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Sample records for surveillance system based

  1. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, R.B.; Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.

    1998-04-28

    A method and system are disclosed for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process. 33 figs.

  2. Neural network based system for equipment surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Vilim, Richard B.; Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.

    1998-01-01

    A method and system for performing surveillance of transient signals of an industrial device to ascertain the operating state. The method and system involves the steps of reading into a memory training data, determining neural network weighting values until achieving target outputs close to the neural network output. If the target outputs are inadequate, wavelet parameters are determined to yield neural network outputs close to the desired set of target outputs and then providing signals characteristic of an industrial process and comparing the neural network output to the industrial process signals to evaluate the operating state of the industrial process.

  3. Mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system, Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Rosewell, Alexander; Ropa, Berry; Randall, Heather; Dagina, Rosheila; Hurim, Samuel; Bieb, Sibauk; Datta, Siddhartha; Ramamurthy, Sundar; Mola, Glen; Zwi, Anthony B; Ray, Pradeep; MacIntyre, C Raina

    2013-11-01

    The health care system in Papua New Guinea is fragile, and surveillance systems infrequently meet international standards. To strengthen outbreak identification, health authorities piloted a mobile phone-based syndromic surveillance system and used established frameworks to evaluate whether the system was meeting objectives. Stakeholder experience was investigated by using standardized questionnaires and focus groups. Nine sites reported data that included 7 outbreaks and 92 cases of acute watery diarrhea. The new system was more timely (2.4 vs. 84 days), complete (70% vs. 40%), and sensitive (95% vs. 26%) than existing systems. The system was simple, stable, useful, and acceptable; however, feedback and subnational involvement were weak. A simple syndromic surveillance system implemented in a fragile state enabled more timely, complete, and sensitive data reporting for disease risk assessment. Feedback and provincial involvement require improvement. Use of mobile phone technology might improve the timeliness and efficiency of public health surveillance.

  4. Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Milinovich, Gabriel J; Williams, Gail M; Clements, Archie C A; Hu, Wenbiao

    2014-02-01

    Emerging infectious diseases present a complex challenge to public health officials and governments; these challenges have been compounded by rapidly shifting patterns of human behaviour and globalisation. The increase in emerging infectious diseases has led to calls for new technologies and approaches for detection, tracking, reporting, and response. Internet-based surveillance systems offer a novel and developing means of monitoring conditions of public health concern, including emerging infectious diseases. We review studies that have exploited internet use and search trends to monitor two such diseases: influenza and dengue. Internet-based surveillance systems have good congruence with traditional surveillance approaches. Additionally, internet-based approaches are logistically and economically appealing. However, they do not have the capacity to replace traditional surveillance systems; they should not be viewed as an alternative, but rather an extension. Future research should focus on using data generated through internet-based surveillance and response systems to bolster the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile Phone–based Infectious Disease Surveillance System, Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Sawford, Kate; Daniel, Samson L.A.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stephen, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Because many infectious diseases are emerging in animals in low-income and middle-income countries, surveillance of animal health in these areas may be needed for forecasting disease risks to humans. We present an overview of a mobile phone–based frontline surveillance system developed and implemented in Sri Lanka. Field veterinarians reported animal health information by using mobile phones. Submissions increased steadily over 9 months, with ≈4,000 interactions between field veterinarians and reports on the animal population received by the system. Development of human resources and increased communication between local stakeholders (groups and persons whose actions are affected by emerging infectious diseases and animal health) were instrumental for successful implementation. The primary lesson learned was that mobile phone–based surveillance of animal populations is acceptable and feasible in lower-resource settings. However, any system implementation plan must consider the time needed to garner support for novel surveillance methods among users and stakeholders. PMID:20875276

  6. An expert system for culture-based infection control surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, M. G.; Steib, S. A.; Fraser, V. J.; Dunagan, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent a significant cause of prolonged inpatient days and additional hospital charges. We describe an expert system, called GERMWATCHER, which applies the Centers for Disease Control's National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance culture-based criteria for detecting nosocomial infections. GERMWATCHER has been deployed at Barnes Hospital, a large tertiary-care teaching hospital, since February 1993. We describe the Barnes Hospital infection control environment, the expert system design, and a predeployment performance evaluation. We then compare our system to other efforts in computer-based infection control. PMID:8130456

  7. A Behavior Based Control System for Surveillance UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyekan, John; Lu, Bowen; Li, Bo; Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) is required to carry out duties such as surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Autonomous operation of UAVs is a key to the success of these missions. In this chapter, we propose to use a behavior based control architecture to implement autonomous operation for UAV surveillance missions. This control architecture consists of two layers: a low level control layer and a behavior layer. The low level control layer decomposes 3D motion of UAVs into several atomic actions, such as yaw, roll, pitch, altitude, and 2D position control. These atomic actions together serve as a basis for the behavior layer. The behavior layer consists of a number of necessary behaviors used for surveillance missions, including take-off, object tracking, hovering, landing, trajectory following, obstacle avoidance amongst other behaviors. These behaviors can be instantiated individually or collectively to fulfill the required missions issued by human operators. To evaluate the proposed control architecture, the commercially available DraganFlyer QuadRotor was used as the UAV platform. With the aid of an indoor positioning system, several atomic actions and a group of behaviors were developed for the DraganFlyer. Real testing experiments were conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the proposed system.

  8. Web-based infectious disease surveillance systems and public health perspectives: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Cho, Youngtae; Shim, Eunyoung; Woo, Hyekyung

    2016-12-08

    Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases are a significant public health concern, and early detection and immediate response is crucial for disease control. These challenges have led to the need for new approaches and technologies to reinforce the capacity of traditional surveillance systems for detecting emerging infectious diseases. In the last few years, the availability of novel web-based data sources has contributed substantially to infectious disease surveillance. This study explores the burgeoning field of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems by examining their current status, importance, and potential challenges. A systematic review framework was applied to the search, screening, and analysis of web-based infectious disease surveillance systems. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases to extensively review the English literature published between 2000 and 2015. Eleven surveillance systems were chosen for evaluation according to their high frequency of application. Relevant terms, including newly coined terms, development and classification of the surveillance systems, and various characteristics associated with the systems were studied. Based on a detailed and informative review of the 11 web-based infectious disease surveillance systems, it was evident that these systems exhibited clear strengths, as compared to traditional surveillance systems, but with some limitations yet to be overcome. The major strengths of the newly emerging surveillance systems are that they are intuitive, adaptable, low-cost, and operated in real-time, all of which are necessary features of an effective public health tool. The most apparent potential challenges of the web-based systems are those of inaccurate interpretation and prediction of health status, and privacy issues, based on an individual's internet activity. Despite being in a nascent stage with further modification needed, web-based surveillance systems have evolved to complement

  9. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  10. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  11. Evaluation Of The NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot In Meeting Requirements For Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  12. Evaluation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System Pilot in Meeting Requirements for Contractor Surveillance Under Performance Based Contracting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmahl, Karen E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of performance-based contracting at Kennedy Space Center has necessitated a shift from intrusive oversight of contractor activities to an insight surveillance role. This paper describes the results of a pilot implementation of the NASA Quality Surveillance System (NQSS) in the Space Shuttle Main Engines Processing Facility. The NQSS is a system to sample contractor activities using documented procedures, specifications, drawings and observations of work in progress to answer the question "Is the contractor doing what they said they would do?" The concepts of the NQSS are shown to be effective in providing assurance of contractor quality. Many of the concepts proven in the pilot are being considered for incorporation into an overall KSC Quality Surveillance System.

  13. Low-Cost National Media-Based Surveillance System for Public Health Events, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Trong T.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Farhana; Chakraborty, Apurba; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Haider, Sabbir; Alamgir, A.S.M.; Sobel, Jeremy; Luby, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed a media-based public health surveillance system in Bangladesh during 2010–2011. The system is a highly effective, low-cost, locally appropriate, and sustainable outbreak detection tool that could be used in other low-income, resource-poor settings to meet the capacity for surveillance outlined in the International Health Regulations 2005. PMID:26981877

  14. Evolution of Mosquito-Based Arbovirus Surveillance Systems in Australia

    PubMed Central

    van den Hurk, Andrew F.; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Johansen, Cheryl A.; Warrilow, David; Ritchie, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Control of arboviral disease is dependent on the sensitive and timely detection of elevated virus activity or the identification of emergent or exotic viruses. The emergence of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in northern Australia revealed numerous problems with performing arbovirus surveillance in remote locations. A sentinel pig programme detected JEV activity, although there were a number of financial, logistical, diagnostic and ethical limitations. A system was developed which detected viral RNA in mosquitoes collected by solar or propane powered CO2-baited traps. However, this method was hampered by trap-component malfunction, microbial contamination and large mosquito numbers which overwhelmed diagnostic capabilities. A novel approach involves allowing mosquitoes within a box trap to probe a sugar-baited nucleic-acid preservation card that is processed for expectorated arboviruses. In a longitudinal field trial, both Ross River and Barmah Forest viruses were detected numerous times from multiple traps over different weeks. Further refinements, including the development of unpowered traps and use of yeast-generated CO2, could enhance the applicability of this system to remote locations. New diagnostic technology, such as next generation sequencing and biosensors, will increase the capacity for recognizing emergent or exotic viruses, while cloud computing platforms will facilitate rapid dissemination of data. PMID:22505808

  15. Bodygraphic Injury Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, Toshiki; Kitamura, Koji; Nishida, Yoshihumi; Motomura, Yoichi; Takano, Tachio; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi

    This paper proposes a new technology,``a bodygraphic injury surveillance system (BISS)'' that not only accumulates accident situation data but also represents injury data based on a human body coordinate system in a standardized and multilayered way. Standardized and multilayered representation of injury enables accumulation, retrieval, sharing, statistical analysis, and modeling causalities of injury across different fields such as medicine, engineering, and industry. To confirm the effectiveness of the developed system, the authors collected 3,685 children's injury data in cooperation with a hospital. As new analyses based on the developed BISS, this paper shows bodygraphically statistical analysis and childhood injury modeling using the developed BISS and Bayesian network technology.

  16. Development concerns for satellite-based air traffic control surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation directed toward the configuration of a practical system design which can form the baseline for assessing the applications and value of a satellite based air traffic surveillance system for future use in the National Airspace System (NAS) are described. This work initially studied the characteristics and capabilities of a satellite configuration which would operate compatibly with the signal structure and avionics of the next generation air traffic control secondary surveillance radar system, the Mode S system. A compatible satellite surveillance system concept is described and an analysis is presented of the link budgets for the various transmission paths. From this, the satellite characteristics are established involving a large multiple feed L band antenna of approximately 50 meter aperture dimension. Trade offs involved in several of the alternative large aperture antennas considered are presented as well as the influence of various antenna configurations on the performance capabilities of the surveillance system. The features and limitations of the use of large aperture antenna systems for air traffic surveillance are discussed. Tentative results of this continuing effort are summarized with a brief description of follow on investigations involving other space based antenna systems concepts.

  17. Big data for population-based cancer research: the integrated cancer information and surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Anne-Marie; Olshan, Andrew F; Green, Laura; Meyer, Adrian; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Basch, Ethan; Carpenter, William R

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Cancer Information and Surveillance System (ICISS) facilitates population-based cancer research by developing extensive information technology systems that can link and manage large data sets. Taking an interdisciplinary 'team science' approach, ICISS has developed data, systems, and methods that allow researchers to better leverage the power of big data to improve population health.

  18. Evaluation of a veterinary-based syndromic surveillance system implemented for swine

    PubMed Central

    del Rocio Amezcua, Maria; Pearl, David L.; Friendship, Robert M.; McNab, W. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Practicing veterinarians play an important role in detecting the initial outbreak of disease in animal populations. A pilot study was conducted to determine the feasibility of a veterinary-based surveillance system for the Ontario swine industry. A total of 7 practitioners from 5 clinics agreed to submit information from July 1, 2007 to June 30, 2008. The surveillance program was evaluated in terms of timeliness, compliance, geographic coverage, and data quality. Our study showed that the veterinary-based surveillance system was acceptable to practitioners and produced useful data. The program obtained information from 25% of pig farms in Ontario during this time period. However, better communication with practitioners, more user-friendly recording systems that can be adapted to each clinic’s management system, active involvement of the clinics’ technical personnel, and the use of financial incentives may help to improve compliance and timeliness. PMID:21197223

  19. Wallops Ship Surveillance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Donna C.

    2011-01-01

    Approved as a Wallops control center backup system, the Wallops Ship Surveillance Software is a day-of-launch risk analysis tool for spaceport activities. The system calculates impact probabilities and displays ship locations relative to boundary lines. It enables rapid analysis of possible flight paths to preclude the need to cancel launches and allow execution of launches in a timely manner. Its design is based on low-cost, large-customer- base elements including personal computers, the Windows operating system, C/C++ object-oriented software, and network interfaces. In conformance with the NASA software safety standard, the system is designed to ensure that it does not falsely report a safe-for-launch condition. To improve the current ship surveillance method, the system is designed to prevent delay of launch under a safe-for-launch condition. A single workstation is designated the controller of the official ship information and the official risk analysis. Copies of this information are shared with other networked workstations. The program design is divided into five subsystems areas: 1. Communication Link -- threads that control the networking of workstations; 2. Contact List -- a thread that controls a list of protected item (ocean vessel) information; 3. Hazard List -- threads that control a list of hazardous item (debris) information and associated risk calculation information; 4. Display -- threads that control operator inputs and screen display outputs; and 5. Archive -- a thread that controls archive file read and write access. Currently, most of the hazard list thread and parts of other threads are being reused as part of a new ship surveillance system, under the SureTrak project.

  20. A fluid-based measurement system for airborne radioxenon surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, B.; Gross, K.C.; Nietert, R.; Valentine, J.; Russ, W.

    1997-10-01

    A new and innovative technique for concentrating heavy noble gases from the atmosphere and subsequently measuring the radioactive xenon isotopes has recently been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The concentration technique is based on the discovery of a phenomenon where certain organic fluids absorb heavy noble gases with very high efficiency at room temperature and release the noble gases when slightly warmed (about 60{degrees}C). Research has been conducted to study the application of this technology to the design of an ultra sensitive radioxenon measurement system. Such a system could be used to monitor or sample the atmosphere for noble gas fission products ({sup 133}Xe, {sup 133m}Xe, and {sup 135}Xe) generated by nuclear testing. A system that utilizes this fluid-based technology provides a simpler, more portable, less-expensive means of concentrating xenon than current cryogenic techniques and avoids some of the complications associated with charcoal-based systems. Preliminary experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing this fluid-based technology in the design of an atmospheric radioxenon measurement have been very promising and research is continuing toward applying this technology to monitoring activities which support the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT).

  1. Global Ocean Surveillance With Electronic Intelligence Based Satellite System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatramanan, Haritha

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this proposal is to design our own ELINT based satellite system to detect and locate the target by using satellite Trilateration Principle. The target position can be found by measuring the radio signals arrived at three satellites using Time Difference of Arrival(TDOA) technique. To locate a target it is necessary to determine the satellite position. The satellite motion and its position is obtained by using Simplified General Perturbation Model(SGP4) in MATLAB. This SGP4 accepts satellite Two Line Element(TLE) data and returns the position in the form of state vectors. These state vectors are then converted into observable parameters and then propagated in space. This calculations can be done for satellite constellation and non - visibility periods can be calculated. Satellite Trilateration consists of three satellites flying in formation with each other. The satellite constellation design consists of three satellites with an inclination of 61.3° maintained at equal distances between each other. The design is performed using MATLAB and simulated to obtain the necessary results. The target's position can be obtained using the three satellites ECEF Coordinate system and its position and velocity can be calculated in terms of Latitude and Longitude. The target's motion is simulated to obtain the Speed and Direction of Travel.

  2. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance Among Patients With Cirrhosis in a Population-based Integrated Health Care Delivery System.

    PubMed

    Singal, Amit G; Tiro, Jasmin; Li, Xilong; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Chubak, Jessica

    2017-08-01

    Fewer than 1 in 5 patients with cirrhosis receive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) surveillance; however, most studies were performed in select patient populations, which may not be informative of practice patterns in population-based community practices. Further, few reported guideline-concordant consistent surveillance rates. Characterize guideline-concordant HCC surveillance rates and patient-level factors associated with surveillance among a population-based cohort of patients with cirrhosis. We retrospectively characterized HCC surveillance among cirrhosis patients followed between January 2010 and December 2012 at an integrated health care delivery system in Washington state. Consistent surveillance was defined as an ultrasound every 6 months, and inconsistent surveillance was defined as ≥1 ultrasound during the 2-year follow-up period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to identify correlates of HCC surveillance receipt. Of 1137 patients with cirrhosis, 22 (2%) underwent consistent surveillance, 371 (33%) had inconsistent surveillance, and 744 (65%) received no surveillance during follow-up. Correlates of HCC surveillance receipt in multivariate analysis included Gastroenterology/Hepatology subspecialty care [odds ratio (OR), 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.44-2.46], Child Pugh B/C cirrhosis (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.07-2.43), elevated aspartate aminotransferase (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.13-2.35), and etiology of liver disease. Compared with hepatitis C-infected patients, patients with hepatitis B infection were more likely to undergo surveillance (OR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.28-5.81), whereas patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.93) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (OR, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.28-0.56) were less likely to undergo surveillance. Although one third of patients undergo inconsistent HCC surveillance, <2% of patients receive guideline-concordant biannual HCC surveillance.

  3. An entomological surveillance system based on open spatial information for participative dengue control.

    PubMed

    Regis, Leda; Souza, Wayner V; Furtado, André F; Fonseca, Cláudio D; Silveira Jr, José C; Ribeiro Jr, Paulo J; Melo-Santos, Maria Alice V; Carvalho, Marilia S; Monteiro, Antonio M V

    2009-12-01

    Aedes aegypti is a very efficient disseminator of human pathogens. This condition is the result of evolutionary adaptations to frequent haematophagy, as well as to the colonization of countless types of habitats associated with environmental and cultural factors that favor the proliferation of this mosquito in urban ecosystems. Studies using sensitive methods of monitoring demonstrate that the methods of surveillance used in the Brazilian program do not show the high degrees of the infestation of cities by this vector. To increase the capacity of the health sector, new tools are needed to the practice of surveillance, which incorporate aspects of the vector, place and human population. We describe here the SMCP-Aedes - Monitoring System and Population Control of Aedes aegypti, aiming to provide an entomological surveillance framework as a basis for epidemiological surveillance of dengue. The SMCP-Aedes is uphold in the space technology information, supported by the intensive use of the web and free software to collect, store, analyze and disseminate information on the spatial-temporal distribution of the estimated density for the population of Aedes, based on data systematically collected with the use of ovitraps. Planned control interventions, intensified where and when indicated by the entomological surveillance, are agreed with the communities, relying on the permanent social mobilization.

  4. SETI radio spectrum surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, B.; Lokshin, A.; Marina, M.; Ching, L.

    1985-01-01

    The SETI Radio Spectrum Surveillance System (SRSSS) will provide a data base for assessing the radio frequency interference (RFI) environment for SETI and minimizing RFI disruptions during the search. The system's hardware and software are described and the sensitivity of the system is discussed.

  5. Web-Based Surveillance Systems for Human, Animal, and Plant Diseases.

    PubMed

    Madoff, Lawrence C; Li, Annie

    2014-02-01

    The emergence of infectious diseases, caused by novel pathogens or the spread of existing ones to new populations and regions, represents a continuous threat to humans and other species. The early detection of emerging human, animal, and plant diseases is critical to preventing the spread of infection and protecting the health of our species and environment. Today, more than 75% of emerging infectious diseases are estimated to be zoonotic and capable of crossing species barriers and diminishing food supplies. Traditionally, surveillance of diseases has relied on a hierarchy of health professionals that can be costly to build and maintain, leading to a delay or interruption in reporting. However, Internet-based surveillance systems bring another dimension to epidemiology by utilizing technology to collect, organize, and disseminate information in a more timely manner. Partially and fully automated systems allow for earlier detection of disease outbreaks by searching for information from both formal sources (e.g., World Health Organization and government ministry reports) and informal sources (e.g., blogs, online media sources, and social networks). Web-based applications display disparate information online or disperse it through e-mail to subscribers or the general public. Web-based early warning systems, such as ProMED-mail, the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN), and Health Map, have been able to recognize emerging infectious diseases earlier than traditional surveillance systems. These systems, which are continuing to evolve, are now widely utilized by individuals, humanitarian organizations, and government health ministries.

  6. Measuring the performance of telephone-based disease surveillance systems in local health departments.

    PubMed

    Dausey, David J; Chandra, Anita; Schaefer, Agnes G; Bahney, Ben; Haviland, Amelia; Zakowski, Sarah; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-09-01

    We tested telephone-based disease surveillance systems in local health departments to identify system characteristics associated with consistent and timely responses to urgent case reports. We identified a stratified random sample of 74 health departments and conducted a series of unannounced tests of their telephone-based surveillance systems. We used regression analyses to identify system characteristics that predicted fast connection with an action officer (an appropriate public health professional). Optimal performance in consistently connecting callers with an action officer in 30 minutes or less was achieved by 31% of participating health departments. Reaching a live person upon dialing, regardless of who that person was, was the strongest predictor of optimal performance both in being connected with an action officer and in consistency of connection times. Health departments can achieve optimal performance in consistently connecting a caller with an action officer in 30 minutes or less and may improve performance by using a telephone-based disease surveillance system in which the phone is answered by a live person at all times.

  7. Injuries in community-level Australian football: Results from a club-based injury surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Ekegren, Christina L; Gabbe, Belinda J; Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Lloyd, David; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-11-01

    Far fewer injury surveillance systems exist within community sport than elite sport. As a result, most epidemiological data on sports injuries have limited relevance to community-level sporting populations. There is potential for data from community club-based injury surveillance systems to provide a better understanding of community sports injuries. This study aimed to describe the incidence and profile of community-level Australian football injuries reported using a club-based injury surveillance system. Prospective, epidemiological study. Sports trainers from five community-level Australian football leagues recorded injury data during two football seasons using the club-based system. An online surveillance tool developed by Sports Medicine Australia ('Sports Injury Tracker') was used for data collection. The injury incidence, profile and match injury rate were reported. Injury data for 1205 players were recorded in season one and for 823 players in season two. There was significant variability in injury incidence across clubs. However, aggregated data were consistent across football seasons, with an average of 0.7 injuries per player per season and 38-39 match injuries per 1000 h match exposure. A large proportion of injuries occurred during matches, involved the lower limb and resulted from contact. Data from the club-based system provided a profile of injuries consistent with previous studies in community-level Australian football. Moreover, injury incidence was consistent with other studies using similar personnel to record data. However, injury incidence was lower than that reported in studies using player self-report or healthcare professionals and may be an underestimate of true values. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social media and internet-based data in global systems for public health surveillance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Velasco, Edward; Agheneza, Tumacha; Denecke, Kerstin; Kirchner, Göran; Eckmanns, Tim

    2014-03-01

    The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No comprehensive evaluations show

  9. Social Media and Internet-Based Data in Global Systems for Public Health Surveillance: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    VELASCO, EDWARD; AGHENEZA, TUMACHA; DENECKE, KERSTIN; KIRCHNER, GÖRAN; ECKMANNS, TIM

    2014-01-01

    Context: The exchange of health information on the Internet has been heralded as an opportunity to improve public health surveillance. In a field that has traditionally relied on an established system of mandatory and voluntary reporting of known infectious diseases by doctors and laboratories to governmental agencies, innovations in social media and so-called user-generated information could lead to faster recognition of cases of infectious disease. More direct access to such data could enable surveillance epidemiologists to detect potential public health threats such as rare, new diseases or early-level warnings for epidemics. But how useful are data from social media and the Internet, and what is the potential to enhance surveillance? The challenges of using these emerging surveillance systems for infectious disease epidemiology, including the specific resources needed, technical requirements, and acceptability to public health practitioners and policymakers, have wide-reaching implications for public health surveillance in the 21st century. Methods: This article divides public health surveillance into indicator-based surveillance and event-based surveillance and provides an overview of each. We did an exhaustive review of published articles indexed in the databases PubMed, Scopus, and Scirus between 1990 and 2011 covering contemporary event-based systems for infectious disease surveillance. Findings: Our literature review uncovered no event-based surveillance systems currently used in national surveillance programs. While much has been done to develop event-based surveillance, the existing systems have limitations. Accordingly, there is a need for further development of automated technologies that monitor health-related information on the Internet, especially to handle large amounts of data and to prevent information overload. The dissemination to health authorities of new information about health events is not always efficient and could be improved. No

  10. A computer-based surveillance system for human immunodeficiency virus infection in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chew, S K; Snodgrass, I

    1995-04-01

    The first case of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was detected in Singapore in 1985 and the first case of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1986. Since then, the number of infections had increased. By the end of 1993, there were 222 residents with HIV infection, including 75 cases of AIDS. In view of the rapidly increasing magnitude of HIV infection, a microcomputer-based surveillance system was designed and developed in 1992 to better monitor epidemiological trends of HIV infection in Singapore. OBJECTIVE--The objective was to define a composite model of a successful HIV and AIDS registry that included: (a) patient data forms, (b) patient's contact data forms, (c) data analysis, and (d) report generation. METHODOLOGY--An IBM-compatible desk-top microcomputer was used for the project. The main software used for computer programming and data analysis were DBase IV (Version 1.5) and Epi Info (Version 5.0), respectively. Security features were incorporated into the programme to ensure confidentiality of information and that only authorized personnel could gain access to the programme. MAIN FINDINGS--The system functioned as the National HIV Notification Registry and was able to track notifications, analyse data and enabled prompt dissemination of information. The system was also linked to another database system for tuberculosis to enhance surveillance of both HIV infection and tuberculosis. CONCLUSION--The authors believe that this system would enhance surveillance and provide timely information for national AIDS control programmes. However, the effectiveness of this computer-based surveillance system is dependent on an established notification structure with notifications of sufficient completeness for both HIV infection and AIDS.

  11. Experiences From Developing and Upgrading a Web-Based Surveillance System for Malaria Elimination in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Fu, Clementine; Lopes, Sérgio; Mellor, Steve; Aryal, Siddhi; Sovannaroth, Siv; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa

    2017-06-14

    Strengthening the surveillance component is key toward achieving country-wide malaria elimination in Cambodia. A Web-based upgraded malaria information system (MIS) was deemed to essentially act as the central component for surveillance strengthening. New functionality (eg, data visualization) and operational (eg, data quality) attributes of the system received particular attention. However, building from the lessons learned in previous systems' developments, other aspects unique to Cambodia were considered to be equally important; for instance, feasibility issues, particularly at the field level (eg, user acceptability at various health levels), and sustainability needs (eg, long-term system flexibility). The Cambodian process of identifying the essential changes and critical attributes for this new information system can provide a model for other countries at various stages of the disease control and elimination continuum. Sharing these experiences not only facilitates the establishment of "best practices" but also accelerates global and regional malaria elimination efforts. In this article, Cambodia's experience in developing and upgrading its MIS to remain responsive to country-specific needs demonstrates the necessity for considering functionality, operationalization, feasibility, and sustainability of an information system in the context of malaria elimination. ©Clementine Fu, Sérgio Lopes, Steve Mellor, Siddhi Aryal, Siv Sovannaroth, Arantxa Roca-Feltrer. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 14.06.2017.

  12. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    PubMed Central

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  13. Cell phone-based system (Chaak) for surveillance of immatures of dengue virus mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Wedyan, Fadi; Hernandez-Garcia, Edgar; Sadhu, Devadatta; Ghosh, Sudipto; Bieman, James M; Tep-Chel, Diana; García-Rejón, Julián E; Eisen, Lars

    2013-07-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, Mexico, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network.

  14. Air-traffic surveillance systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdoran, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    Passive ground-based radio-interferometry systems (RILS) monitor local air traffic by determining aircraft position in planes defined by surveillance area. Similar RILS arrangements are used to determine aircraft positions in three dimensions when combined with azimuth and range information obtained by radar. Information helps determine three-dimensional aircraft position without expensive encoding altimeters.

  15. [Influence of data quality on early warning sensitivity of syndromic surveillance system based on medical institutions].

    PubMed

    Yang, S L; Yu, M; Fan, Y Z; Huang, J; Nie, S F; Wei, S

    2016-11-10

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of data quality on the sensitivity of early warning syndromic surveillance system based on medical institutions in Qianjiang, Hubei province and explore the relationship between data quality and sensitivity of early warning of the system. Methods: The delay reporting rate and underreporting rate were calculated for the evaluation of the data quality. Data obtained from semi-synthetic simulated outbreak and area under the curve (AUC) were used in combination to test the sensitivity of early warning of various models and select the optimal model. Time-series generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the curve fitting and threshold effect between data quality and early warning sensitivity of the system. Results: A total of 179 905 cases were reported from April 1, 2012 to January 31, 2014, in which 8 744 were not reported timely (16.45%). Averagely 416 reporting were delayed in each month. There were 2 566 cases which were underreported (4.83%). Compared with other early warning models, i.e. Cumulative Sum (CUSUM), Shewhart, Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA), Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS-3C), the MA model had the maximum area under the curve (AUC=0.93), and the difference was significant (P<0.001). The early warning sensitivity ranged from 84.89% to 97.25% during the operation period of the syndromic surveillance system. Underreporting had influence on early warning sensitivity, when underreporting rate was over 2.78%, the sensitivity would decrease obviously. No obvious associations were observed between the delay reporting rate and early warning sensitivity of the system. Conclusion: The data quality had influence on the early warning sensitivity of the syndromic surveillance system based on medical institution in Qianjiang. In the context of this study, underreporting had the main influence on the sensitivity of early warning.

  16. The use of community-based animal health workers to strengthen disease surveillance systems in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Allport, R; Mosha, R; Bahari, M; Swai, E; Catley, A

    2005-12-01

    An 18 month trial was conducted in three districts of Arusha region, northern Tanzania, to assess the use of community-based animal health workers (CAHWs) in an official disease surveillance system. Disease reports provided by CAHWs were assessed using six indicators for effective disease surveillance, i.e. sensitivity, specificity, timeliness, representativeness, simplicity and acceptability. To assess sustainability issues and determine the incentives required by CAHWs to report disease, three different incentive models were tested in the trial. None of the incentive models involved direct payments to CAHWs. Before involving CAHWs in disease surveillance in the three trial districts, disease case reports as a proportion of cattle population were 0.13%, 0.20% and 0.12%. During the trial, disease case reports as a proportion of cattle population increased to 5.0%, 5.6% and 6.3%. The CAHWs also improved the spatial and temporal coverage of the disease surveillance system and provided timely reports. During the trial, national-level disease reporting in Tanzania increased by 17% owing to the sensitisation and support activities of the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics in Tanzania. In Arusha region, disease reporting increased by 118%, and 49% of this improvement was attributable to increased reporting in the three trial districts. Reporting from these districts far exceeded that from any other district in Tanzania. Veterinarians confirmed the CAHWs' clinical diagnosis in 88% of the 170 clinical cases examined. The increase in disease reporting resulting from CAHW activities was sufficient to enable the national epidemiology unit to achieve its target in relation to World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines. The authors conclude that the use of CAHWs should be promoted in the national strategy for disease reporting. Additionally, CAHWs must be brought under the control of the Tanzanian veterinary authorities, a process that will include

  17. Development of a Salmonella screening tool for consumer complaint-based foodborne illness surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Li, John; Maclehose, Rich; Smith, Kirk; Kaehler, Dawn; Hedberg, Craig

    2011-01-01

    Foodborne illness surveillance based on consumer complaints detects outbreaks by finding common exposures among callers, but this process is often difficult. Laboratory testing of ill callers could also help identify potential outbreaks. However, collection of stool samples from all callers is not feasible. Methods to help screen calls for etiology are needed to increase the efficiency of complaint surveillance systems and increase the likelihood of detecting foodborne outbreaks caused by Salmonella. Data from the Minnesota Department of Health foodborne illness surveillance database (2000 to 2008) were analyzed. Complaints with identified etiologies were examined to create a predictive model for Salmonella. Bootstrap methods were used to internally validate the model. Seventy-one percent of complaints in the foodborne illness database with known etiologies were due to norovirus. The predictive model had a good discriminatory ability to identify Salmonella calls. Three cutoffs for the predictive model were tested: one that maximized sensitivity, one that maximized specificity, and one that maximized predictive ability, providing sensitivities and specificities of 32 and 96%, 100 and 54%, and 89 and 72%, respectively. Development of a predictive model for Salmonella could help screen calls for etiology. The cutoff that provided the best predictive ability for Salmonella corresponded to a caller reporting diarrhea and fever with no vomiting, and five or fewer people ill. Screening calls for etiology would help identify complaints for further follow-up and result in identifying Salmonella cases that would otherwise go unconfirmed; in turn, this could lead to the identification of more outbreaks.

  18. Syndromic surveillance system based on near real-time cattle mortality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Torres, G; Ciaravino, V; Ascaso, S; Flores, V; Romero, L; Simón, F

    2015-05-01

    Early detection of an infectious disease incursion will minimize the impact of outbreaks in livestock. Syndromic surveillance based on the analysis of readily available data can enhance traditional surveillance systems and allow veterinary authorities to react in a timely manner. This study was based on monitoring the number of cattle carcasses sent for rendering in the veterinary unit of Talavera de la Reina (Spain). The aim was to develop a system to detect deviations from expected values which would signal unexpected health events. Historical weekly collected dead cattle (WCDC) time series stabilized by the Box-Cox transformation and adjusted by the minimum least squares method were used to build the univariate cycling regression model based on a Fourier transformation. Three different models, according to type of production system, were built to estimate the baseline expected number of WCDC. Two types of risk signals were generated: point risk signals when the observed value was greater than the upper 95% confidence interval of the expected baseline, and cumulative risk signals, generated by a modified cumulative sum algorithm, when the cumulative sums of reported deaths were above the cumulative sum of expected deaths. Data from 2011 were used to prospectively validate the model generating seven risk signals. None of them were correlated to infectious disease events but some coincided, in time, with very high climatic temperatures recorded in the region. The harvest effect was also observed during the first week of the study year. Establishing appropriate risk signal thresholds is a limiting factor of predictive models; it needs to be adjusted based on experience gained during the use of the models. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the predictions epidemiological interpretation of non-specific risk signals should be complemented by other sources of information. The methodology developed in this study can enhance other existing early detection

  19. Occupational injuries identified by an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Noe, R; Rocha, J; Clavel-Arcas, C; Aleman, C; Gonzales, M; Mock, C

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To identify and describe the work related injuries in both the formal and informal work sectors captured in an emergency department based injury surveillance system in Managua, Nicaragua. Setting: Urban emergency department in Managua, Nicaragua serving 200–300 patients per day. Methods: Secondary analysis from the surveillance system data. All cases indicating an injury while working and seen for treatment at the emergency department between 1 August 2001 and 31 July 2002 were included. There was no exclusion based on place of occurrence (home, work, school), age, or gender. Results: There were 3801 work related injuries identified which accounted for 18.6% of the total 20 425 injures captured by the surveillance system. Twenty seven work related fatalities were recorded, compared with the 1998 International Labor Organization statistic of 25 occupational fatalities for all of Nicaragua. Injuries occurring outside of a formal work location accounted for more than 60% of the work related injuries. Almost half of these occurred at home, while 19% occurred on the street. The leading mechanisms for work related injuries were falls (30%), blunt objects (28%), and stabs/cuts (23%). Falls were by far the most severe mechanism in the study, causing 37% of the work related deaths and more than half of the fractures. Conclusions: Occupational injuries are grossly underreported in Nicaragua. This study demonstrated that an emergency department can be a data source for work related injuries in developing countries because it captures both the formal and informal workforce injuries. Fall prevention initiatives could significantly reduce the magnitude and severity of occupational injuries in Managua, Nicaragua. PMID:15314050

  20. The Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance /GEODSS/ system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeas, W. C.; Anctil, R.

    1981-11-01

    After an account of the four-site Baker-Nunn telescope system that was its forerunner, the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) system is described with attention to its function, capabilities, and such system elements as its telescopes and their mounts, TV camera, automatic moving target indicator (AMTI), and software. GEODSS is a passive tracking system operating within the constraints of night skies and atmospheric conditions, and consists of two 40-inch aperture wide-field telescopes equipped with sensitive, low light level television cameras and radiometers that are coupled to signal processors and computerized system management. Satellite signal detection is by means of the sunlight reflected by objects as dim as 16.0 m and site locations are in New Mexico, South Korea, Diego Garcia and the Eastern Atlantic, providing overlapping sky coverage. Detection, observation and object orbit element maintenance extends to altitudes of 40,000 km.

  1. A Bibliometric Analysis of U.S.-Based Research on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, George M.; Gotway Crawford, Carol A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Since Alan Pritchard defined bibliometrics as “the application of statistical methods to media of communication” in 1969, bibliometric analyses have become widespread. To date, however, bibliometrics has not been used to analyze publications related to the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Purpose To determine the most frequently cited BRFSS-related topical areas, institutions, and journals. Methods A search of the Web of Knowledge database in 2013 identified U.S.-published studies related to BRFSS, from its start in 1984 through 2012. Search terms were BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, or Behavioral Risk Survey. The resulting 1,387 articles were analyzed descriptively and produced data for VOSviewer, a computer program that plotted a relevance distance–based map and clustered keywords from text in titles and abstracts. Results Topics, journals, and publishing institutions ranged widely. Most research was clustered by content area, such as cancer screening, access to care, heart health, and quality of life. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine and American Journal of Public Health published the most BRFSS-related papers (95 and 70, respectively). Conclusions Bibliometrics can help identify the most frequently published BRFSS-related topics, publishing journals, and publishing institutions. BRFSS data are widely used, particularly by CDC and academic institutions such as the University of Washington and other universities hosting top-ranked schools of public health. Bibliometric analysis and mapping provides an innovative way of quantifying and visualizing the plethora of research conducted using BRFSS data and summarizing the contribution of this surveillance system to public health. PMID:25442231

  2. A bibliometric analysis of U.S.-based research on the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Khalil, George M; Gotway Crawford, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Since Alan Pritchard defined bibliometrics as "the application of statistical methods to media of communication" in 1969, bibliometric analyses have become widespread. To date, however, bibliometrics has not been used to analyze publications related to the U.S. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). To determine the most frequently cited BRFSS-related topical areas, institutions, and journals. A search of the Web of Knowledge database in 2013 identified U.S.-published studies related to BRFSS, from its start in 1984 through 2012. Search terms were BRFSS, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, or Behavioral Risk Survey. The resulting 1,387 articles were analyzed descriptively and produced data for VOSviewer, a computer program that plotted a relevance distance-based map and clustered keywords from text in titles and abstracts. Topics, journals, and publishing institutions ranged widely. Most research was clustered by content area, such as cancer screening, access to care, heart health, and quality of life. The American Journal of Preventive Medicine and American Journal of Public Health published the most BRFSS-related papers (95 and 70, respectively). Bibliometrics can help identify the most frequently published BRFSS-related topics, publishing journals, and publishing institutions. BRFSS data are widely used, particularly by CDC and academic institutions such as the University of Washington and other universities hosting top-ranked schools of public health. Bibliometric analysis and mapping provides an innovative way of quantifying and visualizing the plethora of research conducted using BRFSS data and summarizing the contribution of this surveillance system to public health. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. How Much Does a Verbal Autopsy Based Mortality Surveillance System Cost in Rural India?

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rohina; Praveen, Deversetty; Jan, Stephen; Raju, Krishnam; Maulik, Pallab; Jha, Vivekanand; Lopez, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper aims to determine the cost of establishing and sustaining a verbal-autopsy based mortality surveillance system in rural India. Materials and Methods Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003–2007 by 45 non-physician healthcare workers (NPHWs) trained in data collection using a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by 2 physicians for the first year and by one physician for the subsequent years. Costs were calculated for training of interviewers and physicians, data collection, verbal autopsy analysis, project management and infrastructure. Costs were divided by the number of deaths and the population covered in the year. Results Verbal-autopsies were completed for 96.7% (5786) of all deaths (5895) recorded. The annual cost in year 1 was INR 1,133,491 (USD 24,943) and the total cost per death was INR 757 (USD 16.66). These costs included training of NPHWs and physician reviewers Rs 67,025 (USD 1474), data collection INR 248,400 (USD 5466), dual physician review for cause of death assignment INR 375,000 (USD 8252), and project management INR 341,724 (USD 7520). The average annual cost to run the system each year was INR 822,717 (USD18104) and the cost per death was INR 549 (USD 12) for the next 3 years. Costs were reduced by using single physician review and shortened re-training sessions. The annual cost of running a surveillance system was INR 900,410 (USD 19814). Discussion This study provides detailed empirical evidence of the costs involved in running a mortality surveillance site using verbal-autopsy. PMID:25955389

  4. How much does a verbal autopsy based mortality surveillance system cost in rural India?

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rohina; Praveen, Deversetty; Jan, Stephen; Raju, Krishnam; Maulik, Pallab; Jha, Vivekanand; Lopez, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to determine the cost of establishing and sustaining a verbal-autopsy based mortality surveillance system in rural India. Deaths occurring in 45 villages (population 185,629) were documented over a 4-year period from 2003-2007 by 45 non-physician healthcare workers (NPHWs) trained in data collection using a verbal autopsy tool. Causes of death were assigned by 2 physicians for the first year and by one physician for the subsequent years. Costs were calculated for training of interviewers and physicians, data collection, verbal autopsy analysis, project management and infrastructure. Costs were divided by the number of deaths and the population covered in the year. Verbal-autopsies were completed for 96.7% (5786) of all deaths (5895) recorded. The annual cost in year 1 was INR 1,133,491 (USD 24,943) and the total cost per death was INR 757 (USD 16.66). These costs included training of NPHWs and physician reviewers Rs 67,025 (USD 1474), data collection INR 248,400 (USD 5466), dual physician review for cause of death assignment INR 375,000 (USD 8252), and project management INR 341,724 (USD 7520). The average annual cost to run the system each year was INR 822,717 (USD18104) and the cost per death was INR 549 (USD 12) for the next 3 years. Costs were reduced by using single physician review and shortened re-training sessions. The annual cost of running a surveillance system was INR 900,410 (USD 19814). This study provides detailed empirical evidence of the costs involved in running a mortality surveillance site using verbal-autopsy.

  5. Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Craig; Carlson, Sandra; Butler, Michelle; Cassano, Daniel; Clarke, Stephen; Fejsa, John; Durrheim, David

    2017-08-17

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users' experiences, we maintained a strong focus on "obvious design" and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems. ©Craig Dalton, Sandra Carlson, Michelle Butler, Daniel Cassano, Stephen Clarke, John Fejsa, David Durrheim. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 17.08.2017.

  6. Design and prospective evaluation of a risk-based surveillance system for shrimp grow-out farms in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Ana Rita; Pereira, Marcelo; Ferreira Neto, Jose Soares; Ferreira, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    The farming of Pacific white shrimp Litopennaeus vannamei in northeast Brazil, has proven to be a promising sector. However, the farming of Pacific white shrimp in Brazil has been affected negatively by the occurrence of viral diseases, threatening this sector's expansion and sustainability. For this reason, the drafting of a surveillance system for early detection and definition of freedom from viral diseases, whose occurrence could result in high economic loses, is of the utmost importance. The stochastic model AquaVigil was implemented to prospectively evaluate different surveillance strategies to determine freedom from disease and identify the strategy with the lowest sampling efforts, making the best use of available resources through risk-based surveillance. The worked example presented was designed for regional application for the state of Ceará and can easily be applied to other Brazilian states. The AquaVigil model can analyse any risk-based surveillance system that considers a similar outline to the strategy here presented.

  7. Sonoma Persistent Surveillance System

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D M

    2006-03-24

    Sonoma offers the first cost-effective, broad-area, high-resolution, real-time motion imagery system for surveillance applications. Sonoma is unique in its ability to provide continuous, real-time video imagery of an area the size of a small city with resolutions sufficient to track 8,000 moving objects in the field of view. At higher resolutions and over smaller areas, Sonoma can even track the movement of individual people. The visual impact of the data available from Sonoma is already causing a paradigm shift in the architecture and operation of other surveillance systems. Sonoma is expected to cost just one-tenth the price of comparably sized sensor systems. Cameras mounted on an airborne platform constantly monitor an area, feeding data to the ground for real-time analysis. Sonoma was designed to provide real-time data for actionable intelligence in situations such as monitoring traffic, special events, border security, and harbors. If a Sonoma system had been available in the aftermath of the Katrina and Rita hurricanes, emergency responders would have had real-time information on roads, water levels, and traffic conditions, perhaps saving many lives.

  8. Insights From Flutracking: Thirteen Tips to Growing a Web-Based Participatory Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Sandra; Butler, Michelle; Cassano, Daniel; Clarke, Stephen; Fejsa, John; Durrheim, David

    2017-01-01

    Flutracking is a weekly Web-based survey of influenza-like illness (ILI) in Australia that has grown from 400 participants in 2006 to over 26,000 participants every week in 2016. Flutracking monitors both the transmission and severity of ILI across Australia by documenting symptoms (cough, fever, and sore throat), time off work or normal duties, influenza vaccination status, laboratory testing for influenza, and health seeking behavior. Recruitment of Flutrackers commenced via health department and other organizational email systems, and then gradually incorporated social media promotion and invitations from existing Flutrackers to friends to enhance participation. Invitations from existing participants typically contribute to over 1000 new participants each year. The Flutracking survey link was emailed every Monday morning in winter and took less than 10 seconds to complete. To reduce the burden on respondents, we collected only a minimal amount of demographic and weekly data. Additionally, to optimize users’ experiences, we maintained a strong focus on “obvious design” and repeated usability testing of naïve and current participants of the survey. In this paper, we share these and other insights on recruitment methods and user experience principles that have enabled Flutracking to become one of the largest online participatory surveillance systems in the world. There is still much that could be enhanced in Flutracking; however, we believe these principles could benefit others developing similar online surveillance systems. PMID:28818817

  9. Historical Trends in Ground-Based Optical Space Surveillance System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, M.; Shroyer, L.

    In the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the launch of the first man-made satellite, an historical overview of ground-based optical space surveillance systems is provided. Specific emphasis is given on gathering metrics to analyze design trends. The subject of space surveillance spans the history of spaceflight: from the early tracking cameras at missile ranges, the first observations of Sputnik, to the evolution towards highly capable commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, and much in between. Whereas previous reviews in the literature have been limited in scope to specific time periods, operational programs, countries, etc., a broad overview of a wide range of sources is presented. This review is focused on systems whose primary design purpose can be classified as Space Object Identification (SOI) or Orbit Determination (OD). SOI systems are those that capture images or data to determine information about the satellite itself, such as attitude, features, and material composition. OD systems are those that produce estimates of the satellite position, usually in the form of orbital elements or a time history of tracking angles. Systems are also categorized based on the orbital regime in which their targets reside, which has been simplified in this study to either Low Earth Orbit (LEO) or Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO). The systems are further classified depending on the industry segment (government/commercial or academic), and whether the program is foreign or domestic. In addition to gathering metrics on systems designed solely for man-made satellite observations, it is interesting to find examples of other systems being similarly used. Examples include large astronomical telescopes being used for GEO debris surveys and anomaly resolution for deep-space probes. Another interesting development is the increase in number and capability of COTS systems, some of which are specifically marketed to consumers as satellite trackers. After describing the results of the

  10. A Novel Fiber Optic Based Surveillance System for Prevention of Pipeline Integrity Threats

    PubMed Central

    Tejedor, Javier; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Martins, Hugo F.; Piote, Daniel; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Corredera, Pedro; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surveillance system aimed at the detection and classification of threats in the vicinity of a long gas pipeline. The sensing system is based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) technology for signal acquisition and pattern recognition strategies for threat identification. The proposal incorporates contextual information at the feature level and applies a system combination strategy for pattern classification. The contextual information at the feature level is based on the tandem approach (using feature representations produced by discriminatively-trained multi-layer perceptrons) by employing feature vectors that spread different temporal contexts. The system combination strategy is based on a posterior combination of likelihoods computed from different pattern classification processes. The system operates in two different modes: (1) machine + activity identification, which recognizes the activity being carried out by a certain machine, and (2) threat detection, aimed at detecting threats no matter what the real activity being conducted is. In comparison with a previous system based on the same rigorous experimental setup, the results show that the system combination from the contextual feature information improves the results for each individual class in both operational modes, as well as the overall classification accuracy, with statistically-significant improvements. PMID:28208687

  11. A Novel Fiber Optic Based Surveillance System for Prevention of Pipeline Integrity Threats.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Javier; Macias-Guarasa, Javier; Martins, Hugo F; Piote, Daniel; Pastor-Graells, Juan; Martin-Lopez, Sonia; Corredera, Pedro; Gonzalez-Herraez, Miguel

    2017-02-12

    This paper presents a novel surveillance system aimed at the detection and classification of threats in the vicinity of a long gas pipeline. The sensing system is based on phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (ϕ-OTDR) technology for signal acquisition and pattern recognition strategies for threat identification. The proposal incorporates contextual information at the feature level and applies a system combination strategy for pattern classification. The contextual information at the feature level is based on the tandem approach (using feature representations produced by discriminatively-trained multi-layer perceptrons) by employing feature vectors that spread different temporal contexts. The system combination strategy is based on a posterior combination of likelihoods computed from different pattern classification processes. The system operates in two different modes: (1) machine + activity identification, which recognizes the activity being carried out by a certain machine, and (2) threat detection, aimed at detecting threats no matter what the real activity being conducted is. In comparison with a previous system based on the same rigorous experimental setup, the results show that the system combination from the contextual feature information improves the results for each individual class in both operational modes, as well as the overall classification accuracy, with statistically-significant improvements.

  12. Internet-based remote health self-checker symptom data as an adjuvant to a national syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Elliot, A J; Kara, E O; Loveridge, P; Bawa, Z; Morbey, R A; Moth, M; Large, S; Smith, G E

    2015-12-01

    Syndromic surveillance is an innovative surveillance tool used to support national surveillance programmes. Recent advances in the use of internet-based health data have demonstrated the potential usefulness of these health data; however, there have been limited studies comparing these innovative health data to existing established syndromic surveillance systems. We conducted a retrospective observational study to assess the usefulness of a national internet-based 'symptom checker' service for use as a syndromic surveillance system. NHS Direct online data were extracted for 1 August 2012 to 1 July 2013; a time-series analysis on the symptom categories self-reported by online users was undertaken and compared to existing telehealth syndromic data. There were 3·37 million online users of the internet-based self-checker compared to 1·43 million callers to the telephone triage health service. There was a good correlation between the online and telephone triage data for a number of syndromic indicators including cold/flu, difficulty breathing and eye problems; however, online data appeared to provide additional early warning over telephone triage health data. This assessment has illustrated some potential benefit of using internet-based symptom-checker data and provides the basis for further investigating how these data can be incorporated into national syndromic surveillance programmes.

  13. Health system reform and the role of field sites based upon demographic and health surveillance.

    PubMed Central

    Tollman, S. M.; Zwi, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Field sites for demographic and health surveillance have made well-recognized contributions to the evaluation of new or untested interventions, largely through efficacy trials involving new technologies or the delivery of selected services, e.g. vaccines, oral rehydration therapy and alternative contraceptive methods. Their role in health system reform, whether national or international, has, however, proved considerably more limited. The present article explores the characteristics and defining features of such field sites in low-income and middle-income countries and argues that many currently active sites have a largely untapped potential for contributing substantially to national and subnational health development. Since the populations covered by these sites often correspond with the boundaries of districts or subdistricts, the strategic use of information generated by demographic surveillance can inform the decentralization efforts of national and provincial health authorities. Among the areas of particular importance are the following: making population-based information available and providing an information resource; evaluating programmes and interventions; and developing applications to policy and practice. The question is posed as to whether their potential contribution to health system reform justifies arguing for adaptations to these field sites and expanded investment in them. PMID:10686747

  14. Real-time multimedia tagging and content-based retrieval for CCTV surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrott, Alan; Lindsay, Adam T.; Parkes, Alan P.

    2002-07-01

    As the number of installed surveillance cameras increases, and the cost of storing the compressed digital multimedia decreases, the CCTV industry is facing the prospect of large multimedia archives where it may be very difficult to locate specific content. To be able to get the full benefit of this wealth of multimedia data, we need to be able to automatically highlight events of interest to the operator in real-time. We also need to make it possible to quickly identify and retrieve content which meets particular criteria. We show how advances in the Internet and multimedia systems can be used to effectively analyze, tag, store, search and retrieve multimedia content in surveillance systems. IP cameras are utilized for multimedia compression and delivery over the Internet or intranet. The recorded multimedia is analyzed in real-time, and metadata descriptors are automatically generated to describe the multimedia content. The emerging ISO MPEG-7 standard is used to define application-specific multimedia descriptors and description schemes, and to enforce a standard Description Definition Language (DDL) for multimedia management. Finally, a graphical multimedia retrieval application is used to provide content-based searching, browsing, retrieval and playback over the Internet or intranet.

  15. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. Design and Methods We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25–64 years, and from the Global School‐Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US‐affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Results Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13–15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9–12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Discussion and Conclusions Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol‐related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School‐Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412–423] PMID:26358376

  16. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Kessaram, Tara; McKenzie, Jeanie; Girin, Natalie; Roth, Adam; Vivili, Paula; Williams, Gail; Hoy, Damian

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol use is a leading risk factor for disease and injury in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICT). This paper examines drinking patterns across 20 PICTs. We synthesised published data from the STEPwise approach to surveillance or similar surveys for adults 25-64 years, and from the Global School-Based Student Health surveys and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) for youth. We examined current and heavy drinking, and for adults also frequency of consumption. Using YRBSS, we studied trends in youth alcohol use in US-affiliated PICTs between 2001 and 2013. Alcohol consumption in adults and youth varied considerably across PICTs. In eight PICT populations, over 60% of male adults were current drinkers. Male adults consumed alcohol more frequently and engaged in heavy drinking more than female adults. Similar gender differences occurred in current and heavy drinking among youth. Across 10 PICTs, current drinking prevalence in males 13-15 years ranged from 10% to over 40%. Declines in alcohol use among grade 9-12 students were observed in YRBSS, although the magnitude differed by island and sex. Alcohol consumption varies widely between PICTs. There are marked gender differences in use and abstention. There is scope in PICTs for implementation of best practice strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm. These need to be gender responsive and cognisant of concerning patterns of youth drinking. Strengthening surveillance of alcohol use and its consequences is vital to inform and monitor the impact of national and regional policies. [Kessaram T, McKenzie J, Girin N, Roth A, Vivili P, Williams G, Hoy D. Alcohol use in the Pacific region: Results from the STEPwise approach to surveillance, Global School-Based Student Health Survey and Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:412-423]. © 2015 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on

  17. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    An effective public safety sensor system for heavily-populated applications requires sophisticated and geographically-distributed infrastructures, centralized supervision, and deployment of large-scale security and surveillance networks. Artificial intelligence in sensor systems is a critical design to raise awareness levels, improve the performance of the system and adapt to a changing scenario and environment. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energy-efficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide a 24/7 and all weather security operation in crowded environments or restricted areas. Technically, the S4 consists of a number of distributed sensor nodes integrated with specific passive sensors to rapidly collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data from near omni-directions. These distributed sensor nodes can cooperatively work to send immediate security information when new objects appear. When the new objects are detected, the S4 will smartly select the available node with a Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR camera to track the objects and capture associated imagery. The S4 provides applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. Other imaging processes can be updated to meet specific requirements and operations. In the S4, all the sensor nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology. This UWB RF technology can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The Service Oriented Architecture of S4 enables remote applications to interact with the S4

  18. The Department of Defense laboratory-based global influenza surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Canas, L C; Lohman, K; Pavlin, J A; Endy, T; Singh, D L; Pandey, P; Shrestha, M P; Scott, R M; Russell, K L; Watts, D; Hajdamowicz, M; Soriano, I; Douce, R W; Neville, J; Gaydos, J C

    2000-07-01

    Military global influenza surveillance began in 1976 as an Air Force program. In 1997, the Department of Defense (DoD) Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System expanded the program to include all services. Also included were local residents in areas where DoD overseas research activities operated. This new, worldwide DoD surveillance infrastructure provides valuable information and can respond quickly to outbreaks. This was demonstrated during the current influenza season when a suspected outbreak was reported in Panama. In less than 3 weeks, specimens were collected, transported, and cultured, and isolates were subtyped and sent to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for further studies. This influenza surveillance initiative combines viral isolation, antigenic characterization, and molecular sequencing with clinical and public health management of information. The information obtained is shared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization and has contributed to important decisions in influenza vaccine composition.

  19. Population based surveillance in sickle cell disease: methods, findings and implications from the California registry and surveillance system in hemoglobinopathies project (RuSH).

    PubMed

    Paulukonis, Susan T; Harris, William T; Coates, Thomas D; Neumayr, Lynne; Treadwell, Marsha; Vichinsky, Elliott; Feuchtbaum, Lisa B

    2014-12-01

    There are no population-based surveillance systems to determine prevalence, impact or outcomes in sickle cell disease (SCD). Estimates of the SCD population in California range broadly from 4,500 to 7,000, and little is known about their health status, health care utilization or health outcomes. A surveillance strategy was implemented using diverse data sources to develop a multi-dimensional, state-based surveillance system for SCD that includes adults and children and describes utilization, treatment and outcomes. Data from California newborn screening, inpatient and emergency room records, Medi-Cal/Medicaid claims and two SCD special care centers were collected for 2004-2008. A multi-step, iterative linkage process was used to link and de-duplicate these data sources, and case definitions were used to categorize cases. After linking and de-duplicating, there were 1,975 confirmed cases of SCD, 3,159 probable cases as well as 8,024 possible cases. Among individual data sources, newborn screening and data from clinics contributed the greatest number of unique cases to the total. Select analyses of utilization and treatments for the population are described. Using linked existing data sources, an estimate of the statewide count of the SCD population is possible. The approach can be used to create an in-depth health status profile of the affected population by aggregating utilization, treatment, and outcomes data including mortality and morbidity information. This effort sets the stage for development of an on-going, state-based surveillance system. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Smart sensing surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Chu, Kai-Dee; O'Looney, James; Blake, Michael; Rutar, Colleen

    2010-04-01

    Unattended ground sensor (UGS) networks have been widely used in remote battlefield and other tactical applications over the last few decades due to the advances of the digital signal processing. The UGS network can be applied in a variety of areas including border surveillance, special force operations, perimeter and building protection, target acquisition, situational awareness, and force protection. In this paper, a highly-distributed, fault-tolerant, and energyefficient Smart Sensing Surveillance System (S4) is presented to efficiently provide 24/7 and all weather security operation in a situation management environment. The S4 is composed of a number of distributed nodes to collect, process, and disseminate heterogeneous sensor data. Nearly all S4 nodes have passive sensors to provide rapid omnidirectional detection. In addition, Pan- Tilt- Zoom- (PTZ) Electro-Optics EO/IR cameras are integrated to selected nodes to track the objects and capture associated imagery. These S4 camera-connected nodes will provide applicable advanced on-board digital image processing capabilities to detect and track the specific objects. The imaging detection operations include unattended object detection, human feature and behavior detection, and configurable alert triggers, etc. In the S4, all the nodes are connected with a robust, reconfigurable, LPI/LPD (Low Probability of Intercept/ Low Probability of Detect) wireless mesh network using Ultra-wide band (UWB) RF technology, which can provide an ad-hoc, secure mesh network and capability to relay network information, communicate and pass situational awareness and messages. The S4 utilizes a Service Oriented Architecture such that remote applications can interact with the S4 network and use the specific presentation methods. The S4 capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded

  1. Open source Scalable Vector Graphics components for enabling GIS in web-based public health surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tolentino, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are useful for visual analysis and sharing of spatial data. Open standards like Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) provide viable alternatives to overcome traditional GIS limitations in resource-constrained settings (low-bandwidth, cost and manpower barriers). This project describes the design and implementation of reusable SVG components for managing geographic information for web-based public health surveillance systems.

  2. Expanding veterinary biosurveillance in Washington, DC: The creation and utilization of an electronic-based online veterinary surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Hennenfent, Andrew; DelVento, Vito; Davies-Cole, John; Johnson-Clarke, Fern

    2017-03-01

    To enhance the early detection of emerging infectious diseases and bioterrorism events using companion animal-based surveillance. Washington, DC, small animal veterinary facilities (n=17) were surveyed to determine interest in conducting infectious disease surveillance. Using these results, an electronic-based online reporting system was developed and launched in August 2015 to monitor rates of canine influenza, canine leptospirosis, antibiotic resistant infections, canine parvovirus, and syndromic disease trends. Nine of the 10 facilities that responded expressed interest conducting surveillance. In September 2015, 17 canine parvovirus cases were reported. In response, a campaign encouraging regular veterinary preventative care was launched and featured on local media platforms. Additionally, during the system's first year of operation it detected 5 canine leptospirosis cases and 2 antibiotic resistant infections. No canine influenza cases were reported and syndromic surveillance compliance varied, peaking during National Special Security Events. Small animal veterinarians and the general public are interested in companion animal disease surveillance. The system described can serve as a model for establishing similar systems to monitor disease trends of public health importance in pet populations and enhance biosurveillance capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Web-Based, Hospital-Wide Health Care-Associated Bloodstream Infection Surveillance and Classification System: Development and Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Sun, Chun-Chuan; Shang, Rung-Ji; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Chen, Yee-Chun; Lai, Feipei; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2015-09-21

    Surveillance of health care-associated infections is an essential component of infection prevention programs, but conventional systems are labor intensive and performance dependent. To develop an automatic surveillance and classification system for health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI), and to evaluate its performance by comparing it with a conventional infection control personnel (ICP)-based surveillance system. We developed a Web-based system that was integrated into the medical information system of a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan. The system automatically detects and classifies HABSIs. In this study, the number of computer-detected HABSIs correlated closely with the number of HABSIs detected by ICP by department (n=20; r=.999 P<.001) and by time (n=14; r=.941; P<.001). Compared with reference standards, this system performed excellently with regard to sensitivity (98.16%), specificity (99.96%), positive predictive value (95.81%), and negative predictive value (99.98%). The system enabled decreasing the delay in confirmation of HABSI cases, on average, by 29 days. This system provides reliable and objective HABSI data for quality indicators, improving the delay caused by a conventional surveillance system.

  4. Development of web-based geocoding applications for the population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System in New York state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Le, Linh H; Wang, Xiaohang; Tao, Zhen; Druschel, Charlotte D; Cross, Philip K; Hwang, Syni-An

    2010-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) have been widely used in mapping health data and analyzing the geographic distribution of disease. Mapping and spatially analyzing data normally begins with geocoding, a process of assigning geographic coordinates to an address so that it can be displayed and analyzed on a map. The objectives of this project were to develop Web-based geocoding applications for the New York State birth defects surveillance system to geocode, both automatically and interactively, the birth defect cases of the Congenital Malformations Registry (CMR) and evaluate the geocoding results. Geocoding software, in conjunction with a Java-based development tool (J Server), was used to develop the Web-based applications on the New York State Department of Health's Health Commerce System. The Web-based geocoding applications have been developed and implemented for the New York State birth defects surveillance system. These menu-driven applications empower users to conduct geocoding activities using only a PC and a Web browser without the installation of any GIS software. These powerful tools provide automatic, real-time, street-level geocoding of the routinely collected birth defects records in the CMR. Up to 92% of the CMR records have been geocoded with addresses exactly matched to the reference addresses on house number, street name, and city or zip code.

  5. Orbits and Pointing Strategies for Space-Based Telescopes into a European Space Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Ramos-Lerate, Mercedes

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes the inclusion of optical images acquired from orbiting telescopes into an autonomous European space surveillance system via the Advance Space Surveillance System Simulator (AS4). Special interest on space-based observation of GEO objects exists since it avoids the weather dependence and longitudinal restrictions of ground-based observations of those objects. Furthermore, space-based observations allow the detection of small objects that are not detected from ground-based sensors.In order to analyze the impact of space-based telescopes images, several aspects have to be studied. The first consideration is the selection of the appropriate orbits to locate the telescopes. A description of the most suitable orbits and strategies for the observation of space debris population will be provided.Once an appropriated orbit has been selected, the next important consideration is the analysis of an optimized pointing strategy and its associated requirements for feasibility. Several pointing strategies will be exposed by analyzing, among other factors, the impact of luminosity conditions in the most populated regions to be observed. Numerical results are presented in the form of statistics, which reflect the compromise between the density of detected objects, and other important parameters for orbit determination and cataloguing purposes as re-acquisition times or measurement track duration.Finally, overall analyses of possible space-based constellations are presented. Such constellations are aimed to solve the main drawbacks in considering only one satellite at the selected orbit. This is for example the case of revisit times when considering a sub GEO orbiting telescope which can be solve by re-distributing several sensors in the orbit. It will also allow carrying on more complex pointing strategies by the definition of several sensors located at same orbit pointed at two different regions.The AS4 was developed by DEIMOS Space ([1], [2] and also [5]). The

  6. An evidence-based system for health surveillance of occupational divers.

    PubMed

    Sames, C; Gorman, D; Mitchell, S; Sandiford, P

    2016-10-01

    The value of the commonly required routine annual medical examination of occupational divers has been questioned, and there is a need for a robust, evidence-based system of health surveillance for this group of workers. To determine whether the medical examination and investigation component of occupational divers' routine comprehensive health surveillance adds significantly to the information gained from the questionnaire component in determining fitness for diving. An occupational diver database was interrogated to identify divers issued with a 'limited' medical clearance or considered 'unfit' for diving over a 5-year period. Reasons for the 'unfit' or 'limited' designation and the source of the critical information, whether the annual health questionnaire or the medical examination or questionnaire component (or both) of the initial or 5-yearly comprehensive medical evaluation, was recorded. For divers completing the 5-yearly repeat comprehensive medical evaluation, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire alone for determining unfitness for diving was compared with that of a nominal 'gold standard'. Of 5178 certificates issued to 2187 divers over a 5-year period, 158 (3%) were provisionally designated as either 'limited' or 'unfit'. Of nine divers identified by the examination component of the 5-yearly comprehensive medical evaluation, four were eventually designated 'fit', two 'limited', and three were lost to follow up. None who had completed subsequent investigations remained 'unfit'. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire to detect unfit divers compared with the gold standard were 84.6 and 99.3%, respectively, and its accuracy was 98.9%. The current New Zealand occupational diver medical certification process, comprising annual health questionnaires and 5-yearly full examinations, detects all health issues critical to the determination of fitness to dive. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  7. Factors associated with good compliance and long-term sustainability in a practitioner-based livestock disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Zurbrigg, Katherine J; Van den Borre, Nicole M

    2013-03-01

    The Ontario Farm call Surveillance Project (OFSP) was a practitioner-based, syndromic surveillance system for livestock disease. Three data-recording methods (paper, web-based, and handheld electronic) used by participating veterinarians were compared for timeliness (when the report arrived at the OFSP office), completeness of the report, and the usage and costs of incentives offered to veterinarians as compensation for their time to record data. There were no statistically significant differences in these parameters among the 3 data-recording methods. This indicates that different data-recording methods can be used within a single veterinary surveillance program while maintaining data integrity and timely reporting. Factors such as ease of data collection and providing incentives valued by veterinarians ensured high compliance and long-term participation in the project. It also increased the diversity of the participant group, reducing the likelihood of biased data submissions.

  8. A Vision-Based Driver Nighttime Assistance and Surveillance System Based on Intelligent Image Sensing Techniques and a Heterogamous Dual-Core Embedded System Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system. PMID:22736956

  9. A vision-based driver nighttime assistance and surveillance system based on intelligent image sensing techniques and a heterogamous dual-core embedded system architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Chiang, Hsin-Han; Chiang, Chuan-Yen; Liu, Chuan-Ming; Yuan, Shyan-Ming; Wang, Jenq-Haur

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a vision-based intelligent nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system (VIDASS system) implemented by a set of embedded software components and modules, and integrates these modules to accomplish a component-based system framework on an embedded heterogamous dual-core platform. Therefore, this study develops and implements computer vision and sensing techniques of nighttime vehicle detection, collision warning determination, and traffic event recording. The proposed system processes the road-scene frames in front of the host car captured from CCD sensors mounted on the host vehicle. These vision-based sensing and processing technologies are integrated and implemented on an ARM-DSP heterogamous dual-core embedded platform. Peripheral devices, including image grabbing devices, communication modules, and other in-vehicle control devices, are also integrated to form an in-vehicle-embedded vision-based nighttime driver assistance and surveillance system.

  10. Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Susan P; Pyke, Joshua; Taenzer, Andreas H

    2016-05-03

    Technology advances make it possible to consider continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an integral component of physiologic surveillance systems. This study explores technical and logistical aspects of augmenting pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance systems with continuous respiratory rate monitoring and offers some insight into the impact on patient deterioration detection that may result. Acoustic respiratory rate sensors were introduced to a general care pulse oximetry-based surveillance system with respiratory rate alarms deactivated. Simulation was used after 4324 patient days to determine appropriate alarm thresholds for respiratory rate, which were then activated. Data were collected for an additional 4382 patient days. Physiologic parameters, alarm data, sensor utilization and patient/staff feedback were collected throughout the study and analyzed. No notable technical or workflow issues were observed. Sensor utilization was 57 %, with patient refusal leading reasons for nonuse (22.7 %). With respiratory rate alarm thresholds set to 6 and 40 breaths/min., the majority of nurse pager clinical notifications were triggered by low oxygen saturation values (43 %), followed by low respiratory rate values (21 %) and low pulse rate values (13 %). Mean respiratory rate collected was 16.6 ± 3.8 breaths/min. The vast majority (82 %) of low oxygen saturation states coincided with normal respiration rates of 12-20 breaths/min. Continuous respiratory rate monitoring can be successfully added to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system without significant technical, logistical or workflow issues and is moderately well-tolerated by patients. Respiratory rate sensor alarms did not significantly impact overall system alarm burden. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation distributions suggest adding continuous respiratory rate monitoring to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system may not significantly improve patient deterioration detection.

  11. Improved Malaria Case Management through the Implementation of a Health Facility-Based Sentinel Site Surveillance System in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sserwanga, Asadu; Harris, Jamal C.; Kigozi, Ruth; Menon, Manoj; Bukirwa, Hasifa; Gasasira, Anne; Kakeeto, Stella; Kizito, Fred; Quinto, Ebony; Rubahika, Denis; Nasr, Sussann; Filler, Scott; Kamya, Moses R.; Dorsey, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Background Heath facility-based sentinel site surveillance has been proposed as a means of monitoring trends in malaria morbidity but may also provide an opportunity to improve malaria case management. Here we described the impact of a sentinel site malaria surveillance system on promoting laboratory testing and rational antimalarial drug use. Methodology/Principal Findings Sentinel site malaria surveillance was established at six health facilities in Uganda between September 2006 and January 2007. Data were collected from all patients presenting to the outpatient departments including demographics, laboratory results, diagnoses, and treatments prescribed. Between the start of surveillance and March 2010, a total 424,701 patients were seen of which 229,375 (54%) were suspected of having malaria. Comparing the first three months with the last three months of surveillance, the proportion of patients with suspected malaria who underwent diagnostic testing increased from 39% to 97% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients with an appropriate decision to prescribe antimalarial therapy (positive test result prescribed, negative test result not prescribed) increased from 64% to 95% (p<0.001). The proportion of patients appropriately prescribed antimalarial therapy who were prescribed the recommended first-line regimen artemether-lumefantrine increased from 48% to 69% (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance The establishment of a sentinel site malaria surveillance system in Uganda achieved almost universal utilization of diagnostic testing in patients with suspected malaria and appropriate decisions to prescribed antimalarial based on test results. Less success was achieved in promoting prescribing practice for the recommended first-line therapy. This system could provide a model for improving malaria case management in other health facilities in Africa. PMID:21283815

  12. A web-based video annotation system for crowdsourcing surveillance videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Neeraj J.; Tahboub, Khalid; Kirsh, David; Delp, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value to prevent threats and identify/investigate criminal activities. Manual analysis of a huge amount of video data from several cameras over a long period of time often becomes impracticable. The use of automatic detection methods can be challenging when the video contains many objects with complex motion and occlusions. Crowdsourcing has been proposed as an effective method for utilizing human intelligence to perform several tasks. Our system provides a platform for the annotation of surveillance video in an organized and controlled way. One can monitor a surveillance system using a set of tools such as training modules, roles and labels, task management. This system can be used in a real-time streaming mode to detect any potential threats or as an investigative tool to analyze past events. Annotators can annotate video contents assigned to them for suspicious activity or criminal acts. First responders are then able to view the collective annotations and receive email alerts about a newly reported incident. They can also keep track of the annotators' training performance, manage their activities and reward their success. By providing this system, the process of video analysis is made more efficient.

  13. Applications of a sugar-based surveillance system to track arboviruses in wild mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Andrew F; Hall-Mendelin, Sonja; Townsend, Michael; Kurucz, Nina; Edwards, Jim; Ehlers, Gerhard; Rodwell, Chris; Moore, Frederick A; McMahon, Jamie L; Northill, Judith A; Simmons, Russell J; Cortis, Giles; Melville, Lorna; Whelan, Peter I; Ritchie, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Effective arbovirus surveillance is essential to ensure the implementation of control strategies, such as mosquito suppression, vaccination, or dissemination of public warnings. Traditional strategies employed for arbovirus surveillance, such as detection of virus or virus-specific antibodies in sentinel animals, or detection of virus in hematophagous arthropods, have limitations as an early-warning system. A system was recently developed that involves collecting mosquitoes in CO2-baited traps, where the insects expectorate virus on sugar-baited nucleic acid preservation cards. The cards are then submitted for virus detection using molecular assays. We report the application of this system for detecting flaviviruses and alphaviruses in wild mosquito populations in northern Australia. This study was the first to employ nonpowered passive box traps (PBTs) that were designed to house cards baited with honey as the sugar source. Overall, 20/144 (13.9%) of PBTs from different weeks contained at least one virus-positive card. West Nile virus Kunjin subtype (WNVKUN), Ross River virus (RRV), and Barmah Forest virus (BFV) were detected, being identified in 13/20, 5/20, and 2/20 of positive PBTs, respectively. Importantly, sentinel chickens deployed to detect flavivirus activity did not seroconvert at two Northern Territory sites where four PBTs yielded WNVKUN. Sufficient WNVKUN and RRV RNA was expectorated onto some of the honey-soaked cards to provide a template for gene sequencing, enhancing the utility of the sugar-bait surveillance system for investigating the ecology, emergence, and movement of arboviruses.

  14. Defining Sickle Cell Disease Mortality Using a Population-Based Surveillance System, 2004 through 2008

    PubMed Central

    Paulukonis, Susan T.; Eckman, James R.; Snyder, Angela B.; Hagar, Ward; Feuchtbaum, Lisa B.; Zhou, Mei; Grant, Althea M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Population-based surveillance data from California and Georgia for years 2004 through 2008 were linked to state death record files to determine the all-cause death rate among 12,143 patients identified with sickle cell disease (SCD). Methods All-cause death rates, by age, among these SCD patients were compared with all-cause death rates among both African Americans and the total population in the two states. All-cause death rates were also compared with death rates for SCD derived from publicly available death records: the compressed mortality files and multiple cause of death files. Results Of 12,143 patients identified with SCD, 615 patients died. The all-cause mortality rate for the SCD population was lower than the all-cause mortality rate among African Americans and similar to the total population all-cause mortality rates from birth through age 4 years, but the rate was higher among those with SCD than both the African American and total population rates from ages 5 through 74 years. The count of deceased patients identified by using population-based surveillance data (n=615) was more than twice as high as the count identified in compressed mortality files using SCD as the underlying cause of death alone (n=297). Conclusion Accurate assessment of all-cause mortality and age at death requires long-term surveillance via population-based registries of patients with accurately diagnosed SCD. PMID:26957672

  15. Open Source Scalable Vector Graphics Components for Enabling GIS in Web-based Public Health Surveillance Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kamadjeu, Raoul; Tolentino, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are useful for visual analysis and sharing of spatial data. Open standards like Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) provide viable alternatives to overcome traditional GIS limitations in resource-constrained settings (low-bandwidth, cost and manpower barriers). This project describes the design and implementation of reusable SVG components for managing geographic information for web-based public health surveillance systems. PMID:17238592

  16. Veterinary hospital surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2015-03-01

    We cannot manage what we do not measure. In order to provide optimal patient care appropriate effort must be given to the prevention of infectious disease transmission through the development and maintenance of an infection control program that is founded on results obtained through organized surveillance efforts. Every facility is unique - thus efforts should be tailored to distinctive physical attributes and organizational limitations of individual practices. There is not only an ethical responsibility to do so, but there is a legal responsibility to meet the minimum standard of practice with respect to veterinary infection prevention and control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Smart Card-Based Electronic School Absenteeism System for Influenza-Like Illness Surveillance in Hong Kong: Design, Implementation, and Feasibility Assessment.

    PubMed

    Ip, Dennis Km; Lau, Eric Hy; So, Hau Chi; Xiao, Jingyi; Lam, Chi Kin; Fang, Vicky J; Tam, Yat Hung; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J

    2017-10-06

    School-aged children have the highest incidence of respiratory virus infections each year, and transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza virus can be a major concern in school settings. School absenteeism data have been employed as a component of influenza surveillance systems in some locations. Data timeliness and system acceptance remain as key determinants affecting the usefulness of a prospective surveillance system. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of implementing an electronic school absenteeism surveillance system using smart card-based technology for influenza-like illness (ILI) surveillance among a representative network of local primary and secondary schools in Hong Kong. We designed and implemented a surveillance system according to the Protocol for a Standardized information infrastructure for Pandemic and Emerging infectious disease Response (PROSPER). We employed an existing smart card-based education and school administration platform for data capture, customized the user interface, and used additional back end systems built for other downstream surveillance steps. We invited local schools to participate and collected absenteeism data by the implemented system. We compared temporal trend of the absenteeism data with data from existing community sentinel and laboratory surveillance data. We designed and implemented an ILI surveillance system utilizing smart card-based attendance tracking approach for data capture. We implemented the surveillance system in a total of 107 schools (including 66 primary schools and 41 secondary schools), covering a total of 75,052 children. The system successfully captured information on absences for 2 consecutive academic years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014). The absenteeism data we collected from the system reflected ILI activity in the community, with an upsurge in disease activity detected up to 1 to 2 weeks preceding other existing surveillance systems. We designed and implemented a novel

  18. Air pollution surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Morgan, G B; Ozolins, G; Tabor, E C

    1970-10-16

    Atmospheric surveillance is necessary in order to identify airborne pollutants, to establish ambient concentrations of these pollutants, and to record their trends and patterns. Air pollutants may occur in the form of gases, liquids, and solids, both singly and in combination. Gaseous pollutants make up about 90 percent of the total mass emitted to the atmosphere with particulates and aerosols accounting for the remaining 10 percent. Small particulates are of particular importance because they may be in the respirable size range. These small particles may contain biologically active elements and compounds. Furthermore, they tend to remain in the atmosphere where they interfere with both solar and terrestrial infrared radiation, which may affect climate on a global basis.

  19. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). Methods A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Results Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. Discussion In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other. PMID:26767139

  20. Which surveillance systems were operational after Typhoon Haiyan?

    PubMed

    Tante, Sheila; Villa, Eireen; Pacho, Agnes; Galvan, Maria Adona; Corpuz, Aura

    2015-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is vital for a successful disaster response. This study assessed the functionality of the three disease surveillance systems used post-Haiyan: Philippine Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (PIDSR), Event-based Surveillance and Response (ESR) and Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). A survey of 45 government health officers from affected areas was conducted in March 2014. The survey documented when each of the systems was operational and included questions that ranked the functionality of the three surveillance systems and whether they complemented each other. Two of 11 (18%) surveillance units had an operational SPEED system pre-event. PIDSR and ESR remained operational in five of 11 (45%) surveillance units without interruption of reporting. Ten surveillance units (91%) rated PIDSR as functional post-Typhoon; eight (72.7%) considered ESR functional. SPEED was rated as functional by three (27%) surveillance units. Seven of 11 (63.6%) surveillance units rated the three systems as being complementary to each other. In most of the areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan, the routine surveillance systems (PIDSR and ESR) were not disrupted; although, in Leyte it took seven weeks for these to be operational. Although SPEED is recommended for activation within 48 hours after a disaster, this did not occur in most of the surveyed areas. Most of the surveillance units rated PIDSR, ESR and SPEED to be complementary to each other.

  1. Smart sensing surveillance video system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2016-05-01

    An intelligent video surveillance system is able to detect and identify abnormal and alarming situations by analyzing object movement. The Smart Sensing Surveillance Video (S3V) System is proposed to minimize video processing and transmission, thus allowing a fixed number of cameras to be connected on the system, and making it suitable for its applications in remote battlefield, tactical, and civilian applications including border surveillance, special force operations, airfield protection, perimeter and building protection, and etc. The S3V System would be more effective if equipped with visual understanding capabilities to detect, analyze, and recognize objects, track motions, and predict intentions. In addition, alarm detection is performed on the basis of parameters of the moving objects and their trajectories, and is performed using semantic reasoning and ontologies. The S3V System capabilities and technologies have great potential for both military and civilian applications, enabling highly effective security support tools for improving surveillance activities in densely crowded environments. It would be directly applicable to solutions for emergency response personnel, law enforcement, and other homeland security missions, as well as in applications requiring the interoperation of sensor networks with handheld or body-worn interface devices.

  2. Development of an electronic emergency department-based geo-information injury surveillance system in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chow, C B; Leung, M; Lai, Adela; Chow, Y H; Chung, Joanne; Tong, K M; Lit, Albert

    2012-06-01

    To describe the experience in the development of an electronic emergency department (ED)-based injury surveillance (IS) system in Hong Kong using data-mining and geo-spatial information technology (IT) for a Safe Community setup. This paper described the phased development of an emergency department-based IS system based on World Health Organization (WHO) injury surveillance Guideline to support safety promotion and injury prevention in a Safe Community in Hong Kong starting 2002. The initial ED data-based only collected data on name, sex, age, address, eight general categories of injury types (traffic, domestic, common assault, indecent assault, batter, industrial, self-harm and sports) and disposal from ED. Phase 1--manual data collection on International Classification of External Causes of Injury pre-event data; Phase 2--manual form was converted to electronic format using web-based data mining technology with built in data quality monitoring mechanism; Phase 3--integration of injury surveillance-data with in-patient hospital information; and Phase 4--geo-spatial information and body mapping were introduced to geo-code exact place of injury in an electronic map and site of injury on body map. It was feasible to develop a geo-spatial IS system at busy ED to collect valuable information for safety promotion and injury prevention at Safe Community setting. The keys for successful development and implementation involves engagement of all stakeholders at design and implementation of the system with injury prevention as ultimate goal, detail workflow planning at front end, support from the management, building on exiting system and appropriate utilisation of modern technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nation-wide, web-based, geographic information system for the integrated surveillance and control of dengue fever in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases.

  4. Nation-Wide, Web-Based, Geographic Information System for the Integrated Surveillance and Control of Dengue Fever in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ávila, Juan Eugenio; Rodríguez, Mario-Henry; Santos-Luna, René; Sánchez-Castañeda, Veronica; Román-Pérez, Susana; Ríos-Salgado, Víctor Hugo; Salas-Sarmiento, Jesús Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever incidence and its geographical distribution are increasing throughout the world. Quality and timely information is essential for its prevention and control. A web based, geographically enabled, dengue integral surveillance system (Dengue-GIS) was developed for the nation-wide collection, integration, analysis and reporting of geo-referenced epidemiologic, entomologic, and control interventions data. Consensus in the design and practical operation of the system was a key factor for its acceptance. Working with information systems already implemented as a starting point facilitated its acceptance by officials and operative personnel. Dengue-GIS provides the geographical detail needed to plan, asses and evaluate the impact of control activities. The system is beginning to be adopted as a knowledge base by vector control programs. It is used to generate evidence on impact and cost-effectiveness of control activities, promoting the use of information for decision making at all levels of the vector control program. Dengue-GIS has also been used as a hypothesis generator for the academic community. This GIS-based model system for dengue surveillance and the experience gathered during its development and implementation could be useful in other dengue endemic countries and extended to other infectious or chronic diseases. PMID:23936394

  5. Development of a scheduled drug diversion surveillance system based on an analysis of atypical drug transactions.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Richard H; Gratch, David M; Grunwald, Zvi

    2007-10-01

    Drug diversion in the operating room (OR) by anesthesia providers is a recognized problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Use of anesthesia drug dispensing systems in ORs, coupled with the presence of anesthesia or OR information management systems, may allow detection through database queries screening for atypical drug transactions. Although such transactions occur innocently during the course of normal clinical care, many are suspicious for diversion. We used a data mining approach to search for possible indicators of diversion by querying our information system databases. Queries were sought that identified our two known cases of drug diversion and their onset. A graphical approach was used to identify outliers, with diversion subsequently assessed through a manual audit of transactions. Frequent transactions on patients after the end of their procedures, and on patients having procedures in locations different from that of the dispensing machine, identified our index cases. In retrospect, had we been running the surveillance system at the time, diversion would have been detected earlier than actually recognized. Identification of the frequent occurrence of atypical drug transactions from automated drug dispensing systems using database queries is a potentially useful method to detect drug diversion in the OR by anesthesia providers.

  6. In situ magnetic field exposure and ICNIRP-based safety distances for electronic article surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Wout; Vermeeren, Günter; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic radiation of electronic article surveillance (EAS) systems was investigated in situ for both the detection gate panels and the activators and deactivators. 'Safety distances' for the general public, defined as the distances outside which the magnetic field levels of the EAS systems do not exceed the The International Commission on Non-ionising Radiation Protection reference levels, were determined. Additionally, temporal and frequency behaviour, and signal waveforms were investigated. For the detection gates, the spatially averaged fields exceeded the reference levels for five of the six investigated systems. For the (de)activators, the spatially averaged fields did not exceed the reference levels. Maximal fields up to 148.0 A m(-1) were measured from 20 cm on. The exposure ratios varied from 8 to 13 for EM, from 6 to 8 for AM and from 0.008 to 1.8 for RF systems. Safety distances were maximally 111 cm for EM, 77 cm for AM and 35 cm for RF systems.

  7. A Web-Based Multidrug-Resistant Organisms Surveillance and Outbreak Detection System with Rule-Based Classification and Clustering

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yi-Ju; Wu, Jung-Hsuan; Ping, Xiao-Ou; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Ying-Yu; Shang, Rung-Ji; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Lai, Feipei

    2012-01-01

    Background The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) are causing a global crisis. Combating antimicrobial resistance requires prevention of transmission of resistant organisms and improved use of antimicrobials. Objectives To develop a Web-based information system for automatic integration, analysis, and interpretation of the antimicrobial susceptibility of all clinical isolates that incorporates rule-based classification and cluster analysis of MDROs and implements control chart analysis to facilitate outbreak detection. Methods Electronic microbiological data from a 2200-bed teaching hospital in Taiwan were classified according to predefined criteria of MDROs. The numbers of organisms, patients, and incident patients in each MDRO pattern were presented graphically to describe spatial and time information in a Web-based user interface. Hierarchical clustering with 7 upper control limits (UCL) was used to detect suspicious outbreaks. The system’s performance in outbreak detection was evaluated based on vancomycin-resistant enterococcal outbreaks determined by a hospital-wide prospective active surveillance database compiled by infection control personnel. Results The optimal UCL for MDRO outbreak detection was the upper 90% confidence interval (CI) using germ criterion with clustering (area under ROC curve (AUC) 0.93, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.95), upper 85% CI using patient criterion (AUC 0.87, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93), and one standard deviation using incident patient criterion (AUC 0.84, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.92). The performance indicators of each UCL were statistically significantly higher with clustering than those without clustering in germ criterion (P < .001), patient criterion (P = .04), and incident patient criterion (P < .001). Conclusion This system automatically identifies MDROs and accurately detects suspicious outbreaks of MDROs based on the antimicrobial susceptibility of all clinical isolates. PMID:23195868

  8. Development of a web-based epidemiological surveillance system with health system response for improving maternal and newborn health: Field-testing in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Prappre, Tagoon; Pairot, Pakamas; Oumudee, Nurlisa; Islam, Monir

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance systems are yet to be integrated with health information systems for improving the health of pregnant mothers and their newborns, particularly in developing countries. This study aimed to develop a web-based epidemiological surveillance system for maternal and newborn health with integration of action-oriented responses and automatic data analysis with results presentations and to assess the system acceptance by nurses and doctors involved in various hospitals in southern Thailand. Freeware software and scripting languages were used. The system can be run on different platforms, and it is accessible via various electronic devices. Automatic data analysis with results presentations in the forms of graphs, tables and maps was part of the system. A multi-level security system was incorporated into the program. Most doctors and nurses involved in the study felt the system was easy to use and useful. This system can be integrated into country routine reporting system for monitoring maternal and newborn health and survival.

  9. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool: A Web Based, Dynamic, and Interoperable System for Postmarketing Drug Surveillance Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sinaci, A. Anil; Laleci Erturkmen, Gokce B.; Gonul, Suat; Yuksel, Mustafa; Invernizzi, Paolo; Thakrar, Bharat; Pacaci, Anil; Cinar, H. Alper; Cicekli, Nihan Kesim

    2015-01-01

    Postmarketing drug surveillance is a crucial aspect of the clinical research activities in pharmacovigilance and pharmacoepidemiology. Successful utilization of available Electronic Health Record (EHR) data can complement and strengthen postmarketing safety studies. In terms of the secondary use of EHRs, access and analysis of patient data across different domains are a critical factor; we address this data interoperability problem between EHR systems and clinical research systems in this paper. We demonstrate that this problem can be solved in an upper level with the use of common data elements in a standardized fashion so that clinical researchers can work with different EHR systems independently of the underlying information model. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool lets the clinical researchers extract data from different EHR systems by designing data collection set schemas through common data elements. The tool interacts with a semantic metadata registry through IHE data element exchange profile. Postmarketing Safety Study Tool and its supporting components have been implemented and deployed on the central data warehouse of the Lombardy region, Italy, which contains anonymized records of about 16 million patients with over 10-year longitudinal data on average. Clinical researchers in Roche validate the tool with real life use cases. PMID:26543873

  10. Industrial Process Surveillance System

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    2001-01-30

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  11. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Singer, Ralph M.; Mott, Jack E.

    1998-01-01

    A system and method for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy.

  12. Industrial process surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.; Wegerich, S.W.; Singer, R.M.; Mott, J.E.

    1998-06-09

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring an industrial process and/or industrial data source. The system includes generating time varying data from industrial data sources, processing the data to obtain time correlation of the data, determining the range of data, determining learned states of normal operation and using these states to generate expected values, comparing the expected values to current actual values to identify a current state of the process closest to a learned, normal state; generating a set of modeled data, and processing the modeled data to identify a data pattern and generating an alarm upon detecting a deviation from normalcy. 96 figs.

  13. Necessity of an integrated road traffic injuries surveillance system: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Hatamabadi, Hamid Reza; Vafaee, Reza; Haddadi, Mashianeh; Abdalvand, Ali; Soori, Hamid

    2011-08-01

    A prerequisite to improving the situation of traffic accidents and injury prevention is to set up a road traffic accident and victim information system (RTAVIS), which does not exist in Iran. The objective of this study was to compare the 3 major sources of information, including police, emergency medical services (EMS), and hospitals, to show the necessity of an integrated road traffic injury surveillance system. This prospective cohort study was performed by pursuing all road traffic accident (RTA) cases during one year (May 2008 to May 2009) within 30 days of their occurrence by a draft questionnaire and data pooling from participating sources. After pooling the data from all organizations, it was revealed that during one year, 245 road traffic accidents occurred in Tehran-Abali route (with a 45-km radius) in which 434 people were either injured or deceased. Out of these crash injuries, police and EMS were unaware of 67 and 51 cases, respectively. In other words, police, pre-hospital emergency services and hospitals reported 56.2, 82.9, and 76.4 percent of the entire number of injuries or deaths, respectively. None of the organizations investigated, that is, police, EMS, and health care facilities, have complete records on injuries and deaths caused by traffic accidents. We recommend the formulation and implementation of an integrated and multidisciplinary data collection system of national traffic accidents with the collaboration of police, Ministry of Health and Medical Education (EMS and hospitals), forensic medicine, and the Iranian Red Crescent.

  14. Advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, N. N.; Nazarov, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The structure and orbital configuration of the advanced space system for geostationary orbit surveillance, as well as possible approaches to the development of the satellite bus and payload for the geostationary orbit surveillance, are considered.

  15. An integrated national mortality surveillance system for death registration and mortality surveillance, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiwei; Wu, Xiaoling; Lopez, Alan D; Wang, Lijun; Cai, Yue; Page, Andrew; Yin, Peng; Liu, Yunning; Li, Yichong; Liu, Jiangmei; You, Jinling; Zhou, Maigeng

    2016-01-01

    In China, sample-based mortality surveillance systems, such as the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention's disease surveillance points system and the Ministry of Health's vital registration system, have been used for decades to provide nationally representative data on health status for health-care decision-making and performance evaluation. However, neither system provided representative mortality and cause-of-death data at the provincial level to inform regional health service needs and policy priorities. Moreover, the systems overlapped to a considerable extent, thereby entailing a duplication of effort. In 2013, the Chinese Government combined these two systems into an integrated national mortality surveillance system to provide a provincially representative picture of total and cause-specific mortality and to accelerate the development of a comprehensive vital registration and mortality surveillance system for the whole country. This new system increased the surveillance population from 6 to 24% of the Chinese population. The number of surveillance points, each of which covered a district or county, increased from 161 to 605. To ensure representativeness at the provincial level, the 605 surveillance points were selected to cover China's 31 provinces using an iterative method involving multistage stratification that took into account the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. This paper describes the development and operation of the new national mortality surveillance system, which is expected to yield representative provincial estimates of mortality in China for the first time.

  16. On-line surveillance of a dynamic process by a moving system based on pulsed digital holographic interferometry.

    PubMed

    Pedrini, Giancarlo; Alexeenko, Igor; Osten, Wolfgang; Schnars, Ulf

    2006-02-10

    A method based on pulsed digital holographic interferometry for the measurement of dynamic deformations of a surface by using a moving system is presented. The measuring system may move with a speed of several meters per minute and can measure deformation of the surface with an accuracy of better than 50 nm. The deformation is obtained by comparison of the wavefronts recorded at different times with different laser pulses produced by a Nd:YAG laser. The effect due to the movement of the measuring system is compensated for by digital processing of the different holograms. The system is well suited for on-line surveillance of a dynamic process such as laser welding and friction stir welding. Experimental results are presented, and the advantages of the method are discussed.

  17. GeoSurveillance: a GIS-based system for the detection and monitoring of spatial clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Ikuho; Rogerson, Peter A.; Lee, Gyoungju

    2009-06-01

    This article introduces a software package named GeoSurveillance that combines spatial statistical techniques and GIS routines to perform tests for the detection and monitoring of spatial clustering. GeoSurveillance provides both retrospective and prospective tests. While retrospective tests are applied to spatial data collected for a particular point in time, prospective tests attempt to incorporate the dynamic nature of spatial patterns via analyzing time-series data to detect emergent clusters as quickly as possible. This article will outline the structure of GeoSurveillance as well as describe the statistical cluster detection methods implemented in the software. It concludes with an illustration of the use of the software to analyze the spatial pattern of low birth weights in Los Angeles County, California.

  18. InP-based photonic integrated circuits for optical performance surveillance, signal conditioning, and bandwidth management in DWDM transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, Valery I.; Wu, Fang; Logvin, Yury; Densmore, Adam; Pimenov, Kirill; Grabtchak, Serge

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports the design of InP-based monolithic photonic integrated circuits for performance surveillance and bandwidth management in DWDM transmission systems. It is based on a building block approach, which allows a large variety of optical components to be built from a few monolithically integrable elements, by using only one-step epitaxial growth and standard semiconductor fabrication technologies. These include: (i) polarization-compensated echelle diffractive grating (de)multiplexer, along with the elements of passive waveguide circuitry for coupling the light to and directing it through the InP-based photonic chip, and (ii) single-mode vertically integrated waveguide active devices with detecting, attenuating and amplifying features, inserted in the (in)output channels of the planar (de)multiplexer. The paper presents the design and characterization examples of these elements and discusses the related integrated components for controlling / manipulating the DWDM optical signals on a per frequency basis.

  19. [Circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of establishing the circulatory disease surveillance system in Korea is to ensure that the problems of circulatory disease importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. The goals of circulatory disease surveillance system are to monitor the epidemiological trends of circulatory disease and to evaluate the outcome of health activity for controlling circulatory diseases. Surveillance system are being updated to achieve the needs for the integration of the surveillance and information system, the establishment of data standards, the electronic exchange of data, and changes in the goals of circulatory disease surveillance system to facilitate the response of this system to manage the national health problem effectively. This article provides the target diseases and determinant indicators to be monitored, structure of circulatory disease surveillance system, and many tasks and related activities that should be applied to this system.

  20. Battlefield Optical Surveillance System (BOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireland, Robert J.

    1997-02-01

    The battlefield optical surveillance system (BOSS) was developed for DARPA by the U.S. Air Force's Phillips Laboratory. BOSS is a HMMWV mounted laser surveillance and deterrence system. It is intended to be used to detect and to deter potentially hostile individuals, snipers and groups of agitators. The BOSS integrates the following: (1) a thermal camera (8-12 micrometer FLIR), that detects and cues to possible targets, (2) a 45 watt, 808 nm (near IR), air- cooled laser which provides covert illumination and designation for a day/night camera to acquire said target and attain a high-resolution image using night vision equipment, and (3) a 1 watt, 532 nm (green) laser that overtly illuminates and designates the target. It also has significant deterring effects both physiological and psychological on individuals and crowds. BOSS offers the potential capability to detect snipers before the first shot is fired. Detection of optical augmentations and the thermal characteristics of a sniper allows for this early detection. The integration of BOSS with acoustic sniper detection systems are being explored.

  1. Evaluation of a Web-based Error Reporting Surveillance System in a Large Iranian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Askarian, Mehrdad; Ghoreishi, Mahboobeh; Akbari Haghighinejad, Hourvash; Palenik, Charles John; Ghodsi, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Proper reporting of medical errors helps healthcare providers learn from adverse incidents and improve patient safety. A well-designed and functioning confidential reporting system is an essential component to this process. There are many error reporting methods; however, web-based systems are often preferred because they can provide; comprehensive and more easily analyzed information. This study addresses the use of a web-based error reporting system. This interventional study involved the application of an in-house designed "voluntary web-based medical error reporting system." The system has been used since July 2014 in Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. The rate and severity of errors reported during the year prior and a year after system launch were compared. The slope of the error report trend line was steep during the first 12 months (B = 105.727, P = 0.00). However, it slowed following launch of the web-based reporting system and was no longer statistically significant (B = 15.27, P = 0.81) by the end of the second year. Most recorded errors were no-harm laboratory types and were due to inattention. Usually, they were reported by nurses and other permanent employees. Most reported errors occurred during morning shifts. Using a standardized web-based error reporting system can be beneficial. This study reports on the performance of an in-house designed reporting system, which appeared to properly detect and analyze medical errors. The system also generated follow-up reports in a timely and accurate manner. Detection of near-miss errors could play a significant role in identifying areas of system defects.

  2. SmiNet-2: Description of an internet-based surveillance system for communicable diseases in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rolfhamre, P; Jansson, A; Arneborn, M; Ekdahl, K

    2006-01-01

    Electronic systems for communicable diseases surveillance enhance quality by simplifying reporting, improving completeness, and increasing timeliness. In this article we outline the ideas and technologies behind SmiNet-2, a new comprehensive regional/national system for communicable disease surveillance in Sweden. The system allows for reporting from physicians (web form) and laboratories (direct from lab data system) over the internet. Using a unique personal identification number, SmiNet-2 automatically merges clinical and laboratory notifications to case records. Privileged users, at national and county level, work against a common central server containing all notifications and case records. In addition, SmiNet-2 has separate county servers with tools for outbreak investigations, contact tracing and case management. SmiNet-2 was first used in September 2004. Individual counties receive up to 90% of all notifications electronically. In its first year, SmiNet-2 received 54 980 clinical notifications and 32,765 laboratory notifications, which generated 58,891 case records. Since most clinicians in Sweden have easy access to the internet, a general web-based reporting has been feasible, and it is anticipated that within a few years all reporting to SmiNet-2 will be over the internet. In this context, some of the major advantages of SmiNet-2 when compared with other systems are timeliness in the dataflow (up to national level), the full integration of clinical and laboratory notifications, and the capability to handle more than 50 diseases with tailor-made notification forms within one single system.

  3. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Hulihan, Mary M; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M

    2015-02-01

    The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004-2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems.

  4. State-based surveillance for selected hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Hulihan, Mary M.; Feuchtbaum, Lisa; Jordan, Lanetta; Kirby, Russell S.; Snyder, Angela; Young, William; Greene, Yvonne; Telfair, Joseph; Wang, Ying; Cramer, William; Werner, Ellen M.; Kenney, Kristy; Creary, Melissa; Grant, Althea M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The lack of an ongoing surveillance system for hemoglobinopathies in the United States impedes the ability of public health organizations to identify individuals with these conditions, monitor their health-care utilization and clinical outcomes, and understand the effect these conditions have on the health-care system. This article describes the results of a pilot program that supported the development of the infrastructure and data collection methods for a state-based surveillance system for selected hemoglobinopathies. Methods The system was designed to identify and gather information on all people living with a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis (sickle cell diseases or thalassemias) in the participating states during 2004–2008. Novel, three-level case definitions were developed, and multiple data sets were used to collect information. Results In total, 31,144 individuals who had a hemoglobinopathy diagnosis during the study period were identified in California; 39,633 in Florida; 20,815 in Georgia; 12,680 in Michigan; 34,853 in New York, and 8,696 in North Carolina. Conclusion This approach provides a possible model for the development of state-based hemoglobinopathy surveillance systems. PMID:24991875

  5. Analysis of orbit determination for space based optical space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciré, Gioacchino; Santoni, Fabio; Piergentili, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    The detection capability and orbit determination performance of a space based optical observation system exploiting the visible band is analyzed. The sensor characteristics, in terms of sensitivity and resolution are those typical of present state of the art star trackers. A mathematical model of the system has been built and the system performance assessed by numerical simulation. The selection of the observer satellite's has been done in order to maximize the number of observed objects in LEO, based on a statistical analysis of the space debris population in this region. The space objects' observability condition is analyzed and two batch estimator based on the Levenberg-Marquardt and on the Powell dog-leg algorithms have been implemented and their performance compared. Both the algorithms are sensitive to the initial guess. Its influence on the algorithms' convergence is assessed, showing that the Powell dog-leg, which is a trust region method, performs better.

  6. Future trends in compact TV surveillance systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gaertner, K.; Heaysman, B.; Vodrazka, P.

    1985-01-01

    Up to now the IAEA's Safeguards Surveillance Program has been based upon 8 mm film camera systems. As this type of equipment availability is controlled by the needs of the amateur market, the Agency is forced to follow the changing world trend in replacing film with video. The eventual substitution of film with video systems should be influenced by two design approaches, namely integrated systems, resembling physically the present film cameras, and/or remote camera-control unit systems. This paper describes experiments being carried out on both types by some Member States as well as the Agency's activities in this field.

  7. EWES. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, K.C.; Singer, R.; Herzog, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  8. Early Warning Expert System for Equipment Operability Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1996-12-18

    EWES is an Al-based expert system for signal validation and sensor operability surveillance in industrial applications that require high-reliability, high-sensitivity annunciation of degraded sensors, discrepant signals, or the onset or incipience of system disturbances.

  9. Survey of Clostridium difficile infection surveillance systems in Europe, 2011.

    PubMed

    Kola, Axel; Wiuff, Camilla; Akerlund, Thomas; van Benthem, Birgit H; Coignard, Bruno; Lyytikäinen, Outi; Weitzel-Kage, Doris; Suetens, Carl; Wilcox, Mark H; Kuijper, Ed J; Gastmeier, Petra

    2016-07-21

    To develop a European surveillance protocol for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), existing national CDI surveillance systems were assessed in 2011. A web-based electronic form was provided for all national coordinators of the European CDI Surveillance Network (ECDIS-Net). Of 35 national coordinators approached, 33 from 31 European countries replied. Surveillance of CDI was in place in 14 of the 31 countries, comprising 18 different nationwide systems. Three of 14 countries with CDI surveillance used public health notification of cases as the route of reporting, and in another three, reporting was limited to public health notification of cases of severe CDI. The CDI definitions published by the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were widely used, but there were differing definitions to distinguish between community- and healthcare-associated cases. All CDI surveillance systems except one reported annual national CDI rates (calculated as number of cases per patient-days). Only four surveillance systems regularly integrated microbiological data (typing and susceptibility testing results). Surveillance methods varied considerably between countries, which emphasises the need for a harmonised European protocol to allow consistent monitoring of the CDI epidemiology at European level. The results of this survey were used to develop a harmonised EU-wide hospital-based CDI surveillance protocol. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  10. Implementing a hospital based injury surveillance system: a case study in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    John, I A; Mohammed, A Z; Lawoko, S; Nkanta, C A; Frank-Briggs, A; Nwadiaro, H C; Tuko, M; Zavala, D E; Kolo, E S; Ramalan, M A; Bassey, D E; Didi, E

    2008-01-01

    A pilot study of violent injury surveillance was implemented in two hospitals in Kano, Nigeria, in two phases: a formative evaluation including training and arranging the collection of hospital information, followed by a 6 month prospective data collection. Road traffic injuries constituted about 80 per cent of the cases, gunshot injuries were the commonest in victims of interpersonal violence (IPV). The causes and context of IPV, the relationship of victims and perpetrators, and the place, related activities and anatomical site of injuries from IPV are summarized.

  11. Two New Real-Time PCR-based Surveillance Systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” Species Detection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We developed two novel surveillance systems for “Candidatus Liberibacter” (CL) species detection and identification. The first system is called “single tube dual primer Taq-Man PCR” (STDP). The procedure involves two sequential rounds of PCR using the CL asiaticus species-specific outer and inner pr...

  12. A System Overview of the Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-15

    Effective Treatment Period Surveillance Traditional Disease Detection TIME ! Justification for Enhanced Surveillance (Anthrax) Definition of Surveillance...Indicator Data Comms Real - time HL-7 PHIN MS XML, etc. Secure FTP VPN, etc. Text Parsing Data Cleansing Archiving Military Data PHIN MS Etc. Synthetic Data...burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing

  13. Evaluation of an Android-based mHealth system for population surveillance in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Mbugua, Samuel; Amadi, David; Chepnǵeno, Viola; Saleem, Jason J; Anokwa, Yaw; Hartung, Carl; Borriello, Gaetano; Mamlin, Burke W; Ndege, Samson K; Were, Martin C

    2012-01-01

    Objective In parts of the developing world traditionally modeled healthcare systems do not adequately meet the needs of the populace. This can be due to imbalances in both supply and demand—there may be a lack of sufficient healthcare and the population most at need may be unable or unwilling to take advantage of it. Home-based care has emerged as a possible mechanism to bring healthcare to the populace in a cost-effective, useful manner. This study describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a mobile device-based system to support such services. Materials and Methods Mobile phones were utilized and a structured survey was implemented to be administered by community health workers using Open Data Kit. This system was used to support screening efforts for a population of two million persons in western Kenya. Results Users of the system felt it was easy to use and facilitated their work. The system was also more cost effective than pen and paper alternatives. Discussion This implementation is one of the largest applications of a system utilizing handheld devices for performing clinical care during home visits in a resource-constrained environment. Because the data were immediately available electronically, initial reports could be performed and important trends in data could thus be detected. This allowed adjustments to the programme to be made sooner than might have otherwise been possible. Conclusion A viable, cost-effective solution at scale has been developed and implemented for collecting electronic data during household visits in a resource-constrained setting. PMID:22366295

  14. Audits and surveillance: A functional quality surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Smart, R.J.; Duda, J.E.

    1987-03-01

    The implementation of a quality surveillance program can be painless and productive. The system described in this report has been in use at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) for more than a year and effectively fills the void between audits and inspections. Recognized benefits of this system include: minimum administrative overhead; excellent management overview; ease of implementing trending efforts; audit supplement; fully computerization; lower cost than traditional methods; early problem detection, adaptability to other projects and facilities.

  15. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  16. Privacy protection in surveillance systems based on JPEG DCT baseline compression and spectral domain watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, Thomas; Velten, Jörg; Kummert, Anton

    2015-03-01

    An novel system for automatic privacy protection in digital media based on spectral domain watermarking and JPEG compression is described in the present paper. In a first step private areas are detected. Therefore a detection method is presented. The implemented method uses Haar cascades to detects faces. Integral images are used to speed up calculations and the detection. Multiple detections of one face are combined. Succeeding steps comprise embedding the data into the image as part of JPEG compression using spectral domain methods and protecting the area of privacy. The embedding process is integrated into and adapted to JPEG compression. A Spread Spectrum Watermarking method is used to embed the size and position of the private areas into the cover image. Different methods for embedding regarding their robustness are compared. Moreover the performance of the method concerning tampered images is presented.

  17. An Intelligent Active Video Surveillance System Based on the Integration of Virtual Neural Sensors and BDI Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorio, Massimo De

    In this paper we present an intelligent active video surveillance system currently adopted in two different application domains: railway tunnels and outdoor storage areas. The system takes advantages of the integration of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and symbolic Artificial Intelligence (AI). This hybrid system is formed by virtual neural sensors (implemented as WiSARD-like systems) and BDI agents. The coupling of virtual neural sensors with symbolic reasoning for interpreting their outputs, makes this approach both very light from a computational and hardware point of view, and rather robust in performances. The system works on different scenarios and in difficult light conditions.

  18. [Comparing results of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) surveillance using the French DRG-based information system (PMSI)].

    PubMed

    Nuemi, G; Astruc, K; Aho, S; Quantin, C

    2013-10-01

    The surveillance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a national priority. The rate of MRSA infections is one of six indicators tracked by the Department of Health. Since 2002, the French institute for public health surveillance (InVS) has monitored MRSA infections to estimate incidence density. Today, the use of the French administrative database (PMSI) could facilitate this surveillance. The aim of this study was to compare MRSA incidence density computed at a national level using PMSI databases with the results from the InVS taken as the reference. PMSI databases for the years 2006 to 2009 were used. The reference results were those published by the InVS from 2006 to 2009. MRSA density defined as the number of MRSA infections recorded per year over 1000 hospital stays was computed. It was then compared with the MRSA incidence density measured by InVS. The time course of MRSA incidence in the PMSI records was modeled using a Poisson regression. The incidence density measured by the InVS was higher than the MRSA density computed using the PMSI, but this difference appeared to decrease over time. The PMSI density/InVS MRSA incidence density ratio was 0.8% in 2006 and about 9.2% in 2009. We observed inverted trends with a growing trend in MRSA density identified by the PMSI. Furthermore, the year of study was significantly associated with incidence density (P=0.01). Using PMSI data as an additional source of information in the hospital MRSA surveillance process makes it possible to detect and analyze patient repeats at the regional and national levels with linkage facilities. Estimation of incidence density for hospitals not participating to this surveillance system will be the next step. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System Infection in Viet Nam: A Prospective Provincial Hospital-Based Descriptive Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho Dang Trung, Nghia; Le Thi Phuong, Tu; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen Van Minh, Hoang; Nguyen Thanh, Vinh; Van, Minh Pham; Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Le Van, Tan; Song, Diep To; Le Thi, Phuong; Thi Phuong, Thao Nguyen; Van, Cong Bui; Tang, Vu; Ngoc Anh, Tuan Hoang; Nguyen, Dong; Trung, Tien Phan; Thi Nam, Lien Nguyen; Kiem, Hao Tran; Thi Thanh, Tam Nguyen; Campbell, James; Caws, Maxine; Day, Jeremy; de Jong, Menno D.; Van Vinh, Chau Nguyen; Van Doorn, H. Rogier; Tinh, Hien Tran; Farrar, Jeremy; Schultsz, Constance

    2012-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) remain common and life-threatening, especially in developing countries. Knowledge of the aetiological agents responsible for these infections is essential to guide empiric therapy and develop a rational public health policy. To date most data has come from patients admitted to tertiary referral hospitals in Asia and there is limited aetiological data at the provincial hospital level where most patients are seen. Methods We conducted a prospective Provincial Hospital-based descriptive surveillance study in adults and children at thirteen hospitals in central and southern Viet Nam between August 2007– April 2010. The pathogens of CNS infection were confirmed in CSF and blood samples by using classical microbiology, molecular diagnostics and serology. Results We recruited 1241 patients with clinically suspected infection of the CNS. An aetiological agent was identified in 640/1241 (52%) of the patients. The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis serotype 2 in patients older than 14 years of age (147/617, 24%) and Japanese encephalitis virus in patients less than 14 years old (142/624, 23%). Mycobacterium tuberculosis was confirmed in 34/617 (6%) adult patients and 11/624 (2%) paediatric patients. The acute case fatality rate (CFR) during hospital admission was 73/617 (12%) in adults and to 42/624 (7%) in children. Conclusions Zoonotic bacterial and viral pathogens are the most common causes of CNS infection in adults and children in Viet Nam. PMID:22662232

  20. Multi-modal low cost mobile indoor surveillance system on the Robust Artificial Intelligence-based Defense Electro Robot (RAIDER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Diskin, Yakov; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2012-10-01

    We present an autonomous system capable of performing security check routines. The surveillance machine, the Clearpath Husky robotic platform, is equipped with three IP cameras with different orientations for the surveillance tasks of face recognition, human activity recognition, autonomous navigation and 3D reconstruction of its environment. Combining the computer vision algorithms onto a robotic machine has given birth to the Robust Artificial Intelligencebased Defense Electro-Robot (RAIDER). The end purpose of the RAIDER is to conduct a patrolling routine on a single floor of a building several times a day. As the RAIDER travels down the corridors off-line algorithms use two of the RAIDER's side mounted cameras to perform a 3D reconstruction from monocular vision technique that updates a 3D model to the most current state of the indoor environment. Using frames from the front mounted camera, positioned at the human eye level, the system performs face recognition with real time training of unknown subjects. Human activity recognition algorithm will also be implemented in which each detected person is assigned to a set of action classes picked to classify ordinary and harmful student activities in a hallway setting.The system is designed to detect changes and irregularities within an environment as well as familiarize with regular faces and actions to distinguish potentially dangerous behavior. In this paper, we present the various algorithms and their modifications which when implemented on the RAIDER serves the purpose of indoor surveillance.

  1. Mobile Situational Awareness Tool: Unattended Ground Sensor-Based Remote Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    the field with mobile smart-devices to include smart- phones and tablets. Field-testing of the prototype showed the system capable of detecting and... mobile smart-devices to include smart- phones and tablets. Field-testing of the prototype showed the system capable of detecting and classifying...desktop, without losing the importance of the intent and content of that information—even when viewed on small screens . 6. Military Push for Mobile

  2. Electronic integrated disease surveillance system and pathogen asset control system.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Tom G; Burdakov, Aleksey V; Oukharov, Andrey O; Zhilokov, Azamat K

    2012-06-20

    Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System (EIDSS) has been used to strengthen and support monitoring and prevention of dangerous diseases within One Health concept by integrating veterinary and human surveillance, passive and active approaches, case-based records including disease-specific clinical data based on standardised case definitions and aggregated data, laboratory data including sample tracking linked to each case and event with test results and epidemiological investigations. Information was collected and shared in secure way by different means: through the distributed nodes which are continuously synchronised amongst each other, through the web service, through the handheld devices. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System provided near real time information flow that has been then disseminated to the appropriate organisations in a timely manner. It has been used for comprehensive analysis and visualisation capabilities including real time mapping of case events as these unfold enhancing decision making. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System facilitated countries to comply with the IHR 2005 requirements through a data transfer module reporting diseases electronically to the World Health Organisation (WHO) data center as well as establish authorised data exchange with other electronic system using Open Architecture approach. Pathogen Asset Control System (PACS) has been used for accounting, management and control of biological agent stocks. Information on samples and strains of any kind throughout their entire lifecycle has been tracked in a comprehensive and flexible solution PACS.Both systems have been used in a combination and individually. Electronic Integrated Disease Surveillance System and PACS are currently deployed in the Republics of Kazakhstan, Georgia and Azerbaijan as a part of the Cooperative Biological Engagement Program (CBEP) sponsored by the US Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA).

  3. Post-Fielding Surveillance of a Guideline-Based Decision Support System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-01

    problems in their use and, for example, alerts clinicians to hypokalemia . Other parts of the system, not shown here, provide information about...thiazide dosing to avoid hypokalemia . The feedback box at the bottom of the window allows clinician-users to enter free text feedback comments to the

  4. Community Event-Based Surveillance for Ebola Virus Disease in Sierra Leone: Implementation of a National-Level System During a Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Erin; Miller, Laura; Jasperse, Joseph; Privette, Grayson; Diez Beltran, Juan Cruz; Jambai, Amara; Kpaleyea, John; Makavore, Alfred; Kamara, Mohamed Foday; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are few documented examples of community networks that have used unstructured information to support surveillance during a health emergency. In January 2015, the Ebola Response Consortium rapidly implemented community event-based surveillance for Ebola virus disease at a national scale in Sierra Leone. METHODS: Community event based surveillance uses community health monitors in each community to provide an early warning system of events that are suggestive of Ebola virus disease transmission. The Ebola Response Consortium, a consortium of 15 nongovernmental organizations, applied a standardized procedure to implement community event-based surveillance across nine of the 14 districts. To evaluate system performance during the first six months of operation (March to August 2015), we conducted a process evaluation. We analyzed the production of alerts, conducted interviews with surveillance stakeholders and performed rapid evaluations of community health monitors to assess their knowledge and reported challenges. RESULTS: The training and procurement of supplies was expected to begin in January 2015 and attain full scale by March 2015. We found several logistical challenges that delayed full implementation until June 2015 when the epidemic was past its peak. Community health monitors reported 9,131 alerts during this period. On average, 82% of community health monitors reported to their supervisor at least once per week. Most alerts (87%) reported by community health monitors were deaths unrelated to Ebola. During the rapid evaluations, the mean recall by community health monitors was three of the six trigger events. Implementation of the national system achieved scale, but three months later than anticipated. DISCUSSION: Community event based surveillance generated consistent surveillance information during periods of no- to low-levels of transmission across districts. We interpret this to mean that community health monitors are an

  5. An accident and emergency based child accident surveillance system: is it possible?

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, T F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate the possibility of setting up a database on childhood accidents within an accident and emergency (A&E) department. DESIGN--A proforma detailing epidemiological details about the child and details of the injury was designed and tested for accuracy. It was completed in parallel with the existing case documentation. A retrospective sample was analysed after completion of the study to determine times when data collection was poorest. SETTING--Regional paediatric hospital (total catchment population c. 500,000). RESULTS--Of 13,958 patients in whom full information was available, 65% had all the information available on the forms. Areas of discrepancy in the remainder included (1) transposition of date and time of injury with date and time of attendance (73%), (2) wrong coding (11%), (3) illegible digits (6%), (4) inaccurate data entry to computer (6%). Form completion was worst between 1800 hours and midnight. CONCLUSIONS--Data collection is feasible in the A&E department and is a necessary step in effective child accident prevention. It should be done using real time entry onto computer systems. Additional audit staff must be employed to ensure data collection is as complete as possible as close to the time of the initial attendance as possible. Regular analysis of the findings is essential. PMID:8653234

  6. A comparison of active adverse event surveillance systems worldwide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Lin; Moon, Jinhee; Segal, Jodi B

    2014-08-01

    Post-marketing drug surveillance for adverse drug events (ADEs) has typically relied on spontaneous reporting. Recently, regulatory agencies have turned their attention to more preemptive approaches that use existing data for surveillance. We conducted an environmental scan to identify active surveillance systems worldwide that use existing data for the detection of ADEs. We extracted data about the systems' structures, data, and functions. We synthesized the information across systems to identify common features of these systems. We identified nine active surveillance systems. Two systems are US based-the FDA Sentinel Initiative (including both the Mini-Sentinel Initiative and the Federal Partner Collaboration) and the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD); two are Canadian-the Canadian Network for Observational Drug Effect Studies (CNODES) and the Vaccine and Immunization Surveillance in Ontario (VISION); and two are European-the Exploring and Understanding Adverse Drug Reactions by Integrative Mining of Clinical Records and Biomedical Knowledge (EU-ADR) Alliance and the Vaccine Adverse Event Surveillance and Communication (VAESCO). Additionally, there is the Asian Pharmacoepidemiology Network (AsPEN) and the Shanghai Drug Monitoring and Evaluative System (SDMES). We identified two systems in the UK-the Vigilance and Risk Management of Medicines (VRMM) Division and the Drug Safety Research Unit (DSRU), an independent academic unit. These surveillance systems mostly use administrative claims or electronic medical records; most conduct pharmacovigilance on behalf of a regulatory agency. Either a common data model or a centralized model is used to access existing data. The systems have been built using national data alone or via partnership with other countries. However, active surveillance systems using existing data remain rare. North America and Europe have the most population coverage; with Asian countries making good advances.

  7. Accuracy and Efficiency of Recording Pediatric Early Warning Scores Using an Electronic Physiological Surveillance System Compared With Traditional Paper-Based Documentation.

    PubMed

    Sefton, Gerri; Lane, Steven; Killen, Roger; Black, Stuart; Lyon, Max; Ampah, Pearl; Sproule, Cathryn; Loren-Gosling, Dominic; Richards, Caitlin; Spinty, Jean; Holloway, Colette; Davies, Coral; Wilson, April; Chean, Chung Shen; Carter, Bernie; Carrol, E D

    2017-05-01

    Pediatric Early Warning Scores are advocated to assist health professionals to identify early signs of serious illness or deterioration in hospitalized children. Scores are derived from the weighting applied to recorded vital signs and clinical observations reflecting deviation from a predetermined "norm." Higher aggregate scores trigger an escalation in care aimed at preventing critical deterioration. Process errors made while recording these data, including plotting or calculation errors, have the potential to impede the reliability of the score. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a controlled study of documentation using five clinical vignettes. We measured the accuracy of vital sign recording, score calculation, and time taken to complete documentation using a handheld electronic physiological surveillance system, VitalPAC Pediatric, compared with traditional paper-based charts. We explored the user acceptability of both methods using a Web-based survey. Twenty-three staff participated in the controlled study. The electronic physiological surveillance system improved the accuracy of vital sign recording, 98.5% versus 85.6%, P < .02, Pediatric Early Warning Score calculation, 94.6% versus 55.7%, P < .02, and saved time, 68 versus 98 seconds, compared with paper-based documentation, P < .002. Twenty-nine staff completed the Web-based survey. They perceived that the electronic physiological surveillance system offered safety benefits by reducing human error while providing instant visibility of recorded data to the entire clinical team.

  8. A new laboratory-based surveillance system (Respiratory DataMart System) for influenza and other respiratory viruses in England: results and experience from 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Green, H; Lackenby, A; Donati, M; Ellis, J; Thompson, C; Bermingham, A; Field, J; Sebastianpillai, P; Zambon, M; Watson, Jm; Pebody, R

    2014-01-23

    During the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic, a new laboratory-based virological sentinel surveillance system, the Respiratory DataMart System (RDMS), was established in a network of 14 Health Protection Agency (now Public Health England (PHE)) and National Health Service (NHS) laboratories in England. Laboratory results (both positive and negative) were systematically collected from all routinely tested clinical respiratory samples for a range of respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus and human metapneumovirus (hMPV). The RDMS also monitored the occurrence of antiviral resistance of influenza viruses. Data from the RDMS for the 2009–2012 period showed that the 2009 pandemic influenza virus caused three waves of activity with different intensities during the pandemic and post pandemic periods. Peaks in influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 positivity (defined as number of positive samples per total number of samples tested) were seen in summer and autumn in 2009, with slightly higher peak positivity observed in the first post-pandemic season in 2010/2011. The influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus strain almost completely disappeared in the second postpandemic season in 2011/2012. The RDMS findings are consistent with other existing community-based virological and clinical surveillance systems. With a large sample size, this new system provides a robust supplementary mechanism, through the collection of routinely available laboratory data at minimum extra cost, to monitor influenza as well as other respiratory virus activity. A near real-time, daily reporting mechanism in the RDMS was established during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Furthermore, this system can be quickly adapted and used to monitor future influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks of respiratory infectious disease, including novel pathogens.

  9. Data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Yunyoung; Hong, Sangjin; Rho, Seungmin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents data modeling and query processing for distributed surveillance systems. We define a metadata rule to search and manage information for distributed or heterogeneous surveillance systems. For human activity recognition, we propose a method that classifies these actions separately from complicated activities as a sequence of basic activities. In addition, we define the domain and range of relations based on the relationship between elements. Furthermore, we describe the state descriptors to represent an image sequence. To address the interaction of multiple objects, we classify human actions into symmetric or asymmetric actions. The prior motion model and the inference approach are applied adaptively according to environments. We define the grammar for the representation of the surveillance video and specify different query criteria for surveillance video retrieval. In the experiments, we show the prototype system that provides event detection, object identification, object tracking, face recognition, and activity recognition.

  10. State electronic disease surveillance systems --- United States, 2007 and 2010.

    PubMed

    2011-10-21

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based infrastructure for public health surveillance data exchange between CDC and the 50 states. In 2007, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted an assessment to evaluate states' electronic disease surveillance capacity. In 2010, CSTE conducted a follow-up assessment to evaluate the operational status and progress of integration, interoperability, and capacity of state electronic disease surveillance systems. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated a 17.5% increase from 40 states in 2007 to 47 states in 2010 with fully operational general communicable disease (GCD) electronic surveillance systems, a 211.5% increase from 13 to 39 states in the number of systems that were interoperable, a 22.4% increase from 23 to 34 states in the number with integrated systems, and a 20.0% increase to 42 states with the capacity to receive electronic laboratory reports (ELRs). New Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services rules for meaningful use of health information technology encourage data exchange between electronic health record systems and public health agencies, including submission of ELRs. To meet national goals for health information exchange to improve population health, variation in disease surveillance systems should decrease, and functionality should increase.

  11. Implementing a hospital-based violence-related injury surveillance system--a background to the Jamaican experience.

    PubMed

    Ward, Elizabeth; Durant, Tonji; Thompson, Martie; Gordon, Georgiana; Mitchell, Wayne; Ashley, Deanna

    2002-12-01

    Violence, a leading cause of injuries and death, is recognized as a major public health problem. In 1996, injuries were the second leading cause of hospitalizations in Jamaica. The estimated annual cost of in-patient care for injuries was 11.6 million US dollars. To develop strategies to reduce the impact of violence-related injuries on Jamaican health care resources, the Ministry of Health, Division of Health Promotion and Protection (MOH/DHPP) in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Tropical Metabolic Research Institute, University of the West Indies Mona, designed and implemented a violence-related injury surveillance system (VRISS) at Kingston Public Hospital (KPH). In 1998, the VRISS, based on the International Classification of External Cause of Injury (ICECI), was implemented in the accident and emergency (A&E) department of Jamaica's tertiary care hospital, KPH. VRISS collects demographic, method and circumstance of injury, victim-perpetrator relationship and patient's discharge status data. From 8/1/98 to 7/31/99, data on 6,107 injuries were collected. Injuries occurred primarily among males aged 25-44 years. Most injuries (54%; 3171) were caused by use of a sharp object. Nearly half (49%; 2992) were perpetrated by acquaintances. The majority, 70% (4,252), were the result of a fight or argument and 17% were admitted to the hospital. The VRISS utilized A&E department data to characterize violence-related injuries in Jamaica, a resource-limited environment. These data will be used to guide intervention development to reduce violence-related injuries in Jamaica.

  12. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2003-04-22

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  13. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2006-02-14

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  14. System For Surveillance Of Spectral Signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2004-10-12

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a Sequential Probability Ratio Test ("SPRT") methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  15. System for surveillance of spectral signals

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  16. New York City syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Heffernan, Richard; Mostashari, F; Das, D; Besculides, M; Rodriguez, C; Greenko, J; Steiner-Sichel, L; Balter, S; Karpati, A; Thomas, P; Phillips, M; Ackelsberg, J; Lee, E; Leng, J; Hartman, J; Metzger, K; Rosselli, R; Weiss, D

    2004-09-24

    New York City's first syndromic surveillance systems were established in 1995 to detect outbreaks of waterborne illness. In 1998, daily monitoring of ambulance dispatch calls for influenza-like illness began. After the 2001 World Trade Center attacks, concern about biologic terrorism led to the development of surveillance systems to track chief complaints of patients reporting to emergency departments, over-the-counter and prescription pharmacy sales, and worker absenteeism. These systems have proved useful for detecting substantial citywide increases in common viral illnesses (e.g., influenza, norovirus, and rotavirus). However, the systems have not detected more contained outbreaks earlier than traditional surveillance. Future plans include monitoring school health and outpatient clinic visits, augmenting laboratory testing to confirm syndromic signals, and conducting evaluation studies to identify which of these systems will be continued for the long term.

  17. Laser Surveillance System for Spent Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S.; Zucker, M. S.; Bieber, Jr., A. M.

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools (SFSP's) will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a full size laser system operating in air and have used an array of 6 zircaloy BWR tubes to simulate an assembly. The reflective signal from the zircaloy rods is a strong function of position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of the background with no assembly. A design for a SFSP laser surveillance system incorporating laser ranging is discussed. 10 figures.

  18. Trend of diseases among Iranian pilgrims during five consecutive years based on a Syndromic Surveillance System in Hajj

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Sabouri-Kashani, Ahmad; Ziaee-Ardakani, Hossein; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Salamati, Payman

    2013-01-01

    Background Every year more than 2 million people depart from Iran to Saudi Arabia for Hajj ritual whichcan be faced with some different diseases. There are not much information about frequencies and trend of diseasesin Hajj. The main objective of this study was to determine the trend of prevalent diseases during five consecutiveHajj rituals among Iranian pilgrims. Methods We established a specific surveillance system for all Iranian pilgrims who had participated in Hajjfrom 2004 to 2008. We monitored the pilgrims’ health status before departure, through their journey. The understudieddiseases were 19 selected types of diseases in the Hajj. The occurrences of diseases were recorded on aresearchers-made questionnaire. We used chi-square test for analysis with the alpha lower than 5% to reject thenull hypothesis. Results During 5 consecutive periods, a total of 254,823 of Iranian pilgrims were monitored for more commondiseases with this system. The most prevalent diseases were as follows: at least one type of respiratory involvement(71.26%), common cold like syndrome (47.15%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.67%), The frequencyof respiratory involvement was lower in 2006 than other years (p <0.001).There were statistically significantdifferences between the numbers of hospitalization and patients who were referred back to Iran with theyear of Hajj (p <0.001). Conclusion Health managers should be informed about trend and frequency of more prevalent diseases inHajj. Easy access to health information via such surveillance system can be possible. PMID:24926178

  19. Trend of diseases among Iranian pilgrims during five consecutive years based on a Syndromic Surveillance System in Hajj.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Mansour; Sabouri-Kashani, Ahmad; Ziaee-Ardakani, Hossein; Tabatabaei, Aminreza; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Mortazavi-Tabatabaei, Seyed Abdolreza; Salamati, Payman

    2013-11-01

    Every year more than 2 million people depart from Iran to Saudi Arabia for Hajj ritual whichcan be faced with some different diseases. There are not much information about frequencies and trend of diseasesin Hajj. The main objective of this study was to determine the trend of prevalent diseases during five consecutiveHajj rituals among Iranian pilgrims. We established a specific surveillance system for all Iranian pilgrims who had participated in Hajjfrom 2004 to 2008. We monitored the pilgrims' health status before departure, through their journey. The understudieddiseases were 19 selected types of diseases in the Hajj. The occurrences of diseases were recorded on aresearchers-made questionnaire. We used chi-square test for analysis with the alpha lower than 5% to reject thenull hypothesis. During 5 consecutive periods, a total of 254,823 of Iranian pilgrims were monitored for more commondiseases with this system. The most prevalent diseases were as follows: at least one type of respiratory involvement(71.26%), common cold like syndrome (47.15%), and musculoskeletal disorders (18.67%), The frequencyof respiratory involvement was lower in 2006 than other years (p <0.001).There were statistically significantdifferences between the numbers of hospitalization and patients who were referred back to Iran with theyear of Hajj (p <0.001). Health managers should be informed about trend and frequency of more prevalent diseases inHajj. Easy access to health information via such surveillance system can be possible.

  20. Assessment of a Syndromic Surveillance System Based on Morbidity Data: Results from the Oscour® Network during a Heat Wave

    PubMed Central

    Josseran, Loïc; Fouillet, Anne; Caillère, Nadège; Brun-Ney, Dominique; Ilef, Danièle; Brucker, Gilles; Medeiros, Helena; Astagneau, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Background Syndromic surveillance systems have been developed in recent years and are now increasingly used by stakeholders to quickly answer questions and make important decisions. It is therefore essential to evaluate the quality and utility of such systems. This study was designed to assess a syndromic surveillance system based on emergency departments' (ED) morbidity rates related to the health effects of heat waves. This study uses data collected during the 2006 heat wave in France. Methods Data recorded from 15 EDs in the Ile-de-France (Paris and surrounding area) from June to August, 2006, were transmitted daily via the Internet to the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance. Items collected included diagnosis (ICD10), outcome, and age. Several aspects of the system have been evaluated (data quality, cost, flexibility, stability, and performance). Periods of heat wave are considered the most suitable time to evaluate the system. Results Data quality did not vary significantly during the period. Age, gender and outcome were completed in a comprehensive manner. Diagnoses were missing or uninformative for 37.5% of patients. Stability was recorded as being 99.49% for the period overall. The average cost per day over the study period was estimated to be €287. Diagnoses of hyperthermia, malaise, dehydration, hyponatremia were correlated with increased temperatures. Malaise was most sensitive in younger and elderly adults but also the less specific. However, overall syndrome groups were more sensitive with comparable specificity than individual diagnoses. Conclusion This system satisfactorily detected the health impact of hot days (observed values were higher than expected on more than 90% of days on which a heat alert was issued). Our findings should reassure stakeholders about the reliability of health impact assessments during or following such an event. These evaluations are essential to establish the validity of the results of syndromic surveillance

  1. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-04-20

    An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS.

  2. A GIS-driven integrated real-time surveillance pilot system for national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Shuai, Jiangping; Buck, Peter; Sockett, Paul; Aramini, Jeff; Pollari, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Background An extensive West Nile virus surveillance program of dead birds, mosquitoes, horses, and human infection has been launched as a result of West Nile virus first being reported in Canada in 2001. Some desktop and web GIS have been applied to West Nile virus dead bird surveillance. There have been urgent needs for a comprehensive GIS services and real-time surveillance. Results A pilot system was developed to integrate real-time surveillance, real-time GIS, and Open GIS technology in order to enhance West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada. Driven and linked by the newly developed real-time web GIS technology, this integrated real-time surveillance system includes conventional real-time web-based surveillance components, integrated real-time GIS components, and integrated Open GIS components. The pilot system identified the major GIS functions and capacities that may be important to public health surveillance. The six web GIS clients provide a wide range of GIS tools for public health surveillance. The pilot system has been serving Canadian national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance since 2005 and is adaptable to serve other disease surveillance. Conclusion This pilot system has streamlined, enriched and enhanced national West Nile virus dead bird surveillance in Canada, improved productivity, and reduced operation cost. Its real-time GIS technology, static map technology, WMS integration, and its integration with non-GIS real-time surveillance system made this pilot system unique in surveillance and public health GIS. PMID:16626490

  3. Hunters' acceptability of the surveillance system and alternative surveillance strategies for classical swine fever in wild boar - a participatory approach.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Katja; Calba, Clémentine; Peyre, Marisa; Staubach, Christoph; Conraths, Franz J

    2016-09-06

    Surveillance measures can only be effective if key players in the system accept them. Acceptability, which describes the willingness of persons to contribute, is often analyzed using participatory methods. Participatory epidemiology enables the active involvement of key players in the assessment of epidemiological issues. In the present study, we used a participatory method recently developed by CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement) to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) surveillance in wild boar in Germany, which is highly dependent on the participation of hunters. The acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies was also analyzed. By conducting focus group discussions, potential vulnerabilities in the system were detected and feasible alternative surveillance strategies identified. Trust in the current surveillance system is high, whereas the acceptability of the operation of the system is medium. Analysis of the acceptability of alternative surveillance strategies showed how risk-based surveillance approaches can be combined to develop strategies that have sufficient support and functionality. Furthermore, some surveillance strategies were clearly rejected by the hunters. Thus, the implementation of such strategies may be difficult. Participatory methods can be used to evaluate the functionality and acceptability of existing surveillance plans for CSF among hunters and to optimize plans regarding their chances of successful implementation.

  4. Self tuning system for industrial surveillance

    DOEpatents

    Stephan, Wegerich W; Jarman, Kristin K.; Gross, Kenneth C.

    2000-01-01

    A method and system for automatically establishing operational parameters of a statistical surveillance system. The method and system performs a frequency domain transition on time dependent data, a first Fourier composite is formed, serial correlation is removed, a series of Gaussian whiteness tests are performed along with an autocorrelation test, Fourier coefficients are stored and a second Fourier composite is formed. Pseudorandom noise is added, a Monte Carlo simulation is performed to establish SPRT missed alarm probabilities and tested with a synthesized signal. A false alarm test is then emperically evaluated and if less than a desired target value, then SPRT probabilities are used for performing surveillance.

  5. Sports injury surveillance systems. 'One size fits all'?

    PubMed

    van Mechelen, W

    1997-09-01

    Sport is beneficial to health, but may also cause injuries. Therefore there is a need for sports injury prevention. Sports injury prevention should be based on the outcome of scientific research and should be part of the 'sequence of prevention'. In applying the 'sequence of prevention', first the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem need to be established. Secondly the aetiology and the mechanism of sports injuries need to be identified. Only based on this information can preventative measures be introduced, which must subsequently be evaluated for effectiveness. The principle of the 'sequence of prevention' cannot be applied without proper sports injury surveillance. This paper addresses the question of whether one uniform sports injury surveillance system can be used to cover all aspects of sports injury research at all stages of the 'sequence of prevention'. It is argued that a general sports injury surveillance system is useful for answering questions about the incidence and severity of the sports injury problem in various subsets of a population. It can also be used for time trend studies. If the purpose of injury surveillance is to identify the aetiology or the effectiveness of preventative measures, then sports injury surveillance should be tailored to the specific sports situation. Sports injury surveillance systems are not useful in identifying the mechanism of injury.

  6. A Computer-Based Surveillance System to Support Discharge Planning: An Implementation within a Hospital Information System

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, A.G.; Young, A.J.; Stephens, R.K.; Shinn, D.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an innovation designed to improve discharge planning and, potentially, reduce the length of inpatient stays. Unlike other approaches, this one has been implemented within a Hospital Information System. The rationale is that reports integrating clinical and non-clinical data gathered upon admission can enable the Social Work Manager to assign staff more effectively, i.e., to the most difficult cases, and can enable staff to perform discharge planning more effectively, i.e., more pro-actively. The paper reviews the use of computers in social work and provides a critique, not of the models proposed, but of the implementations attempted to date. We contend that our approach will prove more successful than those other implementations because ours is based on an integrated and almost totally-electronic medical record keeping system, encompassing observations by both clinical and non-clinical staff.

  7. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs.

  8. An Emergency Response UAV Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Pedro A.; Geckle, William J.; Barton, Jeffrey D.; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z.; Martin, Sean R.

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  9. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    on similarities and differences among circumpolar tuberculosis surveillance systems. The similarity in case definitions will allow for description of the epidemiology of TB based on surveillance data in circumpolar regions, further study of tuberculosis trends across regions, and recommendation of best practices to improve surveillance activities. PMID:27121178

  10. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    tuberculosis surveillance systems. The similarity in case definitions will allow for description of the epidemiology of TB based on surveillance data in circumpolar regions, further study of tuberculosis trends across regions, and recommendation of best practices to improve surveillance activities.

  11. Descriptive review of tuberculosis surveillance systems across the circumpolar regions.

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Annie-Claude; Zulz, Tammy; Soborg, Bolette; Koch, Anders; On Behalf Of The International Circumpolar Surveillance-Tuberculosis Working Group

    2016-01-01

    similarities and differences among circumpolar tuberculosis surveillance systems. The similarity in case definitions will allow for description of the epidemiology of TB based on surveillance data in circumpolar regions, further study of tuberculosis trends across regions, and recommendation of best practices to improve surveillance activities.

  12. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Jasseh, Momodou; Gomez, Pierre; Greenwood, Brian M; Howie, Stephen R C; Scott, Susana; Snell, Paul C; Bojang, Kalifa; Cham, Mamady; Corrah, Tumani; D'Alessandro, Umberto

    2015-06-01

    The Farafenni Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Farafenni HDSS) is located 170 km from the coast in a rural area of The Gambia, north of the River Gambia. It was set up in 1981 by the UK Medical Research Council Laboratories to generate demographic and health information required for the evaluation of a village-based, primary health care programme in 40 villages. Regular updates of demographic events and residency status have subsequently been conducted every 4 months. The surveillance area was extended in 2002 to include Farafenni Town and surrounding villages to support randomized, controlled trials. With over three decades of prospective surveillance, and through specific scientific investigations, the platform (population ≈ 50,000) has generated data on: morbidity and mortality due to malaria in children and during pregnancy; non-communicable disease among adults; reproductive health; and levels and trends in childhood and maternal mortality. Other information routinely collected includes causes of death through verbal autopsy, and household socioeconomic indicators. The current portfolio of the platform includes tracking Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG4) attainments in rural Gambia and cause-of-death determination.

  13. An automated, broad-based, near real-time public health surveillance system using presentations to hospital Emergency Departments in New South Wales, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Muscatello, David J; Churches, Tim; Kaldor, Jill; Zheng, Wei; Chiu, Clayton; Correll, Patricia; Jorm, Louisa

    2005-01-01

    Background In a climate of concern over bioterrorism threats and emergent diseases, public health authorities are trialling more timely surveillance systems. The 2003 Rugby World Cup (RWC) provided an opportunity to test the viability of a near real-time syndromic surveillance system in metropolitan Sydney, Australia. We describe the development and early results of this largely automated system that used data routinely collected in Emergency Departments (EDs). Methods Twelve of 49 EDs in the Sydney metropolitan area automatically transmitted surveillance data from their existing information systems to a central database in near real-time. Information captured for each ED visit included patient demographic details, presenting problem and nursing assessment entered as free-text at triage time, physician-assigned provisional diagnosis codes, and status at departure from the ED. Both diagnoses from the EDs and triage text were used to assign syndrome categories. The text information was automatically classified into one or more of 26 syndrome categories using automated "naïve Bayes" text categorisation techniques. Automated processes were used to analyse both diagnosis and free text-based syndrome data and to produce web-based statistical summaries for daily review. An adjusted cumulative sum (cusum) was used to assess the statistical significance of trends. Results During the RWC the system did not identify any major public health threats associated with the tournament, mass gatherings or the influx of visitors. This was consistent with evidence from other sources, although two known outbreaks were already in progress before the tournament. Limited baseline in early monitoring prevented the system from automatically identifying these ongoing outbreaks. Data capture was invisible to clinical staff in EDs and did not add to their workload. Conclusion We have demonstrated the feasibility and potential utility of syndromic surveillance using routinely collected data

  14. Early detection for cases of enterovirus- and influenza-like illness through a newly established school-based syndromic surveillance system in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011.

    PubMed

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Lin, Hsien Tang; Chang, Chia Kun Jasper; Wang, Wen Wen; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians' clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  15. Early Detection for Cases of Enterovirus- and Influenza-Like Illness through a Newly Established School-Based Syndromic Surveillance System in Taipei, January 2010 ~ August 2011

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Ting Chia; Chan, Ta Chien; Li, Zheng Rong Tiger; Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Chu, Yu-Roo; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Yen, Muh-Yong; King, Chwan-Chuen

    2015-01-01

    School children may transmit pathogens with cluster cases occurring on campuses and in families. In response to the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, Taipei City Government officials developed a School-based Infectious Disease Syndromic Surveillance System (SID-SSS). Teachers and nurses from preschools to universities in all 12 districts within Taipei are required to daily report cases of symptomatic children or sick leave requests through the SID-SSS. The pre-diagnosis at schools is submitted firstly as common pediatric disease syndrome-groups and re-submitted after confirmation by physicians. We retrieved these data from January 2010 to August 2011 for spatio-temporal analysis and evaluated the temporal trends with cases obtained from both the Emergency Department-based Syndromic Surveillance System (ED-SSS) and the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005). Through the SID-SSS, enterovirus-like illness (EVI) and influenza-like illness (ILI) were the two most reported syndrome groups (77.6% and 15.8% among a total of 19,334 cases, respectively). The pre-diagnosis judgments made by school teachers and nurses showed high consistency with physicians’ clinical diagnoses for EVI (97.8%) and ILI (98.9%). Most importantly, the SID-SSS had better timeliness with earlier peaks of EVI and ILI than those in the ED-SSS. Furthermore, both of the syndrome groups in these two surveillance systems had the best correlation reaching 0.98 and 0.95, respectively (p<0.01). Spatio-temporal analysis observed the patterns of EVI and ILI both diffuse from the northern suburban districts to central Taipei, with ILI spreading faster. This novel system can identify early suspected cases of two important pediatric infections occurring at schools, and clusters from schools/families. It was also cost-effective (95.5% of the operation cost reduced and 59.7% processing time saved). The timely surveillance of mild EVI and ILI cases integrated with spatial analysis may help public

  16. Timeliness of Malaria Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    AKBARI, Hossein; MAJDZADEH, Reza; RAHIMI FOROUSHANI, Abbas; RAEISI, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the timeliness of reporting of malaria surveillance system and understanding the existing problems. Methods: The timeliness of malaria surveillance system of Iran was evaluated in four provinces of Iran including Sistan & Baluchistan, Hormozgan, Kerman (as provinces with local malaria transmission) and Khuzestan (without local malaria transmission). In this descriptive-analytic cross-sectional study two levels of Primary Health Care service providers including first level (Health Houses) and second level (Urban or Rural Health care units) were evaluated with regard to reporting of malaria surveillance system. Results: Forms number 1 (87% reported within one day) and number 2 (reporting median: 2 days) are reported from first level to second level, and forms number 4 (median: 4 days), number 3 (median: 6 days), number 7 (median: 9 days), number 5 (median: 11 days) and number 6 (median: 19 days) are reported from second level to the third level respectively in a shorter time. Independent variables such as distance, local malaria transmission level, and case finding type, are the factors affecting the reporting delay. Conclusion: Reporting in the first level compared to the second level is done with lower delay. In the areas where there is a deadline set for reporting, reporting is done more timely. Whatever number of malaria cases is decreased, sensitivity and subsequently timeliness reduced. It is recommended that the studies of timeliness be done with sensitivity and usefulness analysis of surveillance system. PMID:23515191

  17. System specification for the integrated monitoring and surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This System Specification establishes the requirements for the Plutonium Focus Area (PFA) Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS). In this document, ``Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System`` is used to describe the concept of integrated sensors, computers, personnel, and systems that perform the functions of sensing conditions, acquiring data, monitoring environmental safety and health, controlling and accounting for materials, monitoring material stability, monitoring container integrity, transferring data, and analyzing, reporting, and storing data. This concept encompasses systems (e.g. sensors, personnel, databases, etc.) that are already in place at the sites but may require modifications or additions to meet all identified surveillance requirements. The purpose of this System Specification is to provide Department of Energy (DOE) sites that store plutonium materials with a consolidation of all known requirements for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides. This compilation may be used (1) as a baseline for surveillance system design specifications where 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides will be stored and monitored; (2) as a checklist for evaluating existing surveillance systems to ensure that all requirements are met for the storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides; and (3) as a baseline for preparing procurement specifications tailored for site specific storage and surveillance of 3013 packages of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides.

  18. Initial findings from the implementation of a community-based sentinel surveillance system to assess the health effects of climate change in Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Sunbury, Tenaya; Johnston, Janet; Renes, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Background This report describes the results of a study to determine whether a community-based sentinel surveillance system can be developed and implemented to assess the health effects of climate change, and to contribute to local discussions to mitigate these health effects. The purpose of this report is to describe the process and outcomes of this innovative approach to identifying priority areas for adaptation investment. This report can be used to assist local, state and federal governments in determining how to develop actions and policies to promote adaptation to climate change. Objective To evaluate the health effects of climate change in rural Alaska. Design We conducted an iterative and participatory process to develop metrics, an instrument and a protocol to collect sentinel surveillance data on the health effects of climate change in 3 ecologically distinct regions of the state. Results We collected surveillance data from 91 study participants over the course of 12 months. These data were analyzed and categorized by frequency and association between specific health outcomes or health-related factors (such as food security) and reported exposure to environmental effects of climate change. We found significant associations between several health outcomes and health outcome mediators and reported exposures. We presented these data to study participants in community settings and moderated discussions of likely causal factors for these measured associations, and helped community residents to identify specific adaption measures to mitigate those health effects. Conclusions We conclude that community-based sentinel surveillance is an effective method for assessing health outcomes from exposure to environmental effects of climate change, and informing climate change health adaptation planning in Alaskan communities. We contend that it would be effective in other regions of the nation as well. PMID:23986899

  19. Initial findings from the implementation of a community-based sentinel surveillance system to assess the health effects of climate change in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, David L; Sunbury, Tenaya; Johnston, Janet; Renes, Sue

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study to determine whether a community-based sentinel surveillance system can be developed and implemented to assess the health effects of climate change, and to contribute to local discussions to mitigate these health effects. The purpose of this report is to describe the process and outcomes of this innovative approach to identifying priority areas for adaptation investment. This report can be used to assist local, state and federal governments in determining how to develop actions and policies to promote adaptation to climate change. To evaluate the health effects of climate change in rural Alaska. We conducted an iterative and participatory process to develop metrics, an instrument and a protocol to collect sentinel surveillance data on the health effects of climate change in 3 ecologically distinct regions of the state. We collected surveillance data from 91 study participants over the course of 12 months. These data were analyzed and categorized by frequency and association between specific health outcomes or health-related factors (such as food security) and reported exposure to environmental effects of climate change. We found significant associations between several health outcomes and health outcome mediators and reported exposures. We presented these data to study participants in community settings and moderated discussions of likely causal factors for these measured associations, and helped community residents to identify specific adaption measures to mitigate those health effects. We conclude that community-based sentinel surveillance is an effective method for assessing health outcomes from exposure to environmental effects of climate change, and informing climate change health adaptation planning in Alaskan communities. We contend that it would be effective in other regions of the nation as well.

  20. Low-Cost Instant Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1983-06-01

    A low-cost, battery-operated surveillance system was developed for use in international nuclear safeguards. The resulting system utilizes components of the commercial Polavision instant movie system to provide single-frame color or black/white images which are automatically developed and displayed by a portable Polavision Player whenever it is desired to stop and view the film. The system is designed for long-term unattended use, triggered by a timer or other input signal. To provide positive assurance of continuing operation, a self-diagnostic module was designed to detect the most common failure modes and transmit real-time status data to a remote location. The resulting system provides a low-cost surveillance capability which may be useful in various law enforcement applications.

  1. Domestic violence surveillance system:a model

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Rafael; Gutiérrez, María Isabel; Mena-Muñoz, Jorge Humberto; Córdoba, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a domestic violence surveillance system. Material and Methods The strategies included implementation of a standard digitalized reporting and analysis system along with advocacy with community decision makers, strengthening inter-institutional attention networks, consultation for constructing internal flow charts, sensitizing and training network teams in charge of providing health care in cases of domestic violence and supporting improved public policy prevention initiatives. Results A total of 6 893 cases were observed using 2004 and 2005 surveillance system data. The system reports that 80% of the affected were women, followed by 36% children under 14 years. The identified aggressors were mainly females' partners. The system was useful for improving victim services. Conclusions Findings indicate that significant gains were made in facilitating the attention and treatment of victims of domestic violence, improving the procedural response process and enhancing the quality of information provided to policy-making bodies. PMID:18373003

  2. ESSENCE II and the framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Joseph S; Burkom, H; Pavlin, J

    2004-09-24

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE II) is a prototype syndromic surveillance system for capturing and analyzing public health indicators for early detection of disease outbreaks. This paper presents a preliminary evaluation of ESSENCE II according to a CDC framework for evaluating syndromic surveillance systems. Each major topic of the framework is addressed in this assessment of ESSENCE II performance. ESSENCE captures data in multiple formats, parses text strings into syndrome groupings, and applies multiple temporal and spatio-temporal outbreak-detection algorithms. During a recent DARPA evaluation exercise, ESSENCE algorithms detected a set of health events with a median delay of 1 day after the earliest possible detection opportunity. ESSENCE II has provided excellent performance with respect to the framework and has proven to be a useful and cost-effective approach for providing early detection of health events.

  3. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  4. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Rufiji HDSS).

    PubMed

    Mrema, Sigilbert; Kante, Almamy M; Levira, Francis; Mono, Amaniel; Irema, Kahema; de Savigny, Don; Masanja, Honorati

    2015-04-01

    The Rufiji Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) was established in October 1998 to evaluate the impact on burden of disease of health system reforms based on locally generated data, prioritization, resource allocation and planning for essential health interventions. The Rufiji HDSS collects detailed information on health and survival and provides a framework for population-based health research of relevance to local and national health priorities.In December 2012 the population under surveillance was about 105,503 people, residing in 19,315 households. Monitoring of households and members within households is undertaken in regular 6-month cycles known as 'rounds'. Self reported information is collected on demographic, household, socioeconomic and geographical characteristics. Verbal autopsy is conducted using standardized questionnaires, to determine probable causes of death. In conjunction with core HDSS activities, the ongoing studies in Rufiji HDSS focus on maternal and new-born health, evaluation of safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) exposure in early pregnancy and the clinical safety of a fixed dose of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) in the community. Findings of studies conducted in Rufiji HDSS can be accessed at www.ihi.or.tz/IHI-Digital-Library.

  5. Real Time Wide Area Radiation Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biafore, M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the REWARD project, financed within the FP7 programme, theme SEC-2011.1.5-1 (Development of detection capabilities of difficult to detect radioactive sources and nuclear materials - Capability Project). Within this project, we propose a novel mobile system for real time, wide area radiation surveillance. The system is based on the integration of new miniaturized solid-state radiation sensors: a CdZnTe detector for gamma radiation and a high efficiency neutron detector based on novel silicon technologies. The sensing unit will include a wireless communication interface to send the data remotely to a monitoring base station which also uses a GPS system to calculate the position of the tag. The system will also incorporate middleware and high level software to provide web-service interfaces for the exchange of information, and that will offer top level functionalities as management of users, mobile tags and environment data and alarms, database storage and management and a web-based graphical user interface. Effort will be spent to ensure that the software is modular and re-usable across as many architectural levels as possible. Finally, an expert system will continuously analyze the information from the radiation sensor and correlate it with historical data from the tag location in order to generate an alarm when an abnormal situation is detected. The system will be useful for many different scenarios, including such lost radioactive sources and radioactive contamination. It will be possible to deploy in emergency units and in general in any type of mobile or static equipment. The sensing units will be highly portable thanks to their low size and low energy consumption. The complete system will be scalable in terms of complexity and cost and will offer very high precision on both the measurement and the location of the radiation. The modularity and flexibility of the system will allow for a realistic introduction to the market. Authorities may start with a

  6. Laser surveillance system for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Fiarman, S; Zucker, M S; Bieber, Jr, A M

    1980-01-01

    A laser surveillance system installed at spent fuel storage pools will provide the safeguard inspector with specific knowledge of spent fuel movement that cannot be obtained with current surveillance systems. The laser system will allow for the division of the pool's spent fuel inventory into two populations - those assemblies which have been moved and those which haven't - which is essential for maximizing the efficiency and effectiveness of the inspection effort. We have designed, constructed, and tested a laser system and have used it with a simulated BWR assembly. The reflected signal from the zircaloy rods depends on the position of the assembly, but in all cases is easily discernable from the reference scan of background with no assembly.

  7. Short report: Molecular insights for Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Daniel E; Arvelo, Wences; Cama, Vitaliano A; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Roellig, Dawn M; Kahn, Geoffrey D; Lindblade, Kimberly A

    2011-12-01

    We molecularly characterized samples with Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and soil-transmitted helminths from a facility-based surveillance system for diarrhea in Santa Rosa, Guatemala. The DNA sequence analysis determined the presence of Giardia assemblages A (N = 7) and B (N = 12) and, Cryptosporidium hominis (N = 2) and Cryptosporidium parvum (N = 2), suggestive of different transmission cycles. All 41 samples with soil-transmitted helminths did not have the β-tubulin mutation described for benzimidazole resistance, suggesting potential usefulness in mass drug administration campaigns.

  8. Distributed visual-target-surveillance system in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Wang, Sheng; Bi, Daowei

    2009-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) is a powerful unattended distributed measurement system, which is widely used in target surveillance because of its outstanding performance in distributed sensing and signal processing. This paper introduces a multiview visual-target-surveillance system in WSN, which can autonomously implement target classification and tracking with collaborative online learning and localization. The proposed system is a hybrid system of single-node and multinode fusion. It is constructed on a peer-to-peer (P2P)-based computing paradigm and consists of some simple but feasible methods for target detection and feature extraction. Importantly, a support-vector-machine-based semisupervised learning method is used to achieve online classifier learning with only unlabeled samples. To reduce the energy consumption and increase the accuracy, a novel progressive data-fusion paradigm is proposed for online learning and localization, where a feasible routing method is adopted to implement information transmission with the tradeoff between performance and cost. Experiment results verify that the proposed surveillance system is an effective, energy-efficient, and robust system for real-world application. Furthermore, the P2P-based progressive data-fusion paradigm can improve the energy efficiency and robustness of target surveillance.

  9. Urban and Rural Differences of Acute Cardiovascular Disease Events: A Study from the Population-Based Real-Time Surveillance System in Zhejiang, China in 2012.

    PubMed

    Gong, Weiwei; Wei, Xiaolin; Liang, Yujia; Zou, Guanyang; Hu, Ruying; Deng, Simin; Zhang, Zhitong; Pan, Jing; Choi, Bernard C K; Yu, Min

    2016-01-01

    Zhejiang province, China, has implemented a population based, real-time surveillance system that tracks acute cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) events since 2001. This study aimed to describe the system and report CVD incidence, mortality and case-fatality between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang in 2012. The surveillance system employs a stratified random sampling method covering all permanent residents of 30 counties/districts in Zhejiang. Acute CVD events such as coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke were defined, registered and reviewed based on the adapted MONICA (Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease) definitions. Data were collected from health facilities, vital registries, supplementary surveys, and additional investigations, and were checked for data quality before input in the system. We calculated the rates and compared them by gender, age and region. In 2012, the incidence, mortality and case-fatality of total acute CVD events were 367.0 (CHD 59.1, stroke 307.9), 127.1 (CHD 43.3, stroke 83.8) per 100,000 and 34.6% (CHD 73.2%, stroke 27.2%), respectively. Compared with rural areas, urban areas reported higher incidence and mortality but lower case-fatality rates for CHD (P<0.001), while lower incidence but higher mortality and case-fatality rates for stroke (P<0.001). We found significant differences on CHD and stroke epidemics between urban and rural areas in Zhejiang. Special attentions need to be given to stroke control, especially in rural areas.

  10. Systems pharmacology augments drug safety surveillance.

    PubMed

    Lorberbaum, T; Nasir, M; Keiser, M J; Vilar, S; Hripcsak, G; Tatonetti, N P

    2015-02-01

    Small molecule drugs are the foundation of modern medical practice, yet their use is limited by the onset of unexpected and severe adverse events (AEs). Regulatory agencies rely on postmarketing surveillance to monitor safety once drugs are approved for clinical use. Despite advances in pharmacovigilance methods that address issues of confounding bias, clinical data of AEs are inherently noisy. Systems pharmacology-the integration of systems biology and chemical genomics-can illuminate drug mechanisms of action. We hypothesize that these data can improve drug safety surveillance by highlighting drugs with a mechanistic connection to the target phenotype (enriching true positives) and filtering those that do not (depleting false positives). We present an algorithm, the modular assembly of drug safety subnetworks (MADSS), to combine systems pharmacology and pharmacovigilance data and significantly improve drug safety monitoring for four clinically relevant adverse drug reactions.

  11. Sentinel surveillance system for early outbreak detection in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Following the outbreak of chikungunya in the Indian Ocean, the Ministry of Health directed the necessary development of an early outbreak detection system. A disease surveillance team including the Institut Pasteur in Madagascar (IPM) was organized to establish a sentinel syndromic-based surveillance system. The system, which was set up in March 2007, transmits patient data on a daily basis from the various voluntary general practitioners throughout the six provinces of the country to the IPM. We describe the challenges and steps involved in developing a sentinel surveillance system and the well-timed information it provides for improving public health decision-making. Methods Surveillance was based on data collected from sentinel general practitioners (SGP). The SGPs report the sex, age, visit date and time, and symptoms of each new patient weekly, using forms addressed to the management team. However, the system is original in that SGPs also report data at least once a day, from Monday to Friday (number of fever cases, rapid test confirmed malaria, influenza, arboviral syndromes or diarrhoeal disease), by cellular telephone (encrypted message SMS). Information can also be validated by the management team, by mobile phone. This data transmission costs 120 ariary per day, less than US$1 per month. Results In 2008, the sentinel surveillance system included 13 health centers, and identified 5 outbreaks. Of the 218,849 visits to SGPs, 12.2% were related to fever syndromes. Of these 26,669 fever cases, 12.3% were related to Dengue-like fever, 11.1% to Influenza-like illness and 9.7% to malaria cases confirmed by a specific rapid diagnostic test. Conclusion The sentinel surveillance system represents the first nationwide real-time-like surveillance system ever established in Madagascar. Our findings should encourage other African countries to develop their own syndromic surveillance systems. Prompt detection of an outbreak of infectious disease may lead to

  12. IASM: A System for the Intelligent Active Surveillance of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Hechang; Gu, Xiao; Bai, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection. Next, socioeconomic and climatological characteristics were applied to the proposed prediction model. Then, the redundancy of the socioeconomic attribute values was reduced using the stepwise regression method to improve the accuracy of the proposed prediction model. The experimental results indicated that the proposed IASM predicted malaria outbreaks more close to the real data and with fewer variables than other models. Furthermore, the proposed model effectively identified areas at high risk of infection. PMID:27563343

  13. Burden of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infections in Guatemala 2008-2012: results from a facility-based surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Stephen R; Lopez, Beatriz; Arvelo, Wences; Henao, Olga; Parsons, Michele B; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Lindblade, Kim

    2014-03-01

    Campylobacteriosis is one of the leading causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. This study describes the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter diarrheal infections in two facility-based surveillance sites in Guatemala. Clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory data were collected on patients presenting with acute diarrhea from select healthcare facilities in the departments of Santa Rosa and Quetzaltenango, Guatemala, from January 2008 through August 2012. Stool specimens were cultured for Campylobacter and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on a subset of isolates. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to ≥3 antimicrobial classes. Campylobacter was isolated from 306 (6.0%) of 5137 stool specimens collected. For children <5 years of age, annual incidence was as high as 1288.8 per 100,000 children in Santa Rosa and 185.5 per 100,000 children in Quetzaltenango. Among 224 ambulatory care patients with Campylobacter, 169 (75.5%) received metronidazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and 152 (66.7%) received or were prescribed oral rehydration therapy. Antimicrobial susceptibilities were tested in 96 isolates; 57 (59.4%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 12 (12.5%) were MDR. Campylobacter was a major cause of diarrhea in children in two departments in Guatemala; antimicrobial resistance was high, and treatment regimens in the ambulatory setting which included metronidazole and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and lacked oral rehydration were sub-optimal. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  15. Next Generation Space Surveillance System-of-Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, B.

    2014-09-01

    International economic and military dependence on space assets is pervasive and ever-growing in an environment that is now congested, contested, and competitive. There are a number of natural and man-made risks that need to be monitored and characterized to protect and preserve the space environment and the assets within it. Unfortunately, today's space surveillance network (SSN) has gaps in coverage, is not resilient, and has a growing number of objects that get lost. Risks can be efficiently and effectively mitigated, gaps closed, resiliency improved, and performance increased within a next generation space surveillance network implemented as a system-of-systems with modern information architectures and analytic techniques. This also includes consideration for the newest SSN sensors (e.g. Space Fence) which are born Net-Centric out-of-the-box and able to seamlessly interface with the JSpOC Mission System, global information grid, and future unanticipated users. Significant opportunity exists to integrate legacy, traditional, and non-traditional sensors into a larger space system-of-systems (including command and control centers) for multiple clients through low cost sustainment, modification, and modernization efforts. Clients include operations centers (e.g. JSpOC, USSTRATCOM, CANSPOC), Intelligence centers (e.g. NASIC), space surveillance sensor sites (e.g. AMOS, GEODSS), international governments (e.g. Germany, UK), space agencies (e.g. NASA), and academic institutions. Each has differing priorities, networks, data needs, timeliness, security, accuracy requirements and formats. Enabling processes and technologies include: Standardized and type accredited methods for secure connections to multiple networks, machine-to-machine interfaces for near real-time data sharing and tip-and-queue activities, common data models for analytical processing across multiple radar and optical sensor types, an efficient way to automatically translate between differing client and

  16. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  17. 17 CFR 38.156 - Automated trade surveillance system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated trade surveillance... DESIGNATED CONTRACT MARKETS Compliance With Rules § 38.156 Automated trade surveillance system. A designated contract market must maintain an automated trade surveillance system capable of detecting and investigating...

  18. Video-based real-time surveillance of vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Satyam; Delp, Edward J.

    2013-10-01

    The large volume of vehicles on the road has created new challenges for agencies responsible for law enforcement and public safety. Such agencies utilize visual surveillance technology to assist monitoring of vehicles from a remote location. These surveillance systems typically require trained human operators. Consequently, they are prone to human errors due to fatigue or diverted attention caused by excess information. Thus a need exists for an automated system that can analyze the surveillance videos and extract important information. This information would be used to detect occurrence of "anomalous" events. We propose a visual surveillance system designed to function in the above-mentioned manner. The system observes vehicular traffic from a standoff range and extracts information about the vehicles. This information includes vehicle type, make, tire size, and its trajectory. Based on this information, the system checks for anomalies in the vehicles' appearance and/or motion. We describe analysis methods for obtaining the vehicle information from two cameras placed in an orthogonal configuration and for classifying the vehicles using these observations. We present the results of applying these methods on traffic videos. Our proposed system can be deployed for traffic monitoring (on highways/intersections) or infrastructure protection (at check points).

  19. Development of the Parkland-UT Southwestern Colonoscopy Reporting System (CoRS) for evidence-based colon cancer surveillance recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Samir; Halm, Ethan A; Wright, Shaun; McCallister, Katharine; Bishop, Wendy; Santini, Noel; Mayorga, Christian; Agrawal, Deepak; Moran, Brett; Sanders, Joanne M; Singal, Amit G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Through colonoscopy, polyps can be identified and removed to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. Appropriate use of surveillance colonoscopy, post polypectomy, is a focus of healthcare reform. Materials and Methods The authors developed and implemented the first electronic medical record–based colonoscopy reporting system (CoRS) that matches endoscopic findings with guideline-consistent surveillance recommendations and generates tailored results and recommendation letters for patients and providers. Results In its first year, CoRS was used in 98.6% of indicated cases. Via a survey, colonoscopists agreed/strongly agreed it is easy to use (83%), provides guideline-based recommendations (89%), improves quality of Spanish letters (94%), they would recommend it for other institutions (78%), and it made their work easier (61%), and led to improved practice (56%). Discussion CoRS’ widespread adoption and acceptance likely resulted from stakeholder engagement throughout the development and implementation process. Conclusion CoRS is well-accepted by clinicians and provides guideline-based recommendations and results communications to patients and providers. PMID:26254481

  20. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS).

    PubMed

    Beguy, Donatien; Elung'ata, Patricia; Mberu, Blessing; Oduor, Clement; Wamukoya, Marylene; Nganyi, Bonface; Ezeh, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System (NUHDSS) was the first urban-based longitudinal health and demographic surveillance platform in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The NUHDSS was established in 2002 to provide a platform to investigate the long-term social, economic and health consequences of urban residence, and to serve as a primary research tool for intervention and impact evaluation studies focusing on the needs of the urban poor in SSA. Since its inception, the NUHDSS has successfully followed every year a population of about 65,000 individuals in 24,000 households in two slum communities--Korogocho and Viwandani--in Nairobi, Kenya. Data collected include key demographic and health information (births, deaths including verbal autopsy, in- and out-migration, immunization) and other information that characterizes living conditions in the slums (livelihood opportunities, household amenities and possessions, type of housing etc.). In addition to the routine data, it has provided a robust platform for nesting several studies examining the challenges of rapid urbanization in SSA and associated health and poverty dynamics. NUHDSS data are shared through internal and external collaborations, in accordance with the Centre's guidelines for publications, data sharing.

  1. [A review on the advancement of internet-based public health surveillance program].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Q; Ma, W J

    2017-02-10

    Internet data is introduced into public health arena under the features of fast updating and tremendous volume. Mining and analyzing internet data, researchers can model the internet-based surveillance system to assess the distribution of health-related events. There are two main types of internet-based surveillance systems, i.e. active and passive, which are distinguished by the sources of information. Through passive surveillance system, information is collected from search engine and social media while the active system gathers information through provision of the volunteers. Except for serving as a real-time and convenient complementary approach to traditional disease, food safety and adverse drug reaction surveillance program, Internet-based surveillance system can also play a role in health-related behavior surveillance and policy evaluation. Although several techniques have been applied to filter information, the accuracy of internet-based surveillance system is still bothered by the false positive information. In this article, we have summarized the development and application of internet-based surveillance system in public health to provide reference for a better surveillance program in China.

  2. A New Molecular Surveillance System for Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Kishor; Pandey, Basu Dev; Mallik, Arun Kumar; Acharya, Jyoti; Kato, Kentaro; Kaneko, Osamu; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Presently, global efforts are being made to control and eradicate the deadliest tropical diseases through the improvement of adequate interventions. A critical point for programs to succeed is the prompt and accurate diagnosis in endemic regions. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are being massively deployed and used to improve diagnosis in tropical countries. In the present report, we evaluated the hypothesis of, after use for diagnosis, the reuse of the Leishmania RDT kit as a DNA source, which can be used downstream as a molecular surveillance and/or quality control tool. As a proof of principle, a polymerase chain reaction-based method was used to detect Leishmania spp. minicircle kinetoplast DNA from leishmaniasis RDT kits. Our results show that Leishmania spp. DNA can be extracted from used RDTs and may constitute an important, reliable, and affordable tool to assist in future leishmaniasis molecular surveillance methods. PMID:24752687

  3. Status of state electronic disease surveillance systems--United States, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-07-31

    The National Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS) is a web-based system that uses standard health information technology (IT) codes to integrate disease surveillance systems, enabling them to transfer public health, laboratory, and clinical data securely from health-care providers to public health departments. Each jurisdictions' system consists of a base system and modules that can be used for specific surveillance purposes. States also use NEDSS-like or other electronic systems to conduct surveillance on specific diseases or conditions. Until recently, no assessment had been done to describe the status and characteristics of state electronic disease surveillance systems. The Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE) conducted such an assessment in August 2007 in all 50 states. This report presents the results of that assessment, which indicated that, in 2007, state electronic disease surveillance systems varied widely and were in various stages of implementation. Each state had either custom-built systems or purchased systems that were customizable, with associated disease modules to meet its own surveillance needs. As interoperability becomes the standard for electronic data sharing, more states will face customization costs and the need to hire more technical specialists who can manage health information and exchange. Further collaboration and support from surveillance and health-care IT stakeholders with public health will be needed to improve the efficacy and quality of electronic disease surveillance systems.

  4. What can be gained from comprehensive disaggregate surveillance? The Avon Surveillance System for Sexually Transmitted Infections

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Wendi; Sadler, Katharine; Cassell, Jackie A; Horner, Paddy; Low, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe a new disaggregate surveillance system covering key diagnosed sexually transmitted infections in a UK locality. Methods The Avon System for Surveillance of Sexually Transmitted Infections (ASSIST) collects computerised person‐ and episode‐based information about laboratory‐diagnosed sexually transmitted infections from genitourinary medicine (GUM) clinics, the Avon Brook Clinic, and the Health Protection Agency and trust laboratories in primary care trusts in Avon. The features of the system are illustrated here, by describing chlamydia‐testing patterns according to the source of test, age and sex, and by mapping the distribution of chlamydia across Bristol, UK. Results Between 2000 and 2004, there were 821 685 records of tests for sexually transmitted infections, with 23 542 positive results. The proportion of tests and positive results for chlamydia and gonorrhoea sent from general practice increased over time. Most chlamydia tests in both GUM and non‐specialist settings were performed on women aged >25 years, but positivity rates were highest in women aged <25 years. The positivity rate remained stable between 2000 and 2004. Including data from all diagnostic settings, chlamydia rates were about twice as high as those estimated only from genitourinary clinic cases. Conclusions The ASSIST model could be a promising new tool for planning and measuring sexual health services in England if it can become sustainable and provide more timely data using fewer resources. Collecting denominator data and including infections diagnosed in primary care are essential for meaningful surveillance. PMID:17344247

  5. Space-time prospective surveillance based on Knox local statistics.

    PubMed

    Piroutek, Aline; Assunção, Renato; Paiva, Thaís

    2014-07-20

    We studied a surveillance system to prospectively monitor the emergence of space-time clusters in point pattern of disease events. Its aim is to detect a cluster as soon as possible after its emergence, and it is also desired to keep the rate of false alarms at a controlled level. The method is a modification from a previous proposal based on a local version of the Knox statistic and which examined a retrospective surveillance scenario, looking for the earliest time in the past that change could have been deemed to occur. We modify this method to take into account the prospective case, being able then to fix the serious difficulties found by other authors. We evaluated the surveillance system in several scenarios, including without and with emerging clusters, checking distributional assumptions, and assessing performance impacts of different emergence times, shapes, extent, and intensity of the emerging clusters. Our conclusion is that the space-time surveillance system based on local Knox statistics is very efficient in its statistical properties, and it is appealing to epidemiologists and public health officials because it is simple to use and easily understandable. This makes it a promising candidate to practical use by public health official agencies. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Combining Healthcare-Based and Participatory Approaches to Surveillance: Trends in Diarrheal and Respiratory Conditions Collected by a Mobile Phone System by Community Health Workers in Rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Meyers, David J; Ozonoff, Al; Baruwal, Ashma; Pande, Sami; Harsha, Alex; Sharma, Ranju; Schwarz, Dan; Schwarz, Ryan K; Bista, Deepak; Halliday, Scott; Maru, Duncan S R

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal. We evaluate if such community-based surveillance systems can capture temporal trends in diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections. During the course of their clinical activities from January to December 2013, community health workers recorded healthcare encounters using mobile phones. In parallel, we accessed condition-specific admissions from 2011-2013 in the hospital from which the community health program was based. We compared diarrhea and acute respiratory infection rates from both the hospital and the community, and assigned three categories of local disease activity (low, medium, and high) to each week in each village cluster with categories determined by tertiles. We compared condition-specific mean hospital rates across categories using ANOVA to assess concordance between hospital and community-collected data. There were 2,710 cases of diarrhea and 373 cases of acute respiratory infection reported by community health workers during the one-year study period. At the hospital, the average weekly incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections over the three-year period was 1.8 and 3.9 cases respectively per 1,000 people in each village cluster. In the community, the average weekly rate of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections was 2.7 and 0.5 cases respectively per 1,000 people. Both diarrhea and acute respiratory infections exhibited significant

  7. Combining Healthcare-Based and Participatory Approaches to Surveillance: Trends in Diarrheal and Respiratory Conditions Collected by a Mobile Phone System by Community Health Workers in Rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Surveillance systems are increasingly relying upon community-based or crowd-sourced data to complement traditional facilities-based data sources. Data collected by community health workers during the routine course of care could combine the early warning power of community-based data collection with the predictability and diagnostic regularity of facility data. These data could inform public health responses to epidemics and spatially-clustered endemic diseases. Here, we analyze data collected on a daily basis by community health workers during the routine course of clinical care in rural Nepal. We evaluate if such community-based surveillance systems can capture temporal trends in diarrheal diseases and acute respiratory infections. Methods During the course of their clinical activities from January to December 2013, community health workers recorded healthcare encounters using mobile phones. In parallel, we accessed condition-specific admissions from 2011–2013 in the hospital from which the community health program was based. We compared diarrhea and acute respiratory infection rates from both the hospital and the community, and assigned three categories of local disease activity (low, medium, and high) to each week in each village cluster with categories determined by tertiles. We compared condition-specific mean hospital rates across categories using ANOVA to assess concordance between hospital and community-collected data. Results There were 2,710 cases of diarrhea and 373 cases of acute respiratory infection reported by community health workers during the one-year study period. At the hospital, the average weekly incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections over the three-year period was 1.8 and 3.9 cases respectively per 1,000 people in each village cluster. In the community, the average weekly rate of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections was 2.7 and 0.5 cases respectively per 1,000 people. Both diarrhea and acute respiratory

  8. Establishing a cost-effective national surveillance system for Bluetongue using scenario tree modelling

    PubMed Central

    Hadorn, Daniela C.; Racloz, Vanessa; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Stärk, Katharina D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases pose a special challenge to veterinary authorities due to complex and time-consuming surveillance programs taking into account vector habitat. Using stochastic scenario tree modelling, each possible surveillance activity of a future surveillance system can be evaluated with regard to its sensitivity and the expected cost. The overall sensitivity of various potential surveillance systems, composed of different combinations of surveillance activities, is calculated and the proposed surveillance system is optimized with respect to the considered surveillance activities, the sensitivity and the cost. The objective of this project was to use stochastic scenario tree modelling in combination with a simple cost analysis in order to develop the national surveillance system for Bluetongue in Switzerland. This surveillance system was established due to the emerging outbreak of Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) in Northern Europe in 2006. Based on the modelling results, it was decided to implement an improved passive clinical surveillance in cattle and sheep through campaigns in order to increase disease awareness alongside a targeted bulk milk testing strategy in 200 dairy cattle herds located in high-risk areas. The estimated median probability of detection of cases (i.e. sensitivity) of the surveillance system in this combined approach was 96.4%. The evaluation of the prospective national surveillance system predicted that passive clinical surveillance in cattle would provide the highest probability to detect BTV-8 infected animals, followed by passive clinical surveillance in sheep and bulk milk testing of 200 dairy cattle farms in high-risk areas. This approach is also applicable in other countries and to other epidemic diseases. PMID:19607784

  9. Description and validation of a new automated surveillance system for Clostridium difficile in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Chaine, M; Gubbels, S; Voldstedlund, M; Kristensen, B; Nielsen, J; Andersen, L P; Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Engberg, J; Holm, A; Olesen, B; Schønheyder, H C; Østergaard, C; Ethelberg, S; Mølbak, K

    2017-09-01

    The surveillance of Clostridium difficile (CD) in Denmark consists of laboratory based data from Departments of Clinical Microbiology (DCMs) sent to the National Registry of Enteric Pathogens (NREP). We validated a new surveillance system for CD based on the Danish Microbiology Database (MiBa). MiBa automatically collects microbiological test results from all Danish DCMs. We built an algorithm to identify positive test results for CD recorded in MiBa. A CD case was defined as a person with a positive culture for CD or PCR detection of toxin A and/or B and/or binary toxin. We compared CD cases identified through the MiBa-based surveillance with those reported to NREP and locally in five DCMs representing different Danish regions. During 2010-2014, NREP reported 13 896 CD cases, and the MiBa-based surveillance 21 252 CD cases. There was a 99·9% concordance between the local datasets and the MiBa-based surveillance. Surveillance based on MiBa was superior to the current surveillance system, and the findings show that the number of CD cases in Denmark hitherto has been under-reported. There were only minor differences between local data and the MiBa-based surveillance, showing the completeness and validity of CD data in MiBa. This nationwide electronic system can greatly strengthen surveillance and research in various applications.

  10. A review of occupational disease surveillance systems in Modernet countries.

    PubMed

    Carder, M; Bensefa-Colas, L; Mattioli, S; Noone, P; Stikova, E; Valenty, M; Telle-Lamberton, M

    2015-11-01

    To improve occupational health public policies and to facilitate coordinated research within the European Union to reduce the incidence of occupational diseases (ODs), it is important to know what OD surveillance systems exist and how they compare. Monitoring trends in occupational diseases and tracing new and emerging risks in a network (Modernet) participants are well placed to provide this information as most either contribute data to and/or are involved in the management of OD systems. To identify and describe OD surveillance systems in Modernet countries with the longer-term objective of identifying a core template to be used on a large scale. A questionnaire sent to Modernet participants, seeking structured information about the OD surveillance system(s) in their country. Overall 14 countries (70%) provided information for 33 OD systems, among them 11 compensation-based (CB) systems. Six countries provided information for non-CB systems reporting for any type of OD. The other systems reported either only ODs from a prescribed list, or specific diagnoses or diagnostic groups, with reports to most schemes being physician-based. Data collected varied but all systems collected diagnosis, age, gender, date reported and occupation (and/or industry) and most collected information on exposure. This review provides information beneficial to both policy makers and researchers by identifying data sources useable to measure OD trends in European countries and opening the way to future work, both on trend comparisons within Europe and on the definition of a core template to extend OD surveillance on a larger scale. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The development of an evaluation framework for injury surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca J; Williamson, Ann M; O'Connor, Rod

    2009-01-01

    Background Access to good quality information from injury surveillance is essential to develop and monitor injury prevention activities. To determine if information obtained from surveillance is of high quality, the limitations and strengths of a surveillance system are often examined. Guidelines have been developed to assist in evaluating certain types of surveillance systems. However, to date, no standard guidelines have been developed to specifically evaluate an injury surveillance system. The aim of this research is to develop a framework to guide the evaluation of injury surveillance systems. Methods The development of an Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems (EFISS) involved a four stage process. First, a literature review was conducted to identify an initial set of characteristics that were recognised as important and/or had been recommended to be assessed in an evaluation of a surveillance system. Second, this set of characteristics was assessed using SMART criteria. Third, those surviving were presented to an expert panel using a two round modified-Delphi study to gain an alternative perspective on characteristic definitions, practicality of assessment, and characteristic importance. Finally, a rating system was created for the EFISS characteristics. Results The resulting EFISS consisted of 18 characteristics that assess three areas of an injury surveillance system – five characteristics assess data quality, nine characteristics assess the system's operation, and four characteristics assess the practical capability of an injury surveillance system. A rating system assesses the performance of each characteristic. Conclusion The development of the EFISS builds upon existing evaluation guidelines for surveillance systems and provides a framework tailored to evaluate an injury surveillance system. Ultimately, information obtained through an evaluation of an injury data collection using the EFISS would be useful for agencies to recommend how a

  12. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. Dale; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Gribble, R. Parks; Severtsen, Ronald H.; Prince, James M.; Reid, Larry D.

    1996-01-01

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm.

  13. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Gribble, R. Parks

    1995-01-01

    A holographic surveillance system including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm.

  14. Real-time holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H.D.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Gribble, R.P.

    1995-10-03

    A holographic surveillance system is disclosed including means for generating electromagnetic waves; means for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; means for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and means for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The means for processing the electrical signals includes means for converting analog signals to digital signals followed by a computer means to apply a backward wave algorithm. 21 figs.

  15. Real-time wideband holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; McMakin, D.L.; Gribble, R.P.; Severtsen, R.H.; Prince, J.M.; Reid, L.D.

    1996-09-17

    A wideband holographic surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply a three dimensional backward wave algorithm. 28 figs.

  16. An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB) system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. Methodology An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C) was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA) surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC), as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Results Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)] = 0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P < 0.001 for Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P < 0.001 for Culicines) but only moderately differed from QA surveys with the same trap (0.536 [0.406,0.617], P = 0.001 and 0.747 [0.677,0.824], P < 0.001, for An. gambiae or Culex respectively). Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught) and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught) because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141). Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year), CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 4

  17. An affordable, quality-assured community-based system for high-resolution entomological surveillance of vector mosquitoes that reflects human malaria infection risk patterns.

    PubMed

    Chaki, Prosper P; Mlacha, Yeromin; Msellemu, Daniel; Muhili, Athuman; Malishee, Alpha D; Mtema, Zacharia J; Kiware, Samson S; Zhou, Ying; Lobo, Neil F; Russell, Tanya L; Dongus, Stefan; Govella, Nicodem J; Killeen, Gerry F

    2012-05-24

    More sensitive and scalable entomological surveillance tools are required to monitor low levels of transmission that are increasingly common across the tropics, particularly where vector control has been successful. A large-scale larviciding programme in urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania is supported by a community-based (CB) system for trapping adult mosquito densities to monitor programme performance. An intensive and extensive CB system for routine, longitudinal, programmatic surveillance of malaria vectors and other mosquitoes using the Ifakara Tent Trap (ITT-C) was developed in Urban Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, and validated by comparison with quality assurance (QA) surveys using either ITT-C or human landing catches (HLC), as well as a cross-sectional survey of malaria parasite prevalence in the same housing compounds. Community-based ITT-C had much lower sensitivity per person-night of sampling than HLC (Relative Rate (RR) [95% Confidence Interval (CI)] = 0.079 [0.051, 0.121], P < 0.001 for Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 0.153 [0.137, 0.171], P < 0.001 for Culicines) but only moderately differed from QA surveys with the same trap (0.536 [0.406,0.617], P = 0.001 and 0.747 [0.677,0.824], P < 0.001, for An. gambiae or Culex respectively). Despite the poor sensitivity of the ITT per night of sampling, when CB-ITT was compared with QA-HLC, it proved at least comparably sensitive in absolute terms (171 versus 169 primary vectors caught) and cost-effective (153US$ versus 187US$ per An. gambiae caught) because it allowed more spatially extensive and temporally intensive sampling (4284 versus 335 trap nights distributed over 615 versus 240 locations with a mean number of samples per year of 143 versus 141). Despite the very low vectors densities (Annual estimate of about 170 An gambiae s.l bites per person per year), CB-ITT was the only entomological predictor of parasite infection risk (Odds Ratio [95% CI] = 4.43[3.027,7. 454] per An. gambiae or

  18. [Analysis on bacillary dysentery surveillance data collected from the National Surveillance System in 2007.].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Hao-jie; Chang, Zhao-rui; Zhang, Jing

    2010-03-01

    To improve the national surveillance plan on bacillary dysentery and to increase the sensitivity of the surveillance system on the disease. Data was collected through China Disease Reporting Information System (CDRIS) and National Sentinel Surveillance Sites on bacillary dysentery. Data from the CDRIS was compared with the data from the National Sentinel Surveillance to identify the exiting problems. Data from the monitoring sites showed that the detection rate of infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection was 1%, less than that of other age groups. The highest rates were seen in children aged 3 through 9 years. Rate on misdiagnosis in all age group was 23.38%, when using the surveillance case definition of clinical cases and suspect case. The rate of misdiagnosis on infant cases of bacillary dysentery infection by clinical diagnosis was 50%. It showed that Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei were dominant with the positive rates as 57.21% and 42.41%, respectively. From the national sentinel surveillance sites, the confirmed cases taking up 43.39% which did not match the figure from the CDRIS. The diagnostic criterion for bacillary dysentery fit well on other age groups in surveillance system except on infants. Active surveillance on bacillary dysentery that combining both clinical and laboratory diagnosis seems quite necessary on CDRIS, especially for infants.

  19. Long Range Infrared Surveillance System (LRIRSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Gregg W.

    1987-09-01

    The contract requirement for the LRIRSS program was to design, fabricate, test, and deliver infrared (IR) surveillance systems capable of target detection and recognition at extended ranges. Several significant technical advancements were made during the course of the program. The twenty three inch primary reflecting surface had to be of aluminum due to thermal and weight considerations. This was accomplished through the use of diamond point turned aluminum. The IR and laser receivers are active simultaneously; this has been achieved through the incorporation of a "chopping" mirror that time shares the main aperture between the FLIR and CO2 laser receivers. In addition, the laser had to be eye-safe at the transmitter exit aperture. The use of a single pulse Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser has met the requirement, and is certified by the US Army Environmental Hygiene Agency in Study No. 25-42-0335-85. The major technical challenges have been met, as well as several minor difficulties that arose during the execution of the effort. All hardware has been delivered to the Government in accord with the contractual schedule. NOMENCLATURE CO2 Carbon Dioxide CPU Central Processing Unit FLIR Forward Looking Infrared FOV Field of View IFOV Instantaneous Field of View IR Infrared LRF Laser Rangefinder LRIRSS Long Range Infrared Surveillance System PCB Printed Circuit Board

  20. Robust Image Restoration for Ground-Based Space Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Figure 8 shows a different case in which the AO system was not running. This target is the Hubble Space Telescope and data were collected with...data. Both images are shown on a square root scale.     Figure 8. The Hubble Space Telescope . Left: Raw data frame with AO in open loop...Robust image restoration for ground-based space surveillance Douglas A. Hope, Michael Hart, Stuart M. Jefferies and James Nagy Hart Scientific

  1. Post partial nephrectomy surveillance imaging: an evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Marconi, Lorenzo; Gorin, Michael A; Allaf, Mohamad E

    2015-04-01

    To ensure the early detection of recurrent disease, all patients should undergo routine surveillance following partial nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. In order to optimize resource allocation and avoid unnecessary radiation exposure, the frequency and duration of surveillance should be tailored to the individual patient's risk of cancer recurrence. The evidence for surveillance after partial nephrectomy is presented reviewing the current literature on prognostic models and proposed surveillance protocols based on the timing and patterns of renal cell carcinoma recurrence. In addition, we review recent guidelines on post partial nephrectomy surveillance as well as the literature on novel imaging techniques that may aid in early disease discovery.

  2. Launching a National Surveillance System after an earthquake --- Haiti, 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-08-06

    On January 12, 2010, Haiti experienced a magnitude-7.0 earthquake; Haitian government officials estimated that 230,000 persons died and 300,000 were injured. At the time, Haiti had no system capable of providing timely surveillance on a wide range of health conditions. Within 2 weeks, Haiti's Ministry of Public Health and Population (MSPP), the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), CDC, and other national and international agencies launched the National Sentinel Site Surveillance (NSSS) System. The objectives were to monitor disease trends, detect outbreaks, and characterize the affected population to target relief efforts. Fifty-one hospital and clinic surveillance sites affiliated with the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) were selected to report daily counts by e-mail or telephone for 25 specified reportable conditions. During January 25-April 24, 2010, a total of 42,361 persons had a reportable condition; of these, 54.5% were female, and 32.6% were aged <5 years. Nationally, the three most frequently reported specified conditions were acute respiratory infection (ARI) (16.3%), suspected malaria (10.3%), and fever of unknown cause (10.0%). Injuries accounted for 12.0% of reported conditions. No epidemics or disease clusters were detected. The number of reports decreased over time. NSSS is ongoing and currently transitioning into becoming a long-term national surveillance system for Haiti. NSSS data could assist decision makers in allocation of resources and identifying effective public health interventions. However, data reporting and quality could be improved by additional surveillance education for health-care providers, laboratory confirmation of cases of disease, and Internet-based weekly reporting.

  3. Flat Panel Space Based Space Surveillance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R.; Duncan, A.; Wilm, J.; Thurman, S. T.; Stubbs, D. M.; Ogden, C.

    2013-09-01

    limited telescope is, therefore, replaced by in-process integration and test as part of the PIC fabrication that substantially reduces associated schedule and cost. The low profile and low SWaP of a SPIDER system enables high resolution imaging with a payload that is similar in size and aspect ratio to a solar panel. This allows high resolution low cost options for space based space surveillance telescopes. The low SWaP design enables hosted payloads, cubesat designs as well as traditional bus options that are lower cost. We present a description of the concept and preliminary simulation and experimental data that demonstrate the imaging capabilities of the SPIDER technique.

  4. Optimizing the response to surveillance alerts in automated surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Masoumeh; Buckeridge, David L

    2011-02-28

    Although much research effort has been directed toward refining algorithms for disease outbreak alerting, considerably less attention has been given to the response to alerts generated from statistical detection algorithms. Given the inherent inaccuracy in alerting, it is imperative to develop methods that help public health personnel identify optimal policies in response to alerts. This study evaluates the application of dynamic decision making models to the problem of responding to outbreak detection methods, using anthrax surveillance as an example. Adaptive optimization through approximate dynamic programming is used to generate a policy for decision making following outbreak detection. We investigate the degree to which the model can tolerate noise theoretically, in order to keep near optimal behavior. We also evaluate the policy from our model empirically and compare it with current approaches in routine public health practice for investigating alerts. Timeliness of outbreak confirmation and total costs associated with the decisions made are used as performance measures. Using our approach, on average, 80 per cent of outbreaks were confirmed prior to the fifth day of post-attack with considerably less cost compared to response strategies currently in use. Experimental results are also provided to illustrate the robustness of the adaptive optimization approach and to show the realization of the derived error bounds in practice.

  5. Early warning epidemic surveillance in the Pacific island nations: an evaluation of the Pacific syndromic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Craig, Adam T; Kama, Mike; Samo, Marcus; Vaai, Saine; Matanaicake, Jane; Joshua, Cynthia; Kolbe, Anthony; Durrheim, David N; Paterson, Beverley J; Biaukula, Viema; Nilles, Eric J

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific Syndromic Surveillance System (PSSS), launched in 2010, provides a simple mechanism by which 121 sentinel surveillance sites in 21 Pacific island countries and areas perform routine indicator- and event-based surveillance for the early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. This evaluation aims to assess whether the PSSS is meeting its objectives, what progress has been made since a formative evaluation of the system was conducted in 2011, and provides recommendations to enhance the PSSS's performance in the future. Twenty-one informant interviews were conducted with national operators of the system and regional public health agencies that use information generated by it. Historic PSSS data were analysed to assess timeliness and completeness of reporting. The system is simple, acceptable and useful for public health decision-makers. The PSSS has greatly enhanced Pacific island countries' ability to undertake early warning surveillance and has contributed to efforts to meet national surveillance-related International Health Regulation (2005) capacity development obligations. Despite this, issues with timeliness and completeness of reporting, data quality and system stability persist. A balance between maintaining the system's simplicity and technical advances will need to be found to ensure its long-term sustainability, given the low-resource context for which it is designed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  7. An airport surface surveillance solution based on fusion algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianliang; Xu, Yang; Liang, Xuelin; Yang, Yihuang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an airport surface surveillance solution combined with Multilateration (MLAT) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B). The moving target to be monitored is regarded as a linear stochastic hybrid system moving freely and each surveillance technology is simplified as a sensor with white Gaussian noise. The dynamic model of target and the observation model of sensor are established in this paper. The measurements of sensors are filtered properly by estimators to get the estimation results for current time. Then, we analysis the characteristics of two fusion solutions proposed, and decide to use the scheme based on sensor estimation fusion for our surveillance solution. In the proposed fusion algorithm, according to the output of estimators, the estimation error is quantified, and the fusion weight of each sensor is calculated. The two estimation results are fused with weights, and the position estimation of target is computed accurately. Finally the proposed solution and algorithm are validated by an illustrative target tracking simulation.

  8. Poliovirus Laboratory Based Surveillance: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Sohail Zahoor; Asghar, Humayun; Sharif, Salmaan; Alam, Muhammad Masroor

    2016-01-01

    World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1988 encouraged the member states to launch Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) (resolution WHA41.28) against "the Crippler" called poliovirus, through strong routine immunization program and intensified surveillance systems. Since its launch, global incidence of poliomyelitis has been reduced by more than 99 % and the disease squeezed to only three endemic countries (Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Nigeria) out of 125. Today, poliomyelitis is on the verge of eradication, and their etiological agents, the three poliovirus serotypes, are on the brink of extinction from the natural environment. The last case of poliomyelitis due to wild type 2 strain occurred in 1999 in Uttar Pradesh, India whereas the last paralytic case due to wild poliovirus type 3 (WPV3) was seen in November, 2012 in Yobe, Nigeria. Despite this progress, undetected circulation cannot fully rule out the eradication as most of the poliovirus infections are entirely subclinical; hence sophisticated environmental surveillance is needed to ensure the complete eradication of virus. Moreover, the vaccine virus in under-immunized communities can sometimes revert and attain wild type characteristics posing a big challenge to the program.

  9. The Nigerian health care system: Need for integrating adequate medical intelligence and surveillance systems

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Menizibeya Osain

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: As an important element of national security, public health not only functions to provide adequate and timely medical care but also track, monitor, and control disease outbreak. The Nigerian health care had suffered several infectious disease outbreaks year after year. Hence, there is need to tackle the problem. This study aims to review the state of the Nigerian health care system and to provide possible recommendations to the worsening state of health care in the country. To give up-to-date recommendations for the Nigerian health care system, this study also aims at reviewing the dynamics of health care in the United States, Britain, and Europe with regards to methods of medical intelligence/surveillance. Materials and Methods: Databases were searched for relevant literatures using the following keywords: Nigerian health care, Nigerian health care system, and Nigerian primary health care system. Additional keywords used in the search were as follows: United States (OR Europe) health care dynamics, Medical Intelligence, Medical Intelligence systems, Public health surveillance systems, Nigerian medical intelligence, Nigerian surveillance systems, and Nigerian health information system. Literatures were searched in scientific databases Pubmed and African Journals OnLine. Internet searches were based on Google and Search Nigeria. Results: Medical intelligence and surveillance represent a very useful component in the health care system and control diseases outbreak, bioattack, etc. There is increasing role of automated-based medical intelligence and surveillance systems, in addition to the traditional manual pattern of document retrieval in advanced medical setting such as those in western and European countries. Conclusion: The Nigerian health care system is poorly developed. No adequate and functional surveillance systems are developed. To achieve success in health care in this modern era, a system well grounded in routine surveillance and medical

  10. The validation of a three-stage screening methodology for detecting active convulsive epilepsy in population-based studies in health and demographic surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Ngugi, Anthony K; Bottomley, Christian; Chengo, Eddie; Kombe, Martha Z; Kazungu, Michael; Bauni, Evasius; Mbuba, Caroline K; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Newton, Charles R

    2012-11-21

    There are few studies on the epidemiology of epilepsy in large populations in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC). Most studies in these regions use two-stage population-based screening surveys, which are time-consuming and costly to implement in large populations required to generate accurate estimates. We examined the sensitivity and specificity of a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology in detecting active convulsive epilepsy (ACE), which can be embedded within on-going census of demographic surveillance systems.We validated a three-stage cross-sectional screening methodology on a randomly selected sample of participants of a three-stage prevalence survey of epilepsy. Diagnosis of ACE by an experienced clinician was used as 'gold standard'. We further compared the expenditure of this method with the standard two-stage methodology. We screened 4442 subjects in the validation and identified 35 cases of ACE. Of these, 18 were identified as false negatives, most of whom (15/18) were missed in the first stage and a few (3/18) in the second stage of the three-stage screening. Overall, this methodology had a sensitivity of 48.6% and a specificity of 100%. It was 37% cheaper than a two-stage survey. This was the first study to evaluate the performance of a multi-stage screening methodology used to detect epilepsy in demographic surveillance sites. This method had poor sensitivity attributed mainly to stigma-related non-response in the first stage. This method needs to take into consideration the poor sensitivity and the savings in expenditure and time as well as validation in target populations. Our findings suggest the need for continued efforts to develop and improve case-ascertainment methods in population-based epidemiological studies of epilepsy in LMIC.

  11. Surveillance data bases, analysis, and standardization program

    SciTech Connect

    Kam, F.B.K.

    1990-09-26

    The traveler presented a paper at the Seventh ASTM-EURATOM Symposium on Reactor Dosimetry and co-chaired an oral session on Computer Codes and Methods. Papers of considerable interest to the NRC Surveillance Dosimetry Program involved statistically based adjustment procedures and uncertainties. The information exchange meetings with Czechoslovakia and Hungary were very enlightening. Lack of large computers have hindered their surveillance program. They depended very highly on information from their measurement programs which were somewhat limited because of the lack of sophisticated electronics. The Nuclear Research Institute at Rez had to rely on expensive mockups of power reactor configurations to test their fluence exposures. Computers, computer codes, and updated nuclear data would advance their technology rapidly, and they were not hesitant to admit this fact. Both eastern-bloc countries said that IBM is providing an IBM 3090 for educational purposes but research and development studies would have very limited access. They were very apologetic that their currencies were not convertible, and any exchange means that they could provide services or pay for US scientists in their respective countries, but funding for their scientists in the United States, or expenses that involved payment in dollars, must come from us.

  12. Mental health surveillance and information systems.

    PubMed

    Gater, R; Chisholm, D; Dowrick, C

    2015-09-28

    Routine information systems for mental health in many Eastern Mediterranean Region countries are rudimentary or absent, making it difficult to understand the needs of local populations and to plan accordingly. Key components for mental health surveillance and information systems are: national commitment and leadership to ensure that relevant high quality information is collected and reported; a minimum data set of key mental health indicators; intersectoral collaboration with appropriate data sharing; routine data collection supplemented with periodic surveys; quality control and confidentiality; and technology and skills to support data collection, sharing and dissemination. Priority strategic interventions include: (1) periodically assessing and reporting the mental health resources and capacities available using standardized methodologies; (2) routine collection of information and reporting on service availability, coverage and continuity, for priority mental disorders disaggregated by age, sex and diagnosis; and (3) mandatory recording and reporting of suicides at the national level (using relevant ICD codes).

  13. VISSTM: : A Video Intelligent Surveillance System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berriss, William P.; Price, Wayne G.; Bober, Miroslaw Z.

    2002-12-01

    Video surveillance is gaining increasing popularity as a possible response to various threats such as terrorism, vandalism and crime. The need for automated analysis of the events monitored by video cameras and support for fast search and browsing of such recorded video data is evident. In this paper we present VISSTM, a prototype system that uses advanced video segmentation and MPEG-7 technology to analyse and index visual events in real time. Visual features such as shape, colour and texture are extracted and used to describe the images stored on the system. A search of large volumes of data can be performed very quickly. We show examples of the fast search made possible with VISSTM.

  14. Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Allgood, G.O.; Ferrell, R.K.; Kercel, S.W.; Abston, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    Traffic management can be thought of as a stochastic queuing process where the serving time at one of its control points is dynamically linked to the global traffic pattern, which is, in turn, dynamically linked to the control point. For this closed-loop system to be effective, the traffic management system must sense and interpret a large spatial projection of data originating from multiple sensor suites. This concept is the basis for the development of a Traffic Flow Wide-Area Surveillance (TFWAS) system. This paper presents the results of a study by Oak Ridge National Laboratory to define the operational specifications and characteristics, to determine the constraints, and to examine the state of technology of a TFWAS system in terms of traffic management and control. In doing so, the functions and attributes of a TFWAS system are mapped into an operational structure consistent with the Intelligent Vehicle Highway System (IVHS) concept and the existing highway infrastructure. This mapping includes identifying candidate sensor suites and establishing criteria, requirements, and performance measures by which these systems can be graded in their ability and practicality to meet the operational requirements of a TFWAS system. In light of this, issues such as system integration, applicable technologies, impact on traffic management and control, and public acceptance are addressed.

  15. An intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahboub, Khalid; Gadgil, Neeraj; Ribera, Javier; Delgado, Blanca; Delp, Edward J.

    2015-03-01

    Video surveillance systems are of a great value for public safety. With an exponential increase in the number of cameras, videos obtained from surveillance systems are often archived for forensic purposes. Many automatic methods have been proposed to do video analytics such as anomaly detection and human activity recognition. However, such methods face significant challenges due to object occlusions, shadows and scene illumination changes. In recent years, crowdsourcing has become an effective tool that utilizes human intelligence to perform tasks that are challenging for machines. In this paper, we present an intelligent crowdsourcing system for forensic analysis of surveillance video that includes the video recorded as a part of search and rescue missions and large-scale investigation tasks. We describe a method to enhance crowdsourcing by incorporating human detection, re-identification and tracking. At the core of our system, we use a hierarchal pyramid model to distinguish the crowd members based on their ability, experience and performance record. Our proposed system operates in an autonomous fashion and produces a final output of the crowdsourcing analysis consisting of a set of video segments detailing the events of interest as one storyline.

  16. State-based sensor fusion for surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Robin R.

    1992-04-01

    This paper presents a state-based control scheme for sensor fusion in autonomous mobile robots. States specify the sensing strategy for each sensor; the feedback rule to be applied to the sensors; and a set of failure conditions, which signal abnormal or inconsistent evidence. Experiments were conducted in the surveillance domain, where the robot was to determine if three different areas in a cluttered tool room remained unchanged after each visit. The data collected from four sensors (a Sony Hi8 color camcorder, a Pulnix black and white camera, an Inframetrics true infrared camera, and Polaroid ultrasonic transducers) and fused using the sensor fusion effects architecture (SFX) support the claims that the state-based control scheme produces percepts which are consistent with the scene being viewed, can improve the global belief in a percept, can improve the sensing quality of the robot, and it robust under a variety of conditions.

  17. Particle swarm optimization based space debris surveillance network scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai; Liu, Jing; Cheng, Hao-Wen; Zhang, Yao

    2017-02-01

    The increasing number of space debris has created an orbital debris environment that poses increasing impact risks to existing space systems and human space flights. For the safety of in-orbit spacecrafts, we should optimally schedule surveillance tasks for the existing facilities to allocate resources in a manner that most significantly improves the ability to predict and detect events involving affected spacecrafts. This paper analyzes two criteria that mainly affect the performance of a scheduling scheme and introduces an artificial intelligence algorithm into the scheduling of tasks of the space debris surveillance network. A new scheduling algorithm based on the particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed, which can be implemented in two different ways: individual optimization and joint optimization. Numerical experiments with multiple facilities and objects are conducted based on the proposed algorithm, and simulation results have demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Recent advancements on the development of web-based applications for the implementation of seismic analysis and surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friberg, P. A.; Luis, R. S.; Quintiliani, M.; Lisowski, S.; Hunter, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, a novel set of modules has been included in the Open Source Earthworm seismic data processing system, supporting the use of web applications. These include the Mole sub-system, for storing relevant event data in a MySQL database (see M. Quintiliani and S. Pintore, SRL, 2013), and an embedded webserver, Moleserv, for serving such data to web clients in QuakeML format. These modules have enabled, for the first time using Earthworm, the use of web applications for seismic data processing. These can greatly simplify the operation and maintenance of seismic data processing centers by having one or more servers providing the relevant data as well as the data processing applications themselves to client machines running arbitrary operating systems.Web applications with secure online web access allow operators to work anywhere, without the often cumbersome and bandwidth hungry use of secure shell or virtual private networks. Furthermore, web applications can seamlessly access third party data repositories to acquire additional information, such as maps. Finally, the usage of HTML email brought the possibility of specialized web applications, to be used in email clients. This is the case of EWHTMLEmail, which produces event notification emails that are in fact simple web applications for plotting relevant seismic data.Providing web services as part of Earthworm has enabled a number of other tools as well. One is ISTI's EZ Earthworm, a web based command and control system for an otherwise command line driven system; another is a waveform web service. The waveform web service serves Earthworm data to additional web clients for plotting, picking, and other web-based processing tools. The current Earthworm waveform web service hosts an advanced plotting capability for providing views of event-based waveforms from a Mole database served by Moleserve.The current trend towards the usage of cloud services supported by web applications is driving improvements in Java

  19. Evaluating Hospital-Based Surveillance for Outbreak Detection in Bangladesh: Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Data

    PubMed Central

    Nikolay, Birgit; Salje, Henrik; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Homaira, Nusrat; Iuliano, A. Danielle; Paul, Repon C.; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Cauchemez, Simon; Gurley, Emily S.

    2017-01-01

    Background The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country’s ability to meet these requirements. Methods and Findings We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh. We identified cases in selected communities within surveillance hospital catchment areas using key informant and house-to-house surveys and ascertained where cases had sought care. We estimated the probability of surveillance detecting different sized outbreaks by distance from the surveillance hospital and compared characteristics of cases identified in the community and cases attending surveillance hospitals. We estimated that surveillance detected 26% (95% CI 18%–33%) of severe neurological disease cases and 18% (95% CI 16%–21%) of fatal respiratory disease cases residing at 10 km distance from a surveillance hospital. Detection probabilities decreased markedly with distance. The probability of detecting small outbreaks (three cases) dropped below 50% at distances greater than 26 km for severe neurological disease and at distances greater than 7 km for fatal respiratory disease. Characteristics of cases attending surveillance hospitals were largely representative of all cases; however, neurological disease cases aged <5 y or from the lowest socioeconomic group and fatal respiratory disease cases aged ≥60 y were underrepresented. Our estimates of outbreak detection rely on suspected cases that attend a surveillance hospital receiving laboratory confirmation of disease and being reported to the surveillance system. The extent to which this occurs will depend on disease characteristics (e.g., severity and symptom specificity) and

  20. Evaluating Hospital-Based Surveillance for Outbreak Detection in Bangladesh: Analysis of Healthcare Utilization Data.

    PubMed

    Nikolay, Birgit; Salje, Henrik; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Homaira, Nusrat; Ahmed, Makhdum; Iuliano, A Danielle; Paul, Repon C; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P; Cauchemez, Simon; Gurley, Emily S

    2017-01-01

    The International Health Regulations outline core requirements to ensure the detection of public health threats of international concern. Assessing the capacity of surveillance systems to detect these threats is crucial for evaluating a country's ability to meet these requirements. We propose a framework to evaluate the sensitivity and representativeness of hospital-based surveillance and apply it to severe neurological infectious diseases and fatal respiratory infectious diseases in Bangladesh. We identified cases in selected communities within surveillance hospital catchment areas using key informant and house-to-house surveys and ascertained where cases had sought care. We estimated the probability of surveillance detecting different sized outbreaks by distance from the surveillance hospital and compared characteristics of cases identified in the community and cases attending surveillance hospitals. We estimated that surveillance detected 26% (95% CI 18%-33%) of severe neurological disease cases and 18% (95% CI 16%-21%) of fatal respiratory disease cases residing at 10 km distance from a surveillance hospital. Detection probabilities decreased markedly with distance. The probability of detecting small outbreaks (three cases) dropped below 50% at distances greater than 26 km for severe neurological disease and at distances greater than 7 km for fatal respiratory disease. Characteristics of cases attending surveillance hospitals were largely representative of all cases; however, neurological disease cases aged <5 y or from the lowest socioeconomic group and fatal respiratory disease cases aged ≥60 y were underrepresented. Our estimates of outbreak detection rely on suspected cases that attend a surveillance hospital receiving laboratory confirmation of disease and being reported to the surveillance system. The extent to which this occurs will depend on disease characteristics (e.g., severity and symptom specificity) and surveillance resources. We present a new

  1. Asset surveillance system: apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    System and method for providing surveillance of an asset comprised of numerically fitting at least one mathematical model to obtained residual data correlative to asset operation; storing at least one mathematical model in a memory; obtaining a current set of signal data from the asset; retrieving at least one mathematical model from the memory, using the retrieved mathematical model in a sequential hypothesis test for determining if the current set of signal data is indicative of a fault condition; determining an asset fault cause correlative to a determined indication of a fault condition; providing an indication correlative to a determined fault cause, and an action when warranted. The residual data can be mode partitioned, a current mode of operation can be determined from the asset, and at least one mathematical model can be retrieved from the memory as a function of the determined mode of operation.

  2. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  3. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  4. Existing public health surveillance systems for mental health in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Shuiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Mental health is a challenging public health issue worldwide and surveillance is crucial for it. However, mental health surveillance has not been developed until recently in certain developed countries; many other countries, especially developing countries, have poor or even no health information systems. This paper presents surveillance related to mental health in China, a developing country with a large population of patients with mental disorders. Detailed information of seven relevant surveillance systems is introduced respectively. From the perspective of utilization, problems including accessibility, comprehensiveness and data quality are discussed. Suggestions for future development are proposed.

  5. A web-based system for near real-time surveillance and space-time cluster analysis of foot-and-mouth disease and other animal diseases.

    PubMed

    Perez, Andres M; Zeng, Daniel; Tseng, Chun-ju; Chen, Hsinchun; Whedbee, Zachary; Paton, David; Thurmond, Mark C

    2009-09-01

    Considerable attention has been given lately to the need for global systems for animal disease surveillance that support real-time assessment of changing temporal-spatial risks. Until recently, however, prospects for development of such systems have been limited by the lack of informatics tools and an overarching collaboration framework to enable real-time data capturing, sharing, analysis, and related decision-making. In this paper, we present some of the tools of the FMD BioPortal System (www.fmd.ucdavis.edu/bioportal), which is a web-based system that facilitates near real-time information sharing, visualization, and advanced space-time cluster analysis for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Using this system, FMD information that is collected and maintained at various data acquisition and management sites around the world can be submitted to a data repository using various mutually agreed upon Extensible Markup Language (XML) formats, including Health Level Seven (HL7). FMD BioPortal makes available a set of advanced space-time cluster analysis techniques, including scan statistic-based methods and machine learning-based clustering methods. These techniques are aimed at identifying local clusters of disease cases in relation to the background risk. Data and analysis results can be displayed using a novel visualization environment, which supports multiple views including GIS, timeline, and periodical patterns. All FMD BioPortal functionalities are accessible through the Web and data confidentiality can be secured through user access control and computer network security techniques such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL). FMD BioPortal is currently operational with limited data routinely collected by the Office International des Epizooties, the GenBank, the FMD World Reference Laboratory in Pirbright, and by the FMD Laboratory at the University of California in Davis. Here we describe technical attributes and capabilities of FMD BioPortal and illustrate its functionality

  6. [Analysis on the characteristics of violence based on data from the Chinese National Injury Surveillance System from 2006 to 2013].

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Ye, Pengpeng; Er, Yuliang; Wang, Linhong; Deng, Xiao; Wang, Yuan; Jin, Ye; Ji, Cuirong; Yang, Chao; Duan, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    To understand the characteristics of victims under violence that were enrolled from clinic and emergency room of the hospitals, to provide basis for the development of violence prevention strategies. Data from the National Injury Surveillance Program between 2006 and 2013 were used to analyze: 1) trend of violence proportion in injuries, 2) socio-demographic characteristics of the cases, 3)basic and clinic information on related violence. The proportion of victims of violence decreased during the past 8 years. The number of violence related cases in 2013 was 50 333, including 36 049 males and 14 284 females. Most cases had educational levels as junior (41.2%) or senior high schools (27.3%). 24.0% of the violence occurred between 22:00 PM and 02:59 AM. The proportions of domestic violence were 30.2% in the 0-4 age group and 28.5% in the 65- age group, both were higher than in the other age groups. Interventions on violence including children abuse and elderly abuse should be paid attention to.

  7. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  8. Success Factors of European Syndromic Surveillance Systems: A Worked Example of Applying Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Alexandra; Fouillet, Anne; Brand, Helmut; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syndromic surveillance aims at augmenting traditional public health surveillance with timely information. To gain a head start, it mainly analyses existing data such as from web searches or patient records. Despite the setup of many syndromic surveillance systems, there is still much doubt about the benefit of the approach. There are diverse interactions between performance indicators such as timeliness and various system characteristics. This makes the performance assessment of syndromic surveillance systems a complex endeavour. We assessed if the comparison of several syndromic surveillance systems through Qualitative Comparative Analysis helps to evaluate performance and identify key success factors. Materials and Methods We compiled case-based, mixed data on performance and characteristics of 19 syndromic surveillance systems in Europe from scientific and grey literature and from site visits. We identified success factors by applying crisp-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis. We focused on two main areas of syndromic surveillance application: seasonal influenza surveillance and situational awareness during different types of potentially health threatening events. Results We found that syndromic surveillance systems might detect the onset or peak of seasonal influenza earlier if they analyse non-clinical data sources. Timely situational awareness during different types of events is supported by an automated syndromic surveillance system capable of analysing multiple syndromes. To our surprise, the analysis of multiple data sources was no key success factor for situational awareness. Conclusions We suggest to consider these key success factors when designing or further developing syndromic surveillance systems. Qualitative Comparative Analysis helped interpreting complex, mixed data on small-N cases and resulted in concrete and practically relevant findings. PMID:27182731

  9. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2–3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence. In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network’s Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged. PMID:26403815

  10. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS).

    PubMed

    Kishamawe, Coleman; Isingo, Raphael; Mtenga, Baltazar; Zaba, Basia; Todd, Jim; Clark, Benjamin; Changalucha, John; Urassa, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The Magu Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Magu HDSS) is part of Kisesa OpenCohort HIV Study located in a rural area of North-Western Tanzania. Since its establishment in 1994, information on pregnancies, births, marriages, migrations and deaths have been monitored and updated between one and three times a year by trained fieldworkers. Other research activities implemented in the cohort include: sero surveys which have been conducted every 2-3 years to collect socioeconomic data, HIV sero status and health knowledge attitude and behaviour in adults aged 15 years or more living in the area; verbal autopsy (VA) interviews conducted to establish cause of death in all deaths encountered in the area; Llnking data collected at health facilities to community-based data; monitoring voluntary counselling and testing (VCT); and assessing uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In addition, within the community, qualitative studies have been conducted to address issues linked to HIV stigma, the perception of ART access and adherence.In 2014, the population was over 35 000 individuals. Magu HDSS has contributed to Tanzanian estimates of fertility and mortality, and is a member of the INDEPTH network. Demographic data for Magu HDSS are available via the INDEPTH Network's Sharing and Accessing Repository (iSHARE) and applications to access HDSS data for collaborative analysis are encouraged.

  11. Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) for unannounced safeguards inspections.

    SciTech Connect

    Galdoz, Erwin G. , Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); Pinkalla, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The Secure Video Surveillance System (SVSS) is a collaborative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC). The joint project addresses specific requirements of redundant surveillance systems installed in two South American nuclear facilities as a tool to support unannounced inspections conducted by ABACC and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The surveillance covers the critical time (as much as a few hours) between the notification of an inspection and the access of inspectors to the location in facility where surveillance equipment is installed. ABACC and the IAEA currently use the EURATOM Multiple Optical Surveillance System (EMOSS). This outdated system is no longer available or supported by the manufacturer. The current EMOSS system has met the project objective; however, the lack of available replacement parts and system support has made this system unsustainable and has increased the risk of an inoperable system. A new system that utilizes current technology and is maintainable is required to replace the aging EMOSS system. ABACC intends to replace one of the existing ABACC EMOSS systems by the Secure Video Surveillance System. SVSS utilizes commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technologies for all individual components. Sandia National Laboratories supported the system design for SVSS to meet Safeguards requirements, i.e. tamper indication, data authentication, etc. The SVSS consists of two video surveillance cameras linked securely to a data collection unit. The collection unit is capable of retaining historical surveillance data for at least three hours with picture intervals as short as 1sec. Images in .jpg format are available to inspectors using various software review tools. SNL has delivered two SVSS systems for test and evaluation at the ABACC Safeguards Laboratory. An additional 'proto-type' system remains

  12. The development of a standardized software platform to support provincial population-based cancer outcomes units for multiple tumour sites: OaSIS - Outcomes and Surveillance Integration System.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jonn; Ho, Cheryl; Laskin, Janessa; Gavin, David; Mak, Paul; Duncan, Keith; French, John; McGahan, Colleen; Reid, Sherry; Chia, Stephen; Cheung, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of treatment policies on patient outcomes is essential in improving all aspects of patient care. The BC Cancer Agency is a provincial program that provides cancer care on a population basis for 4.5 million residents. The Lung and Head & Neck Tumour Groups planned to create a generic yet comprehensive software infrastructure that could be used by all Tumour Groups: the Outcomes and Surveillance Integration System (OaSIS). The primary goal was the development of an integrated database that will amalgamate existing provincial data warehouses of varying datasets and provide the infrastructure to support additional routes of data entry, including clinicians from multiple-disciplines, quality of life and survivorship data from patients, and three dimensional dosimetric information archived from the radiotherapy planning and delivery systems. The primary goal is to be able to capture any data point related to patient characteristics, disease factors, treatment details and survivorship, from the point of diagnosis onwards. Through existing and novel data-mining techniques, OaSIS will support unique population based research activities by promoting collaborative interactions between the research centre, clinical activities at the cancer treatment centres and other institutions. This will also facilitate initiatives to improve patient outcomes, decision support in achieving operational efficiencies and an environment that supports knowledge generation.

  13. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Kombewa HDSS)

    PubMed Central

    Sifuna, Peter; Oyugi, Mary; Ogutu, Bernhards; Andagalu, Ben; Otieno, Allan; Owira, Victorine; Otsyula, Nekoye; Oyieko, Janet; Cowden, Jessica; Otieno, Lucas; Otieno, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The Kombewa Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) grew out of the Kombewa Clinical Research Centre in 2007 and has since established itself as a platform for the conduct of regulated clinical trials, nested studies and local disease surveillance. The HDSS is located in a rural part of Kisumu County, Western Kenya, and covers an area of about 369 km2 along the north-eastern shores of Lake Victoria. A dynamic cohort of 141 956 individuals drawn from 34 718 households forms the HDSS surveillance population. Following a baseline survey in 2011, the HDSS continues to monitor key population changes through routine biannual household surveys. The intervening period between set-up and baseline census was used for preparatory work, in particular Global Positioning System (GPS) mapping. Routine surveys capture information on individual and households including residency, household relationships, births, deaths, migrations (in and out) and causes of morbidity (syndromic incidence and prevalence) as well as causes of death (verbal autopsy). The Kombewa HDSS platform is used to support health research activities, that is clinical trials and epidemiological studies evaluating diseases of public health importance including malaria, HIV and global emerging infectious diseases such as dengue fever. Formal data request and proposed collaborations can be submitted at Kombewadssdata@usamru-k.org. PMID:25009309

  14. Epidemiology of Birth Defects Based on a Birth Defect Surveillance System from 2005 to 2014 in Hunan Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Donghua; Yang, Tubao; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the epidemiology of birth defects (BDs) in perinatal infants in Hunan Province, China, between 2005 and 2014. Methods The BD surveillance data of perinatal infants (for stillbirth, dead fetus or live birth between 28 weeks of gestation and 7 days after birth) were collected from 52 registered hospitals of Hunan between 2005 and 2014. The prevalence rates of BDs with 95% confidence interval (CI) and crude odds ratio (ORs) were calculated to examine the associations of infant gender, maternal age, and region (urban vs rural) with BDs. Results From 2005 to 2014, there were a total of 925413 perinatal infants of which 17753 had BDs, with the average prevalence of 191.84 per 10000 PIs (perinatal infants), showing a significant uptrend. The risks of BDs are higher in urban areas versus rural areas (OR = 1.20), in male infants versus female infants (OR = 1.19), and in mothers above age 35 versus those below age 35 (OR = 1.24). The main five types of BDs are Congenital heart defects (CHD), Other malformation of external ear (OMEE), Polydactyly, Congenital malformation of kidney (CMK), and Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTE). From 2005 to 2014, the prevalence rates (per 10000 PIs) of CHD and CMK increased significantly from 22.56 to 74 (OR = 3.29, 95%CI: 2.65–4.11) and from 7.61 to 14.62 (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.30–2.84), respectively; the prevalence rates of congenital hydrocephalus and neural tube defects (NTDs) decreased significantly from 11.8 to 5.29 (OR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.31–0.65) and from 7.87 to 1.74 (OR = 0.22, 95%CI: 0.13–0.38), respectively. Conclusions The prevalence rates of specific BDs in perinatal infants in Hunan have changed in the last decade. Urban pregnant women, male perinatal infants, and mothers above age 35 present different prevalence rates of BDs. Wider use of new diagnosis technology, improving the ability of monitoring, strengthening the publicity and education are important to reduce the prevalence of BDs. PMID:26812057

  15. Surveillance during pregnancy: methods and response rates from a hospital based pilot study of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many European countries including Ireland lack high quality, on-going, population based estimates of maternal behaviours and experiences during pregnancy. PRAMS is a CDC surveillance program which was established in the United States in 1987 to generate high quality, population based data to reduce infant mortality rates and improve maternal and infant health. PRAMS is the only on-going population based surveillance system of maternal behaviours and experiences that occur before, during and after pregnancy worldwide. Methods The objective of this study was to adapt, test and evaluate a modified CDC PRAMS methodology in Ireland. The birth certificate file which is the standard approach to sampling for PRAMS in the United States was not available for the PRAMS Ireland study. Consequently, delivery record books for the period between 3 and 5 months before the study start date at a large urban obstetric hospital [8,900 births per year] were used to randomly sample 124 women. Name, address, maternal age, infant sex, gestational age at delivery, delivery method, APGAR score and birth weight were manually extracted from records. Stillbirths and early neonatal deaths were excluded using APGAR scores and hospital records. Women were sent a letter of invitation to participate including option to opt out, followed by a modified PRAMS survey, a reminder letter and a final survey. Results The response rate for the pilot was 67%. Two per cent of women refused the survey, 7% opted out of the study and 24% did not respond. Survey items were at least 88% complete for all 82 respondents. Prevalence estimates of socially undesirable behaviours such as alcohol consumption during pregnancy were high [>50%] and comparable with international estimates. Conclusion PRAMS is a feasible and valid method of collecting information on maternal experiences and behaviours during pregnancy in Ireland. PRAMS may offer a potential solution to data deficits in maternal health behaviour

  16. Profile: Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Derra, Karim; Rouamba, Eli; Kazienga, Adama; Ouedraogo, Sayouba; Tahita, Marc C; Sorgho, Hermann; Valea, Innocent; Tinto, Halidou

    2012-10-01

    The Nanoro Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), located in the rural centre of Burkina Faso, was established in 2009 by the Clinical Research Unit of Nanoro with the aim of providing a core framework for clinical trials and also to support the Burkina Faso health authorities in generating epidemiological data that can contribute to the setup and assessment of health interventions. In the baseline of initial census, 54 781 individuals were recorded of whom 56.1% are female. After the initial census, vital events such as pregnancies, births, migrations and deaths have been monitored, and data on individuals and household characteristics are updated during regular 4-monthly household visits. The available data are categorized into demographic, cultural, socio-economic and health information, and are used for monitoring and evaluation of population development issues. As a young site, our objective has been to strengthen our skills and knowledge and share new scientific experiences with INDEPTH and HDSS sites in Burkina Faso. In addition, all data produced by the Nanoro HDSS will be made publicly available through the INDEPTH data sharing system.

  17. Research on space-based optical surveillance's observation strategy of geostationary-orbit's pitch point region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-ying; An, Wei; Wu, Yu-hao; Li, Jun

    2015-03-01

    In order to surveillance the geostationary (GEO) objects, including man-made satellites and space debris, more efficiently, a space-based optical surveillance system was designed in this paper. A strategy to observe the pinch point region was selected because of the GEO objects' dynamics features. That strategy affects the surveillance satellites orbital type and sensor pointing strategy. In order to minimize total surveillance satellites and the revisit time for GEO objects, a equation was set. More than 700 GEO objects' TLE from NASA's website are used for simulation. Results indicate that the revisit time of the surveillance system designed in this paper is less than 24 hours, more than 95% GEO objects can be observed by the designed system.

  18. Use of a multi-criteria analysis framework to inform the design of risk based general surveillance systems for animal disease in Australia.

    PubMed

    East, I J; Wicks, R M; Martin, P A J; Sergeant, E S G; Randall, L A; Garner, M G

    2013-11-01

    Australia is a major exporter of livestock and livestock products; a trade assisted by a favourable animal health status. However, increasing international travel and trade, land use changes and climatic change increase the risks of exotic and emerging diseases. At the same time, public sector resources for managing these risks are static or declining. Animal health authorities in Australia identified the need to develop a consistent national approach to surveillance that allocates resources according to risk. A study was undertaken to assess the relative likelihood of occurrence of eight significant diseases of concern to animal health authorities with the aim of producing risk maps to better manage animal disease surveillance. The likelihood of disease occurrence was considered in terms of the likelihood that a disease is introduced and the likelihood that the disease establishes and spreads. Pathways for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were identified and data layers representing the factors contributing to each pathway produced as raster maps. A multi-criteria analysis process was used to combine data layers into pathways and pathways into likelihood maps using weightings that reflect the relative importance of each layer and pathway. The likelihood maps for introduction and exposure and for establishment and spread were combined to generate national likelihood maps for each disease. To inform Australia's general surveillance system that exists to detect any disease of importance, the spatial profiles of the eight diseases were subsequently combined using weightings to reflect their relative consequences. The result was a map of relative likelihood of occurrence of any significant disease. Current surveillance activity was assessed by combining data layers for government disease investigations, proximity to vets and wildlife disease investigations. Comparison of the overall risk and current surveillance maps showed that the

  19. Evaluation of animal and public health surveillance systems: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Drewe, J A; Hoinville, L J; Cook, A J C; Floyd, T; Stärk, K D C

    2012-04-01

    Disease surveillance programmes ought to be evaluated regularly to ensure they provide valuable information in an efficient manner. Evaluation of human and animal health surveillance programmes around the world is currently not standardized and therefore inconsistent. The aim of this systematic review was to review surveillance system attributes and the methods used for their assessment, together with the strengths and weaknesses of existing frameworks for evaluating surveillance in animal health, public health and allied disciplines. Information from 99 articles describing the evaluation of 101 surveillance systems was examined. A wide range of approaches for assessing 23 different system attributes was identified although most evaluations addressed only one or two attributes and comprehensive evaluations were uncommon. Surveillance objectives were often not stated in the articles reviewed and so the reasons for choosing certain attributes for assessment were not always apparent. This has the potential to introduce misleading results in surveillance evaluation. Due to the wide range of system attributes that may be assessed, methods should be explored which collapse these down into a small number of grouped characteristics by focusing on the relationships between attributes and their links to the objectives of the surveillance system and the evaluation. A generic and comprehensive evaluation framework could then be developed consisting of a limited number of common attributes together with several sets of secondary attributes which could be selected depending on the disease or range of diseases under surveillance and the purpose of the surveillance. Economic evaluation should be an integral part of the surveillance evaluation process. This would provide a significant benefit to decision-makers who often need to make choices based on limited or diminishing resources.

  20. An Early Warning System Based on Syndromic Surveillance to Detect Potential Health Emergencies among Migrants: Results of a Two-Year Experience in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context. PMID:25140999

  1. An early warning system based on syndromic surveillance to detect potential health emergencies among migrants: results of a two-year experience in Italy.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Riccardo, Flavia; Declich, Silvia; Dente, Maria Grazia; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Rizzo, Caterina; Rota, Maria Cristina; Bella, Antonino

    2014-08-20

    Profound geopolitical changes have impacted the southern and eastern Mediterranean since 2010 and defined a context of instability that is still affecting several countries today. Insecurity combined with the reduction of border controls has led to major population movements in the region and to migration surges from affected countries to southern Europe, especially to Italy. To respond to the humanitarian emergency triggered by this migration surge, Italy implemented a syndromic surveillance system in order to rapidly detect potential public health emergencies in immigrant reception centres. This system was discontinued after two years. This paper presents the results of this experience detailing its strengths and weaknesses in order to document the applicability and usefulness of syndromic surveillance in this specific context.

  2. Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) software requirements specification (SRS)

    SciTech Connect

    Glasscock, J.A.; Flanagan, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    This document is the primary document establishing requirements for the Surveillance Analysis Computer System (SACS) Database, an Impact Level 3Q system. The purpose is to provide the customer and the performing organization with the requirements for the SACS Project.

  3. Real time wide area radiation surveillance system (REWARD) based on 3d silicon and (CD,ZN)Te for neutron and gamma-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disch, C.

    2014-09-01

    Mobile surveillance systems are used to find lost radioactive sources and possible nuclear threats in urban areas. The REWARD collaboration [1] aims to develop such a complete radiation monitoring system that can be installed in mobile or stationary setups across a wide area. The scenarios include nuclear terrorism threats, lost radioactive sources, radioactive contamination and nuclear accidents. This paper will show the performance capabilities of the REWARD system in different scnarios. The results include both Monte Carlo simulations as well as neutron and gamma-ray detection performances in terms of efficiency and nuclide identification. The outcomes of several radiation mapping survey with the entire REWARD system will also be presented.

  4. Stereographic Projection in the Joint Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    Dlvision Joint Surveillance Sjya h-og oI’c Jaint Surveillance SY4 Prog Ofc FOR TH~ OOAD~ JILYSELL If. WOESME, GS -14 Deputy Syritem Progran Director...937 1.875 650 1200 .9852 1,485 2.969 430 120 .9998 .021 .042 410 240 .9993 .072 .145 390 360 .9985 .154 .308 370 480 . 9973 .266 .533 330 720 .9942 .581

  5. Local collaborations: development and implementation of Boston's bioterrorism surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Verna B; Gunn, Julia E; Auerbach, John; Brinsfield, Kathryn H; Dyer, K Sophia; Barry, M Anita

    2003-01-01

    The Boston Public Health Commission developed and implemented an active surveillance system for bioterrorism and other infectious disease emergencies. A bioterrorism Surveillance Task Force was formed with representatives from local emergency medicine, infection control, infectious diseases, public health, and emergency medical services. These local agencies worked together to develop a reliable, easy to use electronic surveillance system. Collaboration at the local level and building on existing relationships is a key component of this system. Effective follow-up systems and technology back-up plans are essential. Improved communication networks and increased bioterrorism education for clinicians and the general public have also been achieved.

  6. Evolution of an Integrated Public Health Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Derek A.; Ford, Nancy; Tlusty, Susan; Bodurtha, Joann N.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing recognition in maternal and child health of the importance of social, behavioral, biological, and genetic factors across the entire life course. Unfortunately, most state maternal and child health surveillance systems are not designed to readily address longitudinal research questions or track and follow children across multiple programs over time. The Virginia Department of Health (VDH) recently integrated its birth defects registry, newborn hearing screening tracking and management system, and electronic birth certificate (EBC) into a robust, Web-based surveillance system called the Virginia Vital Events and Screening Tracking System (VVESTS). Completely redesigning the existing birth defects and newborn hearing screening system (the Virginia Infant Screening and Infant Tracking System—VISITS I) with minimal disruption of ongoing reporting presented a number of challenges. Because VVESTS had different requirements such as required fields and data validations, extensive data preparation was required to ensure that existing VISITS I data would be included in the new system (VISITS II). Efforts included record deduplication, conversion of free text fields into discrete variables, dealing with missing/invalid data, and linkage with birth certificate data. VISITS II serves multiple program needs; improves data quality and security; automates linkages within families, across programs, and over time; and improves the ability of VDH to provide children with birth defects and their families necessary follow-up services and enhanced care coordination. PMID:22097701

  7. Evaluation of an Active Surveillance System for Stillbirths in Metropolitan Atlanta

    PubMed Central

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Yeung, Lorraine F.; Duke, C. Wes; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Correa, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2005, a pilot project was started at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to expand an existing birth defects surveillance program, the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP), to conduct active surveillance of stillbirth. This pilot project was evaluated using CDC’s current guidelines for evaluating surveillance systems. Methods We conducted stakeholder interviews with the staff of MACDP’s stillbirth surveillance system. We reviewed the published literature on stillbirth ascertainment including 4 previous publications about the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Using fetal death certificates (FDC) as a second, independent data source, we estimated the total number and prevalence of stillbirths in metropolitan Atlanta using capture-recapture methods, and calculated the sensitivity of the MACDP stillbirth surveillance system. Results The MACDP stillbirth surveillance system is useful, flexible, acceptable, and stable. The system’s data quality is improved because it uses multiple sources for case ascertainment. Based on 2006 data, estimated sensitivities of FDCs, MACDP, and both sources combined for identifying a stillbirth were 78.5%, 76.8%, and 95.0%, respectively. The prevalence of stillbirths per 1,000 live births and stillbirths was 8.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.5-9.0) based on FDC data alone and 9.9 (95% CI: 9.1-10.8) when combined with MACDP data. Conclusion Use of MACDP as an additional data source for stillbirth surveillance resulted in higher levels of case ascertainment, better data quality, and a higher estimate of stillbirth prevalence than using FDC data alone. MACDP could be considered as a model to enhance stillbirth surveillance by other active birth defects surveillance programs. PMID:23270086

  8. Comparing Methods for UAV-Based Autonomous Surveillance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Harris, Robert; Shafto, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We describe an approach to evaluating algorithmic and human performance in directing UAV-based surveillance. Its key elements are a decision-theoretic framework for measuring the utility of a surveillance schedule and an evaluation testbed consisting of 243 scenarios covering a well-defined space of possible missions. We apply this approach to two example UAV-based surveillance methods, a TSP-based algorithm and a human-directed approach, then compare them to identify general strengths, and weaknesses of each method.

  9. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    In 2012, the number of international tourist arrivals worldwide was projected to reach a new high of 1 billion arrivals, a 48% increase from 674 million arrivals in 2000. International travel also is increasing among U.S. residents. In 2009, U.S. residents made approximately 61 million trips outside the country, a 5% increase from 1999. Travel-related morbidity can occur during or after travel. Worldwide, 8% of travelers from industrialized to developing countries report becoming ill enough to seek health care during or after travel. Travelers have contributed to the global spread of infectious diseases, including novel and emerging pathogens. Therefore, surveillance of travel-related morbidity is an essential component of global public health surveillance and will be of greater importance as international travel increases worldwide. September 1997-December 2011. GeoSentinel is a clinic-based global surveillance system that tracks infectious diseases and other adverse health outcomes in returned travelers, foreign visitors, and immigrants. GeoSentinel comprises 54 travel/tropical medicine clinics worldwide that electronically submit demographic, travel, and clinical diagnosis data for all patients evaluated for an illness or other health condition that is presumed to be related to international travel. Clinical information is collected by physicians with expertise or experience in travel/tropical medicine. Data collected at all sites are entered electronically into a database, which is housed at and maintained by CDC. The GeoSentinel network membership program comprises 235 additional clinics in 40 countries on six continents. Although these network members do not report surveillance data systematically, they can report unusual or concerning diagnoses in travelers and might be asked to perform enhanced surveillance in response to specific health events or concerns. During September 1997-December 2011, data were collected on 141,789 patients with confirmed or

  10. A Surveillance Model for Human Avian Influenza with a Comprehensive Surveillance System for Local-Priority Communicable Diseases in South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008–2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases. PMID:23532690

  11. A surveillance model for human avian influenza with a comprehensive surveillance system for local-priority communicable diseases in South sulawesi, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hanafusa, Shigeki; Muhadir, Andi; Santoso, Hari; Tanaka, Kohtaroh; Anwar, Muhammad; Sulistyo, Erwan Tri; Hachiya, Masahiko

    2012-12-01

    The government of Indonesia and the Japan International Cooperation Agency launched a three-year project (2008-2011) to strengthen the surveillance of human avian influenza cases through a comprehensive surveillance system of local-priority communicable diseases in South Sulawesi Province. Based on findings from preliminary and baseline surveys, the project developed a technical protocol for surveillance and response activities in local settings, consistent with national guidelines. District surveillance officers (DSOs) and rapid-response-team members underwent training to improve surveillance and response skills. A network-based early warning and response system for weekly reports and a short message service (SMS) gateway for outbreak reports, both encompassing more than 20 probable outbreak diseases, were introduced to support existing paper-based systems. Two further strategies were implemented to optimize project outputs: a simulation exercise and a DSO-centered model. As a result, the timeliness of weekly reports improved from 33% in 2009 to 82% in 2011. In 2011, 65 outbreaks were reported using the SMS, with 64 subsequent paper-based reports. All suspected human avian influenza outbreaks up to September 2011 were reported in the stipulated format. A crosscutting approach using human avian influenza as the core disease for coordinating surveillance activities improved the overall surveillance system for communicable diseases.

  12. Design and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhali, Sami Adel; Abdallat, Mohammed; Mabdalla, Sultan; Qaseer, Bashir Al; Khorma, Rania; Malik, Mamunur; Profili, Maria Cristina; Rø, Gunnar; Haskew, John

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and improving the health status of communities depend on effective public health surveillance. Adoption of new technologies, standardised case definitions and clinical guidelines for accurate diagnosis, and access to timely and reliable data, remains a challenge for public health surveillance systems however and existing public health surveillance systems are often fragmented, disease specific, inconsistent and of poor quality. We describe the application of an enterprise architecture approach to the design, planning and implementation of a national public health surveillance system in Jordan. This enabled a well planned and collaboratively supported system to be built and implemented using consistent standards for data collection, management, reporting and use. The system is case-based and integrated and employs mobile information technology to aid collection of real-time, standardised data to inform and improve decision-making at different levels of the health system. PMID:26878763

  13. Strategic Defense Initiative Demonstration/Validation Program Environmental Assessment. Space-Based Surveillance and Tracking System (SSTS),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Environmental consequences of facility operation vill be addressed in an ongoing revision of an existing environmental assessment ("Formal Environmental...to be in compliance with the revised base master plan (4). 3-4 " " " " "" " " " • ’, .. . ". " " ’," ’, ", .,-," ’,i , ,",. Visual Resources Impacts...8217; %A Tee phone ,onvers,ior wi Anne a Ienningi R Norris. Lieuotena n C.loel Vandenberg Ai: F-tre Rase. /alifornia 1i Ma I", Telephone conversa’in vih

  14. Video coding for next-generation surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasen, Lena M.; Fahlander, Olov

    1997-02-01

    Video is used as recording media in surveillance system and also more frequently by the Swedish Police Force. Methods for analyzing video using an image processing system have recently been introduced at the Swedish National Laboratory of Forensic Science, and new methods are in focus in a research project at Linkoping University, Image Coding Group. The accuracy of the result of those forensic investigations often depends on the quality of the video recordings, and one of the major problems when analyzing videos from crime scenes is the poor quality of the recordings. Enhancing poor image quality might add manipulative or subjective effects and does not seem to be the right way of getting reliable analysis results. The surveillance system in use today is mainly based on video techniques, VHS or S-VHS, and the weakest link is the video cassette recorder, (VCR). Multiplexers for selecting one of many camera outputs for recording is another problem as it often filters the video signal, and recording is limited to only one of the available cameras connected to the VCR. A way to get around the problem of poor recording is to simultaneously record all camera outputs digitally. It is also very important to build such a system bearing in mind that image processing analysis methods becomes more important as a complement to the human eye. Using one or more cameras gives a large amount of data, and the need for data compression is more than obvious. Crime scenes often involve persons or moving objects, and the available coding techniques are more or less useful. Our goal is to propose a possible system, being the best compromise with respect to what needs to be recorded, movements in the recorded scene, loss of information and resolution etc., to secure the efficient recording of the crime and enable forensic analysis. The preventative effective of having a well functioning surveillance system and well established image analysis methods is not to be neglected. Aspects of

  15. Situation exploration in a persistent surveillance system with multidimensional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    There is an emerging need for fusing hard and soft sensor data in an efficient surveillance system to provide accurate estimation of situation awareness. These mostly abstract, multi-dimensional and multi-sensor data pose a great challenge to the user in performing analysis of multi-threaded events efficiently and cohesively. To address this concern an interactive Visual Analytics (VA) application is developed for rapid assessment and evaluation of different hypotheses based on context-sensitive ontology spawn from taxonomies describing human/human and human/vehicle/object interactions. A methodology is described here for generating relevant ontology in a Persistent Surveillance System (PSS) and demonstrates how they can be utilized in the context of PSS to track and identify group activities pertaining to potential threats. The proposed VA system allows for visual analysis of raw data as well as metadata that have spatiotemporal representation and content-based implications. Additionally in this paper, a technique for rapid search of tagged information contingent to ranking and confidence is explained for analysis of multi-dimensional data. Lastly the issue of uncertainty associated with processing and interpretation of heterogeneous data is also addressed.

  16. Syndromic Surveillance Based on Emergency Visits: A Reactive Tool for Unusual Events Detection

    PubMed Central

    Vilain, Pascal; Bourdé, Arnaud; Cassou, Pierre-Jean Marianne dit; Jacques-Antoine, Yves; Morbidelli, Philippe; Filleul, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Objective To show with examples that syndromic surveillance system can be a reactive tool for public health surveillance. Introduction The late health events such as the heat wave of 2003 showed the need to make public health surveillance evolve in France. Thus, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance has developed syndromic surveillance systems based on several information sources such as emergency departments (1). In Reunion Island, the chikungunya outbreak of 2005–2006, then the influenza pandemic of 2009 contributed to the implementation and the development of this surveillance system (2–3). In the past years, this tool allowed to follow and measure the impact of seasonal epidemics. Nevertheless, its usefulness for the detection of minor unusual events had yet to be demonstrated. Methods In Reunion Island, the syndromic surveillance system is based on the activity of six emergency departments. Two types of indicators are constructed from collected data: - Qualitative indicators for the alert (every visit whose diagnostic relates to a notifiable disease or potential epidemic disease);- Quantitative indicators for the epidemic/cluster detection (number of visits based on syndromic grouping). Daily and weekly analyses are carried out. A decision algorithm allows to validate the signal and to organize an epidemiological investigation if necessary. Results Each year, about 150 000 visits are registered in the six emergency departments that is 415 consultations per day on average. Several unusual health events on small-scale were detected early. In August 2011, the surveillance system allowed to detect the first autochthonous cases of measles, a few days before this notifiable disease was reported to health authorities (Figure 1). In January 2012, the data of emergency departments allowed to validate the signal of viral meningitis as well as to detect a cluster in the West of the island and to follow its trend. In June 2012, a family foodborne illness

  17. Prototyping of a Situation Awareness System in the Maritime Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handayani, D. O. D.; Sediono, W.; Shah, A.

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses about the design of a Situation Awareness (SA) system to support vessel crews and control room operators in improving the decision making process. The architecture of the system is ontology based. The vessel crews and control room operators may face a loss of SA. They may have limited cognitive abilities which make it difficult to make a decision in a high stress level, short time availability and continuously evolving situation with incomplete information. In this work, we describe the application of Semantic Web Rule Language to represent corresponding knowledge in the maritime surveillance domain. The result of this research will demonstrate that an ontology based system can be used to remodel the information into a meaningful and valuable form to predict the future states of SA and improve the decision making process.

  18. Surveillance and Datalink Communication Performance Analysis for Distributed Separation Assurance System Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W.; Linse, Dennis J.; Alaverdi, Omeed; Ifarraguerri, Carlos; Seifert, Scott C.; Salvano, Dan; Calender, Dale

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of two technical enablers: Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and digital datalink communication, of the Federal Aviation Administration s Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) under two separation assurance (SA) system architectures: ground-based SA and airborne SA, on overall separation assurance performance. Datalink performance such as successful reception probability in both surveillance and communication messages, and surveillance accuracy are examined in various operational conditions. Required SA performance is evaluated as a function of subsystem performance, using availability, continuity, and integrity metrics to establish overall required separation assurance performance, under normal and off-nominal conditions.

  19. Adverse drug events resulting from use of drugs with sulphonamide-containing anti-malarials and artemisinin-based ingredients: findings on incidence and household costs from three districts with routine demographic surveillance systems in rural Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anti-malarial regimens containing sulphonamide or artemisinin ingredients are widely used in malaria-endemic countries. However, evidence of the incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to these drugs is limited, especially in Africa, and there is a complete absence of information on the economic burden such ADR place on patients. This study aimed to document ADR incidence and associated household costs in three high malaria transmission districts in rural Tanzania covered by demographic surveillance systems. Methods Active and passive surveillance methods were used to identify ADR from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and artemisinin (AS) use. ADR were identified by trained clinicians at health facilities (passive surveillance) and through cross-sectional household surveys (active surveillance). Potential cases were followed up at home, where a complete history and physical examination was undertaken, and household cost data collected. Patients were classified as having ‘possible’ or ‘probable’ ADR by a physician. Results A total of 95 suspected ADR were identified during a two-year period, of which 79 were traced, and 67 reported use of SP and/or AS prior to ADR onset. Thirty-four cases were classified as ‘probable’ and 33 as ‘possible’ ADRs. Most (53) cases were associated with SP monotherapy, 13 with the AS/SP combination (available in one of the two areas only), and one with AS monotherapy. Annual ADR incidence per 100,000 exposures was estimated based on ‘probable’ ADR only at 5.6 for AS/SP in combination, and 25.0 and 11.6 for SP monotherapy. Median ADR treatment costs per episode ranged from US$2.23 for those making a single provider visit to US$146.93 for patients with four visits. Seventy-three per cent of patients used out-of-pocket funds or sold part of their farm harvests to pay for treatment, and 19% borrowed money. Conclusion Both passive and active surveillance methods proved feasible methods for anti-malarial ADR

  20. A hospital based surveillance system to assess the burden of trauma in KwaZulu-Natal Province South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lutge, Elizabeth; Moodley, Nirvasha; Tefera, Aida; Sartorius, Benn; Hardcastle, Timothy; Clarke, Damian

    2016-01-01

    In response to the ongoing excessive burden of trauma in South Africa the Data Management and Epidemiology Units of the Department of Health in conjunction with a group of trauma specialists developed a number of trauma data variables for inclusion on the routine District Health Information System (DHIS). The aim of this study is to describe the process followed and review the 2012-2014 data. The variables collected included: total patient numbers assessed in the emergency room with a diagnosis of trauma; the mechanisms of trauma (blunt assault, motor vehicle accident, pedestrian vehicle accident, stab, gunshot wound, other); any trauma patient admitted to a health facility ward/ICU for longer than 12h; and whether the patient required transfer to a higher centre of care. All trauma deaths in hospital were recorded. The severity of trauma was measured using the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) classification of blue code (dead), red code (stretcher case with deranged physiology), yellow code (stretcher case with normal physiology) and green code (able to walk with normal physiology. The DHIS trauma data from April 2012 to March 2014 was reviewed. There were 197,219 emergency room visits for trauma in KZN in the 2013/2014 financial year. This constitutes 27.0% of all emergency room visits. The ratio of intentional to non-intentional injury is 45:55. There were 18,716 admissions to public sector hospitals for trauma in KZN in the 2013/2014 financial year. This constitutes 2.4% of all admissions in the province. There were 1045 inpatient deaths due to trauma in the same period, constituting 2.5% of all inpatient deaths. The overall rate of trauma in KZN was 17 per 1000 population. The adapted DHIS has successfully collected essential data that quantify the hospital burden of trauma in KZN province. This has provided the most complete overview of the burden of trauma in the Province. These trauma indicators should remain a permanent part of the DHIS to allow planners

  1. Nationwide population-based cohort study of uterine rupture in Belgium: results from the Belgian Obstetric Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, G; De Blaere, M; Van Leeuw, V; Roelens, K; Englert, Y; Hanssens, M; Verstraelen, H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to assess the prevalence of uterine rupture in Belgium and to evaluate risk factors, management and outcomes for mother and child. Design Nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. Setting Emergency obstetric care. Participation of 97% of maternity units covering 98.6% of the deliveries in Belgium. Participants All women with uterine rupture in Belgium between January 2012 and December 2013. 8 women were excluded because data collection forms were not returned. Results Data on 90 cases of confirmed uterine rupture were obtained, of which 73 had a previous Caesarean section (CS), representing an estimated prevalence of 3.6 (95% CI 2.9 to 4.4) per 10 000 deliveries overall and of 27 (95% CI 21 to 33) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.4 to 1.2) per 10 000 deliveries in women with and without previous CS, respectively. Rupture occurred during trial of labour after caesarean section (TOLAC) in 57 women (81.4%, 95% CI 68% to 88%), with a high rate of augmented (38.5%) and induced (29.8%) labour. All patients who underwent induction of labour had an unfavourable cervix at start of induction (Bishop Score ≤7 in 100%). Other uterine surgery was reported in the history of 22 cases (24%, 95% CI 17% to 34%), including 1 case of myomectomy, 3 cases of salpingectomy and 2 cases of hysteroscopic resection of a uterine septum. 14 cases ruptured in the absence of labour (15.6%, 95% CI 9.5% to 24.7%). No mothers died; 8 required hysterectomy (8.9%, 95% CI 4.6% to 16.6%). There were 10 perinatal deaths (perinatal mortality rate 117/1000 births, 95% CI 60 to 203) and perinatal asphyxia was observed in 29 infants (34.5%, 95% CI 25.2% to 45.1%). Conclusions The prevalence of uterine rupture in Belgium is similar to that in other Western countries. There is scope for improvement through the implementation of nationally adopted guidelines on TOLAC, to prevent use of unsafe procedures, and thereby reduce avoidable morbidity and mortality. PMID:27188805

  2. Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report No. 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1958-12-31

    CON SPACE SURVEILLAN ( TECHNICAL SUMMARY ARPA Order No. Applications Research December 31, 19 bitTrLaUT170AJ- Ld U. S. NAVAL RESEARCH Li Washinzton...31 DEC 1958 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-12-1958 to 00-12-1958 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Space Surveillance System Technical Summary Report...of what became the Naval Space Surveillance System. The descriptions and data were once classified, but have log since been unclassified. Additionally

  3. [Proposal to establish an environmental contaminants surveillance system in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Huertas, Jancy Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Environmental pollution is a growing problem that negatively impacts health with social and economic high costs. In this sense, coordinated surveillance of conditions, risks, exposures and health effects related to pollution is a useful tool to guide decision-making processes. The objective of this essay was to describe a surveillance system for environmental contaminants in Colombia and its design background. Using the technical guidelines proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, a literature review was conducted to identify the key elements to be included in such surveillance system and to establish which of these elements were already present in the Colombian context. Moreover, these findings were compared with successful experiences in Latin America. The surveillance system includes five components: Epidemiological, environmental and biological surveillance, clinical monitoring and recommendations to guide policies or interventions. The key factors for a successful surveillance system are: interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, clear definition of functions, activities, data sources and information flow. The implementation of the system will be efficient if the structures and tools existing in each country are taken into account. The most important stakeholders are inter-sector public health and environmental commissions and government institutions working in research and surveillance issues related to health, sanitation, environment, drugs and food regulation and control. In conclusion, Colombia has the technical resources and a normative framework to design and implement the surveillance system. However, stakeholders´ coordination is essential to ensure the efficacy of the system so it may guide the implementation of cost-effective actions in environmental health.

  4. Trends in web-based HIV behavioural surveillance among gay and bisexual men in New Zealand: complementing location-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Saxton, Peter J W; Dickson, Nigel P; Hughes, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Most HIV behavioural surveillance programmes for gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) sample from location-based (offline) or web-based (online) populations, but few combine these two streams. MSM sampled online have been found to differ demographically and behaviourally from those sampled offline, meaning trends identified in one system may not hold for the other. The aim was to examine trends among MSM responding to supplementary repeat online behavioural surveillance surveys who had not participated in offline surveillance earlier that year in the same city, to see whether trends were parallel, converged or diverged. We recruited a total of 1613 MSM from an Internet dating site in Auckland, New Zealand in 2006, 2008 and 2011 using identical questionnaires and eligibility criteria to offline surveillance. Condom use was stable over time, HIV testing rates rose, the proportion reporting over 20 recent male partners declined, and anal intercourse rates increased, consistent with trends in offline surveillance conducted concomitantly and reported elsewhere. Variant trends included greater stability in condom use with casual partners among online-recruited MSM, and a rise in regular fuckbuddy partnering not identified among offline-recruited MSM. Among MSM recruited online, the frequency of checking Internet dating profiles increased between 2008 and 2011. In conclusion, supplementary web-based behavioural surveillance among MSM generally corroborates trends identified in offline surveillance. There are however some divergent trends, that would have been overlooked if only one form of surveillance had been conducted. As MSM populations increasingly shift their socialising patterns online and diversify, multiple forms of HIV behavioural monitoring may be required.

  5. Epidemiology of four main nosocomial infections in Iran during March 2007 - March 2008 based on the findings of a routine surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Zahraei, Seyed Mohsen; Eshrati, Babak; Masoumi Asl, Hosein; Pezeshki, Zahra

    2012-12-01

    Annually, around six million patients are admitted to hospitals in Iran. Information about the prevalence of nosocomial infections (NIs) is necessary for both appropriate management and establishment of preventative measures in hospitals. This article is based on the findings of the Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NISS) which has been providing information on NIs in Iran since March 2007.  NISS covers 95 hospitals throughout Iran, each with over 200 beds. There are four main infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), surgical site infection (SSI), bloodstream infection (BSI) and pneumonia (PNEU) included in NISS. Reports are completed on forms that have been provided based on national guidelines. In all selected hospitals there is one designated nurse who conducts infection control activities and is trained in the detection and reporting of NIs based on NISS guidelines. During March 2007 - March 2008, a total of 1,879,356 patients were admitted to the selected hospitals. The total detected NIs were 10557 with a prevalence of 0.57%. Of these, UTI was the most prevalent infection (32.2%) and BSI was the least (16.3%). Based on gender, females had more UTI, whereas PNEU was the highest in males. Of reported NIs, 9% were detected in children less than five years of age and included BSI (45%), PNEU (20%), SSI (19%) and UTI (16%). There were 26% reported NIs in the age group over 65 years, of which the most prevalent infections were UTI (42%) followed by PNEU (31%), SSI (15%) and BSI (12%). NIs were most often detected in intensive care units (ICUs; 26.7%), followed by surgery wards (12.8%). In comparison with other studies and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, the rate of NIs appears to be less according to NISS. NISS has the capability to provide basic information for efficient management and control measures, in addition to indicating variations in NIs based on gender, age and location (hospital ward). In order to have a more realistic estimate

  6. Toward Development of a Face Recognition System for Watchlist Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kamgar-Parsi, Behrooz; Lawson, Wallace; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad

    2011-10-01

    The interest in face recognition is moving toward real-world applications and uncontrolled sensing environments. An important application of interest is automated surveillance, where the objective is to recognize and track people who are on a watchlist. For this open world application, a large number of cameras that are increasingly being installed at many locations in shopping malls, metro systems, airports, etc., will be utilized. While a very large number of people will approach or pass by these surveillance cameras, only a small set of individuals must be recognized. That is, the system must reject every subject unless the subject happens to be on the watchlist. While humans routinely reject previously unseen faces as strangers, rejection of previously unseen faces has remained a difficult aspect of automated face recognition. In this paper, we propose an approach motivated by human perceptual ability of face recognition which can handle previously unseen faces. Our approach is based on identifying the decision region(s) in the face space which belong to the target person(s). This is done by generating two large sets of borderline images, projecting just inside and outside of the decision region. For each person on the watchlist, a dedicated classifier is trained. Results of extensive experiments support the effectiveness of our approach. In addition to extensive experiments using our algorithm and prerecorded images, we have conducted considerable live system experiments with people in realistic environments.

  7. Detection of infrastructure manipulation with knowledge-based video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, David; Hilsenbeck, Barbara; Kieritz, Hilke; Becker, Stefan; Grosselfinger, Ann-Kristin; Huebner, Wolfgang; Arens, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We are living in a world dependent on sophisticated technical infrastructure. Malicious manipulation of such critical infrastructure poses an enormous threat for all its users. Thus, running a critical infrastructure needs special attention to log the planned maintenance or to detect suspicious events. Towards this end, we present a knowledge-based surveillance approach capable of logging visual observable events in such an environment. The video surveillance modules are based on appearance-based person detection, which further is used to modulate the outcome of generic processing steps such as change detection or skin detection. A relation between the expected scene behavior and the underlying basic video surveillance modules is established. It will be shown that the combination already provides sufficient expressiveness to describe various everyday situations in indoor video surveillance. The whole approach is qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated on a prototypical scenario in a server room.

  8. Multifaceted syndromic surveillance in a public health department using the early aberration reporting system.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian M; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Hall, Stephanie P; Franklin, Chad; Hutwagner, Lori C; Seeman, G Matthew; Craig, Allen S

    2005-01-01

    Local health departments concerned with early detection of potential terrorist threats are beginning to explore novel approaches to syndromic surveillance. Using the Early Aberration Reporting System (EARS) developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a metropolitan health department in Tennessee and five community partners have agreed to exchange data in order to implement a multifaceted syndromic surveillance system for early detection of a biological attack. This article describes how we used EARS as the foundation for implementing a surveillance system that encompasses a rich variety of data sources. We address technical requirements for operating EARS, recommend staffing and training prerequisites, describe the involvement of our data partners, and provide details related to data transfer and analysis, review, and response protocol. Other health departments may find this information useful as a general model for implementing EARS-based syndromic surveillance systems in their own jurisdictions.

  9. Applying participatory approaches in the evaluation of surveillance systems: A pilot study on African swine fever surveillance in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Calba, Clémentine; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas; Charrier, François; Hendrikx, Pascal; Saegerman, Claude; Peyre, Marisa; Goutard, Flavie L

    2015-12-01

    The implementation of regular and relevant evaluations of surveillance systems is critical in improving their effectiveness and their relevance whilst limiting their cost. The complex nature of these systems and the variable contexts in which they are implemented call for the development of flexible evaluation tools. Within this scope, participatory tools have been developed and implemented for the African swine fever (ASF) surveillance system in Corsica (France). The objectives of this pilot study were, firstly, to assess the applicability of participatory approaches within a developed environment involving various stakeholders and, secondly, to define and test methods developed to assess evaluation attributes. Two evaluation attributes were targeted: the acceptability of the surveillance system and its the non-monetary benefits. Individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups were implemented with representatives from every level of the system. Diagramming and scoring tools were used to assess the different elements that compose the definition of acceptability. A contingent valuation method, associated with proportional piling, was used to assess the non-monetary benefits, i.e., the value of sanitary information. Sixteen stakeholders were involved in the process, through 3 focus groups and 8 individual semi-structured interviews. Stakeholders were selected according to their role in the system and to their availability. Results highlighted a moderate acceptability of the system for farmers and hunters and a high acceptability for other representatives (e.g., private veterinarians, local laboratories). Out of the 5 farmers involved in assessing the non-monetary benefits, 3 were interested in sanitary information on ASF. The data collected via participatory approaches enable relevant recommendations to be made, based on the Corsican context, to improve the current surveillance system.

  10. Cost Analysis of Various Low Pathogenic Avian Influenza Surveillance Systems in the Dutch Egg Layer Sector

    PubMed Central

    Rutten, Niels; Gonzales, José L.; Elbers, Armin R. W.; Velthuis, Annet G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background As low pathogenic avian influenza viruses can mutate into high pathogenic viruses the Dutch poultry sector implemented a surveillance system for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) based on blood samples. It has been suggested that egg yolk samples could be sampled instead of blood samples to survey egg layer farms. To support future decision making about AI surveillance economic criteria are important. Therefore a cost analysis is performed on systems that use either blood or eggs as sampled material. Methodology/Principal Findings The effectiveness of surveillance using egg or blood samples was evaluated using scenario tree models. Then an economic model was developed that calculates the total costs for eight surveillance systems that have equal effectiveness. The model considers costs for sampling, sample preparation, sample transport, testing, communication of test results and for the confirmation test on false positive results. The surveillance systems varied in sampled material (eggs or blood), sampling location (farm or packing station) and location of sample preparation (laboratory or packing station). It is shown that a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the packing station and samples prepared in a laboratory had the lowest total costs (i.e. € 273,393) a year. Compared to this a hypothetical system in which eggs are sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory, and the currently implemented system in which blood is sampled at the farm and samples prepared at a laboratory have 6% and 39% higher costs respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study shows that surveillance for avian influenza on egg yolk samples can be done at lower costs than surveillance based on blood samples. The model can be used in future comparison of surveillance systems for different pathogens and hazards. PMID:22523543

  11. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    PubMed

    Nsubuga, Fred; Ampaire, Immaculate; Kasasa, Simon; Luzze, Henry; Kisakye, Annet

    2017-01-01

    Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice. An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS) as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +). We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015. A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14%) were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%. In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda. We

  12. Community -and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for respiratory viruses.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, Philip; Whittier, Susan; Reed, Carrie; LaRussa, Philip; Larson, Elaine L; Vargas, Celibell Y; Saiman, Lisa; Stockwell, Melissa S

    2016-09-01

    Traditional surveillance for respiratory viruses relies on symptom detection and laboratory detection during medically attended encounters for acute respiratory infection/influenza-like illness (ARI/ILI). Ecological momentary reporting using text messages is a novel method for surveillance. This study compares respiratory viral activity detected through longitudinal community-based surveillance using text message responses for sample acquisition and testing to respiratory viral activity obtained from hospital laboratory data from the same community. We demonstrate a significant correlation between community- and hospital laboratory-based surveillance for most respiratory viruses, although the relative proportions of viruses detected in the community and hospital differed significantly. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Profile: The Niakhar Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Delaunay, Valerie; Douillot, Laetitia; Diallo, Aldiouma; Dione, Djibril; Trape, Jean-François; Medianikov, Oleg; Raoult, Didier; Sokhna, Cheikh

    2013-01-01

    The Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, is located 135 km east of Dakar. The HDSS was established in 1962 by the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of Senegal to face the shortcomings of the civil registration system and provide demographic indicators. Some 65 villages in the Niakhar area were followed annually by the HDSS from 1962–1969. The study zone was reduced to 8 villages from 1969–1983, and from then on the HDSS was extended to include 22 other villages, covering a total of 30 villages for a population estimated at 43 000 in January 2012. Thus, 8 villages in the Niakhar area have been under demographic surveillance for almost 50 years and 30 villages for 30 years. Vital events, migrations, marital changes, pregnancies, and immunizations are routinely recorded every 4 months. The HDSS data base also includes epidemiological, economic, and environmental information obtained from specific surveys. Data were collected through annual rounds from 1962 to 1987. The rounds became weekly from 1987–1997, followed by routine visits conducted every 3 months between 1997 and 2007 and every 4 months since then. The data collected in the HDSS are not open to access, but can be fairly shared under conditions of collaboration and endowment. PMID:24062286

  14. Evaluation of a state based syndromic surveillance system for the classification and capture of non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Borjan, Marija; Lumia, Margaret

    2017-07-01

    This preliminary study evaluates a real-time syndromic surveillance system to track occupationally-related emergency room visits throughout New Jersey. Emergency Department (ED) chief complaint fields were evaluated from 79 of 80 hospitals in NJ in 2014, using work-related keywords and ICD-9 E-codes, to determine its ability to capture non-fatal work-related injuries. Sensitivity analysis and descriptive statistics, were used to evaluate and summarize the occupational injuries identified. Overall, 11 919 (0.3%) possible work-related ED visits were identified from all ED visits. Events with the greatest number of ED visits were slips, trips, and falls (1679, 14%). Nature of injury included cuts, lacerations (1041, 9%). The part of the body most affected was the back (1414, 12%). This work-related classifier achieved a sensitivity of 5.4%, a specificity of 99.8%, and a PPV of 2.8%. This evaluation demonstrated that the syndromic surveillance reporting system can yield real-time knowledge of work-related injuries. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. High added value of a population-based participatory surveillance system for community acute gastrointestinal, respiratory and influenza-like illnesses in Sweden, 2013-2014 using the web.

    PubMed

    Pini, A; Merk, H; Carnahan, A; Galanis, I; VAN Straten, E; Danis, K; Edelstein, M; Wallensten, A

    2017-04-01

    In 2013-2014, the Public Health Agency of Sweden developed a web-based participatory surveillance system, Hӓlsorapport, based on a random sample of individuals reporting symptoms weekly online, to estimate the community incidence of self-reported acute gastrointestinal (AGI), acute respiratory (ARI) and influenza-like (ILI) illnesses and their severity. We evaluated Hӓlsorapport's acceptability, completeness, representativeness and its data correlation with other surveillance data. We calculated response proportions and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) between (i) incidence of illnesses in Hӓlsorapport and (ii) proportions of specific search terms to medical-advice website and reasons for calling a medical advice hotline. Of 34 748 invitees, 3245 (9·3%) joined the cohort. Participants answered 81% (139 013) of the weekly questionnaires and 90% (16 351) of follow-up questionnaires. AGI incidence correlated with searches on winter-vomiting disease [r = 0·81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·69-0·89], and ARI incidence correlated with searches on cough (r = 0·77, 95% CI 0·62-0·86). ILI incidence correlated with the web query-based estimated incidence of ILI patients consulting physicians (r = 0·63, 95% CI 0·42-0·77). The high response to different questionnaires and the correlation with other syndromic surveillance systems suggest that Hӓlsorapport offers a reasonable representation of AGI, ARI and ILI patterns in the community and can complement traditional and syndromic surveillance systems to estimate their burden in the community.

  16. TENTACLE: Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    standard format by which blog entries, news headlines, audio, and video is disseminated via the web . SAR Synthetic Aperture Radar SBIR Small Business...Thru. TIGR Tactical Ground Reporting System, a web -based information sharing system available to the United States Army TIPL Tentacle IPL TM...Earth for development due to our past experience developing with it, and the maturity of the Tentacle user interface mockup we created (located at

  17. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  18. Infectious Disease Surveillance in the Big Data Era: Towards Faster and Locally Relevant Systems.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Lone; Gog, Julia R; Olson, Don; Viboud, Cécile

    2016-12-01

    While big data have proven immensely useful in fields such as marketing and earth sciences, public health is still relying on more traditional surveillance systems and awaiting the fruits of a big data revolution. A new generation of big data surveillance systems is needed to achieve rapid, flexible, and local tracking of infectious diseases, especially for emerging pathogens. In this opinion piece, we reflect on the long and distinguished history of disease surveillance and discuss recent developments related to use of big data. We start with a brief review of traditional systems relying on clinical and laboratory reports. We then examine how large-volume medical claims data can, with great spatiotemporal resolution, help elucidate local disease patterns. Finally, we review efforts to develop surveillance systems based on digital and social data streams, including the recent rise and fall of Google Flu Trends. We conclude by advocating for increased use of hybrid systems combining information from traditional surveillance and big data sources, which seems the most promising option moving forward. Throughout the article, we use influenza as an exemplar of an emerging and reemerging infection which has traditionally been considered a model system for surveillance and modeling. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. An integrated comprehensive occupational surveillance system for health care workers.

    PubMed

    Dement, John M; Pompeii, Lisa A; Østbye, Truls; Epling, Carol; Lipscomb, Hester J; James, Tamara; Jacobs, Michael J; Jackson, George; Thomann, Wayne

    2004-06-01

    Workers in the health care industry may be exposed to a variety of work-related stressors including infectious, chemical, and physical agents; ergonomic hazards; psychological hazards; and workplace violence. Many of these hazards lack surveillance systems to evaluate exposures and health outcomes. The development and implementation of a comprehensive surveillance system within the Duke University Health System (DUHS) that tracks occupational exposures and stressors as well as injuries and illnesses among a defined population of health care workers (HCWs) is presented. Human resources job and work location data were used to define the DUHS population at risk. Outcomes and exposure data from existing occupational health and safety programs, health promotion programs, and employee health insurance claims, were linked with human resources data and de-identified to create the Duke Health and Safety Surveillance System (DHSSS). The surveillance system is described and four examples are presented demonstrating how the system has successfully been used to study consequences of work-related stress, hearing conservation program evaluation, risk factors for back pain and inflammation, and exposures to blood and body fluids (BBF). Utilization of existing data, often collected for other purposes, can be successfully integrated and used for occupational health surveillance monitoring of HCWs. Use of the DHSSS for etiologic studies, benchmarking, and intervention program evaluation are discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Surveillance for isocyanate asthma: a model based cost effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wild, D; Redlich, C; Paltiel, A

    2005-01-01

    Aims: Because logistical and financial obstacles impede using large prospective cohort studies, surveillance decisions in occupational settings must often be made without evidence of relative benefits and costs. Using the example of isocyanate induced asthma, the most commonly reported immune mediated occupational asthma, the authors developed a model based approach to evaluate the costs and benefits of surveillance from both an employer and a societal perspective. Methods: The authors used a mathematical simulation model of isocyanate asthma to compare annual surveillance to passive case finding. Outcome measures included symptom free days (SFD), quality adjusted life years (QALY), direct costs, productivity losses, and incremental cost effectiveness ratio (CER), measured from the employer and the societal perspectives. Input data were obtained from a variety of published sources. Results: For 100 000 exposed workers, surveillance resulted in 683 fewer cases of disability over 10 years. Surveillance conferred benefits at an incremental cost of $24,000/QALY (employer perspective; $13.33/SFD) and was cost saving from the societal perspective. Results were sensitive to assumptions about sensitisation rate, removal rates, and time to diagnosis, but not to assumptions about therapy costs and disability rates. Conclusions: Baseline results placed the CER for surveillance for isocyanate asthma within the acceptable range. Costs from the societal and employer perspective differed substantially with a more attractive CER from the societal perspective, suggesting opportunities for employer/societal cost sharing. The analysis demonstrates the value of a model based approach to evaluate the cost effectiveness of surveillance programmes for isocyanate asthma, and to inform shared decision making among clinicians, patients, employers, and society. Such a modeling approach may be applicable to surveillance programmes for other work related conditions. PMID:16234399

  1. Use of outcomes to evaluate surveillance systems for bioterrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    McBrien, Kerry A; Kleinman, Ken P; Abrams, Allyson M; Prosser, Lisa A

    2010-05-07

    Syndromic surveillance systems can potentially be used to detect a bioterrorist attack earlier than traditional surveillance, by virtue of their near real-time analysis of relevant data. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis using the area under the curve (AUC) as a comparison metric has been recommended as a practical evaluation tool for syndromic surveillance systems, yet traditional ROC curves do not account for timeliness of detection or subsequent time-dependent health outcomes. Using a decision-analytic approach, we predicted outcomes, measured in lives, quality adjusted life years (QALYs), and costs, for a series of simulated bioterrorist attacks. We then evaluated seven detection algorithms applied to syndromic surveillance data using outcomes-weighted ROC curves compared to simple ROC curves and timeliness-weighted ROC curves. We performed sensitivity analyses by varying the model inputs between best and worst case scenarios and by applying different methods of AUC calculation. The decision analytic model results indicate that if a surveillance system was successful in detecting an attack, and measures were immediately taken to deliver treatment to the population, the lives, QALYs and dollars lost could be reduced considerably. The ROC curve analysis shows that the incorporation of outcomes into the evaluation metric has an important effect on the apparent performance of the surveillance systems. The relative order of performance is also heavily dependent on the choice of AUC calculation method. This study demonstrates the importance of accounting for mortality, morbidity and costs in the evaluation of syndromic surveillance systems. Incorporating these outcomes into the ROC curve analysis allows for more accurate identification of the optimal method for signaling a possible bioterrorist attack. In addition, the parameters used to construct an ROC curve should be given careful consideration.

  2. Magnetic Resonance Based Diagnostics for Polymer Production and Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, S; Herberg, J; Gjersing, E; Cook, A; Sawvel, A M; Maxwell, R; Wheeler, H; Wilson, M

    2006-09-27

    In an effort to develop a magnetic resonance based diagnostic tool to be used for polymer production and surveillance, we have investigated the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and unilateral relaxometry. MRI provides a spatial map of the polymer, which can be correlated to the structure heterogeneity. Though highly detailed information can be obtained with MRI, the high equipment cost and expertise required to operate the system makes it a poor choice for a production setting. Unilateral relaxometry via the NMR MOUSE provides rapid, inexpensive polymer screening, useful in the development in new polymer parts or to identify potentially defective components. The NMR ProFiler (originally called the NMR MOUSE) was procured by Kansas City originally for production support of the W80 LEP with future applications as a surveillance diagnostic. A robotic autosampler has been designed allowing the detection of several components without the need for any human interaction. A summary of the qualification experiments and results to date from the ProFiler and the robotic unit will be presented.

  3. Hospital-based surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Herini, Elisabeth Siti; Gunadi; Triono, Agung; Mulyadi, Asal Wahyuni Erlin; Mardin, Niprida; Rusipah; Soenarto, Yati; Reef, Susan E

    2017-03-01

    Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, and severe birth defects in infants, resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. However, rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in Indonesia. This study aimed (1) to estimate the incidence of CRS in Indonesia, (2) describe the clinical features of CRS at our referral hospital, and (3) pilot a CRS surveillance system to be extended to other hospitals. We conducted a 4-month prospective surveillance study of infants aged <1 year with suspected CRS in 2013 at an Indonesian hospital. Infants with suspected CRS were examined for rubella-specific IgM antibody or rubella IgG antibody levels. Of 47 suspected cases of CRS, 11/47 (23.4%), 9/47 (19.1%), and 27/47 (57.5%) were diagnosed as laboratory-confirmed, clinically compatible, and discarded CRS, respectively. The most common defects among laboratory-confirmed CRS cases were hearing impairment (100%), congenital cataracts (72.7%), microcephaly (72.7%), and congenital heart defects (45.5%). The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants is high. Furthermore, hearing impairment is the most common clinical feature of CRS in infants. Our findings indicate the importance of implementation of rubella vaccine in Indonesia. Conducting hospital-based surveillance of CRS in other hospitals in Indonesia may be appropriate. What is Known: •Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) has serious consequences in infants resulting from rubella virus infection during pregnancy. •The incidence of CRS in most developed countries has greatly decreased since implementation of rubella vaccination. •Rubella vaccine has not yet been implemented in many developing countries. What is New: •The number of laboratory-confirmed CRS cases among Indonesian infants was high. •Implementation of rubella vaccine into immunization programs in Indonesia is important because of the high number of CRS cases. •Our study

  4. Verification of Neonatal Tetanus Surveillance Systems in Katsina State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nass, Shafique Sani; Danawi, Hadi; Cain, Loretta; Sharma, Monoj

    2017-01-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of neonatal tetanus (NNT) remain underreported in Nigeria. The goal of the study was to compare the NNT prevalence and the mortality rates from the existing surveillance system and active surveillance of health facility records in 7 selected health facilities from 2010 to 2014 in Katsina State, Nigeria. The study is a retrospective record review using extracted data from NNT records and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The prevalence of NNT and mortality rate were 336 cases and 3.4 deaths per 100 000 population, respectively, whereas the prevalence of NNT and mortality rate reported through the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) system were 111 cases and 1.0 death per 100 000 population, respectively. The study shows underreporting of NNT in the existing IDSR system. Active surveillance is a good strategy for verifying underreporting of NNT in the surveillance system. The IDSR system should be strengthened with the capacity to detect events associated with a disease toward global elimination.

  5. Visual surveillance system for detection of moving objects by scene modelization in uncontrolled robotic environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    There is a growing demand for an automatic surveillance system for road traffic data and industrial workroom environments. These data are required for surveillance and control. The problem of diagnostic intruders in a dangerous areas, knocks generally to the illumination changes. From the beginning of this work, it was stated that, the device had to supervise a robotic environment, in real time, in order to detect the abnormal situations. This paper describes implementation of a fast algorithm of surveillance system that performs tracking of robot's manipulator arm and detection of moving objects. The aim of this work is to avoid collision between human and moving machines. This paper presents a new approach of surveillance allowing unpredictable robotics tasks and tolerant independent illumination changes. We present in our paper an original method to modelize the scene by an image spatial sampling and an algorithm to detect moving objects. The detection is based on the observation of changes between a reference and the current images.

  6. Preventable maternal mortality: Geographic/rural-urban differences and associated factors from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Most maternal deaths in developing countries can be prevented. China is among the 13 countries with the most maternal deaths; however, there has been a marked decrease in the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) over the last 3 decades. China's reduction in the MMR has contributed significantly to the global decline of the MMR. This study examined the geographic and rural-urban differences, time trends and related factors in preventable maternal deaths in China during 1996-2005, with the aim of providing reliable evidence for effective interventions. Methods Data were retrieved from the population-based maternal mortality surveillance system in China. Each death was reviewed by three committees to determine whether it was avoidable. The preventable maternal mortality ratio (PMMR), the ratios of PMMR (risk ratio, RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to analyze regional disparities (coastal, inland and remote regions) and rural-urban variations. Time trends in the MMR, along with underlying causes and associated factors of death, were also analysed. Results Overall, 86.1% of maternal mortality was preventable. The RR of preventable maternal mortality adjusted by region was 2.79 (95% CI 2.42-3.21) and 2.38 (95% CI: 2.01-2.81) in rural areas compared to urban areas during the 1996-2000 and 2001-2005 periods, respectively. Meanwhile, the RR was the highest in remote areas, which was 4.80(95%CI: 4.10-5.61) and 4.74(95%CI: 3.86-5.83) times as much as that of coastal areas. Obstetric haemorrhage accounted for over 50% of preventable deaths during the 2001-2005 period. Insufficient information about pregnancy among women in remote areas and out-of-date knowledge and skills of health professionals and substandard obstetric services in coastal regions were the factors frequently associated with MMR. Conclusions Preventable maternal mortality and the distribution of its associated factors in China revealed obvious regional differences. The PMMR was higher in

  7. Colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.

    PubMed

    Lowell, Jennifer L; Eisen, Rebecca J; Schotthoefer, Anna M; Xiaocheng, Liang; Montenieri, John A; Tanda, Dale; Pape, John; Schriefer, Martin E; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2009-06-01

    Human plague risks (Yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. Therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor Y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. The primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in Colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague risk areas and whether these samples provided information useful for predicting human plague case locations. By comparing locations of plague-positive animal samples with a previously constructed GIS-based plague risk model, we determined that the majority of plague-positive Gunnison's prairie dogs (100%) and non-prairie dog sciurids (85.82%), and moderately high percentages of sigmodontine rodents (71.4%), domestic cats (69.3%), coyotes (62.9%), and domestic dogs (62.5%) were recovered within 1 km of the nearest area posing high peridomestic risk to humans. In contrast, the majority of white-tailed prairie dog (66.7%), leporid (cottontailed and jack rabbits) (71.4%), and black-tailed prairie dog (93.0%) samples originated more than 1 km from the nearest human risk habitat. Plague-positive animals or their fleas were rarely (one of 19 cases) collected within 2 km of a case exposure site during the 24 months preceding the dates of illness onset for these cases. Low spatial accuracy for identifying epizootic activity prior to human plague cases suggested that other mammalian species or their fleas are likely more important sources of human infection in high plague risk areas. To address this issue, epidemiological observations and multi-locus variable number tandem repeat analyses (MLVA) were used to preliminarily identify chipmunks as an under-sampled, but potentially important, species for human plague risk in Colorado.

  8. The design and implementation of a new surveillance system for venous thromboembolism using combined active and passive methods

    PubMed Central

    Wendelboe, Aaron M.; Campbell, Janis; McCumber, Micah; Bratzler, Dale; Ding, Kai; Beckman, Michele; Reyes, Nimia; Raskob, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Estimates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) incidence in the United States are limited by lack of a national surveillance system. We implemented a population-based surveillance system in Oklahoma County, OK, for April 1, 2012 to March 31, 2014, to estimate the incidences of first-time and recurrent VTE events, VTE-related mortality, and the proportion of case patients with provoked versus unprovoked VTE. The Commissioner of Health made VTE a reportable condition and delegated surveillance-related responsibilities to the University of Oklahoma, College of Public Health. The surveillance system included active and passive methods. Active surveillance involved reviewing imaging studies (such as chest computed tomography and compression ultrasounds) from all inpatient and outpatient facilities. Interrater agreement between surveillance officers collecting data was assessed using κ. Passive surveillance used International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes from hospital discharge data to identify cases. The sensitivity and specificity of various ICD-9–based case definitions will be assessed by comparison with cases identified through active surveillance. As of February 1, 2015, we screened 54,494 (99.5%) of the imaging studies and identified 2,725 case patients, of which 91.6% were from inpatient facilities, and 8.4% were from outpatient facilities. Agreement between surveillance officers was high (κ ≥0.61 for 93.2% of variables). Agreement for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis was κ = 0.92 (95% CI 0.74-1.00) and κ = 0.89 (95% CI 0.71-1.00), respectively. This surveillance system will provide data on the accuracy of ICD-9–based case definitions for surveillance of VTE events and help the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention develop a national VTE surveillance system. PMID:26385027

  9. Comparative evaluation of three surveillance systems for infectious equine diseases in France and implications for future synergies.

    PubMed

    Amat, J P; Hendrikx, P; Tapprest, J; Leblond, A; Dufour, B

    2015-10-01

    It is necessary to assess surveillance systems for infectious animal diseases to ensure they meet their objectives and provide high-quality health information. Each system is generally dedicated to one disease and often comprises various components. In many animal industries, several surveillance systems are implemented separately even if they are based on similar components. This lack of synergy may prevent optimal surveillance. The purpose of this study was to assess several surveillance systems within the same industry using the semi-quantitative OASIS method and to compare the results of the assessments in order to propose improvements, including future synergies. We have focused on the surveillance of three major equine diseases in France. We have identified the mutual and specific strengths and weaknesses of each surveillance system. Furthermore, the comparative assessment has highlighted many possible synergies that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of surveillance as a whole, including the implementation of new joint tools or the pooling of existing teams, tools or skills. Our approach is an original application of the OASIS method, which requires minimal financial resources and is not very time-consuming. Such a comparative evaluation could conceivably be applied to other surveillance systems, other industries and other countries. This approach would be especially relevant to enhance the efficiency of surveillance activities when resources are limited.

  10. 76 FR 62321 - Airworthiness Directives; Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) Units AGENCY... certain Aviation Communication & Surveillance Systems (ACSS) traffic alert and collision avoidance system... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Aviation...

  11. The Missile Defense Agency's space tracking and surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, John; Zondervan, Keith

    2008-10-01

    The Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) is a layered system incorporating elements in space. In addition to missile warning systems at geosynchronous altitudes, an operational BMDS will include a low Earth orbit (LEO) system-the Space Tracking and Surveillance System (STSS). It will use infrared sensing technologies synergistically with the Space Based Infrared Systems (SBIRS) and will provide a seamless adjunct to radars and sensors on the ground and in airborne platforms. STSS is being designed for a future operational capability to defend against evolving threats. STSS development is divided into phases, commencing with a two-satellite demonstration constellation scheduled for launch in 2008. The demonstration satellites will conduct a menu of tests and experiments to prove the system concept, including the ground segment. They will have limited operational capability within the integrated BMDS. Data from the demonstration satellites will be received and processed by the Missile Defense Space Experiment Center (MDSEC), a part of the Missile Defense Integration and Operations Center (MDIOC). MDA launched in 2007 into LEO a satellite (NFIRE) designed to make near-field multispectral measurements of boosting targets and to demonstrate laser communication, the latter in conjunction with the German satellite TerraSAR-X. The gimbaled, lightweight laser terminal has demonstrated on orbit a 5.5 gbps rate in both directions. The filter passbands of NFIRE are similar to the STSS demonstrator track sensor. While providing useful phenomenology during its time on orbit, NFIRE will also serve as a pathfinder in the development of STSS operations procedures.

  12. Information Systems to Support Surveillance for Malaria Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W.; Sturrock, Hugh J. W.; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y.; Gosling, Roly D.

    2015-01-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination. PMID:26013378

  13. Information systems to support surveillance for malaria elimination.

    PubMed

    Ohrt, Colin; Roberts, Kathryn W; Sturrock, Hugh J W; Wegbreit, Jennifer; Lee, Bruce Y; Gosling, Roly D

    2015-07-01

    Robust and responsive surveillance systems are critical for malaria elimination. The ideal information system that supports malaria elimination includes: rapid and complete case reporting, incorporation of related data, such as census or health survey information, central data storage and management, automated and expert data analysis, and customized outputs and feedback that lead to timely and targeted responses. Spatial information enhances such a system, ensuring cases are tracked and mapped over time. Data sharing and coordination across borders are vital and new technologies can improve data speed, accuracy, and quality. Parts of this ideal information system exist and are in use, but have yet to be linked together coherently. Malaria elimination programs should support the implementation and refinement of information systems to support surveillance and response and ensure political and financial commitment to maintain the systems and the human resources needed to run them. National malaria programs should strive to improve the access and utility of these information systems and establish cross-border data sharing mechanisms through the use of standard indicators for malaria surveillance. Ultimately, investment in the information technologies that support a timely and targeted surveillance and response system is essential for malaria elimination.

  14. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  15. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  16. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... surveillance systems operated by law enforcement, fire or emergency rescue organizations or by manufacturers... 90 of this chapter. (2) The operation of imaging systems under this section requires coordination, as... of this device is restricted to law enforcement, fire and rescue officials, public utilities,...

  17. Electronic tuberculosis surveillance systems: a tool for managing today's TB programs.

    PubMed

    Nadol, P; Stinson, K W; Coggin, W; Naicker, M; Wells, C D; Miller, B; Nelson, L J

    2008-03-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) released the Stop TB Strategy in 2006, along with a revised version of the tuberculosis (TB) recording and reporting forms and register. These publications illustrate the need for an enhanced TB surveillance system that will include such key elements as rapid assessment of the quality of DOTS services; integration and response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic; TB control challenges, such as increased smear-negative and extra-pulmonary TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB); increased engagement of all care providers, such as private health care services and the community; and promotion of research to support program improvement. Electronic surveillance systems utilize computer technology to facilitate the capture, transfer and reporting of the WHO-recommended TB data elements. Electronic surveillance offers several potential advantages over the traditional paper-based systems used in many low-resource settings, such as improved data quality and completeness, more feasible links to other health care programs, quality-enhanced data entry and analysis features and increased data security. These advantages must, however, be weighed against the requirements and costs of electronic surveillance, including implementation and support of a quality paper-based surveillance system and the additional costs associated with infrastructure, training and human resources for the implementation and continuing support of an electronic system. Using examples from three different electronic TB surveillance systems that are being implemented in various resource-limited settings, this article demonstrates the feasibility, requirements and value of such systems to support the WHO-recommended enhancement of TB surveillance.

  18. Life and times: The development of a digital video surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Over the past few years Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Safeguards Systems Group has been working to develop an image-based digital surveillance system designed to provide continuous monitoring of nuclear materials in storage or process. The goal of such a system is to provide automated technologies that will ensure the security of the nuclear materials and ultimately reduce the frequency of required physical inventories. This paper discusses the highlights and low-lights we have encountered while designing, developing, and field-testing a digital video surveillance system.

  19. Comparing national infectious disease surveillance systems: China and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Vlieg, Willemijn L; Fanoy, Ewout B; van Asten, Liselotte; Liu, Xiaobo; Yang, Jun; Pilot, Eva; Bijkerk, Paul; van der Hoek, Wim; Krafft, Thomas; van der Sande, Marianne A; Liu, Qi-Yong

    2017-05-08

    Risk assessment and early warning (RAEW) are essential components of any infectious disease surveillance system. In light of the International Health Regulations (IHR)(2005), this study compares the organisation of RAEW in China and the Netherlands. The respective approaches towards surveillance of arboviral disease and unexplained pneumonia were analysed to gain a better understanding of the RAEW mode of operation. This study may be used to explore options for further strengthening of global collaboration and timely detection and surveillance of infectious disease outbreaks. A qualitative study design was used, combining data retrieved from the literature and from semi-structured interviews with Chinese (5 national-level and 6 provincial-level) and Dutch (5 national-level) experts. The results show that some differences exist such as in the use of automated electronic components of the early warning system in China ('CIDARS'), compared to a more limited automated component in the Netherlands ('barometer'). Moreover, RAEW units in the Netherlands focus exclusively on infectious diseases, while China has a broader 'all hazard' approach (including for example chemical incidents). In the Netherlands, veterinary specialists take part at the RAEW meetings, to enable a structured exchange/assessment of zoonotic signals. Despite these differences, the main conclusion is that for the two infections studied, the early warning system in China and the Netherlands are remarkably similar considering their large differences in infectious disease history, population size and geographical setting. Our main recommendations are continued emphasis on international corporation that requires insight into national infectious disease surveillance systems, the usage of a One Health approach in infectious disease surveillance, and further exploration/strengthening of a combined syndromic and laboratory surveillance system.

  20. Health & demographic surveillance system profile: the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Northern Nigeria (Nahuche HDSS).

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olatunji; Doctor, Henry V; Jumare, Abdulazeez; Sahabi, Nasiru; Abdulwahab, Ahmad; Findley, Sally E; Abubakar, Sani D

    2014-12-01

    The Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) study site, established in 2009 with 137 823 individuals is located in Zamfara State, north western Nigeria. North-West Nigeria is a region with one of the worst maternal and child health indicators in Nigeria. For example, the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey estimated an under-five mortality rate of 185 deaths per 1000 live births for the north-west geo-political zone compared with a national average of 128 deaths per 1000 live births. The site comprises over 100 villages under the leadership of six district heads. Virtually all the residents of the catchment population are Hausa by ethnicity. After a baseline census in 2010, regular update rounds of data collection are conducted every 6 months. Data collection on births, deaths, migration events, pregnancies, marriages and marriage termination events are routinely conducted. Verbal autopsy (VA) data are collected on all deaths reported during routine data collection. Annual update data on antenatal care and household characteristics are also collected. Opportunities for collaborations are available at Nahuche HDSS. The Director of Nahuche HDSS, M.O. Oche at [ochedr@hotmail.com] is the contact person for all forms of collaboration.

  1. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Malaviya, Paritosh; Picado, Albert; Hasker, Epco; Ostyn, Bart; Kansal, Sangeeta; Singh, Rudra Pratap; Shankar, Ravi; Boelaert, Marleen; Sundar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    The Muzaffarpur-TMRC Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS), established in 2007, was developed as an enlargement of the scope of a research collaboration on the project Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, which had been ongoing since 2005. The HDSS is located in a visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-endemic area in the Muzaffarpur district of Bihar state in India. It is the only HDSS conducting research on VL, which is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by female phlebotomine sandflies and is fatal if left untreated. Currently the HDSS serves a population of over 105 000 in 66 villages. The HDSS collects data on vital events including pregnancies, births, deaths, migration and marriages, as well as other socio-economic indicators, at regular intervals. Incident VL cases are identified. The HDSS team is experienced in conducting both qualitative and quantitative studies, sample collection and rapid diagnostic tests in the field. In each village, volunteers connect the HDSS team with the community members. The Muzaffarpur-TMRC HDSS provides opportunities for studies on VL and other neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) and their interaction with demographic events such as migration. Queries related to research collaborations and data sharing can be sent to Dr Shyam Sundar at [drshyamsundar@hotmail.com]. PMID:25186307

  2. [Automated fertility and health surveillance systems in dairy cows. A review].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Lisa; Martin, Rainer; Zerbe, Holm

    2016-08-17

    Automated surveillance systems have become increasingly important in dairy farming. This can be attributed to an increasing farm size with unaltered employee numbers, higher susceptibility of high-yielding animals to diseases and a general constraint to work more cost effectively. A variety of surveillance systems for different areas of application in dairy cow management are currently available. However, their applicability has not always been supported by scientific validation. With regards to the considerable costs in installing and running surveillance systems and to evaluate their practical aspects, further analyses are desirable. Considering the progress in computer-based systems in recent years, we are anticipating rapid developments in automated animal surveillance in the near future. Consequently, the need arises for veterinarians to understand the principles underlying such systems, to be able to assess their efficacy and to be capable of evaluating data derived from these systems in order to advise farmers appropriately. The aim of this study was to assess the benefits and limitations of current surveillance systems for oestrus-detection, partus-alarm and monitoring health status mainly with regards to metabolic disorders in dairy cows, but also for other selected areas of health monitoring.

  3. Event-Based Surveillance During EXPO Milan 2015: Rationale, Tools, Procedures, and Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Manso, Martina Del; Caporali, Maria Grazia; Napoli, Christian; Linge, Jens P.; Mantica, Eleonora; Verile, Marco; Piatti, Alessandra; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Vellucci, Loredana; Costanzo, Virgilio; Bastiampillai, Anan Judina; Gabrielli, Eugenia; Gramegna, Maria; Declich, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    More than 21 million participants attended EXPO Milan from May to October 2015, making it one of the largest protracted mass gathering events in Europe. Given the expected national and international population movement and health security issues associated with this event, Italy fully implemented, for the first time, an event-based surveillance (EBS) system focusing on naturally occurring infectious diseases and the monitoring of biological agents with potential for intentional release. The system started its pilot phase in March 2015 and was fully operational between April and November 2015. In order to set the specific objectives of the EBS system, and its complementary role to indicator-based surveillance, we defined a list of priority diseases and conditions. This list was designed on the basis of the probability and possible public health impact of infectious disease transmission, existing statutory surveillance systems in place, and any surveillance enhancements during the mass gathering event. This article reports the methodology used to design the EBS system for EXPO Milan and the results of 8 months of surveillance. PMID:27314656

  4. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc; Raoult, Didier

    2015-08-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data-based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved.

  5. Real-Time Microbiology Laboratory Surveillance System to Detect Abnormal Events and Emerging Infections, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Abat, Cédric; Chaudet, Hervé; Colson, Philippe; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a major threat to humanity, and accurate surveillance is essential. We describe how to implement a laboratory data–based surveillance system in a clinical microbiology laboratory. Two historical Microsoft Excel databases were implemented. The data were then sorted and used to execute the following 2 surveillance systems in Excel: the Bacterial real-time Laboratory-based Surveillance System (BALYSES) for monitoring the number of patients infected with bacterial species isolated at least once in our laboratory during the study periodl and the Marseille Antibiotic Resistance Surveillance System (MARSS), which surveys the primary β-lactam resistance phenotypes for 15 selected bacterial species. The first historical database contained 174,853 identifications of bacteria, and the second contained 12,062 results of antibiotic susceptibility testing. From May 21, 2013, through June 4, 2014, BALYSES and MARSS enabled the detection of 52 abnormal events for 24 bacterial species, leading to 19 official reports. This system is currently being refined and improved. PMID:26196165

  6. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weirong; Palm, Lars; Lu, Xin; Nie, Shaofa; Xu, Biao; Zhao, Qi; Tao, Tao; Cheng, Liwei; Tan, Li; Dong, Hengjin; Diwan, Vinod K

    2013-01-01

    Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS) for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP), combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1) work group and communication group; 2) data source and collection; 3) data visualization; and 4) outbreak detection and alerting. As of Jan. 31(st) 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  7. Lens Systems for Sky Surveys and Space Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.; Zimmer, P.

    2013-09-01

    Since the early days of astrophotography, lens systems have played a key role in capturing images of the night sky. The first images were attempted with visual-refractors. These were soon followed with color-corrected refractors and finally specially designed photo-refractors. Being telescopes, these instruments were of long-focus and imaged narrow fields of view. Simple photographic lenses were soon put into service to capture wide-field images. These lenses also had the advantage of requiring shorter exposure times than possible using large refractors. Eventually, lenses were specifically designed for astrophotography. With the introduction of the Schmidt-camera and related catadioptric systems, the popularity of astrograph lenses declined, but surprisingly, a few remained in use. Over the last 30 years, as small CCDs have displaced large photographic plates, lens systems have again found favor for their ability to image great swaths of sky in a relatively small and simple package. In this paper, we follow the development of lens-based astrograph systems from their beginnings through the current use of both commercial and custom lens systems for sky surveys and space surveillance. Some of the optical milestones discussed include the early Petzval-type portrait lenses, the Ross astrographic lens and the current generation of optics such as the commercial 200mm camera lens by Canon, and the Russian VT-53e in service with ISON.

  8. Practical issues in the measurement of child survival in health systems trials: experience developing a digital community-based mortality surveillance programme in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Harsha Bangura, Alex; Ozonoff, Al; Citrin, David; Thapa, Poshan; Nirola, Isha; Maru, Sheela; Schwarz, Ryan; Raut, Anant; Belbase, Bishal; Halliday, Scott; Adhikari, Mukesh; Maru, Duncan

    2016-11-01

    Child mortality measurement is essential to the impact evaluation of maternal and child healthcare systems interventions. In the absence of vital statistics systems, however, assessment methodologies for locally relevant interventions are severely challenged. Methods for assessing the under-5 mortality rate for cross-country comparisons, often used in determining progress towards development targets, pose challenges to implementers and researchers trying to assess the population impact of targeted interventions at more local levels. Here, we discuss the programmatic approach we have taken to mortality measurement in the context of delivering healthcare via a public-private partnership in rural Nepal. Both government officials and the delivery organisation, Possible, felt it was important to understand child mortality at a fine-grain spatial and temporal level. We discuss both the short-term and the long-term approach. In the short term, the team chose to use the under-2 mortality rate as a metric for mortality measurement for the following reasons: (1) as overall childhood mortality declines, like it has in rural Nepal, deaths concentrate among children under the age of 2; (2) 2-year cohorts are shorter and thus may show an impact more readily in the short term of intervention trials; and (3) 2-year cohorts are smaller, making prospective census cohorts more feasible in small populations. In the long term, Possible developed a digital continuous surveillance system to capture deaths as they occur, at which point under-5 mortality assessment would be desirable, largely owing to its role as a global standard.

  9. Performance Assessment of a Communicable Disease Surveillance System in Response to the Twin Earthquakes of East Azerbaijan.

    PubMed

    Babaie, Javad; Ardalan, Ali; Vatandoost, Hasan; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Following the twin earthquakes on August 11, 2012, in the East Azerbaijan province of Iran, the provincial health center set up a surveillance system to monitor communicable diseases. This study aimed to assess the performance of this surveillance system. In this quantitative-qualitative study, performance of the communicable diseases surveillance system was assessed by using the updated guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Qualitative data were collected through interviews with the surveillance system participants, and quantitative data were obtained from the surveillance system. The surveillance system was useful, simple, representative, timely, and flexible. The data quality, acceptability, and stability of the surveillance system were 65.6%, 10.63%, and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity and positive predictive value were not calculated owing to the absence of a gold standard. The surveillance system satisfactorily met the goals expected for its setup. The data obtained led to the control of communicable diseases in the affected areas. Required interventions based on the incidence of communicable disease were designed and implemented. The results also reassured health authorities and the public. However, data quality and acceptability should be taken into consideration and reviewed for implementation in future disasters.

  10. Perspectives on sensor based containment and surveillance technologies : gaps and trends.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeneman, Barry Dale

    2010-06-01

    To maintain effective containment surveillance (CS) system capabilities, the requirements for such systems must continue to evolve outpacing diversion capabilities, reduce costs, and meet the needs of the looming nuclear renaissance. What are the future sensor-based capabilities that must be available to support growing CS requirements and what are the technologies needed to provide the underlying capabilities? This presentation is intended to discuss the present gaps in sensor-based containment and surveillance relevant technologies, and future development trends which may address these gaps. Consumer driven technology development will represent a component rich source of technologies and devices that can find application in containment and surveillance tools helping to minimize the technology gaps. Recognizing and utilizing these sources is paramount to cost effective solutions. Where these gaps cannot be addressed by consumer based development, custom, CS specific approaches are the only solution.

  11. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project

    PubMed Central

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents’ obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data. The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have. This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries’ needs and priorities. The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries’ Health Services for monitoring adolescents’ obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles. PMID:27015195

  12. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    PubMed

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  13. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  14. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  15. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  16. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  17. 32 CFR 637.20 - Security surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Security surveillance systems. 637.20 Section 637.20 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MILITARY POLICE INVESTIGATION Investigations § 637.20 Security...

  18. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  19. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of…

  20. 47 CFR 15.511 - Technical requirements for surveillance systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for surveillance systems. 15.511 Section 15.511 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY... limits specified in the table in paragraph (c) of this section, UWB transmitters operating under the...

  1. Design of natural user interface of indoor surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; Liu, Dan; Jiang, Mu-Jin; Cao, Ning

    2015-03-01

    Conventional optical video surveillance systems usually just record what they view, but they can't make sense of what they are viewing. With lots of useless video information stored and transmitted, waste of memory space and increasing the bandwidth are produced every day. In order to reduce the overall cost of the system, and improve the application value of the monitoring system, we use the Kinect sensor with CMOS infrared sensor, as a supplement to the traditional video surveillance system, to establish the natural user interface system for indoor surveillance. In this paper, the architecture of the natural user interface system, complex background monitoring object separation, user behavior analysis algorithms are discussed. By the analysis of the monitoring object, instead of the command language grammar, when the monitored object need instant help, the system with the natural user interface sends help information. We introduce the method of combining the new system and traditional monitoring system. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. It can satisfy the system requirements of non-contact, online, real time, higher precision and rapid speed to control the state of affairs at the scene.

  2. An autonomous surveillance system for blind sources localization and separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Sean; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Duraiswamy, Srikanth

    2013-05-01

    This paper aims at developing a new technology that will enable one to conduct an autonomous and silent surveillance to monitor sound sources stationary or moving in 3D space and a blind separation of target acoustic signals. The underlying principle of this technology is a hybrid approach that uses: 1) passive sonic detection and ranging method that consists of iterative triangulation and redundant checking to locate the Cartesian coordinates of arbitrary sound sources in 3D space, 2) advanced signal processing to sanitizing the measured data and enhance signal to noise ratio, and 3) short-time source localization and separation to extract the target acoustic signals from the directly measured mixed ones. A prototype based on this technology has been developed and its hardware includes six B and K 1/4-in condenser microphones, Type 4935, two 4-channel data acquisition units, Type NI-9234, with a maximum sampling rate of 51.2kS/s per channel, one NI-cDAQ 9174 chassis, a thermometer to measure the air temperature, a camera to view the relative positions of located sources, and a laptop to control data acquisition and post processing. Test results for locating arbitrary sound sources emitting continuous, random, impulsive, and transient signals, and blind separation of signals in various non-ideal environments is presented. This system is invisible to any anti-surveillance device since it uses the acoustic signal emitted by a target source. It can be mounted on a robot or an unmanned vehicle to perform various covert operations, including intelligence gathering in an open or a confined field, or to carry out the rescue mission to search people trapped inside ruins or buried under wreckages.

  3. A national framework for an antimicrobial resistance surveillance system within Iranian healthcare facilities: Towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Safdari, Reza; GhaziSaeedi, Marjan; Masoumi-Asl, Hossein; Rezaei-Hachesu, Peyman; Mirnia, Kayvan; Samad-Soltani, Taha

    2017-09-01

    The threat of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is growing rapidly, perhaps more dramatically in developing countries. A demand to monitor, surveil and predict AMR has prompted the design and implementation of AMR surveillance systems (AMRSSs) at all geographic levels, especially in the national context. This study reviewed AMRSSs in leading countries and organisations in order to customise a comprehensive framework for a national system in Iran. The research was conducted in two phases: a review of the literature and comparative analysis; and a knowledge, attitude and practice study. In the first phase, the AMRSSs of pioneering organisations and countries were reviewed by examining related documents. In the second phase, important components for the Iranian national system were determined on the basis of the World Health Organization's Global Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (WHO GLASS). This study determined the surveillance methods, priority specimens and pathogens, testing methods, reporting protocols and scheduling, recommended data sets, and tools and information flow necessary for the Iranian system. On this basis, a national framework was developed using the class and activity diagrams in Unified Modelling Language. A context diagram was also designed on the basis of a generic biosurveillance architecture. The design and implementation of a national AMRSS for Iranian healthcare facilities is critically required because of irrational antimicrobial use in Iran and insufficient data regarding its consequences. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Event communication in a regional disease surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Loschen, Wayne; Coberly, Jacqueline; Sniegoski, Carol; Holtry, Rekha; Sikes, Marvin; Happel Lewis, Sheryl

    2007-10-11

    When real-time disease surveillance is practiced in neighboring states within a region, public health users may benefit from easily sharing their concerns and findings regarding potential health threats. To better understand the need for this capability, an event communications component (ECC) was added to the National Capital Region Disease Surveillance System, an operational biosurveillance system employed in the District of Columbia and in surrounding Maryland and Virginia counties. Through usage analysis and user survey methods, we assessed the value of the enhanced system in daily operational use and during two simulated exercises. Results suggest that the system has utility for regular users of the system as well as suggesting several refinements for future implementations.

  5. Integrated biological-behavioural surveillance in pandemic-threat warning systems.

    PubMed

    Miller, Maureen; Hagan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Economically and politically disruptive disease outbreaks are a hallmark of the 21st century. Although pandemics are driven by human behaviours, current surveillance systems for identifying pandemic threats are largely reliant on the monitoring of disease outcomes in clinical settings. Standardized integrated biological-behavioural surveillance could, and should, be used in community settings to complement such clinical monitoring. The usefulness of such an approach has already been demonstrated in studies on human immunodeficiency virus, where integrated surveillance contributed to a biologically based and quantifiable understanding of the behavioural risk factors associated with the transmission dynamics of the virus. When designed according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria, integrated surveillance requires that both behavioural risk factors - i.e. exposure variables - and disease-indicator outcome variables be measured in behavioural surveys. In the field of pandemic threats, biological outcome data could address the weaknesses of self-reported data collected in behavioural surveys. Data from serosurveys of viruses with pandemic potential, collected under non-outbreak conditions, indicate that serosurveillance could be used to predict future outbreaks. When conducted together, behavioural surveys and serosurveys could warn of future pandemics, potentially before the disease appears in clinical settings. Traditional disease-outcome surveillance must be frequent and ongoing to remain useful but behavioural surveillance remains informative even if conducted much less often, since behaviour change occurs slowly over time. Only through knowledge of specific behavioural risk factors can interventions and policies that can prevent the next pandemic be developed.

  6. Evaluation of a Multivariate Syndromic Surveillance System for West Nile Virus.

    PubMed

    Faverjon, Céline; Andersson, M Gunnar; Decors, Anouk; Tapprest, Jackie; Tritz, Pierre; Sandoz, Alain; Kutasi, Orsolya; Sala, Carole; Leblond, Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Various methods are currently used for the early detection of West Nile virus (WNV) but their outputs are not quantitative and/or do not take into account all available information. Our study aimed to test a multivariate syndromic surveillance system to evaluate if the sensitivity and the specificity of detection of WNV could be improved. Weekly time series data on nervous syndromes in horses and mortality in both horses and wild birds were used. Baselines were fitted to the three time series and used to simulate 100 years of surveillance data. WNV outbreaks were simulated and inserted into the baselines based on historical data and expert opinion. Univariate and multivariate syndromic surveillance systems were tested to gauge how well they detected the outbreaks; detection was based on an empirical Bayesian approach. The systems' performances were compared using measures of sensitivity, specificity, and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). When data sources were considered separately (i.e., univariate systems), the best detection performance was obtained using the data set of nervous symptoms in horses compared to those of bird and horse mortality (AUCs equal to 0.80, 0.75, and 0.50, respectively). A multivariate outbreak detection system that used nervous symptoms in horses and bird mortality generated the best performance (AUC = 0.87). The proposed approach is suitable for performing multivariate syndromic surveillance of WNV outbreaks. This is particularly relevant, given that a multivariate surveillance system performed better than a univariate approach. Such a surveillance system could be especially useful in serving as an alert for the possibility of human viral infections. This approach can be also used for other diseases for which multiple sources of evidence are available.

  7. Practical issues in the measurement of child survival in health systems trials: experience developing a digital community-based mortality surveillance programme in rural Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Harsha Bangura, Alex; Ozonoff, Al; Citrin, David; Thapa, Poshan; Nirola, Isha; Maru, Sheela; Schwarz, Ryan; Raut, Anant; Belbase, Bishal; Halliday, Scott; Adhikari, Mukesh; Maru, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Child mortality measurement is essential to the impact evaluation of maternal and child healthcare systems interventions. In the absence of vital statistics systems, however, assessment methodologies for locally relevant interventions are severely challenged. Methods for assessing the under-5 mortality rate for cross-country comparisons, often used in determining progress towards development targets, pose challenges to implementers and researchers trying to assess the population impact of targeted interventions at more local levels. Here, we discuss the programmatic approach we have taken to mortality measurement in the context of delivering healthcare via a public–private partnership in rural Nepal. Both government officials and the delivery organisation, Possible, felt it was important to understand child mortality at a fine-grain spatial and temporal level. We discuss both the short-term and the long-term approach. In the short term, the team chose to use the under-2 mortality rate as a metric for mortality measurement for the following reasons: (1) as overall childhood mortality declines, like it has in rural Nepal, deaths concentrate among children under the age of 2; (2) 2-year cohorts are shorter and thus may show an impact more readily in the short term of intervention trials; and (3) 2-year cohorts are smaller, making prospective census cohorts more feasible in small populations. In the long term, Possible developed a digital continuous surveillance system to capture deaths as they occur, at which point under-5 mortality assessment would be desirable, largely owing to its role as a global standard. PMID:28588974

  8. Millimeter-wave high-resolution holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.; Smith, Russell R.

    1994-03-01

    A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 X 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A 1D mechanical scan can be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05 m. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  9. NASA's Systems Engineering Approaches for Addressing Public Health Surveillance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vann, Timi

    2003-01-01

    NASA's systems engineering has its heritage in space mission analysis and design, including the end-to-end approach to managing every facet of the extreme engineering required for successful space missions. NASA sensor technology, understanding of remote sensing, and knowledge of Earth system science, can be powerful new tools for improved disease surveillance and environmental public health tracking. NASA's systems engineering framework facilitates the match between facilitates the match between partner needs and decision support requirements in the areas of 1) Science/Data; 2) Technology; 3) Integration. Partnerships between NASA and other Federal agencies are diagrammed in this viewgraph presentation. NASA's role in these partnerships is to provide systemic and sustainable solutions that contribute to the measurable enhancement of a partner agency's disease surveillance efforts.

  10. Surveillance system sensitivities and probability of freedom from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in Swedish cattle.

    PubMed

    Frössling, Jenny; Wahlström, Helene; Agren, Estelle Carina Constance; Cameron, Angus; Lindberg, Ann; Sternberg Lewerin, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations suggest that the prevalence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Swedish cattle is low and all recent cases have been linked to imported animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surveillance system for MAP infection in Swedish cattle and to estimate the probability that the Swedish cattle population is free from this infection. Calculations of surveillance sensitivities and probability of freedom were made using stochastic scenario-tree modelling, which allows inclusion of information from several different sources, of complex surveillance data including results from non-representative sampling, as well as of documentations of differences in risk of being infected. The surveillance components included in the model were: (1) clinical surveillance, (2) fallen stock investigations, (3) the national surveillance programme (mainly beef herds), (4) a survey involving dairy herds and (5) a risk-based survey targeting herds with imported cattle. Previous or current presence of imported animals and participation in the on-going control programme was specified for each tested herd, in order to adjust for differences in risk. Calculations were made for each year from the start of 2005 to the end of 2008, and this formed the basis for a final estimate covering the whole study period and predictions of future probabilities of freedom from MAP. Results show that when applying a design prevalence of one animal in 0.1% of the herds, the probability of freedom at the end of 2008 was 0.63. At the design prevalence of one animal in 0.5% of herds, the estimated probability is >95% and it is demonstrated that the prevalence of MAP in Swedish cattle is below this level or absent. In order to increase the annual surveillance sensitivity in the future and thereby improve the probability of freedom, new surveillance activities or an intensification of current ones are needed.

  11. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India

    PubMed Central

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. Objective The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. Design We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. Results In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension (n=622, 41%) and diabetes (n=460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% (n=13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority (n=63, 50%) submitting 1–10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants (n=104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. Conclusions The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation

  12. Involving private healthcare practitioners in an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system: lessons learned from Pune, India.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Mareike; Phalkey, Revati; Dutta, Sayani; Shukla, Sharvari; Butsch, Carsten; Bharucha, Erach; Kraas, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on public health in India, lack of quality data and routine surveillance hampers the planning process for NCD prevention and control. Current surveillance programs focus largely on communicable diseases and do not adequately include the private healthcare sector as a major source of care in cities. The objective of the study was to conceptualize, implement, and evaluate a prototype for an urban NCD sentinel surveillance system among private healthcare practitioners providing primary care in Pune, India. We mapped all private healthcare providers in three selected areas of the city, conducted a knowledge, attitude, and practice survey with regard to surveillance among 258 consenting practitioners, and assessed their willingness to participate in a routine NCD surveillance system. In total, 127 practitioners agreed and were included in a 6-month surveillance study. Data on first-time diagnoses of 10 selected NCDs alongside basic demographic and socioeconomic patient information were collected onsite on a monthly basis using a paper-based register. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. In total, 1,532 incident cases were recorded that mainly included hypertension (n=622, 41%) and diabetes (n=460, 30%). Dropout rate was 10% (n=13). The monthly reporting consistency was quite constant, with the majority (n=63, 50%) submitting 1-10 cases in 6 months. Average number of submitted cases was highest among allopathic practitioners (17.4). A majority of the participants (n=104, 91%) agreed that the surveillance design could be scaled up to cover the entire city. The study indicates that private primary healthcare providers (allopathic and alternate medicine practitioners) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment of NCDs and can be involved in NCD surveillance, if certain barriers are addressed. Main barriers observed were lack of regulation of the private sector, cross-practices among

  13. Strengthening health security at the Hajj mass gatherings: characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems operational during the 2015 Hajj.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Badriah M; Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdul-Aziz A; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Alawam, Amnah H; Bieh, Kingsley L

    2017-05-01

    Hajj is one of the largest and the most ethnically and culturally diverse mass gatherings worldwide. The use of appropriate surveillance systems ensures timely information management for effective planning and response to infectious diseases threats during the pilgrimage. The literature describes infectious diseases prevention and control strategies for Hajj but with limited information on the operations and characteristics of the existing Hajj infectious diseases surveillance systems. We reviewed documents, including guidelines and reports from the Saudi Ministry of Health's database, to describe the characteristics of the infectious diseases surveillance systems that were operational during the 2015 Hajj, highlighting best practices and gaps and proposing strategies for strengthening and improvement. Using Pubmed and Embase online search engines and a combination of search terms including, 'mass gatherings' 'Olympics' 'surveillance' 'Hajj' 'health security', we explored the existing literature and highlighted some lessons learnt from other international mass gatherings. A regular indicator-based infectious disease surveillance system generates routine reports from health facilities within the Kingdom to the regional and central public health directorates all year round. During Hajj, enhanced indicator-based notifiable diseases surveillance systems complement the existing surveillance tool to ensure timely reporting of event information for appropriate action by public health officials. There is need to integrate the existing Hajj surveillance data management systems and to implement syndromic surveillance as an early warning system for infectious disease control during Hajj. International engagement is important to strengthen Hajj infectious diseases surveillance and to prevent disease transmission and globalization of infectious agents which could undermine global health security.

  14. Expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps

    DOEpatents

    Gross, Kenny C.; Singer, Ralph M.; Humenik, Keith E.

    1993-01-01

    An expert system for online surveillance of nuclear reactor coolant pumps. This system provides a means for early detection of pump or sensor degradation. Degradation is determined through the use of a statistical analysis technique, sequential probability ratio test, applied to information from several sensors which are responsive to differing physical parameters. The results of sequential testing of the data provide the operator with an early warning of possible sensor or pump failure.

  15. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Ameh, Celestine A; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E; Olayinka, Adebola T

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 - 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 - 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 - 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 - 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 1.0 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: (3)2) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: (3)2), 0.6 (target: (3)2) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: (3)2) in 2012. Case definitions are simple and understood by

  16. Evaluation of the Measles Surveillance System in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Sufiyan, Muawiyyah B.; Jacob, Matthew; Waziri, Ndadilnasiya E.; Olayinka, Adebola T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the case-based measles surveillance system in Kaduna State of Nigeria and identify gaps in its operation. Introduction In Africa, approximately 13 million cases, 650,000 deaths due to measles occur annually, with sub-Saharan Africa having the highest morbidity and mortality. Measles infection is endemic in Nigeria and has been documented to occur all year round, despite high measles routine and supplemental immunization coverage. The frequent outbreaks of measles in Kaduna State prompted the need for the evaluation of the measles case-based surveillance system. Methods We interviewed stakeholders and conducted a retrospective record review of the measles case-based surveillance data from 2010 – 2012 and adapted the 2001 CDC guidelines on surveillance evaluation and the Framework for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems for Early Detection of Outbreaks, to assess the systems usefulness, representativeness, timeliness, stability, acceptability and data quality. We calculated the annualized detection rate of measles and non-measles febrile rash, proportion of available results, proportion of LGAs (Districts) that investigated at least one case with blood, proportion of cases that were IgM positive and the incidence of measles. We compared the results with WHO(2004) recommended performance indicators to determine the quality and effectiveness of measles surveillance system. Results According to the Stakeholders, the case-based surveillance system was useful and acceptable. Median interval between specimen collection and release of result was 7days (1 – 25 days) in 2010, 38 days (Range: 16 – 109 days) in 2011 and 11 days (Range: 1 – 105 days) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of measles rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 1.0 (target: 32) in 2011 and 1.4 (target: 32) in 2012. The annualized detection rate of non-measles febrile rash in 2010 was 2.1 (target: 32), 0.6 (target: 32) in 2011 and 0.8 (target: 32) in 2012. Case

  17. Disease surveillance based on Internet-based linear models: an Australian case study of previously unmodeled infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231

  18. The 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic in the French Armed Forces: evaluation of three surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Gache, Kristel; Mayet, Aurélie; Manet, Ghislain; Ligier, Caroline; Piarroux, Martine; Faure, Nina; Trichereau, Julie; Verret, Catherine; Decam, Christophe; Chaudet, Hervé; Rapp, Christophe; Queyriaux, Benjamin; Deparis, Xavier; Migliani, René; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste

    2013-08-01

    The French military forces had to modify their epidemiological surveillance systems at the time of the 2009 A(H1N1) influenza pandemic. The aim of this article was to present an evaluation of the different systems used. Two influenza surveillance systems are usually used in the French forces: one permanent (Surveillance épidémiologique des armées or SEA) and one seasonal (Système militaire d'observation de la grippe or SMOG). The pandemic required the implementation of a daily surveillance system (Surveillance quotidienne--SQ), which aimed to monitor disrupted activity owing to 2009 A(H1N1) influenza. The qualitative evaluation of these three systems during the period from September 2009 to February 2010 was performed using 11 criteria based on the list defined by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention of Atlanta. Although it included only 30 sentinel units vs. 320 for the other systems, the SMOG system was the best-performing system in terms of relevance, feasibility, efficacy, quality of data, usefulness, acceptability, efficiency and cost/benefits/costs ratio. The SQ proved very expensive in terms of logistics. The SQ did not bring any significant advantage compared with the weekly surveillance schemes. In the eventuality of another similar episode, influenza surveillance could be significantly improved by using the SMOG system extended to more units for better geographical coverage.

  19. Profile: the Mbita health and demographic surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Wanyua, Sheru; Ndemwa, Morris; Goto, Kensuke; Tanaka, Junichi; K'opiyo, James; Okumu, Silas; Diela, Paul; Kaneko, Satoshi; Karama, Mohamed; Ichinose, Yoshio; Shimada, Masaaki

    2013-12-01

    The Mbita Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Mbita HDSS), located on the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya, was established in 2006. The main objective of the HDSS is to provide a platform for population-based research on relationships between diseases and socio-economic and environmental factors, and for the evaluation of disease control interventions. The Mbita HDSS had a population of approximately 54 014 inhabitants from 11 576 households in June 2013. Regular data are collected using personal digital assistants (PDAs) every 3 months, which includes births, pregnancies, migration events and deaths. Coordinates are taken using geographical positioning system (GPS) units to map all dwelling units during data collection. Cause of death is inferred from verbal autopsy questionnaires. In addition, other health-related data such as vaccination status, socio-economic status, water sources, acute illness and bed net distribution are collected. The HDSS has also provided a platform for conducting various other research activities such as entomology studies, research on neglected tropical diseases, and environmental health projects which have benefited the organization as well as the HDSS community residents. Data collected are shared with the community members, health officials, local administration and other relevant organizations. Opportunities for collaboration and data sharing with the wider research community are available and those interested should contact shimadam@nagasaki-u.ac.jp or mhmdkarama@yahoo.com.

  20. Profile: Agincourt Health and Socio-demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Kathleen; Collinson, Mark A; Gómez-Olivé, F Xavier; Mokoena, Obed; Twine, Rhian; Mee, Paul; Afolabi, Sulaimon A; Clark, Benjamin D; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W; Khosa, Audrey; Khoza, Simon; Shabangu, Mildred G; Silaule, Bernard; Tibane, Jeffrey B; Wagner, Ryan G; Garenne, Michel L; Clark, Samuel J; Tollman, Stephen M

    2012-01-01

    The Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance system (HDSS), located in rural northeast South Africa close to the Mozambique border, was established in 1992 to support district health systems development led by the post-apartheid ministry of health. The HDSS (90 000 people), based on an annual update of resident status and vital events, now supports multiple investigations into the causes and consequences of complex health, population and social transitions. Observational work includes cohorts focusing on different stages along the life course, evaluation of national policy at population, household and individual levels and examination of household responses to shocks and stresses and the resulting pathways influencing health and well-being. Trials target children and adolescents, including promoting psycho-social well-being, preventing HIV transmission and reducing metabolic disease risk. Efforts to enhance the research platform include using automated measurement techniques to estimate cause of death by verbal autopsy, full ‘reconciliation’ of in- and out-migrations, follow-up of migrants departing the study area, recording of extra-household social connections and linkage of individual HDSS records with those from sub-district clinics. Fostering effective collaborations (including INDEPTH multi-centre work in adult health and ageing and migration and urbanization), ensuring cross-site compatibility of common variables and optimizing public access to HDSS data are priorities. PMID:22933647

  1. A web based application for surveillance and quality management in chronic Hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Rakovac, Ivo; Cadonna, Bruno; Beck, Peter; Vogel, Wolfgang; Brunner, Harald; Haushofer, Alexander C; Bauer, Bernd

    2007-10-11

    Nearly 130 millions of people around the world are affected by chronic virus Hepatitis C infection. We have developed a web-based application for epidemiological surveillance and quality management in chronic Hepatitis C. Functionality offered by the system includes data collection and execution of predefined queries relevant in quality management. Application is available at www.healthgate.at.

  2. Imaging sensor systems for air to ground surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bruce A.; Penn, Joseph A.

    2006-05-01

    Automated aerial surveillance and detection of hostile ground events, and the tracking of the perpetrators have become of critical importance in the prevention and control of insurgent uprisings and the global war on terror. Yet a basic understanding of the limitations of sensor system coverage as a function of aerial platform position and attitude is often unavailable to program managers and system administrators. In an effort to better understand this problem we present some of the design tradeoffs for two applications: 1) a 360° viewing focal-plane array sensor system modeled for low altitude aerostat applications, and 2) a fixed diameter area of constant surveillance modeled for high altitude fixed wing aircraft applications. Ground coverage requirement tradeoffs include the number of sensors, sensor footprint geometry, footprint coverage variability as a function of platform position and attitude, and ground surface modeling. Event location specification includes latitude, longitude, altitude for the pixel centroid and corners, and line-of-sight centroid range.

  3. Significance of the development of a cardiovascular disease surveillance and reporting system in India.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Ken Russell

    2013-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the single largest cause of global morbidity and mortality and is the leading cause of death in the Indian subcontinent projected to contribute to deaths expected to double by 2015. The social and economic impact of these staggering projections highlight the need for a centralized effort to monitor and evaluate behavioral and physiological risk factors for CVD. Limited evidence on existing surveillance systems suggest that the key to an effective monitoring and evaluation (M and E) program for CVD surveillance in India relies upon the World Health Organization's STEP-wise model. Key recommendations for the Ministry of Health include the development of a national CVD surveillance program with expertise and a quality-improvement mechanism to receive continuous input from similar surveillance programs in likeminded countries. Structure of the surveillance system would include; (1) the development of process measures for CVD risk factor' based surveillance M and E systems for early detection of CVD at the local-level, (2) the development of trigger based data reporting responsibilities to State-based monitoring teams including incentives for accuracy in data reporting and the use of data-driven evidence to target risk specific intervention and prevention on Central Government monitoring teams with reporting feedback to the State and local-levels and (3) the creation of health policy to require the use of data to target risk specific prevention for intervention and developing local technical capacity. Such a system would provide significant cost and social benefits, presenting an evidence based data driven cost-effective business case for scale-up and potential use in areas comprising similar demographics. Future research should focus on the inclusion of a systematic critique of the reported data for the challenges to surveillance systems in India and the examination of the effect of an incentivized reporting system on the states. Further

  4. [National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (NAMRSS) external quality assessment studies: 2011-2016].

    PubMed

    Süzük Yıldız, Serap; Şimşek, Hüsniye; Çöplü, Nilay; Gülay, Zeynep

    2017-07-01

    Establishment of sustainable and evidence-based surveillance systems are recommended for prevention of microbial resistance by the World Health Organization (WHO). As a necessity of these surveillance systems, participants are recommended to implement an external quality assessment (EQA) program. In this scope, National Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (NARSS) has been established within the Public Health Institute of Turkey (PHIT) in our country since 2011. In the scope of this surveillance, NARSS EQA program has been implemented in a cycle per year and four isolates were sent to participants per cycle every year since 2011. In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the six years results of the EQA programs being implemented on NARSS participants between 2011 and 2016. The surveillance system consisted of 118 laboratories. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecium/faecalis and Acinetobacter baumannii bacteria included in scope of the surveillance were sent to participants. Identification of bacteria to the species level, verification of the antibiotic susceptibility test results and existence of specified resistance of the isolates performed with valid test methods required from the participants. Identified isolates were cultured with routine microbiological methods and sent to participants in ambient temperature in triple carrying pouches inside suitable carrying media via PTT Cargo. The results were entered by means of passwords prepared by PHIT and sent to the web based system. The analysis of results were made with SPSS program. A total of twenty-three isolates were sent to participants between 2011 and 2016. It was determined that participants commonly preferred automated systems for bacterial identification and antibiotic sensitivity test results. The use of MALDI TOF MS system was determined to be raised up to 15.65% in 2016. It has been determined that

  5. Web-Based Surveillance of Illness in Childcare Centers.

    PubMed

    Schellpfeffer, Natalie; Collins, Abaigeal; Brousseau, David C; Martin, Emily T; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-09-22

    School absenteeism is an inefficient and unspecific metric for measuring community illness and does not provide surveillance during summertime. Web-based biosurveillance of childcare centers may represent a novel way to efficiently monitor illness outbreaks year-round. A web-based biosurveillance program ( sickchildcare.org ) was created and implemented in 4 childcare centers in a single Michigan county. Childcare providers were trained to report sick children who required exclusion or had parent-reported absences due to illness. Deidentified data on age range, number of illnesses, and illness categories were collected. Weekly electronic reports were sent to the county public health department. Data for reports were gathered beginning in December 2013 and were summarized using descriptive statistics. A total of 385 individual episodes of illness occurred during the study period. Children with reported illness were infants (16%, n = 61), toddlers (38%, n = 148), and preschoolers (46%, n = 176). Illness categories included: fever (30%, n = 116), gastroenteritis (30%, n = 115), influenzalike illness (8%, n = 32), cold without fever (13%, n = 51), rash (7%, n = 26), conjunctivitis (1%, n = 3), ear infection (1%, n = 5), and other (10%, n = 37). The majority of reports were center exclusions (55%, n = 214); others were absences (45%, n = 171). The detection of a gastroenteritis outbreak by web-based surveillance during winter 2013-14 preceded county health reports by 3 weeks; an additional outbreak of hand-foot-mouth disease was detected during June 2014 when standard school-based surveillance was not available. Web-based biosurveillance of illness in childcare centers represents a novel and feasible method to detect disease trends earlier and year-round compared to standard school-based disease surveillance.

  6. Do obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attack when exposed to indoor mold? A study based on the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Some studies show an association between asthma and obesity, but it is unknown whether exposure to mold will increase the risk of asthma attacks among obese people. This study examined whether obese adults have a higher risk of asthma attacks than non-obese adults when exposed to indoor mold. We used data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to conduct a cross-sectional analysis among 9,668 respondents who reported exposure to indoor mold. With exposure to indoor mold, weighted prevalence of asthma attacks among obese respondents was 11.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.0, 20.6], which was 2.3 times as high as among the exposed non-obese respondents (5.0%, 95% CI 2.8, 8.8). This ratio was almost the same as the ratio of 2.0:1 between the obese respondents (5.7%, 95% CI 4.6, 7.2) and the non-obese respondents (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3, 3.9) when neither group had exposure to mold. The odds ratio of asthma attack among obese people was 3.10 (95% CI 1.10, 8.67) for those with exposure to mold and 2.21 (95% CI 1.54, 3.17) for those without exposure to mold after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Our study suggests that obese adults who have been exposed to indoor mold may not necessarily have a higher risk of asthma attack than obese adults who have not been exposed, even though obesity and exposure to indoor mold are both major risk factors for asthma attack. Medical professionals should not only incorporate weight-control or weight-reduction measures as the components of asthma treatment plans, but also advise asthma patients to avoid exposure to indoor mold.

  7. Resurgence of Diphtheria in North Kerala, India, 2016: Laboratory Supported Case-Based Surveillance Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sangal, Lucky; Joshi, Sudhir; Anandan, Shalini; Balaji, Veeraraghavan; Johnson, Jaichand; Satapathy, Asish; Haldar, Pradeep; Rayru, Ramesh; Ramamurthy, Srinath; Raghavan, Asha; Bhatnagar, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    As part of national program, laboratory supported vaccine preventable diseases surveillance was initiated in Kerala in 2015. Mechanisms have been strengthened for case investigation, reporting, and data management. Specimens collected and sent to state and reference laboratories for confirmation and molecular surveillance. The major objective of this study is to understand the epidemiological information generated through surveillance system and its utilization for action. Surveillance data captured from reporting register, case investigation forms, and laboratory reports was analyzed. Cases were allotted unique ID and no personal identifying information was used for analysis. Throat swabs were collected from investigated cases as part of surveillance system. All Corynebacterium diphtheriae isolates were confirmed with standard biochemical tests, ELEK's test, and real-time PCR. Isolates were characterized using whole genome-based multi locus sequence typing method. Case investigation forms and laboratory results were recorded electronically. Public health response by government was also reviewed. A total of 533 cases were identified in 11 districts of Kerala in 2016, of which 92% occurred in 3 districts of north Kerala; Malappuram, Kozhikode, and Kannur. Almost 79% cases occurred in >10 years age group. In <18 years age group, 62% were male while in ≥18 years, 69% were females. In <10 years age group, 31% children had received three doses of diphtheria vaccine, whereas in ≥10 years, 3% cases had received all doses. Fifteen toxigenic C. diphtheriae isolates represented 6 novel sequence types (STs) (ST-405, ST-408, ST-466, ST-468, ST-469, and ST-470). Other STs observed are ST-50, ST-295, and ST-377. Diphtheria being an emerging pathogen, establishing quality surveillance for providing real-time information on disease occurrence and mortality is imperative. The epidemiological data thus generated was used for targeted interventions and to formulate

  8. System integration and development for biological warfare agent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, Jacob A.; Green, Lance D.; Deshpande, Alina; White, P. Scott

    2007-04-01

    A wide variety of technical needs exist for surveillance, monitoring, identifying, or detecting pathogens with potential use as biological terrorism or warfare agents. Because the needs vary greatly among diverse applications, tailored systems are needed that meet performance, information, and cost requirements. A systems perspective allows developers to identify chokepoints for each application, and focus R&D investments on the limiting factors. Surveillance and detection systems are comprised of three primary components: information (markers), chemistries (assays), and instrumentation for "readout". Careful consideration of these components within the context of each application will allow for increases in efficiency and performance not generally realized when researchers focus on a single component in isolation. In fact, many application requirements can be met with simple novel combinations of existing technologies, without the need for huge investments in basic research. Here we discuss some of the key parameters for surveillance, detection, and identification of biothreat agents, and provide examples of focused development that addresses key bottlenecks, and greatly improve system performance.

  9. Quality assurance applied to animal disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Salman; Stärk, K D C; Zepeda, C

    2003-08-01

    Monitoring and surveillance systems (MOSS) are essential activities for official Veterinary Services. In addition, the increased trade in animals and animal products over recent years has increased the importance of international disease reporting. A reliable surveillance system is the key to early warning of a change in the health status of any animal population. Such a system is also essential for providing evidence about the absence of diseases or in determining the extent of a disease which is known to be present. The authors discuss a set of methods and approaches for evaluating the quality of surveillance and survey systems. Certain steps are required when assessing the quality of a service or product. Various approaches for quality assessment are available and the suitability of each method depends on the objective of the evaluation. An essential basic requirement is, however, to use an objective, transparent and systematic approach. The evidence collected and the analyses used to reach conclusions must be of such high quality that the results are acceptable to both the management of the MOSS and the assessor. Repeated discussions and negotiations may be necessary to reach consensus, particularly if the judgement affects activities between trading partners. Well-documented MOSS with specified objectives and integrated quality assurance mechanisms are likely to be easier to evaluate.

  10. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  11. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  12. Utility of the ESSENCE Surveillance System in Monitoring the H1N1 Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Holtry, Rekha S; Hung, Lang M; Lewis, Sheri H

    2010-01-01

    The Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-Based Epidemics (ESSENCE) enables health care practitioners to detect and monitor health indicators of public health importance. ESSENCE is used by public health departments in the National Capital Region (NCR); a cross-jurisdictional data sharing agreement has allowed cooperative health information sharing in the region since 2004. Emergency department visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) in the NCR from 2008 are compared to those of 2009. Important differences in the rates, timing, and demographic composition of ILI visits were found. By monitoring a regional surveillance system, public health practitioners had an increased ability to understand the magnitude and character of different ILI outbreaks. This increased ability provided crucial community-level information on which to base response and control measures for the novel 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak. This report underscores the utility of automated surveillance systems in monitoring community-based outbreaks. There are several limitations in this study that are inherent with syndrome-based surveillance, including utilizing chief complaints versus confirmed laboratory data, discerning real disease versus those healthcare-seeking behaviors driven by panic, and reliance on visit counts versus visit rates.

  13. Towards photometry pipeline of the Indonesian space surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyatikanto, Rhorom; Religia, Bahar; Rachman, Abdul; Dani, Tiar

    2015-09-01

    Optical observation through sub-meter telescope equipped with CCD camera becomes alternative method for increasing orbital debris detection and surveillance. This observational mode is expected to eye medium-sized objects in higher orbits (e.g. MEO, GTO, GSO & GEO), beyond the reach of usual radar system. However, such observation of fast moving objects demands special treatment and analysis technique. In this study, we performed photometric analysis of the satellite track images photographed using rehabilitated Schmidt Bima Sakti telescope in Bosscha Observatory. The Hough transformation was implemented to automatically detect linear streak from the images. From this analysis and comparison to USSPACECOM catalog, two satellites were identified and associated with inactive Thuraya-3 satellite and Satcom-3 debris which are located at geostationary orbit. Further aperture photometry analysis revealed the periodicity of tumbling Satcom-3 debris. In the near future, it is not impossible to apply similar scheme to establish an analysis pipeline for optical space surveillance system hosted in Indonesia.

  14. A framework for space object surveillance based on the integration of space and Earth platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wu, Zhigang; Wan, Shouhong

    2007-11-01

    Space object surveillance takes a very important role in space defense and future space operation. In this paper, the state-of- the-art of space object surveillance is first analyzed, in which the development of space object surveillance in U.S.A., Russia and Canada is mainly discussed. After a survey on space object surveillance in China, this paper propounds a framework for space object surveillance based on the integration of space and Earth platforms. The intention of the integration of space and Earth platforms is emphasized, and some key issues of the space object surveillance based on the integration of space and Earth platforms are explored in detail.

  15. Multitarget visual tracking based effective surveillance with cooperation of multiple active cameras.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Ming; Fu, Li-Chen

    2011-02-01

    This paper presents a tracking-based surveillance system that is capable of tracking multiple moving objects, with almost real-time response, through the effective cooperation of multiple pan-tilt cameras. To construct this surveillance system, the distributed camera agent, which tracks multiple moving objects independently, is first developed. The particle filter is extended with target depth estimate to track multiple targets that may overlap with one another. A strategy to select the suboptimal camera action is then proposed for a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform that has been assigned to track multiple targets within its limited field of view simultaneously. This strategy is based on the mutual information and the Monte Carlo method to maintain coverage of the tracked targets. Finally, for a surveillance system with a small number of active cameras to effectively monitor a wide space, this system is aimed to maximize the number of targets to be tracked. We further propose a hierarchical camera selection and task assignment strategy, known as the online position strategy, to integrate all of the distributed camera agents. The overall performance of the multicamera surveillance system has been verified with computer simulations and extensive experiments.

  16. Secure Video Surveillance System Acquisition Software

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-04

    The SVSS Acquisition Software collects and displays video images from two cameras through a VPN, and store the images onto a collection controller. The software is configured to allow a user to enter a time window to display up to 2 1/2, hours of video review. The software collects images from the cameras at a rate of 1 image per second and automatically deletes images older than 3 hours. The software code operates in a linux environment and can be run in a virtual machine on Windows XP. The Sandia software integrates the different COTS software together to build the video review system.

  17. Health & Demographic Surveillance System Profile: The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Koné, Siaka; Baikoro, Nahoua; N'Guessan, Yao; Jaeger, Fabienne N; Silué, Kigbafori D; Fürst, Thomas; Hürlimann, Eveline; Ouattara, Mamadou; Séka, Marie-Chantal Y; N'Guessan, Nicaise A; Esso, Emmanuel L J C; Zouzou, Fabien; Boti, Louis I; Gonety, Prosper T; Adiossan, Lukas G; Dao, Daouda; Tschannen, Andres B; von Stamm, Thomas; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K

    2015-02-01

    The Taabo Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) is located in south-central Côte d'Ivoire, approximately 150 km north-west of Abidjan. The Taabo HDSS started surveillance activities in early 2009 and the man-made Lake Taabo is a key eco-epidemiological feature. Since inception, there has been a strong interest in research and integrated control of water-associated diseases such as schistosomiasis and malaria. The Taabo HDSS has generated setting-specific evidence on the impact of targeted interventions against malaria, schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases. The Taabo HDSS consists of a small town, 13 villages and over 100 hamlets. At the end of 2013, a total population of 42 480 inhabitants drawn from 6707 households was under surveillance. Verbal autopsies have been conducted to determine causes of death. Repeated cross-sectional epidemiological surveys on approximately 5-7% of the population and specific, layered-on haematological, parasitological and questionnaire surveys have been conducted. The Taabo HDSS provides a database for surveys, facilitates interdisciplinary research, as well as surveillance, and provides a platform for the evaluation of health interventions. Requests to collaborate and to access data are welcome and should be addressed to the secretariat of the Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques en Côte d'Ivoire: [secretariat@csrs.ci]. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. A Radiation-Triggered Surveillance System for UF6 Cylinder Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, Michael M.; Myjak, Mitchell J.

    2016-09-23

    This report provides background information and representative scenarios for testing a prototype radiation-triggered surveillance system at an operating facility that handles uranium hexafluoride (UF6) cylinders. The safeguards objective is to trigger cameras using radiation, or radiation and motion, rather than motion alone, to reduce significantly the number of image files generated by a motion-triggered system. The authors recommend the use of radiation-triggered surveillance at all facilities where cylinder paths are heavily traversed by personnel. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has begun using surveillance cameras in the feed and withdrawal areas of gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs). The cameras generate imagery using elapsed time or motion, but this creates problems in areas occupied 24/7 by personnel. Either motion-or-interval-based triggering generates thousands of review files over the course of a month. Since inspectors must review the files to verify operator material-flow-declarations, a plethora of files significantly extends the review process. The primary advantage of radiation-triggered surveillance is the opportunity to obtain full-time cylinder throughput verification versus what presently amounts to part-time verification. Cost savings should be substantial, as the IAEA presently uses frequent unannounced inspections to verify cylinder-throughput declarations. The use of radiation-triggered surveillance allows the IAEA to implement less frequent unannounced inspections for the purpose of flow verification, but its principal advantage is significantly shorter and more effective inspector video reviews.

  19. Integrated Multi-Sensor System for Enhanced Space Surveillance - Design, Engineering, Integration and Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Markov, V.; Ewart, R.; Craig, D.

    Space surveillance requires capabilities for detection, tracking, imaging and characterization of specific objects in space environment. In general, most current space surveillance systems are single-sensor based and are not capable of generating the desired tracking accuracy, and providing required object characterization. A suite of various types of the sensors that are spatially or temporarily separated may thus be used collectively to synthesize a composite, improved surveillance picture through fusion and post processing of retrieved data. However, this approach will not yield the highest possible data accuracy due to the errors introduced in correlation of location, orientation and detection time from different sensors. Furthermore, it may not provide timely surveillance data to the user and hence may degrade the utility of these data. In this paper, we present the architecture, operational concept and preliminary design of an advanced integrated multi-sensor system (AIMS) for enhanced space surveillance capability to alleviate these shortfalls. AIMS employs an active laser tracking and multiple spectral domain (visible and multi-band IR) sensing to provide high-resolution tracking, three-dimensional imaging and reliable characterization of space objects with down range resolution of 1 cm and velocity measurement accuracy of 1-10 cm/sec in near real-time. The engineering and integration of a scale-down prototype of AIMS together with results of initial field tests are reported in this paper. Issues, lessons learned, future development plan and potential application of AIMS to space missions will be discussed.

  20. TENTACLE Multi-Camera Immersive Surveillance System Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-16

    IPC ( inter -process communication ) methods which would allow passing of data from the CMU SDK platform to the rest of the Tentacle system in a more...IP Internet Protocol IPC Inter -Process Communication 153 Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 88ABW Cleared 05...on events meaningful to the user. 15. SUBJECT TERMS realtime video surveillance, people and vehicle tracking , multi-camera multi-sensor fusion

  1. a Cloud-Based Architecture for Smart Video Surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentín, L.; Serrano, S. A.; Oves García, R.; Andrade, A.; Palacios-Alonso, M. A.; Sucar, L. Enrique

    2017-09-01

    Turning a city into a smart city has attracted considerable attention. A smart city can be seen as a city that uses digital technology not only to improve the quality of people's life, but also, to have a positive impact in the environment and, at the same time, offer efficient and easy-to-use services. A fundamental aspect to be considered in a smart city is people's safety and welfare, therefore, having a good security system becomes a necessity, because it allows us to detect and identify potential risk situations, and then take appropriate decisions to help people or even prevent criminal acts. In this paper we present an architecture for automated video surveillance based on the cloud computing schema capable of acquiring a video stream from a set of cameras connected to the network, process that information, detect, label and highlight security-relevant events automatically, store the information and provide situational awareness in order to minimize response time to take the appropriate action.

  2. Surveillance of occupational skin disease using the Supplementary Data System.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, M; Thun, M; Morrison, J; Mathias, C G; Halperin, W E

    1988-01-01

    The utility of the Supplementary Data System (SDS) compiled by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) in conducting surveillance of occupational skin disease was evaluated by examining 14,703 workers' compensation cases reported to the SDS for the year 1981. Combined with state employment denominators obtained from the BLS Employment and Earnings Program, rates of illness (cases of dermatitis/10,000 employed) calculated for eight major industrial divisions varied significantly according to the criteria used for reporting cases. Despite quantitative variations in the rate of skin disease that depended on specific reporting criteria, the relative ranking of the major industrial divisions remained unchanged, with highest rates of skin disease consistently found in three major industry divisions: agriculture, manufacturing, and construction. This ranking of major industry divisions by rate of dermatitis corresponded extremely well with rankings generated from the 1981 Annual Survey (Spearman rank correlation = .98, p less than .01). At the two-digit level of the Standard Industrial Classification, the rankings based on the SDS had a 77% rank correlation with those from the Annual Survey. Two-digit SIC codes identified from the top 10 in both sets of rankings included crop and livestock production from the agricultural division and leather products, food products, rubber and plastic products from the manufacturing division.

  3. A conditional probability approach to surveillance system sensitivity assessment.

    PubMed

    Majdzadeh, R; Pourmalek, F

    2008-01-01

    To determine the sexually transmitted diseases (STD) surveillance system sensitivity with a conditional probability approach at district level in Darregaz, a frontier town in the north of Iran. A cross-sectional survey. We used a sample survey of sexually active inhabitants for proxy measurement of the medical service utilization pattern for STD, and interviews with all practitioners to determine their knowledge of STD diagnosis and attitude towards STD reporting as proxy measures of actual STD diagnosis and reporting, respectively. Point estimates of the STD surveillance system sensitivity for each of the health service sectors were derived from multiplying the three proxy measures of sensitivity determinants, i.e., utilization, diagnosis, and reporting, as conditional probabilities. Estimates of sensitivity for all health service sectors were summed to obtain the overall sensitivity. The sensitivity of the surveillance system was 21.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 15.5-25.3%) for detecting symptomatic STD. Of the sexually active inhabitants, 8.9% (95% CI 5.5-14.2%) did not use health services if they contracted STDs. The public health sector's contribution to overall sensitivity (59.6%) was greater than its proportion of service utilization for STD (45.3%). The strengths of the conditional probability approach are feasibility of conducting necessary surveys, decomposing sensitivity into its determinants, and providing evidence for intervention at different points for planning purposes. This approach tends to overestimate the overall sensitivity.

  4. SSTS (Space Surveillance and Tracking System): The Importance of Early Test and Evaluation Organizational Participation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Engineering. At present, all but his dissertation is complete. In 1984, he was assigned to Arnold Engineering Development Center ( AEDC ) in Tennessee. His...AEDC’s aeromechanics technology programs. His final position at AEDC was Chief, Reentry Systems Division where he was responsible for directing...SDI. (3:3-1) Before SDI, this system was known as the Space-Based Surveillance System which was intended to provide support to the antisatellite ( ASAT

  5. Statistical Model For Pseudo-Moving Objects Recognition In Video Surveillance Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnyakov, B.; Egorov, A.; Sidyakin, S.; Malin, I.; Vizilter, Y.

    2014-08-01

    This paper considers a statistical approach to define pseudo-moving (false) objects in video surveillance systems by constructing systems of hypothesis with the criteria based on statistical behavioral particularities. The obtained results are integrated in two ways: using the Bayes' theorem or the logistic regression. FAR-FRR curves are plotted for each system of hypothesis and also for the decision rule. The results of the proposed methods are obtained on test video databases.

  6. Integrated Surveillance for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Final Report of the Integrated Surveillance Study Team

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-31

    Rules ( IFR ) and Visual Flight Rules (VFR) flight following that depends on cooperative avionics to support surveillance source data collection systems...identify aircraft that are receiving ANSP IFR or VFR flight following service. Aircraft identity is used as a radio call sign in the NAS to address...driven by requirements to provide and sustain IFR traffic capacity, that is, to have surveillance available even during subsystem outages. Coverage

  7. Reconciling surveillance systems with limited resources: an evaluation of passive surveillance for rabies in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Craighead, Laura; Gilbert, William; Subasinghe, Dynatra; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    Surveillance systems for rabies in endemic regions are often subject to severe constraints in terms of resources. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organisation (WHO) propose the use of an active surveillance system to substantiate claims of disease freedom, including rabies. However, many countries do not have the resources to establish active surveillance systems for rabies and the testing of dead dogs poses logistical challenges. This paper explores the potential of using a scenario tree model parameterised with data collected via questionnaires and interviews to estimate the sensitivity of passive surveillance, assessing its potential as a viable low-cost alternative to active surveillance systems. The results of this explorative study illustrated that given a large enough sample size, in this case the entire population of Colombo City, the sensitivity of passive surveillance can be 100% even at a low disease prevalence (0.1%), despite the low sensitivity of individual surveillance components (mean values in the range 4.077×10(-5)-1.834×10(-3) at 1% prevalence). In addition, logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with increased recognition of rabies in dogs and reporting of rabies suspect dogs. Increased recognition was observed amongst dog owners (OR 3.8 (CI, 1.3-10.8)), people previously bitten by dogs (OR 5.9 (CI, 2.2-15.9)) and people who believed they had seen suspect dogs in the past (OR 4.7 (CI, 1.8-12.9)). Increased likelihood of reporting suspect dogs was observed amongst dog owners (OR 5.3 (CI, 1.1-25)). Further work is required to validate the data collection tool and the assumptions made in the model with respect to sample size in order to develop a robust methodology for evaluating passive rabies surveillance.

  8. From surveillance to action: early gains from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, R; Weis, M A; Millet, L; Powell, V; Hull‐Jilly, D; Hackman, H

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Drawing from the experiences of individual state programs that currently participate in the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), this article reviews some of the practical benefits that may accrue from the introduction of violent death surveillance systems. Design As a state‐based surveillance system that uses multiple data sources and relies upon multiple stakeholders, the NVDRS program has fostered an array of initiatives within and among individual state programs. State‐based initiatives highlighted in this article were selected on the basis of a purposive sampling strategy intended to illustrate key aspects of program development. Setting The NVDRS state programs are in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Utah, Virginia, and Wisconsin. Results The NVDRS has helped to build alliances and collaborative efforts between key stakeholders, facilitated the recognition of violent death as a public health problem through outreach and media attention, acted as a catalyst for new projects, enhanced surveillance of special populations and utility for evaluation, and identified key circumstances that will target interventions in state prevention planning. Conclusions The NVDRS has implemented data collection efforts and is beginning to produce and analyze findings. In the process of implementing the data collection system and publicizing findings, state NVDRS programs are realizing other gains that strengthen their surveillance efforts. The use of data for prevention purposes will be the ultimate indicator of program success. PMID:17170175

  9. Integrated Human Surveillance Systems of West Nile Virus Infections in Italy: The 2012 Experience

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June–30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008–2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a “one health” perspective. PMID:24351740

  10. Integrated human surveillance systems of West Nile virus infections in Italy: the 2012 experience.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Christian; Bella, Antonino; Declich, Silvia; Grazzini, Giuliano; Lombardini, Letizia; Nanni Costa, Alessandro; Nicoletti, Loredana; Pompa, Maria Grazia; Pupella, Simonetta; Russo, Francesca; Rizzo, Caterina

    2013-12-13

    In Italy, a West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance plan was firstly implemented in 2008 and 2009 in two affected regions and, since 2010, according to a national plan, a WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND) surveillance has to be carried out each year during the period 15 June-30 November, in those regions where WNV circulation has been demonstrated among humans, animals or vectors. Moreover, since WNV can be transmitted to humans even by blood transfusions and organ transplants obtained from infected donors, the national surveillance integrates the blood transfusions and organs transplant surveillances too. The paper describes the results of this integrated human surveillance in Italy in 2012. Overall, in 2012, 28 autochthonous confirmed cases of WNND were reported, 14 blood donations were found WNV positive by Nucleic Acid Amplification Test and no solid organ donors tested positive for WNV. Moreover, 17 cases of WNV fever were confirmed in Veneto region. When comparing the number of WNND cases reported to the surveillance system in previous 4 years (43 cases during the period 2008-2011), with those reported in 2012 an important increase was observed in 2012. The geographic distribution of human cases was consistent with the WNV circulation among animals and vectors. Moreover, the implementation of preventive measures for WNV transmission through blood components allowed the detection of blood donors positive for WNV, avoiding the further spread of the disease. Since surveillance strategies and preventive measures are based on the integration among human, animal and vector control activities, the Italian experience could be considered a good example of collaboration among different sectors of public health in a "one health" perspective.

  11. [General epidemiology of nosocomial infections. Surveillance systems and programs].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Miquel; Limón, Enric

    2013-02-01

    Infections related to the health-care system are those associated with health care practices in hospitalized patients as well as in out-patients with health-care contact. Nosocomial infections affect 5% of in-patients, and carry a high morbidity, mortality and economic cost. The main types of nosocomial infections are related to invasive procedures, and include respiratory tract infection, surgical site infections, urinary tract infections, and vascular catheter bacteremia. It has been shown that the application of checklists and a bundle of measures are useful in preventing these infections. Epidemiological surveillance, defined as the gathering of information to take actions, is the basis of infection control programs. These have evolved from a global surveillance targeted at processes and indicators of nosocomial infection. The comparison of these indicators can be useful in establishing preventive measures.

  12. Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) solid state transmitter modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francoeur, A. R.

    The author describes the design of the modernized solid-state transmitter for the US Naval Space Surveillance System (NAVSPASUR) station transmitters at Jordan Lake, AL, Gila River, AZ, and Lake Kickapoo, TX. The modernized NAVSPASUR is the highest average power solid-state transmitter ever produced. With the antenna gain of the system, it produces an effective radiated average power in excess of 98 dBw. Solid-state modernization of the NAVSPASUR transmitter has produced significant cost and performance improvements, which are expected to extend the operating life of the system into the next century.

  13. Profile: The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Crampin, Amelia C; Dube, Albert; Mboma, Sebastian; Price, Alison; Chihana, Menard; Jahn, Andreas; Baschieri, Angela; Molesworth, Anna; Mwaiyeghele, Elnaeus; Branson, Keith; Floyd, Sian; McGrath, Nuala; Fine, Paul E M; French, Neil; Glynn, Judith R; Zaba, Basia

    2012-01-01

    The Karonga Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Karonga HDSS) in northern Malawi currently has a population of more than 35 000 individuals under continuous demographic surveillance since completion of a baseline census (2002–2004). The surveillance system collects data on vital events and migration for individuals and for households. It also provides data on cause-specific mortality obtained by verbal autopsy for all age groups, and estimates rates of disease for specific presentations via linkage to clinical facility data. The Karonga HDSS provides a structure for surveys of socio-economic status, HIV sero-prevalence and incidence, sexual behaviour, fertility intentions and a sampling frame for other studies, as well as evaluating the impact of interventions, such as antiretroviral therapy and vaccination programmes. Uniquely, it relies on a network of village informants to report vital events and household moves, and furthermore is linked to an archive of biological samples and data from population surveys and other studies dating back three decades. PMID:22729235

  14. Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS): towards a global surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Laura F; Kress, Howard; Sumner, Steven A; Gleckel, Jessie; Kawemama, Philbert; Gordon, Rebecca N

    2016-04-01

    To describe the Violence Against Children Surveys (VACS). The survey is a national, household survey that systematically measures the prevalence, nature and consequences of sexual, physical and emotional violence against children. This report provides information about the history, implementation, ethical protections, utility, results, limitations, and future directions of the VACS work. The study has been implemented in 11 countries in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean, providing each of these countries with baseline data and momentum to address violence against children as a public health and human rights priority. These data are novel in each country, and VACS is well poised to contribute to an existing surveillance system or be used as the basis of a periodic surveillance system. Without ongoing surveillance to assess prevalence and the impact of policy, prevention and response programming, violence will likely continue to be overlooked as the linchpin public health crisis that it is, globally and in individual countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Imported infections: What information should be collected by surveillance systems to inform public health policy?

    PubMed

    Neave, Penny E; Heywood, Anita E; Gibney, Katherine B; Leder, Karin

    2016-01-01

    International travel carries the risk of imported diseases, which are an increasingly significant public health problem. There is little guidance about which variables should be collected by surveillance systems for strategy-based surveillance. Surveillance forms for dengue, malaria, hepatitis A, typhoid and measles were collected from Australia and New Zealand and information on these compared with national surveillance forms from the UK and Canada by travel health experts. Variables were categorised by information relating to recent travel, demographics and disease severity. Travel-related information most commonly requested included country of travel, vaccination status and travel dates. In Australia, ethnicity information requested related to indigenous status, whilst in New Zealand it could be linked to census categories. Severity of disease information most frequently collected were hospitalisation and death. Reviewing the usefulness of variables collected resulted in the recommendation that those included should be: overseas travel, reason for travel, entry and departure dates during the incubation period, vaccination details, traveller's and/or parents' country of birth, country of usual residence, time resident in current country, postcode, hospitalisation and death details. There was no agreement about whether ethnicity details should be collected. The inclusion of these variables on surveillance forms could enable imported infection-related policy to be formulated nationally and internationally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMakin, D. L.; Sheen, D. M.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, T. E.; Smith, R. R.; Droppo, J. G., Jr.

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. Metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 (times) 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electronically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  17. Millimeter wave, high-resolution, holographic surveillance system

    SciTech Connect

    McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.; Smith, R.R.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.

    1993-12-01

    Millimeter wave holographic imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing to detect contraband, metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons may provided a practical solution to personnel inspection needs in mass transportation centers. Traditional inspection systems, such as metal detectors and x-ray imaging systems, have limitations for the detection of concealed weapons. metal detectors are limited because they cannot detect plastic weapons and x-ray imaging systems are limited in use due to radiological health considerations. A prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system has been developed and demonstrated at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The prototype millimeter wave holographic surveillance system developed at PNL consists of a sequentially switched 2 {times} 64 element array coupled to a 35 GHz bi-static transceiver. The sequentially switched array of antennas can be used to obtain the holographic data at high speed by electonically sequencing the antennas along one dimension and performing a mechanical scan along the other dimension. A one-dimensional mechanical scan be be performed in about one second. The prototype system scans an aperture of 0.75 by 2.05. This system has been demonstrated and images have been obtained on volunteers at Sea-Tac International airport in Seattle, Washington.

  18. Evaluating a surveillance system: live-bird market surveillance for highly pathogenic avian influenza, a case study.

    PubMed

    Waziri, Ndadilnasiya Endie; Nguku, Patrick; Olayinka, Adebola; Ajayi, Ike; Kabir, Junaidu; Okolocha, Emmanuel; Tseggai, Tesfai; Joannis, Tony; Okewole, Phillip; Kumbish, Peterside; Ahmed, Mohammed; Lombin, Lami; Nsubuga, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 was first reported in poultry in Nigeria in February 2006. The only human case that occurred was linked to contact with poultry in a live bird market (LBM). LBM surveillance was instituted to assess the degree of threat of human exposure to H5N1. The key indicator was detection of H5N1 in LBMs. We evaluated the surveillance system to assess its operations and attributes. We used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) updated guidelines for evaluating public health surveillance systems. We reviewed and analyzed passive surveillance data for HPAI (January 2006-March 2009) from the Avian Influenza National Reference Laboratory, and live bird market surveillance data from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nigeria. We interviewed key stakeholders and reviewed reports of live bird market surveillance to obtain additional information on the operations of the system. We assessed the key system attributes. A total of 299 cases occurred in 25 (72%) states and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT). The system detected HPAI H5N1 virus in 7 (9.5%) LBMs; 2 (29%) of which were from 2 (18.2%) states with no previous case. A total of 17,852 (91.5%) of samples arrived at the laboratory within 24 hours but laboratory analysis took over 7 days. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. The system is useful, flexible, complex and not timely, but appears to be meeting its objectives. The isolation of HPAI H5N1 virus in some of these markets is an indication that the markets are possible reservoirs of the virus in Nigeria. We recommend that the Federal Government of Nigeria should dedicate more funds for surveillance for HPAI as this will aid early warning and reduce the risk of a pandemic.

  19. Situational Awareness for Surveillance and Interdiction Operations (SASIO): Tactical Installation Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    FOB Forward Operating Base GBOSS Ground Based Operational Surveillance Systems ISR Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance QRF...numerous assets such as, but not limited to: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Ground Based Operational Surveillance Systems ( GBOSS ), and satellite

  20. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009-2014.

    PubMed

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane; Heraud, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system's performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings.

  1. Use of Unstructured Event-Based Reports for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Blench, Michael; Tolentino, Herman; Freifeld, Clark C.; Mandl, Kenneth D.; Mawudeku, Abla; Eysenbach, Gunther; Brownstein, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Free or low-cost sources of unstructured information, such as Internet news and online discussion sites, provide detailed local and near real-time data on disease outbreaks, even in countries that lack traditional public health surveillance. To improve public health surveillance and, ultimately, interventions, we examined 3 primary systems that process event-based outbreak information: Global Public Health Intelligence Network, HealthMap, and EpiSPIDER. Despite similarities among them, these systems are highly complementary because they monitor different data types, rely on varying levels of automation and human analysis, and distribute distinct information. Future development should focus on linking these systems more closely to public health practitioners in the field and establishing collaborative networks for alert verification and dissemination. Such development would further establish event-based monitoring as an invaluable public health resource that provides critical context and an alternative to traditional indicator-based outbreak reporting. PMID:19402953

  2. A habituation based approach for detection of visual changes in surveillance camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sha'abani, M. N. A. H.; Adan, N. F.; Sabani, M. S. M.; Abdullah, F.; Nadira, J. H. S.; Yasin, M. S. M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper investigates a habituation based approach in detecting visual changes using video surveillance systems in a passive environment. Various techniques have been introduced for dynamic environment such as motion detection, object classification and behaviour analysis. However, in a passive environment, most of the scenes recorded by the surveillance system are normal. Therefore, implementing a complex analysis all the time in the passive environment resulting on computationally expensive, especially when using a high video resolution. Thus, a mechanism of attention is required, where the system only responds to an abnormal event. This paper proposed a novelty detection mechanism in detecting visual changes and a habituation based approach to measure the level of novelty. The objective of the paper is to investigate the feasibility of the habituation based approach in detecting visual changes. Experiment results show that the approach are able to accurately detect the presence of novelty as deviations from the learned knowledge.

  3. Assessment of the French National Health Insurance Information System as a tool for epidemiological surveillance of malaria.

    PubMed

    Delon, François; Mayet, Aurélie; Thellier, Marc; Kendjo, Eric; Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Chatellier, Gilles; Desjeux, Guillaume

    2017-05-01

    Epidemiological surveillance of malaria in France is based on a hospital laboratory sentinel surveillance network. There is no comprehensive population surveillance. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of the French National Health Insurance Information System to support nationwide malaria surveillance in continental France. A case identification algorithm was built in a 2-step process. First, inclusion rules giving priority to sensitivity were defined. Then, based on data description, exclusion rules to increase specificity were applied. To validate our results, we compared them to data from the French National Reference Center for Malaria on case counts, distribution within subgroups, and disease onset date trends. We built a reusable automatized tool. From July 1, 2013, to June 30, 2014, we identified 4077 incident malaria cases that occurred in continental France. Our algorithm provided data for hospitalized patients, patients treated by private physicians, and outpatients for the entire population. Our results were similar to those of the National Reference Center for Malaria for each of the outcome criteria. We provided a reliable algorithm for implementing epidemiological surveillance of malaria based on the French National Health Insurance Information System. Our method allowed us to work on the entire population living in continental France, including subpopulations poorly covered by existing surveillance methods. Traditional epidemiological surveillance and the approach presented in this paper are complementary, but a formal validation framework for case identification algorithms is necessary.

  4. Syndromic surveillance for health information system failures: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mei-Sing; Magrabi, Farah; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the applicability of a syndromic surveillance method to the early detection of health information technology (HIT) system failures. Methods A syndromic surveillance system was developed to monitor a laboratory information system at a tertiary hospital. Four indices were monitored: (1) total laboratory records being created; (2) total records with missing results; (3) average serum potassium results; and (4) total duplicated tests on a patient. The goal was to detect HIT system failures causing: data loss at the record level; data loss at the field level; erroneous data; and unintended duplication of data. Time-series models of the indices were constructed, and statistical process control charts were used to detect unexpected behaviors. The ability of the models to detect HIT system failures was evaluated using simulated failures, each lasting for 24 h, with error rates ranging from 1% to 35%. Results In detecting data loss at the record level, the model achieved a sensitivity of 0.26 when the simulated error rate was 1%, while maintaining a specificity of 0.98. Detection performance improved with increasing error rates, achieving a perfect sensitivity when the error rate was 35%. In the detection of missing results, erroneous serum potassium results and unintended repetition of tests, perfect sensitivity was attained when the error rate was as small as 5%. Decreasing the error rate to 1% resulted in a drop in sensitivity to 0.65–0.85. Conclusions Syndromic surveillance methods can potentially be applied to monitor HIT systems, to facilitate the early detection of failures. PMID:23184193

  5. The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system

    PubMed Central

    Crain, J.; McFaull, S.; Thompson, W.; Skinner, R.; Do, M. T.; Fréchette, M.; Mukhi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP’s overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools—designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)—is revealing eCHIRPP’s potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  6. Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS): A Trust-Based Network

    PubMed Central

    Phommasack, Bounlay; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Ko Oo, Moe; Bond, Katherine C.; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Ungchusak, Kumnuan; Macfarlane, Sarah B.

    2013-01-01

    The Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS) network was formally established in 2001 through a Memorandum of Understanding signed by six Ministers of Health of the countries in the Greater Mekong sub-region: Cambodia, China (Yunnan and Guangxi), Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. The main areas of focus of the network are to: i) improve cross-border infectious disease outbreak investigation and response by sharing surveillance data and best practices in disease recognition and reporting, and by jointly responding to outbreaks; ii) develop expertise in epidemiological surveillance across the countries; and iii) enhance communication between the countries. Comprised of senior health officials, epidemiologists, health practitioners, and other professionals, the MBDS has grown and matured over the years into an entity based on mutual trust that can be sustained into the future. Other regions have started emulating the network's pioneering work. In this paper, we describe the development of MBDS, the way in which it operates today, and some of its achievements. We present key challenges the network has faced and lessons its members have learned about how to develop sufficient trust for health and other professionals to alert each other to disease threats across national borders and thereby more effectively combat these threats. PMID:23362411

  7. Evaluation of the influenza sentinel surveillance system in Madagascar, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Rakotoarisoa, Alain; Randrianasolo, Laurence; Tempia, Stefano; Guillebaud, Julia; Razanajatovo, Norosoa; Randriamampionona, Lea; Piola, Patrice; Halm, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Problem Evaluation of influenza surveillance systems is poor, especially in Africa. Approach In 2007, the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar and the Malagasy Ministry of Public Health implemented a countrywide system for the prospective syndromic and virological surveillance of influenza-like illnesses. In assessing this system’s performance, we identified gaps and ways to promote the best use of resources. We investigated acceptability, data quality, flexibility, representativeness, simplicity, stability, timeliness and usefulness and developed qualitative and/or quantitative indicators for each of these attributes. Local setting Until 2007, the influenza surveillance system in Madagascar was only operational in Antananarivo and the observations made could not be extrapolated to the entire country. Relevant changes By 2014, the system covered 34 sentinel sites across the country. At 12 sites, nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples were collected and tested for influenza virus. Between 2009 and 2014, 177 718 fever cases were detected, 25 809 (14.5%) of these fever cases were classified as cases of influenza-like illness. Of the 9192 samples from patients with influenza-like illness that were tested for influenza viruses, 3573 (38.9%) tested positive. Data quality for all evaluated indicators was categorized as above 90% and the system also appeared to be strong in terms of its acceptability, simplicity and stability. However, sample collection needed improvement. Lessons learnt The influenza surveillance system in Madagascar performed well and provided reliable and timely data for public health interventions. Given its flexibility and overall moderate cost, this system may become a useful platform for syndromic and laboratory-based surveillance in other low-resource settings. PMID:28479639

  8. An Expert System And Simulation Approach For Sensor Management & Control In A Distributed Surveillance Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Barbara D.; Heller, Paul R.

    1987-05-01

    , driven by a forward chaining inference engine, makes decisions based on the global database. The global database contains current track and sensor information supplied by the simulation. At present, the rule base emphasizes the surveillance features with rules grouped into three main categories: maintenance and enhancing track on prioritized targets; filling coverage holes and countering jamming; and evaluating sensor status. The paper will describe the architecture used for the expert system and the reasons for selecting the chosen methods. The SM&C simulation produces a graphical representation of sensors and their associated tracks such that the benefits of the sensor management and control expert system are evident. Jammer locations are also part of the display. The paper will describe results from several scenarios that best illustrate the sensor management and control concepts.

  9. Surveillance System and Method having an Adaptive Sequential Probability Fault Detection Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  10. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzog, James P. (Inventor); Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  11. Surveillance system and method having an adaptive sequential probability fault detection test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bickford, Randall L. (Inventor); Herzog, James P. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    System and method providing surveillance of an asset such as a process and/or apparatus by providing training and surveillance procedures that numerically fit a probability density function to an observed residual error signal distribution that is correlative to normal asset operation and then utilizes the fitted probability density function in a dynamic statistical hypothesis test for providing improved asset surveillance.

  12. School-Based Pediatric Asthma Surveillance in Massachusetts from 2005 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medaglia, Frances; Knorr, Robert S.; Condon, Suzanne K.; Charleston, Alicia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children today, yet surveillance is limited to national and state estimates which can vary over time, by location and by population types. This article describes a comprehensive statewide school-based asthma surveillance program and examines 5?years of surveillance data. Methods: After…

  13. School-Based Pediatric Asthma Surveillance in Massachusetts from 2005 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medaglia, Frances; Knorr, Robert S.; Condon, Suzanne K.; Charleston, Alicia C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children today, yet surveillance is limited to national and state estimates which can vary over time, by location and by population types. This article describes a comprehensive statewide school-based asthma surveillance program and examines 5?years of surveillance data. Methods: After…

  14. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012–2013. Methods: In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. Results: High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. Conclusions: We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan. PMID:25969705

  15. Innovation of High-risk Infants Follow-up Surveillance System in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jodeiry, Behzad; Heidarzadeh, Mohammad; Mirnia, Kayvan; Akrami, Forouzan; Heidarabadi, Seifoallah; Ebadi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood development is one of the most social determinants of health that must be notified in order to reducing social gap and inequity. In spite of increasingly developing intensive neonatal care wards and decreasing neonatal mortality rate, there is no follow-up surveillance system to identify high-risk infants (HRI) and their health problems for timely intervention after discharge. This study was carried out to design and pilot high-risk infant follow-ups (HRIFs) surveillance system, in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (TUOMS), in 2012-2013. In this qualitative research after studying international documents, consensus about criteria of HRIs accomplished by focus group discussion. Then, Delphi agreement technique was used to finalizing assessment timetable. In the second phase, we piloted the designed surveillance system in Alzahra Hospital, a tertiary level center of TUOMS. Pilot study was implemented by follow-up team organized in designed model at the first phase of the study. Then, the findings of the pilot study were being assessed by an expert panel. If the members agreed on made decisions, they were being placed on the agenda of the national committee of development care of newborns for final approval. High-risk infants follow-up surveillance system was designed in following steps: Defining of evidence-based criteria of HRIs, organizing the follow-up team, regulating the organs and neurodevelopment assessment timetable, publishing a health certificate notebook for HRIs, and designing Access database software for data collection, report and evaluation. We designed and piloted HRIFs surveillance system, so this system was institutionalized in Alzahra Hospital, finally. It can be prepared to apply in the whole country, after detecting the quantitative outcomes and developing the program in East Azarbijan.

  16. Rotavirus Surveillance at a WHO-Coordinated Invasive Bacterial Disease Surveillance Site in Bangladesh: A Feasibility Study to Integrate Two Surveillance Systems.

    PubMed

    Tanmoy, Arif Mohammad; Ahmed, Asm Nawshad Uddin; Arumugam, Rajesh; Hossain, Belal; Marzan, Mahfuza; Saha, Shampa; Arifeen, Shams El; Baqui, Abdullah H; Black, Robert E; Kang, Gagandeep; Saha, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) currently coordinates rotavirus diarrhea and invasive bacterial disease (IBD) surveillance at 178 sentinel sites in 60 countries. However, only 78 sites participate in both surveillance systems using a common sentinel site. Here, we explored the feasibility of extending a WHO-IBD surveillance platform to generate data on the burden of rotaviral diarrhea and its epidemiological characteristics to prepare the countries to measure the impact of rotaviral vaccine. A six-month (July to December, 2012) surveillance, managed by IBD team, collected stool samples and clinical data from under-five children with acute watery diarrhea at an IBD sentinel site. Samples were tested for rotavirus antigen by ELISA and genotyped by PCR at the regional reference laboratory (RRL). Specimens were collected from 79% (n=297) of eligible cases (n=375); 100% of which were tested for rotavirus by ELISA and 54% (159/297) of them were positive. At RRL, all the cases were confirmed by PCR and genotyped (99%; 158/159). The typing results revealed the predominance of G12 (40%; 64/159) genotype, followed by G1 (31%; 50/159) and G9 (19%; 31/159). All in all, this exploratory surveillance collected the desired demographic and epidemiological data and achieved almost all the benchmark indicators of WHO, starting from enrollment number to quality assurance through a number of case detection, collection, and testing of specimens and genotyping of strains at RRL. The success of this WHO-IBD site in achieving these benchmark indicators of WHO can be used by WHO as a proof-of-concept for considering integration of rotavirus surveillance with WHO-IBD platforms, specifically in countries with well performing IBD site and no ongoing rotavirus surveillance.

  17. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  18. A multisensor system for airborne surveillance of oil pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Ketchal, R.; Catoe, C.

    1973-01-01

    The U.S. Coast Guard is developing a prototype airborne oil surveillance system for use in its Marine Environmental Protection Program. The prototype system utilizes an X-band side-looking radar, a 37-GHz imaging microwave radiometer, a multichannel line scanner, and a multispectral low light level system. The system is geared to detecting and mapping oil spills and potential pollution violators anywhere within a 25 nmi range of the aircraft flight track under all but extreme weather conditions. The system provides for false target discrimination and maximum identification of spilled materials. The system also provides an automated detection alarm, as well as a color display to achieve maximum coupling between the sensor data and the equipment operator.

  19. West Nile virus in Europe: a comparison of surveillance system designs in a changing epidemiological context.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Veronique; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Durand, Benoit

    2011-08-01

    Current knowledge suggests that there is a low-level and recurrent circulation of West Nile virus (WNV) in Europe, with sporadic human and/or equines cases. However, recent events indicate that this picture is changing, raising the possibility that Europe could experience a modification in the virus' circulation patterns. We used an existing model of WNV circulation between Southern Europe and West Africa to estimate the sample size of equivalent West Nile surveillance systems, either passive (based upon horse populations and sentinel veterinarians) or active (sentinel horses, sentinel chickens, or WNV genome detection in trapped mosquito pools). The costs and calendar day of first detection of these different surveillance systems were compared under three different epidemiological scenarios: very low level circulation, low level recurrent circulation, and epidemic situation. The passive surveillance of 1000 horses by specialized veterinarian clinics appeared to be the most cost-effective system in the current European context, and estimated median dates of first detection appeared consistent with recent field observations. Our results can be used to optimize surveillance designs for different epidemiological requirements.

  20. Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife–Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T.; Blyde, David J.; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases. PMID:24787430

  1. Emerging infectious diseases in free-ranging wildlife-Australian zoo based wildlife hospitals contribute to national surveillance.

    PubMed

    Cox-Witton, Keren; Reiss, Andrea; Woods, Rupert; Grillo, Victoria; Baker, Rupert T; Blyde, David J; Boardman, Wayne; Cutter, Stephen; Lacasse, Claude; McCracken, Helen; Pyne, Michael; Smith, Ian; Vitali, Simone; Vogelnest, Larry; Wedd, Dion; Phillips, Martin; Bunn, Chris; Post, Lyndel

    2014-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are increasingly originating from wildlife. Many of these diseases have significant impacts on human health, domestic animal health, and biodiversity. Surveillance is the key to early detection of emerging diseases. A zoo based wildlife disease surveillance program developed in Australia incorporates disease information from free-ranging wildlife into the existing national wildlife health information system. This program uses a collaborative approach and provides a strong model for a disease surveillance program for free-ranging wildlife that enhances the national capacity for early detection of emerging diseases.

  2. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS): purpose, production, and potential.

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and Canadian Public Health Association (CPHA) developed the Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) to assist all 192 WHO Member States in collecting data on youth and adult tobacco use. The flexible GTSS system includes common data items but allows countries to include important unique information at their discretion. It uses a common survey methodology, similar field procedures for data collection, and similar data management and processing techniques. The GTSS includes collection of data through three surveys: the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) for youth, and the Global School Personnel Survey (GSPS) and the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPS) for adults. GTSS data potentially can be applied in four ways. First, countries and research partners can disseminate data through publications, presentations, and an active GTSS web site. Second, countries can use GTSS data to inform politicians about the tobacco problem in their country, leading to new policy decisions to prevent and control tobacco use. Third, GTSS can provide countries with valuable feedback to evaluate and improve Country National Action Plans or develop new plans. Fourth, in response to the WHO FCTC call for countries to use consistent methods and procedures in their surveillance efforts, GTSS offers such consistency in sampling procedures, core questionnaire items, training infield procedures, and analysis of data across all survey sites. The GTSS represents the most comprehensive tobacco surveillance system ever developed and implemented. As an example, this paper describes development of the GYTS and discusses potential uses of the data. Sample data were drawn from 38 sites in 24 countries in the African Region, 82 sites in 35 countries in the Americas Region, 20 sites in 17 countries and the Gaza Strip/West Bank region in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, 25 sites in 22 countries in the European

  3. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Hall, T.E.; Severtsen, R.H.

    1999-01-12

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system is disclosed including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image. 13 figs.

  4. Real-time wideband cylindrical holographic surveillance system

    DOEpatents

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.; Severtsen, Ronald H.

    1999-01-01

    A wideband holographic cylindrical surveillance system including a transceiver for generating a plurality of electromagnetic waves; antenna for transmitting the electromagnetic waves toward a target at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; the transceiver also receiving and converting electromagnetic waves reflected from the target to electrical signals at a plurality of predetermined positions in space; a computer for processing the electrical signals to obtain signals corresponding to a holographic reconstruction of the target; and a display for displaying the processed information to determine nature of the target. The computer has instructions to apply Fast Fourier Transforms and obtain a three dimensional cylindrical image.

  5. Markov random fields for static foreground classification in surveillance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Jack K.; Lu, Thomas T.

    2014-09-01

    We present a novel technique for classifying static foreground in automated airport surveillance systems between abandoned and removed objects by representing the image as a Markov Random Field. The proposed algorithm computes and compares the net probability of the region of interest before and after the event occurs, hence finding which fits more naturally with their respective backgrounds. Having tested on a dataset from the PETS 2006, PETS 2007, AVSS20074, CVSG, VISOR, CANDELA and WCAM datasets, the algorithm has shown capable of matching the results of the state-of-the-art, is highly parallel and has a degree of robustness to noise and illumination changes.

  6. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    PubMed

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  7. Evaluation and Reform of Mexican National Epidemiological Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Conyer, Roberto; Kuri-Morales, Pablo; González-Urbán, Luis; Sarti, Elsa

    2001-01-01

    To generate timely and reliable information for decision making in local health centers, Mexico's National Epidemiological Surveillance System (SINAVE) was evaluated and reformed. The reform was achieved by consensus through national meetings of epidemiologists, using a conceptual model of requirements, leadership, participation, and motivation. The new SINAVE is run by committees that use data from 16 468 local health centers that generate homogeneous information from all health institutions. Indicators, flowcharts, and standardized instruments were created. The reforms modernized SINAVE and strengthened epidemiologists' leadership, consolidated local decision making, and assessed control actions needed to improve the health of the Mexican population. PMID:11684594

  8. Utilizing wide area maritime domain awareness (MDA) data to cue a remote surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenor, Anthony W.; Cross, Richard; Webb, Sean; Lapinski, Anna-Liesa S.

    2013-10-01

    Defence Research and Development Canada - Atlantic (DRDC Atlantic) is currently involved in research on the topic of northern Maritime Domain Awareness (MDA). One project, entitled Situational Information for Enabling Development of Northern Awareness (SEDNA), includes research on the exploitation of MDA data in northern areas. One aspect of this research is to utilize wide area MDA data to provide awareness to an unattended, land-based system. Wide area MDA is attained through the use of space-based AIS (SAIS) data, a data feed used by the Canadian Department of National Defence and supplied by the commercial provider exactEarth Ltd. The land-based surveillance system used is the remote northern system constructed within the DRDC Northern Watch Technology Demonstration Project. Northern Watch is a multi-year project intended to show state-of-the-art, unattended, surveillance capabilities in the Canadian north. The link between the SAIS and Northern Watch is provided by a research infrastructure that consists of an assembly of data sources, users, applications, and product management techniques that collectively support research in areas such as information management and MDA data exploitation. High-level descriptions of the systems are provided along with elaboration on the alerting algorithm, the notifications that would be sent to the Northern Watch southern command site, and the resulting actions that could be taken by the Northern Watch surveillance system.

  9. Partners for child passenger safety: a unique child-specific crash surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Durbin, D R; Bhatia, E; Holmes, J H; Shaw, K N; Werner, J V; Sorenson, W; Winston, F K

    2001-05-01

    Insurance claims data were combined with telephone survey and on-site crash investigation data to create the first large scale, child-focused motor vehicle crash surveillance system in the US. Novel data management and transfer techniques were used to create a nearly real-time data collection system. In the first year of this on-going project, known as Partners for Child Passenger Safety, over 1200 children < or = 15 years of age per week were identified in crashes reported to State Farm Insurance Co. from 15 states and Washington, D.C. Partners for Child Passenger Safety is similar in its design and overall objectives to National Automotive Sampling System (NASS), the only other population-based crash surveillance system currently operating in the US.

  10. GISEpi: a simple geographical information system to support public health surveillance and epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Nobre, F F; Braga, A L; Pinheiro, R S; Lopes, J A

    1997-05-01

    One important question for the implementation of a surveillance system concern the type of instrument that can provide timely information on the course of diseases and other health events. This may facilitate prompt implementation of prevention and intervention efforts, such as strengthening control action in one specific area or initiation of epidemiological investigation. Since health related variables of interest are often spatially distributed they require special tools for representation and analysis. Owing to their inherent ability to manage spatial information, geographical information systems (GIS) provide an excellent framework for the design of surveillance systems. This paper presents a simple information system, based on the concepts of GIS, designed for representation and elementary analysis of epidemiological data. An example of its potential use to support malaria control activities in Brazil is discussed.

  11. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-12-18

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Incidence of childhood pneumonia: facility-based surveillance estimate compared to measured incidence in a South African birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    le Roux, David M; Myer, Landon; Nicol, Mark P; Zar, Heather J

    2015-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading cause of childhood mortality and a major contributor to childhood morbidity, but accurate measurement of pneumonia incidence is challenging. We compared pneumonia incidence using a facility-based surveillance system to estimates from a cohort study conducted contemporaneously in the same community in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A surveillance system was developed in six public sector primary care clinics and in a regional referral hospital, to detect childhood pneumonia cases. Nurses recorded all children presenting to facilities who met WHO case definitions of pneumonia, and hospital records were reviewed. Estimates of pneumonia incidence and severity were compared with incidence rates based on active surveillance in the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Results From June 2012 until September 2013, the surveillance system detected 306 pneumonia episodes in children under 1 year of age, an incidence of 0.20 episodes/child-year (e/cy) (95% CI 0.17 to 0.22 e/cy). The incidence in the cohort study from the same period was 0.27 e/cy (95% CI 0.23 to 0.32 e/cy). Pneumonia incidence in the surveillance system was almost 30% lower than in the birth cohort; incidence rate ratio 0.72 (95% CI 0.58 to 0.89). In the surveillance system, 18% were severe pneumonia cases, compared to 23% in the birth cohort, rate ratio 0.81 (95% CI 0.55 to 1.18). Conclusions In this setting, facility-based pneumonia surveillance detected fewer cases of pneumonia, and fewer severe cases, compared to the corresponding cohort study. Facility pneumonia surveillance using data collected by local healthcare workers provides a useful estimate of the epidemiology of childhood pneumonia but may underestimate incidence and severity. PMID:26685027

  13. SCM: a practical tool to implement hospital-based syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Ye, Chuchu; Li, Zhongjie; Fu, Yifei; Lan, Yajia; Zhu, Weiping; Zhou, Dinglun; Zhang, Honglong; Lai, Shengjie; Buckeridge, David L; Sun, Qiao; Yang, Weizhong

    2016-06-18

    Syndromic surveillance has been widely used for the early warning of infectious disease outbreaks, especially in mass gatherings, but the collection of electronic data on symptoms in hospitals is one of the fundamental challenges that must be overcome during operating a syndromic surveillance system. The objective of our study is to describe and evaluate the implementation of a symptom-clicking-module (SCM) as a part of the enhanced hospital-based syndromic surveillance during the 41st World Exposition in Shanghai, China, 2010. The SCM, including 25 targeted symptoms, was embedded in the sentinels' Hospital Information Systems (HIS). The clinicians used SCM to record these information of all the visiting patients, and data were collated and transmitted automatically in daily batches. The symptoms were categorized into seven targeted syndromes using pre-defined criteria, and statistical algorithms were applied to detect temporal aberrations in the data series. SCM was deployed successfully in each sentinel hospital and was operated during the 184-day surveillance period. A total of 1,730,797 patient encounters were recorded by SCM, and 6.1 % (105,352 visits) met the criteria of the seven targeted syndromes. Acute respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes were reported most frequently, accounted for 92.1 % of reports in all syndromes, and the aggregated time-series presented an obvious day-of-week variation over the study period. In total, 191 aberration signals were triggered, and none of them were identified as outbreaks after verification and field investigation. SCM has acted as a practical tool for recording symptoms in the hospital-based enhanced syndromic surveillance system during the 41st World Exposition in Shanghai, in the context of without a preexisting electronic tool to collect syndromic data in the HIS of the sentinel hospitals.

  14. Integrated biological–behavioural surveillance in pandemic-threat warning systems

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Economically and politically disruptive disease outbreaks are a hallmark of the 21st century. Although pandemics are driven by human behaviours, current surveillance systems for identifying pandemic threats are largely reliant on the monitoring of disease outcomes in clinical settings. Standardized integrated biological–behavioural surveillance could, and should, be used in community settings to complement such clinical monitoring. The usefulness of such an approach has already been demonstrated in studies on human immunodeficiency virus, where integrated surveillance contributed to a biologically based and quantifiable understanding of the behavioural risk factors associated with the transmission dynamics of the virus. When designed according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology criteria, integrated surveillance requires that both behavioural risk factors – i.e. exposure variables – and disease-indicator outcome variables be measured in behavioural surveys. In the field of pandemic threats, biological outcome data could address the weaknesses of self-reported data collected in behavioural surveys. Data from serosurveys of viruses with pandemic potential, collected under non-outbreak conditions, indicate that serosurveillance could be used to predict future outbreaks. When conducted together, behavioural surveys and serosurveys could warn of future pandemics, potentially before the disease appears in clinical settings. Traditional disease-outcome surveillance must be frequent and ongoing to remain useful but behavioural surveillance remains informative even if conducted much less often, since behaviour change occurs slowly over time. Only through knowledge of specific behavioural risk factors can interventions and policies that can prevent the next pandemic be developed. PMID:28053365

  15. The utility of information collected by occupational disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Money, A; Carder, M; Hussey, L; Agius, R M

    2015-11-01

    The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network in the UK and the Republic of Ireland (ROI) is an integrated system of surveillance schemes collecting work-related ill-health (WRIH) data since 1989. In addition to providing information about disease incidence, trends in incidence and the identification of new hazards, THOR also operates an ad hoc data enquiry service enabling interested parties to request information about cases of WRIH reported to THOR. To examine requests for information made to a network of surveillance schemes for WRIH in the UK. Analysis via SPSS of data requests received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. A total of 631 requests were received by THOR between 2002 and 2014. Requests were predominantly submitted by participating THOR physicians (34%) and the main THOR funder-the UK Health & Safety Executive (HSE) (31%). The majority (67%) of requests were for information about work-related respiratory or skin disease with relatively few requests for other diagnoses, such as musculoskeletal or mental ill-health. Requests frequently related to a specific industry and/or occupation (42%) and/or a specific causal agent (58%). Data collected by occupational disease surveillance systems such as THOR are an extremely useful source of information, the use of which extends beyond informing government on disease incidence and trends in incidence. The data collected provide a framework that can assist a wide range of enquirers with clinical diagnoses, identification of suspected causative agents/exposures and to highlight growing risks in particular industrial and occupational sectors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A smart system for surveillance of animal welfare during transport.

    PubMed

    Gebresenbet, G; Wikner, I; Van de Water, G; Freson, L; Geers, R

    2003-12-01

    New welfare regulations will impose surveillance systems so that information on the quality of transport conditions is available. Moreover a route description is useful for optimisation of transport logistics, but also in relation to estimating of sanitary risk and food safety, including traceability of individual animals. Therefore a transport surveillance system has been developed which is integrating the following information: individual identification of animals, (un)loading place and time, air quality (temperature, relative humidity, emissions), vibration and behaviour of the animals. These data are collected by telemetry and GPS, and are transmitted to a dispatch centre by GSM. Hence, information is available on-line and on disk, so that the driver can be informed and corrected at the spot. Dynamic route optimization of cattle collection from farms and logistical activities of abattoirs are considered in relation to animal welfare. Another instrumentation package that comprises sensors of heart rate and vibration on the animal has been integrated. These sensors can be mounted on animals and the data is transferred to a database through a wireless network. Comprehensive field measurement has been made to evaluate the system and found that the package performs well. Hence, advice will be generated for vehicle manufacturers, hauliers, farmers, slaughterhouses and retailers.

  17. Schistosomiasis: Geospatial Surveillance and Response Systems in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John; Bergquist, Robert; Rinaldi, Laura; Xiao-nong, Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) from Earth-observing satellites offer opportunities for rapid assessment of areas endemic for vector-borne diseases including estimates of populations at risk and guidance to intervention strategies. This presentation deals with GIS and RS applications for the control of schistosomiasis in China and the Philippines. It includes large-scale risk mapping including identification of suitable habitats for Oncomelania hupensis, the intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum. Predictions of infection risk are discussed with reference to ecological transformations and the potential impact of climate change and the potential for long-term temperature increases in the North as well as the impact on rivers, lakes and water resource developments. Potential integration of geospatial mapping and modeling in schistosomiasis surveillance and response systems in Asia within Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) guidelines in the health societal benefit area is discussed.

  18. The role of diagnostic laboratories in support of animal disease surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, C

    2007-01-01

    Diagnostic laboratories are an essential component of animal disease surveillance systems. To understand the occurrence of disease in populations, surveillance systems rely on random or targeted surveys using three approaches: clinical, serological and virological surveillance. Clinical surveillance is the basis for early detection of disease and is usually centered on the detection of syndromes and clinical findings requiring confirmation by diagnostic laboratories. Although most of the tests applied usually perform to an acceptable standard, several have not been properly validated in terms of their diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. Sensitivity and specificity estimates can vary according to local conditions and, ideally, should be determined by national laboratories where the tests are to be applied. The importance of sensitivity and specificity estimates in the design and interpretation of statistically based surveys and risk analysis is fundamental to establish appropriate disease control and prevention strategies. The World Organisation for Animal Health's (OIE) network of reference laboratories acts as centers of expertise for the diagnosis of OIE listed diseases and have a role in promoting the validation of OIE prescribed tests for international trade. This paper discusses the importance of the epidemiological evaluation of diagnostic tests and the role of the OIE Reference Laboratories and Collaborating Centres in this process.

  19. A GIS-based zoning of illegal dumping potential for efficient surveillance.

    PubMed

    Tasaki, Tomohiro; Kawahata, Takatsune; Osako, Masahiro; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Takagishi, Susumu; Morita, Akihiro; Akishima, Shigeki

    2007-01-01

    To assist in the efficient surveillance against illegal dumping, this study examined and evaluated two methods to illustrate the illegal dumping potential of sites using GIS (Geographic Information System) data. One approach focused on the occurrence of illegal dumping sites; the other on the size of the illegal dumping. Both approaches to zoning were implemented for the Kanto region of Japan, utilizing seven or eight major geographical attributes most closely related to illegal dumping. The zoning results revealed the areas requiring patrols against illegal dumping. Evaluation of the zoning results using the ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curve showed the number of illegal dumping sites detectable under certain surveillance conditions and that the size-based zoning was superior, but this superiority was insignificant for revealing sites with higher potential for large illegal dumping, for which it would be sufficient to use the occurrence-based zoning. The evaluation also showed the contribution of each geographical attribute. Finally, application of the ROC curve to the surveillance planning process was examined, which enables the total social cost of pollution by illegal dumping, rehabilitation of dumping sites, and illegal dumping surveillance to be minimized.

  20. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Public Health Practice of Population-Based Birth Defects Surveillance Programs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mai, Cara T; Kirby, Russell S; Correa, Adolfo; Rosenberg, Deborah; Petros, Michael; Fagen, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Birth defects remain a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States and contribute substantially to health care costs and lifelong disabilities. State population-based surveillance systems have been established to monitor birth defects, yet no recent systematic examination of their efforts in the United States has been conducted. To understand the current population-based birth defects surveillance practices in the United States. The National Birth Defects Prevention Network conducted a survey of US population-based birth defects activities that included questions about operational status, case ascertainment methodology, program infrastructure, data collection and utilization, as well as priorities and challenges for surveillance programs. Birth defects contacts in the United States, including District of Columbia and Puerto Rico, received the survey via e-mail; follow-up reminders via e-mails and telephone were used to ensure a 100% response rate. Forty-three states perform population-based surveillance for birth defects, covering approximately 80% of the live births in the United States. Seventeen primarily use an active case-finding approach and 26 use a passive case-finding approach. These programs all monitor major structural malformations; however, passive case-finding programs more often monitor a broader list of conditions, including developmental conditions and newborn screening conditions. Active case-finding programs more often use clinical reviewers, cover broader pregnancy outcomes, and collect more extensive information, such as family history. More than half of the programs (24 of 43) reported an ability to conduct follow-up studies of children with birth defects. The breadth and depth of information collected at a population level by birth defects surveillance programs in the United States serve as an important data source to guide public health action. Collaborative efforts at the state and national levels can help harmonize data

  2. The usefulness of school-based syndromic surveillance for detecting malaria epidemics: experiences from a pilot project in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Ruth A; Kefyalew, Takele; Batisso, Esey; Awano, Tessema; Kebede, Zelalem; Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Mesele, Tamiru; Chibsa, Sheleme; Reithinger, Richard; Brooker, Simon J

    2016-01-09

    Syndromic surveillance is a supplementary approach to routine surveillance, using pre-diagnostic and non-clinical surrogate data to identify possible infectious disease outbreaks. To date, syndromic surveillance has primarily been used in high-income countries for diseases such as influenza--however, the approach may also be relevant to resource-poor settings. This study investigated the potential for monitoring school absenteeism and febrile illness, as part of a school-based surveillance system to identify localised malaria epidemics in Ethiopia. Repeated cross-sectional school- and community-based surveys were conducted in six epidemic-prone districts in southern Ethiopia during the 2012 minor malaria transmission season to characterise prospective surrogate and syndromic indicators of malaria burden. Changes in these indicators over the transmission season were compared to standard indicators of malaria (clinical and confirmed cases) at proximal health facilities. Subsequently, two pilot surveillance systems were implemented, each at ten sites throughout the peak transmission season. Indicators piloted were school attendance recorded by teachers, or child-reported recent absenteeism from school and reported febrile illness. Lack of seasonal increase in malaria burden limited the ability to evaluate sensitivity of the piloted syndromic surveillance systems compared to existing surveillance at health facilities. Weekly absenteeism was easily calculated by school staff using existing attendance registers, while syndromic indicators were more challenging to collect weekly from schoolchildren. In this setting, enrolment of school-aged children was found to be low, at 54%. Non-enrolment was associated with low household wealth, lack of parental education, household size, and distance from school. School absenteeism is a plausible simple indicator of unusual health events within a community, such as malaria epidemics, but the sensitivity of an absenteeism-based

  3. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in wildlife in France (Sylvatub system) using scenario trees.

    PubMed

    Rivière, Julie; Le Strat, Yann; Hendrikx, Pascal; Dufour, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with health, zoonotic and economic implications. Infected wild animals, and particularly reservoirs, could hinder eradication of bTB from cattle populations, which could have an important impact on international cattle trade. Therefore, surveillance of bTB in wildlife is of particular importance to better understand the epidemiological role of wild species and to adapt the control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, has been implemented since 2011. It relies on three surveillance components (SSCs) (passive surveillance on hunted animals (EC-SSC), passive surveillance on dead or dying animals (SAGIR-SSC) and active surveillance (PSURV-SSC)). The effectiveness of the Sylvatub system was previously assessed, through the estimation of its sensitivity (i.e. the probability of detecting at least one case of bTB infection by each SSC, specie and risk-level area). However, to globally assess the performance of a surveillance system, the measure of its sensitivity is not sufficient, as other factors such as economic or socio-economic factors could influence the effectiveness. We report here an estimation of the costs of the surveillance activities of the Sylvatub system, and of the cost-effectiveness of each surveillance component, by specie and risk-level, based on scenario tree modelling with the same tree structure as used for the sensitivity evaluation. The cost-effectiveness of the Sylvatub surveillance is better in higher-risk departments, due in particular to the higher probability of detecting the infection (sensitivity). Moreover, EC-SSC, which has the highest unit cost, is more efficient than the surveillance enhanced by the SAGIR-SSC, due to its better sensitivity. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness ratio shows that PSURV-SSC remains the most cost-effective surveillance component of the Sylvatub system, despite its high cost in

  4. Cost-effectiveness evaluation of bovine tuberculosis surveillance in wildlife in France (Sylvatub system) using scenario trees

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease in cattle and wildlife, with health, zoonotic and economic implications. Infected wild animals, and particularly reservoirs, could hinder eradication of bTB from cattle populations, which could have an important impact on international cattle trade. Therefore, surveillance of bTB in wildlife is of particular importance to better understand the epidemiological role of wild species and to adapt the control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, has been implemented since 2011. It relies on three surveillance components (SSCs) (passive surveillance on hunted animals (EC-SSC), passive surveillance on dead or dying animals (SAGIR-SSC) and active surveillance (PSURV-SSC)). The effectiveness of the Sylvatub system was previously assessed, through the estimation of its sensitivity (i.e. the probability of detecting at least one case of bTB infection by each SSC, specie and risk-level area). However, to globally assess the performance of a surveillance system, the measure of its sensitivity is not sufficient, as other factors such as economic or socio-economic factors could influence the effectiveness. We report here an estimation of the costs of the surveillance activities of the Sylvatub system, and of the cost-effectiveness of each surveillance component, by specie and risk-level, based on scenario tree modelling with the same tree structure as used for the sensitivity evaluation. The cost-effectiveness of the Sylvatub surveillance is better in higher-risk departments, due in particular to the higher probability of detecting the infection (sensitivity). Moreover, EC-SSC, which has the highest unit cost, is more efficient than the surveillance enhanced by the SAGIR-SSC, due to its better sensitivity. The calculation of the cost-effectiveness ratio shows that PSURV-SSC remains the most cost-effective surveillance component of the Sylvatub system, despite its high cost in

  5. Surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China: From 2012 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honglong; Wang, Liping; Lai, Shengjie; Li, Zhongjie; Sun, Qiao; Zhang, Peng

    2017-07-01

    Appropriate surveillance and early warning of infectious diseases have very useful roles in disease control and prevention. In 2004, China established the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System and the Public Health Emergency Event Surveillance System to report disease surveillance and events on the basis of data sources from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Surveillance System, China Infectious Disease Automated-alert and Response System in this country. This study provided a descriptive summary and a data analysis, from 2012 to 2014, of these 3 key surveillance and early warning systems of infectious disease in China with the intent to provide suggestions for system improvement and perfection. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Huu; Nguyen, Ha Thanh; Ho, Hien Thi; Pham, Cuong Viet; Le, Vui Thi; Le, Anh Vu

    2013-06-01

    The Chi Linh Health and Demographic Surveillance System (CHILILAB HDSS) is the only health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) in an urbanizing area of the Chi Linh district of Hai Duong, a northern province of Vietnam. It is one of the few field laboratories in the world that links operational research and health interventions with field training. The CHILILAB HDSS provides longitudinal data on demographic and health indicators for the community of Chi Linh. In 2012, when the CHILILAB HDSS included 57,561 people from 17 993 households in 3 towns and 4 communes, it used structured questionnaires to collect information on population changes (birth, death, migration, marriage, and pregnancy) in the community. As of December 2012, 5 rounds of a baseline survey and 17 periodic update surveys or re-enumeration surveys had been conducted. In addition, several specialized public-health research projects, focused particularly on adolescent health, have been implemented by the CHILILAB HDSS. The information that the CHILILAB HDSS has gathered provides a picture of the health status of the population and socio-economic situation in Chi Linh district. The contact person for data sharing is the director of the CHILILAB (E-mail: thb@hsph.edu.vn).

  7. Validation of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Sleep Questions

    PubMed Central

    Jungquist, Carla R.; Mund, Jaime; Aquilina, Alan T.; Klingman, Karen; Pender, John; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Dickerson, Suzanne S.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep problems may constitute a risk for health problems, including cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, poor work performance, and motor vehicle accidents. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the validity of the current Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) sleep questions by establishing the sensitivity and specificity for detection of sleep/ wake disturbance. Methods: Repeated cross-sectional assessment of 300 community dwelling adults over the age of 18 who did not wear CPAP or oxygen during sleep. Reliability and validity testing of the BRFSS sleep questions was performed comparing to BFRSS responses to data from home sleep study, actigraphy for 14 days, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and PROMIS-57. Results: Only two of the five BRFSS sleep questions were found valid and reliable in determining total sleep time and excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusions: Refinement of the BRFSS questions is recommended. Citation: Jungquist CR, Mund J, Aquilina AT, Klingman K, Pender J, Ochs-Balcom H, van Wijngaarden E, Dickerson SS. Validation of the behavioral risk factor surveillance system sleep questions. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(3):301–310. PMID:26446246

  8. Dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, H. L.; Li, X.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, J. T.; Xie, W. H.; Zhao, Z. J.

    2017-08-01

    The dipole-dipole interaction in electronic article surveillance system is studied in this paper. The acoustic magnetic properties investigations were performed on amorphous ribbon Fe24Co11.82Ni47.3Si1.47B15 with a size of 38.5 mm  ×  6 mm  ×  0.03 mm at room temperature. The results showed that the dependence of resonance amplitude and frequency on the external magnetic field varied with the number of ribbons. To understand the mechanism, hysteresis loops in arrays of N ribbons with and without a bias magnet have been performed. A theoretical model was used to calculate the dipolar fields among the ribbons and the magnet. The ribbons without a bias magnet exhibited a higher anisotropy field as the number of ribbons increased, which arises from the dipole-dipole interaction between them. The plateau and kink in hysteresis loops with bias magnets also change with the number of ribbons because of the dipole-dipole interactions among the ribbons themselves, and the interaction between the ribbons and the bias magnet also. The superimposed dipolar field affects the acoustic magnetic properties of the ribbons in electronic article surveillance system.

  9. Weather-enabled future onboard surveillance and navigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutuel, L.; Baillon, B.; Barnetche, B.; Delpy, P.

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing traffic and the development of business trajectories, there is a widespread need to anticipate any adverse weather conditions that could impact the performance of the flight or to use of atmospheric parameters to optimize trajectories. Current sensors onboard air transport are challenged to provide the required service, while new products for business jets and general aviation open the door to innovative assimilation of weather information in onboard surveillance and navigation. The paper aims at surveying current technology available to air transport aircraft and pointing out their shortcomings in view of the modernization proposed in SESAR and NextGen implementation plans. Foreseen innovations are then illustrated via results of ongoing research like FLYSAFE or standardization efforts, in particular meteorological datalink services and impact on Human-Machine Interface. The paper covers the operational need to avoid adverse weather like thunderstorm, icing, turbulence, windshear and volcanic ash, but also the requirement to control in 4D the trajectory through the integration of wind and temperature grids in the flight management. The former will lead to enhanced surveillance systems onboard the aircraft with new displays and new alerting schemes, ranging from targeted information supporting better re-planning to auto-escape strategies. The latter will be standard in next generation flight management systems. Finally both will rely on ATM products that will also assimilate weather information so that situational awareness is shared and decision is collaborative.

  10. Complaint-based surveillance for foodborne illness in the United States: a survey of local health departments.

    PubMed

    Li, John; Shah, Gulzar H; Hedberg, Craig

    2011-03-01

    Foodborne illnesses are an important public health problem in the United States in terms of both the burden of illness and cost to the health care system. Strengthening foodborne illness surveillance helps address the growing issues of food safety in the United States. Very little is known about the use of consumer complaint surveillance systems for foodborne illness. This study evaluates the use of these surveillance systems by local health departments (LHDs) in the United States and their practices and policies for investigating complaints. Data for this study were collected through two Web-based surveys based on a representative sample of LHDs in the United States; 81% of LHDs use complaint-based surveillance. Of those that did not have a complaint system, 64% reported that the state health department or another agency ran their complaint system. Health departments collect a wide variety of information from callers through their complaint systems, including food intake history. Most of the LHDs, however, do not store the information in an electronic database. Outbreak rates and complaint rates were found to be positively correlated, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.38. Complaints were the most common outbreak detection mechanism reported by respondents, with a median of 69% of outbreaks during the previous year found through complaints. Complaint systems are commonly used in the United States. Increasing the rate at which illnesses are reported by the public and improving investigation practices could help increase the number of outbreaks detected through complaint surveillance.

  11. Hospital-based surveillance of intussusception among infants.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Eder Gatti; Leshem, Eyal; Patel, Manish; Flannery, Brendan; Pellini, Alessandra Cristina Guedes; Veras, Maria Amelia; Sato, Helena Keico

    2016-01-01

    Intussusception surveillance was initiated after the nationwide introduction of live attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1). The objective is to assess the epidemiology of intussusception and compare the number of cases before and after the introduction of rotavirus vaccine. Cases of intussusception occurring between March 2006 and January 2008 were identified through a prospective enhanced passive surveillance system established in sentinel state hospitals. Retrospective review of medical records was used to identify cases, which occurred in sentinel hospitals between January 2001 and February 2006. From 2001 to 2008, 331 intussusception cases were identified, 59.5% were male, with peak incidence among those 18-24 weeks of age. Overall <10% of cases were among infants 6-14 weeks of age (when the first dose of RV1 is administered). The most frequently observed signs or symptoms of intussusception included vomiting (89.4%), bloody stool (75.5%), and abdominal distention (71.8%). A majority (92.1%) of the case-patients required surgery for treatment; 31.8% of those who underwent surgery required bowel resection, and 13 (3.9%) died. Among the 21 hospitals that reported cases throughout the entire surveillance period (2001-2008), the number of intussusception events during 2007 (n=26) and 2008 (n=19) was not greater than the average annual number (n=31, range 24-42) during baseline years 2001-2005. Although this analysis did not identify an increase in intussusception cases during the two years after RV1 introduction, these results support the need for special epidemiologic methods to assess the potential link between rotavirus vaccine and this very rare adverse event. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparing syndromic surveillance detection methods: EARS' versus a CUSUM-based methodology.

    PubMed

    Fricker, Ronald D; Hegler, Benjamin L; Dunfee, David A

    2008-07-30

    This paper compares the performance of three detection methods, entitled C1, C2, and C3, that are implemented in the early aberration reporting system (EARS) and other syndromic surveillance systems versus the CUSUM applied to model-based prediction errors. The cumulative sum (CUSUM) performed significantly better than the EARS' methods across all of the scenarios we evaluated. These scenarios consisted of various combinations of large and small background disease incidence rates, seasonal cycles from large to small (as well as no cycle), daily effects, and various types and levels of random daily variation. This leads us to recommend replacing the C1, C2, and C3 methods in existing syndromic surveillance systems with an appropriately implemented CUSUM method.

  13. Early detection of West Nile virus in France: quantitative assessment of syndromic surveillance system using nervous signs in horses.

    PubMed

    Faverjon, C; Vial, F; Andersson, M G; Lecollinet, S; Leblond, A

    2017-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing public health concern in Europe and there is a need to develop more efficient early detection systems. Nervous signs in horses are considered to be an early indicator of WNV and, using them in a syndromic surveillance system, might be relevant. In our study, we assessed whether or not data collected by the passive French surveillance system for the surveillance of equine diseases can be used routinely for the detection of WNV. We tested several pre-processing methods and detection algorithms based on regression. We evaluated system performances using simulated and authentic data and compared them to those of the surveillance system currently in place. Our results show that the current detection algorithm provided similar performances to those tested using simulated and real data. However, regression models can be easily and better adapted to surveillance objectives. The detection performances obtained were compatible with the early detection of WNV outbreaks in France (i.e. sensitivity 98%, specificity >94%, timeliness 2·5 weeks and around four false alarms per year) but further work is needed to determine the most suitable alarm threshold for WNV surveillance in France using cost-efficiency analysis.

  14. Part-based set matching for face recognition in surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Fei; Wang, Guijin; Lin, Xinggang

    2013-12-01

    Face recognition in surveillance is a hot topic in computer vision due to the strong demand for public security and remains a challenging task owing to large variations in viewpoint and illumination of cameras. In surveillance, image sets are the most natural form of input by incorporating tracking. Recent advances in set-based matching also show its great potential for exploring the feature space for face recognition by making use of multiple samples of subjects. In this paper, we propose a novel method that exploits the salient features (such as eyes, noses, mouth) in set-based matching. To represent image sets, we adopt the affine hull model, which can general unseen appearances in the form of affine combinations of sample images. In our proposal, a robust part detector is first used to find four salient parts for each face image: two eyes, nose, and mouth. For each part, we construct an affine hull model by using the local binary pattern histograms of multiple samples of the part. We also construct an affine model for the whole face region. Then, we find the closest distance between the corresponding affine hull models to measure the similarity between parts/face regions, and a weighting scheme is introduced to combine the five distances (four parts and the whole face region) to obtain the final distance between two subjects. In the recognition phase, a nearest neighbor classifier is used. Experiments on the public ChokePoint dataset and our dataset demonstrate the superior performance of our method.

  15. Integrated monitoring and surveillance system demonstration project: Phase I accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Aumeier, S.E.; Walters, B.G.; Crawford, D.C.

    1997-01-15

    The authors present the results of the Integrated Monitoring and Surveillance System (IMSS) demonstration project Phase I efforts. The rationale behind IMSS development is reviewed and progress in each of the 5 basic tasks is detailed. Significant results include decisions to use Echelon LonWorks networking protocol and Microsoft Access for the data system needs, a preliminary design for the plutonium canning system glovebox, identification of facilities and materials available for the demonstration, determination of possibly affected facility documentation, and a preliminary list of available sensor technologies. Recently imposed changes in the overall project schedule and scope are also discussed and budgetary requirements for competition of Phase II presented. The results show that the IMSS demonstration project team has met and in many cases exceeded the commitments made for Phase I deliverables.

  16. Alternative methods for computing the sensitivity of complex surveillance systems.

    PubMed

    Hood, G M; Barry, S C; Martin, P A J

    2009-12-01

    Stochastic scenario trees are a new and popular method by which surveillance systems can be analyzed to demonstrate freedom from pests and disease. For multiple component systems-such as a combination of a serological survey and systematically collected observations-it can be difficult to represent the complete system in a tree because many branches are required to represent complex conditional relationships. Here we show that many of the branches of some scenario trees have identical outcomes and are therefore redundant. We demonstrate how to prune branches and derive compact representations of scenario trees using matrix algebra and Bayesian belief networks. The Bayesian network representation is particularly useful for calculation and exposition. It therefore provides a firm basis for arguing disease freedom in international forums.

  17. Establishment, test and evaluation of a prototype volcano surveillance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, P. L.; Eaton, J. P.; Endo, E.; Harlow, D.; Marquez, D.; Allen, R.

    1973-01-01

    A volcano-surveillance system utilizing 23 multilevel earthquake counters and 6 biaxial borehole tiltmeters is being installed and tested on 15 volcanoes in 4 States and 4 foreign countries. The purpose of this system is to give early warning when apparently dormant volcanoes are becoming active. The data are relayed through the ERTS-Data Collection System to Menlo Park for analysis. Installation was completed in 1972 on the volcanoes St. Augustine and Iliamna in Alaska, Kilauea in Hawaii, Baker, Rainier and St. Helens in Washington, Lassen in California, and at a site near Reykjavik, Iceland. Installation continues and should be completed in April 1973 on the volcanoes Santiaguito, Fuego, Agua and Pacaya in Guatemala, Izalco in El Salvador and San Cristobal, Telica and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua.

  18. Public Health Surveillance in Pilot Drinking Water Contamination Warning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dangel, Chrissy; Allgeier, Steven C.; Gibbons, Darcy; Haas, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the lessons learned from operation and maintenance of the public health surveillance (PHS) component of five pilot city drinking water contamination warning systems (CWS) including: Cincinnati, New York, San Francisco, Philadelphia, and Dallas. Introduction The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designed a program to pilot multi-component contamination warning systems (CWSs), known as the “Water Security initiative (WSi).” The Cincinnati pilot has been fully operational since January 2008, and an additional four pilot utilities will have their own, custom CWSs by the end of 2012. A workshop amongst the pilot cities was conducted in May 2012 to discuss lessons learned from the design, implementation, operation, maintenance, and evaluation of each city’s PHS component. Methods When evaluating potential surveillance tools to integrate into a drinking water contamination warning system, it is important to consider design decisions, dual use applications/considerations, and the unique capabilities of each tool. The pilot cities integrated unique surveillance tools, which included a combination of automated event detection tools and communication and coordination procedures into their respective PHS components. The five pilots performed a thorough, technical evaluation of each component of their CWS, including PHS. Results Four key lessons learned were identified from implementation of the PHS component in the five pilot cities. First, improved communication and coordination between public health and water utilities was emphasized as an essential goal even if it were not feasible to implement automated surveillance systems. The WSi pilot project has helped to strengthen this communication pathway through the process of collaborating to develop the component, and through the need to investigate PHS alerts. Second, the approximate location of specific cases associated with PHS alerts was found to be an essential feature that

  19. Application of WHO's guideline for the selection of sentinel sites for hospital-based influenza surveillance in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Susilarini, Ni Ketut; Sitorus, Martahan; Praptaningsih, Catharina Yekti; Sampurno, Ondri Dwi; Bratasena, Arie; Mulyadi, Ester; Rusli, Roselinda; Fandil, Ahmad; Mangiri, Amalya; Apsari, Hana; Hariyanto, Edy; Samaan, Gina

    2014-09-23

    A sentinel hospital-based severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance system was established in Indonesia in 2013. Deciding on the number, geographic location and hospitals to be selected as sentinel sites was a challenge. Based on the recently published WHO guideline for influenza surveillance (2012), this study presents the process for hospital sentinel site selection. From the 2,165 hospitals in Indonesia, the first step was to shortlist to hospitals that had previously participated in respiratory disease surveillance systems and had acceptable surveillance performance history. The second step involved categorizing the shortlist according to five regions in Indonesia to maximize geographic representativeness. A checklist was developed based on the WHO recommended attributes for sentinel site selection including stability, feasibility, representativeness and the availability of data to enable disease burden estimation. Eight hospitals, a maximum of two per geographic region, were visited for checklist administration. Checklist findings from the eight hospitals were analyzed and sentinel sites selected in the third step. Six hospitals could be selected based on resources available to ensure system stability over a three-year period. For feasibility, all eight hospitals visited had mechanisms for specimen shipment and the capacity to report surveillance data, but two had limited motivation for system participation. For representativeness, the eight hospitals were geographically dispersed around Indonesia, and all could capture cases in all age and socio-economic groups. All eight hospitals had prerequisite population data to enable disease burden estimation. The two hospitals with low motivation were excluded and the remaining six were selected as sentinel sites. The multi-step process enabled sentinel site selection based on the WHO recommended attributes that emphasize right-sizing the surveillance system to ensure its stability and maximizing its

  20. Redefining syndromic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Katz, Rebecca; May, Larissa; Baker, Julia; Test, Elisa

    2011-12-01

    With growing concerns about international spread of disease and expanding use of early disease detection surveillance methods, the field of syndromic surveillance has received increased attention over the last decade. The purpose of this article is to clarify the various meanings that have been assigned to the term syndromic surveillance and to propose a refined categorization of the characteristics of these systems. Existing literature and conference proceedings were examined on syndromic surveillance from 1998 to 2010, focusing on low- and middle-income settings. Based on the 36 unique definitions of syndromic surveillance found in the literature, five commonly accepted principles of syndromic surveillance systems were identified, as well as two fundamental categories: specific and non-specific disease detection. Ultimately, the proposed categorization of syndromic surveillance distinguishes between systems that focus on detecting defined syndromes or outcomes of interest and those that aim to uncover non-specific trends that suggest an outbreak may be occurring. By providing an accurate and comprehensive picture of this field's capabilities, and differentiating among system types, a unified understanding of the syndromic surveillance field can be developed, encouraging the adoption, investment in, and implementation of these systems in settings that need bolstered surveillance capacity, particularly low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2011 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Case Based Measles Surveillance Performance in 2010, Littoral Region of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Kobela, Marie; Delissaint, Dieula; Kazambu, Ditu; Emah, Irène

    2014-01-01

    The Littoral region of Cameroon met most of its routine immunization and surveillance objectives in 2010 but has not reiterated such a performance since then. We describe the case-based measles surveillance performance of 2010 by person, place, time and determine measles surveillance system delays. Descriptive statistics were performed using Epi Info 3.5.3. There were 130 suspected measles cases investigated by 17 (89.5%) health districts, 83 (64%) males and 99 (76%) ≤5 years. At least 4 cases were investigated per month with a peak of 23 cases in June. About 67 (51.5%) patients visited a hospital more than 48 h after disease onset, 34 (26.2%) health facilities informed the district service late after receiving a suspected case and 65 (50%) samples got to the reference laboratory more than 24 hours after reception by the specimen collection centre. More than 2 discarded measles/100,000 population were investigated but with health facilities, specimen collection centre and patients’ ability to seek healthcare delays. All specimens got to the reference laboratory within 72 h. Patients’ health seeking behavior need to be improved and personnel involved in surveillance sensitized on timeliness. PMID:28299126

  2. Evaluation of active mortality surveillance system data for monitoring hurricane-related deaths-Texas, 2008.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M

    2012-08-01

    The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS' active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Using CDC's Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Texas's active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health interventions to reduce future hurricane-related mortality rates.

  3. Evaluation of Active Mortality Surveillance System Data for Monitoring Hurricane-Related Deaths—Texas, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ekta; Zane, David F.; Beasley, Crystal; Jones, Russell; Rey, Araceli; Noe, Rebecca S.; Martin, Colleen; Wolkin, Amy F.; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) implemented an active mortality surveillance system to enumerate and characterize hurricane-related deaths during Hurricane Ike in 2008. This surveillance system used established guidelines and case definitions to categorize deaths as directly, indirectly, and possibly related to Hurricane Ike. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate Texas DSHS’ active mortality surveillance system using US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) surveillance system evaluation guidelines. Methods Using CDC’s Updated Guidelines for Surveillance System Evaluation, the active mortality surveillance system of the Texas DSHS was evaluated. Data from the active mortality surveillance system were compared with Texas vital statistics data for the same time period to estimate the completeness of reported disaster-related deaths. Results From September 8 through October 13, 2008, medical examiners (MEs) and Justices of the Peace (JPs) in 44 affected counties reported deaths daily by using a one-page, standardized mortality form. The active mortality surveillance system identified 74 hurricane-related deaths, whereas a review of vital statistics data revealed only four deaths that were hurricane-related. The average time of reporting a death by active mortality surveillance and vital statistics was 14 days and 16 days, respectively. Conclusions Texas’s active mortality surveillance system successfully identified hurricane-related deaths. Evaluation of the active mortality surveillance system suggested that it is necessary to collect detailed and representative mortality data during a hurricane because vital statistics do not capture sufficient information to identify whether deaths are hurricane-related. The results from this evaluation will help improve active mortality surveillance during hurricanes which, in turn, will enhance preparedness and response plans and identify public health

  4. State and Local Chronic Disease Surveillance Using Electronic Health Record Systems.

    PubMed

    Klompas, Michael; Cocoros, Noelle M; Menchaca, John T; Erani, Diana; Hafer, Ellen; Herrick, Brian; Josephson, Mark; Lee, Michael; Payne Weiss, Michelle D; Zambarano, Bob; Eberhardt, Karen R; Malenfant, Jessica; Nasuti, Laura; Land, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    To assess the feasibility of chronic disease surveillance using distributed analysis of electronic health records and to compare results with Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) state and small-area estimates. We queried the electronic health records of 3 independent Massachusetts-based practice groups using a distributed analysis tool called MDPHnet to measure the prevalence of diabetes, asthma, smoking, hypertension, and obesity in adults for the state and 13 cities. We adjusted observed rates for age, gender, and race/ethnicity relative to census data and compared them with BRFSS state and small-a