Eastern Sydney, December 1990 to August 1993. All cases of measles notified to the Eastern Sydney Public Health Unit without or before serological confirmation. Demographic and clinical details, measles- and rubella-specific IgM and measles complement fixation titres in acute and convalescent (when available) sera and epidemiological links with confirmed measles cases. Of 49 subjects reported and with complete follow-up, 24 were confirmed with measles, four with rubella and 21 had no definite diagnosis. Clinical diagnosis of measles had a false positive rate of 51%. Subjects with confirmed measles were significantly more likely to have a cough (23/24) than those with no definite diagnosis (15/21; P = 0.03) and to be febrile on the day of rash onset (23/24 versus 10/21; P = 0.001). The Centers for Disease Control definition had a sensitivity of 92% but specificity of only 24%. A modified case definition of rash, cough and fever present at onset of rash had equal sensitivity but greater specificity (57%). As measles is no longer common in Australia, clinical diagnosis is unreliable. When a public health response is needed, cases should be confirmed by serological tests or, if not available, we propose use of our modified clinical case definition.

  19. A One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance surveillance: is there a business case for it?

    PubMed

    Queenan, Kevin; Häsler, Barbara; Rushton, Jonathan

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global problem of complex epidemiology, suited to a broad, integrated One Health approach. Resistant organisms exist in humans, animals, food and the environment, and the main driver of this resistance is antimicrobial usage. A One Health conceptual framework for surveillance is presented to include all of these aspects. Global and European (regional and national) surveillance systems are described, highlighting shortcomings compared with the framework. Policy decisions rely on economic and scientific evidence, so the business case for a fully integrated system is presented. The costs of integrated surveillance are offset by the costs of unchecked resistance and the benefits arising from interventions and outcomes. Current estimates focus on costs and benefits of human health outcomes. A One Health assessment includes wider societal costs of lost labour, changes in health-seeking behaviour, impacts on animal health and welfare, higher costs of animal-origin food production, and reduced consumer confidence in safety and international trade of such food. Benefits of surveillance may take years to realise and are dependent on effective and accepted interventions. Benefits, including the less tangible, such as improved synergies and efficiencies in service delivery and more timely and accurate risk identification, should also be recognised. By including these less tangible benefits to society, animal welfare, ecosystem health and resilience, together with the savings and efficiencies through shared resources and social capital-building, a stronger business case for a One Health approach to surveillance can be made. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  20. Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afakye, Kofi; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Wongnaah, Florence; Bonsu, George Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. Methods We actively searched for cases and exposures by interviewing household members of the victim, schoolmates, and health professionals using WHO case definition, interview guide and checklist. We reviewed health and veterinary records and reports, and interviewed stakeholders. Descriptive data analyses were carried out and presented using tables and charts. Recorded responses were transcribed into thematic areas and analysed. Results Child had dog-bite at the wrist, and developed hyperactivity, hydrophobia and hyperventilation 2 months post bite. He was hospitalised and died from respiratory failure day 3 after admission. Thirty-three persons were exposed to rabies infectious material. Females were 66%, age-groups 5-15yrs and 30-59 yrs were 33.3% and 39.4% respectively. A third (11/33) were category II exposure by WHO classification and were recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis. Surveillance records showed ninety-two animal-bite cases were reported for past 12 months. Half were females, and 18-59yrs age-group was 43%. Surveillance data quality was poor. Conclusion Rabies remains a public health burden inGhana with domestic dog as reservoir of the virus and females more vulnerable to secondary exposures. Health education on rabies should be intensified, and robust animal-bite surveillance system put in place. PMID:28149437

  1. Household exposure and animal-bite surveillance following human rabies detection in Southern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Afakye, Kofi; Kenu, Ernest; Nyarko, Kofi Mensah; Johnson, Sherry Ama Mawuko; Wongnaah, Florence; Bonsu, George Kwame

    2016-01-01

    Rabies remains a neglected tropical zoonotic disease with 100% case fatality rate and estimated 6,000 global mortality annually, and yet vaccine preventable. In Ghana, rabies outbreaks receive poor response. We investigated rabies in a 5-year old boy to find the source of infection, identify exposed persons for post-exposure prophylaxis and describe animal-bite surveillance in Manya-Krobo District of Ghana. We actively searched for cases and exposures by interviewing household members of the victim, schoolmates, and health professionals using WHO case definition, interview guide and checklist. We reviewed health and veterinary records and reports, and interviewed stakeholders. Descriptive data analyses were carried out and presented using tables and charts. Recorded responses were transcribed into thematic areas and analysed. Child had dog-bite at the wrist, and developed hyperactivity, hydrophobia and hyperventilation 2 months post bite. He was hospitalised and died from respiratory failure day 3 after admission. Thirty-three persons were exposed to rabies infectious material. Females were 66%, age-groups 5-15yrs and 30-59 yrs were 33.3% and 39.4% respectively. A third (11/33) were category II exposure by WHO classification and were recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis. Surveillance records showed ninety-two animal-bite cases were reported for past 12 months. Half were females, and 18-59yrs age-group was 43%. Surveillance data quality was poor. Rabies remains a public health burden inGhana with domestic dog as reservoir of the virus and females more vulnerable to secondary exposures. Health education on rabies should be intensified, and robust animal-bite surveillance system put in place.

  2. Using Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance as a Platform for Vaccine-Preventable Disease Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Wassilak, Steven G F; Williams, Cheryl L; Murrill, Christopher S; Dahl, Benjamin A; Ohuabunwo, Chima; Tangermann, Rudolf H

    2017-07-01

    Surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a fundamental cornerstone of the global polio eradication initiative (GPEI). Active surveillance (with visits to health facilities) is a critical strategy of AFP surveillance systems for highly sensitive and timely detection of cases. Because of the extensive resources devoted to AFP surveillance, multiple opportunities exist for additional diseases to be added using GPEI assets, particularly because there is generally 1 district officer responsible for all disease surveillance. For this reason, integrated surveillance has become a standard practice in many countries, ranging from adding surveillance for measles and rubella to integrated disease surveillance for outbreak-prone diseases (integrated disease surveillance and response). This report outlines the current level of disease surveillance integration in 3 countries (Nepal, India, and Nigeria) and proposes that resources continue for long-term maintenance in resource-poor countries of AFP surveillance as a platform for surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases and other outbreak-prone diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  3. Using the international classification of functioning, disability and health to expand understanding of paralysis in the United States through improved surveillance.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michael H; Krahn, Gloria L; Sinclair, Lisa B; Cahill, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    Surveillance on paralysis prevalence has been conceptually and methodologically challenging. Numerous methods have been used to approximate population-level paralysis prevalence estimates leading to widely divergent prevalence estimates. To describe three phases in use of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) as a framework and planning tool for defining paralysis and developing public health surveillance of this condition. Description of the surveillance methodology covers four steps: an assessment of prior data collection efforts that included a review of existing surveys, registries and other data collection efforts designed to capture both case definitions in use and prevalence of paralysis; use of a consensus conference of experts to develop a case definition of paralysis based on the ICF rather than medical diagnostic criteria; explanation of use of the ICF framework for domains of interest to develop, cognitively test, validate and administer a brief self-report questionnaire for telephone administration on a population; and development and administration of a Paralysis Prevalence and Health Disparities Survey that used content mapping to back code items from existing national surveys to operationalize key domains. ICF coding led to a national population-based survey of paralysis that produced accurate estimates of prevalence and identification of factors related to the health of people in the U.S. living with paralysis. The ICF can be a useful tool for developing valid and reliable surveillance strategies targeting subgroups of individuals with functional disabilities such as people with paralysis and others. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Clinical Case Definitions for Classification of Intrathoracic Tuberculosis in Children: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Stephen M.; Cuevas, Luis E.; Jean-Philippe, Patrick; Browning, Renee; Casenghi, Martina; Detjen, Anne K.; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Hesseling, Anneke C.; Kampmann, Beate; Mandalakas, Anna; Marais, Ben J.; Schito, Marco; Spiegel, Hans M. L.; Starke, Jeffrey R.; Worrell, Carol; Zar, Heather J.

    2015-01-01

    Consensus case definitions for childhood tuberculosis have been proposed by an international expert panel, aiming to standardize the reporting of cases in research focusing on the diagnosis of intrathoracic tuberculosis in children. These definitions are intended for tuberculosis diagnostic evaluation studies of symptomatic children with clinical suspicion of intrathoracic tuberculosis, and were not intended to predefine inclusion criteria into such studies. Feedback from researchers suggested that further clarification was required and that these case definitions could be further improved. Particular concerns were the perceived complexity and overlap of some case definitions, as well as the potential exclusion of children with acute onset of symptoms or less severe disease. The updated case definitions proposed here incorporate a number of key changes that aim to reduce complexity and improve research performance, while maintaining the original focus on symptomatic children suspected of having intrathoracic tuberculosis. The changes proposed should enhance harmonized classification for intrathoracic tuberculosis disease in children across studies, resulting in greater comparability and the much-needed ability to pool study results. PMID:26409281

  5. Evaluation of active mortality surveillance system data for monitoring hurricane-related deaths-Texas, 2008.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M

    2012-08-01

    The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS' active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Using CDC's Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Texas's active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health interventions to reduce future hurricane-related mortality rates.

  6. A Statewide Case Management, Surveillance, and Outcome Evaluation System for Children with Special Health Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Monsen, Karen A.; Elsbernd, Scott A.; Barnhart, Linda; Stock, Jacquie; Prock, Carla E.; Looman, Wendy S.; Nardella, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide children with special health care needs (CSHCN) program evaluation, case management, and surveillance system using a standardized instrument and protocol that operationalized the United States Health and Human Services CSHCN National Performance Measures. Methods. Public health nurses in local public health agencies in Washington State jointly developed and implemented the standardized system. The instrument was the Omaha System. Descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of standardized data. Results. From the sample of CSHCN visit reports (n = 127), 314 problems and 853 interventions were documented. The most common problem identified was growth and development followed by health care supervision, communication with community resources, caretaking/parenting, income, neglect, and abuse. The most common intervention category was surveillance (60%), followed by case management (24%) and teaching, guidance, and counseling (16%). On average, there were 2.7 interventions per problem and 6.7 interventions per visit. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an approach for statewide CSHCN program evaluation, case management, and surveillance system. Knowledge, behavior, and status ratings suggest that there are critical unmet needs in the Washington State CSHCN population for six major problems. PMID:23533804

  7. An assessment of public health surveillance of Zika virus infection and potentially associated outcomes in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Leonelo E; Herrera, Víctor M

    2018-05-24

    We evaluated whether outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection, newborn microcephaly, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in Latin America may be detected through current surveillance systems, and how cases detected through surveillance may increase health care burden. We estimated the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance case definitions using published data. We assumed a 10% ZIKV infection risk during a non-outbreak period and hypothetical increases in risk during an outbreak period. We used sensitivity and specificity estimates to correct for non-differential misclassification, and calculated a misclassification-corrected relative risk comparing both periods. To identify the smallest hypothetical increase in risk resulting in a detectable outbreak we compared the misclassification-corrected relative risk to the relative risk corresponding to the upper limit of the endemic channel (mean + 2 SD). We also estimated the proportion of false positive cases detected during the outbreak. We followed the same approach for microcephaly and GBS, but assumed the risk of ZIKV infection doubled during the outbreak, and ZIKV infection increased the risk of both diseases. ZIKV infection outbreaks were not detectable through non-serological surveillance. Outbreaks were detectable through serologic surveillance if infection risk increased by at least 10%, but more than 50% of all cases were false positive. Outbreaks of severe microcephaly were detected if ZIKV infection increased prevalence of this condition by at least 24.0 times. When ZIKV infection did not increase the prevalence of severe microcephaly, 34.7 to 82.5% of all cases were false positive, depending on diagnostic accuracy. GBS outbreaks were detected if ZIKV infection increased the GBS risk by at least seven times. For optimal GBS diagnosis accuracy, the proportion of false positive cases ranged from 29 to 54% and from 45 to 56% depending on the incidence of GBS mimics. Current surveillance systems have a

  8. Case definition terminology for paratuberculosis (Johne's disease).

    PubMed

    Whittington, R J; Begg, D J; de Silva, K; Purdie, A C; Dhand, N K; Plain, K M

    2017-11-09

    Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) is an economically significant condition caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. However, difficulties in diagnosis and classification of individual animals with the condition have hampered research and impeded efforts to halt its progressive spread in the global livestock industry. Descriptive terms applied to individual animals and herds such as exposed, infected, diseased, clinical, sub-clinical, infectious and resistant need to be defined so that they can be incorporated consistently into well-understood and reproducible case definitions. These allow for consistent classification of individuals in a population for the purposes of analysis based on accurate counts. The outputs might include the incidence of cases, frequency distributions of the number of cases by age class or more sophisticated analyses involving statistical comparisons of immune responses in vaccine development studies, or gene frequencies or expression data from cases and controls in genomic investigations. It is necessary to have agreed definitions in order to be able to make valid comparisons and meta-analyses of experiments conducted over time by a given researcher, in different laboratories, by different researchers, and in different countries. In this paper, terms are applied systematically in an hierarchical flow chart to enable classification of individual animals. We propose descriptive terms for different stages in the pathogenesis of paratuberculosis to enable their use in different types of studies and to enable an independent assessment of the extent to which accepted definitions for stages of disease have been applied consistently in any given study. This will assist in the general interpretation of data between studies, and will facilitate future meta-analyses.

  9. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: a case for better post-marketing surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lobb, Ano

    2009-04-14

    There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove safety prior to coming to the market, case reports such as those summarized here assume added importance.

  10. Early detection and response for measles and rubella cases through the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System in Ibaraki Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Miki; Kurita, Junko; Takagi, Takeshi; Nagata, Noriko; Nagasu, Natsuki; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In Ibaraki Prefecture, all (nursery) schools have joined the (Nursery) School Absenteeism Surveillance System (hereafter denoted as (N)SASSy), which is operated by the Japan School Health Association to monitor the prevalence of infectious diseases, the early detection and response for outbreaks, and prevention of large outbreaks. Prefectural government officers also utilize it as a control measure for infectious diseases. In particular, when cases of measles or rubella are registered, (N)SASSy sends e-mails automatically to prefectural government officers to activate control measures. This paper summarizes administrative responses by prefectural government officers for measles or rubella cases using (N)SASSy and discusses the future challenges.Methods We summarized registration, detection, and first response data for measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy and compared the number of detected and reported cases enforced by the Infectious Diseases Control Law from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014.Results The public health center questioned hospitals/clinics and (nursery) schools about all registered measles or rubella cases in (N)SASSy on the same day to check the entered information. In the past 2 years, there were 5 measles and 56 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 measles and 19 rubella cases in 2014 registered with (N)SASSy. All cases were checked and investigated by the public health center. Of all cases detected by (N)SASSy, 7 rubella cases in 2013 and 1 rubella case in 2014 were reported based on the law. No measles cases were reported in the 2 years. The results of investigations and laboratory tests were given as feedback to the (nursery) schools. If the case did not case definition determined by the law, we changed the status in (N)SASSy to suspected or discarded cases.Conclusion Since (N)SASSy assists prefectural government officers with earlier detection of and response for infectious diseases, it definitely contributes to infection control

  11. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Utility of the Traditional and Revised WHO Dengue Case Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Gamaliel; Gresh, Lionel; Pérez, María Ángeles; Elizondo, Douglas; Avilés, William; Kuan, Guillermina; Balmaseda, Ángel; Harris, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Dengue, a mosquito-borne viral illness, is a major public health problem worldwide, and its incidence continues to increase. In 2009, the World Health Organization published guidelines that included a revision of the dengue case definition. Compared to the traditional definition, the revised case definition relies more on signs than on symptoms, making it more applicable to young children. We evaluated the diagnostic utility of both case definitions in two studies of pediatric dengue in Managua, Nicaragua. In a community-based cohort study, we included data from 3,407 suspected dengue cases, of which 476 were laboratory-confirmed. In the second study, we collected information from 1,160 participants recruited at the national pediatric reference hospital (723 laboratory-confirmed). In the cohort study, the traditional definition had 89.3% sensitivity and 43.1% specificity, while the revised definition yielded similar sensitivity (86.6%) and higher specificity (55.2%, p<0.001). In the hospital study, the traditional case definition yielded 96.7% sensitivity and 22.0% specificity, whereas the revised case definition had higher sensitivity (99.3%, p<0.001) but lower specificity (8.5%, p<0.001). We then evaluated the performance of two diagnostic models based on the signs/symptoms included in each definition by analyzing the effect of increasing numbers of signs/symptoms on the sensitivity and specificity of case capture. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a slightly better performance for the revised model in both studies. Interestingly, despite containing less symptoms that cannot be readily expressed by children aged less than 4 years, the revised definition did not perform better in this age group. Overall, our results indicate that both case definitions have similar capacity to diagnose dengue. Owing to their high sensitivity and low specificity, they should be primarily used for screening purposes. However, in a primary care setting, neither of the

  12. Evaluation of the acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance system, Gokwe North district, Zimbabwe, 2015: a descriptive cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Makoni, Annamercy; Chemhuru, Milton; Gombe, Notion; Shambira, Gerald; Juru, Tsitsi; Bangure, Donewell; Tshimanga, Mufuta

    2017-01-01

    AFP surveillance was adopted globally as a key strategy for monitoring the progress of the polio eradication initiative. Gokwe North district with an estimated 119 655 children <15 years detected 2 cases, 4 cases and 1 case of AFP in 2012, 2013 and 2014 respectively against a target of 5 cases per year. We therefore set out to evaluate the system and find out why it was failing to detect at least 5 cases per year. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out. All three hospitals in the district were purposively selected. Twelve of the nineteen health facilities were randomly selected and forty nine health workers were purposively recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire and key informant interview guide were used to collect data. Quantitative data was analysed using Epi info. Out of the 49 respondents, 17(34.7%) knew the target age group for AFP surveillance. Twelve (24.5%) knew the number of notification forms to be filled. Seven (14.3%) and ten (20.4%) respondents knew when to follow up an AFP case and when an AFP case should be followed up and completely notified and investigated respectively. Forty one (83.7%) respondents were not trained on AFP surveillance. Nineteen (39%) had AFP notification forms at the clinic and 33(67%) had displayed AFP case definitions. All the 22 health facilities in the district participate in AFP surveillance; however, all have hard to reach areas. Seventeen (34.7%) reportedly took public health actions based on AFP data. The system was found to be useful, simple, acceptable, timely, unstable, not representative and not sensitive. The system was threatened by lack of health worker knowledge and community active search. Advocacy, communication and social mobilization on AFP surveillance might improve the performance of the system in Gokwe North district.

  13. Mass gathering enhanced syndromic surveillance for the 8th Micronesian Games in 2014, Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia

    PubMed Central

    Saketa, Salanieta; Johnson, Eliaser; Gopalani, Sameer V.; Edward, Eliashib; Loney, Charles; Mercier, Alize; Toatu, Tebuka; Wojcik, Richard; Lewis, Sheri; Hoy, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Pohnpei State’s Division of Primary Health Care implemented enhanced surveillance for early warning and detection of disease to support the 8th Micronesian Games (the Games) in July 2014. The surveillance comprised 11 point-of-care sentinel sites around Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, collecting data daily for eight syndromes using standard case definitions. Each sentinel site reported total acute care encounters, total syndrome cases and the total for each syndrome. A public health response, including epidemiological investigation and laboratory testing, followed when syndrome counts reached predetermined threshold levels. The surveillance was implemented using the web-based Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance Open-ESSENCE (SAGES-OE) application that was customized for the Games. Data were summarized in daily situation reports (SitReps) issued to key stakeholders and posted on PacNet, a Pacific public health e-mail network. Influenza-like illness (ILI) was the most common syndrome reported (55%, n = 225). Most syndrome cases (75%) were among people from Pohnpei. Only 30 cases out of a total of 408 syndrome cases (7%) presented with acute fever and rash, despite the large and ongoing measles outbreak at the time. No new infectious disease outbreak was recorded during the Games. Peaks in diarrhoeal and ILI cases were followed up and did not result in widespread transmission. The technology was a key feature of the enhanced surveillance. The introduction of the web-based tool greatly improved the timeliness of data entry, analysis and SitRep dissemination, providing assurance to the Games organizers that communicable diseases would not adversely impact the Games. PMID:29666748

  14. Student-Created Definitions of Sequence Convergence: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instructional sequence designed to allow students to reinvent the definition of sequence convergence in an introductory proof course. The sequence follows a heuristic of guided reinvention that encourages students to independently create their own mathematical definitions. This case study reports on how…

  15. Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition for pediatric HIV infection in Bloemfontein, South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Gend, Christine L; Haadsma, Maaike L; Sauer, Pieter J J; Schoeman, Cornelius J

    2003-06-01

    The WHO clinical case definition for pediatric HIV infection has been designed to be used in countries where diagnostic laboratory resources are limited. We evaluated the WHO case definition to determine whether it is a useful instrument to discriminate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children. In addition, clinical features not included in this case definition were recorded. We recorded clinical data from 300 consecutively admitted children in a state hospital in Bloemfontein, South Africa, and tested these children for HIV infection. A total of 222 children were included in the study; 69 children (31.1 per cent) were HIV positive. The sensitivity of the WHO case definition in this study was 14.5 per cent, the specificity was 98.6 per cent. Apart from weight loss and generalized dermatitis, the signs of the WHO case definition were significantly more often seen in HIV-positive than in HIV-negative children. Of the clinical signs not included in the WHO case definition, marasmus and hepatosplenomegaly especially occurred more frequently in HIV-positive children. Based on these findings we composed a new case definition consisting of four signs: marasmus, hepatosplenomegaly, oropharyngeal candidiasis, and generalized lymphadenopathy. HIV infection is suspected in a child presenting with at least two of these four signs. The sensitivity of this case definition was 63.2 per cent, the specificity was 96.0 per cent. We conclude that in this study the WHO case definition was not a useful instrument to discriminate between HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, mainly because its sensitivity was strikingly low. The simplified case definition we propose, proved to be more sensitive than the WHO case definition (63.2 vs. 14.5 per cent), whilst its specificity remained high.

  16. Three decades of hospital epidemiology and the challenge of integrating Health Surveillance: reflections from a case study.

    PubMed

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Pereira, Alessandra Gonçalves Lisbôa; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a reflection on the uses and future prospects of hospital-based health surveillance based on the account of a pioneering experience in hospital epidemiology, the epidemiology service at the Hospital Federal dos Servidores do Estado - HFSE, which served as the basis for the creation of epidemiologic surveillance units in municipal and state hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The epidemiology service has combined epidemiological surveillance, continuing education, in-service training, research, and health service evaluation since 1986. The service is part of the national epidemiological surveillance network and was responsible for the notification of 55,747 cases between 1986 and 2016, most of which were the result of active search. The integration of various levels of health surveillance and health care makes classical control activities more agile and provides instruments for measuring. The important role played by the service in human resources training is evident in the training of 1,835 medical interns and 78 residents up to 2016. In addition, this experience has served as the basis for the implantation of several other hospital epidemiological surveillance units. Current challenges include the promotion of effective communication and coordination among the other health surveillance committees.

  17. Hepatoxicity associated with weight-loss supplements: A case for better post-marketing surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Lobb, Ano

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing number of case reports of hepatoxicity from the widely marketed weight-loss supplement Hydroxycut, which contains the botanical ingredient Garcinia cambogia. These case reports may substantially undercount the true magnitude of harm. Based on the past experience with harmful dietary supplements, US regulators should assume the more precautionary approach favored by Canada and Europe. Lacking effective adverse event surveillance for supplements, or the requirements to prove safety prior to coming to the market, case reports such as those summarized here assume added importance. PMID:19360927

  18. Improving Surveillance and Prevention of Surgical Site Infection in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Melissa; Hersey, Diane; Harrison, Sheilah; Joy, Brian; Naguib, Aymen; Galantowicz, Mark; Simsic, Janet

    2016-03-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular surgical site infections are preventable events that may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. To improve surgical wound surveillance and reduce the incidence of surgical site infections. An institutional review of surgical site infections led to implementation of 8 surveillance and process measures: appropriate preparation the night before surgery and the day of surgery, use of appropriate preparation solution in the operating room, appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotic administration, placement of a photograph of the surgical site in the patient's chart at discharge, sending a photograph of the surgical site to the patient's primary care physician, 30-day follow-up of the surgical site by an advanced nurse practitioner, and placing a photograph of the surgical site obtained on postoperative day 30 in the patient's chart. Mean overall compliance with the 8 measures from March 2013 through February 2014 was 88%. Infections occurred in 10 of 417 total operative cases (2%) in 2012, in 8 of 437 total operative cases (2%) in 2013, and in 7 of 452 total operative cases (1.5%) in 2014. Institution of the surveillance process has resulted in improved identification of suspected surgical site infections via direct rather than indirect measures, accurate identification of all surgical site infections based on definitions of the National Healthcare Safety Network, collaboration with all persons involved, and enhanced communication with patients' family members and referring physicians. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  19. Door-to-door capture of incident and prevalent stroke cases in Durango, Mexico: the Brain Attack Surveillance in Durango Study.

    PubMed

    Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Majersik, Jennifer J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Ruano, Angel; Becerra-Mendoza, Daniela; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-03-01

    Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico, to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases. Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents 35 years of age and older. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time. Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7 per 1000 (95% CI, 4.3 per 1000-11.2 per 1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3 per 100 000 (95% CI, 27.8-436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance. This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world.

  20. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. Objective To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Methods The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Results Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Conclusions Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. PMID:26728006

  1. The case of Vipul Bhrigu and the federal definition of research misconduct.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lisa M

    2014-06-01

    The Office of Research Integrity found in 2011 that Vipul Bhrigu, a postdoctoral researcher who sabotaged a colleague's research materials, was guilty of misconduct. However, I argue that this judgment is ill-considered and sets a problematic precedent for future cases. I first discuss the current federal definition of research misconduct and representative cases of research misconduct. Then, because this case recalls a debate from the 1990s over what the definition of "research misconduct" ought to be, I briefly recapitulate that history and reconsider the Bhrigu case in light of that history and in comparison to other cases involving tampering. Finally, I consider what the aim of a definition of research misconduct ought to be, and argue that the precedent set by the reasoning in this case is problematic.

  2. Validation and optimisation of an ICD-10-coded case definition for sepsis using administrative health data

    PubMed Central

    Jolley, Rachel J; Jetté, Nathalie; Sawka, Keri Jo; Diep, Lucy; Goliath, Jade; Roberts, Derek J; Yipp, Bryan G; Doig, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Objective Administrative health data are important for health services and outcomes research. We optimised and validated in intensive care unit (ICU) patients an International Classification of Disease (ICD)-coded case definition for sepsis, and compared this with an existing definition. We also assessed the definition's performance in non-ICU (ward) patients. Setting and participants All adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to a multisystem ICU with general medicosurgical ICU care from one of three tertiary care centres in the Calgary region in Alberta, Canada, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 were included. Research design Patient medical records were randomly selected and linked to the discharge abstract database. In ICU patients, we validated the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) ICD-10-CA (Canadian Revision)-coded definition for sepsis and severe sepsis against a reference standard medical chart review, and optimised this algorithm through examination of other conditions apparent in sepsis. Measures Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Sepsis was present in 604 of 1001 ICU patients (60.4%). The CIHI ICD-10-CA-coded definition for sepsis had Sn (46.4%), Sp (98.7%), PPV (98.2%) and NPV (54.7%); and for severe sepsis had Sn (47.2%), Sp (97.5%), PPV (95.3%) and NPV (63.2%). The optimised ICD-coded algorithm for sepsis increased Sn by 25.5% and NPV by 11.9% with slightly lowered Sp (85.4%) and PPV (88.2%). For severe sepsis both Sn (65.1%) and NPV (70.1%) increased, while Sp (88.2%) and PPV (85.6%) decreased slightly. Conclusions This study demonstrates that sepsis is highly undercoded in administrative data, thus under-ascertaining the true incidence of sepsis. The optimised ICD-coded definition has a higher validity with higher Sn and should be preferentially considered if used for surveillance purposes. PMID:26700284

  3. Validation and optimisation of an ICD-10-coded case definition for sepsis using administrative health data.

    PubMed

    Jolley, Rachel J; Quan, Hude; Jetté, Nathalie; Sawka, Keri Jo; Diep, Lucy; Goliath, Jade; Roberts, Derek J; Yipp, Bryan G; Doig, Christopher J

    2015-12-23

    Administrative health data are important for health services and outcomes research. We optimised and validated in intensive care unit (ICU) patients an International Classification of Disease (ICD)-coded case definition for sepsis, and compared this with an existing definition. We also assessed the definition's performance in non-ICU (ward) patients. All adults (aged ≥ 18 years) admitted to a multisystem ICU with general medicosurgical ICU care from one of three tertiary care centres in the Calgary region in Alberta, Canada, between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2012 were included. Patient medical records were randomly selected and linked to the discharge abstract database. In ICU patients, we validated the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) ICD-10-CA (Canadian Revision)-coded definition for sepsis and severe sepsis against a reference standard medical chart review, and optimised this algorithm through examination of other conditions apparent in sepsis. Sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Sepsis was present in 604 of 1001 ICU patients (60.4%). The CIHI ICD-10-CA-coded definition for sepsis had Sn (46.4%), Sp (98.7%), PPV (98.2%) and NPV (54.7%); and for severe sepsis had Sn (47.2%), Sp (97.5%), PPV (95.3%) and NPV (63.2%). The optimised ICD-coded algorithm for sepsis increased Sn by 25.5% and NPV by 11.9% with slightly lowered Sp (85.4%) and PPV (88.2%). For severe sepsis both Sn (65.1%) and NPV (70.1%) increased, while Sp (88.2%) and PPV (85.6%) decreased slightly. This study demonstrates that sepsis is highly undercoded in administrative data, thus under-ascertaining the true incidence of sepsis. The optimised ICD-coded definition has a higher validity with higher Sn and should be preferentially considered if used for surveillance purposes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  4. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  5. A Randomized Trial Comparing High Definition Colonoscopy Alone With High Definition Dye Spraying and Electronic Virtual Chromoendoscopy for Detection of Colonic Neoplastic Lesions During IBD Surveillance Colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Iacucci, Marietta; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Panaccione, Remo; Akinola, Oluseyi; Lethebe, Brendan Cord; Lowerison, Mark; Leung, Yvette; Novak, Kerri L; Seow, Cynthia H; Urbanski, Stefan; Minoo, Parham; Gui, Xianyong; Ghosh, Subrata

    2018-02-01

    Dye spraying chromoendoscopy (DCE) is recommended for the detection of colonic neoplastic lesions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The majority of neoplastic lesions are visible endoscopically and therefore targeted biopsies are appropriate for surveillance colonoscopy. To compare three different techniques for surveillance colonoscopy to detect colonic neoplastic lesions in IBD patients: high definition (HD), (DCE), or virtual chromoendoscopy (VCE) using iSCAN image enhanced colonoscopy. A randomized non-inferiority trial was conducted to determine the detection rates of neoplastic lesions in IBD patients with longstanding colitis. Patients with inactive disease were enrolled into three arms of the study. Endoscopic neoplastic lesions were classified by the Paris classification and Kudo pit pattern, then histologically classified by the Vienna classification. A total of 270 patients (55% men; age range 20-77 years, median age 49 years) were assessed by HD (n=90), VCE (n=90), or DCE (n=90). Neoplastic lesion detection rates in the VCE arm was non-inferior to the DCE arm. HD was non-inferior to either DCE or VCE for detection of all neoplastic lesions. In the lesions detected, location at right colon and the Kudo pit pattern were predictive of neoplastic lesions (OR 6.52 (1.98-22.5 and OR 21.50 (8.65-60.10), respectively). In this randomized trial, VCE or HD-WLE is not inferior to dye spraying colonoscopy for detection of colonic neoplastic lesions during surveillance colonoscopy. In fact, in this study HD-WLE alone was sufficient for detection of dysplasia, adenocarcinoma or all neoplastic lesions.

  6. Hospitalization Records as a Tool for Evaluating Performance of Food- and Water-Borne Disease Surveillance Systems: A Massachusetts Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Mor, Siobhan M.; DeMaria Jr., Alfred; Naumova, Elena N.

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial “signal” depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems. PMID:24740304

  7. Hospitalization records as a tool for evaluating performance of food- and water-borne disease surveillance systems: a Massachusetts case study.

    PubMed

    Mor, Siobhan M; DeMaria, Alfred; Naumova, Elena N

    2014-01-01

    We outline a framework for evaluating food- and water-borne surveillance systems using hospitalization records, and demonstrate the approach using data on salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and giardiasis in persons aged ≥65 years in Massachusetts. For each infection, and for each reporting jurisdiction, we generated smoothed standardized morbidity ratios (SMR) and surveillance to hospitalization ratios (SHR) by comparing observed surveillance counts with expected values or the number of hospitalized cases, respectively. We examined the spatial distribution of SHR and related this to the mean for the entire state. Through this approach municipalities that deviated from the typical experience were identified and suspected of under-reporting. Regression analysis revealed that SHR was a significant predictor of SMR, after adjusting for population age-structure. This confirms that the spatial "signal" depicted by surveillance is in part influenced by inconsistent testing and reporting practices since municipalities that reported fewer cases relative to the number of hospitalizations had a lower relative risk (as estimated by SMR). Periodic assessment of SHR has potential in assessing the performance of surveillance systems.

  8. Comparison of different criteria for periodontitis case definition in head and neck cancer individuals.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Audrey Cristina; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Cota, Luis Otávio Miranda; Silva, Guilherme Carvalho; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira

    2015-09-01

    Different periodontitis case definitions have been used in clinical research and epidemiology. The aim of this study was to determine more accurate criterion for the definition of mild and moderate periodontitis case to be applied to head and neck cancer individuals before radiotherapy. The frequency of periodontitis in a sample of 84 individuals was determined according to different diagnostic criteria: (1) Lopez et al. (2002);(2) Hujoel et al. (2006); (3) Beck et al. (1990); (4) Machtei et al. (1992); (5) Tonetti and Claffey (2005); (6) and Page and Eke (2007). All diagnosis were based on the clinical parameters obtained by a single calibrated examiner (Kw = 0.71). The individuals were evaluated before radiotherapy. They received oral hygiene instructions, and the cases diagnosed with periodontitis (Page and Eke 2007) were treated. The gold standard was the definition 6, and the others were compared by means of agreement, sensitivity (SS), specificity (SP), and the area under ROC curve. The kappa test evaluated the agreement between definitions. The frequency of periodontitis at baseline was 53.6 % (definition 1), 81.0 % (definition 2), 40.5 % (definition 3), 26.2 % (definition 4), 13.1 % (definition 5), and 70.2 % (definition 6). The kappa test showed a moderate agreement between definitions 6 and 2 (59.0 %) and definitions 6 and 1 (56.0 %). The criterion with higher SS (0.92) and SP (0.73) was definition 1. Definition 1 was the most accurate criterion to case periodontitis definition to be applied to head and neck cancer individuals.

  9. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  10. Acute gastroenteritis and video camera surveillance: a cruise ship case report.

    PubMed

    Diskin, Arthur L; Caro, Gina M; Dahl, Eilif

    2014-01-01

    A 'faecal accident' was discovered in front of a passenger cabin of a cruise ship. After proper cleaning of the area the passenger was approached, but denied having any gastrointestinal symptoms. However, when confronted with surveillance camera evidence, she admitted having the accident and even bringing the towel stained with diarrhoea back to the pool towels bin. She was isolated until the next port where she was disembarked. Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) caused by Norovirus is very contagious and easily transmitted from person to person on cruise ships. The main purpose of isolation is to avoid public vomiting and faecal accidents. To quickly identify and isolate contagious passengers and crew and ensure their compliance are key elements in outbreak prevention and control, but this is difficult if ill persons deny symptoms. All passenger ships visiting US ports now have surveillance video cameras, which under certain circumstances can assist in finding potential index cases for AGE outbreaks.

  11. Injury surveillance in multi-sport events: the International Olympic Committee approach.

    PubMed

    Junge, A; Engebretsen, L; Alonso, J M; Renström, P; Mountjoy, M; Aubry, M; Dvorak, J

    2008-06-01

    The protection of athletes' health by preventing injuries is an important task for international sports federations. Standardised injury surveillance provides not only important epidemiological information, but also directions for injury prevention, and the opportunity for monitoring long-term changes in the frequency and circumstances of injury. Numerous studies have evaluated sports injuries during the season, but few have focused on injuries during major sport events such as World Championships, World Cups or the Olympic Games. To provide an injury surveillance system for multi-sports tournaments, using the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing as an example. A group of experienced researchers reviewed existing injury report systems and developed a scientific sound and concise injury surveillance system for large multi-sport events. The injury report system for multi-sport events is based on an established system for team sports tournaments and has proved feasible for individual sports during the International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2007. The most important principles and advantages of the system are comprehensive definition of injury, injury report by the physician responsible for the athlete, a single-page report of all injuries, and daily report irrespective of whether or not an injury occurred. Implementation of the injury surveillance system, all definitions, the report form, and the analysis of data are described in detail to enable other researchers to implement the injury surveillance system in any sports tournament. The injury surveillance system has been accepted by experienced team physicians and shown to be feasible for single-sport and multi-sport events. It can be modified depending on the specific objectives of a certain sport or research question; however, a standardised use of injury definition, report forms and methodology will ensure the comparability of results.

  12. Estimating the cost to U.S. health departments to conduct HIV surveillance.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Ram K; Sansom, Stephanie L; Laffoon, Benjamin T; Farnham, Paul G; Shouse, R Luke; MacMaster, Karen; Hall, H Irene

    2014-01-01

    HIV case surveillance is a primary source of information for monitoring HIV burden in the United States and guiding the allocation of prevention and treatment funds. While the number of people living with HIV and the need for surveillance data have increased, little is known about the cost of surveillance. We estimated the economic cost to health departments of conducting high-quality HIV case surveillance. We collected primary data on the unit cost and quantity of resources used to operate the HIV case surveillance program in Michigan, where HIV burden (i.e., the number of HIV cases) is moderate to high (n=14,864 cases). Based on Michigan's data, we projected the expected annual HIV surveillance cost for U.S., state, local, and territorial health departments. We based our cost projection on the variation in the number of new and established cases, area-specific wages, and potential economies of scale. We estimated the annual total HIV surveillance cost to the Michigan health department to be $1,286,524 ($87/case), the annual total cost of new cases to be $108,657 ($133/case), and the annual total cost of established cases to be $1,177,867 ($84/case). Our projected median annual HIV surveillance cost per health department ranged from $210,600 in low-HIV burden sites to $1,835,000 in high-HIV burden sites. Our analysis shows that a systematic approach to costing HIV surveillance at the health department level is feasible. For HIV surveillance, a substantial portion of total surveillance costs is attributable to maintaining established cases.

  13. Developing Syndromic Surveillance to Monitor and Respond to Adverse Health Events Related to Psychoactive Substance Use: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Michelle L; Kunins, Hillary V; Lall, Ramona; Paone, Denise

    Recent increases in drug overdose deaths, both in New York City and nationally, highlight the need for timely data on psychoactive drug-related morbidity. We developed drug syndrome definitions for syndromic surveillance to monitor drug-related emergency department (ED) visits in real time. We used 2012 archived syndromic surveillance data from New York City hospitals to develop definitions for psychoactive drug-related syndromes. The dataset contained ED visit-level information that included patients' chief complaints, dates of visits, ZIP codes of residence, discharge diagnoses, and dispositions. After manually reviewing chief complaints, we developed a classification scheme comprising 3 categories (overdose, drug mention, and drug abuse/misuse), which we used to define 25 psychoactive drug syndromes. From July 2013 through December 2015, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene performed daily syndromic surveillance of psychoactive drug-related ED visits using the 25 syndrome definitions. Syndromic surveillance triggered 4 public health investigations, supported 8 other public health investigations that had been triggered by other mechanisms, and resulted in the identification of 5 psychoactive drug-related outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance also identified a substantial increase in synthetic cannabinoid-related visits (from an average of 3 per week in January 2014 to >300 per week in July 2015) and an increase in heroin overdose visits (from 80 to 171 in the first 3 quarters of 2012 and 2014, respectively) in a single neighborhood. Syndromic surveillance using these novel definitions enabled monitoring of trends in psychoactive drug-related morbidity, initiation and support of public health investigations, and targeting of interventions. Health departments can refine these definitions for their jurisdictions using the described methods and integrate them into existing syndromic surveillance systems.

  14. Case definition for Ebola and Marburg haemorrhagic fevers: a complex challenge for epidemiologists and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Pittalis, Silvia; Fusco, Francesco Maria; Lanini, Simone; Nisii, Carla; Puro, Vincenzo; Lauria, Francesco Nicola; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2009-10-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) represent a challenge for public health because of their epidemic potential, and their possible use as bioterrorism agents poses particular concern. In 1999 the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a case definition for VHFs, subsequently adopted by other international institutions with the aim of early detection of initial cases/outbreaks in western countries. We applied this case definition to reports of Ebola and Marburg virus infections to estimate its sensitivity to detect cases of the disease. We analyzed clinical descriptions of 795 reported cases of Ebola haemorrhagic fever: only 58.5% of patients met the proposed case definition. A similar figure was obtained reviewing 169 cases of Marburg diseases, of which only 64.5% were in accordance with the case definition. In conclusion, the WHO case definition for hemorrhagic fevers is too specific and has poor sensitivity both for case finding during Ebola or Marburg outbreaks, and for early detection of suspected cases in western countries. It can lead to a hazardous number of false negatives and its use should be discouraged for early detection of cases.

  15. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan - 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Cowger, Tori L; Burns, Cara C; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A; Orenstein, Walter A

    2017-01-01

    More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of 'orphan viruses' (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011-2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy.

  16. The National Injury Surveillance System in China: a six-year review.

    PubMed

    Duan, Leilei; Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Wu, Chunmei; Jiang, Wei; He, Siran; Wang, Linhong; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-04-01

    This article aims to describe the National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) in China from its establishment in 2006 to the methods used and some key findings from 2006 to 2011. From 2003 to 2005, based upon specific injury case definitions, a pilot study was conducted to explore the feasibility of a National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) in China. The NISS formally started operations in January 2006, and 126 hospitals from 43 sample points (23 rural, 20 urban) were selected to participate. Doctors and nurses in participating hospitals were trained to administer standardised data collection forms. Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention is in charge of analysing data and releasing findings. From 2006 to 2011, the annual recorded injury cases increased from 340,000 to 630,000, the majority being male (65%) and over 80% aged 15-64 years. Falls (32%), road traffic injuries (23%) and blunt injuries (19%) were the most common causes. More than 70% of cases were of minor severity, and over 75% of cases were discharged after treatment in the emergency department. The NISS is the first hospital-based national system in China, therefore considered an important source of injury data. It has the potential to describe injury morbidity in China and to be utilised to develop national technical and policy documents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consensus statement on the methodology of injury and illness surveillance in FINA (aquatic sports).

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, M; Junge, A; Alonso, J M; Clarsen, B; Pluim, B M; Shrier, I; van den Hoogenband, C; Marks, S; Gerrard, D; Heyns, P; Kaneoka, K; Dijkstra, H P; Khan, K M

    2016-05-01

    Injury and illness surveillance in the aquatic disciplines has been conducted during the FINA World Championships and Olympic Games. The development of an aquatic-specific injury and illness surveillance system will improve the quality of the data collected and the development of preventive measures. Our ultimate objective is to enhance aquatic athlete health and performance. The objective was to refine the injury and illness surveillance protocols to develop aquatic-specific definitions of injury and illness; define aquatic-specific injury location and causation; better describe overuse injuries; regard pre-existing and recurrent injuries; more accurately define aquatic athlete exposures and develop a protocol to capture out-of-competition aquatic athlete health parameters. FINA compiled an Injury and Illness Surveillance Expert Working Group comprised of international experts to review the scientific literature in the field. A consensus meeting was convened to provide an opportunity for debate, following which recommendations were collated. Aquatic-specific injury and illness surveillance protocols covering both the in-competition and out-of-competition time periods were developed. Definitions for all relevant variables were outlined, and documentation forms for athletes and for clinicians were proposed. Recommendations for the implementation of an injury and illness surveillance system for FINA are presented. The FINA consensus authors recommend ongoing in-competition and out-of-competition surveillance to determine injury and illness trends over time. The implementation of the definitions and methodology outlined in this paper will improve the accuracy and value of injury and illness surveillance, and provide important information for injury prevention. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Active surveillance is suitable for intermediate term follow-up of renal oncocytoma diagnosed by percutaneous core biopsy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Lee, Stephen; Rashid, Prem; Bangash, Haider; Hamid, Akhlil; Lau, Jason; Cohen, Ronald

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intermediate outcome of conservative management in patients with biopsy-proven oncocytoma. Patients with oncocytoma diagnosed on percutaneous core biopsy between January 2000 to December 2014 were identified from the renal biopsy database of a large specialist urologic pathology laboratory. After review of patient clinical records, the study cohort comprised only of patients enrolled in active surveillance. Clinicopathological and follow-up details were reviewed for each case, in particular: type and interval of surveillance imaging, tumour growth, definitive intervention and reason for intervention. Where possible, correlation was made between the final surgical and the initial biopsy specimens. Fifty three patients diagnosed with oncocytoma on core biopsy were initially placed on active surveillance with median follow-up of 34 months (range 6-109). The median age at diagnosis was 65 years (range 20-85) and median tumour size was 30 mm (range 13-87). Mean average tumour growth was 1.4 mm per annum (median 0 mm/year) with the majority (36 of 53, 68%) exhibiting minimal growth (less than 2 mm per annum) or partial regression. Forty seven of the 53 patients remained on active surveillance with no significant progression. Six patients elected to undergo definitive intervention (five surgical excision, one ablation). Renal oncocytoma was confirmed in all five patients who underwent surgical excision of their lesions. The majority of oncocytomas in this study showed minimal growth rate or regression. Patients with biopsy proven oncocytoma can be conservatively managed with active surveillance. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A controlled evaluation of case clinical effect coding by poison center specialists for detection of WMD scenarios.

    PubMed

    Beuhler, Michael C; Wittler, Mary A; Ford, Marsha; Dulaney, Anna R

    2011-08-01

    Many public health entities employ computer-based syndromic surveillance to monitor for aberrations including possible exposures to weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Often, this is done by screening signs and symptoms reported for cases against syndromic definitions. Poison centers (PCs) may offer significant contributions to public health surveillance because of their detailed clinical effect data field coding and real-time data entry. Because improper clinical effect coding may impede syndromic surveillance, it is important to assess this accuracy for PCs. An AAPCC-certified regional PC assessed the accuracy of clinical effect coding by specialists in poison information (SPIs) listening to audio recordings of standard cases. Eighteen different standardized cases were used, consisting of six cyanide, six botulism, and six control cases. Cases were scripted to simulate clinically relevant telephone conversations and converted to audio recordings. Ten SPIs were randomly selected from the center's staff to listen to and code case information from the recorded cases. Kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect were calculated for individual clinical effects summed over all test cases along with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The rate of the case coding by the SPIs triggering the PC's automated botulism and cyanide alerts was also determined. The kappa scores and the percentage of correctly coding a present clinical effect varied depending on the specific clinical effect, with greater accuracy observed for the clinical effects of vomiting and agitation/irritability, and poor accuracy observed for the clinical effects of visual defect and anion gap increase. Lack of correct coding resulted in only 60 and 86% of the cases that met the botulism and cyanide surveillance definitions, respectively, triggering the corresponding alert. There was no difference observed in the percentage of coding a present clinical effect between

  20. Infection with Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food and the Effect of Increasing Use of Culture-Independent Diagnostic Tests on Surveillance--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jennifer Y; Henao, Olga L; Griffin, Patricia M; Vugia, Duc J; Cronquist, Alicia B; Hurd, Sharon; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Ryan, Patricia; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Wolpert, Beverly J; Patrick, Mary E

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate progress toward prevention of enteric and foodborne illnesses in the United States, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites. This report summarizes preliminary 2015 data and describes trends since 2012. In 2015, FoodNet reported 20,107 confirmed cases (defined as culture-confirmed bacterial infections and laboratory-confirmed parasitic infections), 4,531 hospitalizations, and 77 deaths. FoodNet also received reports of 3,112 positive culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) without culture-confirmation, a number that has markedly increased since 2012. Diagnostic testing practices for enteric pathogens are rapidly moving away from culture-based methods. The continued shift from culture-based methods to CIDTs that do not produce the isolates needed to distinguish between strains and subtypes affects the interpretation of public health surveillance data and ability to monitor progress toward prevention efforts. Expanded case definitions and strategies for obtaining bacterial isolates are crucial during this transition period.

  1. Dengue surveillance in the French armed forces: a dengue sentinel surveillance system in countries without efficient local epidemiological surveillance.

    PubMed

    de Laval, Franck; Dia, Aissata; Plumet, Sébastien; Decam, Christophe; Leparc Goffart, Isabelle; Deparis, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Surveillance of travel-acquired dengue could improve dengue risk estimation in countries without ability. Surveillance in the French army in 2010 to 2011 highlighted 330 dengue cases, mainly in French West Indies and Guiana: DENV-1 circulated in Guadeloupe, Martinique, French Guiana, New Caledonia, Djibouti; DENV-3 in Mayotte and Djibouti; and DENV-4 in French Guiana. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  2. Encephalitis Surveillance through the Emerging Infections Program, 1997–2010

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis is a devastating illness that commonly causes neurologic disability and has a case fatality rate >5% in the United States. An etiologic agent is identified in <50% of cases, making diagnosis challenging. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emerging Infections Program (EIP) Encephalitis Project established syndromic surveillance for encephalitis in New York, California, and Tennessee, with the primary goal of increased identification of causative agents and secondary goals of improvements in treatment and outcome. The project represents the largest cohort of patients with encephalitis studied to date and has influenced case definition and diagnostic evaluation of this condition. Results of this project have provided insight into well-established causal pathogens and identified newer causes of infectious and autoimmune encephalitis. The recognition of a possible relationship between enterovirus D68 and acute flaccid paralysis with myelitis underscores the need for ongoing vigilance for emerging causes of neurologic disease. PMID:26295485

  3. Epidemiology of malignant mesothelioma in Italy: surveillance systems, territorial clusters and occupations involved

    PubMed Central

    Binazzi, Alessandra; Bonafede, Michela; Di Marzio, Davide; Scarselli, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    Background As a legacy of the large asbestos consumption until the definitive ban in 1992, Italy is currently suffering a severe epidemic of asbestos related diseases. The aim of this paper is to describe the surveillance system for mesothelioma incidence and to provide evidences regarding the occurrence of the disease in Italy and the circumstances of asbestos exposure. Methods Italian National Register of Malignant Mesotheliomas (ReNaM) is a permanent surveillance system of mesothelioma incidence, with Regional Operating Centres (CORs) active in each Italian region, identifying incident malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases from health care structures. Occupational history, lifestyle habits and residential history are obtained using a standardised questionnaire, administered by a trained interviewer, to the subject or to the next of kin. Descriptive epidemiological figures, occupations involved in exposures and territorial maps of MM cases have been produced. Results At December 2016, ReNaM has collected 27,356 MM cases for the incidence period between 1993 and 2015. The modalities of exposure to asbestos have been investigated for 21,387 (78%) and an occupational exposure has been defined for around 70% of interviewed cases (14,818). Non-occupational exposure is still relevant with 4.9% and 4.4% of cases for which respectively a familial exposure (due to the cohabitation with an occupational exposed subject) and an environmental exposure (due to the residence near a contaminated site) has been detected. Discussion The epidemiological surveillance of MM incident cases, by the means of a national register for estimating the occurrence of the disease and identifying the circumstances of asbestos exposure, is a relevant tool for preventing asbestos exposure, for supporting the effectiveness of insurance system and for estimating reliable epidemiological figures. PMID:29507789

  4. Development and validation of an administrative case definition for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, Ali; Quan, Hude; Fedorak, Richard N; Panaccione, Remo; Hilsden, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A population-based database of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients is invaluable to explore and monitor the epidemiology and outcome of the disease. In this context, an accurate and validated population-based case definition for IBD becomes critical for researchers and health care providers. METHODS: IBD and non-IBD individuals were identified through an endoscopy database in a western Canadian health region (Calgary Health Region, Calgary, Alberta). Subsequently, using a novel algorithm, a series of case definitions were developed to capture IBD cases in the administrative databases. In the second stage of the study, the criteria were validated in the Capital Health Region (Edmonton, Alberta). RESULTS: A total of 150 IBD case definitions were developed using 1399 IBD patients and 15,439 controls in the development phase. In the validation phase, 318,382 endoscopic procedures were searched and 5201 IBD patients were identified. After consideration of sensitivity, specificity and temporal stability of each validated case definition, a diagnosis of IBD was assigned to individuals who experienced at least two hospitalizations or had four physician claims, or two medical contacts in the Ambulatory Care Classification System database with an IBD diagnostic code within a two-year period (specificity 99.8%; sensitivity 83.4%; positive predictive value 97.4%; negative predictive value 98.5%). An alternative case definition was developed for regions without access to the Ambulatory Care Classification System database. A novel scoring system was developed that detected Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis patients with a specificity of >99% and a sensitivity of 99.1% and 86.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Through a robust methodology, a reproducible set of criteria to capture IBD patients through administrative databases was developed. The methodology may be used to develop similar administrative definitions for chronic diseases. PMID:23061064

  5. Cross-Disciplinary Consultancy to Bridge Public Health Technical Needs and Analytic Developers: Asyndromic Surveillance Use Case

    PubMed Central

    Faigen, Zachary; Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Neill, Daniel; Conway, Mike; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Gunn, Julia; Swenson, David; Painter, Ian; Johnson, Lauren; Kiley, Chris; Streichert, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We document a funded effort to bridge the gap between constrained scientific challenges of public health surveillance and methodologies from academia and industry. Component tasks are the collection of epidemiologists’ use case problems, multidisciplinary consultancies to refine them, and dissemination of problem requirements and shareable datasets. We describe an initial use case and consultancy as a concrete example and challenge to developers. Materials and Methods: Supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Biosurveillance Ecosystem project, the International Society for Disease Surveillance formed an advisory group to select tractable use case problems and convene inter-disciplinary consultancies to translate analytic needs into well-defined problems and to promote development of applicable solution methods. The initial consultancy’s focus was a problem originated by the North Carolina Department of Health and its NC DETECT surveillance system: Derive a method for detection of patient record clusters worthy of follow-up based on free-text chief complaints and without syndromic classification. Results: Direct communication between public health problem owners and analytic developers was informative to both groups and constructive for the solution development process. The consultancy achieved refinement of the asyndromic detection challenge and of solution requirements. Participants summarized and evaluated solution approaches and discussed dissemination and collaboration strategies. Practice Implications: A solution meeting the specification of the use case described above could improve human monitoring efficiency with expedited warning of events requiring follow-up, including otherwise overlooked events with no syndromic indicators. This approach can remove obstacles to collaboration with efficient, minimal data-sharing and without costly overhead. PMID:26834939

  6. Cross-Disciplinary Consultancy to Bridge Public Health Technical Needs and Analytic Developers: Asyndromic Surveillance Use Case.

    PubMed

    Faigen, Zachary; Deyneka, Lana; Ising, Amy; Neill, Daniel; Conway, Mike; Fairchild, Geoffrey; Gunn, Julia; Swenson, David; Painter, Ian; Johnson, Lauren; Kiley, Chris; Streichert, Laura; Burkom, Howard

    2015-01-01

    We document a funded effort to bridge the gap between constrained scientific challenges of public health surveillance and methodologies from academia and industry. Component tasks are the collection of epidemiologists' use case problems, multidisciplinary consultancies to refine them, and dissemination of problem requirements and shareable datasets. We describe an initial use case and consultancy as a concrete example and challenge to developers. Supported by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Biosurveillance Ecosystem project, the International Society for Disease Surveillance formed an advisory group to select tractable use case problems and convene inter-disciplinary consultancies to translate analytic needs into well-defined problems and to promote development of applicable solution methods. The initial consultancy's focus was a problem originated by the North Carolina Department of Health and its NC DETECT surveillance system: Derive a method for detection of patient record clusters worthy of follow-up based on free-text chief complaints and without syndromic classification. Direct communication between public health problem owners and analytic developers was informative to both groups and constructive for the solution development process. The consultancy achieved refinement of the asyndromic detection challenge and of solution requirements. Participants summarized and evaluated solution approaches and discussed dissemination and collaboration strategies. A solution meeting the specification of the use case described above could improve human monitoring efficiency with expedited warning of events requiring follow-up, including otherwise overlooked events with no syndromic indicators. This approach can remove obstacles to collaboration with efficient, minimal data-sharing and without costly overhead.

  7. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  8. Trends in performance of the National Measles Case-Based Surveillance System, Ministry of Health and Child Welfare, Zimbabwe (1999 - 2008)

    PubMed Central

    Choto, Regis; Chadambuka, Addmore; Shambira, Gerald; Gombe, Notion; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Midzi, Stanley; Mberikunashe, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Since adoption of the measles case-based surveillance system in Zimbabwe in 1998, data has been routinely collected at all levels of the health delivery system and sent to national level with little or no documented evidence of use to identify risky populations, monitor impact of interventions and measure progress towards achieving measles elimination. We analysed this data to determine trends in the national measles case-based surveillance system (NMCBSS). Methods A retrospective record review of the NMCBSS dataset for period 1999 –2008 was conducted, assessing trends in proportions of investigated cases; timeliness and nature of specimens received at laboratory; timeliness of feedback of serology results, proportion of cases confirmed as measles and national annualized rates of investigation. Comparisons with WHO performance indicators were done. The secondary data analysis was done in Excel and Epi-Info statistical software. Results Cumulatively 4994 suspected cases were reported and investigated between 1999 and 2008. Reported suspected and confirmed measles cases declined from 24, 5% and 5.9% respectively in 2000 to 3.9% and 1.0% respectively in 2008. Proportion of cases with blood specimens collected and proportion reaching laboratory timely increased from 83% and 65% respectively in 1999, to 100% and 82% respectively in 2008. Proportion of specimens arriving at laboratory in good condition improved from 65% in 2004 to 94% in 2008 while timeliness of feedback of serology results improved from 4% in 2004 to 65% in 2008. Sensitivity of the NMCBSS however has been weakening, declining from 9.04 cases investigated per 100 000 population per year in 2000 to 1.58 cases/100 000/year in 2008. Conclusion The NMCBSS improved in quality, timeliness and feedback of laboratory results of specimens sent for investigation, but its sensitivity declined mainly due to reduced capacity to detect and confirm measles cases. We recommend training staff on active

  9. The Yoruba farm market as a communication channel in guinea worm disease surveillance.

    PubMed

    Brieger, W R; Kendall, C

    1996-01-01

    Disease eradication programmes are by definition time bound and require strategies that facilitate timely intervention. Surveillance, which undergirds eradication, also requires timely strategies. Finding such strategies is especially challenging when the target disease is endemic in remote areas, e.g. guinea worm disease, the focus of this study. A strategy of market based surveillance was pilot tested in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. The project goal was to design a surveillance system that both fit into the natural communication network of rural people, and also enlisted their active involvement. Ethnographic research methods were employed to learn about market location, structure, catchment area and attendance pattern. Four larger farm markets (serving 164 hamlets with 17,000 population) were chosen. Each hamlet was visited and a volunteer 'reporter' was recruited. Reporters were trained on case recognition and detection, first aid and prevention, with a sensitivity to distinguishing indigenous and clinical perceptions of guinea worm. The market cycle was based on the traditional four-day week. Field workers visited every second market 16 times between October 1990 and February 1991. The reporter was expected to identify correctly the first case of the season and thus label the village as endemic for the season. Reporters gave oral reports, and positive indications were followed up within 48 hr by field workers, who verified the case and administered first aid. All hamlets were visited once a month to verify negative reports. Reporter attendance was monitored. Those who had a formal role in the market, e.g. sales agents, had better attendance than ordinary farmers who came only to sell their own produce. Knowledge of market structure and attender roles offers a guide for adapting this surveillance approach to other cultural systems and health issues.

  10. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. To introduce data visualisation conceptual bases, and propose a visual analytic and visualisation platform in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. The paper introduces data visualisation conceptual bases, describes a visual analytic and visualisation platform, and presents two real-world case studies illustrating their application in public health surveillance for injury prevention and control. Application of visual analytic and visualisation platform is presented as solution for improved access to heterogeneous data sources, enhance data exploration and analysis, communicate data effectively, and support decision-making. Applications of data visualisation concepts and visual analytic platform could play a key role to shape the next generation of injury surveillance. Visual analytic and visualisation platform could improve data use, the analytic capacity, and ability to effectively communicate findings and key messages. The public health surveillance community is encouraged to identify opportunities to develop and expand its use in injury prevention and control. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. We Can Have It All: Improved Surveillance Outcomes and Decreased Personnel Costs Associated With Electronic Reportable Disease Surveillance, North Carolina, 2010

    PubMed Central

    DiBiase, Lauren; Fangman, Mary T.; Fleischauer, Aaron T.; Waller, Anna E.; MacDonald, Pia D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the timeliness, accuracy, and cost of a new electronic disease surveillance system at the local health department level. We describe practices associated with lower cost and better surveillance timeliness and accuracy. Methods. Interviews conducted May through August 2010 with local health department (LHD) staff at a simple random sample of 30 of 100 North Carolina counties provided information on surveillance practices and costs; we used surveillance system data to calculate timeliness and accuracy. We identified LHDs with best timeliness and accuracy and used these categories to compare surveillance practices and costs. Results. Local health departments in the top tertiles for surveillance timeliness and accuracy had a lower cost per case reported than LHDs with lower timeliness and accuracy ($71 and $124 per case reported, respectively; P = .03). Best surveillance practices fell into 2 domains: efficient use of the electronic surveillance system and use of surveillance data for local evaluation and program management. Conclusions. Timely and accurate surveillance can be achieved in the setting of restricted funding experienced by many LHDs. Adopting best surveillance practices may improve both efficiency and public health outcomes. PMID:24134385

  12. The Past, Present, and Future of Public Health Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bernard C. K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the past, present, and future of public health surveillance—the ongoing systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health data for the planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health action. Public health surveillance dates back to the first recorded epidemic in 3180 B.C. in Egypt. Hippocrates (460 B.C.–370 B.C.) coined the terms endemic and epidemic, John Graunt (1620–1674) introduced systematic data analysis, Samuel Pepys (1633–1703) started epidemic field investigation, William Farr (1807–1883) founded the modern concept of surveillance, John Snow (1813–1858) linked data to intervention, and Alexander Langmuir (1910–1993) gave the first comprehensive definition of surveillance. Current theories, principles, and practice of public health surveillance are summarized. A number of surveillance dichotomies, such as epidemiologic surveillance versus public health surveillance, are described. Some future scenarios are presented, while current activities that can affect the future are summarized: exploring new frontiers; enhancing computer technology; improving epidemic investigations; improving data collection, analysis, dissemination, and use; building on lessons from the past; building capacity; enhancing global surveillance. It is concluded that learning from the past, reflecting on the present, and planning for the future can further enhance public health surveillance. PMID:24278752

  13. A validated case definition for chronic rhinosinusitis in administrative data: a Canadian perspective.

    PubMed

    Rudmik, Luke; Xu, Yuan; Kukec, Edward; Liu, Mingfu; Dean, Stafford; Quan, Hude

    2016-11-01

    Pharmacoepidemiological research using administrative databases has become increasingly popular for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS); however, without a validated case definition the cohort evaluated may be inaccurate resulting in biased and incorrect outcomes. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a generalizable administrative database case definition for CRS using International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition (ICD-9)-coded claims. A random sample of 100 patients with a guideline-based diagnosis of CRS and 100 control patients were selected and then linked to a Canadian physician claims database from March 31, 2010, to March 31, 2015. The proportion of CRS ICD-9-coded claims (473.x and 471.x) for each of these 200 patients were reviewed and the validity of 7 different ICD-9-based coding algorithms was evaluated. The CRS case definition of ≥2 claims with a CRS ICD-9 code (471.x or 473.x) within 2 years of the reference case provides a balanced validity with a sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 79%. Applying this CRS case definition to the claims database produced a CRS cohort of 51,000 patients with characteristics that were consistent with published demographics and rates of comorbid asthma, allergic rhinitis, and depression. This study has validated several coding algorithms; based on the results a case definition of ≥2 physician claims of CRS (ICD-9 of 471.x or 473.x) within 2 years provides an optimal level of validity. Future studies will need to validate this administrative case definition from different health system perspectives and using larger retrospective chart reviews from multiple providers. © 2016 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  14. The role of supplementary environmental surveillance to complement acute flaccid paralysis surveillance for wild poliovirus in Pakistan – 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Cara C.; Sharif, Salmaan; Gary, Howard E.; Iber, Jane; Henderson, Elizabeth; Malik, Farzana; Zahoor Zaidi, Syed Sohail; Shaukat, Shahzad; Rehman, Lubna; Pallansch, Mark A.; Orenstein, Walter A.

    2017-01-01

    Background More than 99% of poliovirus infections are non-paralytic and therefore, not detected by acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance. Environmental surveillance (ES) can detect circulating polioviruses from sewage without relying on clinical presentation. With extensive ES and continued circulation of polioviruses, Pakistan presents a unique opportunity to quantify the impact of ES as a supplement to AFP surveillance on overall completeness and timeliness of poliovirus detection. Methods Genetic, geographic and temporal data were obtained for all wild poliovirus (WPV) isolates detected in Pakistan from January 2011 through December 2013. We used viral genetics to assess gaps in AFP surveillance and ES as measured by detection of ‘orphan viruses’ (≥1.5% different in VP1 capsid nucleotide sequence). We compared preceding detection of closely related circulating isolates (≥99% identity) detected by AFP surveillance or ES to determine which surveillance system first detected circulation before the presentation of each polio case. Findings A total of 1,127 WPV isolates were detected by AFP surveillance and ES in Pakistan from 2011–2013. AFP surveillance and ES combined exhibited fewer gaps (i.e., % orphan viruses) in detection than AFP surveillance alone (3.3% vs. 7.7%, respectively). ES detected circulation before AFP surveillance in nearly 60% of polio cases (200 of 346). For polio cases reported from provinces conducting ES, ES detected circulation nearly four months sooner on average (117.6 days) than did AFP surveillance. Interpretation Our findings suggest ES in Pakistan is providing earlier, more sensitive detection of wild polioviruses than AFP surveillance alone. Overall, targeted ES through strategic selection of sites has important implications in the eradication endgame strategy. PMID:28742803

  15. [Taxonomy and definition of clinical registries].

    PubMed

    Costa, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess the needs of knowledge about surveillance and registries in Italy and to prepare a proposal for the advancement of monitoring and recording capacity, a working group led by the Italian Association of Epidemiology and composed by the University of Turin, the Institute of Health and Agenas, carried out a survey of definitions and approaches used in public health and consulted the main Italian experts in surveillance and registries. Some of the reflections developed in this project are presented, to assess to which extent they are adaptable to the prospects the program PRIER aims to. Different aspects of the issue are analyzed: from the frame work necessary to identify information needs and how to improve the ability to measure and types of definitions and taxonomies of the registers, to the implications of the choices about what to include in registries on regulation of the instruments and investment priorities for new registries and surveillance.

  16. Delayed Diagnosis in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Data from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet)

    PubMed Central

    Ciafaloni, Emma; Fox, Deborah J.; Pandya, Shree; Westfield, Christina P.; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Miller, Timothy M.; Matthews, Dennis J.; Miller, Lisa A.; Cunniff, Christopher; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Moxley, Richard T.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To identify key factors for the delay in diagnosis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) without known family history. Study design The cohort comes from the Muscular Dystrophy Surveillance, Tracking, and Research Network (MD STARnet), a multistate, multiple-source, population-based surveillance system that identifies and gathers information on all cases of Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy born since 1982. We analyzed medical records of 453 Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy boys to document the time course and steps taken to reach a definitive diagnosis. Results Among 156 boys without known family history of DMD prior to birth, first signs or symptoms were noted at a mean age of 2.5 years. Concerns resulted in primary care provider evaluation of the child at a mean age of 3.6 years. Mean age at time of initial creatine kinase was 4.7 years. Mean age at definitive diagnosis of DMD was 4.9 years. Conclusions There is a delay of about 2.5 years between onset of DMD symptoms and the time of definitive diagnosis, unchanged over the previous 2 decades. This delay results in lost opportunities for timely genetic counseling and initiation of corticosteroid treatment. We recommend checking creatine kinase early in the evaluation of boys with unexplained developmental delay. PMID:19394035

  17. Evaluation of National Tsutsugamushi Disease Surveillance--Japan, 2000.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Tamano; Kramer, Michael H; Mendlein, James M; Osaka, Ken; Ohyama, Takaaki; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ono, Tomomichi; Okabe, Nobuhiko

    2002-12-01

    In Japan, Tsutsugamushi disease, which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, is re-emerging with newly recognized strains and is now endemic in all prefectures except Hokkaido and Okinawa. We analyzed recent surveillance data to describe the epidemiology of Tsutsugamushi disease and to evaluate the newly implemented national surveillance system according to the CDC guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. In 2000, 756 cases of Tsutsugamushi disease were reported from 37 of 47 prefectures; two of these cases were fatal. The median age of case-patients was 64 years (range: 2 - 94 years); 414 (54.8%) were male. In northern Japan, most cases were diagnosed in the months of May through July and in the months of October through December, and in southern Japan, cases were diagnosed almost year-round with a peak from October through December and in January. Reporting and transfer of surveillance information from the prefecture to the national level was effective and timely, but the completeness and quality of case reporting could still be improved. The current system for Tsutsugamushi disease surveillance is useful for describing epidemiologic patterns by time, prefecture, and demographic characteristics. However, collection of additional information on suspected place of transmission, activity performed at the place of transmission, or the case-patient's profession would likely make the system more valuable for outbreak detection and for better defining populations at risk.

  18. A concept for routine emergency-care data-based syndromic surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Ziemann, A; Rosenkötter, N; Garcia-Castrillo Riesgo, L; Schrell, S; Kauhl, B; Vergeiner, G; Fischer, M; Lippert, F K; Krämer, A; Brand, H; Krafft, T

    2014-11-01

    We developed a syndromic surveillance (SyS) concept using emergency dispatch, ambulance and emergency-department data from different European countries. Based on an inventory of sub-national emergency data availability in 12 countries, we propose framework definitions for specific syndromes and a SyS system design. We tested the concept by retrospectively applying cumulative sum and spatio-temporal cluster analyses for the detection of local gastrointestinal outbreaks in four countries and comparing the results with notifiable disease reporting. Routine emergency data was available daily and electronically in 11 regions, following a common structure. We identified two gastrointestinal outbreaks in two countries; one was confirmed as a norovirus outbreak. We detected 1/147 notified outbreaks. Emergency-care data-based SyS can supplement local surveillance with near real-time information on gastrointestinal patients, especially in special circumstances, e.g. foreign tourists. It most likely cannot detect the majority of local gastrointestinal outbreaks with few, mild or dispersed cases.

  19. Postmortem Diagnosis of Dengue as an Epidemiological Surveillance Tool

    PubMed Central

    de Góes Cavalcanti, Luciano Pamplona; Nunes de Melo Braga, Deborah; Maria Alexandre da Silva, Lívia; Gondim Aguiar, Marina; Castiglioni, Mariana; Silva-Junior, José Udevanier; Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Fernanda; Allana da Costa Pereira, Renata; Malta, Danielle Lima; Pompeu, Margarida Maria de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Dengue remains a problem in Brazil, and a substantial number of cases that progress to death are not diagnosed by health services. We evaluated the impact of a protocol adopted by the Coroner's Office Rocha Furtado (CO-RF) for the detection of unreported deaths from dengue in Brazil. We evaluated prospectively cases of deaths referred to the CO-RF with suspicion of dengue and those referred with other diagnosis in which the pathologists suspected dengue as the cause of death. Biological material was collected from all bodies autopsied, for which the suspected cause of death was dengue, between January 2011 and December 2012. Of the 214 bodies autopsied, 134 (62.6%) tested positive for dengue; of these cases, 121 were classified as dengue according to the World Health Organization's case definition (1997 or 2009, as appropriate). Thus, CO-RF detected 90 deaths from dengue, which were not suspected during disease progression. This CO-RF protocol, through a combined effort of the surveillance and laboratory teams, increased the detection of fatal dengue cases by 5-fold. This is the largest series of autopsies performed in cases of death related to dengue in the world to date. PMID:26598561

  20. The impact of injury definition on injury surveillance in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Kluitenberg, Bas; van Middelkoop, Marienke; Verhagen, Evert; Hartgens, Fred; Huisstede, Bionka; Diercks, Ron; van der Worp, Henk

    2016-06-01

    Despite several consensus statements, different injury definitions are used in the literature. This study aimed to identify the impact of different injury definitions on the nature and incidence of complaints captured during a short-term running program for novice runners. Prospective cohort study. 1696 participants completed weekly diaries on running exposure and musculoskeletal complaints during a 6-week running program. These data were used to compare six different injury definitions (presence of running-related pain, training-reduction, time-loss of one day or one week). Injuries were registered under these different definitions. Consequently incidence and the nature of complaints were compared between definitions. The different injury definitions resulted in incidences that varied between 7.5% and 58.0%, or 18.7 and 239.6 injuries per 1000h of running. The median duration of injury complaints was 4-7 days for injuries registered under a 'day definition', while complaints registered under a 'week definition' lasted 20-22 days. For running-related pain injuries the median of the maximum amount of pain was 3.0. In training-reduction and time-loss injuries these median values were scored between 5.0 and 7.0. No significant differences in anatomical locations between injuries that were registered under a 'day definition' or a 'week definition' were found. Injuries registered under a time-loss definition were located relatively more often at the knee, while complaints at the pelvis/sacrum/buttock were captured more often under a running-related pain definition. Injury definitions largely impact injury incidence. Location of injury is also affected by choice of injury definition. This stressed the need for standardized injury registration methods. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Electronic surveillance and using administrative data to identify healthcare associated infections.

    PubMed

    Gastmeier, Petra; Behnke, Michael

    2016-08-01

    Traditional surveillance of healthcare associated infections (HCAI) is time consuming and error-prone. We have analysed literature of the past year to look at new developments in this field. It is divided into three parts: new algorithms for electronic surveillance, the use of administrative data for surveillance of HCAI, and the definition of new endpoints of surveillance, in accordance with an automatic surveillance approach. Most studies investigating electronic surveillance of HCAI have concentrated on bloodstream infection or surgical site infection. However, the lack of important parameters in hospital databases can lead to misleading results. The accuracy of administrative coding data was poor at identifying HCAI. New endpoints should be defined for automatic detection, with the most crucial step being to win clinicians' acceptance. Electronic surveillance with conventional endpoints is a successful method when hospital information systems implemented key changes and enhancements. One requirement is the access to systems for hospital administration and clinical databases.Although the primary source of data for HCAI surveillance is not administrative coding data, these are important components of a hospital-wide programme of automated surveillance. The implementation of new endpoints for surveillance is an approach which needs to be discussed further.

  2. Using Syndromic Surveillance to Investigate Tattoo-Related Skin Infections in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Kotzen, Mollie; Sell, Jessica; Mathes, Robert W.; Dentinger, Catherine; Lee, Lillian; Schiff, Corinne; Weiss, Don

    2015-01-01

    In response to two isolated cases of Mycobacterium chelonae infections in tattoo recipients where tap water was used to dilute ink, the New York City (NYC) Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted an investigation using Emergency Department (ED) syndromic surveillance to assess whether an outbreak was occuring. ED visits with chief complaints containing the key word “tattoo” from November 1, 2012 to March 18, 2013 were selected for study. NYC laboratories were also contacted and asked to report skin or soft tissue cultures in tattoo recipients that were positive for non-tuberculosis mycobacterial infection (NTM). Thirty-one TREDV were identified and 14 (45%) were interviewed to determine if a NTM was the cause for the visit. One ED visit met the case definition and was referred to a dermatologist. This individual was negative for NTM. No tattoo-associated NTM cases were reported by NYC laboratories. ED syndromic surveillance was utilized to investigate a non-reportable condition for which no other data source existed. The results were reassuring that an outbreak of NTM in tattoo recipients was not occurring. In response to concerns about potential NTM infections, the department sent a letter to all licensed tattoo artists advising them not to dilute tattoo ink with tap water. PMID:26076006

  3. Surveillance for Lyme Disease - United States, 2008-2015.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Amy M; Hinckley, Alison F; Mead, Paul S; Hook, Sarah A; Kugeler, Kiersten J

    2017-11-10

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States but is geographically focal. The majority of Lyme disease cases occur in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions. Lyme disease can cause varied clinical manifestations, including erythema migrans, arthritis, facial palsy, and carditis. Lyme disease occurs most commonly among children and older adults, with a slight predominance among males. 2008-2015. Lyme disease has been a nationally notifiable condition in the United States since 1991. Possible Lyme disease cases are reported to local and state health departments by clinicians and laboratories. Health department staff conduct case investigations to classify cases according to the national surveillance case definition. Those that qualify as confirmed or probable cases of Lyme disease are reported to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. States with an average annual incidence during this reporting period of ≥10 confirmed Lyme disease cases per 100,000 population were classified as high incidence. States that share a border with those states or that are located between areas of high incidence were classified as neighboring states. All other states were classified as low incidence. During 2008-2015, a total of 275,589 cases of Lyme disease were reported to CDC (208,834 confirmed and 66,755 probable). Although most cases continue to be reported from states with high incidence in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions, case counts in most of these states have remained stable or decreased during the reporting period. In contrast, case counts have increased in states that neighbor those with high incidence. Overall, demographic characteristics associated with confirmed cases were similar to those described previously, with a slight predominance among males and a bimodal age distribution with peaks among young children and older adults. Yet, among the subset of cases reported

  4. Lessons learned by surveillance during the tail-end of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea, June-October 2015: a case series.

    PubMed

    Keïta, Mory; Conté, Fatoumata; Diallo, Boubacar; Lufwa, Dieudonné; Katomba, Jacques; Snacken, René; Pallawo, Raymond; Tolno, Aminata; Diallo, Amadou Bailo; Djingarey, Mamadou Harouna; Subissi, Lorenzo

    2017-04-24

    By the end of the 2013–2016 West African Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, a total of 3814 cases (probable and confirmed) and 2544 deaths were reported in Guinea. Clearly, surveillance activities aiming at stopping human-to-human transmission have been the breakthrough of EVD outbreak management, but their application has been at times easier said than done. This article presents five confirmed or probable EVD cases that arose in Conakry towards the end of the Guinea epidemic, which demonstrate flaws in surveillance and follow-up. For case 1, safe burial requirements were not followed. For cases 1 and 2, negative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) results were interpreted as no infection. For the first case, the sample may have not been taken properly while for the second the disease was possibly at its early stage. Case 3 was stopped at a border health checkpoint and despite her high temperature she was allowed to continue the bus journey. For case 4, an oral swab sample was supposedly taken after death but could not be found for retrospective testing. Despite characteristic symptomatology, case 5 was not identified as a suspect case for as long as 3 weeks. In epidemic contexts, health systems must be able to track all samples of suspect cases and deaths, regardless of their laboratory results. Social mobilization in communities and training in health care facilities must be strengthened at the tail of an outbreak, to avoid the natural slackening of disease surveillance, in particular for long-lasting and deadly epidemics.

  5. Application of grounded theory to content definition: a case study.

    PubMed

    Audiss, D; Roth, T

    1999-02-01

    Successful implementation of a clinical information system requires clinician involvement throughout the process of content definition and system development to ensure acceptance of the automated care process. In these times of downsizing, however, clinicians are not always able to participate fully in the dontent definition phase of system development and often become frustrated with their inability to obtain the patient information they need from the system. The qualitative research principles of grounded theory afford clinicians the opportunity to participate in content definition for information systems. This article presents a case study of the application of grounded theory to develop systematically the content definition for a clinical information system in preparation for implementation on four medical-surgical units.

  6. Occupational lead poisoning in Ohio: surveillance using workers' compensation data.

    PubMed

    Seligman, P J; Halperin, W E; Mullan, R J; Frazier, T M

    1986-11-01

    To determine the utility of workers' compensation (WC) data in a system for the surveillance of occupational lead poisoning, we reviewed workers' compensation claims for lead poisoning in Ohio. For the period 1979 through 1983, 92 (81 per cent) of the 114 claims attributed to lead met our case definition of lead poisoning. The likelihood that a company had a case of lead poisoning was strongly correlated with the number of claims against the company. Thirty companies accounted for the 92 cases; two companies accounted for 49 per cent of these. Inspection by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) occurred at 14 of these companies, all of which were cited for violations of the OSHA lead standard. Comparison of the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes for the 14 companies inspected by OSHA with the 15 companies not inspected by OSHA revealed that OSHA inspected battery manufacturers, non-ferrous foundries, secondary smelters, and primary lead smelters, but not bridge painters, manufacturers of electronic components, mechanical power transmission equipment, pumps, and paints, nor a sheriff's office where firing range slugs were remelted to make new bullets. Neither the number of cases of lead poisoning at a company nor the size of a company was related to the likelihood of being inspected by OSHA. Claims for WC appear to be a useful adjunct to an occupational lead poisoning surveillance system; their usefulness should be compared to that of other systems such as laboratory reports of elevated blood lead levels in adults.

  7. Model-based methods for case definitions from administrative health data: application to rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Kristine; Widdifield, Jessica; Muthukumarana, Saman; Jiang, Depeng; Lix, Lisa M

    2017-01-01

    Objective This research proposes a model-based method to facilitate the selection of disease case definitions from validation studies for administrative health data. The method is demonstrated for a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) validation study. Study design and setting Data were from 148 definitions to ascertain cases of RA in hospital, physician and prescription medication administrative data. We considered: (A) separate univariate models for sensitivity and specificity, (B) univariate model for Youden’s summary index and (C) bivariate (ie, joint) mixed-effects model for sensitivity and specificity. Model covariates included the number of diagnoses in physician, hospital and emergency department records, physician diagnosis observation time, duration of time between physician diagnoses and number of RA-related prescription medication records. Results The most common case definition attributes were: 1+ hospital diagnosis (65%), 2+ physician diagnoses (43%), 1+ specialist physician diagnosis (51%) and 2+ years of physician diagnosis observation time (27%). Statistically significant improvements in sensitivity and/or specificity for separate univariate models were associated with (all p values <0.01): 2+ and 3+ physician diagnoses, unlimited physician diagnosis observation time, 1+ specialist physician diagnosis and 1+ RA-related prescription medication records (65+ years only). The bivariate model produced similar results. Youden’s index was associated with these same case definition criteria, except for the length of the physician diagnosis observation time. Conclusion A model-based method provides valuable empirical evidence to aid in selecting a definition(s) for ascertaining diagnosed disease cases from administrative health data. The choice between univariate and bivariate models depends on the goals of the validation study and number of case definitions. PMID:28645978

  8. Analysis of risk factors for schizophrenia with two different case definitions: a nationwide register-based external validation study.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Holger J; Larsen, Janne T; Mors, Ole; Nordentoft, Merete; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    Different case definitions of schizophrenia have been used in register based research. However, no previous study has externally validated two different case definitions of schizophrenia against a wide range of risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated hazard ratios (HRs) for a wide range of risk factors for ICD-10 DCR schizophrenia using a nationwide Danish sample of 2,772,144 residents born in 1955-1997. We compared one contact only (OCO) (the case definition of schizophrenia used in Danish register based studies) with two or more contacts (TMC) (a case definition of at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia). During the follow-up, the OCO definition included 15,074 and the TMC 7562 cases; i.e. half as many. The TMC case definition appeared to select for a worse illness course. A wide range of risk factors were uniformly associated with both case definitions and only slightly higher risk estimates were found for the TMC definition. Choosing at least 2 inpatient contacts with schizophrenia (TMC) instead of the currently used case definition would result in almost similar risk estimates for many well-established risk factors. However, this would also introduce selection and include considerably fewer cases and reduce power of e.g. genetic studies based on register-diagnosed cases only. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Door-to-door capture of incident and prevalent stroke cases in Durango, Mexico – the Brain Attack Surveillance in Durango (BASID) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cantu-Brito, Carlos; Majersik, Jennifer J; Sánchez, Brisa N; Ruano, Angel; Becerra-Mendoza, Daniela; Wing, Jeffrey J; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke incidence and prevalence estimates in developing countries should include stroke cases not presenting to hospital. We performed door-to-door stroke case ascertainment in Durango Municipality, Mexico to estimate stroke incidence and prevalence, and to determine the error made by only ascertaining hospital cases. Methods Between September 2008 and March 2009, 1996 housing units were randomly sampled to screen for stroke in Durango Municipality residents ≥35 years of age. Field workers utilized a validated screening tool. Those screening positive were referred to a neurologist for history and examination and if confirmed, a head CT scan. Prevalence and cumulative incidence from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated and compared with previously reported hospitalization rates during the same defined time. Results Respondents included 2437 subjects from 1419 homes. The refusal rate was 3.8%. Twenty subjects had verified or probable stroke. The prevalence of probable or verified stroke was 7.7/1000 (95% CI: 4.3/1000, 11.2/1000). Five patients had a stroke during the time of the hospital surveillance, yielding a cumulative incidence of 232.3/100,000 (95% CI: 27.8, 436.9). Two of the 5 cases were captured by door-to-door surveillance but not by hospital surveillance. Conclusions This study provides the first community-based stroke prevalence and incidence estimates in Mexico. The wide confidence intervals, despite the large number of surveyed housing units, suggest the need for more advanced sampling strategies for stroke surveillance in the developing world. PMID:21212398

  10. Highly variable population-based prevalence rates of unilateral hearing loss after the application of common case definitions.

    PubMed

    Ross, Danielle S; Visser, Susanna N; Holstrum, W June; Qin, Tielin; Kenneson, Aileen

    2010-02-01

    This study shows how population-based estimates of the prevalence of unilateral hearing loss (UHL) in children aged 6 to 19 yrs can differ considerably with various applications of commonly accepted case definitions. It also examines demographic variables and risk factors related to UHL. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1994, is a national population-based, cross-sectional survey. This study examined results of audiometric testing at 0.5 to 8 kHz and demographic data from in-person examination interviews. Three definitions of UHL were used: (1) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz > or = 15 dB pure-tone average (PTA); (2) 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz > or = 15 dB PTA; and (3) 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz > or = 20 dB or PTA >25 dB at two or more frequencies above 2 kHz (3, 4, 6, and 8 kHz). Case definitions 2 and 3 are not merely subsets of case definition 1. Some overlap exists between the groups, but each case definition classifies a proportion of children who fall uniquely under that case definition. Inclusion of participants based on tympanometry results (test of middle ear function) was also examined as were demographic characteristics and risk factors associated with UHL. Overall, the weighted proportion of children with UHL using case definition 1 was 6.3% (approximately 3,213,000 children nationally); using case definition 2, it was 5.8% (approximately 2,958,000 nationally); using case definition 3, it was 3.0% (approximately 1,530,000 nationally). For all three case definitions, children who failed tympanometry were at higher risk for UHL than children who passed. For case definition 2, children from rural areas were at higher risk for UHL than were children from urban areas. This study demonstrates that different applications of well-accepted case definitions of UHL can influence population-based prevalence estimates, in this study by as much as a factor of 2. These findings highlight the importance of controlling for tympanometry status as a

  11. Validation of intensive care unit-acquired infection surveillance in the Italian SPIN-UTI network.

    PubMed

    Masia, M D; Barchitta, M; Liperi, G; Cantù, A P; Alliata, E; Auxilia, F; Torregrossa, V; Mura, I; Agodi, A

    2010-10-01

    Validity is one of the most critical factors concerning surveillance of nosocomial infections (NIs). This article describes the first validation study of the Italian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) project (SPIN-UTI) surveillance data. The objective was to validate infection data and thus to determine the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of NI data reported on patients in the ICUs participating in the SPIN-UTI network. A validation study was performed at the end of the surveillance period. All medical records including all clinical and laboratory data were reviewed retrospectively by the trained physicians of the validation team and a positive predictive value (PPV), a negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Eight ICUs (16.3%) were randomly chosen from all 49 SPIN-UTI ICUs for the validation study. In total, the validation team reviewed 832 patient charts (27.3% of the SPIN-UTI patients). The PPV was 83.5% and the NPV was 97.3%. The overall sensitivity was 82.3% and overall specificity was 97.2%. Over- and under-reporting of NIs were related to misinterpretation of the case definitions and deviations from the protocol despite previous training and instructions. The results of this study are useful to identify methodological problems within a surveillance system and have been used to plan retraining for surveillance personnel and to design and implement the second phase of the SPIN-UTI project. Copyright 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Data mining: comparing the empiric CFS to the Canadian ME/CFS case definition.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Skendrovic, Beth; Furst, Jacob; Brown, Abigail; Weng, Angela; Bronikowski, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article contrasts two case definitions for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We compared the empiric CFS case definition (Reeves et al., 2005) and the Canadian ME/CFS clinical case definition (Carruthers et al., 2003) with a sample of individuals with CFS versus those without. Data mining with decision trees was used to identify the best items to identify patients with CFS. Data mining is a statistical technique that was used to help determine which of the survey questions were most effective for accurately classifying cases. The empiric criteria identified about 79% of patients with CFS and the Canadian criteria identified 87% of patients. Items identified by the Canadian criteria had more construct validity. The implications of these findings are discussed. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Travel-acquired infections and illnesses in Canadians: surveillance report from CanTravNet surveillance data, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Boggild, Andrea K; Geduld, Jennifer; Libman, Michael; Ward, Brian J; McCarthy, Anne E; Doyle, Patrick W; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Vincelette, Jean; Kuhn, Susan; Freedman, David O; Kain, Kevin C

    2014-01-01

    Important knowledge gaps exist in our understanding of migration medicine practice and the impact of pathogens imported by Canadian travellers. We present here a comprehensive, Canada-specific surveillance summary of illness in a cohort of returned Canadian travellers and new immigrants. We extracted and analyzed (using standard parametric and nonparametric techniques) data from the Canadian Travel Medicine Network (CanTravNet) database for ill returned Canadian travellers and new immigrants who presented to a Canadian GeoSentinel Surveillance Network site between September 2009 and September 2011. During the study period, 4365 travellers and immigrants presented to a CanTravNet site, 3943 (90.3%) of whom were assigned a travel-related diagnosis. Among the 3115 non-immigrant travellers with a definitive travel-related diagnosis, arthropod bite (n = 127 [4.1%]), giardiasis (n = 91 [2.9%]), malaria (n = 77 [2.5%]), latent tuberculosis (n = 73 [2.3%]), and strongyloidiasis (n = 66 [2.1%]) were the most common specific etiologic diagnoses. Among the 828 immigrants with definitive travel-related diagnoses, the most frequent etiologies were latent tuberculosis (n = 229 [27.7%]), chronic hepatitis B (n = 182 [22.0%]), active tuberculosis (n = 97 [11.7%]), chronic hepatitis C (n = 89 [10.7%]), and strongyloidiasis (n = 41 [5.0%]). Potentially serious infections, such as dengue fever (61 cases) and enteric fever due to Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi or Paratyphi (36 cases), were common. Individuals travelling for the purpose of visiting friends and relatives (n = 500 [11.6% of those with known reason for travel]) were over-represented among those diagnosed with malaria and enteric fever, compared with other illnesses (for malaria 34/94 [36.2%] v. 466/4221 [11.0%]; for enteric fever, 17/36 [47.2%] v. 483/4279 [11.3%]) (both p < 0.001). For cases of malaria, there was also overrepresentation (compared with other illnesses) from business travellers (22/94 [23.4%] v. 337

  14. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Naeini, Alireza Emami; Ghazavi, Mohamadreza; Moghim, Sharareh; Sabaghi, Amirhosein; Fadaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC) in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22). Student's t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: In this 6-year period 85 cases were analyzed, 54 patients were male (63.5%) and 31 were female (36.5%). The mean age of patients was 5.7 ± 3.9 years. The most common cause of paralysis among these patients was Guillian–Barré syndrome (83.5%). We did not found any poliomyelitis caused by wild polio virus. Only one case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis was reported. Conclusion: Since 1992, Iran has a routine and high percent coverage of polio vaccination program for infants (>94%), with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication. PMID:26015925

  15. Acute flaccid paralysis surveillance: A 6 years study, Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Naeini, Alireza Emami; Ghazavi, Mohamadreza; Moghim, Sharareh; Sabaghi, Amirhosein; Fadaei, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Poliomyelitis is still an endemic disease in many areas of the world including Africa and South Asia. Iran is polio free since 2001. However, due to endemicity of polio in neighboring countries of Iran, the risk of polio importation and re-emergence of wild polio virus is high. Case definition through surveillance system is a well-defined method for maintenance of polio eradication in polio free countries. In a cross-sectional survey from 2007 to 2013, we reviewed all the records of under 15 years old patients reported to Acute Flaccid Paralysis Committee (AFPC) in Isfahan province, Iran. All cases were visited by members of the AFPC. Three stool samples were collected from each reported case within 2 weeks of onset of paralysis and sent to National Polio Laboratory in Tehran, Iran, for poliovirus isolation. Data were analyzed by SSPS software (version 22). Student's t-test and Chi-square was used to compare variables. Statistical significance level was set at P < 0.05. In this 6-year period 85 cases were analyzed, 54 patients were male (63.5%) and 31 were female (36.5%). The mean age of patients was 5.7 ± 3.9 years. The most common cause of paralysis among these patients was Guillian-Barré syndrome (83.5%). We did not found any poliomyelitis caused by wild polio virus. Only one case of vaccine associated poliomyelitis was reported. Since 1992, Iran has a routine and high percent coverage of polio vaccination program for infants (>94%), with six doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV). Accurate surveillance for poliomyelitis is essential for continuing eradication.

  16. Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition of AIDS among children in India.

    PubMed

    Gurprit, Grover; Tripti, Pensi; Gadpayle, A K; Tanushree, Banerjee

    2008-03-01

    The need of a clinical case definition (CCD) for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was felt by public health agencies to monitor diseases resulting from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To test the statistical significance of the existing World Health Organization (WHO) CCD for the diagnosis of AIDS in areas where diagnostic resources are limited in India, a prospective study was conducted in the Paediatrics department at Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi. 360 cases between 18 months-12 years of age satisfying WHO case definitions of AIDS were included in the study group. Informed consent was taken from the parents. The serum of patients was subjected to ELISA to conform the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our study detected 16.66% (60) of HIV prevalence in children visiting paediatrics outpatient clinic. 20% cases manifested 3 major and 2 minor signs. This definition had a sensitivity of 73.33%, specificity of 90.66%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 61.11% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 94.44%. On using stepwise logistic regression analysis weight loss, chronic fever > 1 month and total lymphocyte count of less than 1500 cells/mm3 emerged as important predictors. Cases showing 2 major and 2 minor signs were 86 (23.89%) with a sensitivity and specificity of 86.66% and 88.66% respectively. Based on these findings, we propose a clinical case definition based on 13 clinical signs and symptoms for paediatric AIDS in India with better sensitivity and PPV than the WHO case definition but with almost similar specificity. Thus multicentric studies are further required to modify these criteria in Indian set up.

  17. Evaluating Hospital-Based Surveillance for Outbreak Detection in Bangladesh: Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Data

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Salje, Henrik; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Homaira, Nusrat; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Paul, Repon C.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Cauchemez, Simon; Gurley, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country’s ability to meet these requirements. Methods and Findings We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh. We identified cases in selected communities within surveillance hospital catchment areas using key informant and house-to-house surveys and ascertained where cases had sought care. We estimated the probability of surveillance detecting different sized outbreaks by distance from the surveillance hospital and compared characteristics of cases identified in the community and cases attending surveillance hospitals. We estimated that surveillance detected 26% (95% CI 18%–33%) of severe neurological disease cases and 18% (95% CI 16%–21%) of fatal respiratory disease cases residing at 10 km distance from a surveillance hospital. Detection probabilities decreased markedly with distance. The probability of detecting small outbreaks (three cases) dropped below 50% at distances greater than 26 km for severe neurological disease and at distances greater than 7 km for fatal respiratory disease. Characteristics of cases attending surveillance hospitals were largely representative of all cases; however, neurological disease cases aged <5 y or from the lowest socioeconomic group and fatal respiratory disease cases aged ≥60 y were underrepresented. Our estimates of outbreak detection rely on suspected cases that attend a surveillance hospital receiving laboratory confirmation of disease and being reported to the surveillance system. The extent to which this occurs will depend on disease characteristics (e.g., severity and symptom specificity) and

  18. Validation of a published case definition for tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haddow, Lewis J; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Easterbrook, Philippa J

    2010-01-02

    To evaluate the International Network for the Study of HIV-associated IRIS (INSHI) case definitions for tuberculosis (TB)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in a South African cohort. Prospective cohort of 498 adult HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy. Patients were followed up for 24 weeks and all clinical events were recorded. Events with TB-IRIS as possible cause were assessed by consensus expert opinion and INSHI case definition. Positive, negative, and chance-corrected agreement (kappa) were calculated, and reasons for disagreement were assessed. One hundred and two (20%) patients were receiving TB therapy at antiretroviral therapy initiation. Three hundred and thirty-three events were evaluated (74 potential paradoxical IRIS, 259 potential unmasking IRIS). Based on expert opinion, there were 18 cases of paradoxical IRIS associated with TB and/or other opportunistic disease. The INSHI criteria for TB-IRIS agreed in 13 paradoxical cases, giving positive agreement of 72.2%, negative agreement in 52/56 non-TB-IRIS events (92.9%), and kappa of 0.66. There were 19 unmasking TB-IRIS cases based on expert opinion, of which 12 were considered IRIS using the INSHI definition (positive agreement 63.2%). There was agreement in all 240 non-TB-IRIS events (negative agreement 100%) and kappa was 0.76. There was good agreement between the INSHI case definition for both paradoxical and unmasking TB-IRIS and consensus expert opinion. These results support the use of this definition in clinical and research practice, with minor caveats in its application.

  19. Severe versus Moderate Criteria for the New Pediatric Case Definition for ME/CFS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard; Porter, Nicole; Shelleby, Elizabeth; Till, Lindsay; Bell, David S.; Lapp, Charles W.; Rowe, Kathy; De Meirleir, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    The new diagnostic criteria for pediatric ME/CFS are structurally based on the Canadian Clinical Adult case definition, and have more required specific symptoms than the (Fukuda et al. Ann Intern Med 121:953-959, 1994) adult case definition. Physicians specializing in pediatric ME/CFS referred thirty-three pediatric patients with ME/CFS and 21…

  20. Evaluation of paradoxical TB–associated IRIS with the use of standardized case definitions for resource limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Eshun-Wilson, Ingrid; Havers, Fiona; Nachega, Jean B; Prozesky, Hans W; Taljaard, Jantjie J; Zeier, Michele D; Cotton, Mark; Simon, Gary; Soentjens, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objective Standardized case definitions have recently been proposed by the International Network for the Study of HIV-associated IRIS (INSHI) for use in resource-limited settings. We evaluated paradoxical TB-associated IRIS in a large cohort from a TB endemic setting with the use of these case definitions. Design A retrospective cohort analysis. Methods We reviewed records from 1250 South African patients who initiated anti-retroviral therapy (ART) over a five-year period. Results 333 (27%) of the patients in the cohort had prevalent TB at the initiation of ART. Of 54 possible paradoxical TB-associated IRIS cases, 35 fulfilled the INSHI case definitions (11% of TB cases). Conclusions INSHI standardised case definitions were used successfully in identifying paradoxical TB-associated IRIS in this cohort and resulted in a similar proportion of TB IRIS cases (11%) as that reported in previous studies from resource-limited settings (8-13%). This case definition should be evaluated prospectively. PMID:20160249

  1. Validation of a Syndromic Case Definition for Detecting Emergency Department Visits Potentially Related to Marijuana.

    PubMed

    DeYoung, Kathryn; Chen, Yushiuan; Beum, Robert; Askenazi, Michele; Zimmerman, Cali; Davidson, Arthur J

    Reliable methods are needed to monitor the public health impact of changing laws and perceptions about marijuana. Structured and free-text emergency department (ED) visit data offer an opportunity to monitor the impact of these changes in near-real time. Our objectives were to (1) generate and validate a syndromic case definition for ED visits potentially related to marijuana and (2) describe a method for doing so that was less resource intensive than traditional methods. We developed a syndromic case definition for ED visits potentially related to marijuana, applied it to BioSense 2.0 data from 15 hospitals in the Denver, Colorado, metropolitan area for the period September through October 2015, and manually reviewed each case to determine true positives and false positives. We used the number of visits identified by and the positive predictive value (PPV) for each search term and field to refine the definition for the second round of validation on data from February through March 2016. Of 126 646 ED visits during the first period, terms in 524 ED visit records matched ≥1 search term in the initial case definition (PPV, 92.7%). Of 140 932 ED visits during the second period, terms in 698 ED visit records matched ≥1 search term in the revised case definition (PPV, 95.7%). After another revision, the final case definition contained 6 keywords for marijuana or derivatives and 5 diagnosis codes for cannabis use, abuse, dependence, poisoning, and lung disease. Our syndromic case definition and validation method for ED visits potentially related to marijuana could be used by other public health jurisdictions to monitor local trends and for other emerging concerns.

  2. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008–2014

    PubMed Central

    Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. Design This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Setting Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. Participants All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Outcome measures Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. Results A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; p<0.0001), through 5 to 9 years (OR 13.07; 95% CI 7.93 to 22.93; p<0.001), to 10 to 14 years of age (OR 13.86; 95% CI 8.06 to 25.12; p<0.001). Persons aged ≥15 years were also more likely to have rubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between

  3. Acute respiratory infection case definitions for young children: a systematic review of community-based epidemiologic studies in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Roth, Daniel E; Gaffey, Michelle F; Smith-Romero, Evelyn; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Morris, Shaun K

    2015-12-01

    To explore the variability in childhood acute respiratory infection case definitions for research in low-income settings where there is limited access to laboratory or radiologic investigations. We conducted a systematic review of community-based, longitudinal studies in South Asia published from January 1990 to August 2013, in which childhood acute respiratory infection outcomes were reported. Case definitions were classified by their label (e.g. pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection) and clinical content 'signatures' (array of clinical features that would be always present, conditionally present or always absent among cases). Case definition heterogeneity was primarily assessed by the number of unique case definitions overall and by label. We also compared case definition-specific acute respiratory infection incidence rates for studies reporting incidence rates for multiple case definitions. In 56 eligible studies, we found 124 acute respiratory infection case definitions. Of 90 case definitions for which clinical content was explicitly defined, 66 (73%) were unique. There was a high degree of content heterogeneity among case definitions with the same label, and some content signatures were assigned multiple labels. Within studies for which incidence rates were reported for multiple case definitions, variation in content was always associated with a change in incidence rate, even when the content differed by a single clinical feature. There has been a wide variability in case definition label and content combinations to define acute upper and lower respiratory infections in children in community-based studies in South Asia over the past two decades. These inconsistencies have important implications for the synthesis and translation of knowledge regarding the prevention and treatment of childhood acute respiratory infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Vital Signs: Health Care–Associated Legionnaires’ Disease Surveillance Data from 20 States and a Large Metropolitan Area — United States, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Barskey, Albert E.; Shah, Priti P.; Schrag, Stephanie; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Arduino, Matthew J.; Reddy, Sujan C.; Kunz, Jasen M.; Hunter, Candis M.; Raphael, Brian H.; Cooley, Laura A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Legionnaires’ disease, a severe pneumonia, is typically acquired through inhalation of aerosolized water containing Legionella bacteria. Legionella can grow in the complex water systems of buildings, including health care facilities. Effective water management programs could prevent the growth of Legionella in building water systems. Methods Using national surveillance data, Legionnaires’ disease cases were characterized from the 21 jurisdictions (20 U.S. states and one large metropolitan area) that reported exposure information for ≥90% of 2015 Legionella infections. An assessment of whether cases were health care–associated was completed; definite health care association was defined as hospitalization or long-term care facility residence for the entire 10 days preceding symptom onset, and possible association was defined as any exposure to a health care facility for a portion of the 10 days preceding symptom onset. All other Legionnaires’ disease cases were considered unrelated to health care. Results A total of 2,809 confirmed Legionnaires’ disease cases were reported from the 21 jurisdictions, including 85 (3%) definite and 468 (17%) possible health care–associated cases. Among the 21 jurisdictions, 16 (76%) reported 1–21 definite health care–associated cases per jurisdiction. Among definite health care–associated cases, the majority (75, 88%) occurred in persons aged ≥60 years, and exposures occurred at 72 facilities (15 hospitals and 57 long-term care facilities). The case fatality rate was 25% for definite and 10% for possible health care–associated Legionnaires’ disease. Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice Exposure to Legionella from health care facility water systems can result in Legionnaires’ disease. The high case fatality rate of health care–associated Legionnaires’ disease highlights the importance of case prevention and response activities, including implementation of effective water

  5. Accounting for spatially heterogeneous conditions in local-scale surveillance strategies: case study of the biosecurity insect pest, grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)).

    PubMed

    Triska, Maggie D; Powell, Kevin S; Collins, Cassandra; Pearce, Inca; Renton, Michael

    2018-04-29

    Surveillance strategies are often standardized and completed on grid patterns to detect pest incursions quickly; however, it may be possible to improve surveillance through more targeted surveillance that accounts for landscape heterogeneity, dispersal and the habitat requirements of the invading organism. We simulated pest spread at a local-scale, using grape phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch)) as a case study, and assessed the influence of incorporating spatial heterogeneity into surveillance strategies compared to current, standard surveillance strategies. Time to detection, spread within and spread beyond the vineyard were reduced by conducting surveys that target sampling effort in soil that is highly suitable to the invading pest in comparison to standard surveillance strategies. However, these outcomes were dependent on the virulence level of phylloxera as phylloxera is a complex pest with multiple genotypes that influence spread and detectability. Targeting surveillance strategies based on local-scale spatial heterogeneity can decrease the time to detection without increasing the survey cost and surveillance that targets highly suitable soil is the most efficient strategy for detecting new incursions. Additionally, combining targeted surveillance strategies with buffer zones and hygiene procedures, and updating surveillance strategies as additional species information becomes available, will further decrease the risk of pest spread. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Identifying Challenges to the Integration of Computer-Based Surveillance Information Systems in a Large City Health Department: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Jacky M; Stover, Jeffrey A; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Fichtenberg, Caroline; Munoz, Mary Grace; Maziad, Rafiq; Ketemepi, Sherry Johnson; Zenilman, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Integrated infectious disease surveillance information systems have the potential to provide important new surveillance capacities and business efficiencies for local health departments. We conducted a case study at a large city health department of the primary computer-based infectious disease surveillance information systems during a 10-year period to identify the major challenges for information integration across the systems. The assessment included key informant interviews and evaluations of the computer-based surveillance information systems used for acute communicable diseases, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, sexually transmitted diseases, and tuberculosis. Assessments were conducted in 1998 with a follow-up in 2008. Assessments specifically identified and described the primary computer-based surveillance information system, any duplicative information systems, and selected variables collected. Persistent challenges to information integration across the information systems included the existence of duplicative data systems, differences in the variables used to collect similar information, and differences in basic architecture. The assessments identified a number of challenges for information integration across the infectious disease surveillance information systems at this city health department. The results suggest that local disease control programs use computer-based surveillance information systems that were not designed for data integration. To the extent that integration provides important new surveillance capacities and business efficiencies, we recommend that patient-centric information systems be designed that provide all the epidemiologic, clinical, and research needs in one system. In addition, the systems should include a standard system of elements and fields across similar surveillance systems.

  7. Effect of Surveillance Method on Reported Characteristics of Lyme Disease, Connecticut, 1996–2007

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Randall S.; Cartter, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the effect of changing public health surveillance methods on the reported epidemiology of Lyme disease, we analyzed Connecticut data for 1996–2007. Data were stratified by 4 surveillance methods and compared. A total of 87,174 reports were received that included 79,896 potential cases. Variations based on surveillance methods were seen. Cases reported through physician-based surveillance were significantly more likely to be classified as confirmed; such case-patients were significantly more likely to have symptoms of erythema migrans only and to have illness onset during summer months. Case-patients reported through laboratory-based surveillance were significantly more likely to have late manifestations only and to be older. Use of multiple surveillance methods provided a more complete clinical and demographic description of cases but lacked efficiency. When interpreting data, changes in surveillance method must be considered. PMID:22304873

  8. Is hospital information system relevant to detect surgical site infection? Findings from a prospective surveillance study in posterior instrumented spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Boetto, J; Chan-Seng, E; Lonjon, G; Pech, J; Lotthé, A; Lonjon, N

    2015-11-01

    Spinal instrumentation has a high rate of surgical site infection (SSI), but results greatly vary depending on surveillance methodology, surgical procedures, or quality of follow-up. Our aim was to study true incidence of SSI in spinal surgery by significant data collection, and to compare it with the results obtained through the hospital information system. This work is a single center prospective cohort study that included all patients consecutively operated on for spinal instrumentation by posterior approach over a six-month period regardless the etiology. For all patients, a "high definition" prospective method of surveillance was performed by the infection control (IC) department during at least 12 months after surgery. Results were then compared with findings from automatic surveillance though the hospital information system (HIS). One hundred and fifty-four patients were included. We found no hardly difference between "high definition" and automatic surveillance through the HIS, even if HIS tended to under-estimate the infection rate: rate of surgical site infection was 2.60% and gross SSI incidence rate via the hospital information system was 1.95%. Smoking and alcohol consumption were significantly related to a SSI. Our SSI rates to reflect the true incidence of infectious complications in posterior instrumented adult spinal surgery in our hospital and these results were consistent with the lower levels of published infection rate. In-house surveillance by surgeons only is insufficiently sensitive. Further studies with more patients and a longer inclusion time are needed to conclude if SSI case detection through the HIS could be a relevant and effective alternative method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. 32 CFR 149.3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... access to classified national security information, restricted data, and/or sensitive but unclassified... ON TECHNICAL SURVEILLANCE COUNTERMEASURES § 149.3 Definitions. Classified National Security... is marked to indicate its classified status when in documentary form. Restricted Data (RD). All data...

  10. Congenital rubella syndrome surveillance in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Molina, Ida Berenice; Mendoza, Lourdes Otilia; Palma, María Aparicia

    2011-09-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) surveillance was established in Honduras to determine the scope of the problem and assess the impact of vaccination. Implementation of the surveillance system required the drafting of national CRS epidemiological surveillance guidelines, the development of a laboratory diagnostic method, and training of physicians, nurses, and microbiologists in the Honduran hospital network and social security system on CRS surveillance guidelines. Honduras' experience with the surveillance of other vaccine-preventable diseases facilitated the implementation of hospital-based CRS surveillance. The surveillance system operates in 23 of the 25 public hospitals that offer services to children and at 2 social security hospitals; the private sector has not been integrated into this system. Clinical and technical staff, including representatives from various disciplines such as pediatrics, neonatology, general medicine, epidemiology, nursing, and microbiology, participate in the hospital network, as well as follow up on cases in accordance with the standardized guidelines, depending on their areas of expertise. Implementation of the CRS surveillance system requires technical guidelines, laboratory diagnostic capacity, and trained multidisciplinary human resources for its systematization and operation.

  11. Consensus statement with recommendations on active surveillance inclusion criteria and definition of progression in men with localized prostate cancer: the critical role of the pathologist.

    PubMed

    Montironi, Rodolfo; Hammond, Elizabeth H; Lin, Daniel W; Gore, John L; Srigley, John R; Samaratunga, Hema; Egevad, Lars; Rubin, Mark A; Nacey, John; Klotz, Laurence; Sandler, Howard; Zietman, Anthony L; Holden, Stuart; Humphrey, Peter A; Evans, Andrew J; Delahunt, Brett; McKenney, Jesse K; Berney, Daniel; Wheeler, Thomas M; Chinnaiyan, Arul; True, Lawrence; Knudsen, Beatrice; Epstein, Jonathan I; Amin, Mahul B

    2014-12-01

    Active surveillance (AS) is an important management option for men with low-risk, clinically localized prostate cancer. The clinical parameters for patient selection and definition of progression for AS protocols are evolving as data from several large cohorts matures. Vital to this process is the critical role pathologic parameters play in identifying appropriate candidates for AS. These findings need to be reproducible and consistently reported by surgical pathologists. This report highlights the importance of accurate pathology reporting as a critical component of these protocols.

  12. Wildland firefighter deaths in the United States: A comparison of existing surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Corey; Marsh, Suzanne; Domitrovich, Joseph W.; Helmkamp, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system’s utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system’s potential to inform prevention strategies. To describe similarities and differences in how data were recorded and characterized, wildland fire deaths for three of the population-based systems were matched and individual fatalities across systems were compared. Between 2001 and 2012, 247 unique deaths were captured among the systems; 73% of these were captured in all three systems. Most common causes of death in all systems were associated with aviation, vehicles, medical events, and entrapments/burnovers. The data show that, although the three systems often report similar annual summary statistics, events captured in each system vary each year depending on the types of events that the system is designed to track, such as inclusion/exclusion of fatalities associated with the Hometown Heroes Survivor Benefits Act of 2003. The overarching and central goal of each system is to collect accurate and timely information to improve wildland firefighter safety and health. Each system is unique and has varying inclusion and exclusion criteria for capturing and tracking different subsets of wildland firefighter tasks and duties. Use of a common case definition and better descriptions and interpretations of the data and the results would help to

  13. Wildland firefighter deaths in the United States: A comparison of existing surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, Corey; Marsh, Suzanne; Domitrovich, Joseph W; Helmkamp, Jim

    2017-04-01

    Wildland fire fighting is a high-risk occupation requiring considerable physical and psychological demands. Multiple agencies publish fatality summaries for wildland firefighters; however, the reported number and types vary. At least five different surveillance systems capture deaths, each with varying case definitions and case inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four are population-level systems and one is case-based. System differences create challenges to accurately characterize fatalities. Data within each of the five surveillance systems were examined to better understand the types of wildland firefighter data collected, to assess each system's utility in characterizing wildland firefighter fatalities, and to determine each system's potential to inform prevention strategies. To describe similarities and differences in how data were recorded and characterized, wildland fire deaths for three of the population-based systems were matched and individual fatalities across systems were compared. Between 2001 and 2012, 247 unique deaths were captured among the systems; 73% of these were captured in all three systems. Most common causes of death in all systems were associated with aviation, vehicles, medical events, and entrapments/burnovers. The data show that, although the three systems often report similar annual summary statistics, events captured in each system vary each year depending on the types of events that the system is designed to track, such as inclusion/exclusion of fatalities associated with the Hometown Heroes Survivor Benefits Act of 2003. The overarching and central goal of each system is to collect accurate and timely information to improve wildland firefighter safety and health. Each system is unique and has varying inclusion and exclusion criteria for capturing and tracking different subsets of wildland firefighter tasks and duties. Use of a common case definition and better descriptions and interpretations of the data and the results would help to more

  14. Health surveillance for occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Fishwick, David; Forman, Steve

    2018-04-01

    The outcome for workers with occupational asthma is improved for those with an earlier diagnosis. Health surveillance at work is in principle designed to identify such cases, so that the risks to the individual worker, and coworkers, can be reduced. There is recent evidence to suggest that the uptake and quality of such surveillance could be improved. This review has assessed current approaches to health surveillance for occupational asthma. The article covers a review of the utility of questionnaires, lung function testing, immunological investigations, and other tests, including exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophilia, and exhaled breath condensate specifically in the context of workplace-based health surveillance. Questionnaires remain a key component of respiratory health surveillance, although maybe limited by both sensitivity and specificity for early occupational asthma. The role of lung function testing is debated, although is recommended for higher level health surveillance. Various examples of immunological testing in health surveillance are discussed, but more evidence is needed in many specific areas before more general recommendations can be made. Evidence is discussed in relation to the utility of newer approaches such as exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophilia, and exhaled breath condensate.

  15. Estimating Leptospirosis Incidence Using Hospital-Based Surveillance and a Population-Based Health Care Utilization Survey in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Holly M.; Hertz, Julian T.; Munishi, O. Michael; Galloway, Renee L.; Marks, Florian; Saganda, Wilbrod; Maro, Venance P.; Crump, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of leptospirosis, a neglected zoonotic disease, is uncertain in Tanzania and much of sub-Saharan Africa, resulting in scarce data on which to prioritize resources for public health interventions and disease control. In this study, we estimate the incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a population-based household health care utilization survey in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania and identified leptospirosis cases at two hospital-based fever sentinel surveillance sites in the Kilimanjaro Region. We used multipliers derived from the health care utilization survey and case numbers from hospital-based surveillance to calculate the incidence of leptospirosis. A total of 810 households were enrolled in the health care utilization survey and multipliers were derived based on responses to questions about health care seeking in the event of febrile illness. Of patients enrolled in fever surveillance over a 1 year period and residing in the 2 districts, 42 (7.14%) of 588 met the case definition for confirmed or probable leptospirosis. After applying multipliers to account for hospital selection, test sensitivity, and study enrollment, we estimated the overall incidence of leptospirosis ranges from 75–102 cases per 100,000 persons annually. Conclusions/Significance We calculated a high incidence of leptospirosis in two districts in the Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, where leptospirosis incidence was previously unknown. Multiplier methods, such as used in this study, may be a feasible method of improving availability of incidence estimates for neglected diseases, such as leptospirosis, in resource constrained settings. PMID:24340122

  16. Population-Based Microcephaly Surveillance in the United States, 2009 to 2013: An Analysis of Potential Sources of Variation

    PubMed Central

    Cragan, Janet D.; Isenburg, Jennifer L.; Parker, Samantha E.; Alverson, C.J.; Meyer, Robert E.; Stallings, Erin B.; Kirby, Russell S.; Lupo, Philip J.; Liu, Jennifer S.; Seagroves, Amanda; Ethen, Mary K.; Cho, Sook Ja; Evans, MaryAnn; Liberman, Rebecca F.; Fornoff, Jane; Browne, Marilyn L.; Rutkowski, Rachel E.; Nance, Amy E.; Anderka, Marlene; Fox, Deborah J.; Steele, Amy; Copeland, Glenn; Romitti, Paul A.; Mai, Cara T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Congenital microcephaly has been linked to maternal Zika virus infection. However, ascertaining infants diagnosed with microcephaly can be challenging. Methods Thirty birth defects surveillance programs provided data on infants diagnosed with microcephaly born 2009 to 2013. The pooled prevalence of microcephaly per 10,000 live births was estimated overall and by maternal/infant characteristics. Variation in prevalence was examined across case finding methods. Nine programs provided data on head circumference and conditions potentially contributing to microcephaly. Results The pooled prevalence of microcephaly was 8.7 per 10,000 live births. Median prevalence (per 10,000 live births) was similar among programs using active (6.7) and passive (6.6) methods; the interdecile range of prevalence estimates was wider among programs using passive methods for all race/ethnicity categories except Hispanic. Prevalence (per 10,000 live births) was lowest among non-Hispanic Whites (6.5) and highest among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics (11.2 and 11.9, respectively); estimates followed a U-shaped distribution by maternal age with the highest prevalence among mothers <20 years (11.5) and ≥40 years (13.2). For gestational age and birth weight, the highest prevalence was among infants <32 weeks gestation and infants <1500 gm. Case definitions varied; 41.8% of cases had an HC ≥ the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age. Conclusion Differences in methods, population distribution of maternal/infant characteristics, and case definitions for microcephaly can contribute to the wide range of observed prevalence estimates across individual birth defects surveillance programs. Addressing these factors in the setting of Zika virus infection can improve the quality of prevalence estimates. PMID:27891783

  17. Identifying humanitarian crises in population surveillance field sites: simple procedures and ethical imperatives.

    PubMed

    Fottrell, E; Byass, P

    2009-02-01

    Effective early warning systems of humanitarian crises may help to avert substantial increases in mortality and morbidity, and prevent major population movements. The Butajira Rural Health Programme (BRHP) in Ethiopia has maintained a programme of epidemiological surveillance since 1987. Inspection of the BRHP data revealed large peaks of mortality in 1998 and 1999, well in excess of the normally observed year-to-year variation. Further investigation and enquiry revealed that these peaks related to a measles epidemic, and a serious episode of drought and consequent food insecurity that went undetected by the BRHP. This paper applies international humanitarian crisis threshold definitions to the BRHP data in an attempt to identify suitable mortality thresholds that may be used for the prospective detection of humanitarian crises in population surveillance sites in developing countries. Empirical investigation using secondary analysis of longitudinal population-based cohort data. The daily, weekly and monthly thresholds for crises in Butajira were applied to mortality data for the 5-year period incorporating the crisis periods of 1998-1999. Days, weeks and months in which mortality exceeded each threshold level were identified. Each threshold level was assessed in terms of prospectively identifying the true crisis periods in a timely manner whilst avoiding false alarms. The daily threshold definition is too sensitive to accurately detect impending or real crises in the population surveillance setting of the BRHP. However, the weekly threshold level is useful in identifying important increases in mortality in a timely manner without the excessive sensitivity of the daily threshold. The weekly threshold level detects the crisis periods approximately 2 weeks before the monthly threshold level. Mortality measures are highly specific indicators of the health status of populations, and simple procedures can be used to apply international crisis threshold definitions in

  18. Epidemiology of rubella infection in Cameroon: a 7-year experience of measles and rubella case-based surveillance, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Nimpa Mengouo, Marcellin; Ndze, Valantine Ngum; Baonga, Frangy; Kobela, Marie; Wiysonge, Charles Shey

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of rubella disease in a measles case-based surveillance in Cameroon prior to rubella vaccine introduction into the national immunisation programme. This was a cross-sectional study for rubella infection in Cameroon for the period 2008 to 2014. Patients suspected with measles from the 10 regions of Cameroon were recruited according to the WHO measles case definition and were tested for rubella IgM antibodies accompanied with the case report/investigation forms. All persons with rash and fever within 14 days of onset of rash according to the standard WHO African Regional Office (WHO/AFRO) case definition for a suspected measles case. Descriptive analyses and simple logistic regressions were performed. OR were estimated. A total of 9907 serum samples from people with fever and rash were received in the laboratory from 2008 to 2014. A total of 7489 (75.59%) measles-negative samples were tested for rubella; 699 (9.3%) were positive for rubella IgM antibodies. Logistic regression analysis was done using IgM antibodies detection as the outcome variable. Age, sex and setting were explanatory variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed that, comparing the proportion of rubella IgM seropositivity status by age, the association to a positive rubella IgM increased with age from 1 to 4 years (OR 7.11; 95% CI 4.35 to 12.41; p<0.0001), through 5 to 9 years (OR 13.07; 95% CI 7.93 to 22.93; p<0.001), to 10 to 14 years of age (OR 13.86; 95% CI 8.06 to 25.12; p<0.001). Persons aged ≥15 years were also more likely to have rubella infection than children under one (OR 3.69; 95% CI 1.85 to 7.48; p=0.0001). There were also significant associations with sex, with males being less associated to a positive rubella serology than females (OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.14 to 1.56; p=0.0001). No statistically significant difference in proportion of rubella cases was observed between urban and rural populations (OR 1.11; 95% CI 0.94 to 1.31; p=0

  19. Using surveillance data to estimate pandemic vaccine effectiveness against laboratory confirmed influenza A(H1N1)2009 infection: two case-control studies, Spain, season 2009-2010

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physicians of the Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System report and systematically swab patients attended to their practices for influenza-like illness (ILI). Within the surveillance system, some Spanish regions also participated in an observational study aiming at estimating influenza vaccine effectiveness (cycEVA study). During the season 2009-2010, we estimated pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness using both the influenza surveillance data and the cycEVA study. Methods We conducted two case-control studies using the test-negative design, between weeks 48/2009 and 8/2010 of the pandemic season. The surveillance-based study included all swabbed patients in the sentinel surveillance system. The cycEVA study included swabbed patients from seven Spanish regions. Cases were laboratory-confirmed pandemic influenza A(H1N1)2009. Controls were ILI patients testing negative for any type of influenza. Variables collected in both studies included demographic data, vaccination status, laboratory results, chronic conditions, and pregnancy. Additionally, cycEVA questionnaire collected data on previous influenza vaccination, smoking, functional status, hospitalisations, visits to the general practitioners, and obesity. We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR), computing pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness as (1-OR)*100. Results We included 331 cases and 995 controls in the surveillance-based study and 85 cases and 351 controls in the cycEVA study. We detected nine (2.7%) and two (2.4%) vaccine failures in the surveillance-based and cycEVA studies, respectively. Adjusting for variables collected in surveillance database and swabbing month, pandemic influenza vaccine effectiveness was 62% (95% confidence interval (CI): -5; 87). The cycEVA vaccine effectiveness was 64% (95%CI: -225; 96) when adjusting for common variables with the surveillance system and 75% (95%CI: -293; 98) adjusting for all variables collected. Conclusion

  20. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Results Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. Conclusions In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests

  1. Why do farmers and veterinarians not report all bovine abortions, as requested by the clinical brucellosis surveillance system in France?

    PubMed

    Bronner, Anne; Hénaux, Viviane; Fortané, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Calavas, Didier

    2014-04-24

    Since 2005, France has been officially free of brucellosis, an infectious disease that causes abortion in cattle and can be transmitted from cattle to humans. Recent animal and human cases have drawn attention to the need to prevent infection of humans and animals from any primary outbreaks. In order to detect any new outbreaks as soon as possible, a clinical surveillance system requires farmers and veterinarians to report each abortion and to test the aborting cow for brucellosis. However, under-reporting limits the sensitivity of this system. Our objective was to identify the barriers and motivations influencing field actors in their decision to report or not to report bovine abortions. We used a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews of 12 cattle farmers and their eight veterinarians. Our analysis showed that four main themes influence the decision-making process of farmers and veterinarians: 1) the perceived risk of brucellosis and other abortive diseases; 2) the definition of a suspected case of brucellosis and other abortive diseases adopted by field actors, which is less sensitive than the mandatory definition; 3) the cost-benefit analysis conducted by actors, taking into account regulatory and health aspects, economic and financial losses, technical and practical factors; 4) the level of cooperation within the socio-technical network. We discussed how early detection may be improved by revising the definition of abortion, extending the time frame for notification and generalising the differential diagnosis of the causes of abortion. In contrast to quantitative approaches, qualitative studies can identify the factors (including unknown factors) influencing the decision-making process of field actors and reveal why they take those factors into consideration. Our qualitative study sheds light on the factors underlying the poor sensitivity of clinical brucellosis surveillance system for cattle in France, and suggests that early detection may be

  2. Validation of a computer case definition for sudden cardiac death in opioid users.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Vivian K; Murray, Katherine T; Stein, C Michael; Cooper, William O; Graham, David J; Hall, Kathi; Ray, Wayne A

    2012-08-31

    To facilitate the use of automated databases for studies of sudden cardiac death, we previously developed a computerized case definition that had a positive predictive value between 86% and 88%. However, the definition has not been specifically validated for prescription opioid users, for whom out-of-hospital overdose deaths may be difficult to distinguish from sudden cardiac death. We assembled a cohort of persons 30-74 years of age prescribed propoxyphene or hydrocodone who had no life-threatening non-cardiovascular illness, diagnosed drug abuse, residence in a nursing home in the past year, or hospital stay within the past 30 days. Medical records were sought for a sample of 140 cohort deaths within 30 days of a prescription fill meeting the computer case definition. Of the 140 sampled deaths, 81 were adjudicated; 73 (90%) were sudden cardiac deaths. Two deaths had possible opioid overdose; after removing these two the positive predictive value was 88%. These findings are consistent with our previous validation studies and suggest the computer case definition of sudden cardiac death is a useful tool for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of opioid analgesics.

  3. Expanding poliomyelitis and measles surveillance networks to establish surveillance for acute meningitis and encephalitis syndromes--Bangladesh, China, and India, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    2012-12-14

    Quality surveillance is critical to the control and elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). A key strategy for enhancing VPD surveillance, outlined in the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Framework for Immunization Monitoring and Surveillance (GFIMS), is to expand and link existing VPD surveillance systems (particularly those developed for polio eradication and measles elimination) to include other priority VPDs. Since the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in 1988, the incidence of polio has decrease by 99% worldwide. A cornerstone of this success is a sensitive surveillance system based on the rapid and timely reporting of all acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases in children aged <15 years, with confirmatory diagnostic testing performed by laboratories that are part of a global network. As countries achieve polio-free status, many have expanded syndromic surveillance to include persons with rash and fever, and have built measles diagnostic capacity in existing polio reference laboratories. Acute meningitis/encephalitis syndrome (AMES) and acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) are candidates for expanded surveillance because they are most often caused by VPDs of public health importance for which confirmatory laboratory tests exist. Vaccine-preventable cases of encephalitis include approximately 68,000 Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases, resulting in 13,000-20,000 deaths each year in Asia. Moreover, although bacterial meningitis incidence in Asia is not as well-documented, pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis outbreaks have been reported in Bangladesh and China, and the incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) meningitis in children aged <5 years in India has been estimated to be 7.1 per 100,000 population, similar to that in European countries before the introduction of vaccine. This report describes a prototype for expanding existing polio and measles surveillance networks in Bangladesh, China, and India to include

  4. Validation of a research case definition of Gulf War illness in the 1991 US military population.

    PubMed

    Iannacchione, Vincent G; Dever, Jill A; Bann, Carla M; Considine, Kathleen A; Creel, Darryl; Carson, Christopher P; Best, Heather; Haley, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A case definition of Gulf War illness with 3 primary variants, previously developed by factor analysis of symptoms in a US Navy construction battalion and validated in clinic veterans, identified ill veterans with objective abnormalities of brain function. This study tests prestated hypotheses of its external validity. A stratified probability sample (n = 8,020), selected from a sampling frame of the 3.5 million Gulf War era US military veterans, completed a computer-assisted telephone interview survey. Application of the prior factor weights to the subjects' responses generated the case definition. The structural equation model of the case definition fit both random halves of the population sample well (root mean-square error of approximation = 0.015). The overall case definition was 3.87 times (95% confidence interval, 2.61-5.74) more prevalent in the deployed than the deployable nondeployed veterans: 3.33 (1.10-10.10) for syndrome variant 1; 5.11 (2.43-10.75) for variant 2, and 4.25 (2.33-7.74) for variant 3. Functional status on SF-12 was greatly reduced (effect sizes, 1.0-2.0) in veterans meeting the overall and variant case definitions. The factor case definition applies to the full Gulf War veteran population and has good characteristics for research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Reliability of routinely collected hospital data for child maltreatment surveillance.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kirsten; Scott, Debbie A; Waller, Garry S; Campbell, Margaret

    2011-01-05

    Internationally, research on child maltreatment-related injuries has been hampered by a lack of available routinely collected health data to identify cases, examine causes, identify risk factors and explore health outcomes. Routinely collected hospital separation data coded using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system provide an internationally standardised data source for classifying and aggregating diseases, injuries, causes of injuries and related health conditions for statistical purposes. However, there has been limited research to examine the reliability of these data for child maltreatment surveillance purposes. This study examined the reliability of coding of child maltreatment in Queensland, Australia. A retrospective medical record review and recoding methodology was used to assess the reliability of coding of child maltreatment. A stratified sample of hospitals across Queensland was selected for this study, and a stratified random sample of cases was selected from within those hospitals. In 3.6% of cases the coders disagreed on whether any maltreatment code could be assigned (definite or possible) versus no maltreatment being assigned (unintentional injury), giving a sensitivity of 0.982 and specificity of 0.948. The review of these cases where discrepancies existed revealed that all cases had some indications of risk documented in the records. 15.5% of cases originally assigned a definite or possible maltreatment code, were recoded to a more or less definite strata. In terms of the number and type of maltreatment codes assigned, the auditor assigned a greater number of maltreatment types based on the medical documentation than the original coder assigned (22% of the auditor coded cases had more than one maltreatment type assigned compared to only 6% of the original coded data). The maltreatment types which were the most 'under-coded' by the original coder were psychological abuse and neglect. Cases coded

  6. Reliability of Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internationally, research on child maltreatment-related injuries has been hampered by a lack of available routinely collected health data to identify cases, examine causes, identify risk factors and explore health outcomes. Routinely collected hospital separation data coded using the International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD) system provide an internationally standardised data source for classifying and aggregating diseases, injuries, causes of injuries and related health conditions for statistical purposes. However, there has been limited research to examine the reliability of these data for child maltreatment surveillance purposes. This study examined the reliability of coding of child maltreatment in Queensland, Australia. Methods A retrospective medical record review and recoding methodology was used to assess the reliability of coding of child maltreatment. A stratified sample of hospitals across Queensland was selected for this study, and a stratified random sample of cases was selected from within those hospitals. Results In 3.6% of cases the coders disagreed on whether any maltreatment code could be assigned (definite or possible) versus no maltreatment being assigned (unintentional injury), giving a sensitivity of 0.982 and specificity of 0.948. The review of these cases where discrepancies existed revealed that all cases had some indications of risk documented in the records. 15.5% of cases originally assigned a definite or possible maltreatment code, were recoded to a more or less definite strata. In terms of the number and type of maltreatment codes assigned, the auditor assigned a greater number of maltreatment types based on the medical documentation than the original coder assigned (22% of the auditor coded cases had more than one maltreatment type assigned compared to only 6% of the original coded data). The maltreatment types which were the most 'under-coded' by the original coder were psychological abuse

  7. Epidemiology of pertussis in two Ibero-American countries with different vaccination policies: lessons derived from different surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Solano, Rubén; Masa-Calles, Josefa; Garib, Zacarías; Grullón, Patricia; Santiago, Sandy L; Brache, Altagracia; Domínguez, Ángela; Caylà, Joan A

    2016-11-22

    Pertussis is a re-emerging disease worldwide despite its high vaccination coverage. European and Latin-American countries have used different surveillance and vaccination policies against pertussis. We compared the epidemiology of this disease in two Ibero-American countries with different vaccination and surveillance policies. We compared the epidemiology of pertussis in Spain and the Dominican Republic (DR). We present a 10-year observational study of reported pertussis based on suspected and/or probable cases of pertussis identified by the national mandatory reporting system in both countries between 2005 and 2014. Both countries have a similar case definition for pertussis surveillance, although Spain applies laboratory testing, and uses real time PCR and/or culture for case confirmation while in DR only probable and/or suspected cases are reported. We analyzed incidence, hospitalization, case-fatality rates, mortality and vaccination coverage. The average annual incidence in children aged <1 year was 3.40/100,000 population in Spain and 12.15/100,000 in DR (p = 0.01). While the incidence in DR was generally higher than in Spain, in 2011 it was six times higher in Spain than in DR. The highest infant mortality in Spain was 0.017/100,000 in 2011, and the highest in DR was 0.08/100,000 in 2014 (p = 0.01). The proportion of hospitalized cases per year among children <1 year varied between 22.0% and 93.7% in Spain, and between 1.1% and 29.4% in DR (p = 0.0002), while mortality varied from 0 to 0.017 and 0 to 0.08 per 100,000 population in Spain and DR, respectively (p = 0.001). Vaccination coverage was 96.5% in Spain and 82.2% in DR (p = 0.001). Pertussis is a public health problem in both countries. Surveillance, prevention and control measures should be improved, especially in DR. Current vaccination programs are not sufficient for preventing continued pertussis transmission, even in Spain which has high vaccination coverage.

  8. Measles surveillance in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yung-Hsuan J.; Andrews, Ross M.; Lambert, Stephen B.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many countries are implementing measles elimination strategies. In Australia, the State of Victoria has conducted enhanced measles surveillance since 1997 using case interviews and home-based specimen collection for laboratory confirmation. We attempted to identify features of notified cases that would better target surveillance resources. METHODS: We retrospectively classified notifications received from 1998 to 2003 as having been received in an epidemic (one or more laboratory-confirmed cases) or an interepidemic period (no laboratory-confirmed cases). We labelled the first case notified in any epidemic period that was not laboratory-confirmed at the time of notification as a "sentinel case". To maximize detection of sentinel cases while minimizing the follow-up of eventually discarded notifications, we generated algorithms using sentinel cases and interepidemic notifications. FINDINGS: We identified 10 sentinel cases with 422 interepidemic notifications from 1281 Victorian notifications. Sentinel cases were more likely to report fever at rash onset (odds ratio (OR) 15.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) CI: 2.1-688.9), cough (OR 10.4, 95% CI: 1.4-456.7), conjunctivitis (OR 7.9, 95% CI: 1.8-39.1), or year of birth between 1968 and 1981 (OR 31.8, 95% CI: 6.7-162.3). Prospective application of an algorithm consisting of fever at rash onset or born between 1968 and 1981 in the review period would have detected all sentinel cases and avoided the need for enhanced follow-up of 162 of the 422 eventually discarded notifications. CONCLUSION: Elimination strategies should be refined to suit regional and local priorities. The prospective application of an algorithm in Victoria is likely to reduce enhanced measles surveillance resource use in interepidemic periods, while still detecting early cases during measles outbreaks. PMID:16501727

  9. Characteristics of non-fatal abusive head trauma among children in the USA, 2003--2008: application of the CDC operational case definition to national hospital inpatient data.

    PubMed

    Parks, Sharyn; Sugerman, David; Xu, Likang; Coronado, Victor

    2012-12-01

    An International Classification of Diseases code-based case definition for non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) in children <5 years of age was developed in March 2008 by an expert panel convened at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This study presents an application of the CDC recommended operational case definition of AHT to US hospital inpatient data to characterise the AHT hospitalisation rate for children <5 years of age. Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilisation Project from 2003 to 2008 were examined. Inspection of the NIS data resulted in the identification of an estimated 10 555 non-fatal AHT hospitalisations with 9595 classified as definite/presumptive AHT and 960 classified as probable AHT. The non-fatal AHT rate was highest among children aged <1 year (32.3 per 100 000) with a peak in hospitalisations between 1 and 3 months of age. Non-fatal AHT hospitalisation rates for children <2 years of age were higher for boys (21.9 per 100 000) than girls (15.3 per 100 000). The non-fatal AHT hospitalisation rate showed little variation across seasons. To reduce the burden of AHT in the USA, a preventable public health problem, concerted prevention efforts targeting populations at risk should be implemented. This report demonstrates a model procedure for using the new CDC definition for public health surveillance and research purposes. Such findings can be used to inform parents and providers about AHT (eg, dangers of shaking, strategies for managing infant crying) as well as to monitor better the impact of prevention strategies over time.

  10. Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jonathan; Dy Soley, Lek; Bunkea, Tol; Sovannaroth, Siv; Soy Ty, Kheang; Ngak, Song; Bjorge, Steven; Ringwald, Pascal; Mellor, Steven; Sintasath, David; Meek, Sylvia

    2014-07-22

    Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0-2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public and private health providers.

  11. Surveillance and reconnaissance ground system architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devambez, Francois

    2001-12-01

    Modern conflicts induces various modes of deployment, due to the type of conflict, the type of mission, and phase of conflict. It is then impossible to define fixed architecture systems for surveillance ground segments. Thales has developed a structure for a ground segment based on the operational functions required, and on the definition of modules and networks. Theses modules are software and hardware modules, including communications and networks. This ground segment is called MGS (Modular Ground Segment), and is intended for use in airborne reconnaissance systems, surveillance systems, and U.A.V. systems. Main parameters for the definition of a modular ground image exploitation system are : Compliance with various operational configurations, Easy adaptation to the evolution of theses configurations, Interoperability with NATO and multinational forces, Security, Multi-sensors, multi-platforms capabilities, Technical modularity, Evolutivity Reduction of life cycle cost The general performances of the MGS are presented : type of sensors, acquisition process, exploitation of images, report generation, data base management, dissemination, interface with C4I. The MGS is then described as a set of hardware and software modules, and their organization to build numerous operational configurations. Architectures are from minimal configuration intended for a mono-sensor image exploitation system, to a full image intelligence center, for a multilevel exploitation of multi-sensor.

  12. Generic project definitions for improvement of health care delivery: a case-based approach.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Gerard C; Does, Ronald J M M; de Mast, Jeroen; Trip, Albert; van den Heuvel, Jaap

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create actionable knowledge, making the definition of process improvement projects in health care delivery more effective. This study is a retrospective analysis of process improvement projects in hospitals, facilitating a case-based reasoning approach to project definition. Data sources were project documentation and hospital-performance statistics of 271 Lean Six Sigma health care projects from 2002 to 2009 of general, teaching, and academic hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium. Objectives and operational definitions of improvement projects in the sample, analyzed and structured in a uniform format and terminology. Extraction of reusable elements of earlier project definitions, presented in the form of 9 templates called generic project definitions. These templates function as exemplars for future process improvement projects, making the selection, definition, and operationalization of similar projects more efficient. Each template includes an explicated rationale, an operationalization in the form of metrics, and a prototypical example. Thus, a process of incremental and sustained learning based on case-based reasoning is facilitated. The quality of project definitions is a crucial success factor in pursuits to improve health care delivery. We offer 9 tried and tested improvement themes related to patient safety, patient satisfaction, and business-economic performance of hospitals.

  13. Enhancing surveillance for hepatitis C through public health informatics.

    PubMed

    Heisey-Grove, Dawn M; Church, Daniel R; Haney, Gillian A; Demaria, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Disease surveillance for hepatitis C in the United States is limited by the occult nature of many of these infections, the large volume of cases, and limited public health resources. Through a series of discrete processes, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health modified its surveillance system in an attempt to improve timeliness and completeness of reporting and case follow-up of hepatitis C. These processes included clinician-based reporting, electronic laboratory reporting, deployment of a Web-based disease surveillance system, automated triage of pertinent data, and automated character recognition software for case-report processing. These changes have resulted in an increase in the timeliness of reporting.

  14. Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qiu Sue; Turner, Nikki; Baker, Michael G; Williamson, Deborah A; Wong, Conroy; Webby, Richard; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2015-01-01

    The 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 pandemic highlighted the need for improved scientific knowledge to support better pandemic preparedness and seasonal influenza control. The Southern Hemisphere Influenza and Vaccine Effectiveness Research and Surveillance (SHIVERS) project, a 5-year (2012–2016) multiagency and multidisciplinary collaboration, aimed to measure disease burden, epidemiology, aetiology, risk factors, immunology, effectiveness of vaccination and other prevention strategies for influenza and other respiratory infectious diseases of public health importance. Two active, prospective, population-based surveillance systems were established for monitoring influenza and other respiratory pathogens among those hospitalized patients with acute respiratory illness and those enrolled patients seeking consultations at sentinel general practices. In 2015, a sero-epidemiological study will use a sample of patients from the same practices. These data will provide a full picture of the disease burden and risk factors from asymptomatic infections to severe hospitalized disease and deaths and related economic burden. The results during the first 2 years (2012–2013) provided scientific evidence to (a) support a change to NZ's vaccination policy for young children due to high influenza hospitalizations in these children; (b) contribute to the revision of the World Health Organization's case definition for severe acute respiratory illness for global influenza surveillance; and (c) contribute in part to vaccine strain selection using vaccine effectiveness assessment in the prevention of influenza-related consultations and hospitalizations. In summary, SHIVERS provides valuable international platforms for supporting seasonal influenza control and pandemic preparedness, and responding to other emerging/endemic respiratory-related infections. PMID:25912617

  15. Making the most of injury surveillance data: Using narrative text to identify exposure information in case-control studies

    PubMed Central

    Graves, Janessa M.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Hagel, Brent E.; Rivara, Frederick P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Free-text fields in injury surveillance databases can provide detailed information beyond routinely coded data. Additional data, such as exposures and covariates can be identified from narrative text and used to conduct case-control studies. Methods To illustrate this, we developed a text-search algorithm to identify helmet status (worn, not worn, use unknown) in the U.S. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) narratives for bicycling and other sports injuries from 2005 to 2011. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for head injury associated with helmet use, with non-head injuries representing controls. For bicycling, we validated ORs against published estimates. ORs were calculated for other sports and we examined factors associated with helmet reporting. Results Of 105,614 bicycling injury narratives reviewed, 14.1% contained sufficient helmet information for use in the case-control study. The adjusted ORs for head injuries associated with helmet-wearing were smaller than, but directionally consistent, with previously published estimates (e.g., 1999 Cochrane Review). ORs illustrated a protective effect of helmets for other sports as well (less than 1). Conclusions This exploratory analysis illustrates the potential utility of relatively simple text-search algorithms to identify additional variables in surveillance data. Limitations of this study include possible selection bias and the inability to identify individuals with multiple injuries. A similar approach can be applied to study other injuries, conditions, risks, or protective factors. This approach may serve as an efficient method to extend the utility of injury surveillance data to conduct epidemiological research. PMID:25498331

  16. Citizen Science and Community Engagement in Tick Surveillance-A Canadian Case Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Julie; Boudreau, Corinne R; Patterson, James W; Bradet-Legris, Jonathan; Lloyd, Vett K

    2018-03-02

    Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and on-going surveillance is required to monitor the spread of the tick vectors as their populations expand under the influence of climate change. Active surveillance involves teams of researchers collecting ticks from field locations with the potential to be sites of establishing tick populations. This process is labor- and time-intensive, limiting the number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring. Citizen science initiatives are ideally suited to address this logistical problem and generate high-density and complex data from sites of community importance. In 2014, the same region was monitored by academic researchers, public health workers, and citizen scientists, allowing a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each type of surveillance effort. Four community members persisted with tick collections over several years, collectively recovering several hundred ticks. Although deviations from standard surveillance protocols and the choice of tick surveillance sites makes the incorporation of community-generated data into conventional surveillance analyses more complex, this citizen science data remains useful in providing high-density longitudinal tick surveillance of a small area in which detailed ecological observations can be made. Most importantly, partnership between community members and researchers has proven a powerful tool in educating communities about of the risk of tick-vectored diseases and in encouraging tick bite prevention.

  17. Beyond counting cases: public health impacts of national Paediatric Surveillance Units

    PubMed Central

    Grenier, D; Elliott, E J; Zurynski, Y; Pereira, R Rodrigues; Preece, M; Lynn, R; von Kries, R; Zimmermann, H; Dickson, N P; Virella, D

    2007-01-01

    Paediatric Surveillance Units (PSUs) have been established in 14 countries and facilitate national, prospective, active surveillance for a range of conditions, with monthly reporting by child health specialists. The International Network of Paediatric Surveillance Units (INoPSU) was established in 1998 and facilitates international collaboration among member PSUs and allows for sharing of resources, simultaneous data collection and hence comparison of data from different geographical regions. The impact of data collected by PSUs, both individually and collectively as members of INoPSU, on public health outcomes, clinical care and research is described. PMID:17158859

  18. Aggressive periodontitis: case definition and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Albandar, Jasim M

    2014-06-01

    Aggressive periodontitis is a destructive disease characterized by the following: the involvement of multiple teeth with a distinctive pattern of periodontal tissue loss; a high rate of disease progression; an early age of onset; and the absence of systemic diseases. In some patients periodontal tissue loss may commence before puberty, whereas in most patients the age of onset is during or somewhat after the circumpubertal period. Besides infection with specific microorganisms, a host predisposition seems to play a key role in the pathogenesis of aggressive periodontitis, as evidenced by the familial aggregation of the disease. In this article we review the historical background of the diagnostic criteria of aggressive periodontitis, present a contemporary case definition and describe the clinical parameters of the disease. At present, the diagnosis of aggressive periodontitis is achieved using case history, clinical examination and radiographic evaluation. The data gathered using these methods are prone to relatively high measurement errors. Besides, this diagnostic approach measures past disease history and may not reliably measure existing disease activity or accurately predict future tissue loss. A diagnosis is often made years after the onset of the disease, partly because current assessment methods detect established disease more readily and reliably than they detect incipient or initial lesions where the tissue loss is minimal and usually below the detection threshold of present examination methods. Future advancements in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease may contribute to an earlier diagnosis. Insofar, future case definitions may involve the identification of key etiologic and risk factors, combined with high-precision methodologies that enable the early detection of initial lesions. This may significantly enhance the predictive value of these tests and detect cases of aggressive periodontitis before significant tissue loss develops. © 2014

  19. Surveillance for Lyme Disease — United States, 2008–2015

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Amy M.; Hinckley, Alison F.; Mead, Paul S.; Hook, Sarah A.

    2017-01-01

    Problem/Condition Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States but is geographically focal. The majority of Lyme disease cases occur in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions. Lyme disease can cause varied clinical manifestations, including erythema migrans, arthritis, facial palsy, and carditis. Lyme disease occurs most commonly among children and older adults, with a slight predominance among males. Reporting Period 2008–2015. Description of System Lyme disease has been a nationally notifiable condition in the United States since 1991. Possible Lyme disease cases are reported to local and state health departments by clinicians and laboratories. Health department staff conduct case investigations to classify cases according to the national surveillance case definition. Those that qualify as confirmed or probable cases of Lyme disease are reported to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. States with an average annual incidence during this reporting period of ≥10 confirmed Lyme disease cases per 100,000 population were classified as high incidence. States that share a border with those states or that are located between areas of high incidence were classified as neighboring states. All other states were classified as low incidence. Results During 2008–2015, a total of 275,589 cases of Lyme disease were reported to CDC (208,834 confirmed and 66,755 probable). Although most cases continue to be reported from states with high incidence in the Northeast, mid-Atlantic, and upper Midwest regions, case counts in most of these states have remained stable or decreased during the reporting period. In contrast, case counts have increased in states that neighbor those with high incidence. Overall, demographic characteristics associated with confirmed cases were similar to those described previously, with a slight predominance among males and a bimodal age distribution with peaks among young

  20. Attribution of the French human Salmonellosis cases to the main food-sources according to the type of surveillance data.

    PubMed

    David, J M; Sanders, P; Bemrah, N; Granier, S A; Denis, M; Weill, F-X; Guillemot, D; Watier, L

    2013-05-15

    Salmonella are the most common bacterial cause of foodborne infections in France and ubiquitous pathogens present in many animal productions. Assessing the relative contribution of the different food-animal sources to the burden of human cases is a key step towards the conception, prioritization and assessment of efficient control policy measures. For this purpose, we considered a Bayesian microbial subtyping attribution approach based on a previous published model (Hald et al., 2004). It requires quality integrated data on human cases and on the contamination of their food sources, per serotype and microbial subtype, which were retrieved from the French integrated surveillance system for Salmonella. The quality of the data available for such an approach is an issue for many countries in which the surveillance system has not been designed for this purpose. In France, the sources are monitored simultaneously by an active, regulation-based surveillance system that produces representative prevalence data (as ideally required for the approach) and a passive system relying on voluntary laboratories that produces data not meeting the standards set by Hald et al. (2004) but covering a broader range of sources. These data allowed us to study the impact of data quality on the attribution results, globally and focusing on specific features of the data (number of sources and contamination indicator). The microbial subtyping attribution model was run using an adapted parameterization previously proposed (David et al., 2012). A total of 9076 domestic sporadic cases were included in the analyses as well as 9 sources among which 5 were common to the active and the passive datasets. The greatest impact on the attribution results was observed for the number of sources. Thus, especially in the absence of data on imported products, the attribution estimates presented here should be considered with caution. The results were comparable for both types of surveillance, leading to the

  1. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  2. Population-Based Surveillance of Birth Defects Potentially Related to Zika Virus Infection - 15 States and U.S. Territories, 2016.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Augustina; Mai, Cara; Smoots, Ashley; Cragan, Janet; Ellington, Sascha; Langlois, Peter; Breidenbach, Rebecca; Fornoff, Jane; Dunn, Julie; Yazdy, Mahsa; Scotto-Rosato, Nancy; Sweatlock, Joseph; Fox, Deborah; Palacios, Jessica; Forestieri, Nina; Leedom, Vinita; Smiley, Mary; Nance, Amy; Lake-Burger, Heather; Romitti, Paul; Fall, Carrie; Prado, Miguel Valencia; Barton, Jerusha; Bryan, J Michael; Arias, William; Brown, Samara Viner; Kimura, Jonathan; Mann, Sylvia; Martin, Brennan; Orantes, Lucia; Taylor, Amber; Nahabedian, John; Akosa, Amanda; Song, Ziwei; Martin, Stacey; Ramlal, Roshan; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie; Isenburg, Jennifer; Moore, Cynthia A; Gilboa, Suzanne; Honein, Margaret A

    2018-01-26

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects, including microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1). Population-based birth defects surveillance systems are critical to monitor all infants and fetuses with birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection, regardless of known exposure or laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection during pregnancy. CDC analyzed data from 15 U.S. jurisdictions conducting population-based surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection.* Jurisdictions were stratified into the following three groups: those with 1) documented local transmission of Zika virus during 2016; 2) one or more cases of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents; and 3) less than one case of confirmed, symptomatic, travel-associated Zika virus disease reported to CDC per 100,000 residents. A total of 2,962 infants and fetuses (3.0 per 1,000 live births; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.9-3.2) (2) met the case definition. † In areas with local transmission there was a non-statistically significant increase in total birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection from 2.8 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 3.0 cases in the second half (p = 0.10). However, when neural tube defects and other early brain malformations (NTDs) § were excluded, the prevalence of birth defects strongly linked to congenital Zika virus infection increased significantly, from 2.0 cases per 1,000 live births in the first half of 2016 to 2.4 cases in the second half, an increase of 29 more cases than expected (p = 0.009). These findings underscore the importance of surveillance for birth defects potentially related to Zika virus infection and the need for continued monitoring in areas at risk for Zika.

  3. Accuracy of clinical diagnosis versus the World Health Organization case definition in the Amoy Garden SARS cohort.

    PubMed

    Wong, W N; Sek, Antonio C H; Lau, Rick F L; Li, K M; Leung, Joe K S; Tse, M L; Ng, Andy H W; Stenstrom, Robert

    2003-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of emergency department (ED) physicians with the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition in a large community-based SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) cohort. This was a cohort study of all patients from Hong Kong's Amoy Garden complex who presented to an ED SARS screening clinic during a 2-month outbreak. Clinical findings and WHO case definition criteria were recorded, along with ED diagnoses. Final diagnoses were established independently based on relevant diagnostic tests performed after the ED visit. Emergency physician diagnostic accuracy was compared with that of the WHO SARS case definition. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios were calculated using standard formulae. During the study period, 818 patients presented with SARS-like symptoms, including 205 confirmed SARS, 35 undetermined SARS and 578 non-SARS. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 91%, 96% and 94% for ED clinical diagnosis, versus 42%, 86% and 75% for the WHO case definition. Positive likelihood ratios (LR+) were 21.1 for physician judgement and 3.1 for the WHO criteria. Negative likelihood ratios (LR-) were 0.10 for physician judgement and 0.67 for the WHO criteria, indicating that clinician judgement was a much more powerful predictor than the WHO criteria. Physician clinical judgement was more accurate than the WHO case definition. Reliance on the WHO case definition as a SARS screening tool may lead to an unacceptable rate of misdiagnosis. The SARS case definition must be revised if it is to be used as a screening tool in emergency departments and primary care settings.

  4. 40 CFR 58.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE General Provisions § 58.1 Definitions. As used in this part, all terms not defined... his or her authorized representative. Air Quality System (AQS) means EPA's computerized system for storing and reporting of information relating to ambient air quality data. Approved regional method (ARM...

  5. Imaging Characteristics of Prostate Cancer Patients Who Discontinued Active Surveillance on 3-T Multiparametric Prostate MRI.

    PubMed

    Habibian, David J; Liu, Corinne C; Dao, Alex; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Katz, Aaron E

    2017-03-01

    Early-stage prostate cancer may be followed with active surveillance to avoid overtreatment. Our institution's active surveillance regimen uses annual MRI in place of serial biopsies, and biopsies are performed only when clinically necessary. The objective of our study was to report the multiparametric MRI characteristics of prostate cancer patients who discontinued active surveillance at our institution after repeat imaging revealed possible evidence of tumor upgrading. The Department of Urology at Winthrop University Hospital prospectively maintains a database of prostate cancer patients who are monitored with active surveillance. At the time of this study, there were 200 prostate cancer patients being monitored with active surveillance. Of those patients, 114 patients had an initial multiparametric MRI study that was performed before active surveillance started and at least one follow-up multiparametric MRI study that was performed after active surveillance began. The MRI findings were evaluated and correlated with pathology results, if available. Fourteen patients discontinued active surveillance because changes on follow-up MRI suggested progression of cancer. Follow-up MRI showed an enlarged or more prominent lesion compared with the appearance on a previous MRI in three (21.4%) patients, a new lesion or lesions suspicious for cancer in two (14.3%) patients, and findings suspicious for or confirming extracapsular extension in nine (64.3%) patients. Seven of the 14 (50.0%) patients had a biopsy after follow-up multiparametric MRI, and biopsy results led to tumor upgrading in six of the 14 (42.9%) patients. The duration of active surveillance ranged from 4 to 110 months. All patients received definitive treatment. The small number of patients with follow-up multiparametric MRI findings showing worsening disease supports the role of MRI in patients with early-stage prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI is useful in monitoring patients on active surveillance and

  6. Validation of a computer case definition for sudden cardiac death in opioid users

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To facilitate the use of automated databases for studies of sudden cardiac death, we previously developed a computerized case definition that had a positive predictive value between 86% and 88%. However, the definition has not been specifically validated for prescription opioid users, for whom out-of-hospital overdose deaths may be difficult to distinguish from sudden cardiac death. Findings We assembled a cohort of persons 30-74 years of age prescribed propoxyphene or hydrocodone who had no life-threatening non-cardiovascular illness, diagnosed drug abuse, residence in a nursing home in the past year, or hospital stay within the past 30 days. Medical records were sought for a sample of 140 cohort deaths within 30 days of a prescription fill meeting the computer case definition. Of the 140 sampled deaths, 81 were adjudicated; 73 (90%) were sudden cardiac deaths. Two deaths had possible opioid overdose; after removing these two the positive predictive value was 88%. Conclusions These findings are consistent with our previous validation studies and suggest the computer case definition of sudden cardiac death is a useful tool for pharmacoepidemiologic studies of opioid analgesics. PMID:22938531

  7. The rationale for integrated childhood meningoencephalitis surveillance: a case study from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Touch, Sok; Hills, Susan; Rani, Manju; Samnang, Chham; Khalakdina, Asheena; Jacobson, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Problem Recent progress in vaccine availability and affordability has raised prospects for reducing death and disability from neurological infections in children. In many Asian countries, however, the epidemiology and public health burden of neurological diseases such as Japanese encephalitis and bacterial meningitis are poorly understood. Approach A sentinel surveillance system for Japanese encephalitis was developed and embedded within the routine meningoencephalitis syndromic surveillance system in Cambodia in 2006. The sentinel surveillance system was designed so surveillance and laboratory testing for other etiologies of neurological infection could be incorporated. Local setting The Communicable Disease Control department of the Ministry of Health in Cambodia worked with partners to establish the sentinel surveillance system. Relevant changes The sentinel surveillance system has provided important information on the disease burden of Japanese encephalitis in Cambodia and is now providing a platform for expansion to incorporate laboratory testing for other vaccine-preventable neurological infections in children. Lessons learned Sentinel surveillance systems, when linked to syndromic reporting systems, can characterize the epidemiology of meningoencephalitis and identify the proportion of hospital-based neurological infection in children that is vaccine preventable. Integrated systems enable consistency in data collection, analysis and information dissemination, and they enhance the capacity of public health managers to provide more credible and integrated information to policy-makers. This will assist decision-making about the potential role of immunization in reducing the incidence of childhood neurological infections. PMID:19551241

  8. Characteristics of non-fatal abusive head trauma among children in the USA, 2003–2008: application of the CDC operational case definition to national hospital inpatient data

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Sharyn; Sugerman, David; Xu, Likang; Coronado, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Objective An International Classification of Diseases code-based case definition for non-fatal abusive head trauma (AHT) in children <5 years of age was developed in March 2008 by an expert panel convened at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This study presents an application of the CDC recommended operational case definition of AHT to US hospital inpatient data to characterise the AHT hospitalisation rate for children <5 years of age. Methods Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilisation Project from 2003 to 2008 were examined. Results Inspection of the NIS data resulted in the identification of an estimated 10 555 non-fatal AHT hospitalisations with 9595 classified as definite/presumptive AHT and 960 classified as probable AHT. The non-fatal AHT rate was highest among children aged <1 year (32.3 per 100 000) with a peak in hospitalisations between 1 and 3 months of age. Non-fatal AHT hospitalisation rates for children <2 years of age were higher for boys (21.9 per 100 000) than girls (15.3 per 100 000). The non-fatal AHT hospitalisation rate showed little variation across seasons. Conclusions To reduce the burden of AHT in the USA, a preventable public health problem, concerted prevention efforts targeting populations at risk should be implemented. This report demonstrates a model procedure for using the new CDC definition for public health surveillance and research purposes. Such findings can be used to inform parents and providers about AHT (eg, dangers of shaking, strategies for managing infant crying) as well as to monitor better the impact of prevention strategies over time. PMID:22328632

  9. Defining travel-associated cases of enteric fever.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Joanne; Lighton, Lorraine; Jones, Jane

    2014-01-01

    There is no internationally recognized case-definition for travel-associated enteric fever in non-endemic countries. This study describes the patterns of case reporting between 2007 and 2011 as travel-associated or not from the surveillance data in England, Wales and Northern Ireland (EWNI), before and after a change in the time component of the case-definition in January 2011. It examines in particular the role of a time frame based on the reported typical incubation period in defining a case of travel-associated enteric fever. The results showed no significant differences in the distribution of cases of enteric fever in regards to the interval between the onset and UK arrival in 2011 compared to 2007-2010 (p=0.98 for typhoid and paratyphoid A); the distribution for paratyphoid B was also similar in both time periods. During 2007-2010, 93% (1730/1853) of all of the cases were classified as travel-associated compared to 94% (448/477) in 2011. This difference was not statistically significant. Changing the time component of the definition of travel-associated enteric fever did not make a significant difference to the proportion of travel-associated cases reported by investigators. Our analysis suggests that time might be subordinate to other considerations when investigators classify a case as travel-associated. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers - what have we learned and how do we move on?

    PubMed

    Simon, Arne; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Voigt, Sebastian; Piening, Brar; Geffers, Christine; Agyeman, Philipp; Ammann, Roland A

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients' safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85%) have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD). Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD-associated BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined.

  11. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-02-01

    Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100'000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100'000 in 2013, 1.02/100'000 in 2014, and 0.47/100'000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other polio

  12. Proposed clinical case definition for cytomegalovirus-immune recovery retinitis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Cruz, Matilde; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2014-07-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis has been extensively described in patients with advanced or late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease under ineffective treatment of opportunistic infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) failure. However, there is limited information about patients who develop active cytomegalovirus retinitis as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after successful initiation of ART. Therefore, a case definition of cytomegalovirus-immune recovery retinitis (CMV-IRR) is proposed here. We reviewed medical records of 116 HIV-infected patients with CMV retinitis attending our institution during January 2003-June 2012. We retrospectively studied HIV-infected patients who had CMV retinitis on ART initiation or during the subsequent 6 months. Clinical and immunological characteristics of patients with active CMV retinitis were described. Of the 75 patients under successful ART included in the study, 20 had improvement of CMV retinitis. The remaining 55 patients experienced CMV-IRR; 35 of those developed CMV-IRR after ART initiation (unmasking CMV-IRR) and 20 experienced paradoxical clinical worsening of retinitis (paradoxical CMV-IRR). Nineteen patients with CMV-IRR had a CD4 count of ≥50 cells/µL. Six patients with CMV-IRR subsequently developed immune recovery uveitis. There is no case definition for CMV-IRR, although this condition is likely to occur after successful initiation of ART, even in patients with high CD4 T-cell counts. By consequence, we propose the case definitions for paradoxical and unmasking CMV-IRR. We recommend close follow-up of HIV-infected patients following ART initiation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. PMID:28830113

  14. Multi-site cholera surveillance within the African Cholera Surveillance Network shows endemicity in Mozambique, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Semá Baltazar, Cynthia; Langa, José Paulo; Dengo Baloi, Liliana; Wood, Richard; Ouedraogo, Issaka; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Inguane, Dorteia; Elias Chitio, Jucunu; Mhlanga, Themba; Gujral, Lorna; D Gessner, Bradford; Munier, Aline; A Mengel, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country. Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira), Zambézia (District Mocuba), and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City). Data were also analyzed from the three outbreak areas that experienced the greatest number of cases during the time period under observation (in the districts of Cuamba, Montepuez, and Nampula). Rectal swabs were collected from suspected cases for identification of Vibrio cholerae, as well as clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic variables. We analyzed factors associated with confirmed, hospitalized, and fatal cholera using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1,863 suspected cases and 23 deaths (case fatality ratio (CFR), 1.2%) were reported from October 2011 to December 2015. Among these suspected cases, 52.2% were tested of which 23.5% were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of confirmed cholera were living in Nampula city district, the year 2014, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and the primary water source for drinking. Cholera was endemic in Mozambique during the study period with a high CFR and identifiable risk factors. The study reinforces the importance of continued cholera surveillance, including a strong laboratory component. The results enhanced our understanding of the need to target priority areas and at-risk populations for interventions including oral cholera vaccine (OCV) use, and assess the impact of prevention and control strategies. Our data were instrumental in informing integrated prevention and control efforts during major cholera outbreaks in recent years.

  15. Evaluation of a national pharmacy‐based syndromic surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Muchaal, PK; Parker, S; Meganath, K; Landry, L; Aramini, J

    2015-01-01

    Background Traditional public health surveillance provides accurate information but is typically not timely. New early warning systems leveraging timely electronic data are emerging, but the public health value of such systems is still largely unknown. Objective To assess the timeliness and accuracy of pharmacy sales data for both respiratory and gastrointestinal infections and to determine its utility in supporting the surveillance of gastrointestinal illness. Methods To assess timeliness, a prospective and retrospective analysis of data feeds was used to compare the chronological characteristics of each data stream. To assess accuracy, Ontario antiviral prescriptions were compared to confirmed cases of influenza and cases of influenza-like-illness (ILI) from August 2009 to January 2015 and Nova Scotia sales of respiratory over-the-counter products (OTC) were compared to laboratory reports of respiratory pathogen detections from January 2014 to March 2015. Enteric outbreak data (2011-2014) from Nova Scotia were compared to sales of gastrointestinal products for the same time period. To assess utility, pharmacy sales of gastrointestinal products were monitored across Canada to detect unusual increases and reports were disseminated to the provinces and territories once a week between December 2014 and March 2015 and then a follow-up evaluation survey of stakeholders was conducted. Results Ontario prescriptions of antivirals between 2009 and 2015 correlated closely with the onset dates and magnitude of confirmed influenza cases. Nova Scotia sales of respiratory OTC products correlated with increases in non-influenza respiratory pathogens in the community. There were no definitive correlations identified between the occurrence of enteric outbreaks and the sales of gastrointestinal OTCs in Nova Scotia. Evaluation of national monitoring showed no significant increases in sales of gastrointestinal products that could be linked to outbreaks that included more than one

  16. Early detection for cases of enterovirus- and influenza-like illness through a newly established school-based syndromic surveillance system in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Lin, Hsien Tang; Chang, Chia Kun Jasper; Wang, Wen Wen; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians' clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  17. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  18. Assessment of the core and support functions of the Integrated Disease Surveillance system in Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Monitoring the progress of the Integrated Disease Surveillance (IDS) strategy is an important component to ensure its sustainability in the state of Maharashtra in India. The purpose of the study was to document the baseline performance of the system on its core and support functions and to understand the challenges for its transition from an externally funded “project” to a state owned surveillance “program”. Methods Multi-centre, retrospective cross-sectional evaluation study to assess the structure, core and support surveillance functions using modified WHO generic questionnaires. All 34 districts in the state and randomly identified 46 facilities and 25 labs were included in the study. Results Case definitions were rarely used at the periphery. Limited laboratory capacity at all levels compromised case and outbreak confirmation. Only 53% districts could confirm all priority diseases. Stool sample processing was the weakest at the periphery. Availability of transport media, trained staff, and rapid diagnostic tests were main challenges at the periphery. Data analysis was weak at both district and facility levels. Outbreak thresholds were better understood at facility level (59%) than at the district (18%). None of the outbreak indicator targets were met and submission of final outbreak report was the weakest. Feedback and training was significantly better (p < 0.0001) at district level (65%; 76%) than at facility level (15%; 37%). Supervision was better at the facility level (37%) than at district (18%) and so were coordination, communication and logistic resources. Contractual part time positions, administrative delays in recruitment, and vacancies (30%) were main human resource issues that hampered system performance. Conclusions Significant progress has been made in the core and support surveillance functions in Maharashtra, however some challenges exist. Support functions (laboratory, transport and communication equipment, training

  19. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  20. Health surveillance for occupational respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Lewis, L; Fishwick, D

    2013-07-01

    Occupational lung diseases remain common, and health surveillance is one approach used to assist identification of early cases. To identify areas of good practice within respiratory health surveillance and to formulate recommendations for practice. Published literature was searched since 1990 using a semi-systematic methodology. A total of 561 documents were identified on Medline and Embase combined. Other search engines did not identify relevant documents that had not already been identified by these two main searches. Seventy-nine of these were assessed further and 36 documents were included for the full analysis. Respiratory health surveillance remains a disparate process, even within disease type. A standard validated questionnaire and associated guidance should be developed. Lung function testing was common and generally supported by the evidence. Cross-sectional interpretation of lung function in younger workers needs careful assessment in order to best identify early cases of disease. More informed interpretation of the forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio, for example by using a lower limit of normal for each worker, and of longitudinal lung function information is advised. Immunological tests appear useful in small groups of workers exposed to common occupational allergens. Education, training and improved occupational health policies are likely to improve uptake of health surveillance, to ensure that those who fail health surveillance at any point are handled appropriately.

  1. Are the current notification criteria for Lyme borreliosis in Norway suitable? Results of an evaluation of Lyme borreliosis surveillance in Norway, 1995-2013.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Emily; Vestrheim, Didrik Frimann; White, Richard A; Konsmo, Kirstin; Lange, Heidi; Aase, Audun; Nygård, Karin; Stefanoff, Pawel; Aaberge, Ingeborg; Vold, Line

    2016-08-05

    differences in testing practices and low acceptability of the notification criteria. Given the challenges associated with diagnosing Lyme borreliosis, the selected notification criteria should be closely linked with the purpose of the surveillance system. Restricting reportable Lyme borreliosis to neuroborreliosis may increase validity, while a more sensitive case definition (potentially including erythema migrans) may better reflect the true burden of disease. We recommend revising the current notification criteria in Norway to ensure that they are unambiguous for clinicians and laboratories.

  2. Evaluation of surveillance methods for staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lesher, Lindsey; Devries, Aaron; Danila, Richard; Lynfield, Ruth

    2009-05-01

    We compared passive surveillance and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes for completeness of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) surveillance in the Minneapolis-St. Paul area, Minnesota, USA. TSS-specific codes identified 55% of cases compared with 30% by passive surveillance and were more sensitive (p = 0.0005, McNemar chi2 12.25).

  3. Evaluation of Surveillance Methods for Staphylococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    DeVries, Aaron; Danila, Richard; Lynfield, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    We compared passive surveillance and International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes for completeness of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS) surveillance in the Minneapolis–St. Paul area, Minnesota, USA. TSS-specific codes identified 55% of cases compared with 30% by passive surveillance and were more sensitive (p = 0.0005, McNemar χ2 12.25). PMID:19402965

  4. Harmful Algal Bloom-Associated Illnesses in Humans and Dogs Identified Through a Pilot Surveillance System - New York, 2015.

    PubMed

    Figgatt, Mary; Hyde, James; Dziewulski, David; Wiegert, Eric; Kishbaugh, Scott; Zelin, Grant; Wilson, Lloyd

    2017-11-03

    Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are photosynthetic, aquatic organisms found in fresh, brackish, and marine water around the world (1). Rapid proliferation and accumulation of potentially toxin-producing cyanobacteria characterize one type of harmful algal bloom (HAB). HABs have the potential to cause illness in humans and animals (2,3); however, the epidemiology of these illnesses has not been well characterized. Statewide in 2015, a total of 139 HABs were identified in New York, 97 (70%) of which were confirmed through laboratory analysis; 77 independent beach closures were ordered at 37 beaches on 20 different bodies of water. To better characterize HAB-associated illnesses, during June-September 2015, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) implemented a pilot surveillance system in 16 New York counties. Activities included the collection of data from environmental HAB reports, illness reports, poison control centers, and syndromic surveillance, and increased outreach to the public, health care providers, and veterinarians. During June-September, 51 HAB-associated illnesses were reported, including 35 that met the CDC case definitions*; 32 of the cases occurred in humans and three in dogs. In previous years, New York never had more than 10 HAB-associated illnesses reported statewide. The pilot surveillance results from 16 counties during a 4-month period suggest that HAB-associated illnesses might be more common than previously reported.

  5. An automated database case definition for serious bleeding related to oral anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Andrew; Stein, C Michael; Chung, Cecilia P; Daugherty, James R; Smalley, Walter E; Ray, Wayne A

    2011-06-01

    Bleeding complications are a serious adverse effect of medications that prevent abnormal blood clotting. To facilitate epidemiologic investigations of bleeding complications, we developed and validated an automated database case definition for bleeding-related hospitalizations. The case definition utilized information from an in-progress retrospective cohort study of warfarin-related bleeding in Tennessee Medicaid enrollees 30 years of age or older. It identified inpatient stays during the study period of January 1990 to December 2005 with diagnoses and/or procedures that indicated a current episode of bleeding. The definition was validated by medical record review for a sample of 236 hospitalizations. We reviewed 186 hospitalizations that had medical records with sufficient information for adjudication. Of these, 165 (89%, 95%CI: 83-92%) were clinically confirmed bleeding-related hospitalizations. An additional 19 hospitalizations (10%, 7-15%) were adjudicated as possibly bleeding-related. Of the 165 clinically confirmed bleeding-related hospitalizations, the automated database and clinical definitions had concordant anatomical sites (gastrointestinal, cerebral, genitourinary, other) for 163 (99%, 96-100%). For those hospitalizations with sufficient information to distinguish between upper/lower gastrointestinal bleeding, the concordance was 89% (76-96%) for upper gastrointestinal sites and 91% (77-97%) for lower gastrointestinal sites. A case definition for bleeding-related hospitalizations suitable for automated databases had a positive predictive value of between 89% and 99% and could distinguish specific bleeding sites. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Using electronic medical records to increase the efficiency of catheter-associated urinary tract infection surveillance for National Health and Safety Network reporting.

    PubMed

    Shepard, John; Hadhazy, Eric; Frederick, John; Nicol, Spencer; Gade, Padmaja; Cardon, Andrew; Wilson, Jorge; Vetteth, Yohan; Madison, Sasha

    2014-03-01

    Streamlining health care-associated infection surveillance is essential for health care facilities owing to the continuing increases in reporting requirements. Stanford Hospital, a 583-bed adult tertiary care center, used their electronic medical record (EMR) to develop an electronic algorithm to reduce the time required to conduct catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) surveillance in adults. The algorithm provides inclusion and exclusion criteria, using the National Healthcare Safety Network definitions, for patients with a CAUTI. The algorithm was validated by trained infection preventionists through complete chart review for a random sample of cultures collected during the study period, September 1, 2012, to February 28, 2013. During the study period, a total of 6,379 positive urine cultures were identified. The Stanford Hospital electronic CAUTI algorithm identified 6,101 of these positive cultures (95.64%) as not a CAUTI, 191 (2.99%) as a possible CAUTI requiring further validation, and 87 (1.36%) as a definite CAUTI. Overall, use of the algorithm reduced CAUTI surveillance requirements at Stanford Hospital by 97.01%. The electronic algorithm proved effective in increasing the efficiency of CAUTI surveillance. The data suggest that CAUTI surveillance using the National Healthcare Safety Network definitions can be fully automated. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ebola virus disease surveillance and response preparedness in northern Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adokiya, Martin N; Awoonor-Williams, John K

    2016-01-01

    The recent Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak has been described as unprecedented in terms of morbidity, mortality, and geographical extension. It also revealed many weaknesses and inadequacies for disease surveillance and response systems in Africa due to underqualified staff, cultural beliefs, and lack of trust for the formal health care sector. In 2014, Ghana had high risk of importation of EVD cases. The objective of this study was to assess the EVD surveillance and response system in northern Ghana. This was an observational study conducted among 47 health workers (district directors, medical, disease control, and laboratory officers) in all 13 districts of the Upper East Region representing public, mission, and private health services. A semi-structured questionnaire with focus on core and support functions (e.g. detection, confirmation) was administered to the informants. Their responses were recorded according to specific themes. In addition, 34 weekly Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response reports (August 2014 to March 2015) were collated from each district. In 2014 and 2015, a total of 10 suspected Ebola cases were clinically diagnosed from four districts. Out of the suspected cases, eight died and the cause of death was unexplained. All the 10 suspected cases were reported, none was confirmed. The informants had knowledge on EVD surveillance and data reporting. However, there were gaps such as delayed reporting, low quality protective equipment (e.g. gloves, aprons), inadequate staff, and lack of laboratory capacity. The majority (38/47) of the respondents were not satisfied with EVD surveillance system and response preparedness due to lack of infrared thermometers, ineffective screening, and lack of isolation centres. EVD surveillance and response preparedness is insufficient and the epidemic is a wake-up call for early detection and response preparedness. Ebola surveillance remains a neglected public health issue. Thus, disease surveillance

  8. Surveillance of bloodstream infections in pediatric cancer centers – what have we learned and how do we move on?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Arne; Furtwängler, Rhoikos; Graf, Norbert; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Voigt, Sebastian; Piening, Brar; Geffers, Christine; Agyeman, Philipp; Ammann, Roland A.

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric patients receiving conventional chemotherapy for malignant disease face an increased risk of bloodstream infection (BSI). Since BSI may represent an acute life-threatening event in patients with profound immunosuppression, and show further negative impact on quality of life and anticancer treatment, the prevention of BSI is of paramount importance to improve and guarantee patients’ safety during intensive treatment. The great majority of all pediatric cancer patients (about 85%) have a long-term central venous access catheter in use (type Broviac or Port; CVAD). Referring to the current surveillance definitions a significant proportion of all BSI in pediatric patients with febrile neutropenia is categorized as CVAD-associated BSI. This state of the art review summarizes the epidemiology and the distinct pathogen profile of BSI in pediatric cancer patients from the perspective of infection surveillance. Problems in executing the current surveillance definition in this patient population are discussed and a new concept for the surveillance of BSI in pediatric cancer patients is outlined. PMID:27274442

  9. Characterizing Lyme Disease Surveillance in an Endemic State.

    PubMed

    Rutz, H J; Wee, S B; Feldman, K A

    2018-03-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is the most common vector-borne disease in Maryland and the United States. Surveillance for LD is valuable for understanding the burden of the disease, particularly to assess whether the disease is spreading and to appreciate who is affected. However, not all cases of LD in Maryland are reported, and surveillance practices vary across each of Maryland's 24 local health departments (LHDs). To better understand this variability and to systematically characterize the surveillance process, we surveyed Maryland's LHDs regarding LD surveillance. The Maryland Local Health Department Lyme Disease Surveillance Survey has been administered annually since 2011. Questions asked each year included whether all LD reports are investigated or only a subset, and how many reports are not entered into the surveillance database. Since 2011, Maryland has lost surveillance personnel for LD. Each year from 2009 to 2012, a median 3598 (range 2462 to 5722) reports were not entered into the surveillance database and hence not investigated. These reports represent 43-55% of all reports received for the year. Over time, more LHDs chose to streamline their LD investigation approach by investigating only those reports that met the criteria for laboratory evidence of infection: in 2008, 5 (21%) LHDs investigated only a subset of LD reports; by 2013, this increased to 15 (63%). There is wide variability across LHDs in how LD investigations are conducted. Maryland LHDs have experienced a loss of LD surveillance personnel with a concomitant increase in the number of LHDs adopting a streamlined approach to investigating cases. These findings underscore the tremendous burden of LD on the public health agencies and highlight the need for alternative approaches that can both reduce burden and preserve surveillance data quality. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Sharing experiences: towards an evidence based model of dengue surveillance and outbreak response in Latin America and Asia.

    PubMed

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Valladares, David Benitez; Farrar, Jeremy; Gozzer, Ernesto; Kroeger, Axel; Kuswara, Novia; Ranzinger, Silvia Runge; Tinh, Hien Tran; Leite, Priscila; Mahendradhata, Yodi; Skewes, Ronald; Verrall, Ayesha

    2013-06-24

    The increasing frequency and intensity of dengue outbreaks in endemic and non-endemic countries requires a rational, evidence based response. To this end, we aimed to collate the experiences of a number of affected countries, identify strengths and limitations in dengue surveillance, outbreak preparedness, detection and response and contribute towards the development of a model contingency plan adaptable to country needs. The study was undertaken in five Latin American (Brazil, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru) and five in Asian countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Sri Lanka, Vietnam). A mixed-methods approach was used which included document analysis, key informant interviews, focus-group discussions, secondary data analysis and consensus building by an international dengue expert meeting organised by the World Health Organization, Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (WHO-TDR). Country information on dengue is based on compulsory notification and reporting ("passive surveillance"), with laboratory confirmation (in all participating Latin American countries and some Asian countries) or by using a clinical syndromic definition. Seven countries additionally had sentinel sites with active dengue reporting, some also had virological surveillance. Six had agreed a formal definition of a dengue outbreak separate to seasonal variation in case numbers. Countries collected data on a range of warning signs that may identify outbreaks early, but none had developed a systematic approach to identifying and responding to the early stages of an outbreak. Outbreak response plans varied in quality, particularly regarding the early response. The surge capacity of hospitals with recent dengue outbreaks varied; those that could mobilise additional staff, beds, laboratory support and resources coped best in comparison to those improvising a coping strategy during the outbreak. Hospital outbreak management plans were present in 9

  11. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Toward An Empirical Case Definition

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Kot, Bobby; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Jantke, Rachel; Williams, Yolonda; Furst, Jacob; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Current case definitions of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been based on consensus methods, but empirical methods could be used to identify core symptoms and thereby improve the reliability. In the present study, several methods (i.e., continuous scores of symptoms, theoretically and empirically derived cut off scores of symptoms) were used to identify core symptoms best differentiating patients from controls. In addition, data mining with decision trees was conducted. Our study found a small number of core symptoms that have good sensitivity and specificity, and these included fatigue, post-exertional malaise, a neurocognitive symptom, and unrefreshing sleep. Outcomes from these analyses suggest that using empirically selected symptoms can help guide the creation of a more reliable case definition. PMID:26029488

  12. Surveillance of poliomyelitis in Northern Italy: Results of acute flaccid paralysis surveillance and environmental surveillance, 2012–2015

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrinelli, Laura; Bubba, Laura; Primache, Valeria; Pariani, Elena; Battistone, Andrea; Delogu, Roberto; Fiore, Stefano; Binda, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although in the last years poliovirus (PV) transmission has been reported at the lowest levels ever recorded, the spread of virus from endemic countries endures; the high levels of immigration flows across the Mediterranean Sea jeopardize Italy for PV reintroduction. The World Health Organization (WHO) strategic plan for global poliomyelitis (polio) eradication indicates the nationwide surveillance of Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) as the gold standard for detecting cases of polio. In addition, the Environmental Surveillance (ES), seeking the presence of PV and Non-Polio Enterovirus (NPEV) in sewage, is recognized as a powerful tool to confirm PV circulation in absence of AFP cases, especially in polio-free countries. Here we report the results of AFP surveillance (AFPS) and ES in Lombardy (Northern Italy) from 2012 to 2015. Forty-eight AFP cases were identified during the study period. No AFP case was caused by PV infection. NPEVs were identified in 6.3% (3/48) of AFP cases. The annual AFP incidence rate was 0.87/100′000 children <15 y in 2012, 1.42/100′000 in 2013, 1.02/100′000 in 2014, and 0.47/100′000 in 2015; according to WHO indicators, the sensitivity of AFPS was adequate in 2013 and 2014. Completeness of case investigation raised progressively during the study period to achieve the WHO standards in 2014 (92.3%) and 2015 (100%). Completeness of follow-up increased from 72.7% in 2012 to 100% in 2014. In the framework of the ES conducted in Milan, 268 wastewater samples were collected from 2012 to 2015 and no PVs were isolated. In contrast, NPEVs were detected in 65.3% (175/268) of samples. All NPEVs characterized belonged to enterovirus species B: echovirus type 11, 6 and 3 were the most frequently detected viruses, representing 29.1% (41/141), 20.6% (29/141) and 9.2% (13/141) of genotyped NPEVs, respectively. Keeping strong and encouraging both AFPS and ES is crucial to ensure that PV will not return unnoticed in Italy - as well as in other

  13. High Dengue Case Capture Rate in Four Years of a Cohort Study in Nicaragua Compared to National Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Standish, Katherine; Kuan, Guillermina; Avilés, William; Balmaseda, Angel; Harris, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions; however, under-reporting of cases to national surveillance systems hinders accurate knowledge of disease burden and costs. Laboratory-confirmed dengue cases identified through the Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study (PDCS) were compared to those reported from other health facilities in Managua to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance (NES) program of the Nicaraguan Ministry of Health. Compared to reporting among similar pediatric populations in Managua, the PDCS identified 14 to 28 (average 21.3) times more dengue cases each year per 100,000 persons than were reported to the NES. Applying these annual expansion factors to national-level data, we estimate that the incidence of confirmed pediatric dengue throughout Nicaragua ranged from 300 to 1000 cases per 100,000 persons. We have estimated a much higher incidence of dengue than reported by the Ministry of Health. A country-specific expansion factor for dengue that allows for a more accurate estimate of incidence may aid governments and other institutions calculating disease burden, costs, resource needs for prevention and treatment, and the economic benefits of drug and vaccine development. PMID:20300515

  14. Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009-2013.

    PubMed

    Odoom, John Kofi; Ntim, Nana Afia Asante; Sarkodie, Badu; Addo, James; Minta-Asare, Keren; Obodai, Evangeline; Eshun, Miriam; Ahove, Vincent V; Diamenu, Stanley; Adjabeng, Michael; Arthur-Quarm, Jacob; Barnor, Jacob S

    2014-07-05

    Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow-up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading to proper care.

  15. Vibrio infections and surveillance in Maryland, 2002-2008.

    PubMed

    Jones, Erin H; Feldman, Katherine A; Palmer, Amanda; Butler, Erin; Blythe, David; Mitchell, Clifford S

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio is a naturally occurring waterborne pathogen with potential occupational, recreational, and commercial impacts. During the last 15 years in the U.S. and in Maryland, the incidence of vibriosis has increased. Due to the increase in cases in Maryland, warming water temperatures, and public concern about human health effects resulting from exposure to the Chesapeake Bay, we reviewed cases of vibriosis and evaluated the Vibrio surveillance system in Maryland for timeliness and data quality, attributes necessary for successful outbreak investigation and illness prevention. The evaluation included (1) informal qualitative surveys of state and local personnel who report and manage Vibrio cases and (2) a review of Vibrio surveillance data from 2002 through 2008 for data quality and timeliness of the system. From 2002 to 2008, 188 laboratory-confirmed cases of vibriosis were reported in Maryland with an annual average of 27 cases. The species of Vibrio that were most frequently responsible for infection, regardless of clinical presentation, were V. parahaemolyticus (43.6%), V. vulnificus (23.9%), V. alginolyticus (9.6%), and non-toxigenic V. cholerae (9.0%). The case fatality rate fluctuated during the study period, but the number of cases increased. The surveillance system in Maryland is flexible and captures cases of vibriosis where specimens were collected for testing; however, the system may not adequately capture mild, self-limiting infections. Better integration of data collection for clinical, laboratory, and environmental information and improved completion of variables for shellfish harvest or water exposure locations could improve the system. Quarterly meetings comprising surveillance, public health laboratory, and food-control personnel could direct and ensure the success of improvement efforts.

  16. Evaluation of community-based systems for the surveillance of day three-positive Plasmodium falciparum cases in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed clearance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites is used as an operational indicator of potential artemisinin resistance. Effective community-based systems to detect P. falciparum cases remaining positive 72 hours after initiating treatment would be valuable for guiding case follow-up in areas of known resistance risk and for detecting areas of emerging resistance. Methods Systems incorporating existing networks of village malaria workers (VMWs) to monitor day three-positive P. falciparum cases were piloted in three provinces in western Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative data were used to evaluate the wider feasibility and sustainability of community-based surveillance of day three-positive P. falciparum cases. Results Of 294 day-3 blood slides obtained across all sites (from 297 day-0 positives), 63 were positive for P. falciparum, an overall day-3 positivity rate of 21%. There were significant variations in the systems implemented by different partners. Full engagement of VMWs and health centre staff is critical. VMWs are responsible for a range of individual tasks including preparing blood slides on day-0, completing forms, administering directly observed therapy (DOT) on days 0–2, obtaining follow-up slides on day-3 and transporting slides and paperwork to their supervising health centre. When suitably motivated, unsalaried VMWs are willing and able to produce good quality blood smears and achieve very high rates of DOT and day-3 follow-up. Conclusions Community-based surveillance of day-3 P. falciparum cases is feasible, but highly intensive, and as such needs strong and continuous support, particularly supervision and training. The purpose and role of community-based day-3 surveillance should be assessed in the light of resource requirements; scaling-up would need to be systematic and targeted, based on clearly defined epidemiological criteria. To be truly comprehensive, the system would need to be extended beyond VMWs to other public

  17. An interferometer for high-resolution optical surveillance from geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonino, L.; Bresciani, F.; Piasini, G.; Flebus, C.; Lecat, J.-H.; Roose, S.; Pisani, M.; Cabral, A.; Rebordão, J.; Proença, C.; Costal, J.; Lima, P. U.; Loix, N.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    The activities described in this paper have been developed in the frame of the EUCLID CEPA 9 RTP 9.9 "High Resolution Optical Satellite Sensor" project of the WEAO Research Cell. They have been focused on the definition of an interferometric instrument optimised for the high-resolution optical surveillance from geostationary orbit (GEO) by means of the synthetic aperture technique, and on the definition and development of the related enabling technologies. In this paper we describe the industrial team, the selected mission specifications and overview of the whole design and manufacturing activities performed.

  18. Non-polio Enteroviruses in Karnataka, India: Virological surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis cases (July 1997-2013).

    PubMed

    Hanumaiah, H; Raut, C G; Sinha, D P; Yergolkar, P N

    2016-01-01

    Since 1997 National Institute of Virology, Bangalore Unit involved in WHO's Acute flaccid paralysis paediatric cases surveillance programme to isolate and detect polioviruses. Stool samples yielded not only polioviruses but also Non-Polio enteroviruses. This report is an overview of non-polio Enterovirus (NPEV) epidemiology in Karnataka state, India for the period of 16-years and 6 months from July 1997-2013. A total of 19,410 clinical samples were processed for virus isolation as a part of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance for Global Polio Eradication Programme in India at National Polio Laboratory, at Bengaluru. NPEV detection was performed by virus isolation on cell culture according to World Health Organisation recommended protocols. A total of 4152 NPEV isolates were obtained. The NPEV isolation rate varied from year to year but with a total NPEV rate of 21.39%. A seasonal variation was noted with high transmission period between April and October with peaks in June-July. The male to female ratio was 1:1.2. The isolation of NPEV decreased significantly with the increase in age. Epidemiology of NPEVs from AFP cases in Karnataka is described.

  19. Preventing the preventable through effective surveillance: the case of diphtheria in a rural district of Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemic diphtheria is still poorly understood and continues to challenge both developing and developed countries. In the backdrop of poor immunization coverage, non-existent adult boosters, weak case based surveillance and persistence of multiple foci, there is a heightened risk of re-emergence of the disease in epidemic forms in India. Investigating each outbreak to understand the epidemiology of the disease and its current status in the country is therefore necessary. Dhule a predominantly tribal and rural district in Northern Maharashtra has consistently recorded low vaccination coverages alongside sporaidic cases of diphtheria over the last years. Methods This study reports the findings of an onsite survey conducted to assess a recent outbreak of diphtheria in Dhule district and the response mounted to it. Secondary data regarding outbreak detection and response were obtained from the district surveillance office. Clinical data were extracted from hospital records of eleven lab confirmed cases including one death case. Frequency distributions were calculated for each identified clinical and non- clinical variable using Microsoft™ Excel® 2010. Results Our findings suggest a shift in the median age of disease to adolescents (10-15 years) without gender differences. Two cases (18%) reported disease despite immunization. Clinical symptoms included cough (82%), fever (73%), and throat congestion (64%). About 64% and 36% of the 11 confirmed cases presented with a well defined pseudomembrane and a tonsillar patch respectively. Drug resistance was observed in all three culture positive cases. One death occurred despite the administration of Anti-Diphtheric Serum in a partially immunized case (CFR 9%). Genotyping and toxigenicity of strain was not possible due to specimen contamination during transport as testing facilities were unavailable in the district. Conclusions The outbreak raises several concerns regarding the epidemiology of diphtheria in

  20. Multi-site cholera surveillance within the African Cholera Surveillance Network shows endemicity in Mozambique, 2011–2015

    PubMed Central

    Langa, José Paulo; Dengo Baloi, Liliana; Wood, Richard; Ouedraogo, Issaka; Njanpop-Lafourcade, Berthe-Marie; Inguane, Dorteia; Elias Chitio, Jucunu; Mhlanga, Themba; Gujral, Lorna; D. Gessner, Bradford; Munier, Aline; A. Mengel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Mozambique suffers recurrent annual cholera outbreaks especially during the rainy season between October to March. The African Cholera Surveillance Network (Africhol) was implemented in Mozambique in 2011 to generate accurate detailed surveillance data to support appropriate interventions for cholera control and prevention in the country. Methodology/Principal findings Africhol was implemented in enhanced surveillance zones located in the provinces of Sofala (Beira), Zambézia (District Mocuba), and Cabo Delgado (Pemba City). Data were also analyzed from the three outbreak areas that experienced the greatest number of cases during the time period under observation (in the districts of Cuamba, Montepuez, and Nampula). Rectal swabs were collected from suspected cases for identification of Vibrio cholerae, as well as clinical, behavioral, and socio-demographic variables. We analyzed factors associated with confirmed, hospitalized, and fatal cholera using multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 1,863 suspected cases and 23 deaths (case fatality ratio (CFR), 1.2%) were reported from October 2011 to December 2015. Among these suspected cases, 52.2% were tested of which 23.5% were positive for Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa. Risk factors independently associated with the occurrence of confirmed cholera were living in Nampula city district, the year 2014, human immunodeficiency virus infection, and the primary water source for drinking. Conclusions/Significance Cholera was endemic in Mozambique during the study period with a high CFR and identifiable risk factors. The study reinforces the importance of continued cholera surveillance, including a strong laboratory component. The results enhanced our understanding of the need to target priority areas and at-risk populations for interventions including oral cholera vaccine (OCV) use, and assess the impact of prevention and control strategies. Our data were instrumental in informing integrated prevention and

  1. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gattás, Vera Lúcia; Lima Neto, Antonio Silva; Dimech, George Santiago; Mancini, Denise; Cantarino, Ligia Maria; Marins, José Ricardo Pio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation.

  2. New variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) disease and other human prion diseases under epidemiological surveillance in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gattás, Vera Lúcia; Lima Neto, Antonio Silva; Dimech, George Santiago; Mancini, Denise; Cantarino, Ligia Maria; Marins, José Ricardo Pio; Luna, Expedito José Albuquerque

    2007-01-01

    To increase the timeliness of detection of human cases of the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and to reduce the risk of transmission, the Brazilian Ministry of Health has established and standardized rules and control measures. These include the definition of criteria for suspect cases, reporting, monitoring, and control measures for illness prevention and transmission. Guidelines to be used by the team of health care staff were published and distributed to health workers. A detailed proposal for a simplified system of surveillance for prion diseases was developed and mandatory reporting introduced. Additional effort is necessary to increase vCJD case detection, thus making it necessary to establish a partnership with health care services for best identification of suspected cases and dissemination of information to all involved in the service dealing with vCJD investigation. PMID:29213409

  3. Cultural Practices Shaping Zoonotic Diseases Surveillance: The Case of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and Thailand Native Chicken Farmers.

    PubMed

    Delabouglise, A; Antoine-Moussiaux, N; Tatong, D; Chumkaeo, A; Binot, A; Fournié, G; Pilot, E; Phimpraphi, W; Kasemsuwan, S; Paul, M C; Duboz, R; Salem, G; Peyre, M

    2017-08-01

    Effectiveness of current passive zoonotic disease surveillance systems is limited by the under-reporting of disease outbreaks in the domestic animal population. Evaluating the acceptability of passive surveillance and its economic, social and cultural determinants appears a critical step for improving it. A participatory rural appraisal was implemented in a rural subdistrict of Thailand. Focus group interviews were used to identify sanitary risks perceived by native chicken farmers and describe the structure of their value chain. Qualitative individual interviews with a large diversity of actors enabled to identify perceived costs and benefits associated with the reporting of HPAI suspicions to sanitary authorities. Besides, flows of information on HPAI suspected cases were assessed using network analysis, based on data collected through individual questionnaires. Results show that the presence of cockfighting activities in the area negatively affected the willingness of all chicken farmers and other actors to report suspected HPAI cases. The high financial and affective value of fighting cocks contradicted the HPAI control policy based on mass culling. However, the importance of product quality in the native chicken meat value chain and the free veterinary services and products delivered by veterinary officers had a positive impact on suspected case reporting. Besides, cockfighting practitioners had a significantly higher centrality than other actors in the information network and they facilitated the spatial diffusion of information. Social ties built in cockfighting activities and the shared purpose of protecting valuable cocks were at the basis of the diffusion of information and the informal collective management of diseases. Building bridges with this informal network would greatly improve the effectiveness of passive surveillance. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Clinical Correlates of Surveillance Events Detected by National Healthcare Safety Network Pneumonia and Lower Respiratory Infection Definitions-Pennsylvania, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    See, Isaac; Chang, Julia; Gualandi, Nicole; Buser, Genevieve L; Rohrbach, Pamela; Smeltz, Debra A; Bellush, Mary Jo; Coffin, Susan E; Gould, Jane M; Hess, Debra; Hennessey, Patricia; Hubbard, Sydney; Kiernan, Andrea; O'Donnell, Judith; Pegues, David A; Miller, Jeffrey R; Magill, Shelley S

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the clinical diagnoses associated with the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) pneumonia (PNEU) or lower respiratory infection (LRI) surveillance events DESIGN Retrospective chart review SETTING A convenience sample of 8 acute-care hospitals in Pennsylvania PATIENTS All patients hospitalized during 2011-2012 METHODS Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients reported to the NHSN to have PNEU or LRI, excluding adults with ventilator-associated PNEU. Documented clinical diagnoses corresponding temporally to the PNEU and LRI events were recorded. RESULTS We reviewed 250 (30%) of 838 eligible PNEU and LRI events reported to the NHSN; 29 reported events (12%) fulfilled neither PNEU nor LRI case criteria. Differences interpreting radiology reports accounted for most misclassifications. Of 81 PNEU events in adults not on mechanical ventilation, 84% had clinician-diagnosed pneumonia; of these, 25% were attributed to aspiration. Of 43 adult LRI, 88% were in mechanically ventilated patients and 35% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis (infectious or noninfectious) documented at the time of LRI. Of 36 pediatric PNEU events, 72% were ventilator associated, and 70% corresponded to a clinical pneumonia diagnosis. Of 61 pediatric LRI patients, 84% were mechanically ventilated and 21% had no corresponding clinical diagnosis documented. CONCLUSIONS In adults not on mechanical ventilation and in children, most NHSN-defined PNEU events corresponded with compatible clinical conditions documented in the medical record. In contrast, NHSN LRI events often did not. As a result, substantial modifications to the LRI definitions were implemented in 2015. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:818-824.

  5. Poliomyelitis surveillance: the model used in India for polio eradication.

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, K.; Hlady, W. G.; Andrus, J. K.; Sarkar, S.; Fitzsimmons, J.; Abeykoon, P.

    2000-01-01

    Poliomyelitis surveillance in India previously involved the passive reporting of clinically suspected cases. The capacity for detecting the disease was limited because there was no surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP). In October 1997, 59 specially trained Surveillance Medical Officers were deployed throughout the country to establish active AFP surveillance; 11,533 units were created to report weekly on the occurrence of AFP cases at the district, state and national levels; timely case investigation and the collection of stool specimens from AFP cases was undertaken; linkages were made to support the polio laboratory network; and extensive training of government counterparts of the Surveillance Medical Officers was conducted. Data reported at the national level are analysed and distributed weekly. Annualized rates of non-polio AFP increased from 0.22 per 100,000 children aged under 15 years in 1997 to 1.39 per 100,000 in 1999. The proportion of cases with two adequate stools collected within two weeks of the onset of paralysis increased from 34% in 1997 to 68% in 1999. The number of polio cases associated with the isolation of wild poliovirus decreased from 211 in the first quarter of 1998 to 77 in the first quarter of 1999. Widespread transmission of wild poliovirus types 1 and 3 persists throughout the country; type 2 occurs only in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In order to achieve polio eradication in India during 2000, extra national immunization days and house-to-house mopping-up rounds should be organized. PMID:10812728

  6. Interrater reliability of the injury reporting of the injury surveillance system used in international athletics championships.

    PubMed

    Edouard, Pascal; Junge, Astrid; Kiss-Polauf, Marianna; Ramirez, Christophe; Sousa, Monica; Timpka, Toomas; Branco, Pedro

    2018-03-01

    The quality of epidemiological injury data depends on the reliability of reporting to an injury surveillance system. Ascertaining whether all physicians/physiotherapists report the same information for the same injury case is of major interest to determine data validity. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the data collection reliability through the analysis of the interrater reliability. Cross-sectional survey. During the 2016 European Athletics Advanced Athletics Medicine Course in Amsterdam, all national medical teams were asked to complete seven virtual case reports on a standardised injury report form using the same definitions and classifications of injuries as the international athletics championships injury surveillance protocol. The completeness of data and the Fleiss' kappa coefficients for the inter-rater reliability were calculated for: sex, age, event, circumstance, location, type, assumed cause and estimated time-loss. Forty-one team physicians and physiotherapists of national medical teams participated in the study (response rate 89.1%). Data completeness was 96.9%. The Fleiss' kappa coefficients were: almost perfect for sex (k=1), injury location (k=0.991), event (k=0.953), circumstance (k=0.942), and age (k=0.870), moderate for type (k=0.507), fair for assumed cause (k=0.394), and poor for estimated time-loss (k=0.155). The injury surveillance system used during international athletics championships provided reliable data for "sex", "location", "event", "circumstance", and "age". More caution should be taken for "assumed cause" and "type", and even more for "estimated time-loss". This injury surveillance system displays satisfactory data quality (reliable data and high data completeness), and thus, can be recommended as tool to collect epidemiology information on injuries during international athletics championships. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Trichinellosis surveillance - United States, 2002-2007.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Erin D; Hall, Rebecca L; Montgomery, Susan P; Pyburn, David G; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2009-12-04

    Trichinellosis is a parasitic disease caused by roundworms of the Trichinella genus. Humans are incidental hosts who become infected after ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containing encysted larvae of Trichinella spp. Common signs and symptoms of trichinellosis include eosinophilia, abdominal pain, fever, periorbital edema, and myalgia. National surveillance has documented a decline in the reported incidence of trichinellosis in the United States since 1947, the first year nationwide data were collected systematically. The decreased incidence of trichinellosis has mirrored the decrease of Trichinella in commercial pork products as a result of changes in pork industry management standards and government regulations. In addition, an overall decrease has occurred in the number of cases of trichinellosis related to pork consumption. During 1997-2001, meats other than pork were the most common source of infection, and more cases were associated with home-raised pork than with store-bought pork. 2002-2007. Trichinellosis is a reportable disease in 48 states and has been a nationally notifiable disease since 1966. Cases are defined by clinical characteristics and the results of laboratory testing for evidence of Trichinella infection. States report cases to CDC through the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Reported cases are summarized weekly and yearly in MMWR. In addition, states are asked to submit a standardized case report form with supplementary case data to CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases. During 2002-2007, a total of 66 cases of trichinellosis were reported to CDC. Those cases for which a supplementary case report form was not submitted or that did not meet the case definition were excluded from analysis. Of the 66 cases reported during 2002-2007, a total of 12 (18%) cases were excluded from analysis. Associated meat products were classified as either pork or meat products other than pork and were identified for 43 (80%) cases. Meat

  8. Economics of infection control surveillance technology: cost-effective or just cost?

    PubMed

    Furuno, Jon P; Schweizer, Marin L; McGregor, Jessina C; Perencevich, Eli N

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested that informatics tools, such as automated alert and decision support systems, may increase the efficiency and quality of infection control surveillance. However, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of these tools. We focus on 2 types of economic analyses that have utility in assessing infection control interventions (cost-effectiveness analysis and business-case analysis) and review the available literature on the economics of computerized infection control surveillance systems. Previous studies on the effectiveness of computerized infection control surveillance have been limited to assessments of whether these tools increase the sensitivity and specificity of surveillance over traditional methods. Furthermore, we identified only 2 studies that assessed the costs associated with computerized infection control surveillance. Thus, it remains unknown whether computerized infection control surveillance systems are cost-effective and whether use of these systems improves patient outcomes. The existing data are insufficient to allow for a summary conclusion on the cost-effectiveness of infection control surveillance technology. All future studies of computerized infection control surveillance systems should aim to collect outcomes and economic data to inform decision making and assist hospitals with completing business-cases analyses.

  9. Prevention Guidance for Isocyanate-Induced Asthma Using Occupational Surveillance Data

    PubMed Central

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Anderson, Naomi J.; Bonauto, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Data from Washington State's work-related asthma surveillance system were used to characterize isocyanate-induced asthma cases occurring from 1999 through 2010. Injured worker interviews and medical records were used to describe the industry, job title, work process, workers’ compensation cost, and exposure trends associated with 27 cases of isocyanate-induced asthma. The majority (81%) of cases were classified within the surveillance system as new-onset asthma while 19% were classified as work-aggravated asthma. The workers’ compensation cost for isocyanate-induced asthma cases was $1.7 million; this was 14% of the total claims cost for all claims in the asthma surveillance system. The majority of cases (48%) occurred from paint processes, followed by foam application or foam manufacturing (22%). Nine of the asthma cases associated with spray application occurred during application to large or awkward-shaped objects. Six workers who did not directly handle isocyanates (indirect exposure) developed new-onset asthma. Two cases suggest that skin contact and processes secondary to the isocyanate spray application, such as cleanup, contributed to immune sensitization. Surveillance data provide insight for the prevention of isocyanate-induced respiratory disease. Key observations are made regarding the development of work-related asthma in association with a) paint application on large objects difficult to ventilate, b) indirect exposure to isocyanates, c) exposure during secondary or cleanup processes, and d) reports of dermal exposure. PMID:24116665

  10. Prevention guidance for isocyanate-induced asthma using occupational surveillance data.

    PubMed

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2013-01-01

    Data from Washington State's work-related asthma surveillance system were used to characterize isocyanate-induced asthma cases occurring from 1999 through 2010. Injured worker interviews and medical records were used to describe the industry, job title, work process, workers' compensation cost, and exposure trends associated with 27 cases of isocyanate-induced asthma. The majority (81%) of cases were classified within the surveillance system as new-onset asthma while 19% were classified as work-aggravated asthma. The workers' compensation cost for isocyanate-induced asthma cases was $1.7 million; this was 14% of the total claims cost for all claims in the asthma surveillance system. The majority of cases (48%) occurred from paint processes, followed by foam application or foam manufacturing (22%). Nine of the asthma cases associated with spray application occurred during application to large or awkward-shaped objects. Six workers who did not directly handle isocyanates (indirect exposure) developed new-onset asthma. Two cases suggest that skin contact and processes secondary to the isocyanate spray application, such as cleanup, contributed to immune sensitization. Surveillance data provide insight for the prevention of isocyanate-induced respiratory disease. Key observations are made regarding the development of work-related asthma in association with a) paint application on large objects difficult to ventilate, b) indirect exposure to isocyanates, c) exposure during secondary or cleanup processes, and d) reports of dermal exposure.

  11. Changing panorama for surveillance of device-associated healthcare infections: Challenges faced in implementation of current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Renu; Sharma, Sangeeta; Saxena, Sonal

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) are preventable in up to 30% of patients with evidence-based infection prevention and control (IPC) activities. IPC activities require effective surveillance to generate data for the HAI rates, defining priority areas, identifying processes amenable for improvement and institute interventions to improve patient's safety. However, uniform, accurate and standardised surveillance methodology using objective definitions can only generate meaningful data for effective execution of IPC activities. The highly exhaustive, complex and ever-evolving infection surveillance methodology pose a challenge for effective data capture, analysis and interpretation by ground level personnel. The present review addresses the gaps in knowledge and day-to-day challenges in surveillance faced by infection control team for effective implementation of IPC activities.

  12. Intelligent agents for adaptive security market surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kun; Li, Xin; Xu, Baoxun; Yan, Jiaqi; Wang, Huaiqing

    2017-05-01

    Market surveillance systems have increasingly gained in usage for monitoring trading activities in stock markets to maintain market integrity. Existing systems primarily focus on the numerical analysis of market activity data and generally ignore textual information. To fulfil the requirements of information-based surveillance, a multi-agent-based architecture that uses agent intercommunication and incremental learning mechanisms is proposed to provide a flexible and adaptive inspection process. A prototype system is implemented using the techniques of text mining and rule-based reasoning, among others. Based on experiments in the scalping surveillance scenario, the system can identify target information evidence up to 87.50% of the time and automatically identify 70.59% of cases depending on the constraints on the available information sources. The results of this study indicate that the proposed information surveillance system is effective. This study thus contributes to the market surveillance literature and has significant practical implications.

  13. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-11-13

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France.

  14. A generic rabies risk assessment tool to support surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Hernández-Jover, Marta

    2015-06-01

    The continued spread of rabies in Indonesia poses a risk to human and animal populations in the remaining free islands, as well as the neighbouring rabies-free countries of Timor Leste, Papua New Guinea and Australia. Here we describe the development of a generic risk assessment tool which can be used to rapidly determine the vulnerability of rabies-free islands, so that scarce resources can be targeted to surveillance activities and the sensitivity of surveillance systems increased. The tool was developed by integrating information on the historical spread of rabies, anthropological studies, and the opinions of local animal health experts. The resulting tool is based on eight critical parameters that can be estimated from the literature, expert opinion, observational studies and information generated from routine surveillance. In the case study presented, results generated by this tool were most sensitive to the probability that dogs are present on private and fishing boats and it was predicted that rabies-infection (one infected case) might occur in a rabies-free island (upper 95% prediction interval) with a volume of 1000 boats movements. With 25,000 boat movements, the median of the probability distribution would be equal to one infected case, with an upper 95% prediction interval of six infected cases. This tool could also be used at the national-level to guide control and eradication plans. An initial recommendation from this study is to develop a surveillance programme to determine the likelihood that boats transport dogs, for example by port surveillance or regularly conducted surveys of fisherman and passenger ferries. However, the illegal nature of dog transportation from rabies-infected to rabies-free islands is a challenge for developing such surveillance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Uniform research case definition criteria differentiate tuberculous and bacterial meningitis in children.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Regan S; Wessels, Marie; Visser, Douwe H; Donald, Peter R; Marais, Ben J; Schoeman, Johan F; van Furth, Anne M

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) research is hampered by low numbers of microbiologically confirmed TBM cases and the fact that they may represent a select part of the disease spectrum. A uniform TBM research case definition was developed to address these limitations, but its ability to differentiate TBM from bacterial meningitis has not been evaluated. We assessed all children treated for TBM from 1985 to 2005 at Tygerberg Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. For comparative purposes, a group of children with culture-confirmed bacterial meningitis, diagnosed between 2003 and 2009, was identified from the National Health Laboratory Service database. The performance of the proposed case definition was evaluated in culture-confirmed TBM and bacterial meningitis cases. Of 554 children treated for TBM, 66 (11.9%) were classified as "definite TBM," 408 (73.6%) as "probable TBM," and 72 (13.0%) as "possible TBM." "Probable TBM" criteria identified culture-confirmed TBM with a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 100%; sensitivity was increased but specificity reduced when using "possible TBM" criteria (sensitivity 100%, specificity 56%). "Probable TBM" criteria accurately differentiated TBM from bacterial meningitis and could be considered for use in clinical trials; reduced sensitivity in children with early TBM (stage 1 disease) remains a concern. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Surveillance system for adverse events following immunization against yellow fever in Burkina Faso in 2008. Good practice recommendations].

    PubMed

    Yaméogo, T M; Breugelmans, J G; Kambou, J L; Badolo, O; Tiendrebéogo, S; Traoré, E; Avokey, F; Yactayo, S

    2009-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a public health problem in Africa. In 2007 and 2008, Togo, Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso became the first countries to implement mass YF immunization campaigns within the framework of the Yellow Fever Initiative. The goal of this initiative led by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) with the support of The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) is to organize mass YF immunization campaigns in 12 African countries at high risk forYF transmission between 2006 and 2013. A total of 290 million USD have been allocated for vaccination of 180 million people with the highly effective attenuated 17DYF vaccine. Working in partnership with the WHO, the 12 member states are to identify and target high risk areas with the dual aim of preventing epidemics and increasing immunization coverage. Surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) is a mandatory component for organization of these campaigns. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe the AEFI surveillance system implemented in Burkina Faso in 2008. Methods. The strategy used in Burkina Faso was based on a combination of regular passive surveillance and active surveillance. General guidelines and related operational processes were established including reporting forms, investigation forms, and procedures for collection, storage and transport of biological specimens. Classification of cases was based on clearly defined criteria. Any patient meeting the defined criteria and requiring hospitalization was considered as a serious case. In addition to case definition criteria, serious cases were tracked according to presented signs and symptoms using a line-listing form at two university hospital centers in Ouagadougou and one regional hospital center. Emergency room admission records and patient charts were examined during the surveillance period (30 days after the end of the immunization campaign) and on

  17. Strengthening Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance through the Village Polio Volunteers Program in Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mbaeyi, Chukwuma; Mohamed, Abdinoor; Owino, Brian Ogola; Mengistu, Kumlachew F; Ehrhardt, Derek; Elsayed, Eltayeb Ahmed

    2018-03-02

    Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio eradication activities in Somalia, including AFP surveillance, given the country's vulnerability to polio outbreaks. To assess the impact of the VPV program on AFP surveillance, we determined case counts, case-reporting sources, and non-polio AFP rates in the years before and after program introduction, i.e., 2011-2016. We also compared the stool adequacy and timeliness of cases reported by VPVs to those reported by other sources. In the years following program introduction, VPVs accounted for a high proportion of AFP cases reported in Somalia. AFP case counts rose from 148 cases in 2012, the year before program introduction, to 279 cases in 2015, during which VPVs accounted for 40% of reported cases. Further, the non-polio AFP rate improved from 2.8 cases in 2012 to 4.8 cases per 100,000 persons <15 years by 2015. Stool adequacy rates have been consistently high and AFP cases have been detected in a timelier manner since the program was introduced. Given the impact of the VPV program on improving AFP surveillance indicators in Somalia, similar community-based programs could play a crucial role in enhancing surveillance activities in countries with limited healthcare infrastructure.

  18. Triangulating case-finding tools for patient safety surveillance: a cross-sectional case study of puncture/laceration.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Jennifer A; Gerwin, Daniel; Morlock, Laura; Miller, Marlene R

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the need for triangulating case-finding tools in patient safety surveillance. This study applied four case-finding tools to error-associated patient safety events to identify and characterise the spectrum of events captured by these tools, using puncture or laceration as an example for in-depth analysis. Retrospective hospital discharge data were collected for calendar year 2005 (n=48,418) from a large, urban medical centre in the USA. The study design was cross-sectional and used data linkage to identify the cases captured by each of four case-finding tools. Three case-finding tools (International Classification of Diseases external (E) and nature (N) of injury codes, Patient Safety Indicators (PSI)) were applied to the administrative discharge data to identify potential patient safety events. The fourth tool was Patient Safety Net, a web-based voluntary patient safety event reporting system. The degree of mutual exclusion among detection methods was substantial. For example, when linking puncture or laceration on unique identifiers, out of 447 potential events, 118 were identical between PSI and E-codes, 152 were identical between N-codes and E-codes and 188 were identical between PSI and N-codes. Only 100 events that were identified by PSI, E-codes and N-codes were identical. Triangulation of multiple tools through data linkage captures potential patient safety events most comprehensively. Existing detection tools target patient safety domains differently, and consequently capture different occurrences, necessitating the integration of data from a combination of tools to fully estimate the total burden.

  19. Epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: target population for surveillance and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, An; Hallouch, Oussama; Chernyak, Victoria; Kamaya, Aya; Sirlin, Claude B

    2018-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Incidence rates of liver cancer vary widely between geographic regions and are highest in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In the United States, the incidence of HCC has increased since the 1980s. HCC detection at an early stage through surveillance and curative therapy has considerably improved the 5-year survival. Therefore, medical societies advocate systematic screening and surveillance of target populations at particularly high risk for developing HCC to facilitate early-stage detection. Risk factors for HCC include cirrhosis, chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), excess alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, family history of HCC, obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and smoking. Medical societies utilize risk estimates to define target patient populations in which imaging surveillance is recommended (risk above threshold) or in which the benefits of surveillance are uncertain (risk unknown or below threshold). All medical societies currently recommend screening and surveillance in patients with cirrhosis and subsets of patients with chronic HBV; some societies also include patients with stage 3 fibrosis due to HCV as well as additional groups. Thus, target population definitions vary between regions, reflecting cultural, demographic, economic, healthcare priority, and biological differences. The Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) defines different patient populations for surveillance and for diagnosis and staging. We also discuss general trends pertaining to geographic region, age, gender, ethnicity, impact of surveillance on survival, mortality, and future trends.

  20. Field performance of clinical case definitions for influenza screening during the 2009 pandemic.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shey-Ying; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chiang, Wen-Chu; Kung, Hsiang-Chi; King, Chwan-Chuen; Lai, Mei-Shu; Chie, Wei-Chu; Chen, Shyr-Chyr; Chen, Wen-Jone; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of 3 different influenza-like illness (ILI) case definitions, adopted by the European (European-CDC), USA (USA-CDC), and Taiwan Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (Taiwan-CDC), as screening tools for influenza during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. From August 15 to 30, 2009, all emergency department patients with clinical symptoms or at epidemiologic risk for influenza were enrolled in an observational cohort study. Influenza diagnosis was established by positive rapid influenza diagnostic test or virus isolation. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the European-, USA, and Taiwan-CDC ILI case definitions for screening were determined. A total of 870 patients were screened during the study period. Rapid influenza diagnostic test was positive in 315 patients, 273 (85.6%) of whom had fever duration less than 72 hours. Virus isolation identified 4 more patients with influenza A initially negative by rapid influenza diagnostic test. The mean (SD) age of these 319 patients was 24.3 (18.1) years. Of the 870 screened patients, 670 (77.0%), 476 (54.7%), and 325 (37.4%) met the European-, USA-, and Taiwan-CDC ILI case definition, respectively. Screening sensitivity was 95%, 77.7%, and 57.7% and specificity was 33.4%, 58.6%, and 74.4%, respectively. Differences in sensitivity and specificity between any 2 of the 3 groups were statistically significant (P < .05). First-line physicians should recognize the advantage and limitation of different ILI case definitions in influenza screening, especially confronted by pandemic or highly pathogenic avian influenza in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection: results from a field test of a new National Healthcare Safety Network definition.

    PubMed

    See, Isaac; Iwamoto, Martha; Allen-Bridson, Kathy; Horan, Teresa; Magill, Shelley S; Thompson, Nicola D

    2013-08-01

    To assess challenges to implementation of a new National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) surveillance definition, mucosal barrier injury laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection (MBI-LCBI). Multicenter field test. Selected locations of acute care hospitals participating in NHSN central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) surveillance. Hospital staff augmented their CLABSI surveillance for 2 months to incorporate MBI-LCBI: a primary bloodstream infection due to a selected group of organisms in patients with either neutropenia or an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant with gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease or diarrhea. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) staff reviewed submitted data to verify whether CLABSIs met MBI-LCBI criteria and summarized the descriptive epidemiology of cases reported. Eight cancer, 2 pediatric, and 28 general acute care hospitals including 193 inpatient units (49% oncology/bone marrow transplant [BMT], 21% adult ward, 20% adult critical care, 6% pediatric, 4% step-down) conducted field testing. Among 906 positive blood cultures reviewed, 282 CLABSIs were identified. Of the 103 CLABSIs that also met MBI-LCBI criteria, 100 (97%) were reported from oncology/BMT locations. Agreement between hospital staff and CDC classification of reported CLABSIs as meeting the MBI-LCBI definition was high (90%; κ = 0.82). Most MBI-LCBIs (91%) occurred in patients meeting neutropenia criteria. Some hospitals indicated that their laboratories' methods of reporting cell counts prevented application of neutropenia criteria; revised neutropenia criteria were created using data from field testing. Hospital staff applied the MBI-LCBI definition accurately. Field testing informed modifications for the January 2013 implementation of MBI-LCBI in the NHSN.

  2. Surveillance for Chikungunya and Dengue During the First Year of Chikungunya Virus Circulation in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Tyler M.; Ryff, Kyle R.; Alvarado, Luisa; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Zaki, Sherif R.; Margolis, Harold S.; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    After chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission was detected in Puerto Rico in May 2014, multiple surveillance systems were used to describe epidemiologic trends and CHIKV-associated disease. Of 28 327 cases reported via passive surveillance, 6472 were tested for evidence of CHIKV infection, and results for 4399 (68%) were positive. Of 250 participants in household cluster investigations, 70 (28%) had evidence of recent CHIKV infection. Enhanced surveillance for chikungunya at 2 hospitals identified 1566 patients who tested positive for CHIKV, of whom 10.9% were hospitalized. Enhanced surveillance for fatal cases enabled identification of 31 cases in which CHIKV was detected in blood or tissue specimens. All surveillance systems detected a peak incidence of chikungunya in September 2014 and continued circulation in 2015. Concomitant surveillance for dengue demonstrated low incidence, which had decreased before CHIKV was introduced. Multifaceted chikungunya surveillance in Puerto Rico resolved gaps in traditional passive surveillance and enabled a holistic description of the spectrum of disease associated with CHIKV infection. PMID:27920177

  3. Legionella (Legionnaires' Disease and Pontiac Fever): Treatment and Complications

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Trends Fast Facts For Clinicians Disease Specifics Clinical Features Diagnosis, Treatment, & Prevention For Health Departments Surveillance & Reporting Resources Case Definitions CDC Surveillance Classifications How to Report Cases Case ...

  4. US States' Childhood Obesity Surveillance Practices and Recommendations for Improving Them, 2014-2015.

    PubMed

    Blondin, Kelly J; Giles, Catherine M; Cradock, Angie L; Gortmaker, Steven L; Long, Michael W

    2016-07-28

    Routine collection, analysis, and reporting of data on child height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), particularly at the state and local levels, are needed to monitor the childhood obesity epidemic, plan intervention strategies, and evaluate the impact of interventions. Child BMI surveillance systems operated by the US government do not provide state or local data on children across a range of ages. The objective of this study was to describe the extent to which state governments conduct child BMI surveillance. From August through December 2014, we conducted a structured telephone survey with state government administrators to learn about state surveillance of child BMI. We also searched websites of state health and education agencies for information about state surveillance. State agency administrators in 48 states and Washington, DC, completed telephone interviews (96% response rate). Based on our interviews and Internet research, we determined that 14 states collect child BMI data in a manner consistent with standard definitions of public health surveillance. The absence of child BMI surveillance systems in most states limits the ability of public health practitioners and policymakers to develop and evaluate responses to the childhood obesity epidemic. Greater investment in surveillance is needed to identify the most effective and cost-effective childhood obesity interventions.

  5. National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunhee; Cho, Eunhee

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.

  6. [Definition of hospital discharge, serious injury and death from traffic injuries].

    PubMed

    Pérez, Katherine; Seguí-Gómez, María; Arrufat, Vita; Barberia, Eneko; Cabeza, Elena; Cirera, Eva; Gil, Mercedes; Martín, Carlos; Novoa, Ana M; Olabarría, Marta; Lardelli, Pablo; Suelves, Josep Maria; Santamariña-Rubio, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Road traffic injury surveillance involves methodological difficulties due, among other reasons, to the lack of consensus criteria for case definition. Police records have usually been the main source of information for monitoring traffic injuries, while health system data has hardly been used. Police records usually include comprehensive information on the characteristics of the crash, but often underreport injury cases and do not collect reliable information on the severity of injuries. However, statistics on severe traffic injuries have been based almost exclusively on police data. The aim of this paper is to propose criteria based on medical records to define: a) "Hospital discharge for traffic injuries", b) "Person with severe traffic injury", and c) "Death from traffic injuries" in order to homogenize the use of these sources. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: A critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Elbers, Armin R W; Hendrikx, Pascal; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Carsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by

  8. The Added-Value of Using Participatory Approaches to Assess the Acceptability of Surveillance Systems: The Case of Bovine Tuberculosis in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Calba, Clémentine; Goutard, Flavie Luce; Vanholme, Luc; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Context and Objective Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) surveillance in Belgium is essential to maintain the officially free status and to preserve animal and public health. An evaluation of the system is thus needed to ascertain the surveillance provides a precise description of the current situation in the country. The evaluation should assess stakeholders’ perceptions and expectations about the system due to the fact that the acceptability has an influence on the levels of sensitivity and timeliness of the surveillance system. The objective of the study was to assess the acceptability of the bTB surveillance in Belgium, using participatory tools and the OASIS flash tool (‘analysis tool for surveillance systems’). Methods For the participatory process, focus group discussions and individual interviews were implemented with representatives involved with the system, both from cattle and wildlife part of the surveillance. Three main tools were used: (i) relational diagrams associated with smileys, (ii) flow diagrams associated with proportional piling, and (iii) impact diagrams associated with proportional piling. A total of six criteria were assessed, among which five were scored on a scale from -1 to +1. For the OASIS flash tool, one full day meeting with representatives from stakeholders involved with the surveillance was organised. A total of 19 criteria linked to acceptability were scored on a scale from 0 to 3. Results and Conclusion Both methods highlighted a medium acceptability of the bTB surveillance. The main elements having a negative influence were the consequences of official notification of a bTB suspect case in a farm, the low remuneration paid to private veterinarians for execution of intradermal tuberculin tests and the practical difficulties about the containment of the animals. Based on the two evaluation processes, relevant recommendations to improve the surveillance were made. Based on the comparison between the two evaluation processes, the

  9. Validation of clinical case definition of acute intussusception in infants in Viet Nam and Australia.

    PubMed

    Bines, Julie E; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Justice, Frances; Son, Tran Ngoc; Carlin, John B; de Campo, Margaret; Jamsen, Kris; Mulholland, Kim; Barnett, Peter; Barnes, Graeme L

    2006-07-01

    To test the sensitivity and specificity of a clinical case definition of acute intussusception in infants to assist health-care workers in settings where diagnostic facilities are not available. Prospective studies were conducted at a major paediatric hospital in Viet Nam (the National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi) from November 2002 to December 2003 and in Australia (the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne) from March 2002 to March 2004 using a clinical case definition of intussusception. Diagnosis of intussusception was confirmed by air enema or surgery and validated in a subset of participants by an independent clinician who was blinded to the participant's status. Sensitivity of the definition was evaluated in 584 infants aged<2 years with suspected intussusception (533 infants in Hanoi; 51 in Melbourne). Specificity was evaluated in 638 infants aged<2 years presenting with clinical features consistent with intussusception but for whom another diagnosis was established (234 infants in Hanoi; 404 in Melbourne). In both locations the definition used was sensitive (96% sensitivity in Hanoi; 98% in Melbourne) and specific (95% specificity in Hanoi; 87% in Melbourne) for intussusception among infants with sufficient data to allow classification (449/533 in Hanoi; 50/51 in Melbourne). Reanalysis of patients with missing data suggests that modifying minor criteria would increase the applicability of the definition while maintaining good sensitivity (96-97%) and specificity (83-89%). The clinical case definition was sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of acute intussusception in infants in both a developing country and a developed country but minor modifications would enable it to be used more widely.

  10. Advancing the Use of Emergency Department Syndromic Surveillance Data, New York City, 2012-2016.

    PubMed

    Lall, Ramona; Abdelnabi, Jasmine; Ngai, Stephanie; Parton, Hilary B; Saunders, Kelly; Sell, Jessica; Wahnich, Amanda; Weiss, Don; Mathes, Robert W

    The use of syndromic surveillance has expanded from its initial purpose of bioterrorism detection. We present 6 use cases from New York City that demonstrate the value of syndromic surveillance for public health response and decision making across a broad range of health outcomes: synthetic cannabinoid drug use, heat-related illness, suspected meningococcal disease, medical needs after severe weather, asthma exacerbation after a building collapse, and Ebola-like illness in travelers returning from West Africa. The New York City syndromic surveillance system receives data on patient visits from all emergency departments (EDs) in the city. The data are used to assign syndrome categories based on the chief complaint and discharge diagnosis, and analytic methods are used to monitor geographic and temporal trends and detect clusters. For all 6 use cases, syndromic surveillance using ED data provided actionable information. Syndromic surveillance helped detect a rise in synthetic cannabinoid-related ED visits, prompting a public health investigation and action. Surveillance of heat-related illness indicated increasing health effects of severe weather and led to more urgent public health messaging. Surveillance of meningitis-related ED visits helped identify unreported cases of culture-negative meningococcal disease. Syndromic surveillance also proved useful for assessing a surge of methadone-related ED visits after Superstorm Sandy, provided reassurance of no localized increases in asthma after a building collapse, and augmented traditional disease reporting during the West African Ebola outbreak. Sharing syndromic surveillance use cases can foster new ideas and build capacity for public health preparedness and response.

  11. Systematic Review of Cerebral Palsy Registries/Surveillance Groups: Relationships between Registry Characteristics and Knowledge Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Donna S; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Krosschell, Kristin J; Pavone, Larissa; Mutlu, Akmer; Dewald, Julius PA; Msall, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to provide a comprehensive summary of the body of research disseminated by Cerebral Palsy (CP) registries and surveillance programs from January 2009 through May 2014 in order to describe the influence their results have on our overall understanding of CP. Secondly, registries/surveillance programs and the work they produced were evaluated and grouped using standardized definitions and classification systems. Method A systematic review search in PubMed, CINAH and Embase for original articles published from 1 January 2009 to 20 May 2014 originating from or supported by population based CP registries and surveillance programs or population based national registries including CP were included. Articles were grouped by 2009 World CP Registry Congress aim, registry/surveillance program classification, geographical region, and the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health (ICF) domain. Registry variables were assessed using the ICF-CY classification. Results Literature searches returned 177 articles meeting inclusion criteria. The majority (69%) of registry/surveillance program productivity was related to contributions as a Resource for CP Research. Prevention (23%) and Surveillance (22%) articles were other areas of achievement, but fewer articles were published in the areas of Planning (17%) and Raising the Profile of CP (2%). There was a range of registry/surveillance program classifications contributing to this productivity, and representation from multiple areas of the globe, although most of the articles originated in Europe, Australia, and Canada. The domains of the ICF that were primarily covered included body structures and function at the early stages of life. Encouragingly, a variety of CP registry/surveillance program initiatives included additional ICF domains of participation and environmental and personal factors. Interpretation CP registries and surveillance programs, including novel non-traditional ones

  12. Active Surveillance of Hansen's Disease (Leprosy): Importance for Case Finding among Extra-domiciliary Contacts

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Maria L. N.; Dupnik, Kathryn M.; Sampaio, Gabriel A. A.; Nóbrega, Priscilla F. C.; Jeronimo, Ana K.; do Nascimento-Filho, Jose M.; Miranda Dantas, Roberta L.; Queiroz, Jose W.; Barbosa, James D.; Dias, Gutemberg; Jeronimo, Selma M. B.; Souza, Marcia C. F.; Nobre, Maurício L.

    2013-01-01

    Hansen's disease (leprosy) remains an important health problem in Brazil, where 34,894 new cases were diagnosed in 2010, corresponding to 15.3% of the world's new cases detected in that year. The purpose of this study was to use home visits as a tool for surveillance of Hansen's disease in a hyperendemic area in Brazil. A total of 258 residences were visited with 719 individuals examined. Of these, 82 individuals had had a previous history of Hansen's disease, 209 were their household contacts and 428 lived in neighboring residences. Fifteen new Hansen's disease cases were confirmed, yielding a detection rate of 2.0% of people examined. There was no difference in the detection rate between household and neighbor contacts (p = 0.615). The two groups had the same background in relation to education (p = 0.510), household income (p = 0.582), and the number of people living in the residence (p = 0.188). Spatial analysis showed clustering of newly diagnosed cases and association with residential coordinates of previously diagnosed multibacillary cases. Active case finding is an important tool for Hansen's disease control in hyperendemic areas, enabling earlier diagnosis, treatment, decrease in disability from Hansen's disease and potentially less spread of Mycobacterium leprae. PMID:23516645

  13. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 18, Number 04, April 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    accounted for in this report . Also, many injury and poisoning-related hospitalizations occur in non-military hospitals; in most cases , the “external...msmr.afhsc@amedd.army.mil Submissions: Suitable reports include surveillance summaries, outbreak reports and cases series. Prospective authors should...Read the MSMR online at: http://www.afhsc.mil MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE MONTHLY REPORT ANNUAL SUMMARY ISSUE: Absolute and relative morbidity burdens

  14. Twins prematurity--the influence of prenatal surveillance.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Ana Patrícia; Fonseca, Etelvina; Belo, Adriana; Moura, Paulo

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the influence of the local prenatal surveillance of twin pregnancies in the obstetrical results. A prospective cohort study of multiple pregnancies delivered over a period of 16 years in a tertiary centre was conducted. In this study 861 twin pregnancies were included. They were compared for obstetric complications, gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery and birthweight, according to the place of the surveillance. Of the 861 cases examined, the following obstetric complications were significantly different: metrorrhagia (p = 0.039), infections (p < 0.001), HELLP (p = 0.007), PROMPT (p < 0.001) and fetal death (p = 0.024). The mode of delivery was similar but occurred mostly ≤32 weeks (p < 0.001), the birthweight was mostly <2000 g and occurred more NICU admission (p < 0.001) when surveillance was outside the MPC-MDM. Our results demonstrate the crucial importance of prenatal surveillance be carried in a differentiated referral centers with specific/strict protocols or the urgent implementation of same protocols in all other places of surveillance, since this straight surveillance greatly reduces the occurrence of prenatal complications, mainly PROMPT, PTD.

  15. Surveillance of recent HIV infections among newly diagnosed HIV cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Alexandra; Hauser, Andrea; Zimmermann, Ruth; Santos-Hövener, Claudia; Bätzing-Feigenbaum, Jörg; Wildner, Stephan; Kücherer, Claudia; Bannert, Norbert; Hamouda, Osamah; Bremer, Viviane; Bartmeyer, Barbara

    2017-07-11

    The HIV surveillance system in Germany is based on mandatory, anonymous notification of newly diagnosed HIV cases by laboratories. Because the time between HIV infection and the diagnosis of HIV varies widely between persons, it is difficult to determine the number of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases of HIV. In Germany, the BED-capture-enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) has been used to distinguish between recent and long-standing HIV infection. The aim of this analysis is to report the proportion of cases of recent HIV infection among newly diagnosed cases in Germany between 2008 and 2014 and to identify factors associated with recent infections. A sample of voluntary laboratories among all HIV diagnostic laboratories was recruited. Residual blood from HIV diagnostic tests was spotted on filter paper as dried serum or dried plasma spots and was sent along with the notification form of the HIV cases. The BED-CEIA test was performed. A case was defined as recent HIV infection with a BED-CEIA test result of less than 0.8 normalized optical density, with the exclusion of CDC stage C. The proportion of recent newly diagnosed HIV infections among different groups (such as transmission groups, gender or age groups) was calculated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with recent HIV infection and to identify subpopulations with high proportions of recent HIV infections. Approximately 10,257 newly diagnosed cases were tested for recency using the BED-CEIA. In total, 3084 (30.4%) of those were recently infected with HIV. The highest proportion of recent HIV infections was found among men who had sex with men (MSM) (35%) and persons between 18 and 25 years of age (43.0%). Logistic regression revealed that female German intravenous drug users with a recent HIV infection had a higher chance of being detected than German MSM (OR 2.27). Surveillance of recent HIV infection is a useful additional tool to monitor the HIV epidemic in

  16. [Epidemiologic surveillance for the prevention and control urban violence].

    PubMed

    Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R

    1999-01-01

    Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.

  17. Evaluation of AFP surveillance indicators in polio-free Ghana, 2009–2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ghana recorded the last case of indigenous wild poliovirus in 1999 but suffered two more outbreaks in 2003 and 2008. Following the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, transmission was interrupted through high routine immunisation coverage with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV), effective acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance and supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). This article describes the results of a five-year surveillance of AFP in polio-free Ghana, evaluate the surveillance indicators and identify areas that need improvement. Methods We investigated 1345 cases of AFP from children aged less than 15 years reported to the Disease Surveillance Department from January 2009 to December 2013. Data on demographic characteristics, vaccination history, clinical presentation and virological investigation on stool specimens collected during investigation were analysed. Results Of the specimens analysed, 56% were from males and 76.3% were from children less than 5 years of age. Twenty-four percent of the children received up to 3 doses of OPV, 57% received at least 4 doses while the status of 19% was unknown. Core AFP surveillance indicators were partly met for non-polio AFP rate while the WHO target for stool adequacy and timeliness was exceeded over the period of study. All the cases were classified virologically, however no wild polio was found. Sixty-day follow-up was conducted for 56.3% of cases and 8.6% cases classified as compactible with polio. Conclusion Both laboratory and epidemiological surveillance for AFP were efficient and many WHO targets were met. However, due to the risk of poliovirus importation prior to global eradication, longterm surveillance is required to provide a high degree of confidence in prevention of poliovirus infection in Ghana. Thus, efforts should be made to strengthen regional performance and to follow–up on all AFP cases in order to establish proper diagnoses for the causes of the AFP leading

  18. Healthcare-associated infections in pediatric cancer patients: results of a prospective surveillance study from university hospitals in Germany and Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Simon, Arne; Ammann, Roland A; Bode, Udo; Fleischhack, Gudrun; Wenchel, Hans-Martin; Schwamborn, Dorothee; Gravou, Chara; Schlegel, Paul-Gerhardt; Rutkowski, Stefan; Dannenberg, Claudia; Körholz, Dieter; Laws, Hans Jürgen; Kramer, Michael H

    2008-05-23

    Pediatric cancer patients face an increased risk of healthcare-associated infection (HAI). To date, no prospective multicenter studies have been published on this topic. Prospective multicenter surveillance for HAI and nosocomial fever of unknown origin (nFUO) with specific case definitions and standardized surveillance methods. 7 pediatric oncology centers (university facilities) participated from April 01, 2001 to August 31, 2005. During 54,824 days of inpatient surveillance, 727 HAIs and nFUOs were registered in 411 patients. Of these, 263 (36%) were HAIs in 181 patients, for an incidence density (ID) (number of events per 1,000 inpatient days) of 4.8 (95% CI 4.2 to 5.4; range 2.4 to 11.7; P < 0.001), and 464 (64%) were nFUO in 230 patients. Neutropenia at diagnosis correlated significantly with clinical severity of HAI. Of the 263 HAIs, 153 (58%) were bloodstream infections (BSI). Of the 138 laboratory-confirmed BSIs, 123 (89%) were associated with use of a long-term central venous catheter (CVAD), resulting in an overall ID of 2.8 per 1,000 utilization days (95% CI 2.3 to 3.3). The ID was significantly lower in Port-type than in Hickman-type CVADs. The death of 8 children was related to HAI, including six cases of aspergillosis. The attributable mortality was 3.0% without a significant association to neutropenia at time of NI diagnosis. Our study confirmed that pediatric cancer patients are at an increased risk for specific HAIs. The prospective surveillance of HAI and comparison with cumulative multicenter results are indispensable for targeted prevention of these adverse events of anticancer treatment.

  19. Surveillance systems to track progress toward global polio eradication - worldwide, 2012-2013.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Alexandra; Diop, Ousmane M; Tangermann, Rudolf H; Paladin, Fem; Kamgang, Jean Baptiste; Burns, Cara C; Chenoweth, Paul J; Goel, Ajay; Wassilak, Steven G F

    2014-04-25

    In 2012, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) declared completion of polio eradication a programmatic emergency. Polio cases are detected through surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and subsequent testing of stool specimens for polioviruses (PVs) at WHO-accredited laboratories within the Global Polio Laboratory Network (GPLN). AFP surveillance is supplemented by environmental surveillance, testing sewage samples from selected sites for PVs. Virologic surveillance, including genomic sequencing to identify isolates by genotype and measure divergence between isolates, guides Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) activities by confirming the presence of PV, tracking chains of PV transmission, and highlighting gaps in AFP surveillance quality. This report provides AFP surveillance quality indicators at national and subnational levels during 2012-2013 for countries that experienced PV cases during 2009-2013 in the WHO African Region (AFR) and Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR), the remaining polio-endemic regions. It also summarizes the results of environmental surveillance and reviews indicators assessing the timeliness of reporting of PV isolation and of virus strain characterization globally. Regional-level performance indicators for timely reporting of PV isolation were met in five of six WHO regions in 2012 and 2013. Of 30 AFR and EMR countries that experienced cases of PV (wild poliovirus [WPV], circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus [cVDPV], or both) during 2009-2013, national performance indicator targets for AFP surveillance and collection of adequate specimens were met in 27 (90%) countries in 2012 and 22 (73%) in 2013. In 17 (57%) countries, ≥80% of the population lived in subnational areas meeting both AFP performance indicators in 2012, decreasing to 13 (43%) in 2013. To achieve polio eradication and certify interruption of PV transmission, intensive efforts to strengthen and maintain AFP surveillance are

  20. Intussusception following rotavirus vaccine administration: post-marketing surveillance in the National Immunization Program in Australia.

    PubMed

    Buttery, J P; Danchin, M H; Lee, K J; Carlin, J B; McIntyre, P B; Elliott, E J; Booy, R; Bines, J E

    2011-04-05

    In Australia, post-marketing surveillance for intussusception following vaccination commenced with funding of RotaTeq(®) and Rotarix(®) vaccines under the National Immunization Program (NIP) in July 2007. Two active surveillance mechanisms (hospital-based case ascertainment and monthly reports from paediatricians) identified intussusception cases between 1st July 2007 and 31st December 2008 in four states. Linkage to vaccination records identified cases occurring within 1-7 and 1-21 days of rotavirus vaccination. Expected cases within the post-vaccination windows were calculated by applying rates of intussusception from national hospitalisation data over 6 years (mid-2000 to mid-2006), by age and state, to numbers vaccinated (by dose) according to the Australian Childhood Immunization Register. Combining exposure windows associated with all doses of rotavirus vaccine from 1 to 9 months of age, there was no evidence of an increased risk of intussusception following vaccination for either vaccine. However, in infants 1 to <3 months of age, there was suggestive evidence of excess intussusception cases 1-7 and 1-21 days following dose 1 (1-7 days: RotaTeq(®) relative risk (RR)=5.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1,15.4; Rotarix(®) RR 3.5, 95% CI 0.7,10.1; 1-21 days: RotaTeq(®) RR 3.5, 95% CI 1.3, 7.6; Rotarix(®)RR 1.5, 95% CI 0.4, 3.9). There was no evidence that clinical outcome of intussusception occurring within 21 days of rotavirus vaccination differed from that in cases occurring later post-vaccination. Although we found no overall increase in intussusception following receipt of rotavirus vaccine, there was some evidence of an elevated risk following the first dose of both vaccines. Larger population-based studies using linked databases are required to provide more definitive evidence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Big Data for Infectious Disease Surveillance and Modeling.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Shweta; Chowell, Gerardo; Simonsen, Lone; Vespignani, Alessandro; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    We devote a special issue of the Journal of Infectious Diseases to review the recent advances of big data in strengthening disease surveillance, monitoring medical adverse events, informing transmission models, and tracking patient sentiments and mobility. We consider a broad definition of big data for public health, one encompassing patient information gathered from high-volume electronic health records and participatory surveillance systems, as well as mining of digital traces such as social media, Internet searches, and cell-phone logs. We introduce nine independent contributions to this special issue and highlight several cross-cutting areas that require further research, including representativeness, biases, volatility, and validation, and the need for robust statistical and hypotheses-driven analyses. Overall, we are optimistic that the big-data revolution will vastly improve the granularity and timeliness of available epidemiological information, with hybrid systems augmenting rather than supplanting traditional surveillance systems, and better prospects for accurate infectious diseases models and forecasts. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Enhanced surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis following importation of wild poliovirus in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After being polio free for more than 10 years, an outbreak occurred in China in 2011 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) following the importation of wild poliovirus (WPV) originating from neighboring Pakistan. Methods To strengthen acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance in Xinjiang, “zero case daily reporting” and retrospective searching of AFP cases were initiated after the confirmation of the WPV outbreak. To pinpoint all the polio cases in time, AFP surveillance system was expanded to include persons of all ages in the entire population in Xinjiang. Results Totally, 578 AFP cases were reported in 2011 in Xinjiang, including 21 WPV cases, 23 clinical compatible polio cases and 534 non-polio AFP cases. Of the 44 polio cases, 27 (61.4%) cases were reported among adults aged 15–53 years. Strengthening AFP surveillance resulted in an increase in the number of non-polio AFP cases in 2011 (148 children < 15 years) compared with 76 cases < 15 years in 2010. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was sensitive enough to detect polio cases, with the AFP incidence of 3.28/100,000 among children < 15 years of age. Conclusions Incorporating adult cases into the AFP surveillance system is of potential value to understand the overall characteristics of the epidemic and to guide emergency responses, especially in countries facing WPV outbreak following long-term polio free status. The AFP surveillance system in Xinjiang was satisfactory despite limitations in biological sample collection. PMID:24576083

  3. Puffy skin disease (PSD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): a case definition.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, C E; Nolan, E T; Feist, S W; Crumlish, M; Richards, R H; Williams, C F

    2015-07-01

    Puffy skin disease (PSD) is a disease that causes skin pathology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Incidence of PSD in UK fish farms and fisheries has increased sharply in the last decade, with growing concern from both industry sectors. This paper provides the first comprehensive case definition of PSD, combining clinical and pathological observations of diseased rainbow trout from both fish farms and fisheries. The defining features of PSD, as summarized in the case definition, were focal lateral flank skin lesions that appeared as cutaneous swelling with pigment loss and petechiae. These were associated with lethargy, poor body condition, inappetance and low level mortality. Epidermal hyperplasia and spongiosis, oedema of the dermis stratum spongiosum and a mild diffuse inflammatory cellularity were typical in histopathology of skin. A specific pathogen or aetiology was not identified. Prevalence and severity of skin lesions was greatest during late summer and autumn, with the highest prevalence being 95%. Atypical lesions seen in winter and spring were suggestive of clinical resolution. PSD holds important implications for both trout aquaculture and still water trout fisheries. This case definition will aid future diagnosis, help avoid confusion with other skin conditions and promote prompt and consistent reporting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Case-based surveillance of measles in Sicily during 2012-2017: The changing molecular epidemiology and implications for vaccine strategies

    PubMed Central

    Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Pojero, Fanny; Colomba, Giuseppina Maria Elena; Casuccio, Alessandra; Restivo, Vincenzo; Vitale, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried out by the “Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella” in Sicily over a 5-year period. Biological samples of 259 suspected measles cases were tested for viral RNA detection and a total of 223 (86.1%) were classified as laboratory confirmed. The median age of confirmed measles cases was 21.0 years and about half of them were adults aged 19 years and older. Overall, one-third of the patients showed clinical complications and these latter were more common among adults than children (44.9% vs. 25.7%). The vast majority of measles cases were unvaccinated (94.2%, n = 210). The phylogenetic analysis of 221 measles virus nucleotide sequences revealed sporadic detections of genotypes D4 and H1, while endemic circulation of genotypes D8 and B3 was documented. Genotype D8 was associated with epidemics occurred between 2013 and 2016, whereas genotype B3 was more recently introduced into Sicily characterizing the current measles outbreak. The results of this study confirm the autochthonous co-circulation of viral variants belonging to different genotypes during the study period, and emphasizes the need of measles surveillance programmes in order to investigate the viral dynamics, the pathways of disease transmission, and to eventually adapt the development of successfull vaccine formulations. PMID:29617454

  5. Case-based surveillance of measles in Sicily during 2012-2017: The changing molecular epidemiology and implications for vaccine strategies.

    PubMed

    Tramuto, Fabio; Maida, Carmelo Massimo; Pojero, Fanny; Colomba, Giuseppina Maria Elena; Casuccio, Alessandra; Restivo, Vincenzo; Vitale, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    Following the indication of the World Health Organization, a national plan for the elimination of measles was approved in Italy and this included the improvement of the molecular surveillance of measles viruses and the interruption of indigenous transmission of the disease. Nevertheless, large outbreaks continue to occur in almost all regions of the country, including Sicily. Here we describe the epidemiology and molecular dynamics of measles viruses as a result of the measles surveillance activity carried out by the "Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella" in Sicily over a 5-year period. Biological samples of 259 suspected measles cases were tested for viral RNA detection and a total of 223 (86.1%) were classified as laboratory confirmed. The median age of confirmed measles cases was 21.0 years and about half of them were adults aged 19 years and older. Overall, one-third of the patients showed clinical complications and these latter were more common among adults than children (44.9% vs. 25.7%). The vast majority of measles cases were unvaccinated (94.2%, n = 210). The phylogenetic analysis of 221 measles virus nucleotide sequences revealed sporadic detections of genotypes D4 and H1, while endemic circulation of genotypes D8 and B3 was documented. Genotype D8 was associated with epidemics occurred between 2013 and 2016, whereas genotype B3 was more recently introduced into Sicily characterizing the current measles outbreak. The results of this study confirm the autochthonous co-circulation of viral variants belonging to different genotypes during the study period, and emphasizes the need of measles surveillance programmes in order to investigate the viral dynamics, the pathways of disease transmission, and to eventually adapt the development of successfull vaccine formulations.

  6. Conducting a surveillance problem analysis on poor feedback from Reference Laboratory, Liberia, February 2016.

    PubMed

    Frimpong, Joseph Asamoah; Amo-Addae, Maame Pokuah; Adewuyi, Peter Adebayo; Hall, Casey Daniel; Park, Meeyoung Mattie; Nagbe, Thomas Knue

    2017-01-01

    The laboratory plays a major role in surveillance, including confirming the start and end of an outbreak. Knowing the causative agent for an outbreak informs the development of response strategies and management plans for a public health event. However, issues and challenges may arise that limit the effectiveness or efficiency of laboratories in surveillance. This case study applies a systematic approach to analyse gaps in laboratory surveillance, thereby improving the ability to mitigate these gaps. Although this case study concentrates on factors resulting in poor feedback from the laboratory, practise of this general approach to problem analysis will confer skills required in analysing most public health issues. This case study was developed based on a report submitted by the district surveillance officer in Grand Bassa County, Liberia, as a resident of the Liberian Frontline Field Epidemiology Training Program in 2016. This case study will serve as a training tool to reinforce lectures on surveillance problem analysis using the fishbone approach. It is designed for public health training in a classroom setting and can be completed within 2 hours 30 minutes.

  7. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  8. Zika emergence in the French Territories of America and description of first confirmed cases of Zika virus infection on Martinique, November 2015 to February 2016.

    PubMed

    Daudens-Vaysse, Elise; Ledrans, Martine; Gay, Noellie; Ardillon, Vanessa; Cassadou, Sylvie; Najioullah, Fatiha; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Rousset, Dominique; Herrmann, Cécile; Cesaire, Raymond; Maquart, Marianne; Flusin, Olivier; Matheus, Séverine; Huc-Anaïs, Patricia; Jaubert, Josiane; Criquet-Hayot, Anne; Hoen, Bruno; Djossou, Felix; Locatelli-Jouans, Corinne; Blateau, Alain; McKenzie, Anne-Marie; Melin, Mathilde; Saint-Martin, Patrick; Dorléans, Frédérique; Suivant, Claudine; Carvalho, Luisiane; Petit-Sinturel, Marion; Andrieu, Audrey; Noël, Harold; Septfons, Alexandra; Gallay, Anne; Paty, Marie-Claire; Filleul, Laurent; Cabié, André

    2016-07-14

    Following of the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015, an epidemiological surveillance system was quickly implemented in the French overseas Territories of America (FTA) according to previous experience with dengue and chikungunya and has detected first cases of Zika. General practitioners and medical microbiologists were invited to report all clinically suspected cases of Zika, laboratory investigations were systematically conducted (RT-PCR). On 18 December, the first autochthonous case of Zika virus infection was confirmed by RT-PCR on French Guiana and Martinique, indicating introduction of Zika virus in FTA. The viral circulation of Zika virus was then also confirmed on Guadeloupe and Saint-Martin. We report here early findings on 203 confirmed cases of Zika virus infection identified by RT-PCR or seroneutralisation on Martinique Island between 24 November 2015 and 20 January 2016. All cases were investigated. Common clinical signs were observed (maculopapular rash, arthralgia, fever, myalgia and conjunctival hyperaemia) among these patients, but the rash, the foundation of our case definition, may be absent in a significant proportion of patients (16%). These results are important for the implementation of a suspected case definition, the main tool for epidemiological surveillance, in territories that may be affected by ZIKV emergence, including Europe. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. Surveillance theory applied to virus detection: a case for targeted discovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogich, Tiffany L.; Anthony, Simon J.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Virus detection and mathematical modeling have gone through rapid developments in the past decade. Both offer new insights into the epidemiology of infectious disease and characterization of future risk; however, modeling has not yet been applied to designing the best surveillance strategies for viral and pathogen discovery. We review recent developments and propose methods to integrate viral and pathogen discovery and mathematical modeling through optimal surveillance theory, arguing for a more targeted approach to novel virus detection guided by the principles of adaptive management and structured decision-making.

  10. Outbreak of Legionnaires' disease on a cruise ship: lessons for international surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Regan, C M; McCann, B; Syed, Q; Christie, P; Joseph, C; Colligan, J; McGaffin, A

    2003-06-01

    A sporadic case of Legionnaires' disease was linked to travel on a cruise ship. Investigation identified two further cases of Legionnaires' Disease and one case of non-pneumonic Legionella infection. An Incident Team confirmed the source to be the ship's water system and control measures were instituted that included pasteurisation, super chlorination and chlorine dioxide dosing. The Public Health Laboratory Service (PHLS) Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), through the European Surveillance Scheme for Travel Associated Legionnaires' Disease, identified three previous cases associated with the same ship's water system including one fatality. Lessons for the international surveillance and control of Legionnaires' disease on cruise ships are discussed.

  11. Air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craigie, J. H.; Morrison, D. D.; Zipper, I.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an air traffic control surveillance accuracy and update rate study are presented. The objective of the study was to establish quantitative relationships between the surveillance accuracies, update rates, and the communication load associated with the tactical control of aircraft for conflict resolution. The relationships are established for typical types of aircraft, phases of flight, and types of airspace. Specific cases are analyzed to determine the surveillance accuracies and update rates r