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Sample records for susceptibility-based contrast mechanisms

  1. Accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast imaging of MR compatible metallic devices based on modified fast spin echo sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Caiyun; Xie, Guoxi; Zhang, Yongqin; Zhang, Xiaoyong; Chen, Min; Su, Shi; Dong, Ying; Liu, Xin; Ji, Jim

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to develop an accelerated susceptibility-based positive contrast MR imaging method for visualizing MR compatible metallic devices. A modified fast spin echo sequence is used to accelerate data acquisition. Each readout gradient in the modified fast spin echo is slightly shifted by a short distance T shift. Phase changes accumulated within T shift are then used to calculate the susceptibility map by using a kernel deconvolution algorithm with a regularized ℓ1 minimization. To evaluate the proposed fast spin echo method, three phantom experiments were conducted and compared to a spin echo based technique and the gold standard CT for visualizing biopsy needles and brachytherapy seeds. Compared to the spin echo based technique, the data sampling speed of the proposed method was faster by 2-4 times while still being able to accurately visualize and identify the location of the biopsy needle and brachytherapy seeds. These results were confirmed by CT images of the same devices. Results also demonstrated that the proposed fast spin echo method can achieve good visualization of the brachytherapy seeds in positive contrast and in different orientations. It is also capable of correctly differentiating brachytherapy seeds from other similar structures on conventional magnitude images.

  2. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction.

    PubMed

    Chomas, J E; Dayton, P; Allen, J; Morgan, K; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is responsible for rapid destruction of contrast agents on a time scale of microseconds. The primary characteristics of fragmentation are a very large expansion and subsequent contraction, resulting in instability of the bubble. Optical studies using a novel pulsed-laser optical system show the expansion and contraction of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles with the ratio of maximum diameter to minimum diameter greater than 10. Fragmentation is dependent on the transmission pressure, occurring in over 55% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 2.4 MPa and in less than 10% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 0.8 MPa. The echo received from a bubble decorrelates significantly within two pulses when the bubble is fragmented, creating an opportunity for rapid detection of bubbles via a decorrelation-based analysis. Preliminary findings with a mouse tumor model verify the occurrence of fragmentation in vivo. A much slower mechanism of bubble destruction is diffusion, which is driven by both a concentration gradient between the concentration of gas in the bubble compared with the concentration of gas in the liquid, as well as convective effects of motion of the gas-liquid interface. The rate of diffusion increases during insonation, because of acoustically driven diffusion, producing changes in diameter on the time scale of the acoustic pulse length, thus, on the order of microseconds. Gas bubbles diffuse while they are not being insonified, termed

  3. "Basic MR Relaxation Mechanisms & Contrast Agent Design"

    PubMed Central

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Martins, André F.; Pinho, Marco; Rofsky, Neil; Sherry, A. Dean

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we will detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We will offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand based contrast agents. We will discuss the mechanisms involved in magnetic resonance relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents will be accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in development for future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide. PMID:25975847

  4. Contrast medium enhanced susceptibility imaging signal mechanism; should we use contrast medium?

    PubMed

    Aydın, Ömer; Büyükkaya, Ramazan; Hakyemez, Bahattin

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial lesions exhibit clear contrast enhancement in T1-weighted imaging, but the mechanism whereby contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted imaging (CE-SWI) generates signals remains unclear. Contrast enhancement patterns cannot be reliably predicted. To explore the mechanism of CE-SWI contrast enhancement. Fifty-five patients were retrospectively enrolled. All of the imaging employed a clinical 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system fitted with a 32-channel head coil. Minimum-intensity projection reformatted images were evaluated. Intracranial lesions and brain parenchymal intensities were explored using SWI and CE-SWI. signal intensity rates were calculated by dividing the lesional intensity by the white matter intensity, after which the SWI and CE-SWI signal intensity rate were compared. Two observers independently performed intralesional susceptibility signal analysis. After contrast medium administration, malignant and extra-axial tumors exhibited obvious contrast enhancement on CE-SWI (P < 0.001 and P = 0.013, respectively). The signal intensity of white matter was significantly reduced. The signal intensity rates rose significantly in the benign, malignant, and extra-axial groups (P < 0.001). Between-radiologist agreement in terms of intralesional susceptibility signal assessment was strong (kappa = 0.8, P < 0.001). Contrast media can either reduce or increase SWI signal intensities. The dual contrast feature of CE-SWI can be useful when exploring intracranial disorders. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2016.

  5. Analysis of mechanical contrast in optical coherence elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Ford, Chris; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Bush, Mark B.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) maps the mechanical properties of tissue microstructure and has potential applications in both fundamental investigations of biomechanics and clinical medicine. We report the first analysis of contrast in OCE, including evaluation of the accuracy with which OCE images (elastograms) represent mechanical properties and the sensitivity of OCE to mechanical contrast within a sample. Using phase-sensitive compression OCE, we generate elastograms of tissue-mimicking phantoms with known mechanical properties and identify limitations on contrast imposed by sample mechanics and the imaging system, including signal-processing parameters. We also generate simulated elastograms using finite element models to perform mechanical analysis in the absence of imaging system noise. In both experiments and simulations, we illustrate artifacts that degrade elastogram accuracy, depending on sample geometry, elasticity contrast between features, and surface conditions. We experimentally demonstrate sensitivity to features with elasticity contrast as small as 1.1∶1 and calculate, based on our imaging system parameters, a theoretical maximum sensitivity to elasticity contrast of 1.002∶1. The results highlight the microstrain sensitivity of compression OCE, at a spatial resolution of tens of micrometers, suggesting its potential for the detection of minute changes in elasticity within heterogeneous tissue.

  6. Interactions between chromatic- and luminance-contrast-sensitive stereopsis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Simmons, David R; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2002-06-01

    It is well known that chromatic information can assist in solving the stereo correspondence problem. It has also been suggested that there are two independent first-order stereopsis mechanisms, one sensitive to chromatic contrast and the other sensitive to luminance contrast (Vision Research 37 (1997) 1271). Could the effect of chromatic information on stereo correspondence be subserved by interactions between these mechanisms? To address this question, disparity thresholds (1/stereoacuity) were measured using 0.5 cpd Gabor patches. The stimuli possessed different relative amounts of chromatic and luminance contrast which could be correlated or anti-correlated between the eyes. Stereoscopic performance with these compound stimuli was compared to that with purely isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli at different contrasts. It was found that anti-correlated chromatic contrast severely disrupted stereopsis with achromatic stimuli and that anti-correlated luminance contrast severely disrupted stereopsis with chromatic stimuli. Less dramatic, but still significant, was the improvement in stereoacuity obtained using correlated colour and luminance contrast. These data are consistent with there being positive and negative interactions between chromatic and achromatic stereopsis mechanisms that take place after the initial encoding of disparity information, but before the extraction of stereoscopic depth. These interactions can be modelled satisfactorily assuming probability summation of depth sign information between independent mechanisms.

  7. Mechanical compression for contrasting OCT images of biotissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillin, Mikhail Y.; Argba, Pavel D.; Kamensky, Vladislav A.

    2011-06-01

    Contrasting of biotissue layers in OCT images after application of mechanical compression is discussed. The study is performed on ex vivo samples of human rectum, and in vivo on skin of human volunteers. We show that mechanical compression provides contrasting of biotissue layer boundaries due to different mechanical properties of layers. We show that alteration of pressure from 0 up to 0.45 N/mm2 causes contrast increase from 1 to 10 dB in OCT imaging of human rectum ex vivo. Results of ex vivo studies are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Application of pressure of 0.45 N/mm2 causes increase in contrast of epidermis-dermis junction in OCT-images of human skin in vivo for about 10 dB.

  8. Basic MR relaxation mechanisms and contrast agent design.

    PubMed

    De León-Rodríguez, Luis M; Martins, André F; Pinho, Marco C; Rofsky, Neil M; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-09-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have undergone continuous and substantial evolution by virtue of hardware and software innovations and the development and implementation of exogenous contrast media. Thirty years since the first MRI contrast agent was approved for clinical use, a reliance on MR contrast media persists, largely to improve image quality with higher contrast resolution and to provide additional functional characterization of normal and abnormal tissues. Further development of MR contrast media is an important component in the quest for continued augmentation of diagnostic capabilities. In this review we detail the many important considerations when pursuing the design and use of MR contrast media. We offer a perspective on the importance of chemical stability, particularly kinetic stability, and how this influences one's thinking about the safety of metal-ligand-based contrast agents. We discuss the mechanisms involved in MR relaxation in the context of probe design strategies. A brief description of currently available contrast agents is accompanied by an in-depth discussion that highlights promising MRI contrast agents in the development of future clinical and research applications. Our intention is to give a diverse audience an improved understanding of the factors involved in developing new types of safe and highly efficient MR contrast agents and, at the same time, provide an appreciation of the insights into physiology and disease that newer types of responsive agents can provide.

  9. Biophysical mechanisms of MRI signal frequency contrast in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.; Luo, Jie; Sukstanskii, Alexander L.; Iyer, Aditi; Cross, Anne H.

    2012-01-01

    Phase images obtained with gradient echo MRI provide image contrast distinct from T1- and T2-weighted images. It is commonly assumed that the local contribution to MRI signal phase directly relates to local bulk tissue magnetic susceptibility. Here, we use Maxwell’s equations and Monte Carlo simulations to provide theoretical background to the hypothesis that the local contribution to MRI signal phase does not depend on tissue bulk magnetic susceptibility but tissue magnetic architecture—distribution of magnetic susceptibility inclusions (lipids, proteins, iron, etc.) at the cellular and subcellular levels. Specifically, we show that the regular longitudinal structures forming cylindrical axons (myelin sheaths and neurofilaments) can be locally invisible in phase images. Contrary to an expectation that the phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions should always increase in degree along with worsening of lesion severity (which happens for all known MR magnitude-based contrast mechanisms), we show that phase contrast can actually disappear with extreme tissue destruction. We also show that the phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions could be altered without loss of nervous system tissue, which happens in mild injury to the myelin sheaths or axonal neurofilaments. Moreover, we predict that the sign of phase contrast in multiple sclerosis lesions indicates the predominant type of tissue injury—myelin damage (positive sign) vs. axonal neurofilament damage (negative sign). Therefore, our theoretical and experimental results shed light on understanding the relationship between gradient echo MRI signal phase and multiple sclerosis pathology. PMID:22891307

  10. Contrast mechanisms and image formation in helium ion microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bell, David C

    2009-04-01

    The helium ion microscope is a unique imaging instrument. Based on an atomic level imaging system using the principle of field ion microscopy, the helium ion source has been shown to be incredibly stable and reliable, itself a remarkable engineering feat. Here we show that the image contrast is fundamentally different to other microscopes such as the scanning electron microscope (SEM), although showing many operational similarities due to the physical ion interaction mechanisms with the sample. Secondary electron images show enhanced surface contrast due the small surface interaction volume as well as elemental contrast differences, such as for nanowires imaged on a substrate. We present images of nanowires and nanoparticles for comparison with SEM imaging. Applications of Rutherford backscattered ion imaging as a unique and novel imaging mechanism are described. The advantages of the contrast mechanisms offered by this instrument for imaging nanomaterials are clearly apparent due to the high resolution and surface sensitivity afforded in the images. Future developments of the helium ion microscope should yield yet further improvements in imaging and provide a platform for continued advances in microscope science and nanoscale research.

  11. A synaptic mechanism for retinal adaptation to luminance and contrast

    PubMed Central

    Jarsky, Tim; Cembrowski, Mark; Logan, Stephen M.; Kath, William L.; Riecke, Hermann; Demb, Jonathan B.; Singer, Joshua H.

    2011-01-01

    The gain of signaling in primary sensory circuits is matched to the stimulus intensity by the process of adaptation. Retinal neural circuits adapt to visual scene statistics, including the mean (background adaptation) and the temporal variance (contrast adaptation) of the light stimulus. The intrinsic properties of retinal bipolar cells and synapses contribute to background and contrast adaptation, but it is unclear whether both forms of adaptation depend on the same cellular mechanisms. Studies of bipolar cell synapses identified synaptic mechanisms of gain control, but the relevance of these mechanisms to visual processing is uncertain owing to the historical focus on fast, phasic transmission rather than the tonic transmission evoked by ambient light. Here, we studied use-dependent regulation of bipolar cell synaptic transmission evoked by small, ongoing modulations of membrane potential (VM) in the physiological range. We made paired whole-cell recordings from rod bipolar (RB) and AII amacrine cells in a mouse retinal slice preparation. Quasi-white noise voltage commands modulated RB VM and evoked EPSCs in the AII. We mimicked changes in background luminance or contrast, respectively, by depolarizing the VM or increasing its variance. A linear systems analysis of synaptic transmission showed that increasing either the mean or the variance of the presynaptic VM reduced gain. Further electrophysiological and computational analyses demonstrated that adaptation to mean potential resulted from both Ca channel inactivation and vesicle depletion, whereas adaptation to variance resulted from vesicle depletion alone. Thus, background and contrast adaptation apparently depend in part on a common synaptic mechanism. PMID:21795549

  12. Examination of contrast mechanisms in optoacoustic imaging of thermal lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Christian; Spirou, Gloria; Oraevsky, Alexander A.; Whelan, William M.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2006-02-01

    Optoacoustic Imaging is based on the thermal expansion of tissue caused by a temperature rise due to absorption of short laser pulses. At constant laser fluence, optoacoustic image contrast is proportional to differences in optical absorption and the thermoacoustic efficiency, expressed by the Grueuneisen parameter, Γ. Γ is proportional to the thermal expansion coefficient, the sound velocity squared and the inverse heat capacity at constant pressure. In thermal therapies, these parameters may be modified in the treated area. In this work experiments were performed to examine the influence of these parameters on image contrast. A Laser Optoacoustic Imaging System (LOIS, Fairway Medical Technologies, Houston, Texas) was used to image tissue phantoms comprised of cylindrical Polyvinyl Chloride Plastisol (PVCP) optical absorbing targets imbedded in either gelatin or PVCP as the background medium. Varying concentrations of Black Plastic Color (BPC) and titanium dioxide (TiO II) were added to targets and background to yield desired tissue relevant optical absorption and effective scattering coefficients, respectively. In thermal therapy experiments, ex-vivo bovine liver was heated with laser fibres (805nm laser at 5 W for 600s) to create regions of tissue coagulation. Lesions formed in the liver tissue were visible using the LOIS system with reasonable correspondence to the actual region of tissue coagulation. In the phantom experiments, contrast could be seen with low optical absorbing targets (μ a of 0.50cm -1 down to 0.13cm-1) embedded in a gelatin background (see manuscript for formula). Therefore, the data suggest that small objects (< 5mm) with low absorption coefficients (in the range < 1cm -1) can be imaged using LOIS. PVCP-targets in gelatin were visible, even with the same optical properties as the gelatin, but different Γ. The enhanced contrast may also be caused by differences in the mechanical properties between the target and the surrounding medium

  13. Mechanically Tunable Hollow Silica Ultrathin Nanoshells for Ultrasound Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A; Wang, J; Lu, N; Viveros, R D; Allen, C A; Mattrey, R F; Blair, S L; Trogler, W C; Kim, M J; Kummel, A C

    2015-07-08

    Perfluoropentane (PFP) gas filled biodegradable iron-doped silica nanoshells have been demonstrated as long-lived ultrasound contrast agents. Nanoshells are synthesized by a sol-gel process with tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and iron ethoxide. Substituting a fraction of the TMOS with R-substituted trialkoxysilanes produces ultrathin nanoshells with varying shell thicknesses and morphologies composed of fused nanoflakes. The ultrathin nanoshells had continuous ultrasound Doppler imaging lifetimes exceeding 3 hours, were twice as bright using contrast specific imaging, and had decreased pressure thresholds compared to control nanoshells synthesized with just TMOS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the R-group substituted trialkoxysilanes could reduce the mechanically critical nanoshell layer to 1.4 nm. These ultrathin nanoshells have the mechanical behavior of weakly linked nanoflakes but the chemical stability of silica. The synthesis can be adapted for general fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures composed of nanoflakes, which have thicknesses from 1.4-3.8 nm and diameters from 2-23 nm.

  14. Mechanically Tunable Hollow Silica Ultrathin Nanoshells for Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, A.; Wang, J.; Lu, N.; Viveros, R.D.; Allen, C. A.; Mattrey, R.F.; Blair, S.L.; Trogler, W.C.; Kim, M. J.; Kummel, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Perfluoropentane (PFP) gas filled biodegradable iron-doped silica nanoshells have been demonstrated as long-lived ultrasound contrast agents. Nanoshells are synthesized by a sol-gel process with tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) and iron ethoxide. Substituting a fraction of the TMOS with R-substituted trialkoxysilanes produces ultrathin nanoshells with varying shell thicknesses and morphologies composed of fused nanoflakes. The ultrathin nanoshells had continuous ultrasound Doppler imaging lifetimes exceeding 3 hours, were twice as bright using contrast specific imaging, and had decreased pressure thresholds compared to control nanoshells synthesized with just TMOS. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the R-group substituted trialkoxysilanes could reduce the mechanically critical nanoshell layer to 1.4 nm. These ultrathin nanoshells have the mechanical behavior of weakly linked nanoflakes but the chemical stability of silica. The synthesis can be adapted for general fabrication of three-dimensional nanostructures composed of nanoflakes, which have thicknesses from 1.4–3.8 nm and diameters from 2–23 nm. PMID:26955300

  15. Functional magnetic resonance imaging: imaging techniques and contrast mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Howseman, A M; Bowtell, R W

    1999-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a widely used technique for generating images or maps of human brain activity. The applications of the technique are widespread in cognitive neuroscience and it is hoped they will eventually extend into clinical practice. The activation signal measured with fMRI is predicated on indirectly measuring changes in the concentration of deoxyhaemoglobin which arise from an increase in blood oxygenation in the vicinity of neuronal firing. The exact mechanisms of this blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast are highly complex. The signal measured is dependent on both the underlying physiological events and the imaging physics. BOLD contrast, although sensitive, is not a quantifiable measure of neuronal activity. A number of different imaging techniques and parameters can be used for fMRI, the choice of which depends on the particular requirements of each functional imaging experiment. The high-speed MRI technique, echo-planar imaging provides the basis for most fMRI experiments. The problems inherent to this method and the ways in which these may be overcome are particularly important in the move towards performing functional studies on higher field MRI systems. Future developments in techniques and hardware are also likely to enhance the measurement of brain activity using MRI. PMID:10466145

  16. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping: Contrast Mechanisms and Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunlei; Wei, Hongjiang; Gong, Nan-Jie; Cronin, Matthew; Dibb, Russel; Decker, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a recently developed MRI technique for quantifying the spatial distribution of magnetic susceptibility within biological tissues. It first uses the frequency shift in the MRI signal to map the magnetic field profile within the tissue. The resulting field map is then used to determine the spatial distribution of the underlying magnetic susceptibility by solving an inverse problem. The solution is achieved by deconvolving the field map with a dipole field, under the assumption that the magnetic field is a result of the superposition of the dipole fields generated by all voxels and that each voxel has its unique magnetic susceptibility. QSM provides improved contrast to noise ratio for certain tissues and structures compared to its magnitude counterpart. More importantly, magnetic susceptibility is a direct reflection of the molecular composition and cellular architecture of the tissue. Consequently, by quantifying magnetic susceptibility, QSM is becoming a quantitative imaging approach for characterizing normal and pathological tissue properties. This article reviews the mechanism generating susceptibility contrast within tissues and some associated applications. PMID:26844301

  17. Mechanisms of contrast enhancement in magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H

    1991-02-01

    The use of contrast agents has increased the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Contrast in MRI is multifactorial, depending not only on T1 and T2 relaxation rates, but also on flow, proton density and, in gradient-echo sequences, on the angle of the induced field. The use of contrast agents in MRI changes the T1 and T2 relaxation rates, producing increased signal intensity on T1-weighted images or decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images, or both. All contrast agents produce changes in magnetic susceptibility by enhancing local magnetic fields. These effects are caused by interactions between nuclear and paramagnetic substance magnet moments, which produce accentuated transitions between spin states and cause shortening of T1; the paramagnetic substance causes accentuated local fields, which lead to increased dephasing and thus shortening of T2 or T2* relaxation time. The efficacy of shortening of T1, T2 or T2* relaxation time depends on the distance between the proton nucleus and the electronic field of the paramagnetic compound, the time of their interaction (correlation time) and the paramagnetic concentration. The MRI contrast agents currently in use cause shortening of T1, T2 or T2* relaxation time. Metal chelates (e.g., gadolinium-diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid [Gd-DTPA]) in low concentration cause shortening of T1 relaxation times, and the superparamagnetics (e.g., ferrite) cause shortening of T2 relaxation times.

  18. On contrast mechanisms in p-space imaging.

    PubMed

    Straub, Sina; Ladd, Mark E; Wetscherek, Andreas; Laun, Frederik B

    2016-06-01

    The effects of microstructure on susceptibility mapping have recently received increasing attention. In this work, the capability of p-space imaging to resolve subvoxel structure and susceptibility is assessed. In a simulation study, the p-space contrast of axon bundles comprised of hollow cylinders is investigated. Various axon and susceptibility distributions are considered and compared with the corresponding case of a voxel with homogeneous substructure of the order of the voxel size. MR signal behavior for p-space imaging of a voxel containing axon bundles and a voxel containing homogeneous substructure are nearly identical. p-Space imaging resolves subvoxel structure of the order of the voxel size. Due to dephasing effects, strong susceptibility variations alter p-space contrast. However, p-space contrast is not directly linked to the susceptibility of the axon compartment. Magn Reson Med 75:2526-2533, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Contrasted monazite hydrothermal alteration mechanisms and their geochemical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poitrasson, Franck; Chenery, Simon; Bland, David J.

    1996-12-01

    In spite of the major importance of monazite as a repository for the rare earths and Th in the continental crust, for U-Th-Pb geochronology, and as a possible form for high-level nuclear waste, very little work has been carried out so far on the behaviour of this mineral during fluid-rock events. This contribution describes two contrasting examples of the hydrothermal alteration of monazite. The first case comes from a sample of the Carnmenellis granite (Cornwall, Southwest England), chloritized at 284 ± 16°C, whereas the other occurs in the Skiddaw granite (Lake District, Northwest England), which underwent greisenization at 200 ± 30°C. An integrated study involving backscattered scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analyses, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) reveals that the chloritization event was characterized by the coupled substitution 2REE 3+ ⇌ Th 4+ + Ca 2+ in the altered parts of the monazite, thus leaving the P-O framework of the crystal untouched. In contrast, greisenization led to the coupled substitution REE 3+ + P 5+ ⇌ Th 4+ + Si 4+, and therefore involved a partial destruction of the phosphate framework. The resulting rare earth element patterns are quite different for these two examples, with a maximum depletion for Dy and Er in the altered parts of the Carnmenellis monazite, whereas the Skiddaw monazite shows a light rare earth depletion but an Yb and Er enrichment during alteration. This latter enrichment, accompanied by an increase in U but roughly unchanged Pb concentrations, probably resulted from a decrease in the size of the 9-coordinated site in monazite, thereby favouring the smaller rare earths. These contrasted styles of monazite alteration show that the conditions of fluid-rock interaction will not only affect the aqueous geochemistry of the lanthanides, actinides and lead, and the relative stability of the different minerals holding these elements. Variations in these

  20. Section 6—Mechanical Bioeffects in the Presence of Gas-Carrier Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of mechanical ultrasound-induced bioeffects in the presence of gas carrier contrast agents (GCAs). Here, the term “contrast agent” refers to those agents that provide ultrasound contrast by being composed of microbubbles, encapsulated or not, containing one or more gases. Provided in this section are summaries on how contrast agents work, some of their current uses, and the potential for bio-effects associated with their presence in an ultrasonic field. PMID:10680618

  1. Genetically controlled MRI contrast mechanisms and their prospects in systems neuroscience research.

    PubMed

    Westmeyer, Gil G; Jasanoff, Alan

    2007-07-01

    Application of MRI contrast agents to neural systems research is complicated by the need to deliver agents past the blood-brain barrier or into cells, and the difficulty of targeting agents to specific brain structures or cell types. In the future, these barriers may be wholly or partially overcome using genetic methods for producing and directing MRI contrast. Here we review MRI contrast mechanisms that have used gene expression to manipulate MRI signal in cultured cells or in living animals. We discuss both fully genetic systems involving endogenous biosynthesis of contrast agents, and semi-genetic systems in which expressed proteins influence the localization or activity of exogenous contrast agents. We close by considering which contrast-generating mechanisms might be most suitable for applications in neuroscience, and we ask how genetic control machinery could be productively combined with existing molecular agents to enable next-generation neuroimaging experiments.

  2. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.

    2007-08-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

  3. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation.

    PubMed

    Hillis, James M; Brainard, David H

    2007-08-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner's hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation.

  4. Do common mechanisms of adaptation mediate color discrimination and appearance? Contrast adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Hillis, James M.; Brainard, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Are effects of background contrast on color appearance and sensitivity controlled by the same mechanism of adaptation? We examined the effects of background color contrast on color appearance and on color-difference sensitivity under well-matched conditions. We linked the data using Fechner’s hypothesis that the rate of apparent stimulus change is proportional to sensitivity and examined a family of parametric models of adaptation. Our results show that both appearance and discrimination are consistent with the same mechanism of adaptation. PMID:17621318

  5. Quantitative characterization of the contrast mechanisms of ultra-small angle x-ray scattering imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Long, G. G.; Levine, L.E.; Ilavsky, J.; Jemain, P.R.; NIST

    2008-04-01

    A general treatment of X-ray imaging contrast for ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) imaging is presented; this approach makes use of phase propagation and dynamical diffraction theory to account quantitatively for the intensity distribution at the detector plane. Simulated results from a model system of micrometer-sized spherical SiO{sub 2} particles embedded in a polypropylene matrix show good agreement with experimental measurements. Simulations by means of a separate geometrical ray-tracing method also account for the features in the USAXS images and offer a complementary view of small-angle X-ray scattering as a contrast mechanism. The ray-tracing analysis indicates that refraction, in the form of Porod scattering, and, to a much lesser extent, X-ray reflection account for the USAXS imaging contrast.

  6. Reflective THz and MR imaging of burn wounds: a potential clinical validation of THz contrast mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Nowroozi, Bryan; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Maccabi, Ashkan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Culjat, Martin; Singh, Rahul; Alger, Jeffry; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging is an expanding area of research in the field of medical imaging due to its high sensitivity to changes in tissue water content. Previously reported in vivo rat studies demonstrate that spatially resolved hydration mapping with THz illumination can be used to rapidly and accurately detect fluid shifts following induction of burns and provide highly resolved spatial and temporal characterization of edematous tissue. THz imagery of partial and full thickness burn wounds acquired by our group correlate well with burn severity and suggest that hydration gradients are responsible for the observed contrast. This research aims to confirm the dominant contrast mechanism of THz burn imaging using a clinically accepted diagnostic method that relies on tissue water content for contrast generation to support the translation of this technology to clinical application. The hydration contrast sensing capabilities of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), specifically T2 relaxation times and proton density values N(H), are well established and provide measures of mobile water content, lending MRI as a suitable method to validate hydration states of skin burns. This paper presents correlational studies performed with MR imaging of ex vivo porcine skin that confirm tissue hydration as the principal sensing mechanism in THz burn imaging. Insights from this preliminary research will be used to lay the groundwork for future, parallel MRI and THz imaging of in vivo rat models to further substantiate the clinical efficacy of reflective THz imaging in burn wound care.

  7. Needle optical coherence elastography for the measurement of microscale mechanical contrast deep within human breast tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Tien, Alan; Latham, Bruce; Saunders, Christobel M.; Sampson, David D.

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence elastography (OCE) is an emerging imaging technique that probes microscale mechanical contrast in tissues with the potential to differentiate healthy and malignant tissues. However, conventional OCE techniques are limited to imaging the first 1 to 2 mm of tissue in depth. We demonstrate, for the first time, OCE measurements deep within human tissues using needle OCE, extending the potential of OCE as a surgical guidance tool. We use needle OCE to detect tissue interfaces based on mechanical contrast in both normal and malignant breast tissues in freshly excised human mastectomy samples, as validated against histopathology. Further, we demonstrate the feasibility of in situ measurements >4 cm from the tissue surface using ultrasound guidance of the OCE needle probe. With further refinement, our method may potentially aid in accurate detection of the boundary of the tumor to help ensure full removal of all malignant tissues, which is critical to the success of breast-conserving surgery.

  8. The contrasting role of male relatedness in different mechanisms of sexual selection in red junglefowl

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cedric Kai Wei; Doyle, Philippa; Bagshaw, Emma; Richardson, David S.; Wigby, Stuart; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-01-01

    In structured populations, competition for reproductive opportunities should be relaxed among related males. The few tests of this prediction often neglect the fact that sexual selection acts through multiple mechanisms, both before and after mating. We performed experiments to study the role of within‐group male relatedness across pre‐ and postcopulatory mechanisms of sexual selection in social groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, in which two related males and one unrelated male competed over females unrelated to all the males. We confirm theoretical expectations that, after controlling for male social status, competition over mating was reduced among related males. However, this effect was contrasted by other sexual selection mechanisms. First, females biased male mating in favor of the unrelated male, and might also favor his inseminations after mating. Second, males invested more—rather than fewer—sperm in postcopulatory competition with relatives. A number of factors may contribute to explain this counterintuitive pattern of sperm allocation, including trade‐offs between male investment in pre‐ versus postcopulatory competition, differences in the relative relatedness of pre‐ versus postcopulatory competitors, and female bias in sperm utilization in response to male relatedness. Collectively, these results reveal that within‐group male relatedness may have contrasting effects in different mechanisms of sexual selection. PMID:27925168

  9. In vivo confirmation of hydration based contrast mechanisms for terahertz medical imaging using MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Neha; Sung, Shijun; Garritano, James; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Ennis, Daniel B.; Alger, Jeffery; Grundfest, Warren; Taylor, Zachary

    2014-09-01

    Terahertz (THz) detection has been proposed and applied to a variety of medical imaging applications in view of its unrivaled hydration profiling capabilities. Variations in tissue dielectric function have been demonstrated at THz frequencies to generate high contrast imagery of tissue, however, the source of image contrast remains to be verified using a modality with a comparable sensing scheme. To investigate the primary contrast mechanism, a pilot comparison study was performed in a burn wound rat model, widely known to create detectable gradients in tissue hydration through both injured and surrounding tissue. Parallel T2 weighted multi slice multi echo (T2w MSME) 7T Magnetic Resonance (MR) scans and THz surface reflectance maps were acquired of a full thickness skin burn in a rat model over a 5 hour time period. A comparison of uninjured and injured regions in the full thickness burn demonstrates a 3-fold increase in average T2 relaxation times and a 15% increase in average THz reflectivity, respectively. These results support the sensitivity and specificity of MRI for measuring in vivo burn tissue water content and the use of this modality to verify and understand the hydration sensing capabilities of THz imaging for acute assessments of the onset and evolution of diseases that affect the skin. A starting point for more sophisticated in vivo studies, this preliminary analysis may be used in the future to explore how and to what extent the release of unbound water affects imaging contrast in THz burn sensing.

  10. Do conscious perception and unconscious processing rely on independent mechanisms? A meta-contrast study.

    PubMed

    Peremen, Ziv; Lamy, Dominique

    2014-02-01

    There is currently no consensus regarding what measures are most valid to demonstrate perceptual processing without awareness. Likewise, whether conscious perception and unconscious processing rely on independent mechanisms or lie on a continuum remains a matter of debate. Here, we addressed these issues by comparing the time courses of subjective reports, objective discrimination performance and response priming during meta-contrast masking, under similar attentional demands. We found these to be strikingly similar, suggesting that conscious perception and unconscious processing cannot be dissociated by their time course. Our results also demonstrate that unconscious processing, indexed by response priming, occurs, and that objective discrimination performance indexes the same conscious processes as subjective visibility reports. Finally, our results underscore the role of attention by showing that how much attention the stimulus receives relative to the mask, rather than whether processing is measured by conscious discrimination or by priming, determines the time course of meta-contrast masking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Accumulating advantages, reducing limitations: multimodal nonlinear imaging in biomedical sciences - the synergy of multiple contrast mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Tobias; Schmitt, Michael; Dietzek, Benjamin; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-12-01

    Multimodal nonlinear microscopy has matured during the past decades to one of the key imaging modalities in life science and biomedicine due to its unique capabilities of label-free visualization of tissue structure and chemical composition, high depth penetration, intrinsic 3D sectioning, diffraction limited resolution and low phototoxicity. This review briefly summarizes first recent advances in the field regarding the methodology, e.g., contrast mechanisms and signal characteristics used for contrast generation as well as novel image processing approaches. The second part deals with technologic developments emphasizing improvements in penetration depth, imaging speed, spatial resolution and nonlinear labeling strategies. The third part focuses on recent applications in life science fundamental research and biomedical diagnostics as well as future clinical applications.

  12. Section 6--mechanical bioeffects in the presence of gas-carrier ultrasound contrast agents. American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

    PubMed

    2000-02-01

    This review addresses the issue of mechanical ultrasound-induced bioeffects in the presence of gas carrier contrast agents (GCAs). Here, the term "contrast agent" refers to those agents that provide ultrasound contrast by being composed of microbubbles, encapsulated or not, containing one or more gases. Provided in this section are summaries on how contrast agents work, some of their current uses, and the potential for bioeffects associated with their presence in an ultrasonic field.

  13. Renal Protective Effect of Probucol in Rats with Contrast-Induced Nephropathy and its Underlying Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Na; Wei, Ri-bao; Li, Qing-ping; Yang, Xi; Li, Ping; Huang, Meng-jie; Wang, Rui; Cai, Guang-yan; Chen, Xiang-mei

    2015-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) refers to acute renal damage that occurs after the use of contrast agents. This study investigated the renal protective effect of probucol in a rat model of contrast-induced nephropathy and the mechanism of its effect. Material/Methods Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control group, model group, N-acetylcysteine(NAC) group, and probucol group. We used a rat model of iopromide-induced CIN. One day prior to modeling, the rats received gavage. At 24 h after the modeling, blood biochemistry and urine protein were assessed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in renal tissue. Kidney sections were created for histopathological examination. Results The model group of rats showed significantly elevated levels of blood creatinine, urea nitrogen, 24-h urine protein, histopathological scores, and parameters of oxidative stress (P<0.05). Both the NAC and probucol groups demonstrated significantly lower Scr, BUN, and urine protein levels compared to the model group (P<0.05), with no significant difference between these 2 groups. The NAC group and the probucol group had significantly lower MDA and higher SOD than the model group at 24 h after modeling (P<0.05). The 8-OHdG-positive tubule of the probucol group and NAC group were significantly lower than those of the model group (p=0.046, P=0.0008), with significant difference between these 2 groups (P=0.024). Conclusions Probucol can effectively reduce kidney damage caused by contrast agent. The underlying mechanism may be that probucol accelerates the recovery of renal function and renal pathology by reducing local renal oxidative stress. PMID:26408630

  14. A mechanism for the production of light and dark contrasts in radiatively controlled lines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gebbie, K. B.; Steinitz, R.

    1973-01-01

    It is shown that light and dark contrasts observed in the radiation of strong lines may arise from lateral differences in the local value of the scattering term alone, independently of the local values of temperature and pressure. Mechanisms for the production of such differences are suggested, and regions are pointed out in which they occur as 'features.' From numerical examples presented, it is seen that the effect of such features on the emergent radiation field is determined by their position with respect to the shape of the source function.

  15. Nuclear spin singlet states as a contrast mechanism for NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Devience, Stephen J; Walsworth, Ronald L; Rosen, Matthew S

    2013-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of complex chemical mixtures often contain unresolved or hidden spectral components, especially when strong background signals overlap weaker peaks. In this article we demonstrate a quantum filter utilizing nuclear spin singlet states, which allows undesired NMR spectral background to be removed and target spectral peaks to be uncovered. The quantum filter is implemented by creating a nuclear spin singlet state with spin quantum numbers j = 0, mz  = 0 in a target molecule, applying a continuous RF field to both preserve the singlet state and saturate the magnetization of undesired molecules and then mapping the target molecule singlet state back into an NMR observable state so that its spectrum can be read out unambiguously. The preparation of the target singlet state can be carefully controlled with pulse sequence parameters, so that spectral contrast can be achieved between molecules with very similar structures. We name this NMR contrast mechanism 'Suppression of Undesired Chemicals using Contrast-Enhancing Singlet States' (SUCCESS) and we demonstrate it in vitro for three target molecules relevant to neuroscience: aspartate, threonine and glutamine.

  16. Understanding physiological and degenerative natural vision mechanisms to define contrast and contour operators.

    PubMed

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fouquet, Yannick; Tayyab, Muhammad; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2009-06-23

    Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery.

  17. Understanding Physiological and Degenerative Natural Vision Mechanisms to Define Contrast and Contour Operators

    PubMed Central

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fouquet, Yannick; Tayyab, Muhammad; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Background Dynamical systems like neural networks based on lateral inhibition have a large field of applications in image processing, robotics and morphogenesis modeling. In this paper, we will propose some examples of dynamical flows used in image contrasting and contouring. Methodology First we present the physiological basis of the retina function by showing the role of the lateral inhibition in the optical illusions and pathologic processes generation. Then, based on these biological considerations about the real vision mechanisms, we study an enhancement method for contrasting medical images, using either a discrete neural network approach, or its continuous version, i.e. a non-isotropic diffusion reaction partial differential system. Following this, we introduce other continuous operators based on similar biomimetic approaches: a chemotactic contrasting method, a viability contouring algorithm and an attentional focus operator. Then, we introduce the new notion of mixed potential Hamiltonian flows; we compare it with the watershed method and we use it for contouring. Conclusions We conclude by showing the utility of these biomimetic methods with some examples of application in medical imaging and computed assisted surgery. PMID:19547712

  18. Optical palpation in vivo: imaging human skin lesions using mechanical contrast.

    PubMed

    Es'haghian, Shaghayegh; Kennedy, Kelsey M; Gong, Peijun; Sampson, David D; McLaughlin, Robert A; Kennedy, Brendan F

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the first application of the recently proposed method of optical palpation to in vivo imaging of human skin. Optical palpation is a tactile imaging technique that probes the spatial variation of a sample's mechanical properties by producing an en face map of stress measured at the sample surface. This map is determined from the thickness of a translucent, compliant stress sensor placed between a loading element and the sample and is measured using optical coherence tomography. We assess the performance of optical palpation using a handheld imaging probe on skin-mimicking phantoms, and demonstrate its use on human skin lesions. Our results demonstrate the capacity of optical palpation to delineate the boundaries of lesions and to map the mechanical contrast between lesions and the surrounding normal skin.

  19. Two Rumex species from contrasting hydrological niches regulate flooding tolerance through distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    van Veen, Hans; Mustroph, Angelika; Barding, Gregory A; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen; Welschen-Evertman, Rob A M; Pedersen, Ole; Visser, Eric J W; Larive, Cynthia K; Pierik, Ronald; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2013-11-01

    Global climate change has increased flooding events, which affect both natural vegetation dynamics and crop productivity. The flooded environment is lethal for most plant species because it restricts gas exchange and induces an energy and carbon crisis. Flooding survival strategies have been studied in Oryza sativa, a cultivated monocot. However, our understanding of plant adaptation to natural flood-prone environments remains scant, even though wild plants represent a valuable resource of tolerance mechanisms that could be used to generate stress-tolerant crops. Here we identify mechanisms that mediate the distinct flooding survival strategies of two related wild dicot species: Rumex palustris and Rumex acetosa. Whole transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling reveal flooding-induced metabolic reprogramming specific to R. acetosa. By contrast, R. palustris uses the early flooding signal ethylene to increase survival by regulating shade avoidance and photomorphogenesis genes to outgrow submergence and by priming submerged plants for future low oxygen stress. These results provide molecular resolution of flooding survival strategies of two species occupying distinct hydrological niches. Learning how these contrasting flood adaptive strategies evolved in nature will be instrumental for the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties that deliver enhanced yields in a changing climate.

  20. Bogi and Capiron fields, Oriente Basin, Ecuador: Similar reservoirs but contrasting drive mechanisms and recoveries

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, H.; Morales, M.; Young, R.; Zambrano, H.

    1996-08-01

    Bogi and Capiron fields are being developed under a unit agreement with Petroecuador. These adjoining fields straddle Block 16 in the Oriente Basin and probably share a common oil water contact. Both fields are simple four-way-dip closures which produce heavy oil from Campanian sandstones of similar quality. However, the two fields are remarkably different in terms of oil production and projected recovery as a result of differing structural closures, reservoir distributions and, hence, differing drive mechanisms. The main reservoir at Bogi field is an amalgamation of two fluvial sheet sandstones thought to be low-stand deposits associated with two falls in relative sea level. The reservoir is thick (56-78 ft) and, with an observed oil column of only 38 feet, a bottom-water drive mechanism is ubiquitous. The oil is heavy (18 API) and mobility ratios unfavorable; water production is high and oil recovery from conventional drilling is expected to be 3-5%. In contrast, only the upper fluvial sheet sandstone is present in Capiron field and a reservoir thickness of 32-48 ft combined with an oil column of 99 ft ensures an edge-water drive mechanism over most of the field with concomitant initial low water production and oil recoveries of approximately 30%. The contrast between Bogi and Capiron fields highlights the problems and challenges in the Block 16 area. Small structural closures filled with heavy oil are abundant and an accurate seismic depth map coupled with an understanding of reservoir distribution are vital to economic success.

  1. Contrasting Rupture Mechanisms During the April 10, 2010 Deep-focus Earthquake Beneath Grenada, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E.

    2011-12-01

    On April 10, 2010 a Mw=6.3 deep-focus earthquake occurred beneath Grenada, Spain exhibiting a focal mechanism with a sub-vertical and a sub-horizontal nodal plane. In addition to global stations, two dense temporary seismic arrays were deployed in the Spain and Morocco at the time, making this the best-recorded deep-focus event ever. As is common with deep-focus earthquakes, this event consists of subevents; in this case, we resolve a precursory subevent followed by two subevents that are similar in character to each other but different from the precursor. The spatial distribution of subevents suggests rupture on the sub-horizontal plane, similar to other deep-focus earthquakes. However, directivity analyses indicate that the precursor ruptured on the vertical plane. Its length of rupture was ~11 km, and its stress drop was ~1.4 MPa. In contrast, the rupture areas of the following subevents are small and their stress drops are >100 times greater than that of the precursor, implying fundamentally different rupture mechanisms from the precursor. Assuming a shared stress field (subevent hypocenters < ~5 km of each other), the precursor represents a transient-weakening slip mechanism, and the high stress drop events may represent total stress drop.

  2. Satellite Solar-induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Reveals Drought Onset Mechanisms: Insights from Two Contrasting Extreme Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Fu, R.; Dickinson, R. E.; Joiner, J.; Frankenberg, C.; Gu, L.; Xia, Y.; Fernando, N.

    2015-12-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the US Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root-zone soil moisture caused by year-long below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and ample precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root-zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fPAR) and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

  3. Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of (nano)particles may lead to pulmonary inflammation. However, the precise mechanisms of particle uptake and generation of inflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages (AM) are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between particles and AM and their associated pro-inflammatory effects in relation to particle size and physico-chemical properties. NR8383 rat lung AM were treated with ultrafine (uf), fine (f) TiO2 or fine crystalline silica (DQ12 quartz). Physico-chemical particle properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Aggregation and agglomeration tendency of the particles were determined in assay-specific suspensions by means of dynamic light scattering. All three particle types were rapidly taken up by AM. DQ12 and ufTiO2 , but not fTiO2 , caused increased extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression was increased most strongly by ufTiO2 , while DQ12 exclusively triggered interleukin (IL) 1β release. However, oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration and increased intracellular ROS were observed with all three samples. Uptake inhibition experiments with cytochalasin D, chlorpromazine and a Fcγ receptor II (FcγRII) antibody revealed that the endocytosis of fTiO2 by the macrophages involves actin-dependent phagocytosis and macropinocytosis as well as clathrin-coated pit formation, whereas the uptake of ufTiO2 was dominated by FcγIIR. The uptake of DQ12 was found to be significantly reduced by all three inhibitors. Our findings suggest that the contrasting AM responses to fTiO2 , ufTiO2 and DQ12 relate to differences in the involvement of specific uptake mechanisms. PMID:21995556

  4. Drought-responsive mechanisms in rice genotypes with contrasting drought tolerance during reproductive stage.

    PubMed

    Ji, Kuixian; Wang, Yangyang; Sun, Weining; Lou, Qiaojun; Mei, Hanwei; Shen, Shihua; Chen, Hui

    2012-03-01

    Water status is the main factor affecting rice production. In order to understand rice strategies in response to drought condition in the field, the drought-responsive mechanisms at the physiological and molecular levels were studied in two rice genotypes with contrasting susceptibility to drought stress at reproductive stage. After 20 d of drought treatment, the osmotic potential of leaves reduced 78% and 8% in drought susceptible rice cultivar Zhenshan97B and tolerant rice cultivar IRAT109, respectively. The panicle lengths had no obvious changes in drought stressed Zhenshan97B and IRAT109, suggesting that drought stress impose less effect on assimilate translocation from leaf to vegetative growth of panicles. IRAT109 showed more extensive deeper root growth that could be considered a second line of defense against drought stress. The C(i)/C(a) ratio exhibited enhancement over reduction of g(s) in both cultivars, reflecting the non-stomatal limitation to photosynthesis occurred during drought stress. Orthophosphate dikinase, glycine dehydrogenase, ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), glycine hydroxymethyltransferase and ATP synthase were down-regulated for Zhenshan97B in response to drought stress, suggesting the reduction of capacity of carbon assimilation in this rice cultivar. In drought-stressed IRAT109, transketolase, Rubisco were down-regulated, however, Rubisco activase and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, which might alleviate the damage on Rubisco by drought stress, were up-regulated. The increased abundances of chloroplastic superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] and dehydroascorbate reductase might provide antioxidant protection for IRAT109 against damage by dehydration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulatory mechanisms in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Sørlundsengen, Vibeke; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Benestad, Haakon B

    2002-08-01

    The authors performed this study to evaluate cell volume regulation in human red blood cells (RBCs) after incubation in solutions of three contrast media: iohexol (830 mOsm), ioxaglate (520 mOsm), and iodixanol (300 mOsm). Whole blood sampled from six healthy subjects was exposed to Ringer solutions containing 25% or 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 440 or 340 mOsm, respectively), ioxaglate (final osmolality, 395 or 335 mOsm, respectively), iodixanol (final osmolality, 330 or 315 mOsm, respectively), or NaCl (control solutions with the same osmolality as that of the contrast media). In some experiments, control RBCs were subjected to a hyposmotic solution (100 mOsm). RBC volumes were obtained with a Coulter counter. The RBCs showed normal regulatory cell shrinkage after hyposmotically induced swelling. All 25% vol/vol contrast material solutions and their control solutions induced RBC shrinkage (range, 6% +/- 1 [standard error] to 22% +/- 3). The same was true for cells exposed to 5% vol/vol contrast material (range, 4% +/- 1 to 7% +/- 1). The shrinkage phase was followed by cell swelling (10% +/- 2 to 20% +/- 2 for 25% contrast material and their control solutions and 8% +/- 1 to 15% +/- 2 for 5% contrast material and their control solutions). No contrast material-exposed RBCs increased their volumes to the level reached with their control solutions. RBCs exposed to hyperosmotic iohexol, ioxaglate, or iodixanol solutions shrank and then swelled. The degree of shrinkage and subsequent swelling could not be explained simply with the osmolality of the test solutions. Physicochemical properties of the contrast media must be involved, putatively affecting electrolyte fluxes over the RBC membrane. Possible targets of these effects are the K+/Cl- symporter, K+ channels, and the Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

  6. Fundamental mechanical limitations on the visualization of elasticity contrast in elastography.

    PubMed

    Ponnekanti, H; Ophir, J; Huang, Y; Céspedes, I

    1995-01-01

    Elastography is a new ultrasonic imaging technique that produces images (elastograms) of the elastic properties of complaint tissue. To determine the Young's modulus it is necessary to measure or estimate any five of seven relevant variables. In elastography, the measured quantity is the normal strain component in the direction of the applied load, and the three normal components of stress may be estimated using the modified Love's analytical models while assuming a value close to 0.5 (incompressible) for Poisson's ratio. The distribution of Young's moduli can thus be computed and displayed in the form of two-dimensional images called elastrograms. The analytical models used for the estimation of the three normal components of stress assume that the target is semi-infinite and homogeneous in composition. The objective of this article is to determine some of the errors associated with the assumption of homogeneity of the target. Experiments using computer simulations were performed to study the efficiency with which elastograms display the contrast in the Young's modulus of a lesion or target, with respect to its background under certain conditions. It was observed (using the definition of contrast-transfer efficiency of elastography as the ratio of the elasticity contrast as measured from an elastogram, to the true contrast) that elastograms were consistently efficient in quantitatively depicting the elasticity contrast of hard lesions; however, they showed suboptimal contrast-transfer efficiency in cases of soft lesions in a hard background. In general, elastograms are efficient in displaying the elasticity contrast of hard or soft lesions which have a low contrast level with respect to the surroundings, irrespective of their size and location.

  7. [Investigations concerning the mechanism of contrast damage. The significance lipophilia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Gottlob, R; Knapp, G; Porschinski, K; Saghir, F

    1980-02-01

    The damaging action on vascular endothelia of meglumin iothalamate and of meglumin ioxitalamate was tested on the rat aorta. Ioxitalamate was significantly better tolerated than iothalamate. The octanol-water-partition coefficient of various contrast media was evaluated by assessing the iodine content of the octanol phase after mixing. The coefficients found were about 100 fold lower than the coefficients computed by Levitan and Rapoport. The significance of the octanol-water-partition coefficient for endothelial injuries caused by contrast media is disputed.

  8. Pathological Mechanism for Delayed Hyperenhancement of Chronic Scarred Myocardium in Contrast Agent Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Xiang, Bo; Lin, Hung-Yu; Liu, Hongyu; Freed, Darren; Arora, Rakesh C.; Tian, Ganghong

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate possible mechanism for delayed hyperenhancement of scarred myocardium by investigating the relationship of contrast agent (CA) first pass and delayed enhancement patterns with histopathological changes. Materials and Methods Eighteen pigs underwent 4 weeks ligation of 1 or 2 diagonal coronary arteries to induce chronic infarction. The hearts were then removed and perfused in a Langendorff apparatus. The hearts firstly experienced phosphorus 31 MR spectroscopy. The hearts in group I (n = 9) and II (n = 9) then received the bolus injection of Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (0.05 mmol/kg) and gadolinium-based macromolecular agent (P792, 15 µmol/kg), respectively. First pass T2* MRI was acquired using a gradient echo sequence. Delayed enhanced T1 MRI was acquired with an inversion recovery sequence. Masson's trichrome and anti- von Willebrand Factor (vWF) staining were performed for infarct characterization. Results Wash-in of both kinds of CA caused the sharp and dramatic T2* signal decrease of scarred myocardium similar to that of normal myocardium. Myocardial blood flow and microvessel density were significantly recovered in 4-week-old scar tissue. Steady state distribution volume (ΔR1 relaxation rate) of Gd-DTPA was markedly higher in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium, whereas ΔR1 relaxation rate of P792 did not differ significantly between scarred and normal myocardium. The ratio of extracellular volume to the total water volume was significantly greater in scarred myocardium than in normal myocardium. Scarred myocardium contained massive residual capillaries and dilated vessels. Histological stains indicated the extensively discrete matrix deposition and lack of cellular structure in scarred myocardium. Conclusions Collateral circulation formation and residual vessel effectively delivered CA into scarred myocardium. However, residual vessel without abnormal hyperpermeability allowed Gd-DTPA rather than

  9. Fluid Dynamics of Contrast Dispersion in Coronary Arteries: Mechanism and Implications for Identification of Flow-Limiting Lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Parastou; Seo, Jung-Hee; Lardo, Albert C.; Mittal, Rajat

    2013-11-01

    Recent coronary computed tomography angiography studies have noted the presence of axial contrast concentration gradients in stenosed coronary arteries, but the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon is not well understood. We use computational fluid dynamics to study intracoronary contrast dispersion and the correlation of concentration gradients with intracoronary blood flow and stenotic severity. Simulations of flow and contrast dispersion in both canonical and patient derived models of the left coronary artery (LCA) are carried out with a prescribed contrast bolus profile, and stenoses of varying severities (0% to 80%) considered. Data from our CFD simulations show the presence of measurable contrast gradients, the magnitude of which is found to decrease monotonically with stenotic severity and increase monotonically with the pressure drop across the stenosis. All simulated cases indicate a strong inverse correlation between contrast gradients and coronary flow rate. The study reveals that contrast gradients are generated by intracoronary advection effects, and therefore, encode coronary flow velocity. This research is supported by a grant from Coulter Foundation.

  10. Renal retention of lipid microbubbles: a potential mechanism for flank discomfort during ultrasound contrast administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya Ni; Khangura, Jaspreet; Xie, Aris; Belcik, J Todd; Qi, Yue; Davidson, Brian P; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Inaba, Yoichi; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2013-12-01

    The etiology of flank pain sometimes experienced during the administration of ultrasound contrast agents is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether microbubble ultrasound contrast agents are retained within the renal microcirculation, which could lead to either flow disturbance or local release of vasoactive and pain mediators downstream from complement activation. Retention of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the renal microcirculation of mice was assessed by confocal fluorescent microscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging with dose-escalating intravenous injection. Studies were performed with size-segregated microbubbles to investigate physical entrapment, after glycocalyx degradation and in wild-type and C3-deficient mice to investigate complement-mediated retention. Urinary bradykinin was measured before and after microbubble administrations. Renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound in human subjects (n = 13) was performed 7 to 10 min after the completion of lipid microbubble administration. In both mice and humans, microbubble retention was detected in the renal cortex by persistent contrast-enhanced ultrasound signal enhancement. Microbubble retention in mice was linearly related to dose and occurred almost exclusively in cortical glomerular microvessels. Microbubble retention did not affect microsphere-derived renal blood flow. Microbubble retention was not influenced by glycocalyx degradation or by microbubble size, thereby excluding lodging, but was reduced by 90% (P < .01) in C3-deficient mice. Urinary bradykinin increased by 65% 5 min after microbubble injection. Lipid-shelled microbubbles are retained in the renal cortex because of complement-mediated interactions with glomerular microvascular endothelium. Microbubble retention does not adversely affect renal perfusion but does generate complement-related intermediates that are known to mediate nociception and could be responsible for flank pain. Copyright © 2013 American Society of

  11. Grid-texture mechanisms in human vision: Contrast detection of regular sparse micro-patterns requires specialist templates

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Daniel H.; Meese, Tim S.

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has shown that human vision performs spatial integration of luminance contrast energy, where signals are squared and summed (with internal noise) over area at detection threshold. We tested that model here in an experiment using arrays of micro-pattern textures that varied in overall stimulus area and sparseness of their target elements, where the contrast of each element was normalised for sensitivity across the visual field. We found a power-law improvement in performance with stimulus area, and a decrease in sensitivity with sparseness. While the contrast integrator model performed well when target elements constituted 50–100% of the target area (replicating previous results), observers outperformed the model when texture elements were sparser than this. This result required the inclusion of further templates in our model, selective for grids of various regular texture densities. By assuming a MAX operation across these noisy mechanisms the model also accounted for the increase in the slope of the psychometric function that occurred as texture density decreased. Thus, for the first time, mechanisms that are selective for texture density have been revealed at contrast detection threshold. We suggest that these mechanisms have a role to play in the perception of visual textures. PMID:27460430

  12. Grid-texture mechanisms in human vision: Contrast detection of regular sparse micro-patterns requires specialist templates.

    PubMed

    Baker, Daniel H; Meese, Tim S

    2016-07-27

    Previous work has shown that human vision performs spatial integration of luminance contrast energy, where signals are squared and summed (with internal noise) over area at detection threshold. We tested that model here in an experiment using arrays of micro-pattern textures that varied in overall stimulus area and sparseness of their target elements, where the contrast of each element was normalised for sensitivity across the visual field. We found a power-law improvement in performance with stimulus area, and a decrease in sensitivity with sparseness. While the contrast integrator model performed well when target elements constituted 50-100% of the target area (replicating previous results), observers outperformed the model when texture elements were sparser than this. This result required the inclusion of further templates in our model, selective for grids of various regular texture densities. By assuming a MAX operation across these noisy mechanisms the model also accounted for the increase in the slope of the psychometric function that occurred as texture density decreased. Thus, for the first time, mechanisms that are selective for texture density have been revealed at contrast detection threshold. We suggest that these mechanisms have a role to play in the perception of visual textures.

  13. [Ultrastructure of capillary permeability in human brain tumors. 3: Mechanisms of contrast enhancement in non-glial tumors].

    PubMed

    Fukushima, M; Shibata, S; Inoue, M; Mori, K

    1986-03-01

    In order to elucidate mechanisms of contrast enhancement on computed tomography observed in non-glial tumors, tumors vessels were studied with conventional ultrathin section and freeze-fracture replica techniques. The materials were obtained from surgically removed specimens in 19 cases of tumors (6 of meningioma, 6 of hemangioblastoma, 5 of pituitary adenoma, and 2 of acoustic neurinoma). The following results were obtained. The common findings of these non-glial tumor vessels in ultrathin preparations were surface infoldings, increased pinocytotic vesticles and many fenestrations of endothelial cells, irregularity of basal laminae, and enlarged perivascular spaces. In freeze-fracture replicas of vascular endothelium, pinocytotic vesicles and fenestrations were 22 and 26 per micron2 on the average respectively. Tight junctions between endothelial cells were composed of one or two strands which appeared to be a discontinuous array of particles. As for the each non-glial tumor, menigiomas showed endothelial thickness and finger-like projections, variable lengths of tight junctions and marked enlargement of perivascular space which contained many collagen fibrils. Thinning of endothelium and many fenestrations were observed in hemangioblastomas, pituitary adenomas, and acoustic neurinomas. Fenestrations were most frequently observed in pituitary adenomas. The results indicate that extravasation of contrast material through fenestrations has an important role in marked contrast enhancement of non-glial tumors, in addition to the osmotic opening of tight junctions by contrast material. The irregular basal lamina and large perivascular space may also contribute to an increased extravasation of contrast material.

  14. Mechanisms for an effect of acetylcysteine on renal function after exposure to radio-graphic contrast material: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Sandilands, Euan A; Cameron, Sharon; Paterson, Frances; Donaldson, Sam; Briody, Lesley; Crowe, Jane; Donnelly, Julie; Thompson, Adrian; Johnston, Neil R; Mackenzie, Ivor; Uren, Neal; Goddard, Jane; Webb, David J; Megson, Ian L; Bateman, Nicholas; Eddleston, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Contrast-induced nephropathy is a common complication of contrast administration in patients with chronic kidney disease and diabetes. Its pathophysiology is not well understood; similarly the role of intravenous or oral acetylcysteine is unclear. Randomized controlled trials to date have been conducted without detailed knowledge of the effect of acetylcysteine on renal function. We are conducting a detailed mechanistic study of acetylcysteine on normal and impaired kidneys, both with and without contrast. This information would guide the choice of dose, route, and appropriate outcome measure for future clinical trials in patients with chronic kidney disease. We designed a 4-part study. We have set up randomised controlled cross-over studies to assess the effect of intravenous (50 mg/kg/hr for 2 hrs before contrast exposure, then 20 mg/kg/hr for 5 hrs) or oral acetylcysteine (1200 mg twice daily for 2 days, starting the day before contrast exposure) on renal function in normal and diseased kidneys, and normal kidneys exposed to contrast. We have also set up a parallel-group randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of intravenous or oral acetylcysteine on patients with chronic kidney disease stage III undergoing elective coronary angiography. The primary outcome is change in renal blood flow; secondary outcomes include change in glomerular filtration rate, tubular function, urinary proteins, and oxidative balance. Contrast-induced nephropathy represents a significant source of hospital morbidity and mortality. Over the last ten years, acetylcysteine has been administered prior to contrast to reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. Randomized controlled trials, however, have not reliably demonstrated renoprotection; a recent large randomized controlled trial assessing a dose of oral acetylcysteine selected without mechanistic insight did not reduce the incidence of contrast-induced nephropathy. Our study should reveal the mechanism of effect of

  15. RENAL RETENTION OF LIPID MICROBUBBLES: A POTENTIAL MECHANISM FOR FLANK DISCOMFORT DURING ULTRASOUND CONTRAST ADMINISTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya Ni; Khangura, Jaspreet; Xie, Aris; Belcik, J. Todd; Qi, Yue; Davidson, Brian P.; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Inaba, Yoichi; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The etiology for flank pain sometimes experienced during administration of ultrasound contrast agents is unknown. We investigated whether microbubble ultrasound contrast agents are retained within the renal microcirculation which could lead to either flow disturbance or local release of vasoactive and pain mediators downstream from complement activation. Methods Retention of lipid-shelled microbubbles in the renal microcirculation of mice was assessed by confocal fluorescent microscopy and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging with dose-escalating intravenous injection. Studies were performed with size-segregated microbubbles to investigate physical entrapment, after glycocalyx degradation, and in wild-type and C3-deficient mice to investigate complement-mediated retention. Urinary bradykinin was measured before and after microbubbles. Renal CEU in human subjects (n=13) was performed 7–10 min after completion of lipid microbubble administration. Results In both mice and humans, microbubble retention was detected in the renal cortex by persistent CEU signal enhancement. Microbubble retention in mice was linearly related to dose and occurred almost exclusively in cortical glomerular microvessels. Microbubble retention did not affect microsphere-derived renal blood flow. Microbubble retention was not influenced by glycocalyx degradation nor by microbubble size, thereby excluding lodging, but was reduced by 90% (p<0.01) in C3-deficient mice. Urinary bradykinin increased by 65% five minutes after microbubble injection. Conclusion Lipid-shelled microbubbles are retained in the renal cortex due to complement-mediated interactions with glomerular microvascular endothelium. Microbubble retention does not adversely affect renal perfusion but does generate complement-related intermediates that are known to mediate nociception and could be responsible for flank pain. PMID:24035699

  16. Contrasting Mechanical Anisotropies of the Superfluid {sup 3}He Phases in Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D. I.; Fisher, S. N.; Guenault, A. M.; Haley, R. P.; O'Sullivan, S.; Pickett, G. R.; Roberts, J.; Tsepelin, V.; Mulders, N.

    2007-02-16

    There has been much recent interest in how impurity scattering may affect the phases of the p-wave superfluid {sup 3}He. Impurities may be added to the otherwise absolutely pure superfluid by immersing it in aerogel. Some predictions suggest that impurity scattering may destroy orientational order and force all of the superfluid phases to have an isotropic superfluid density. In contrast to this, we present experimental data showing that the response of the A-like phase to superfluid flow is highly anisotropic, revealing a texture that is easily modified by flow.

  17. Contrasting grading approaches in introductory physics and quantum mechanics: The case of graduate teaching assistants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshman, Emily; Sayer, Ryan; Henderson, Charles; Singh, Chandralekha

    2017-06-01

    At large research universities, physics graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are often responsible for grading in courses at all levels. However, few studies have focused on TAs' grading practices in introductory and advanced physics courses. This study was designed to investigate whether physics graduate TAs grade students in introductory physics and quantum mechanics using different criteria and if so, why they may be inclined to do so. To investigate possible discrepancies in TAs' grading approaches in courses at different levels, we implemented a sequence of instructional activities in a TA professional development course that asked TAs to grade student solutions of introductory physics and upper-level quantum mechanics problems and explain why, if at all, their grading approaches were different or similar in the two contexts. We analyzed the differences in TAs' grading approaches in the two contexts and discuss the reasons they provided for the differences in their grading approaches in introductory physics and quantum mechanics in individual interviews, class discussions, and written responses. We find that a majority of the TAs graded solutions to quantum mechanics problems differently than solutions to introductory physics problems. In quantum mechanics, the TAs focused more on physics concepts and reasoning and penalized students for not showing evidence of understanding. The findings of the study have implications for TA professional development programs, e.g., the importance of helping TAs think about the difficulty of a problem from an introductory students' perspective and reflecting on the benefits of formative assessment.

  18. Radial frequency stimuli and sine-wave gratings seem to be processed by distinct contrast brain mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Simas, M L B; Nogueira, R M T B L; Santos, N A

    2005-03-01

    An assumption commonly made in the study of visual perception is that the lower the contrast threshold for a given stimulus, the more sensitive and selective will be the mechanism that processes it. On the basis of this consideration, we investigated contrast thresholds for two classes of stimuli: sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli (i.e., j0 targets or stimuli modulated by spherical Bessel functions). Employing a suprathreshold summation method, we measured the selectivity of spatial and radial frequency filters using either sine-wave gratings or j0 target contrast profiles at either 1 or 4 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd), as the test frequencies. Thus, in a forced-choice trial, observers chose between a background spatial (or radial) frequency alone and the given background stimulus plus the test frequency (1 or 4 cpd sine-wave grating or radial frequency). Contrary to our expectations, the results showed elevated thresholds (i.e., inhibition) for sine-wave gratings and decreased thresholds (i.e., summation) for radial frequencies when background and test frequencies were identical. This was true for both 1- and 4-cpd test frequencies. This finding suggests that sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli are processed by different quasi-linear systems, one working at low luminance and contrast level (sine-wave gratings) and the other at high luminance and contrast levels (radial frequency stimuli). We think that this interpretation is consistent with distinct foveal only and foveal-parafoveal mechanisms involving striate and/or other higher visual areas (i.e., V2 and V4).

  19. [Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the liver using low mechanical index--what is the difference?].

    PubMed

    Becker, D

    2002-12-01

    Echo-enhancing agents (EEA), also known as ultrasound contrast media, have improved the diagnostic potential of gastroenterologic ultrasound within the last years. Initially used to increase color-Doppler signals the potential to use harmonic waves being generated by the use of EEAs was established later. The effect was based upon the distraction of the EEA bubbles and the resulting pseudo-Doppler signal, the exam was carried out with high ultrasound energy and intermittent switching on and off of the ultrasound beam. Using this effect in real-time during continuous scanning is possible since the introduction of new EEAs with a flexible shell. This flexible shell oscillates during the scan process emitting harmonic signals. This new technology opens new possibilities for the detection of liver tumors including the possible characterisation. The detection rate for liver metastases can be increased by app. 40 % with this new technology. Correct sonographic characterisation of liver tumors can be achieved in nearly 100 % more cases.

  20. Image contrast mechanisms in dynamic friction force microscopy: Antimony particles on graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Felix; Göddenhenrich, Thomas; Dietzel, Dirk; Schirmeisen, Andre

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic Friction Force Microscopy (DFFM) is a technique based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) where resonance oscillations of the cantilever are excited by lateral actuation of the sample. During this process, the AFM tip in contact with the sample undergoes a complex movement which consists of alternating periods of sticking and sliding. Therefore, DFFM can give access to dynamic transition effects in friction that are not accessible by alternative techniques. Using antimony nanoparticles on graphite as a model system, we analyzed how combined influences of friction and topography can effect different experimental configurations of DFFM. Based on the experimental results, for example, contrast inversion between fractional resonance and band excitation imaging strategies to extract reliable tribological information from DFFM images are devised.

  1. Zoledronate treatment has different effects in mouse strains with contrasting baseline bone mechanical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Aref, M W; McNerny, E M B; Brown, D; Jepsen, K J; Allen, M R

    2016-12-01

    Two strains of mice with distinct bone morphologies and mechanical properties were treated with zoledronate. Our results show a different response to drug treatment in the two strains providing evidence that baseline properties of structure/material may influence response to zoledronate.

  2. Evidence for different SOA formation mechanisms in Los Angeles and Atlanta with contrasting emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, J.; Parker, E. T.; Weber, R.

    2011-12-01

    We investigate the gas/particle partitioning of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and formation of secondary organic constituents using in-situ measurements of chemical composition and optical properties of PM2.5 liquid extracts at two urban regions, Los Angeles, California and Atlanta, Georgia. Distinct and different diurnal patterns of gaseous and particulate WSOC, oxalate (and other organic acids), and soluble brown carbon were observed at the two sites. In Los Angeles, measured species followed identical diurnal profiles, reaching maximum levels in the early afternoon, suggestive of simultaneous local photochemical production of SOA and their light-absorbing components. In Atlanta, particulate WSOC and other SOA components exhibited moderate daytime enhancements relative to a large regional background, and the fresh WSOC was 4 to 6 times less light absorbing compared to Los Angeles. Different WSOC partitioning behaviors between gas/particle phases were also observed. In Atlanta, the fraction of particulate WSOC relative to the total WSOC (FP) was linked to inferred particle water content. In contrast, FP in Los Angeles had no correlation with RH, but was instead related to organic carbon mass, consistent with partition to the organic fraction as observed in environmental chambers. Overall, multiple forms of evidence suggest very different SOA formation processes in Los Angeles and Atlanta. The results are consistent with a dominant role in SOA formation played by anthropogenic VOCs in Los Angles and biogenic VOCs within Atlanta.

  3. Transmission and emission x-ray microscopy: operation modes, contrast mechanisms and applications.

    PubMed

    Kaulich, Burkhard; Thibault, Pierre; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Kiskinova, Maya

    2011-03-02

    Advances in microscopy techniques based on x-rays have opened unprecedented opportunities in terms of spatial resolution, combined with chemical and morphology sensitivity, to analyze solid, soft and liquid matter. The advent of ultrabright third and fourth generation photon sources and the continuous development of x-ray optics and detectors has pushed the limits of imaging and spectroscopic analysis to structures as small as a few tens of nanometers. Specific interactions of x-rays with matter provide elemental and chemical sensitivity that have made x-ray spectromicroscopy techniques a very attractive tool, complementary to other microscopies, for characterization in all actual research fields. The x-ray penetration power meets the demand to examine samples too thick for electron microscopes implementing 3D imaging and recently also 4D imaging which adds time resolution as well. Implementation of a variety of phase contrast techniques enhances the structural sensitivity, especially for the hard x-ray regime. Implementation of lensless or diffraction imaging helps to enhance the lateral resolution of x-ray imaging to the wavelength dependent diffraction limit.

  4. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Bradeen, James M.

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed ‘Russet Burbank’ (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic ‘Russet Burbank’ line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific. PMID:27441721

  5. Contrasting Potato Foliage and Tuber Defense Mechanisms against the Late Blight Pathogen Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liangliang; Bradeen, James M

    2016-01-01

    The late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans can attack both potato foliage and tubers. When inoculated with P. infestans, foliage of nontransformed 'Russet Burbank' (WT) develops late blight disease while that of transgenic 'Russet Burbank' line SP2211 (+RB) does not. We compared the foliar transcriptome responses of these two lines to P. infestans inoculation using an RNA-seq approach. A total of 515 million paired end RNA-seq reads were generated, representing the transcription of 29,970 genes. We also compared the differences and similarities of defense mechanisms against P. infestans in potato foliage and tubers. Differentially expressed genes, gene groups and ontology bins were identified to show similarities and differences in foliage and tuber defense mechanisms. Our results suggest that R gene dosage and shared biochemical pathways (such as ethylene and stress bins) contribute to RB-mediated incompatible potato-P. infestans interactions in both the foliage and tubers. Certain ontology bins such as cell wall and lipid metabolisms are potentially organ-specific.

  6. The time course of contrast masking reveals two distinct mechanisms of human surround suppression

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Yury; McKee, Suzanne P.

    2010-01-01

    We explored the time course of surround suppression and found clear evidence for two distinct mechanisms: one strong, transient, and largely monocular, the other weaker, sustained, and binocular. We measured detection thresholds for a Gabor target at 8 deg eccentricity surrounded by a large annulus of matching spatial frequency and orientation. At short stimulus durations surround suppression was very strong, but the suppression strength decreased precipitously for durations longer than ~100 msec. The strong transient component did not transfer between the eyes and occurred almost instantaneously (<1 frame delay, 12 msec) irrespective of the separation between target and surround. Both suppression components were tightly tuned to orientation, peaking at target orientation, but neither was tuned to target spatial phase. These results are in good agreement with surround suppression properties measured in macaque V1 neurons. The absence of interocular transfer, the strong orientation selectivity, and the high propagation speed incommensurate with slow horizontal connections in V1 suggest that the transient component of suppression originates between input layers and the subsequent layers in V1. PMID:19271891

  7. Contrasting mechanisms of growth in two model rod-shaped bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Billaudeau, Cyrille; Chastanet, Arnaud; Yao, Zhizhong; Cornilleau, Charlène; Mirouze, Nicolas; Fromion, Vincent; Carballido-López, Rut

    2017-01-01

    How cells control their shape and size is a long-standing question in cell biology. Many rod-shaped bacteria elongate their sidewalls by the action of cell wall synthesizing machineries that are associated to actin-like MreB cortical patches. However, little is known about how elongation is regulated to enable varied growth rates and sizes. Here we use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and single-particle tracking to visualize MreB isoforms, as a proxy for cell wall synthesis, in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli cells growing in different media and during nutrient upshift. We find that these two model organisms appear to use orthogonal strategies to adapt to growth regime variations: B. subtilis regulates MreB patch speed, while E. coli may mainly regulate the production capacity of MreB-associated cell wall machineries. We present numerical models that link MreB-mediated sidewall synthesis and cell elongation, and argue that the distinct regulatory mechanism employed might reflect the different cell wall integrity constraints in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:28589952

  8. Root Antioxidant Mechanisms in Relation to Root Thermotolerance in Perennial Grass Species Contrasting in Heat Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of plant root tolerance to high temperatures through antioxidant defense are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether superior root thermotolerance of heat-tolerant Agrostis scabra relative to its congeneric heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera was associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. A. scabra ‘NTAS’ and A. stolonifera ‘Penncross’ plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30°C, day/night) in growth chambers for 24 d. Superoxide (O2-) content increased in both A. stolonifera and A. scabra roots under heat stress but to a far lesser extent in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased significantly in A. stolonifera roots but not in A. scabra roots responding to heat stress. The content of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione) did not differ between A. stolonifera and A. scabra under heat stress. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase was less suppressed in A. scabra than that in A. stolonifera under heat stress, while peroxidase and catalase were more induced in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Similarly, their encoded transcript levels were either less suppressed, or more induced in A. scabra roots than those in A. stolonifera during heat stress. Roots of A. scabra exhibited greater alternative respiration rate and lower cytochrome respiration rate under heat stress, which was associated with suppression of O2- and H2O2 production as shown by respiration inhibitors. Superior root thermotolerance of A. scabra was related to decreases in H2O2 and O2- accumulation facilitated by active enzymatic antioxidant defense systems and the maintenance of alternative respiration, alleviating cellular damages by heat-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26382960

  9. Root Antioxidant Mechanisms in Relation to Root Thermotolerance in Perennial Grass Species Contrasting in Heat Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yi; Burgess, Patrick; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of plant root tolerance to high temperatures through antioxidant defense are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate whether superior root thermotolerance of heat-tolerant Agrostis scabra relative to its congeneric heat-sensitive Agrostis stolonifera was associated with differential accumulation of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant scavenging systems. A. scabra 'NTAS' and A. stolonifera 'Penncross' plants were exposed to heat stress (35/30°C, day/night) in growth chambers for 24 d. Superoxide (O2(-)) content increased in both A. stolonifera and A. scabra roots under heat stress but to a far lesser extent in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content increased significantly in A. stolonifera roots but not in A. scabra roots responding to heat stress. The content of antioxidant compounds (ascorbate and glutathione) did not differ between A. stolonifera and A. scabra under heat stress. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase was less suppressed in A. scabra than that in A. stolonifera under heat stress, while peroxidase and catalase were more induced in A. scabra than in A. stolonifera. Similarly, their encoded transcript levels were either less suppressed, or more induced in A. scabra roots than those in A. stolonifera during heat stress. Roots of A. scabra exhibited greater alternative respiration rate and lower cytochrome respiration rate under heat stress, which was associated with suppression of O2(-) and H2O2 production as shown by respiration inhibitors. Superior root thermotolerance of A. scabra was related to decreases in H2O2 and O2(-) accumulation facilitated by active enzymatic antioxidant defense systems and the maintenance of alternative respiration, alleviating cellular damages by heat-induced oxidative stress.

  10. High-contrast Brillouin and Raman micro-spectroscopy for simultaneous mechanical and chemical investigation of microbial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Mattana, S; Alunni Cardinali, M; Caponi, S; Casagrande Pierantoni, D; Corte, L; Roscini, L; Cardinali, G; Fioretto, D

    2017-06-24

    Mechanical mapping with chemical specificity of biological samples is now made possible by joint micro-Brillouin and micro-Raman measurements. In this work, thanks to the unprecedented contrast of a new tandem Fabry-Perot interferometer, we demonstrate simultaneous detection of Brillouin and Raman spectra from different Candida biofilms. Our proof-of-concept study reveals the potential of this label-free joint micro-spectroscopy technique in challenging microbiological issues. In particular, heterogeneous chemo-mechanical maps of Candida biofilms are obtained, without the need for staining or touching the sample. The correlative Raman and Brillouin investigation evidences the role of both extracellular polymeric substances and of hydration water in inducing a marked local softening of the biofilm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Combining colloidal probe atomic force and reflection interference contrast microscopy to study the compressive mechanics of hyaluronan brushes.

    PubMed

    Attili, Seetharamaiah; Richter, Ralf P

    2012-02-14

    We describe a method that combines colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to characterize the mechanical properties of thin and solvated polymer films. When analyzing polymer films, a fundamental problem in colloidal probe AFM experiments is to determine the distance at closest approach between the probe and the substrate on which the film is deposited. By combining AFM and RICM in situ, forces and absolute distances can be measured simultaneously. Using the combined setup, we quantify the compressive mechanics of films of the polysaccharide hyaluronan that is end-grafted to a supported lipid bilayer. The experimental data, and comparison with polymer theory, show that hyaluronan films are well-described as elastic, very soft and highly solvated polymer brushes. The data on these well-defined films should be a useful reference for the investigation of the more complex hyaluronan-rich coats that surround many living cells.

  12. Protective effect of salidroside on contrast-induced nephropathy in comparison with N-acetylcysteine and its underlying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Tang, Lu; Yang, Yue; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Wang, Zi-cheng; Gao, Yu-wei

    2015-04-01

    To study the prevention effect of salidroside on contrast-induced-nephropathy (CIN) and its underlying mechanism. A total of 24 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 in each group. Rats were firstly administrated with normal saline (control and model groups), N-acetylcysteine (NAC, NAC group) and salidroside (salidroside group) for 7 days before model establishment in each group, respectively. Histopathological analysis was performed by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining. Oxidative stress related parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), angiotensin II (Ang II), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), mRNA and protein levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were measured. Compared with the control group, the levels of MDA, Ang II and 8-OHdG were all significantly increased and levels of SOD, NO, and eNOS mRNA and protein were decreased significantly in the model group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the NOS activity was also significantly decreased in the model group (P<0.05). In addition, the levels of these parameters were all improved in the NAC (P<0.05) and salidroside groups and no significant different was found between these two groups (P>0.05). Salidroside can be the potential substitute of NAC to prevent CIN. The underlying mechanism may be associated with oxidative stress damage caused by contrast agents.

  13. Two Rumex Species from Contrasting Hydrological Niches Regulate Flooding Tolerance through Distinct Mechanisms[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Veen, Hans; Mustroph, Angelika; Barding, Gregory A.; Vergeer-van Eijk, Marleen; Welschen-Evertman, Rob A.M.; Pedersen, Ole; Visser, Eric J.W.; Larive, Cynthia K.; Pierik, Ronald; Bailey-Serres, Julia; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.; Sasidharan, Rashmi

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change has increased flooding events, which affect both natural vegetation dynamics and crop productivity. The flooded environment is lethal for most plant species because it restricts gas exchange and induces an energy and carbon crisis. Flooding survival strategies have been studied in Oryza sativa, a cultivated monocot. However, our understanding of plant adaptation to natural flood-prone environments remains scant, even though wild plants represent a valuable resource of tolerance mechanisms that could be used to generate stress-tolerant crops. Here we identify mechanisms that mediate the distinct flooding survival strategies of two related wild dicot species: Rumex palustris and Rumex acetosa. Whole transcriptome sequencing and metabolite profiling reveal flooding-induced metabolic reprogramming specific to R. acetosa. By contrast, R. palustris uses the early flooding signal ethylene to increase survival by regulating shade avoidance and photomorphogenesis genes to outgrow submergence and by priming submerged plants for future low oxygen stress. These results provide molecular resolution of flooding survival strategies of two species occupying distinct hydrological niches. Learning how these contrasting flood adaptive strategies evolved in nature will be instrumental for the development of stress-tolerant crop varieties that deliver enhanced yields in a changing climate. PMID:24285788

  14. Motionless electromagnetic phase stepping versus mechanical phase stepping in x-ray phase-contrast imaging with a compact source.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Katherine J; Miao, Houxun; Gomella, Andrew A; Bennett, Eric E; Foster, Barbara A; Bhandarkar, Priya; Wen, Han

    2015-04-21

    X-ray phase contrast imaging based on grating interferometers detects the refractive index distribution of an object without relying on radiation attenuation, thereby having the potential for reduced radiation absorption. These techniques belong to the broader category of optical wavefront measurement, which requires stepping the phase of the interference pattern to obtain a pixel-wise map of the phase distortion of the wavefront. While phase stepping traditionally involves mechanical scanning of a grating or mirror, we developed electromagnetic phase stepping (EPS) for imaging with compact sources to obviate the need for mechanical movement. In EPS a solenoid coil is placed outside the x-ray tube to shift its focal spot with a magnetic field, causing a relative movement between the projection of the sample and the interference pattern in the image. Here we present two embodiments of this method. We verified experimentally that electromagnetic and mechanical phase stepping give the same results and attain the same signal-to-noise ratios under the same radiation dose. We found that the relative changes of interference fringe visibility were within 3.0% when the x-ray focal spot was shifted by up to 1.0 mm in either direction. We conclude that when using x-ray tube sources, EPS is an effective means of phase stepping without the need for mechanical movement.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Vemanna S; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses.

  16. Transcriptome Analysis of Sunflower Genotypes with Contrasting Oxidative Stress Tolerance Reveals Individual- and Combined- Biotic and Abiotic Stress Tolerance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, Vemanna S.; Paramanantham, Anjugam; Ramegowda, Venkategowda; Mohan-Raju, Basavaiah; Udayakumar, Makarla

    2016-01-01

    In nature plants are often simultaneously challenged by different biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the mechanisms underlying plant responses against single stress have been studied considerably, plant tolerance mechanisms under combined stress is not understood. Also, the mechanism used to combat independently and sequentially occurring many number of biotic and abiotic stresses has also not systematically studied. From this context, in this study, we attempted to explore the shared response of sunflower plants to many independent stresses by using meta-analysis of publically available transcriptome data and transcript profiling by quantitative PCR. Further, we have also analyzed the possible role of the genes so identified in contributing to combined stress tolerance. Meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from many abiotic and biotic stresses indicated the common representation of oxidative stress responsive genes. Further, menadione-mediated oxidative stress in sunflower seedlings showed similar pattern of changes in the oxidative stress related genes. Based on this a large scale screening of 55 sunflower genotypes was performed under menadione stress and those contrasting in oxidative stress tolerance were identified. Further to confirm the role of genes identified in individual and combined stress tolerance the contrasting genotypes were individually and simultaneously challenged with few abiotic and biotic stresses. The tolerant hybrid showed reduced levels of stress damage both under combined stress and few independent stresses. Transcript profiling of the genes identified from meta-analysis in the tolerant hybrid also indicated that the selected genes were up-regulated under individual and combined stresses. Our results indicate that menadione-based screening can identify genotypes not only tolerant to multiple number of individual biotic and abiotic stresses, but also the combined stresses. PMID:27314499

  17. A phase-contrast microscopy-based method for modeling the mechanical behavior of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mayssam; Sharabani-Yosef, Orna; Weihs, Daphne; Gefen, Amit

    2016-10-01

    We present three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of single, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), generated from images obtained by optical phase-contrast microscopy and used to quantify the structural responses of the studied cells to externally applied mechanical loads. Mechanical loading has been shown to affect cell morphology and structure, phenotype, motility and other biological functions. Cells experience mechanical loads naturally, yet under prolonged or sizable loading, damage and cell death may occur, which motivates research regarding the structural behavior of loaded cells. For example, near the weight-bearing boney prominences of the buttocks of immobile persons, tissues may become highly loaded, eventually leading to massive cell death that manifests as pressure ulcers. Cell-specific computational models have previously been developed by our group, allowing simulations of cell deformations under compressive or stretching loads. These models were obtained by reconstructing specific cell structures from series of 2D fluorescence, confocal image-slices, requiring cell-specific fluorescent-staining protocols and costly (confocal) microscopy equipment. Alternative modeling approaches represent cells simply as half-spheres or half-ellipsoids (i.e. idealized geometries), which neglects the curvature details of the cell surfaces associated with changes in concentrations of strains and stresses. Thus, we introduce here for the first time an optical image-based FE modeling, where loads are simulated on reconstructed 3D geometrical cell models from a single 2D, phase-contrast image. Our novel modeling method eliminates the need for confocal imaging and fluorescent staining preparations (both expensive), and makes cell-specific FE modeling affordable and accessible to the biomechanics community. We demonstrate the utility of this cost-effective modeling method by performing simulations of compression of MSCs embedded in a gel.

  18. More cells, bigger cells or simply reorganization? Alternative mechanisms leading to changed internode architecture under contrasting stress regimes.

    PubMed

    Huber, Heidrun; de Brouwer, Jan; von Wettberg, Eric J; During, Heinjo J; Anten, Niels P R

    2014-01-01

    Shading and mechanical stress (MS) modulate plant architecture by inducing different developmental pathways. Shading results in increased stem elongation, often reducing whole-plant mechanical stability, while MS inhibits elongation, with a concomitant increase in stability. Here, we examined how these organ-level responses are related to patterns and processes at the cellular level by exposing Impatiens capensis to shading and MS. Shading led to the production of narrower cells along the vertical axis. By contrast, MS led to the production of fewer, smaller and broader cells. These responses to treatments were largely in line with genetic differences found among plants from open and closed canopy sites. Shading- and MS-induced plastic responses in cellular characteristics were negatively correlated: genotypes that were more responsive to shading were less responsive to MS and vice versa. This negative correlation, however, did not scale to mechanical and architectural traits. Our data show how environmental conditions elicit distinctly different associations between characteristics at the cellular level, plant morphology and biomechanics. The evolution of optimal response to different environmental cues may be limited by negative correlations of stress-induced responses at the cellular level.

  19. Editorial--Avoiding Unethical Helicobacter pylori Clinical Trials: Susceptibility-Based Studies and Probiotics as Adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2015-10-01

    As a general rule, any clinical study where the result is already known or when the investigator(s) compares an assigned treatment against another assigned treatment known to be ineffective in the study population (e.g., in a population with known clarithromycin resistance) is unethical. As susceptibility-based therapy will always be superior to empiric therapy in any population with a prevalence of antimicrobial resistance >0%, any trial that randomizes susceptibility-based therapy with empiric therapy would be unethical. The journal Helicobacter welcomes susceptibility or culture-guided studies, studies of new therapies, and studies of adjuvants and probiotics. However, the journal will not accept for review any study we judge to be lacking clinical equipoise or which assign subjects to a treatment known to be ineffective, such as a susceptibility-based clinical trial with an empiric therapy comparator. To assist authors, we provide examples and suggestions regarding trial design for comparative studies, for susceptibility-based studies, and for studies testing adjuvants or probiotics.

  20. Detection of acoustic cavitation in the heart with microbubble contrast agents in vivo: a mechanism for ultrasound-induced arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Rota, Claudio; Raeman, Carol H; Child, Sally Z; Dalecki, Diane

    2006-11-01

    Ultrasound fields can produce premature cardiac contractions under appropriate exposure conditions. The pressure threshold for ultrasound-induced premature contractions is significantly lowered when microbubble contrast agents are present in the vasculature. The objective of this study was to measure directly ultrasound-induced cavitation in the murine heart in vivo and correlate the occurrence of cavitation with the production of premature cardiac contractions. A passive cavitation detection technique was used to quantify cavitation activity in the heart. Experiments were performed with anesthetized, adult mice given intravenous injections of either a contrast agent (Optison) or saline. Murine hearts were exposed to ultrasound pulses (200 kHz, 1 ms, 0.1-0.25 MPa). Premature beats were produced in mice injected with Optison and the likelihood of producing a premature beat increased with increasing pressure amplitude. Similarly, cavitation was detected in mice injected with Optison and the amplitude of the passive cavitation detector signal increased with increasing exposure amplitude. Furthermore, there was a direct correlation between the extent of cavitation and the likelihood of ultrasound producing a premature beat. Neither premature beats nor cavitation activity were observed in animals injected with saline and exposed to ultrasound. These results are consistent with acoustic cavitation as a mechanism for this bioeffect.

  1. Hysterosalpingography contrast media and chromotubation dye inhibit peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage function in vitro: a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement.

    PubMed

    Goodman, S B; Rein, M S; Hill, J A

    1993-05-01

    To determine the effects of hysterosalpingography (HSG) contrast media (CM) and chromotubation dye on peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis in vitro. Peritoneal fluid (PF) lymphocytes and macrophages were isolated from 40 subfertile women undergoing diagnostic laparoscopy and 12 fertile women having laparoscopic tubal ligation. Dilutions of renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine were added to peritoneal lymphocyte and macrophage cultures. Tissue culture media alone served as control. Lymphocyte proliferation was assessed by hemocytometer counts and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Macrophage function was determined by phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres. Peritoneal lymphocyte proliferation and macrophage phagocytosis were significantly inhibited by renografin, ethiodol, methylene blue, and indigo carmine in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of PF immune cell function by HSG CM and chromotubation dye may provide a potential mechanism for fertility enhancement after these diagnostic procedures.

  2. Drought onset mechanisms revealed by satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from two contrasting extreme events [Satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence reveals drought onset mechanisms: Insights from two contrasting extreme events

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Ying; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert; ...

    2015-11-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root zone soil moisture caused by yearlong below-normal precipitation. Inmore » contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and relatively normal precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation fPAR and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.« less

  3. Drought onset mechanisms revealed by satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from two contrasting extreme events

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Ying; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert; ...

    2015-11-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root zone soil moisture caused by yearlong below-normal precipitation. Inmore » contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and relatively normal precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation fPAR and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.« less

  4. Drought onset mechanisms revealed by satellite solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence: Insights from two contrasting extreme events

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ying; Fu, Rong; Dickinson, Robert; Joiner, Joanna; Frankenberg, Christian; Gu, Lianhong; Xia, Youlong; Fernando, Nelun

    2015-11-01

    This study uses the droughts of 2011 in Texas and 2012 over the central Great Plains as case studies to explore the potential of satellite-observed solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) for monitoring drought dynamics. We find that the spatial patterns of negative SIF anomalies from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2) closely resembled drought intensity maps from the U.S. Drought Monitor for both events. The drought-induced suppression of SIF occurred throughout 2011 but was exacerbated in summer in the Texas drought. This event was characterized by a persistent depletion of root zone soil moisture caused by yearlong below-normal precipitation. In contrast, for the central Great Plains drought, warmer temperatures and relatively normal precipitation boosted SIF in the spring of 2012; however, a sudden drop in precipitation coupled with unusually high temperatures rapidly depleted soil moisture through evapotranspiration, leading to a rapid onset of drought in early summer. Accordingly, SIF reversed from above to below normal. For both regions, the GOME-2 SIF anomalies were significantly correlated with those of root zone soil moisture, indicating that the former can potentially be used as proxy of the latter for monitoring agricultural droughts with different onset mechanisms. Further analyses indicate that the contrasting dynamics of SIF during these two extreme events were caused by changes in both fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation fPAR and fluorescence yield, suggesting that satellite SIF is sensitive to both structural and physiological/biochemical variations of vegetation. We conclude that the emerging satellite SIF has excellent potential for dynamic drought monitoring.

  5. A three dimensional model of an ultrasound contrast agent gas bubble and its mechanical effects on microvessels

    PubMed Central

    Hosseinkhah, N.; Hynynen, K.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents inside a microvessel, when driven by ultrasound, oscillate and induce mechanical stresses on the vessel wall. These mechanical stresses can produce beneficial therapeutic effects but also induce vessel rupture if the stresses are too high. Therefore, it is important to use sufficiently low pressure amplitudes to avoid rupturing the vessels while still inducing the desired therapeutic effects. In this work, we developed a comprehensive three dimensional model of a confined microbubble inside a vessel while considering the bubble shell properties, blood viscosity, vessel wall curvature and the mechanical properties of the vessel wall. Two bubble models with the assumption of a spherical symmetric bubble and a simple asymmetrical bubble were simulated. This work was validated with previous experimental results and enabled us to evaluate the microbubbles’ behaviour and the resulting mechanical stresses induced on the vessel walls. In this study the fluid shear and circumferential stresses were evaluated as indicators of the mechanical stresses. The effects of acoustical parameters, vessel viscoelasticity and rigidity, vessel/bubble size and off-center bubbles on bubble behaviour and stresses on the vessel were investigated. The fluid shear and circumferential stresses acting on the vessel varied with time and location. As the frequency changed, the microbubble oscillated with the highest amplitude at its resonance frequency which was different from the resonance frequency of an unbound bubble. The bubble resonance frequency increased as the rigidity of a flexible vessel increased. The fluid shear and circumferential stresses peaked at frequencies above the bubble’s resonance frequency. The more rigid the vessels were, the more damped the bubble oscillations. The synergistic effect of acoustic frequency and vessel elasticity had also been investigated, since the circumferential stress showed either an increasing trend or a decreasing one

  6. Fred's Flow (Canada) and Murphy Well (Australia): thick komatiitic lava flows with contrasting compositions, emplacement mechanisms and water contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siégel, Coralie; Arndt, Nicholas; Barnes, Stephen; Henriot, Anne-Laure; Haenecour, Pierre; Debaille, Vinciane; Mattielli, Nadine

    2014-12-01

    Two Archaean komatiitic flows, Fred's Flow in Canada and the Murphy Well Flow in Australia, have similar thicknesses (120 and 160 m) but very different compositions and internal structures. Their contrasting differentiation profiles are keys to determine the cooling and crystallization mechanisms that operated during the eruption of Archaean ultramafic lavas. Fred's Flow is the type example of a thick komatiitic basalt flow. It is strongly differentiated and consists of a succession of layers with contrasting textures and compositions. The layering is readily explained by the accumulation of olivine and pyroxene in a lower cumulate layer and by evolution of the liquid composition during downward growth of spinifex-textured rocks within the upper crust. The magmas that erupted to form Fred's Flow had variable compositions, ranging from 12 to 20 wt% MgO, and phenocryst contents from 0 to 20 vol%. The flow was emplaced by two pulses. A first ~20-m-thick pulse was followed by another more voluminous but less magnesian pulse that inflated the flow to its present 120 m thickness. Following the second pulse, the flow crystallized in a closed system and differentiated into cumulates containing 30-38 wt% MgO and a residual gabbroic layer with only 6 wt% MgO. The Murphy Well Flow, in contrast, has a remarkably uniform composition throughout. It comprises a 20-m-thick upper layer of fine-grained dendritic olivine and 2-5 vol% amygdales, a 110-120 m intermediate layer of olivine porphyry and a 20-30 m basal layer of olivine orthocumulate. Throughout the flow, MgO contents vary little, from only 30 to 33 wt%, except for the slightly more magnesian basal layer (38-40 wt%). The uniform composition of the flow and dendritic olivine habits in the upper 20 m point to rapid cooling of a highly magnesian liquid with a composition like that of the bulk of the flow. Under equilibrium conditions, this liquid should have crystallized olivine with the composition Fo94.9, but the most

  7. Contrasting hydrological and mechanical properties of clayey and silty muds cored from the shallow Nankai Trough accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Miki; Azuma, Shuhei; Uehara, Shin-ichi; Kanagawa, Kyuichi; Inoue, Atsuyuki

    2013-07-01

    Two mud samples cored from the shallow (≈ 1000 mbsf) Nankai Trough accretionary prism at Site C0002 of IODP Expedition 315 are found to be distinctly different in hydrological and mechanical properties. At confining pressures, pore water pressures and temperatures close to their in situ conditions, a clayey mud sample has lower permeability of 2.92 × 10- 19 m2, while a silty mud sample has higher permeability of 2.29 × 10- 18 m2. Triaxial compression experiments at these conditions and an axial displacement rate of 10 μm/s reveal that the clayey mud sample exhibits lower failure strength of 14.2 MPa followed by a slow failure lasting for ≈ 40 s, while the silty mud sample exhibits higher failure strength of 20.1 MPa followed by a rapid failure within ≈ 5 s. Friction experiments at these conditions and axial displacement rates changed stepwise among 0.1, 1 and 10 μm/s reveal that the clayey mud sample has a much lower steady-state friction (μss ≈ 0.25) than the silty mud sample (μss ≈ 0.53). Although both samples exhibit velocity strengthening, the former has more than three times larger velocity-dependence of steady-state friction than the latter. Such contrasting hydrological and mechanical properties of the clayey and silty mud samples as revealed in this study suggest the following implications for deformation and faulting in the shallow mud-dominant Nankai Trough accretionary prism. Deformation results in a possible increase in pore pressure, and hence, in strength reduction in clayey mud, but not in silty mud. Faulting would preferentially occur in the weaker clayey mud, and its slow failure may result in a slow slip. Faults formed in clayey mud are weak and easily reactivated, but stable and not seismogenic. In contrast, once the stronger silty mud is faulted, its rapid failure may become a seismic slip. Faults formed in silty mud are strong and not easily reactivated, but possibly unstable and seismogenic.

  8. Contrasting oxidative stress response mechanisms in novel strains of Bacillus isolated from the Mars-analog, Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lera, M.; Marcu, O.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental conditions that limit the presence of life include ionizing radiation, extreme temperatures, and lack of water. These environments are common in our solar system and may contribute to the lack of apparent life. However, analogous environments here on Earth are host to a multitude of thriving microbial life. In order for microbes to survive in dry deserts, they must be must be able to adapt to transient diurnal and seasonal changes in the environment (water, temperature). To uncover response strategies to environmental stress that may prevent cellular damage and ensure adaptation and survival, two distinct, novel strains of Bacillus were isolated from the Mojave Desert (a Mars analog due to its arid conditions and high incidence of ultraviolet light) and classified by their partial 16S RNA gene sequences. These species, despite being closely related, exhibited radically different phenotypes and contrasting strategies for mitigating stress. The two strains had different growth rates, metabolic capacities and sporulation onset times when challenged by crowding and heat-shock. In response to hydrogen peroxide challenge, the intracellular levels of catalase activity, a peroxide-scavenging enzyme, differed for each strain, and were surprisingly lower than that of a non-desert control species of Bacillus. DNA repair mechanisms were more active in one strain than the other, and one isolate responded with an increase in expression of longevity gene orthologs involved in stress response. After multiple rounds of culturing, the peroxide degradation capacity, as well as the growth and sporulation rates remained constant for each strain, which suggests these are permanent features of each strain rather than transient responses. Taken together, these data uncover a diverse arsenal of response mechanisms employed by closely related species to combat stress. These adaptations may provide environmental-niche specificity and the diversity of life even in a scarce

  9. Evidence from vergence eye movements that disparities defined by luminance and contrast are sensed by independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rambold, Holger A; Sheliga, Boris M; Miles, Frederick A

    2010-12-29

    We recorded the initial disparity vergence responses (DVRs) elicited by 1-D sinusoidal gratings differing in phase at the two eyes by 1/4 wavelength and defined by luminance modulation (LM) or contrast modulation (CM) of dynamic binary noise. Both LM and CM stimuli elicited DVRs, but those to CM had longer latency (on average by ∼20 ms). DVRs showed sigmoidal dependence on depth of modulation, with higher thresholds for CM than for LM. With both LM and CM stimuli, fixing the modulation at one eye well above threshold rendered the DVR hypersensitive to low-level modulation at the other eye (dichoptic facilitation). Disparities defined by LM at one eye and CM at the other generated weak DVRs in the "wrong" direction, consistent with mediation entirely by distortion products associated with the CM stimulus. These (reversed) DVRs could be nulled by adding LM to the CM stimulus (in phase), and the greater the depth of the CM, the greater the added LM required for nulling, exactly as predicted by a simple compressive non-linearity. We conclude that disparities defined by LM and by CM are sensed by independent cortical mechanisms, at least for the purposes of generating short-latency vergence eye movements to disparity steps.

  10. Assessment of intravascular and extravascular mechanisms of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by myocardial contrast echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Osama I I; Knaapen, Paul; Geleijnse, Marcel L; Dijkmans, Pieter A; Anwar, Ashraf M; Nemes, Attila; Michels, Michelle; Vletter, Wim B; Lammertsma, Adriaan A

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To assess mechanisms of myocardial perfusion impairment in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods Fourteen patients with obstructive HCM (mean (SD) age 53 (10) years, 11 men) underwent intravenous adenosine myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE), positron emission tomography (PET) and cardiac catheterisation. Fourteen healthy volunteers (mean age 31 (4) years, 11 men) served as controls. Relative myocardial blood volume (rBV), exchange flow velocity (β), myocardial blood flow (MBF), MBF reserve (MFR) and endocardial‐to‐subepicardial (endo‐to‐epi) MBF ratio were measured from the steady state and contrast replenishment time–intensity curves. Results Patients with HCM had lower rest MBF (for LVRPP‐corrected)—mean (SD) (0.92 (0.12) vs 1.13 (0.25) ml/min/g, p<0.01)—and hyperaemic MBF—(2.56 (0.49) vs 4.34 (0.78) ml/min/g, p<0.01) than controls. Resting rBV was lower in patients with HCM (0.094 (0.016) vs 0.138 (0.014) ml/ml), and during hyperaemia (0.104 (0.018) ml/ml vs 0.185 (0.024) ml/ml) (all p<0.001) than in controls. β tended to be higher in HCM at rest (9.4 (4.6) vs 7.7 (4.2) ml/min) and during hyperaemia (25.8 (6.4) vs 23.1 (6.2) ml/min) than in controls. Septal endo‐to‐epi MBF decreased during hyperaemia (0.86 (0.15) to 0.64 (0.18), p<0.01). rBV was inversely correlated with left ventricular (LV) mass index (p<0.05). Both hyperaemic and endo‐to‐epi MBF were inversely correlated with LV end‐diastolic pressure, LV mass index, and LV outflow tract pressure gradient (all p<0.05). MCE‐derived MBF correlated well with PET at rest (r = 0.84) and hyperaemia (r = 0.87) (all p<0.001). Conclusions In patients with HCM, LV end‐diastolic pressure, LV outflow tract pressure gradient, and LV mass index are independent predictors of rBV and hyperaemic MBF. PMID:17488767

  11. Optimization of Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Detection Using Ultrashort TE Pulse Sequences: Comparison of T1, T2* and Synergistic T1-T2* Contrast Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Girard, O. M.; Du, J.; Agemy, L.; Sugahara, K. N.; Kotamraju, V. R.; Ruoslahti, E.; Bydder, G. M.; Mattrey, R. F.

    2010-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are used in various MRI applications as negative contrast agents. A major challenge is to distinguish regions of signal void due to IONPs from those due to low signal tissues or susceptibility artifacts. To overcome this limitation, several positive contrast strategies have been proposed. Relying on IONP T1 shortening effects to generate positive contrast is a particularly appealing strategy since it should provide additional specificity when associated with the usual negative contrast from T2* effects. In this paper, Ultrashort TE (UTE) imaging is shown to be a powerful technique which can take full advantage of both contrast mechanisms. Methods of comparing T1 and T2* contrast efficiency are described and general rules that allow optimizing IONP detection sensitivity are derived. Contrary to conventional wisdom, optimizing T1 contrast is often a good strategy for imaging IONPs. Under certain conditions, subtraction of a later echo signal from the UTE signal not only improves IONP specificity by providing long T2* background suppression, but also increases detection sensitivity, as it enables a synergistic combination of usually antagonist T1 and T2* contrasts. In vitro experiments support our theory and a molecular imaging application is demonstrated using tumor-targeted IONPs in vivo. PMID:21305596

  12. Multi-band locally-adaptive contrast enhancement algorithm with built-in noise and artifact suppression mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetkovic, Sascha D.; Schirris, Johan; de With, Peter H. N.

    2008-01-01

    For real-time imaging in surveillance applications, visibility of details is of primary importance to ensure customer confidence. Usually, image quality is improved by enhancing contrast and sharpness. Many complex scenes require local contrast improvements that should bring details to the best possible visibility. However, local enhancement methods mainly suffer from ringing artifacts and noise over-enhancement. In this paper, we present a new multi-window real-time high-frequency enhancement scheme, in which gain is a non-linear function of the detail energy. Our algorithm simultaneously controls perceived sharpness, ringing artifacts (contrast) and noise, resulting in a good balance between visibility of details and non-disturbance of artifacts. The overall quality enhancement is based on a careful selection of the filter types for the multi-band decomposition and a detailed analysis of the signal per frequency band. The advantage of the proposed technique is that detail gains can be set much higher than usual and the algorithm will reduce them only at places where it is really needed.

  13. Optimisation of image reconstruction for phase-contrast x-ray Talbot-Lau imaging with regard to mechanical robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifert, M.; Kaeppler, S.; Hauke, C.; Horn, F.; Pelzer, G.; Rieger, J.; Michel, T.; Riess, C.; Anton, G.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging opens new opportunities, inter alia, in medical imaging and non-destructive testing. Because, information about the attenuation properties and about the refractive properties of an object are gained simultaneously. Talbot-Lau imaging requires the knowledge of a reference or free-field image. The long-term stability of a Talbot-Lau interferometer is related to the time span of the validity of a measured reference image. It would be desirable to keep the validity of the reference image for a day or longer to improve feasibility of Talbot-Lau imaging. However, for example thermal and other long-term external influences result in drifting effects of the phase images. Therefore, phases are shifting over time and the reference image is not valid for long-term measurements. Thus, artifacts occur in differential phase-contrast images. We developed an algorithm to determine the differential phase-contrast image with the help of just one calibration image, which is valid for a long time-period. With the help of this algorithm, called phase-plane-fit method, it is possible to save measurement-time, as it is not necessary to take a reference image for each measurement. Additionally, transferring the interferometer technique from laboratory setups to conventional imaging systems the necessary rigidity of the system is difficult to achieve. Therefore, short-term effects like vibrations or distortions of the system lead to imperfections within the phase-stepping procedure. Consequently, artifacts occur in all three image modalities (differential phase-contrast image, attenuation image and dark-field image) of Talbot-Lau imaging. This is a problem with regard to the intended use of phase-contrast imaging for example in clinical routine or non-destructive testing. In this publication an algorithm of Vargas et al is applied and complemented to correct inaccurate phase-step positions with the help of a principal component analysis (PCA

  14. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... veins of the body, including vessels in the brain, neck, chest, abdomen, pelvis and legs soft tissues of the body, including the muscles, fat and skin brain breast Microbubble Contrast Materials Microbubble contrast materials are ...

  15. Contrast Materials

    MedlinePlus

    ... of page Side effects and adverse and allergic reactions Barium Sulfate Contrast Materials You should tell your ... You are at greater risk of an adverse reaction to barium-sulfate contrast materials if: you have ...

  16. Contrasting mechanisms of de novo copy number mutagenesis suggest the existence of different classes of environmental copy number mutagens.

    PubMed

    Conover, Hailey N; Argueso, Juan Lucas

    2016-01-01

    While gene copy number variations (CNVs) are abundant in the human genome, and often are associated with disease consequences, the mutagenic pathways and environmental exposures that cause these large structural mutations are understudied relative to conventional nucleotide substitutions in DNA. The members of the environmental mutagenesis community are currently seeking to remedy this deficiency, and there is a renewed interest in the development of mutagenicity assays to identify and characterize compounds that may induce de novo CNVs in humans. To achieve this goal, it is critically important to acknowledge that CNVs exist in two very distinct classes: nonrecurrent and recurrent CNVs. The goal of this commentary is to emphasize the deep contrasts that exist between the proposed pathways that lead to these two mutation classes. Nonrecurrent de novo CNVs originate primarily in mitotic cells through replication-dependent DNA repair pathways that involve microhomologies (<10 bp), and are detected at higher frequency in children of older fathers. In contrast, recurrent de novo CNVs are most often formed in meiotic cells through homologous recombination between nonallelic large low-copy repeats (>10,000 bp), without an associated paternal age effect. Given the biological differences between the two CNV classes, it is our belief that nonrecurrent and recurrent CN mutagens will probably differ substantially in their modes of action. Therefore, each CNV class may require their own uniquely designed assays, so that we as a field may succeed in uncovering the broadest possible spectrum of environmental CN mutagens. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Contrast mechanisms on nanoscale subsurface imaging in ultrasonic AFM: scattering of ultrasonic waves and contact stiffness of the tip-sample.

    PubMed

    Sharahi, Hossein Jiryaei; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Park, Simon; Egberts, Philip; Kim, Seonghwan

    2017-02-09

    Ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (AFM) and its associated derivatives are nondestructive techniques that can elucidate subsurface nanoscale structures and properties. Despite the usefulness of these techniques, the physical contrast mechanisms responsible for the reported subsurface features observed in ultrasonic AFM are not well defined. In this study, we present a comprehensive model combining ultrasonic wave scattering and tip-sample contact stiffness to better reproduce the experimentally measured phase variations over subsurface features in two model systems. These model systems represent the two extreme sample types typically imaged by ultrasonic AFM, one being a hard material and the other a soft polymeric material. The theoretical analysis presented and associated comparisons with experimental results suggest that the image contrast depends on the combination of two contrast mechanisms: the perturbation of the scattered ultrasonic waves and the local variation of the contact stiffness at the tip-sample contact. The results of this study open up a new door for the depth estimation of buried nanoscale features into hard (engineering structures) and soft (polymers and biological structures) materials, and eventually lead to non-invasive, high-resolution 3D nano-tomography by ultrasonic AFM.

  18. A new method of optical biopsy: demonstration of mechanical contrast in deep tissue using an optical coherence elastography needle probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Kelsey M.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Sampson, David D.

    2012-02-01

    We incorporate for the first time optical coherence elastography (OCE) into a needle probe and demonstrate its ability to provide depth-resolved information about the mechanical properties of soft tissues. This allows analysis of tissues located much deeper than has previously been possible with other forms of OCE. OCE exploits the microscopic resolution of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to produce high-resolution maps of tissue mechanical properties. While OCE has potential to delineate diseased and healthy tissues (e.g., stiff tumor in soft tissue), standard techniques are limited by the penetration depth of OCT in tissue (2-3 mm). Our OCE needle probe overcomes this limitation, as it may be inserted deep within the body to perform measurements. We tested needle-based OCE in tissue-mimicking phantoms and ex vivo porcine airway tissue comprising layers of varying stiffness. Results demonstrate mechanical differentiation of tissues and identification of tissue interfaces. The proof-of-principle results presented here pave the way for future measurements in human breast tissue that will aim to establish needle-based OCE as a viable technique for intraoperative guidance of breast cancer surgery.

  19. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading

    DOE PAGES

    Hudspeth, M.; Sun, T.; Parab, N.; ...

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s–1and 5000 s–1strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imagedviaphase-contrast imaging. It is also shownmore » that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffractionviain-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Finally, of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystald-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.« less

  20. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hudspeth, M.; Sun, T.; Parab, N.; Guo, Z.; Fezzaa, K.; Luo, S.; Chen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s-1and 5000 s-1strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imagedviaphase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffractionviain-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystald-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.

  1. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hudspeth, M.; Sun, T.; Parab, N.; Guo, Z.; Fezzaa, K.; Luo, S.; Chen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s–1and 5000 s–1strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imagedviaphase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffractionviain-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Finally, of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystald-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.

  2. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading.

    PubMed

    Hudspeth, M; Sun, T; Parab, N; Guo, Z; Fezzaa, K; Luo, S; Chen, W

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s(-1) and 5000 s(-1) strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imaged via phase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffraction via in-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystal d-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates.

  3. Simultaneous X-ray diffraction and phase-contrast imaging for investigating material deformation mechanisms during high-rate loading

    PubMed Central

    Hudspeth, M.; Sun, T.; Parab, N.; Guo, Z.; Fezzaa, K.; Luo, S.; Chen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Using a high-speed camera and an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), a simultaneous X-ray imaging and diffraction technique has been developed for studying dynamic material behaviors during high-rate tensile loading. A Kolsky tension bar has been used to pull samples at 1000 s−1 and 5000 s−1 strain-rates for super-elastic equiatomic NiTi and 1100-O series aluminium, respectively. By altering the ICCD gating time, temporal resolutions of 100 ps and 3.37 µs have been achieved in capturing the diffraction patterns of interest, thus equating to single-pulse and 22-pulse X-ray exposure. Furthermore, the sample through-thickness deformation process has been simultaneously imaged via phase-contrast imaging. It is also shown that adequate signal-to-noise ratios are achieved for the detected white-beam diffraction patterns, thereby allowing sufficient information to perform quantitative data analysis diffraction via in-house software (WBXRD_GUI). Of current interest is the ability to evaluate crystal d-spacing, texture evolution and material phase transitions, all of which will be established from experiments performed at the aforementioned elevated strain-rates. PMID:25537588

  4. Stereoselectivities of Histidine-Catalyzed Asymmetric Aldol Additions and Contrasts with Proline Catalysis: A Quantum Mechanical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Yu-hong; Houk, K. N.; Scheffler, Ulf; Mahrwald, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanical calculations reveal the origin of diastereo- and enantioselectivities of aldol reactions between aldehydes catalyzed by histidine, and differences between related reactions catalyzed by proline. A stereochemical model that explains both the sense and the high levels of the experimentally observed stereoselectivity is proposed. The computations suggest that both the imidazolium and the carboxylic acid functionalities of histidine are viable hydrogen-bond donors that can stabilize the cyclic aldolization transition state. The stereoselectivity is proposed to arise from minimization of gauche interactions around the forming C–C bond. PMID:22458689

  5. Contrastive Lexicology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, R. R. K.

    This paper deals with the relation between etymologically related words in different languages. A survey is made of seven stages in the development of contrastive lexicology. These are: prelinguistic word studies, semantics, lexicography, translation, foreign language learning, bilingualism, and finally contrastive analysis. Concerning contrastive…

  6. Contrastive Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl

    Contrastive analysis is viewed as an interlinguistic, bidirectional phenomenon which is concerned with both the form and function of language. As such, contrastive analysis must view language psycholinguistically and sociolinguistically as a system to be both described and acquired. Due to the need for a psychological component in the analysis,…

  7. Exceptionalism is not exceptional in relation to sexual and reproduction mechanisms: Contrasts of human and animal sexuality.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roy J

    2017-10-01

    Speculation that the release of oxytocin by orgasm in the human female during coitus facilitates fertility by enhancing uterine sperm transport has been criticized as having no unequivocal empirical human evidence. However, a counter claim that this supports human "exceptionalism" as some form of uterine sperm transport occurs in other species. This is a misconception as it ignores that human uterine peristalsis, powered by contractions of the smooth muscle of the archimyometrium, facilitates sperm transport even without any systemic oxytocin involvement. Moreover, examination of various unique reproductive mechanisms in numerous animals also indicates that the claim is misjudged and rests on a biased interpretation of what "exceptionalism" means in this biological context. Ten chosen aspects of our sexuality are presented as being exceptional to humans. Clin. Anat. 30:940-945, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cork Embedded Internal Features and Contrast Mechanisms with DEI using 18, 20, 30, 36, and 40 kev Synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Donepudi, R.; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Zhong, Z; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T; Gigante, G

    2010-01-01

    Images of the cork used for wine and other bottles are visualized with the use of diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) technique. Present experimental studies allowed us to identify the cracks, holes, porosity, and importance of soft-matter (soft-material) and associated biology by visualization of the embedded internal complex features of the biological material such as cork and its microstructure. Highlighted the contrast mechanisms above and below the K-absorption edge of iodine and studied the attenuation through a combination of weakly and strongly attenuating materials.

  9. Cork Embedded Internal Features and Contrast Mechanisms with Del Using 18, 20, 30, 36 and 40 keV Synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, D.V.; Zhong, Z.; Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T.; Hasan, M.Z.; Takeda, T.

    2010-01-01

    Images of the cork used for wine and other bottles are visualized with the use of diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) technique. Present experimental studies allowed us to identify the cracks, holes, porosity, and importance of soft-matter (soft-material) and associated biology by visualization of the embedded internal complex features of the biological material such as cork and its microstructure. Highlighted the contrast mechanisms above and below the K-absorption edge of iodine and studied the attenuation through a combination of weakly and strongly attenuating materials.

  10. Contrastive study on the mechanical performance of MEMS microsprings fabricated by LIGA and UV-LIGA technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hua; Shi, Gengchen

    2008-03-01

    With good mechanical performance and mature fabrication technology of LIGA and UV-LIGA, Ni is chosen as the material of S style MEMS microspring. At 24°C and 25% relative humidity, five different points in LIGA Ni sample were tested with the MICRO HARDNESS TESTER, and the Young's modulus was 219GPa. From the tensile tests of UV-LIGA Ni sample the Young's modulus of UV-LIGA Ni is 180GPa. The S style microspring was fabricated by LIGA and UV-LIGA technology separately. Applying the Castigliano second theorem of energy method in macro theory, the spring constant formulas of S style microspring in three application modes were deduced, and the correctness was verified by the FEA (Finite Element Analysis) simulation. The experiments of S style microspring's deformation properties were carried out by the Tytron250 micro force test machine and a tensile measurement system separately. The experimental results agree with the theoretical analysis. Based on the above analysis, the change laws of microspring's spring coefficient in different application patters are summarized.

  11. Contrasting mechanisms of magma fragmentation during coeval magmatic and hydromagmatic activity: the Hverfjall Fires fissure eruption, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, E. J.; Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A. C.; Höskuldsson, A.

    2017-10-01

    Growing evidence for significant magmatic vesiculation prior to magma-water interaction (MWI) has brought into question the use of `diagnostic' features, such as low vesicularities and blocky morphologies, to identify hydromagmatic pyroclasts. We address this question by quantifying co-variations in particle size, shape and texture in both magmatic and hydromagmatic deposits from the Hverfjall Fires fissure eruption, Iceland. Overlapping vesicularity and bubble number density distributions measured in rapidly quenched magmatic and hydromagmatic pyroclasts indicate a shared initial history of bubble nucleation and growth, with substantial vesiculation prior to MWI. Hydromagmatic fragmentation occurred principally by brittle mechanisms, where the length scale and geometry of fracturing was controlled by the bubble population. This suggests that the elevated fragmentation efficiency of hydromagmatic deposits is driven, at least in part, by brittle disintegration of vesicular pyroclasts due to high thermal stress generated during rapid cooling. In this way, the shape and size distributions of hydromagmatic pyroclasts, both critical input parameters for ash dispersion models, are strongly influenced by the dynamics of vesiculation prior to MWI. This result underlines the need to analyse multiple grain-size fractions to characterise the balance between magmatic and hydromagmatic processes. During the Hverfjall Fires eruption, the external water supply was sufficient to maintain MWI throughout the eruption, with no evidence for progressive exhaustion of a water reservoir. We suggest that both the longevity and the spatial distribution of MWI were determined by the pre-existing regional hydrology and represent continuous interaction between a propagating dike and a strong groundwater flow system hosted within permeable basalt lavas.

  12. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone.

    PubMed

    Zachara, John M; Long, Philip E; Bargar, John; Davis, James A; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K; Freshley, Mark D; Konopka, Allan E; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P; Rockhold, Mark L; Williams, Kenneth H; Yabusaki, Steve B

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (

  13. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan E.; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steve B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 μg/L or 0.126 μmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influence plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences between

  14. Persistence of uranium groundwater plumes: Contrasting mechanisms at two DOE sites in the groundwater-river interaction zone

    SciTech Connect

    Zachara, John M.; Long, Philip E.; Bargar, John; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Freshley, Mark D.; Konopka, Allan; Liu, Chongxuan; McKinley, James P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Yabusaki, Steven B.

    2013-04-01

    We examine subsurface uranium (U) plumes at two U.S. Department of Energy sites that are located near large river systems and that are influenced by groundwater-river hydrologic interaction. Following surface excavation of contaminated materials, both sites were projected to naturally flush remnant uranium contamination to levels below regulatory limits (e.g., 30 µg/L or 0.126 µmol/L; U.S. EPA drinking water standard), with 10 years projected for the Hanford 300 Area (Columbia River) and 12 years for the Rifle site (Colorado River). The rate of observed uranium decrease was much lower than expected at both sites. While uncertainty remains, a comparison of current understanding suggests that the two sites have common, but also different mechanisms controlling plume persistence. At the Hanford 300 A, the persistent source is adsorbed U(VI) in the vadose zone that is released to the aquifer during spring water table excursions. The release of U(VI) from the vadose zone and its transport within the oxic, coarse-textured aquifer sediments is dominated by kinetically-limited surface complexation. Modeling implies that annual plume discharge volumes to the Columbia River are small (< one pore volume). At the Rifle site, slow oxidation of naturally reduced, contaminant U(IV) in the saturated zone and a continuous influx of U(VI) from natural, up-gradient sources influences plume persistence. Rate-limited mass transfer and surface complexation also control U(VI) migration velocity in the sub-oxic Rifle groundwater. Flux of U(VI) from the vadose zone at the Rifle site may be locally important, but it is not the dominant process that sustains the plume. A wide range in microbiologic functional diversity exists at both sites. Strains of Geobacter and other metal reducing bacteria are present at low natural abundance that are capable of enzymatic U(VI) reduction in localized zones of accumulated detrital organic carbon or after organic carbon amendment. Major differences

  15. Contrast lipocryolysis

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Hernán; Melamed, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Alternative crystal structures are possible for all lipids and each different crystal structure is called a polymorphic form. Inter-conversion between polymorphisms would imply the possibility of leaning crystal formation toward the most effective polymorphism for adipocyte destruction. Food industry has been tempering lipids for decades. Tempering technology applied to lipocryolysis gave birth to “contrast lipocryolysis”, which involves pre- and post-lipocryolysis fat layer heating as part of a specific tempering protocol. In this study, we evaluated the skinfold thickness of 10 subjects after a single contrast lipocryolysis session and witnessed important and fast reductions. PMID:25068088

  16. Phase-contrast magnet resonance imaging reveals regional, transmural, and base-to-apex dispersion of mechanical dysfunction in patients with long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brado, Johannes; Dechant, Markus J; Menza, Marius; Komancsek, Adriana; Lang, Corinna N; Bugger, Heiko; Foell, Daniela; Jung, Bernd A; Stiller, Brigitte; Bode, Christoph; Odening, Katja E

    2017-09-01

    Regional dispersion of prolonged repolarization is a hallmark of long QT syndrome (LQTS). We have also revealed regional heterogeneities in mechanical dysfunction in transgenic rabbit models of LQTS. In this clinical pilot study, we investigated whether patients with LQTS exhibit dispersion of mechanical/diastolic dysfunction. Nine pediatric patients with genotyped LQTS (12.2 ± 3.3 years) and 9 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (10.6 ± 1.5 years) were subjected to phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging to analyze radial (Vr) and longitudinal (Vz) myocardial velocities during systole and diastole in the left ventricle (LV) base, mid, and apex. Twelve-lead electrocardiograms were recorded to assess the heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval. The QTc interval was longer in patients with LQTS than in controls (469.1 ± 39.4 ms vs 417.8 ± 24.4 ms; P < .01). Patients with LQTS demonstrated prolonged radial and longitudinal time-to-diastolic peak velocities (TTP), a marker for prolonged contraction duration, in the LV base, mid, and apex. The longer QTc interval positively correlated with longer time-to-diastolic peak velocities (correlation coefficient 0.63; P < .01). Peak diastolic velocities were reduced in LQTS in the LV mid and apex, indicating impaired diastolic relaxation. In patients with LQTS, regional (TTPmax-min) and transmural (TTPVz-Vr) dispersion of contraction duration was increased in the LV apex (TTPVz_max-min: 38.9 ± 25.5 ms vs 20.2 ± 14.7 ms; P = .07; TTPVz-Vr: -21.7 ± 14.5 ms vs -8.7 ± 11.3 ms; P < .05). The base-to-apex longitudinal relaxation sequence was reversed in patients with LQTS compared with controls (TTPVz_base-apex: 14.4 ± 14.9 ms vs -10.1 ± 12.7 ms; P < .01). Patients with LQTS exhibit diastolic dysfunction with reduced diastolic velocities and prolonged contraction duration. Mechanical dispersion is increased in LQTS with an increased regional and transmural dispersion of contraction duration and altered apicobasal

  17. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery. PMID:27630037

  18. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-01

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  19. Focused Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Opening: Association with Mechanical Index and Cavitation Index Analyzed by Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic-Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Chu, Po-Chun; Chai, Wen-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-09-15

    Focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles can temporally open the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and the cavitation activities of microbubbles play a key role in the BBB-opening process. Previous attempts used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) to correlate the mechanical index (MI) with the scale of BBB-opening, but MI only partially gauged acoustic activities, and CE-MRI did not fully explore correlations of pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic behaviors. Recently, the cavitation index (CI) has been derived to serve as an indicator of microbubble-ultrasound stable cavitation, and may also serve as a valid indicator to gauge the level of FUS-induced BBB opening. This study investigates the feasibility of gauging FUS-induced BBB opened level via the two indexes, MI and CI, through dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI analysis as well as passive cavitation detection (PCD) analysis. Pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters derived from DCE-MRI were characterized to identify the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. Our results demonstrated that DCE-MRI can successfully access pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic BBB-opened behavior, and was highly correlated both with MI and CI, implying the feasibility in using these two indices to gauge the scale of FUS-induced BBB opening. The proposed finding may facilitate the design toward using focused ultrasound as a safe and reliable noninvasive CNS drug delivery.

  20. Three-dimensional shear wave imaging based on full-field laser speckle contrast imaging with one-dimensional mechanical scanning.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Yu; Li, Pai-Chi

    2016-08-22

    The high imaging resolution and motion sensitivity of optical-based shear wave detection has made it an attractive technique in biomechanics studies with potential for improving the capabilities of shear wave elasticity imaging. In this study we implemented laser speckle contrast imaging for two-dimensional (X-Z) tracking of transient shear wave propagation in agarose phantoms. The mechanical disturbances induced by the propagation of the shear wave caused temporal and spatial fluctuations in the local speckle pattern, which manifested as local blurring. By mechanically moving the sample in the third dimension (Y), and performing two-dimensional shear wave imaging at every scan position, the three-dimensional shear wave velocity distribution of the phantom could be reconstructed. Based on comparisons with the reference shear wave velocity measurements obtained using a commercial ultrasound shear wave imaging system, the developed system can estimate the shear wave velocity with an error of less than 6% for homogeneous phantoms with shear moduli ranging from 1.52 kPa to 7.99 kPa. The imaging sensitivity of our system makes it capable of measuring small variations in shear modulus; the estimated standard deviation of the shear modulus was found to be less than 0.07 kPa. A submillimeter spatial resolution for three-dimensional shear wave imaging has been achieved, as demonstrated by the ability to detect a 1-mm-thick stiff plate embedded inside heterogeneous agarose phantoms.

  1. Contrast cystography.

    PubMed

    Essman, Stephanie C

    2005-02-01

    Cystography is a radiographic study performed to aid in evaluation of the urinary bladder for extramural, mural, or intraluminal lesions. These lesions may primarily involve the urinary bladder or may be an extension of disease from adjacent organs. Cystography is easy to perform with relatively few complications. Different types of cystography (positive versus negative contrast) may be used depending on the type of information that the clinician hopes to obtain. Although a valuable technique, it is important to correlate the findings on cystography with other clinical information to arrive at the final diagnosis.

  2. Multigene family of ribosomal DNA in Drosophila melanogaster reveals contrasting patterns of homogenization for IGS and ITS spacer regions. A possible mechanism to resolve this paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Polanco, C; González, A I; de la Fuente; Dover, G A

    1998-01-01

    The multigene family of rDNA in Drosophila reveals high levels of within-species homogeneity and between-species diversity. This pattern of mutation distribution is known as concerted evolution and is considered to be due to a variety of genomic mechanisms of turnover (e.g., unequal crossing over and gene conversion) that underpin the process of molecular drive. The dynamics of spread of mutant repeats through a gene family, and ultimately through a sexual population, depends on the differences in rates of turnover within and between chromosomes. Our extensive molecular analysis of the intergenic spacer (IGS) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) spacer regions within repetitive rDNA units, drawn from the same individuals in 10 natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster collected along a latitudinal cline on the east coast of Australia, indicates a relatively fast rate of X-Y and X-X interchromosomal exchanges of IGS length variants in agreement with a multilineage model of homogenization. In contrast, an X chromosome-restricted 24-bp deletion in the ITS spacers is indicative of the absence of X-Y chromosome exchanges for this region that is part of the same repetitive rDNA units. Hence, a single lineage model of homogenization, coupled to drift and/or selection, seems to be responsible for ITS concerted evolution. A single-stranded exchange mechanism is proposed to resolve this paradox, based on the role of the IGS region in meiotic pairing between X and Y chromosomes in D. melanogaster. PMID:9584100

  3. Ultrasound exposure (mechanical index 1.8) with acoustic radiation force impulse evokes extrasystolic waves in rabbit heart under concomitant administration of an ultrasound contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Nitta, Naotaka; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Akai, Kazuki; Takakayama, Noriya; Sasanuma, Hideki; Ogata, Yukiyo; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Iwaki

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) is a modality for elasticity imaging of various organs using shear waves. In some situations, the heart is a candidate for elasticity evaluation with ARFI. Additionally, an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) provides information on the blood flow conditions of the cardiac muscle. This study aimed to evaluate ARFI's effect on the heart concomitantly with UCA administration (i.e., perfluorobutane). Ultrasound with ARFI was applied to the hearts of male Japanese white rabbits (n = 3) using a single-element focused transducer with or without UCA administration. They were exposed to ultrasound for 0.3 ms with a mechanical index (MI) of 1.8. UCA was administered in two ways: a single (bolus) injection or drip infusion. Electrocardiograms were recorded to identify arrhythmias during ultrasound exposure. Extrasystolic waves were observed following ultrasound exposure with drip infusion of UCA. Life-threatening arrhythmia was not observed. The frequency of the extra waves ranged from 4.2 to 59.6 %. With bolus infusion, extra waves were not observed. Arrhythmogenicity was observed during ultrasound (MI 1.8) with ARFI and concomitant administration of UCA in rabbits. Although the bolus administration of UCA was similar to its clinical use, which may not cause extra cardiac excitation, cardiac ultrasound examinations with ARFI should be carefully performed, particularly with concomitant use of UCA.

  4. Degradation mechanisms and kinetic studies for the treatment of X-ray contrast media compounds by advanced oxidation/reduction processes.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Joonseon; Jung, Jinyoung; Cooper, William J; Song, Weihua

    2010-08-01

    The presence of iodinated X-ray contrast media compounds (ICM) in surface and ground waters has been reported. This is likely due to their biological inertness and incomplete removal in wastewater treatment processes. The present study reports partial degradation mechanisms based on elucidating the structures of major reaction by-products using gamma-irradiation and LC-MS. Studies conducted at concentrations higher than observed in natural waters is necessary to elucidate the reaction by-product structures and to develop destruction mechanisms. To support these mechanistic studies, the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of OH and e(-)(aq) with one ionic ICM (diatrizoate), four non-ionic ICM (iohexol, iopromide, iopamidol, and iomeprol), and the several analogues of diatrizoate were determined. The absolute bimolecular reaction rate constants for diatrizoate, iohexol, iopromide, iopamidol, and iomeprol with OH were (9.58 +/- 0.23)x10(8), (3.20 +/- 0.13)x10(9), (3.34 +/- 0.14)x10(9), (3.42 +/- 0.28)x10(9), and (2.03 +/- 0.13) x 10(9) M(-1) s(-1), and with e(-)(aq) were (2.13 +/- 0.03)x10(10), (3.35 +/- 0.03)x10(10), (3.25 +/- 0.05)x10(10), (3.37 +/- 0.05)x10(10), and (3.47 +/- 0.02) x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Transient spectra for the intermediates formed by the reaction of OH were also measured over the time period of 1-100 micros to better understand the stability of the radicals and for evaluation of reaction rate constants. Degradation efficiencies for the OH and e(-)(aq) reactions with the five ICM were determined using steady-state gamma-radiolysis. Collectively, these data will form the basis of kinetic models for application of advanced oxidation/reduction processes for treating water containing these compounds.

  5. Susceptibility-based time-resolved whole-organ and regional tissue oximetry.

    PubMed

    Wehrli, Felix W; Fan, Audrey P; Rodgers, Zachary B; Englund, Erin K; Langham, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    The magnetism of hemoglobin - being paramagnetic in its deoxy and diamagnetic in its oxy state - offers unique opportunities to probe oxygen metabolism in blood and tissues. The magnetic susceptibility χ of blood scales linearly with blood oxygen saturation, which can be obtained by measuring the magnetic field ΔB of the intravascular MR signal relative to tissue. In contrast to χ, the induced field ΔB is non-local. Therefore, to obtain the intravascular susceptibility Δχ relative to adjoining tissue from the measured ΔB demands solution of an inverse problem. Fortunately, for ellipsoidal structures, to which a straight, cylindrically shaped blood vessel segment conforms, the solution is trivial. The article reviews the principle of MR susceptometry-based blood oximetry. It then discusses applications for quantification of whole-brain oxygen extraction - typically on the basis of a measurement in the superior sagittal sinus - and, in conjunction with total cerebral blood flow, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2 ). By simultaneously measuring flow and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2 ) a temporal resolution of a few seconds can be achieved, allowing the study of the response to non-steady-state challenges such as volitional apnea. Extensions to regional measurements in smaller cerebral veins are also possible, as well as voxelwise quantification of venous blood saturation in cerebral veins accomplished by quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) techniques. Applications of susceptometry-based oximetry to studies of metabolic and degenerative disorders of the brain are reviewed. Lastly, the technique is shown to be applicable to other organ systems such as the extremities using SvO2 as a dynamic tracer to monitor the kinetics of the microvascular response to induced ischemia. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Chromatic and contrast selectivity in color contrast adaptation.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Yoko; Paras, Carrie; Webster, Michael A

    2004-01-01

    We used color contrast adaptation to examine the chromatic and contrast selectivity of central color mechanisms. Adaptation to a field whose color varies along a single axis of color space induces a selective loss in sensitivity to the adapting axis. The resulting changes in color appearance are consistent with mechanisms formed by different linear combinations of the cone signals. We asked whether the visual system could also adjust to higher-order variations in the adapting stimulus, by adapting observers to interleaved variations along both the L versus M and the S versus LM cardinal axes. The perceived hue of test stimuli was then measured with an asymmetric matching task. Frequency analysis of the hue shifts revealed weak but systematic hue rotations away from each cardinal axis and toward the diagonal intermediate axes. Such shifts could arise if the adapted channels include mechanisms with narrow chromatic selectivity, as some physiological recordings suggest, but could also reflect how adaptation alters the contrast response function. In either case they imply the presence of more than two mechanisms within the chromatic plane. In a second set of measurements, we adapted to either the L versus M or the S versus LM axis alone and tested whether the changes in hue could be accounted for by changes in relative contrast along the two axes. For high contrasts the hue biases are larger than the contrast changes predict. This dissociation implies that the contrast and hue changes are not carried by a common underlying signal, and could arise if the contrast along a single color direction is encoded by more than one mechanism with different contrast sensitivities or if different subsets of channels encode contrast and hue. Such variations in contrast sensitivity are also consistent with physiological recordings of cortical neurons.

  7. Dual mechanisms of regulation of type I iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase in the rat kidney, liver, and thyroid gland. Implications for the treatment of hyperthyroidism with radiographic contrast agents.

    PubMed Central

    St Germain, D L

    1988-01-01

    Alterations in thyroid hormone status and the administration of radiographic contrast agents can markedly influence iodothyronine metabolism and, in particular, the activity of type I 5'-deiodinase (5'DI). In the present studies, the mechanisms responsible for these effects have been reassessed. As previously reported, the addition of iopanoic acid (IOP) to broken cell preparations resulted in a competitive pattern of 5'DI inhibition. However, the in vivo administration to rats of IOP or 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) resulted in a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition of 5'DI in the liver, kidney, and thyroid gland, whereby marked decreases in maximal enzyme velocity (V max) were noted, with no change in the value of the Michaelis-Menten constant. In rats rendered hyperthyroid by the injection of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), 5'DI activity was significantly increased in the liver and the kidney. The administration of IOP to these thyrotoxic animals resulted in a rapid loss of enzyme activity characterized by an approximate 80% decrease in 5'DI V max values in both tissues. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect persisted for longer than 60 h after a single IOP injection. IOP administration also decreased 5'DI V max levels in the thyroid gland by 52%. In other experiments, treatment of intact Reuber FAO hepatoma cells with IOP or rT3 induced a rapid decrease in 5'DI V max levels. In cells treated with cycloheximide, these agents enhanced the rate of disappearance of enzyme activity by greater than 12-fold, indicating a predominant effect on accelerating the rate of enzyme inactivation and/or degradation. These studies demonstrate that iodothyronines and other iodinated compounds have complex regulatory effects on 5'DI that entail alterations in the rates of both enzyme activation and inactivation. The previously accepted concept that rT3 and IOP impair thyroxine (T4) to T3 conversion in vivo by acting as competitive inhibitors is an oversimplification. Rather, the

  8. Tree ring isotopes of beech and spruce in response to short-term climate variability across Central European sites: Common and contrasting physiological mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigt, Rosemarie; Klesse, Stefan; Treydte, Kerstin; Frank, David; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    The combined study of tree-ring width and stable C and O isotopes provides insight in the coherences between carbon allocation during stem growth and the preceding conditions of gas exchange and formation of photosynthates as all influenced by environmental variation. In this large-scale study comprising 10 sites across a range of climate gradients (temperature, precipitation) throughout Central Europe, we investigated tree-rings in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. The sampling design included larger and smaller trees. The short-term, i.e. year-to-year, variability in the isotope time series over 100 yrs was analyzed in relation to tree-ring growth and climate variation. The generally strong correlation between the year-to-year differences in δ13C (corrected for the atmospheric shift due to 13C-depleted CO2 from fossil combustion) and δ18O across most sites emphasized the role of stomatal conductance in controlling leaf gas exchange. However, the correlation between both isotopes decreased during some periods. At several sites this reduction in correlation was particularly pronounced during recent decades. This suggests a decoupling between stomatal and photosynthetic responses to environmental conditions on the one hand, and carbon allocation to stem tissue on the other hand. Variability in the isotopic ratio largely responded to summer climate, but was weakly correlated to annual stem growth. In contrast, climate sensitivity of radial growth in both species was rather site-dependent, and was strongest at the driest (in terms of soil water capacity) site. We will also present results of isotope responses with respect to extreme climate events. Understanding the underlying physiological mechanisms controlling the short-term variation in tree-ring signals will help to assess and more precisely constrain the possible range of growth performance of these ecologically and economically important tree species under future climate

  9. The miR-608 rs4919510 polymorphism may modify cancer susceptibility based on type.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shuangshuang; Yuan, Weiyan; Shen, Yu; Lu, Xiao; Li, Yue; Tian, Tian; Jiang, Liying; Zhuang, Xun; Wu, Jianqing; Chu, Minjie

    2017-06-01

    Previous meta-analysis has not shown different effects of miR-608 rs4919510 polymorphism in specific cancer types and reported no significant association between rs4919510 and cancer risk among Chinese. However, more recent findings have been inconsistent. Therefore, we performed an updated meta-analysis to examine whether this polymorphism is associated with cancer risk based on ethnicity and type. A total of 18 case-control studies, comprising 12,517 cases and 15,624 controls, were included in our study. Surprisingly, in contrast with previous meta-analysis, a significant association between the rs4919510 polymorphism and cancer risk was observed in Chinese (CG vs CC: odds ratio = 1.11; 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.19). In further stratified analyses based on cancer type, rs4919510 was significantly associated with an increased risk of papillary thyroid cancer (CG vs CC: odds ratio = 1.25; 95% confidence interval = 1.01-1.54) and exhibited borderline significant associations with increased risk of gastric cancer (GG vs CC: odds ratio = 1.27; 95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.62) and lung cancer (CG vs CC: odds ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval = 0.99-1.32), but a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (GG vs CC: odds ratio = 0.74; 95% confidence interval = 0.60-0.91). Moreover, the RegulomeDB database indicated that rs4919510 may affect the expression of two nearby genes ( SEMA4G and MRPL43), and the Cancer Genome Atlas database revealed that the expression level of SEMA4G was significantly lower in colorectal cancer and lung cancer tissues than that in adjacent non-tumour tissues, while the expression level of SEMA4G was significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues than that in adjacent non-tumour tissues. These findings provide evidence that the miR-608 rs4919510 polymorphism may modify cancer susceptibility in a type-specific manner. Furthermore, SEMA4G may function as an oncogene or tumour suppressor to regulate

  10. Susceptibility Contrast in High Field MRI of Human Brain as a Function of Tissue Iron Content

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bing; Li, Tie-Qiang; van Gelderen, Peter; Shmueli, Karin; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility provides an important contrast mechanism for MRI. Increasingly, susceptibility-based contrast is being exploited to investigate brain tissue microstructure and to detect abnormal levels of brain iron as these have been implicated in a variety of neuro-degenerative diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent magnetic susceptibility-related contrast at high field relates to actual brain iron concentrations. In this study, we performed susceptibility weighted imaging as a function of field strength on healthy brains in vivo and post-mortem brain tissues at 1.5T, 3T and 7T. Iron histology was performed on the tissue samples for comparison. The calculated susceptibility-related parameters R2* and signal frequency shift in four iron-rich regions (putamen, globus pallidus, caudate, and thalamus) showed an almost linear dependence (r=0.90 for R2*; r=0.83 for phase, p<0.01) on field strength, suggesting that potential ferritin saturation effects are not relevant to susceptibility-weighted contrast for field strengths up to 7T. The R2* dependence on the putative (literature-based) iron concentration was 0.048 Hz/Tesla/ppm. The histological data from brain samples confirmed the linear dependence of R2* on field strength and showed a slope against iron concentration of 0.0099 Hz/Tesla/ppm dry-weight, which is equivalent to 0.05 Hz/Tesla/ppm wet-weight and closely matched the calculated value in vivo. These results confirm the validity of using susceptibility-weighted contrast as an indicator of iron content in iron-rich brain regions. The absence of saturation effects opens the way to exploit the benefits of MRI at high field strengths for the detection of iron distributions with high sensitivity and resolution. PMID:19027861

  11. Effects of dissolved gases and an echo contrast agent on apoptosis induced by ultrasound and its mechanism via the mitochondria-caspase pathway.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hidemi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Kondo, Takashi

    2002-05-01

    Human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells were exposed to continuous 1-MHz ultrasound (US) for therapeutic use, (0 approximately 6.5 W/cm(2) (I(SPTA)). Apoptosis and its related end points were examined by flow cytometry. Fraction of cells with low mitochondria membrane potential were observed after sonication and significant superoxide and peroxide formation, increased activity of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation revealed biochemically, were also found. The fraction of early apoptosis and secondary necrosis increased with the incubation time after sonication. Early apoptosis observed at 6 h after sonication reached its maximum at 2 min of sonication and gradually decreased. On the other hand, secondary necrosis increased with the duration of sonication. When the effects of dissolved gases, Ar, N(2), O(2), air, N(2)O and CO(2), on free radical formation due to inertial cavitation were investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR) spin trapping, formation of hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms was found in solutions saturated with Ar, N(2), O(2) and air, but not with N(2)O and CO(2). Apoptosis induced by US was also dependent on the dissolved gases in the order Ar = N(2) = O(2) = air > N(2)O = CO(2) approximately 0. These results suggest that US-induced apoptosis, which is mitochondria-caspase dependent, was linked to inertial cavitation. However, quantities of free radicals did not influence the fraction of early apoptosis and secondary necrosis. When the cells were sonicated in the presence of an echo contrast agent, Levovist; synergistic enhancement of secondary necrosis induced by US was observed at concentrations of more than 20 mg/mL. In contrast, an additive increase of early apoptosis was observed in the combined treatments. These results suggest that Levovist; acting as cavitation nuclei, enhances secondary necrosis induced by US due to an increase in the membrane damage.

  12. Nephrotoxicity related to contrast media.

    PubMed

    Berg, K J

    2000-10-01

    The numbers of contrast media (CM)-enhanced examinations are increasing. The annual sale of iodine for CM now represents 60 million CM doses a year world-wide. In spite of improvements in chemical structure, CM are still the third leading cause of hospital-acquired acute renal failure. The definition of contrast nephropathy (CN) is discussed, as well as the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. Low osmolar contrast media (LOCM) are less nephrotoxic than high osomolar contrast media (HOCM) and cause fewer osmotoxic side-effects such as pain and heat sensations. The non-ionic dimeric contrast media which are iso-osmolar to plasma (IOCM) cause even fewer haemodynamic side-effects and result in better opacification of the urinary tract than LOCM. The nephrotoxicity of IOCM is low. The risk factors for CN and methods for prevention of CN are discussed.

  13. Does the mechanism of sex determination constrain the potential for sex manipulation? A test in geckos with contrasting sex-determining systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratochvíl, Lukáš; Kubička, Lukáš; Landová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    The concentration of yolk steroids was suggested to influence offspring gender in oviparous animals subject to both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genotypic sex determination (GSD). However, the proposed mechanisms of steroid effects are thought to differ between TSD and GSD: a direct effect of oestrogens on gonad feminisation in TSD species vs a differential induction of male-producing or female-producing gametes in GSD species. Geckos offer an ideal opportunity for testing these suggested mechanisms. Closely related gecko species differ in their modes of sex determination. They lay clutches of two synchronously formed eggs; both eggs share equal steroid levels. If identical hormonal composition and environment during vitellogenesis, gravidity and incubation determine the sex of the progeny, siblings should share the same gender in both TSD and GSD geckos. We found strong support for this prediction in a TSD gecko species. Among clutches that were incubated at the temperature that produced both sexes, there were no clutches with siblings of the opposite sex. On the other hand, about half of the clutches yielded siblings of the opposite sex in four GSD species. These results suggest that sex-determining systems constrain the ability of the female to produce single-sex siblings and, hence, it seems that the GSD mechanism constrains the opportunities for sex ratio manipulation in geckos via yolk steroid manipulation.

  14. Contrasting evolutionary dynamics of the developmental regulator PAX9, among bats, with evidence for a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Caleb D; Butler, Boyd; Fondon, John W; Mantilla-Meluk, Hugo; Baker, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Morphological evolution can be the result of natural selection favoring modification of developmental signaling pathways. However, little is known about the genetic basis of such phenotypic diversity. Understanding these mechanisms is difficult for numerous reasons, yet studies in model organisms often provide clues about the major developmental pathways involved. The paired-domain gene, PAX9, is known to be a key regulator of development, particularly of the face and teeth. In this study, using a comparative genetics approach, we investigate PAX9 molecular evolution among mammals, focusing on craniofacially diversified (Phyllostomidae) and conserved (Vespertilionidae) bat families, and extend our comparison to other orders of mammal. Open-reading frame analysis disclosed signatures of selection, in which a small percentage of residues vary, and lineages acquire different combinations of variation through recurrent substitution and lineage specific changes. A few instances of convergence for specific residues were observed between morphologically convergent bat lineages. Bioinformatic analysis for unknown PAX9 regulatory motifs indicated a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism involving a Musashi protein. This regulation was assessed through fluorescent reporter assays and gene knockdowns. Results are compatible with the hypothesis that the number of Musashi binding-elements in PAX9 mRNA proportionally regulates protein translation rate. Although a connection between morphology and binding element frequency was not apparent, results indicate this regulation would vary among craniofacially divergent bat species, but be static among conserved species. Under this model, Musashi's regulatory control of alternative human PAX9 isoforms would also vary. The presence of Musashi-binding elements within PAX9 of all mammals examined, chicken, zebrafish, and the fly homolog of PAX9, indicates this regulatory mechanism is ancient, originating basal to much of the

  15. Differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenomas with low-mechanical-index contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS): effect of size on diagnostic confidence.

    PubMed

    Roche, Vincent; Pigneur, Frederic; Tselikas, Lambros; Roux, Marion; Baranes, Laurence; Djabbari, Marjane; Costentin, Charlotte; Calderaro, Julien; Laurent, Alexis; Rahmouni, Alain; Luciani, Alain

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced sonography (CEUS) for the differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) from hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) according to lesion size. Forty patients with a definite diagnosis of FNH or HCA who underwent CEUS were included in this institutional review board (IRB)-approved study. A total of 43 FNHs and 20 HCAs, including 15 inflammatory HCAs and five unclassified HCAs, were analysed. Two radiologists reviewed the diagnostic CEUS parameters separately and in consensus, including the presence or absence of centrifugal filling and central vessels. The sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), and inter-observer confidence (Kappa) of CEUS diagnostic parameters were assessed. Inter-observer agreement of CEUS for FNH diagnosis was high (kappa = 0.81) with an overall Se of 67.4% [29/43 (CI 95%: 51.4-80.1 %)] and an Sp of 100% [20/20 (CI 95%: 81-100%)]. Significantly higher Se figures were found for lesions ≤ 35 mm than for lesions > 35 mm [respectively, 93 % (28/30) (CI 95%: 77.6-99.2) vs. 7.7% (1/13) (CI 95%: 0.2-36%), p = 0.002] with unchanged specificity. CEUS is highly specific for the diagnosis of FNH, with very good inter-observer agreement, whatever the size, but its sensitivity is significantly reduced in diagnosing lesions larger than 35 mm. • CEUS is highly specific for the diagnosis of FNH, regardless of lesion size • CEUS shows reduced sensitivity in diagnosing FNH lesions larger than 35 mm • The filling patterns of hepatocellular adenomas are not affected by lesion size.

  16. Contrasting conduction mechanisms of two internal barrier layer capacitors: (Mn, Nb)-doped SrTiO3 and CaCu3Ti4O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Kosuke; Chen, Wei-Ting; Guo, Hanzheng; Lee, Wen-Hsi; Guillemet-Fritsch, Sophie; Randall, Clive A.

    2017-02-01

    The d.c. conduction is investigated in the two different types of internal barrier layer capacitors, namely, (Mn, Nb)-doped SrTiO3 (STO) and CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Capacitance - Voltage (C-V) analysis are performed to estimate the effective electric field at a grain boundary, EGB. Then, the d.c. conduction mechanism is discussed based on the J (Current density)-EGB characteristics. Three different conduction mechanisms are successively observed with the increase of EGB in both systems. In (Mn, Nb)-doped STO, non-linear J-EGB characteristics is temperature dependent at the intermediate EGB and becomes relatively insensitive to the temperature at the higher EGB. The J- EGB at each regime is explained by the Schottky emission (SE) followed by Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) tunneling. Based on the F-N tunneling, the breakdown voltage is then scaled by the function of the depletion layer thickness and Schottky barrier height at the average grain boundary. The proposed function shows a clear linear relationship with the breakdown. On the other hand, F-N tunneling was not observed in CCTO in our measurement. Ohmic, Poole-Frenkel (P-F), and SE are successively observed in CCTO. The transition point from P-F and SE depends on EGB and temperature. A charge-based deep level transient spectroscopy study reveals that 3 types of trap states exist in CCTO. The trap one with Et ˜ 0.65 eV below the conduction band is found to be responsible for the P-F conduction.

  17. Contrasting regional and national mechanisms for predicting elevated arsenic in private wells across the United States using classification and regression trees.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Logan; VanDerslice, James; Taddie, Marissa; Malecki, Kristen; Gregg, Josh; Faust, Nicholas; Johnson, William P

    2016-03-15

    Arsenic contamination in groundwater is a public health and environmental concern in the United States (U.S.) particularly where monitoring is not required under the Safe Water Drinking Act. Previous studies suggest the influence of regional mechanisms for arsenic mobilization into groundwater; however, no study has examined how influencing parameters change at a continental scale spanning multiple regions. We herein examine covariates for groundwater in the western, central and eastern U.S. regions representing mechanisms associated with arsenic concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contamination level (MCL) of 10 parts per billion (ppb). Statistically significant covariates were identified via classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, and included hydrometeorological and groundwater chemical parameters. The CART analyses were performed at two scales: national and regional; for which three physiographic regions located in the western (Payette Section and the Snake River Plain), central (Osage Plains of the Central Lowlands), and eastern (Embayed Section of the Coastal Plains) U.S. were examined. Validity of each of the three regional CART models was indicated by values >85% for the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve. Aridity (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) was identified as the primary covariate associated with elevated arsenic at the national scale. At the regional scale, aridity and pH were the major covariates in the arid to semi-arid (western) region; whereas dissolved iron (taken to represent chemically reducing conditions) and pH were major covariates in the temperate (eastern) region, although additional important covariates emerged, including elevated phosphate. Analysis in the central U.S. region indicated that elevated arsenic concentrations were driven by a mixture of those observed in the western and eastern regions.

  18. Spatial Match-Mismatch between Juvenile Fish and Prey Provides a Mechanism for Recruitment Variability across Contrasting Climate Conditions in the Eastern Bering Sea

    PubMed Central

    Siddon, Elizabeth Calvert; Kristiansen, Trond; Mueter, Franz J.; Holsman, Kirstin K.; Heintz, Ron A.; Farley, Edward V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms behind variability in early life survival of marine fishes through modeling efforts can improve predictive capabilities for recruitment success under changing climate conditions. Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) support the largest single-species commercial fishery in the United States and represent an ecologically important component of the Bering Sea ecosystem. Variability in walleye pollock growth and survival is structured in part by climate-driven bottom-up control of zooplankton composition. We used two modeling approaches, informed by observations, to understand the roles of prey quality, prey composition, and water temperature on juvenile walleye pollock growth: (1) a bioenergetics model that included local predator and prey energy densities, and (2) an individual-based model that included a mechanistic feeding component dependent on larval development and behavior, local prey densities and size, and physical oceanographic conditions. Prey composition in late-summer shifted from predominantly smaller copepod species in the warmer 2005 season to larger species in the cooler 2010 season, reflecting differences in zooplankton composition between years. In 2010, the main prey of juvenile walleye pollock were more abundant, had greater biomass, and higher mean energy density, resulting in better growth conditions. Moreover, spatial patterns in prey composition and water temperature lead to areas of enhanced growth, or growth ‘hot spots’, for juvenile walleye pollock and survival may be enhanced when fish overlap with these areas. This study provides evidence that a spatial mismatch between juvenile walleye pollock and growth ‘hot spots’ in 2005 contributed to poor recruitment while a higher degree of overlap in 2010 resulted in improved recruitment. Our results indicate that climate-driven changes in prey quality and composition can impact growth of juvenile walleye pollock, potentially severely affecting recruitment

  19. Spatial match-mismatch between juvenile fish and prey provides a mechanism for recruitment variability across contrasting climate conditions in the eastern Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Siddon, Elizabeth Calvert; Kristiansen, Trond; Mueter, Franz J; Holsman, Kirstin K; Heintz, Ron A; Farley, Edward V

    2013-01-01

    Understanding mechanisms behind variability in early life survival of marine fishes through modeling efforts can improve predictive capabilities for recruitment success under changing climate conditions. Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) support the largest single-species commercial fishery in the United States and represent an ecologically important component of the Bering Sea ecosystem. Variability in walleye pollock growth and survival is structured in part by climate-driven bottom-up control of zooplankton composition. We used two modeling approaches, informed by observations, to understand the roles of prey quality, prey composition, and water temperature on juvenile walleye pollock growth: (1) a bioenergetics model that included local predator and prey energy densities, and (2) an individual-based model that included a mechanistic feeding component dependent on larval development and behavior, local prey densities and size, and physical oceanographic conditions. Prey composition in late-summer shifted from predominantly smaller copepod species in the warmer 2005 season to larger species in the cooler 2010 season, reflecting differences in zooplankton composition between years. In 2010, the main prey of juvenile walleye pollock were more abundant, had greater biomass, and higher mean energy density, resulting in better growth conditions. Moreover, spatial patterns in prey composition and water temperature lead to areas of enhanced growth, or growth 'hot spots', for juvenile walleye pollock and survival may be enhanced when fish overlap with these areas. This study provides evidence that a spatial mismatch between juvenile walleye pollock and growth 'hot spots' in 2005 contributed to poor recruitment while a higher degree of overlap in 2010 resulted in improved recruitment. Our results indicate that climate-driven changes in prey quality and composition can impact growth of juvenile walleye pollock, potentially severely affecting recruitment variability.

  20. Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell therapy elicit long-term tumor immunity by contrasting mechanisms that result in complementary endogenous type 1 antitumor responses.

    PubMed

    Dobrzanski, Mark J; Reome, Joyce B; Hollenbaugh, Joseph A; Dutton, Richard W

    2004-02-01

    Cytolytic CD8(+) effector cells fall into two subpopulations based on cytokine secretion. Type 1 CD8(+) T cells (Tc1) secrete IFN-gamma, whereas type 2 CD8(+) T cells (Tc2) secrete IL-4 and IL-5. Both effector cell subpopulations display predominantly perforin-dependent cytolysis in vitro. Using an OVA-transfected B16 lung metastases model, we show that adoptively transferred OVA-specific Tc1 and Tc2 cells induce considerable suppression, but not cure, of pulmonary metastases. However, long-term tumor immunity prolonged survival times indefinitely and was evident by resistance to lethal tumor rechallenge. At early stages after therapy, protection by Tc2 and Tc1 effector cells were dependent in part on effector cell-derived IL-4, IL-5, and IFN-gamma, respectively. Whereas effector cell-derived perforin was not necessary. Over time the numbers of both donor cells diminished to low, yet still detectable, levels. Concomitantly, Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell therapies potentiated endogenous recipient-derived antitumor responses by inducing 1) local T cell-derived chemokines associated with type 1-like immune responses; 2) elevated levels of recipient-derived OVA tetramer-positive CD8 memory T cells that were CD44(high), CD122(+), and Ly6C(high) that predominantly produced IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha; and 3) heightened numbers of activated recipient-derived Th1 and Tc1 T cell subpopulations expressing CD25(+), CD69(+), and CD95(+) cell surface activation markers. Moreover, both Tc2 and Tc1 effector cell therapies were dependent in part on recipient-derived IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha for long-term survival and protection. Collectively, Tc1 and Tc2 effector cell immunotherapy mediate long-term tumor immunity by different mechanisms that subsequently potentiate endogenous recipient-derived type 1 antitumor responses.

  1. The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardhaugh, Ronald

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the strong contrastive analysis hypothesis, which claims predictive powers for contrastive analysis, and the weak hypothesis, which claims only that contrastive analysis can help account for observed difficulties in second language learning. The strong hypothesis is found untenable, and difficulties with the weak hypothesis are discussed…

  2. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  3. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms.

  4. Contrast Media: Are There Differences in Nephrotoxicity among Contrast Media?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast agents are usually classified based upon their osmolality—high, low, and isosmolar. Iodinated contrast agents are also nephrotoxic in some but not all patients resulting in loss of glomerular filtration rate. Over the past 30 years, nephrotoxicity has been linked to osmolality although the precise mechanism underlying such a link has been elusive. Improvements in our understanding of the pathogenesis of nephrotoxicity and prospective randomized clinical trials have attempted to further explore the relationship between osmolality and nephrotoxicity. In this review, the basis for our current understanding that there are little if any differences in nephrotoxic potential between low and isosmolar contrast media will be detailed using data from clinical studies. PMID:24587997

  5. Ultrasound Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachard, Christian; Basset, Olivier

    While the use of contrast agents in other imaging modalities (X ray, MRI, PET, …) has been routinely accepted for many years, the development and commercialization of contrast agents designed specifically for ultrasound imaging has occurred only very recently. As in the other imaging modalities, the injection of contrast agents during an ultrasound examination is intended to facilitate the detection and diagnosis of specific pathologies. Contrast agents efficiency is based on the backscattering of ultrasound by microbubbles. These microparticules are intravenously injected in the blood flow. After an introduction and generalities on ultrasound contrast agents (UCA) the microbubble physics in an acoustic field will be developed. Second, physics characteristics of contrast agents will be compared (bubbles with or without shell, gas nature, size distribution). Influence of acoustic pressure on the behaviour of the microparticules (linear, non linear and destruction) will be discussed. Finally, a review of specific imaging adapted to contrast agent properties as harmonic imaging, pulse inversion imaging will be presented.

  6. [Physiopathology of nephropathy studied with contrast media].

    PubMed

    Morales Buenrostro, L E; Tellez Zenteno, J F; Torre Delgadillo, A

    2000-01-01

    For the technological advances in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, the use of intravenous contrast media in the hospital is more and more frequent. It can produce acute renal failure secondary to its nephrotoxicity known as contrast media nephropathy. This review describes the pathophysiologic mechanisms of contrast media injury, including cytotoxicity caused by hyperosmoloarity of contrast media, the hemodynamic factors and the role of the renin-angiotensin system, prostaglandins, oxygen free radicals, endothelin-1, adenosine, nitric oxide and others. The understanding of this information is of vital importance for the development of prophylactic strategies for contrast media nephropathy.

  7. Ultrasound contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Ignee, Andre; Atkinson, Nathan S. S.; Schuessler, Gudrun; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) plays an important role in imaging of the mediastinum and abdominal organs. Since the introduction of US contrast agents (UCA) for transabdominal US, attempts have been made to apply contrast-enhanced US techniques also to EUS. Since 2003, specific contrast-enhanced imaging was possible using EUS. Important studies have been published regarding contrast-enhanced EUS and the characterization of focal pancreatic lesions, lymph nodes, and subepithelial tumors. In this manuscript, we describe the relevant UCA, their application, and specific image acquisition as well as the principles of image tissue characterization using contrast-enhanced EUS. Safety issues, potential future developments, and EUS-specific issues are reviewed. PMID:27824024

  8. Deformation in layered Zechstein-III K-Mg salts with high mechanical contrasts. Core analysis revealing strain concentrations and the development of fracturing and folding into a tectonic mélange.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raith, Alexander; Urai, Janos L.

    2017-04-01

    In fully developed evaporite cycles, effective viscosity contrasts of up to five orders of magnitude are possible between different layers, but the structures and mechanics in evaporites with such extreme mechanical stratification are not well understood. During the late stage of an evaporation cycle potassium and magnesium (K-Mg) salts are precipitated. These K-Mg salts are of economic interest but also a known drilling hazard due to their very low viscosity. A better understanding of salt tectonics with extreme mechanical stratification is needed for better exploration and production of potassium-magnesium salts and to predict the internal structure of potential nuclear waste repositories in salt We analyzed a unique carnallite (KMgCl3*6H20) - and bischofite (MgCl2*6H20) - rich drill core from the Zechstein III-1b subunit in the Veendam Pillow in the Netherlands, which has a complex tectonic history with multiple phases of extension and compression as shown by seismic reflection data. Salt withdrawal followed by convergent flow into the salt pillow produced ruptures and folds in the underlying ZIII- Anhydrite-Carbonate Stringer and formed the outer shape of the soft ZIII-1b layer. The slabbed core was analyzed by macroscale photography, bulk chemical methods, XRD and optical microscopy. Results show high strain in the weaker bischofite- and carnallite- rich layers, with associated dynamic recrystallization at very low differential stress, completely overprinting the original texture. Stronger layers formed by alternating beds of halite and carnallite show complex recumbent folding on different scales commonly interrupted by sub-horizontal shear zones with brittle deformation, veins and boudinage. We attribute this tectonic fragmentation to be associated with a softening of the complete ZIII-1b subunit during its deformation. The result is a tectonic mélange with cm - to 10m size blocks with internal folds and boudinage. We infer that these structures and

  9. Contrast adaptation in the Limulus lateral eye

    PubMed Central

    Valtcheva, Tchoudomira M.

    2015-01-01

    Luminance and contrast adaptation are neuronal mechanisms employed by the visual system to adjust our sensitivity to light. They are mediated by an assortment of cellular and network processes distributed across the retina and visual cortex. Both have been demonstrated in the eyes of many vertebrates, but only luminance adaptation has been shown in invertebrate eyes to date. Since the computational benefits of contrast adaptation should apply to all visual systems, we investigated whether this mechanism operates in horseshoe crab eyes, one of the best-understood neural networks in the animal kingdom. The spike trains of optic nerve fibers were recorded in response to light stimuli modulated randomly in time and delivered to single ommatidia or the whole eye. We found that the retina adapts to both the mean luminance and contrast of a white-noise stimulus, that luminance- and contrast-adaptive processes are largely independent, and that they originate within an ommatidium. Network interactions are not involved. A published computer model that simulates existing knowledge of the horseshoe crab eye did not show contrast adaptation, suggesting that a heretofore unknown mechanism may underlie the phenomenon. This mechanism does not appear to reside in photoreceptors because white-noise analysis of electroretinogram recordings did not show contrast adaptation. The likely site of origin is therefore the spike discharge mechanism of optic nerve fibers. The finding of contrast adaption in a retinal network as simple as the horseshoe crab eye underscores the broader importance of this image processing strategy to vision. PMID:26445869

  10. Ferrimagnetic susceptibility contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bach-Gansmo, T

    1993-01-01

    Contrast agents based on superparamagnetic particles have been in clinical development for more than 5 years, and the complexity of their effects is still not elucidated. The relaxivities are frequently used to give an idea of their efficacy, but these parameters can only be used if they are concentration independent. For large superparamagnetic systems, the evolution of the transverse magnetization is biexponential, after an initial loss of magnetization. Both these characteristics of large superparamagnetic systems should lead to prudence in using the relaxivities as indicators of contrast medium efficacy. Susceptibility induced artefacts have been associated with the use of superparamagnetic contrast agents since the first imaging evaluation took place. The range of concentrations where good contrast effect was achieved without inducing artefacts, as well as blurring and metal artefacts were evaluated. The influence of motion on the induction of artefacts was studied, and compared to the artefacts induced by a paramagnetic agent subject to motion. With a suitable concentration of a negative contrast agent, a signal void could be achieved in the region prone to motion, and no artefacts were induced. If the concentration was too high, a displacement of the region close to the contrast agent was observed. The artefacts occurred in a volume surrounding the contrast agent, i.e., also outside the imaging plane. In comparison a positive, paramagnetic contrast agent induced heavy artefacts in the phase encoding direction, appearing as both high intensity regions and black holes, in a mosaic pattern. Clinical trials of the oral contrast agent OMP for abdominal MR imaging showed this agent to be safe and efficacious. OMP increased the diagnostic efficacy of abdominal MR imaging in 2 of 3 cases examined, with a significant decrease in motion artefacts. Susceptibility contrast agents may also be of use in the evaluation of small lesions in the liver. Particulate material

  11. Describing contrast across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Sohaib Ali; Iqbal, Muhammad Zafar; Riaz, Muhammad Mohsin

    2017-06-01

    Due to its sensitive nature against illumination and noise distributions, contrast is not widely used for image description. On the contrary, the human perception of contrast along different spatial frequency bandwidths provides a powerful discriminator function that can be modeled in a robust manner against local illumination. Based upon this observation, a dense local contrast descriptor is proposed and its potential in different applications of computer vision is discussed. Extensive experiments reveal that this simple yet effective description performs well in comparison with state of the art image descriptors. We also show the importance of this description in multiresolution pansharpening framework.

  12. Compressive Phase Contrast Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Maia, Filipe; MacDowell, Alastair; Marchesini, Stefano; Padmore, Howard A.; Parkinson, Dula Y.; Pien, Jack; Schirotzek, Andre; Yang, Chao

    2010-09-01

    When x-rays penetrate soft matter, their phase changes more rapidly than their amplitude. Interference effects visible with high brightness sources creates higher contrast, edge enhanced images. When the object is piecewise smooth (made of big blocks of a few components), such higher contrast datasets have a sparse solution. We apply basis pursuit solvers to improve SNR, remove ring artifacts, reduce the number of views and radiation dose from phase contrast datasets collected at the Hard X-Ray Micro Tomography Beamline at the Advanced Light Source. We report a GPU code for the most computationally intensive task, the gridding and inverse gridding algorithm (non uniform sampled Fourier transform).

  13. Simultaneous density contrast is bidirectional.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hua-Chun; Baker, Curtis L; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-11-01

    Simultaneous density contrast, or SDC, is the phenomenon in which the perceived density of a textured region is altered by a surround of different density (Mackay, 1973). SDC provides an experimental tool to investigate mechanisms of density coding, yet has not been systematically examined. We measured SDC with a 2AFC staircase procedure in which human observers judged which of two patterns, one with and one without a surround, appeared more dense. We used a range of surround densities varying from very sparse to very dense (0-76.8 dots/deg2), and two center test densities (6.4 and 12.8 dots/deg2). Psychometric functions were used to estimate both the points of subjective equality (PSE) and their precision. Unexpectedly we find a bidirectional SDC effect across the five observers: Not only does a denser surround reduce perceived density of the center, but a sparser surround enhances its perceived density. We also show that SDC is not mediated by either contrast-contrast or spatial-frequency contrast. Our results suggest the presence of multiple channels selective for texture density, with lateral inhibitory interactions between them.

  14. Phase-contrast radiography.

    PubMed

    Gao, D; Pogany, A; Stevenson, A W; Wilkins, S W

    1998-01-01

    For the past 100 years, the paradigm for radiography has been premised on absorption as the sole means of contrast formation and on ray optics as the basis for image interpretation. A new conceptual approach to radiography has been developed that includes phase (ie, refractive) contrast and requires wave optics for proper treatment. This new approach greatly increases the amount of information that can be obtained with radiographic techniques and is particularly well suited to the imaging of soft tissue and of very small features in biologic samples. A key feature of the present technique of phase-contrast radiography is the use of a microfocus x-ray source about an order of magnitude (< or = 20 microm) smaller than that used in conventional radiography. Phase-contrast radiography offers a number of improvements over conventional radiography in a clinical setting, especially in soft-tissue imaging. These improvements include increased contrast resulting in improved visualization of anatomic detail, reduced absorbed dose to the patient, inherent image magnification and high spatial resolution, use of harder x rays, and relative ease of implementation. More technologically advanced detectors are currently being developed and commercialized, which will help fully realize the considerable potential of phase-contrast imaging.

  15. Contrast Transmission In Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, L. W., Jr.; Gimmestad, G. G.; Jackovich, J. E.

    1983-09-01

    While the propagation of visible and infrared radiation in adverse weather has been studied by many investigators, the effect of rain on contrast transmission or visual range have received little attention. A theoretical and experimental program examining contrast transmission in adverse weather will be described in this paper. Measurements of contrast transmission were made using bar targets consisting of parallel flourescent light bulbs. The bulb spacing is four times the bulb diameter. Data is obtained by photographing the target from a distance of two hundred meters using a camera fitted with an eight-hundred millimeter lens under both clear and obscured conditions. The negatives are then analyzed using a microdensitometer and contrast is defined by C = (I MAX - i MAX + i MIN)-1 where I-MAX and I-MIN are the intensity maximum and minimum, respectively. In addition to contrast measurements, simultaneous measurements of atmospheric transmission, snow particle phase function, and all relevant weather parameters are made. A computer model, based on scattering theory, has been developed for predicting contrast transmission. The model computes zero, first and second order scattering contributions in a three-dimensional atmosphere using phase function computations based on Mie theory.

  16. Overexpression of Grain Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) AhERF or AhDOF Transcription Factors in Arabidopsis thaliana Increases Water Deficit- and Salt-Stress Tolerance, Respectively, via Contrasting Stress-Amelioration Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Massange-Sánchez, Julio A.; Palmeros-Suárez, Paola A.; Espitia-Rangel, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Arévalo, Isaac; Sánchez-Segura, Lino; Martínez-Gallardo, Norma A.; Alatorre-Cobos, Fulgencio; Tiessen, Axel; Délano-Frier, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Two grain amaranth transcription factor (TF) genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis plants. The first, coding for a group VII ethylene response factor TF (i.e., AhERF-VII) conferred tolerance to water-deficit stress (WS) in transgenic Arabidopsis without affecting vegetative or reproductive growth. A significantly lower water-loss rate in detached leaves coupled to a reduced stomatal opening in leaves of plants subjected to WS was associated with this trait. WS tolerance was also associated with an increased antioxidant enzyme activity and the accumulation of putative stress-related secondary metabolites. However, microarray and GO data did not indicate an obvious correlation between WS tolerance, stomatal closure, and abscisic acid (ABA)-related signaling. This scenario suggested that stomatal closure during WS in these plants involved ABA-independent mechanisms, possibly involving reactive oxygen species (ROS). WS tolerance may have also involved other protective processes, such as those employed for methyl glyoxal detoxification. The second, coding for a class A and cluster I DNA binding with one finger TF (i.e., AhDof-AI) provided salt-stress (SS) tolerance with no evident fitness penalties. The lack of an obvious development-related phenotype contrasted with microarray and GO data showing an enrichment of categories and genes related to developmental processes, particularly flowering. SS tolerance also correlated with increased superoxide dismutase activity but not with augmented stomatal closure. Additionally, microarray and GO data indicated that, contrary to AhERF-VII, SS tolerance conferred by AhDof-AI in Arabidopsis involved ABA-dependent and ABA-independent stress amelioration mechanisms. PMID:27749893

  17. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  18. The contrasting N management of two oilseed rape genotypes reveals the mechanisms of proteolysis associated with leaf N remobilization and the respective contributions of leaves and stems to N storage and remobilization during seed filling.

    PubMed

    Girondé, Alexandra; Etienne, Philippe; Trouverie, Jacques; Bouchereau, Alain; Le Cahérec, Françoise; Leport, Laurent; Orsel, Mathilde; Niogret, Marie-Françoise; Nesi, Nathalie; Carole, Deleu; Soulay, Fabienne; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline; Avice, Jean-Christophe

    2015-02-21

    Oilseed rape is the third largest oleaginous crop in the world but requires high levels of N fertilizer of which only 50% is recovered in seeds. This weak N use efficiency is associated with a low foliar N remobilization, leading to a significant return of N to the soil and a risk of pollution. Contrary to what is observed during senescence in the vegetative stages, N remobilization from stems and leaves is considered efficient during monocarpic senescence. However, the contribution of stems towards N management and the cellular mechanisms involved in foliar remobilization remain largely unknown. To reach this goal, the N fluxes at the whole plant level from bolting to mature seeds and the processes involved in leaf N remobilization and proteolysis were investigated in two contrasting genotypes (Aviso and Oase) cultivated under ample or restricted nitrate supply. During seed filling in both N conditions, Oase efficiently allocated the N from uptake to seeds while Aviso favoured a better N remobilization from stems and leaves towards seeds. Nitrate restriction decreased seed yield and oil quality for both genotypes but Aviso had the best seed N filling. Under N limitation, Aviso had a better N remobilization from leaves to stems before the onset of seed filling. Afterwards, the higher N remobilization from stems and leaves of Aviso led to a higher final N amount in seeds. This high leaf N remobilization is associated with a better degradation/export of insoluble proteins, oligopeptides, nitrate and/or ammonia. By using an original method based on the determination of Rubisco degradation in the presence of inhibitors of proteases, efficient proteolysis associated with cysteine proteases and proteasome activities was identified as the mechanism of N remobilization. The results confirm the importance of foliar N remobilization after bolting to satisfy seed filling and highlight that an efficient proteolysis is mainly associated with (i) cysteine proteases and

  19. Prototype vein contrast enhancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Vrancken, Carlos

    2004-07-01

    A proof-of-principle prototype Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) has been designed and constructed. The VCE is an instrument that makes vein access easier by capturing an infrared image of peripheral veins, enhancing the vein-contrast using software image processing, and projecting the enhanced vein-image back onto the skin using a modified commercial projector. The prototype uses software alignment to achieve alignment accuracy between the captured infrared image and the projected visible image of better than 0.06 mm. Figure 1 shows the prototype demonstrated in our laboratory.

  20. Contrasting Views on Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Arthur R., Jr.

    This paper asserts that public demands for book censorship are but one aspect of a deep public dissatisfaction with the educational establishment, and develops the thesis that the cause of this dissatisfaction is the contrast in world views and religions of those in the educational establishment and the censors. The educational establishment…

  1. Phonation in Tonal Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Jianjing

    2013-01-01

    Phonation is used in many tonal languages, but how it should be incorporated into tonal systems is not well understood. The purpose of this dissertation thus is to examine the role of phonation in tonal contrasts, and to investigate how phonation and pitch interact in the tonal space. This dissertation presents close studies of tonal contrasts…

  2. Simultaneous blur contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Shernaaz M.; Webster, Michael A.; Taylor, John; Jaikumar, Jaikishan; Verma, Richa

    2001-06-01

    How well-focused an image appears can be strongly influenced by the surroundings context. A blurred surround can cause a central image to appear too sharp, while sharped surrounds can induce blur. We examined some spatial properties and stimulus selectivities of this 'simultaneous blur contrast.' Observers adjusted the focus of a central test image by a 2AFC staircase procedure that varied the slope of the image amplitude spectrum. The test were surrounded by 8 identical images with biased spectra, that were presented concurrently with the test for 0.5 sec on a uniform gray background. Contrast effects were comparable in magnitude for image sizes ranging from 1-deg to 4-deg in visual angle, but were stronger for test that were viwe4 in the periphery rather than fixated directly. Consistent biases were found for different types of grayscale images, including natural images, filtered noise, and simple edges. However, effects were weaker when surrounds and tests were drawn from different images, or differed in contrast-polarity or color, and thus do not depend on blur or on average spatial- frequency content per se. These induction effects may in part reflect a manifestation of selective contrast gain control

  3. Contrast enhancement of transparencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shulman, A. R.; Lee, S. H.

    1976-01-01

    System can enhance or reduce contrast of photographic transparency for printing or projection by using constructive and destructive interference of collimated laser beam. System is potentially less expensive than electronic CRT methods and is more accurate than trial-and-error manual techniques.

  4. T1 and susceptibility contrast at high fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelavalli, Jaladhar

    Clinical imaging at high magnetic field strengths (≥ 3Tesla) is sought after primarily due to the increased signal strength available at these fields. This increased SNR can be used to perform: (a) high resolution imaging in the same time as at lower field strengths; (b) the same resolution imaging with much faster acquisition; and (c) functional MR imaging (fMRI), dynamic perfusion and diffusion imaging with increased sensitivity. However they are also associated with increased power deposition (SAR) due to increase in imaging frequency and longer T1 relaxation times. Longer T1s mean longer imaging times for generating good T1 contrast images. On the other hand for faster imaging, at high fields fast spin echo or magnetization prepared sequences are conventionally proposed which are, however, associated with high SAR values. Imaging with low SAR is more and more important as we move towards high fields and particularly for patients with metallic implants like pacemakers or deep brain stimulator. The SAR limit acceptable for these patients is much less than the limit acceptable for normal subjects. A new method is proposed for imaging at high fields with good contrast with simultaneous reduction in power deposition. Further, T1 based contrast optimization problem in FLASH imaging is considered for tissues with different T1s but same spin densities. The solution providing optimal imaging parameters is simplified for quick and easy computation in a clinical setting. The efficacy of the simplification is evaluated and practical limits under which the simplification can be applied are worked out. The phase difference due to variation in magnetic susceptibility property among biological tissues is another unique source of contrast which is different from the conventional T1, T2 and T2* contrast. This susceptibility based phase contrast has become more and more important at high fields, partly due to contrast generation issues due to longer T 1s and shorter T2s and

  5. Chromatography: concepts and contrasts

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    As the author states in the Preface, this text attempts to provide a unified approach to chromatography (hence the title) by way of contrasting similarities and differences between gas chromatography (GC), column liquid chromatography (LC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). This book is also said to be pitched at an elementary level, suitable for most newcomers to the field (e.g., advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students in the academic world, as well as bench-level chemists in industry).

  6. Local contrast and Pavlovian induction1

    PubMed Central

    Malone, John C.

    1976-01-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of number and similarity of stimuli on local contrast. In the first experiment, local contrast effects differed in magnitude as a function of the similarity among stimuli; greater positive local contrast appeared when stimuli were less similar, though this effect sometimes reversed for very dissimilar stimuli. In the second experiment, both positive and negative local contrast appeared transiently during the course of training a discrimination including two quite dissimilar stimuli. When two new stimuli were added, both effects reappeared in several cases. The effects remained when the discrimination was rendered more difficult by substituting a new stimulus very similar to one of the original pair. These and other data suggest that local contrast depends on the same factors that produce Pavlovian induction; in the absence of an alternative account, Pavlov's interpretation may be useful in suggesting further research that will help identify the mechanisms involved in both classical and operant discrimination learning. PMID:16811958

  7. Polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    King, A.; Reischig, P.; Adrien, J.; Peetermans, S.; Ludwig, W.

    2014-11-15

    This tutorial review introduces the use of polychromatic radiation for 3D grain mapping using X-ray diffraction contrast tomography. The objective is to produce a 3D map of the grain shapes and orientations within a bulk, millimeter-sized polycrystalline sample. The use of polychromatic radiation enables the standard synchrotron X-ray technique to be applied in a wider range of contexts: 1) Using laboratory X-ray sources allows a much wider application of the diffraction contrast tomography technique. 2) Neutron sources allow large samples, or samples containing high Z elements to be studied. 3) Applied to synchrotron sources, smaller samples may be treated, or faster measurements may be possible. Challenges and particularities in the data acquisition and processing, and the limitations of the different variants, are discussed. - Highlights: • We present a tutorial review of polychromatic diffraction contrast tomography techniques. • The use of polychromatic radiation allows the standard synchrotron DCT technique to be extended to a range of other sources. • The characteristics and limitations of all variants of the techniques are derived, discussed and compared. • Examples using laboratory X-ray and cold neutron radiation are presented. • Suggestions for the future development of these techniques are presented.

  8. Contrast Gain Control in Plaid Pattern Detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-01-01

    A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure. All TvC functions, except the one with an orthogonal spiral pedestal, showed a dipper shape, although the position of the dip and the slope varied across conditions. The result can be explained by a multiple-mechanism divisive inhibition model, which contains several orientation-selective mechanisms. The response of each mechanism is the excitation of a linear filter divided by a broadband inhibitory input. The threshold is determined by a nonlinear combination of the responses of those mechanisms. Alternative models with mechanism(s) specific for plaid did not provide a better description of the data. Thus, a plaid pattern is mediated by a combination of orientation-selective mechanisms. An early plaid-specific mechanism is not necessary for plaid detection. PMID:27764119

  9. Contrast Gain Control in Plaid Pattern Detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pi-Chun; Chen, Chien-Chung

    2016-01-01

    A plaid is a combination of two gratings whose orientations are orthogonal to each other with the same or similar contrasts. We used plaid patterns as stimuli to investigate the mechanisms underlying the detection of a plaid to understand how the visual system combines information from orientation-selective channels. We used a masking paradigm in which an observer was required to detect a target (either a spiral or a plaid) superimposed on a pedestal. We measured the target threshold versus pedestal contrast (TvC) functions at 7 pedestal contrasts for various target-pedestal combinations with a temporal 2AFC paradigm and a staircase procedure. All TvC functions, except the one with an orthogonal spiral pedestal, showed a dipper shape, although the position of the dip and the slope varied across conditions. The result can be explained by a multiple-mechanism divisive inhibition model, which contains several orientation-selective mechanisms. The response of each mechanism is the excitation of a linear filter divided by a broadband inhibitory input. The threshold is determined by a nonlinear combination of the responses of those mechanisms. Alternative models with mechanism(s) specific for plaid did not provide a better description of the data. Thus, a plaid pattern is mediated by a combination of orientation-selective mechanisms. An early plaid-specific mechanism is not necessary for plaid detection.

  10. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peev, D.; Hofmann, T.; Kananizadeh, N.; Beeram, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Wimer, S.; Rodenhausen, K. B.; Herzinger, C. M.; Kasputis, T.; Pfaunmiller, E.; Nguyen, A.; Korlacki, R.; Pannier, A.; Li, Y.; Schubert, E.; Hage, D.; Schubert, M.

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm2 object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  11. Anisotropic contrast optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Peev, D; Hofmann, T; Kananizadeh, N; Beeram, S; Rodriguez, E; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M

    2016-11-01

    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent, or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. These images are obtained from sets of multiple images obtained under various polarizer, analyzer, and compensator settings. Up to 16 independent Mueller matrix images can be obtained, while our current setup is limited to 11 images normalized by the unpolarized intensity. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by measuring lithographically defined micro-patterned anisotropic filters, and we quantify the adsorption of an organic self-assembled monolayer film onto the anisotropic filter. Comparison with an isotropic glass slide demonstrates the image enhancement obtained by our method over microscopy without the use of an anisotropic filter. In our current instrument, we estimate the limit of detection for organic volumetric mass within the object plane of ≈49 fg within ≈7 × 7 μm(2) object surface area. Compared to a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation instrumentation, where contemporary limits require a total load of ≈500 pg for detection, the instrumentation demonstrated here improves

  12. High Contrast CRT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    form brown sulfides or sulfates. By con- trast, No. 1720 glass does not acquire a brown coloration . How- ever, preliminary tests with 1723 glass show...TR-77-2639-F NL -mmo mhhmhul IIII,. BwII ---- i 11111--- IIIIIN III i 8’ II.I25 .11111 I .6 MCROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU Of...High Contrast Displays Two- Color CRT Laminar Flow Electron Gun Thin Film Phosphor Color Penetration Tube 2% AS~iTACT (ConIlm. a" Pove.. 0fdo if

  13. Contrast and depth perception: effects of texture contrast and area contrast.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Shigeru; Kitagawa, Norimichi; Akutsu, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    Many objects in natural scenes have textures on their surfaces. Contrast of the texture surfaces (the texture contrast) reduces when the viewing distance increases. Similarly, contrast between the surfaces of the objects and the background (the area contrast) reduces when the viewing distance increases. The texture contrast and the area contrast were defined by the contrast between random dots, and by the contrast between the average luminance of the dot pattern and the luminance of the background, respectively. To examine how these two types of contrast influence depth perception, we ran two experiments. In both experiments two areas of random-dot patterns were presented against a uniform background, and participants rated relative depth between the two areas. We found that the rated depth of the patterned areas increased with increases in texture contrast. Furthermore, the effect of the texture contrast on depth judgment increased when the area contrast became low.

  14. Ultra-wide range field-dependent measurements of the relaxivity of Gd1-xEuxVO4 nanoparticle contrast agents using a mechanical sample-shuttling relaxometer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Abdesselem, Mouna; Bouzigues, Cedric; Chu, Minglee; Guiga, Angelo; Huang, Tai-Huang; Ferrage, Fabien; Gacoin, Thierry; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2017-03-20

    The current trend for Magnetic Resonance Imaging points towards higher magnetic fields. Even though sensitivity and resolution are increased in stronger fields, T1 contrast is often reduced, and this represents a challenge for contrast agent design. Field-dependent measurements of relaxivity are thus important to characterize contrast agents. At present, the field-dependent curves of relaxivity are usually carried out in the field range of 0 T to 2 T, using fast field cycling relaxometers. Here, we employ a high-speed sample shuttling device to switch the magnetic fields experienced by the nuclei between virtually zero field, and the center of any commercial spectrometer. We apply this approach on rare-earth (mixed Gadolinium-Europium) vanadate nanoparticles, and obtain the dispersion curves from very low magnetic field up to 11.7 T. In contrast to the relaxivity profiles of Gd chelates, commonly used for clinical applications, which display a plateau and then a decrease for increasing magnetic fields, these nanoparticles provide maximum contrast enhancement for magnetic fields around 1-1.5 T. These field-dependent curves are fitted using the so-called Magnetic Particle (MP) model and the extracted parameters discussed as a function of particle size and composition. We finally comment on the new possibilities offered by this approach.

  15. Ultra-wide range field-dependent measurements of the relaxivity of Gd1−xEuxVO4 nanoparticle contrast agents using a mechanical sample-shuttling relaxometer

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Abdesselem, Mouna; Bouzigues, Cedric; Chu, Minglee; Guiga, Angelo; Huang, Tai-Huang; Ferrage, Fabien; Gacoin, Thierry; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The current trend for Magnetic Resonance Imaging points towards higher magnetic fields. Even though sensitivity and resolution are increased in stronger fields, T1 contrast is often reduced, and this represents a challenge for contrast agent design. Field-dependent measurements of relaxivity are thus important to characterize contrast agents. At present, the field-dependent curves of relaxivity are usually carried out in the field range of 0 T to 2 T, using fast field cycling relaxometers. Here, we employ a high-speed sample shuttling device to switch the magnetic fields experienced by the nuclei between virtually zero field, and the center of any commercial spectrometer. We apply this approach on rare-earth (mixed Gadolinium-Europium) vanadate nanoparticles, and obtain the dispersion curves from very low magnetic field up to 11.7 T. In contrast to the relaxivity profiles of Gd chelates, commonly used for clinical applications, which display a plateau and then a decrease for increasing magnetic fields, these nanoparticles provide maximum contrast enhancement for magnetic fields around 1–1.5 T. These field-dependent curves are fitted using the so-called Magnetic Particle (MP) model and the extracted parameters discussed as a function of particle size and composition. We finally comment on the new possibilities offered by this approach. PMID:28317892

  16. Ultra-wide range field-dependent measurements of the relaxivity of Gd1‑xEuxVO4 nanoparticle contrast agents using a mechanical sample-shuttling relaxometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Ching-Yu; Abdesselem, Mouna; Bouzigues, Cedric; Chu, Minglee; Guiga, Angelo; Huang, Tai-Huang; Ferrage, Fabien; Gacoin, Thierry; Alexandrou, Antigoni; Sakellariou, Dimitris

    2017-03-01

    The current trend for Magnetic Resonance Imaging points towards higher magnetic fields. Even though sensitivity and resolution are increased in stronger fields, T1 contrast is often reduced, and this represents a challenge for contrast agent design. Field-dependent measurements of relaxivity are thus important to characterize contrast agents. At present, the field-dependent curves of relaxivity are usually carried out in the field range of 0 T to 2 T, using fast field cycling relaxometers. Here, we employ a high-speed sample shuttling device to switch the magnetic fields experienced by the nuclei between virtually zero field, and the center of any commercial spectrometer. We apply this approach on rare-earth (mixed Gadolinium-Europium) vanadate nanoparticles, and obtain the dispersion curves from very low magnetic field up to 11.7 T. In contrast to the relaxivity profiles of Gd chelates, commonly used for clinical applications, which display a plateau and then a decrease for increasing magnetic fields, these nanoparticles provide maximum contrast enhancement for magnetic fields around 1–1.5 T. These field-dependent curves are fitted using the so-called Magnetic Particle (MP) model and the extracted parameters discussed as a function of particle size and composition. We finally comment on the new possibilities offered by this approach.

  17. Commercialization of vein contrast enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Deshmukh, Harshal; Vrancken, Carlos; Zhang, Yong; Zeman, Herbert D.; Weinberg, Devin

    2003-07-01

    An ongoing clinical study of an experimental infrared (IR) device, the Vein Contrast Enhancer (VCE) that visualizes surface veins for medical access, indicates that a commercial device with the performance of the existing VCE would have significant clinical utility for even a very skilled phlebotomist. A proof-of-principle prototype VCE device has now been designed and constructed that captures IR images of surface veins with a commercial CCD camera, transfers the images to a PC for real-time software image processing to enhance the vein contrast, and projects the enhanced images back onto the skin with a modified commercial LCD projector. The camera and projector are mounted on precision slides allowing for precise mechanical alignment of the two optical axes and for measuring the effects of axes misalignment. Precision alignment of the captured and projected images over the entire field-of-view is accomplished electronically by software adjustments of the translation, scaling, and rotation of the enhanced images before they are projected back onto the skin. This proof-of-principle prototype will be clinically tested and the experience gained will lead to the development of a commercial device, OnTarget!, that is compact, easy to use, and will visualize accessible veins in almost all subjects needing venipuncture.

  18. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  19. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  20. Contrasting Martian Terrains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this interesting view of martian topography just below the 'West Spur' portion of the 'Columbia Hills' on sol 208 (Aug. 2, 2004). The view is looking southwest. The rover's wheel tracks show the contrast between soft martian soil and the harder 'Clovis' rock outcrop, which scientists are now studying.

    The angle of the horizon indicates the tilt of the rover to be about 20 degrees. On the horizon is a small peak informally named 'Grissom Hill,' about 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) away. To the right of the peak is the edge of a 2-kilometer-wide (1.2-mile-wide) crater. A few weeks ago, Spirit stopped to conduct scientific studies of rocks in 'Hank's Hollow,' located on the right side of the image approximately one-third of the way down from the top. This photo was taken with Spirit's right rear hazard-avoidance camera.

  1. Model of Therapeutic Ultrasound Contrast Agent Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Chao-Tsung; Lu, Xiaozhen; Chahine, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Targeted drug and gene delivery are rapidly emerging applications for ultrasound contrast agents since this could reduce potential deleterious side effects to healthy tissue and minimize the overall dose needed. Therapeutic ultrasound contrast agents are encapsulated microbubbles usually composed of a high molecular weight gas core and a highly viscous thick liquid shell. Development of new contrast agents requires a good understanding of the stability and breakup mechanisms of the liquid shell when subjected to ultrasonic acoustic waves. A novel numerical code, which enables one to investigate the dynamics of thick-shelled contrast agents and the interaction between multiple agents and with nearby boundaries has been developed by coupling a Boundary Element Method solver and a finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver. We have applied the coupled code to examine shell breakup mechanisms for contrast agents near a solid wall. We found that the shell thickness varies significantly from location to location due to non-spherical deformations and that the contrast agent may break up due to local shell thinning and stretching as the non-spherical deformation is significant.

  2. Contrast affects flicker and speed perception differently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that contrast affects speed perception, with lower-contrast, drifting gratings perceived as moving slower. In a recent study, we examined the implications of this result on models of speed perception that use the amplitude of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters to determine speed. In this study, we investigate whether the contrast dependence of speed can be understood within the context of models in which speed estimation is made using the temporal frequency of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters. We measured the effect of contrast on flicker perception and found that contrast manipulations produce opposite effects on perceived drift rate and perceived flicker rate, i.e., reducing contrast increases the apparent temporal frequency of counterphase modulated gratings. This finding argues that, if a temporal frequency-based algorithm underlies speed perception, either flicker and speed perception must not be based on the output of the same mechanism or contrast effects on perceived spatial frequency reconcile the disparate effects observed for perceived temporal frequency and speed.

  3. Contrast affects flicker and speed perception differently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that contrast affects speed perception, with lower-contrast, drifting gratings perceived as moving slower. In a recent study, we examined the implications of this result on models of speed perception that use the amplitude of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters to determine speed. In this study, we investigate whether the contrast dependence of speed can be understood within the context of models in which speed estimation is made using the temporal frequency of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters. We measured the effect of contrast on flicker perception and found that contrast manipulations produce opposite effects on perceived drift rate and perceived flicker rate, i.e., reducing contrast increases the apparent temporal frequency of counterphase modulated gratings. This finding argues that, if a temporal frequency-based algorithm underlies speed perception, either flicker and speed perception must not be based on the output of the same mechanism or contrast effects on perceived spatial frequency reconcile the disparate effects observed for perceived temporal frequency and speed.

  4. Optical Imaging with Dynamic Contrast Agents

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qingshan; Wei, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Biological imaging applications often employ molecular probes or nanoparticles for enhanced contrast. However, resolution and detection are still often limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Isample, which can produce high levels of background that obscure the signals of interest. In this article we describe approaches to overcome this obstacle based on the concept of dynamic contrast, a strategy for elucidating signals by the suppression or removal of background noise. Dynamic contrast mechanisms can greatly reduce the loading requirement of contrast agents, and may be especially useful for single-probe imaging. Dynamic contrast modalities are also platform-independent, and can enhance the performance of sophisticated biomedical imaging systems or simple optical microscopes alike. Dynamic contrast is performed in two stages: i) a signal modulation scheme to introduce time-dependent changes in amplitude or phase, and ii) a demodulation step for signal recovery. Optical signals can be coupled with magnetic nanoparticles, photoswitchable probes, or plasmon-resonant nanostructures for modulation by magnetomotive, photonic, or photothermal mechanisms respectively. With respect to image demodulation, many of the strategies developed for signal processing in electronics and communication technologies can also be applied toward the editing of digital images. The image processing step can be as simple as differential imaging, or may involve multiple reference points for deconvolution using cross-correlation algorithms. Periodic signals are particularly amenable to image demodulation strategies based on Fourier transform; the contrast of the demodulated signal increases with acquisition time, and modulation frequencies in the kHz range are possible. Dynamic contrast is an emerging topic with considerable room for development, both with respect to molecular or nanoscale probes for signal modulation, and also to methods for more efficient image processing and editing

  5. Optical imaging with dynamic contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Wei, Qingshan; Wei, Alexander

    2011-01-24

    Biological imaging applications often employ molecular probes or nanoparticles for enhanced contrast. However, resolution and detection are still often limited by the intrinsic heterogeneity of the sample, which can produce high levels of background that obscure the signals of interest. Herein, we describe approaches to overcome this obstacle based on the concept of dynamic contrast: a strategy for elucidating signals by the suppression or removal of background noise. Dynamic contrast mechanisms can greatly reduce the loading requirement of contrast agents, and may be especially useful for single-probe imaging. Dynamic contrast modalities are also platform-independent, and can enhance the performance of sophisticated biomedical imaging systems or simple optical microscopes alike. Dynamic contrast is performed in two stages: 1) a signal modulation scheme to introduce time-dependent changes in amplitude or phase, and 2) a demodulation step for signal recovery. Optical signals can be coupled with magnetic nanoparticles, photoswitchable probes, or plasmon-resonant nanostructures for modulation by magnetomotive, photonic, or photothermal mechanisms, respectively. With respect to image demodulation, many of the strategies developed for signal processing in electronics and communication technologies can also be applied toward the editing of digital images. The image-processing step can be as simple as differential imaging, or may involve multiple reference points for deconvolution by using cross-correlation algorithms. Periodic signals are particularly amenable to image demodulation strategies based on Fourier transform; the contrast of the demodulated signal increases with acquisition time, and modulation frequencies in the kHz range are possible. Dynamic contrast is an emerging topic with considerable room for development, both with respect to molecular or nanoscale probes for signal modulation, and also to methods for more efficient image processing and editing

  6. A Moon Contrasts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-22

    Dione reveals its past via contrasts in this view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft. The features visible here are a mixture of tectonics -- the bright, linear features -- and impact cratering -- the round features, which are spread across the entire surface. Tectonic features tell the story of how Dione (698 miles or 1,123 kilometers across) has been heated and cooled since its formation, and scientists use those clues to piece together the moon's past. Impact craters are evidence of external debris striking the surface, and thus they tell about the environment in which the moon has existed over its history. This view looks toward the trailing hemisphere of Dione. North on Dione is up. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini narrow-angle camera on April 11, 2015. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 68,000 miles (110,000 kilometers) from Dione and at a Sun-Dione-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 28 degrees. Image scale is 2,165 feet (660 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20492

  7. Contrast agents for MRI.

    PubMed

    Shokrollahi, H

    2013-12-01

    Contrast agents are divided into two categories. The first one is paramagnetic compounds, including lanthanides like gadolinium, which mainly reduce the longitudinal (T1) relaxation property and result in a brighter signal. The second class consists of super-paramagnetic magnetic nanoparticles (SPMNPs) such as iron oxides, which have a strong effect on the transversal (T2) relaxation properties. SPMNPs have the potential to be utilized as excellent probes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For instance, clinically benign iron oxide and engineered ferrite nanoparticles provide a good MRI probing capability for clinical applications. Furthermore, the limited magnetic property and inability to escape from the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the used nanoparticles impede their further advancement. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the engineered magnetic nanoparticle probes for the next-generation molecular MRI. Considering the importance of MRI in diagnosing diseases, this paper presents an overview of recent scientific achievements in the development of new synthetic SPMNP probes whereby the sensitive and target-specific observation of biological events at the molecular and cellular levels is feasible.

  8. Phase Contrast Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Menk, Ralf Hendrik

    2008-11-13

    All standard (medical) x-ray imaging technologies, rely primarily on the amplitude properties of the incident radiation, and do not depend on its phase. This is unchanged since the discovery by Roentgen that the intensity of an x-ray beam, as measured by the exposure on a film, was related to the relative transmission properties of an object. However, recently various imaging techniques have emerged which depend on the phase of the x-rays as well as the amplitude. Phase becomes important when the beam is coherent and the imaging system is sensitive to interference phenomena. Significant new advances have been made in coherent optic theory and techniques, which now promise phase information in medical imaging. The development of perfect crystal optics and the increasing availability of synchrotron radiation facilities have contributed to a significant increase in the application of phase based imaging in materials and life sciences. Unique source characteristics such as high intensity, monochromaticity, coherence and high collimating provide an ideal source for advanced imaging. Phase contrast imaging has been applied in both projection and computed tomography modes, and recent applications have been made in the field of medical imaging. Due to the underlying principle of X-ray detection conventional image receptors register only intensities of wave fields and not their phases. During the last decade basically five different methods were developed that translate the phase information into intensity variations. These methods are based on measuring the phase shift {phi} directly (using interference phenomena), the gradient {nabla}{sub {phi}}, or the Laplacian {nabla}{sup 2}{phi}. All three methods can be applied to polychromatic X-ray sources keeping in mind that the native source is synchrotron radiation, featuring monochromatic and reasonable coherent X-ray beams. Due to the vast difference in the coefficients that are driven absorption and phase effects (factor 1

  9. Recognition memory reveals just how CONTRASTIVE contrastive accenting really is

    PubMed Central

    Fraundorf, Scott H.; Watson, Duane G.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of pitch accenting on memory were investigated in three experiments. Participants listened to short recorded discourses that contained contrast sets with two items (e.g. British scientists and French scientists); a continuation specified one item from the set. Pitch accenting on the critical word in the continuation was manipulated between non-contrastive (H* in the ToBI system) and contrastive (L+H*). On subsequent recognition memory tests, the L+H* accent increased hits to correct statements and correct rejections of the contrast item (Experiments 1–3), but did not impair memory for other parts of the discourse (Experiment 2). L+H* also did not facilitate correct rejections of lures not in the contrast set (Experiment 3), indicating that contrastive accents do not simply strengthen the representation of the target item. These results suggest comprehenders use pitch accenting to encode and update information about multiple elements in a contrast set. PMID:20835405

  10. Myocardial perfusion assessment with contrast echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desco, Manuel; Ledesma-Carbayo, Maria J.; Santos, Andres; Garcia-Fernandez, Miguel A.; Marcos-Alberca, Pedro; Malpica, Norberto; Antoranz, Jose C.; Garcia-Barreno, Pedro

    2001-05-01

    Assessment of intramyocardial perfusion by contrast echocardiography is a promising new technique that allows to obtain quantitative parameters for the assessment of ischemic disease. In this work, a new methodology and a software prototype developed for this task are presented. It has been validated with Coherent Contrast Imaging (CCI) images acquired with an Acuson Sequoia scanner. Contrast (Optison microbubbles) is injected continuously during the scan. 150 images are acquired using low mechanical index U/S pulses. A burst of high mechanical index pulses is used to destroy bubbles, thus allowing to detect the contrast wash-in. The stud is performed in two conditions: rest and pharmacologically induced stress. The software developed allows to visualized the study (cine) and to select several ROIs within the heart wall. The position of these ROIs along the cardiac cycle is automatically corrected on the basis of the gradient field, and they can also be manually corrected in case the automatic procedure fails. Time curves are analyzed according to a parametric model that incorporates both contrast inflow rate and cyclic variations. Preliminary clinical results on 80 patients have allowed us to identify normal and pathological patterns and to establish the correlation of quantitative parameters with the real diagnosis.

  11. Contrastive Analysis and Language Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Charles A.

    Contrastive analysis is basic to all linguistics since only by this approach can a general theory of language (language universals) be constructed and only with at least implicit contrastive analysis can a particular language be fully characterized. Two kinds of contrastive analysis have been basic to diachronic linguistics: the comparison of…

  12. Contrast statistics for foveated visual systems: fixation selection by minimizing contrast entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Raghu; Geisler, Wilson S.; Frazor, Robert A.; Bovik, Alan C.

    2005-10-01

    The human visual system combines a wide field of view with a high-resolution fovea and uses eye, head, and body movements to direct the fovea to potentially relevant locations in the visual scene. This strategy is sensible for a visual system with limited neural resources. However, for this strategy to be effective, the visual system needs sophisticated central mechanisms that efficiently exploit the varying spatial resolution of the retina. To gain insight into some of the design requirements of these central mechanisms, we have analyzed the effects of variable spatial resolution on local contrast in 300 calibrated natural images. Specifically, for each retinal eccentricity (which produces a certain effective level of blur), and for each value of local contrast observed at that eccentricity, we measured the probability distribution of the local contrast in the unblurred image. These conditional probability distributions can be regarded as posterior probability distributions for the ``true'' unblurred contrast, given an observed contrast at a given eccentricity. We find that these conditional probability distributions are adequately described by a few simple formulas. To explore how these statistics might be exploited by central perceptual mechanisms, we consider the task of selecting successive fixation points, where the goal on each fixation is to maximize total contrast information gained about the image (i.e., minimize total contrast uncertainty). We derive an entropy minimization algorithm and find that it performs optimally at reducing total contrast uncertainty and that it also works well at reducing the mean squared error between the original image and the image reconstructed from the multiple fixations. Our results show that measurements of local contrast alone could efficiently drive the scan paths of the eye when the goal is to gain as much information about the spatial structure of a scene as possible.

  13. Endoscopy imaging intelligent contrast improvement.

    PubMed

    Sheraizin, S; Sheraizin, V

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a medical endoscopy video contrast improvement method that provides intelligent automatic adaptive contrast control. The method fundamentals are video data clustering and video data histogram modification. The video data clustering allows an effective use the low noise two channel contrast enhancement processing. The histogram analysis permitted to determine the video exposure type for simple and complicated contrast distribution. We determined the needed gamma value for automatic local area contrast improvement for the following exposure types: dark, normal, light, dark light, dark normal etc. The experimental results of medical endoscopy video processing allow defining the automatic gamma control range from 0.5 to 2.0.

  14. Grouping Factors and the Reverse Contrast Illusion.

    PubMed

    Economou, Elias; Zdravković, Sunčica; Gilchrist, Alan

    2015-12-01

    In simultaneous lightness contrast, two identical gray target squares lying on backgrounds of different intensities appear different in lightness. Traditionally, this illusion was explained by lateral inhibitory mechanisms operating retinotopically. More recently, spatial filtering models have been preferred. We report tests of an anchoring theory account in which the illusion is attributed to grouping rules used by the visual system to compute lightness. We parametrically varied the belongingness of two gray target bars to their respective backgrounds so that they either appeared to group with a set of bars flanking them, or they appeared to group with their respective backgrounds. In all variations, the retinal adjacency of the gray squares and their backgrounds was essentially unchanged. We report data from seven experiments showing that manipulation of the grouping rules governs the size and direction of the simultaneous lightness contrast illusion. These results support the idea that simultaneous lightness contrast is the product of anchoring within perceptual groups.

  15. Contrasting Sequence Groups by Emerging Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kang; Zaïane, Osmar R.

    Group comparison per se is a fundamental task in many scientific endeavours but is also the basis of any classifier. Contrast sets and emerging patterns contrast between groups of categorical data. Comparing groups of sequence data is a relevant task in many applications. We define Emerging Sequences (ESs) as subsequences that are frequent in sequences of one group and less frequent in the sequences of another, and thus distinguishing or contrasting sequences of different classes. There are two challenges to distinguish sequence classes: the extraction of ESs is not trivially efficient and only exact matches of sequences are considered. In our work we address those problems by a suffix tree-based framework and a similar matching mechanism. We propose a classifier based on Emerging Sequences. Evaluating against two learning algorithms based on frequent subsequences and exact matching subsequences, the experiments on two datasets show that our model outperforms the baseline approaches by up to 20% in prediction accuracy.

  16. Contrast-independent biologically inspired motion detection.

    PubMed

    Babies, Birthe; Lindemann, Jens Peter; Egelhaaf, Martin; Möller, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Optic flow, i.e., retinal image movement resulting from ego-motion, is a crucial source of information used for obstacle avoidance and course control in flying insects. Optic flow analysis may prove promising for mobile robotics although it is currently not among the standard techniques. Insects have developed a computationally cheap analysis mechanism for image motion. Detailed computational models, the so-called elementary motion detectors (EMDs), describe motion detection in insects. However, the technical application of EMDs is complicated by the strong effect of local pattern contrast on their motion response. Here we present augmented versions of an EMD, the (s)cc-EMDs, which normalise their responses for contrast and thereby reduce the sensitivity to contrast changes. Thus, velocity changes of moving natural images are reflected more reliably in the detector response. The (s)cc-EMDs can easily be implemented in hardware and software and can be a valuable novel visual motion sensor for mobile robots.

  17. Contrast-Independent Biologically Inspired Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Babies, Birthe; Lindemann, Jens Peter; Egelhaaf, Martin; Möller, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Optic flow, i.e., retinal image movement resulting from ego-motion, is a crucial source of information used for obstacle avoidance and course control in flying insects. Optic flow analysis may prove promising for mobile robotics although it is currently not among the standard techniques. Insects have developed a computationally cheap analysis mechanism for image motion. Detailed computational models, the so-called elementary motion detectors (EMDs), describe motion detection in insects. However, the technical application of EMDs is complicated by the strong effect of local pattern contrast on their motion response. Here we present augmented versions of an EMD, the (s)cc-EMDs, which normalise their responses for contrast and thereby reduce the sensitivity to contrast changes. Thus, velocity changes of moving natural images are reflected more reliably in the detector response. The (s)cc-EMDs can easily be implemented in hardware and software and can be a valuable novel visual motion sensor for mobile robots. PMID:22163800

  18. Faithful contrastive features in learning.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-09-10

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct morphemes contrast on the surface in a particular environment, at least 1 of the underlying features on which the 2 differ must be realized faithfully on the surface. A learning procedure exploiting the faithful contrastive feature property, contrast analysis, can set the underlying values of some features, even where featural minimal pairs do not exist, but is nevertheless fundamentally limited in what it can set. This work suggests that observation of surface contrasts between pairs of words can contribute to the learning of underlying forms, while still supporting the view that interaction with the phonological mapping will be necessary to fully determine underlying forms.

  19. Polymeric gastrointestinal MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Tilcock, C; Unger, E C; Ahkong, Q F; Fritz, T; Koenig, S H; Brown, R D

    1991-01-01

    Combining either paramagnetic (gadolinium chelates) or superparamagnetic (ferrite) contrast agents with polymers such as polyethylene glycol or cellulose, or with simple sugars such as dextrose, results in mixtures that exhibit improved T1 and/or T2 relaxivity compared with that of the contrast agent alone. It is suggested that the addition of such inexpensive and nontoxic polymers or saccharides may improve the effectiveness and decrease the cost of enteric contrast agents.

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, P.H.; Brainard, J.R.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Ryan, R.R.

    1997-12-30

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC{sub 16}H{sub 14}N{sub 6}. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques. 10 figs.

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance contrast agents

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Paul H.; Brainard, James R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1997-01-01

    A family of contrast agents for use in magnetic resonance imaging and a method of enhancing the contrast of magnetic resonance images of an object by incorporating a contrast agent of this invention into the object prior to forming the images or during formation of the images. A contrast agent of this invention is a paramagnetic lanthanide hexaazamacrocyclic molecule, where a basic example has the formula LnC.sub.16 H.sub.14 N.sub.6. Important applications of the invention are in medical diagnosis, treatment, and research, where images of portions of a human body are formed by means of magnetic resonance techniques.

  2. Discourse Theory and "Contrastive Rhetoric."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bar-Lev, Zev

    1986-01-01

    Appraises R. Kaplan's "contrastic rhetoric" in the light of a multilanguage research project on discourse structure. Concludes that Kaplan's specific analyses are in need of substantive revision. (FL)

  3. Phase contrast MR angiography techniques.

    PubMed

    Dumoulin, C L

    1995-08-01

    Phase contrast MR methods encode information from macroscopic motion into the phase of the MR signal. Phase contrast methods can be applied with small and large fields-of-view, can give quantitative measures of velocity, and provide excellent suppression of signals from stationary tissue. Unlike time-of-flight methods, phase contrast methods directly measure flow and thus are not hindered by the artifactual appearance of tissue having short T1. Phase contrast angiograms can be two-dimensional (thin slice or projectile), three-dimensional, and/or time resolved and have applications throughout the body.

  4. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  5. Intensity contrast of solar network and faculae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, K. L.; Solanki, S. K.; Krivova, N. A.

    2013-02-01

    Aims: This study aims at setting observational constraints on the continuum and line core intensity contrast of network and faculae, specifically, their relationship with magnetic field and disc position. Methods: Full-disc magnetograms and intensity images by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) were employed. Bright magnetic features, representing network and faculae, were identified and the relationship between their intensity contrast at continuum and line core with magnetogram signal and heliocentric angle examined. Care was taken to minimize the inclusion of the magnetic canopy and straylight from sunspots and pores as network and faculae. Results: In line with earlier studies, network features, on a per unit magnetic flux basis, appeared brighter than facular features. Intensity contrasts in the continuum and line core differ considerably, most notably, they exhibit opposite centre-to-limb variations. We found this difference in behaviour to likely be due to the different mechanisms of the formation of the two spectral components. From a simple model based on bivariate polynomial fits to the measured contrasts we confirmed spectral line changes to be a significant driver of facular contribution to variation in solar irradiance. The discrepancy between the continuum contrast reported here and in the literature was shown to arise mainly from differences in spatial resolution and treatment of magnetic signals adjacent to sunspots and pores. Conclusions: HMI is a source of accurate contrasts and low-noise magnetograms covering the full solar disc. For irradiance studies it is important to consider not just the contribution from the continuum but also from the spectral lines. In order not to underestimate long-term variations in solar irradiance, irradiance models should take the greater contrast per unit magnetic flux associated with magnetic features with low magnetic flux into account.

  6. Chromatic contrast detection in spatial chromatic noise.

    PubMed

    Monaci, Gianluca; Menegaz, Gloria; Süsstrunk, Sabine; Knoblauch, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    The spectral properties of chromatic-detection mechanisms were investigated using a noise-masking paradigm. Contrast-detection thresholds were measured for a signal with a Gaussian spatial profile, modulated in the equiluminant plane in the presence of spatial chromatic noise. The noise was distributed within a sector in the equiluminant plane, centered on the signal direction. Each stimulus consisted of two adjacent fields, one of which contained the signal, separated horizontally by a gap with the same average chromaticity as the uniform background. Observers were asked to judge on which side of the central fixation point the signal was displayed via a two-alternative, forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm. Contrast thresholds were measured for four color directions and three sector widths at increasing levels of the average energy of the axial component of the noise. Results show that contrast thresholds are unaffected by the width of the noise sector, as previously found for temporally modulated stimuli (D'Zmura & Knoblauch, 1998). The results are consistent with the existence of spectrally broadband linear-detection mechanisms tuned to the signal color direction and support the hypothesis of the existence of higher-order color mechanisms with sensitivities tuned to intermediate directions in color space.

  7. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography: in vitro evaluation of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for in vivo optimization.

    PubMed

    Back, Susan J; Edgar, J Christopher; Canning, Douglas A; Darge, Kassa

    2015-09-01

    Pediatric contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is primarily performed outside the United States where a track record for safety in intravenous and intravesical applications has been established. Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography (ceVUS) has also been shown to have a much higher rate of vesicoureteral reflux detection compared to voiding cystourethrography. US contrast agents available in the United States differ from those abroad. Optison® (GE Healthcare, Princeton, NJ) is such an US contrast agent. While Optison® has similar characteristics to other second-generation agents, it has never been used for ceVUS. In vitro optimization of dose and imaging parameters as well as assessment of contrast visualization when delivered in conditions similar to ceVUS are necessary starting points prior to in vivo applications. To optimize the intravesical use of Optison® in vitro for ceVUS before its use in pediatric studies. The experimental design simulated intravesical use. Using 9- and 12-MHz linear transducers, we scanned 20-mL syringes varying mechanical index, US contrast agent concentration (0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%), solvent (saline, urine, radiographic contrast agent) and time out of refrigeration. We evaluated mechanical index settings and contrast duration, optimized the contrast dose, measured the effect of urine and radiographic contrast agent, and the impact of length of time of contrast outside of the refrigerator on US contrast appearance. We scanned 50-ml saline bags to assess the appearance and duration of US contrast with different delivery systems (injection vs. infusion). Consistent contrast visualization was achieved at a mechanical index of 0.06-0.17 and 0.11-0.48 for the L9 and L12 MHz transducers (P < 0.01), respectively. Thus, it was necessary to increase the mechanical index for better contrast visualization of the microbubbles with a higher transducer frequency. The lowest mechanical index for earliest visible microbubble destruction was 0

  8. Image Contrast in Holographic Reconstructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, B. R.

    1969-01-01

    The fundamental concepts of holography are explained using elementary wave ideas. Discusses wavefront reconstruction and contrast in hemigraphic images. The consequence of recording only the intensity at a given surface and using an oblique reference wave is shown to be an incomplete reconstruction resulting in image of low contrast. (LC)

  9. Faithful Contrastive Features in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2…

  10. Measurement of visual contrast sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongierke, H. E.; Marko, A. R.

    1985-04-01

    This invention involves measurement of the visual contrast sensitivity (modulation transfer) function of a human subject by means of linear or circular spatial frequency pattern on a cathode ray tube whose contrast is automatically decreasing or increasing depending on the subject pressing or releasing a hand-switch button. The threshold of detection of the pattern modulation is found by the subject by adjusting the contrast to values which vary about the subject's threshold thereby determining the threshold and also providing by the magnitude of the contrast fluctuations between reversals some estimate of the variability of the subject's absolute threshold. The invention also involves the slow automatic sweeping of the spatial frequency of the pattern over the spatial frequencies after preset time intervals or after threshold has been defined at each frequency by a selected number of subject-determined threshold crossings; i.e., contrast reversals.

  11. Anatomical background noise power spectrum in differential phase contrast and dark field contrast mammograms.

    PubMed

    Garrett, John; Ge, Yongshuai; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2014-12-01

    In x-ray absorption mammography, it has been found that the anatomical background noise can be characterized by a power law dependence on the spatial frequency, NPSa(f) ≈ αf(-β). In this letter, the authors present the first experimental results of the corresponding exponents, β, for differential phase contrast (βDPC) and dark field contrast (βDF) mammography. A grating-based x-ray multicontrast imaging acquisition benchtop system was used to simultaneously acquire mammograms with three different contrast mechanisms from 15 cadaver breasts under the same x-ray data acquisition conditions. The cadaver breasts were imaged in the coronal plane. The authors' experimental implementation of the well documented method [Burgess, Jacobson, and Judy, Med. Phys. 28, 419-437 (2001)] to extract the exponent β was first validated using anonymized clinical mammograms. Experiments were then used to determine β for the three types of mammograms for each cadaver breast acquired with our multicontrast imaging system: absorption contrast mammogram (βAbs.), differential phase contrast mammogram (βDPC), and dark-field contrast mammogram (βDF). The measured β values, acquired in the coronal plane with the benchtop multicontrast imaging system are βAbs. = 3.61 ± 0.49, βDPC = 2.54 ± 0.75, and βDF = 1.44 ± 0.49 for absorption, differential phase, and dark field mammogram, respectively. The β values for differential phase contrast and dark field mammography are significantly lower than the measured value of β for the corresponding absorption contrast mammograms. The greatly reduced β value of the anatomical background noise in differential phase contrast and dark field mammograms may suggest potentially improved diagnostic performance for certain types of breast cancer imaging tasks.

  12. Auger electron spectroscopy of contrast-forming layers on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, Siegfried; Exner, Hans Eckart

    1988-01-01

    As shown by Auger electron spectroscopy, the layers formed during contrasting metallographic polished Cu and Ni with an apparatus using intense electron bombardment consist of metal sputtered from the Au, Fe, or Pb cathode. This layer takes up oxygen from the residual atmosphere. The mechanism of contrast enhancement is the same as that of vapor-deposited interference layers.

  13. Contrast agents in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuling; Sun, Xilin; Shen, Baozhong

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is a noninvasive method to assess angiogenesis, which is widely used in clinical applications including diagnosis, monitoring therapy response and prognosis estimation in cancer patients. Contrast agents play a crucial role in DCE-MRI and should be carefully selected in order to improve accuracy in DCE-MRI examination. Over the past decades, there was much progress in the development of optimal contrast agents in DCE-MRI. In this review, we describe the recent research advances in this field and discuss properties of contrast agents, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we discuss the research perspectives for improving this promising imaging method. PMID:28415647

  14. Multimodal nanoparticulate bioimaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Parvesh; Singh, Amit; Brown, Scott C; Bengtsson, Niclas; Walter, Glenn A; Grobmyer, Stephen R; Iwakuma, Nobutaka; Santra, Swadeshmukul; Scott, Edward W; Moudgil, Brij M

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of bioimaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound, computed X-ray tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography) are commonly employed for clinical diagnostics and scientific research. While all of these methods use a characteristic "energy-matter" interaction to provide specific details about biological processes, each modality differs from another in terms of spatial and temporal resolution, anatomical and molecular details, imaging depth, as well as the desirable material properties of contrast agents needed for augmented imaging. On many occasions, it is advantageous to apply multiple complimentary imaging modalities for faster and more accurate prognosis. Since most imaging modalities employ exogenous contrast agents to improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the development and use of multimodal contrast agents is considered to be highly advantageous for obtaining improved imagery from sought-after imaging modalities. Multimodal contrast agents offer improvements in patient care, and at the same time can reduce costs and enhance safety by limiting the number of contrast agent administrations required for imaging purposes. Herein, we describe the synthesis and characterization of nanoparticulate-based multimodal contrast agent for noninvasive bioimaging using MRI, optical, and photoacoustic tomography (PAT)-imaging modalities. The synthesis of these agents is described using microemulsions, which enable facile integration of the desired diversity of contrast agents and material components into a single entity.

  15. The new numbers contrast sensitivity chart for contrast sensitivity measurement

    PubMed Central

    Khambhiphant, Bharkbhum; Tulvatana, Wasee; Busayarat, Mathu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To develop and assess the agreement between the 3 newly made numbers contrast sensitivity charts and the MARS contrast sensitivity chart (MARS) in contrast sensitivity measurement. Methods We developed 3 numbers contrast sensitivity charts for right, left and both eyes. Two hundred subjects were assigned to read numbers 0-9 for determining the degree of difficulty. Selected seven numbers were randomly arranged and the contrast of each number was decreased by the constant factor of 0.04 log units in the units as in the MARS. We assigned 112 subjects with visual acuity range from 20/480 to 20/20 to test once with the new chart and then with MARS Chart monocularly and binocularly by random order. Bland-Altman analysis for comparing two charts was performed. Results Bland-Altman analysis between 2 charts showed the mean differences were 0.04, 0.03, 0.04 log CS and the 95% limit of agreement (LOA) of the bias were (+0.26, −0.19), (+0.26, −0.20), (+0.25, −0.17) log CS for right, left and binocular. The Bland-Altman plot indicates a good concordance in 3 charts. Conclusions These charts show reasonable agreement and can be used interchangeably with the MARS. It is helpful for Thai people who can only read numbers in doing the test. We can use them in routinely contrast sensitivity measurement.

  16. Contrasting Rhetorics/Contrasting Cultures: Why Contrastive Rhetoric Needs a Better Conceptualization of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Dwight

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with an underdeveloped notion in the EAP sub-discipline of contrastive rhetoric: culture. It argues that a better conceptualization of contrastive rhetoric needs to include a better conceptualization of culture. After engaging with the complex question "What is culture?" the paper moves on to consider four sets of current issues…

  17. On the pragmatics of contrast.

    PubMed

    Clark, E V

    1990-06-01

    In this paper, I review properties and consequences of the PRINCIPLE OF CONTRAST. This principle, which I have argued from the beginning has a pragmatic basis, captures facts about the inferences speakers and addresses make for both conventional and novel words. Along with a PRINCIPLE OF CONVENTIONALITY, it accounts for the pre-emption of novel words by well-established ones. And it holds just as much for morphology as it does for words and larger expressions. In short, Contrast has the major properties Gathercole (1989) proposed as characteristic of her alternative to Contrast.

  18. Nonrenal Complications of Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Marycz, Damien; Ziada, Khaled M

    2014-07-01

    Nonrenal complications of contrast media are caused by chemotoxic or anaphylactoid reactions related to the contrast agent used. Chemotoxicity is mainly attributed to ionic concentration and osmolality. Anaphylactoid reactions are typically caused by direct activation of basophils, mast cells, and complement rather than an observable antigen-antibody interaction, and may be acute or delayed. History of an adverse reaction following prior exposure is the strongest predictor of a subsequent adverse reaction to contrast. Premedication regimens of corticosteroids or antihistamines can lower the risk of repeat adverse reactions. Treatment of anaphylactoid reactions depends on the severity of symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ultrasound Despeckling for Contrast Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Peter C.; Garson, Christopher D.; Acton, Scott T.; Hossack, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Images produced by ultrasound systems are adversely hampered by a stochastic process known as speckle. A despeckling method based upon removing outlier is proposed. The method is developed to contrast enhance B-mode ultrasound images. The contrast enhancement is with respect to decreasing pixel variations in homogeneous regions while maintaining or improving differences in mean values of distinct regions. A comparison of the proposed despeckling filter is compared with the other well known despeckling filters. The evaluations of despeckling performance are based upon improvements to contrast enhancement, structural similarity, and segmentation results on a Field II simulated image and actual B-mode cardiac ultrasound images captured in vivo. PMID:20227984

  20. Color assimilation and contrast near absolute threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John

    2012-01-01

    Simultaneous Contrast and Assimilation test targets are almost always viewed at high light levels. We measured the appearances of Simultaneous Contrast, Assimilation and other spatial surrounds near absolute rod threshold. Given the very different spatial organizations of receptive fields in rod and cone vision at detection threshold, it is not obvious that these familiar cone-vision spatial effects would be observed at rod light levels. Nevertheless, the spatial experiments showed that these targets have the same changes in appearance as those observed in bright light. Our experiments used very dim candle light that was above threshold for rods and L cones, and below threshold for M and S cones. Although detection threshold experiments show very different spatial organizations for rod and cone vision, we found that spatial contrast experiments gave the same changes of appearance. Neural contrast mechanisms at the lowest end of our visual HDR range are very similar to those at the top of the range in sunlight. This is true for both chromatic and achromatic targets.

  1. Small intestine contrast injection (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and throat, through the stomach into the small intestine. When in place, contrast dye is introduced and ... means of demonstrating whether or not the small intestine is normal when abnormality is suspected.

  2. A theory of behavioral contrast.

    PubMed

    Killeen, Peter R

    2014-11-01

    The reinforcers that maintain target instrumental responses also reinforce other responses that compete with them for expression. This competition, and its imbalance at points of transition between different schedules of reinforcement, causes behavioral contrast. The imbalance is caused by differences in the rates at which different responses come under the control of component stimuli. A model for this theory of behavioral contrast is constructed by expanding the coupling coefficient of MPR (Killeen, 1994). The coupling coefficient gives the degree of association of a reinforcer with the target response (as opposed to other competing responses). Competing responses, often identified as interim or adjunctive or superstitious behavior, are intrinsic to reinforcement schedules, especially interval schedules. In addition to that base-rate of competition, additional competing responses may spill over from the prior component, causing initial contrast; and they may be modulated by conditioned reinforcement or punishment from stimuli associated with subsequent component change, causing terminal contrast. A formalization of these hypotheses employed (a) a hysteresis model of off-target responses giving rise to initial contrast, and (b) a competing traces model of the suppression or enhancement of ongoing competitive responses by signals of following-schedule transition. The theory was applied to transient contrast, the following schedule effect, and the component duration effect.

  3. Intravascular contrast agents suitable for magnetic resonance imaging. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Clanton, J.A.; Herzer, W.A.; Gibbs, S.J.; Price, A.C.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Two paramagnetic chelates, chromium EDTA and gadolinium DTPA, were evaluated as potential intravenous contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging. After evaluating both agents in vitro, in vivo studies were conducted in dogs to document changes in renal appearance produced by contrast injection. Acute splenic and renal infarction were diagnosed with contrast-enhanced MR and confirmed by gamma camera imaging following administration of Tc-99m-labeled DMSA and sulfur colloid. The authors conclude that intravenous paramagnetic contrast agents presently offer the best mechanism for assessment of tissue function and changes in perfusion with MR.

  4. Internal polarization limits coronagraph contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breckinridge, James Bernard; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-08-01

    The performance of exoplanet imaging coronagraphs is limited by internal polarization. The point spread function (PSF) of these systems is determined by the details of the opto-mechanical layout selected to package the system and by the highly reflective metal thin films needed to maintain high optical system transmittance. To obtain the high contrast levels needed for terrestrial exoplanet science requires a comprehensive understanding of the vector electromagnetic wave from the source through the system. The literature contains many studies of polarization transmissivity of telescopes and instruments for the purpose of photo-polarimetry. Here we report for the first time the effects of polarization on high-performance image quality.We modeled a typical 2.4-meter Cassegrain telescope system with one 90-degree fold mirror and analyzed the system for polarization aberrations.We find: 1. The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: One for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-product polarization terms. 2. The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. 3. The image of the PSF for orthogonal components are shifted across the focal plane with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for astronomical sources (polarized or unpolarized) to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 masec. 4. The orthogonally polarized components of unpolarized sources contain different wavefront aberrations, which are separated by approximately 32 milliwaves. This implies that a wavefront correction system cannot optimally correct the aberrations for all polarizations simultaneously. 5. The polarization aberrations couple small parts (~1E-5) of each polarization component of the light into the orthogonal polarization to create highly distorted secondary, or “ghost” PSF image.. The radius of the spatial extent of the 90

  5. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination.

  6. Human contrast-detail performance with declining contrast

    PubMed Central

    Walz-Flannigan, Alisa; Babcock, Ben; Kagadis, George C.; Wang, Jihong; Langer, Steve G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: How do display settings and ambient lighting affect contrast detection thresholds for human observers? Can recalibrating a display for high ambient lighting improve object detection? Methods: Contrast/detail (CD) threshold detection performance was measured for observers using four color displays with varying overall contrast (e.g., differing maximum luminance and ambient lighting conditions). Detailed mapping of contrast detection performance (for fixed object size) was tracked as a function of: display maximum luminance, ambient lighting changes (with and without recalibrating for the higher ambience), and the performance of radiologists vs. nonradiologists. Results: The initial phase was analyzed with a hierarchical linear model of observer performance using: background gray level, maximum display luminance, and radiologist vs. nonradiologist. The only statistically significant finding was a maximum luminance of 100 cd/m2 display performing worse than a baseline peak of 400 cd/m2. The second phase examined ambient lighting effects on detection thresholds. Background gray level and maximum display luminance were examined coupled with ambient lighting for: baseline at 30, 435 uncorrected, and 435 lx with display recalibration for the ambient conditions. Results showed ambient correction improved sensitivity for small background digital driving level, but not at higher luminance backgrounds. Conclusions: For CD study, nonradiologist observers can be used without loss of applicability. Contrast detection thresholds improved significantly between displays with peak luminance from 100 cd/m2 to 200 cd/m2, but improvement beyond that was not statistically significant for contrast detection thresholds in a reading room environment. Applying a calibration correction at high ambience (435 lx) improved detection tasks primarily in the darker background regions. PMID:22957612

  7. Contrast-induced nephropathy in interventional cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Sudarsky, Doron; Nikolsky, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), ie, a rise in serum creatinine by either ≥0.5 mg/dL or by ≥25% from baseline within the first 2–3 days after contrast administration, is strongly associated with both increased inhospital and late morbidity and mortality after invasive cardiac procedures. The prevention of CIN is critical if long-term outcomes are to be optimized after percutaneous coronary intervention. The prevalence of CIN in patients receiving contrast varies markedly (from <1% to 50%), depending on the presence of well characterized risk factors, the most important of which are baseline chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Other risk factors include advanced age, anemia, left ventricular dysfunction, dehydration, hypotension, renal transplant, low serum albumin, concomitant use of nephrotoxins, and the volume of contrast agent. The pathophysiology of CIN is likely to be multifactorial, including direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis, disturbances in intrarenal hemodynamics, and immune mechanisms. Few strategies have been shown to be effective to prevent CIN beyond hydration, the goal of which is to establish brisk diuresis prior to contrast administration, and to avoid hypotension. New strategies of controlled hydration and diuresis are promising. Studies are mixed on whether prophylactic oral N-acetylcysteine reduces the incidence of CIN, although its use is generally recommended, given its low cost and favorable side effect profile. Agents which have been shown to be ineffective or harmful, or for which data supporting routine use do not exist, include fenoldopam, theophylline, dopamine, calcium channel blockers, prostaglandin E1, atrial natriuretic peptide, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:21912486

  8. Contrast-induced nephropathy in interventional cardiology.

    PubMed

    Sudarsky, Doron; Nikolsky, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    Development of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), ie, a rise in serum creatinine by either ≥0.5 mg/dL or by ≥25% from baseline within the first 2-3 days after contrast administration, is strongly associated with both increased inhospital and late morbidity and mortality after invasive cardiac procedures. The prevention of CIN is critical if long-term outcomes are to be optimized after percutaneous coronary intervention. The prevalence of CIN in patients receiving contrast varies markedly (from <1% to 50%), depending on the presence of well characterized risk factors, the most important of which are baseline chronic renal insufficiency and diabetes mellitus. Other risk factors include advanced age, anemia, left ventricular dysfunction, dehydration, hypotension, renal transplant, low serum albumin, concomitant use of nephrotoxins, and the volume of contrast agent. The pathophysiology of CIN is likely to be multifactorial, including direct cytotoxicity, apoptosis, disturbances in intrarenal hemodynamics, and immune mechanisms. Few strategies have been shown to be effective to prevent CIN beyond hydration, the goal of which is to establish brisk diuresis prior to contrast administration, and to avoid hypotension. New strategies of controlled hydration and diuresis are promising. Studies are mixed on whether prophylactic oral N-acetylcysteine reduces the incidence of CIN, although its use is generally recommended, given its low cost and favorable side effect profile. Agents which have been shown to be ineffective or harmful, or for which data supporting routine use do not exist, include fenoldopam, theophylline, dopamine, calcium channel blockers, prostaglandin E(1), atrial natriuretic peptide, statins, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  9. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-06-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection.

  10. Advances in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents for Biomarker Detection

    PubMed Central

    Sinharay, Sanhita; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have provided new capabilities for biomarker detection through molecular imaging. MRI contrast agents based on the T2 exchange mechanism have more recently expanded the armamentarium of agents for molecular imaging. Compared with T1 and T2* agents, T2 exchange agents have a slower chemical exchange rate, which improves the ability to design these MRI contrast agents with greater specificity for detecting the intended biomarker. MRI contrast agents that are detected through chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) have even slower chemical exchange rates. Another emerging class of MRI contrast agents uses hyperpolarized 13C to detect the agent with outstanding sensitivity. These hyperpolarized 13C agents can be used to track metabolism and monitor characteristics of the tissue microenvironment. Together, these various MRI contrast agents provide excellent opportunities to develop molecular imaging for biomarker detection. PMID:27049630

  11. Quantum Mechanics From the Cradle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John L.

    1974-01-01

    States that the major problem in learning quantum mechanics is often the student's ignorance of classical mechanics and that one conceptual hurdle in quantum mechanics is its statistical nature, in contrast to the determinism of classical mechanics. (MLH)

  12. Quantum Mechanics From the Cradle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, John L.

    1974-01-01

    States that the major problem in learning quantum mechanics is often the student's ignorance of classical mechanics and that one conceptual hurdle in quantum mechanics is its statistical nature, in contrast to the determinism of classical mechanics. (MLH)

  13. Images perceived after chromatic or achromatic contrast sensitivity losses.

    PubMed

    Luque, M José; Capilla, Pascual; de Fez, M Dolores; García-Domene, M Carmen

    2010-05-01

    We simulate how subjects with losses in chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity perceive colored images by using the spatiochromatic corresponding pair algorithm. This is a generalized version of the algorithm by Capilla et al. (J Opt Soc Am (A) 2004;21:176-186) for simulating color perception of color deviant subjects, which incorporates a simple spatial vision model, consisting of a linear filtering stage, with a band-pass achromatic filter and two low-pass chromatic ones, for the red-green and blue-yellow mechanisms. These filters, except for the global scaling, are the subject's contrast sensitivity functions measured along the cardinal directions of the color space. In its present form, the algorithm would serve to simulate alterations both in the spectral sensitivities and in the contrast sensitivities of the visual mechanisms. After a preliminary theoretical study on the effect of frequency selective and overall reductions in the contrast sensitivity function of a single mechanism, we present cases of real subjects with glaucoma and diabetes, suffering alterations of different magnitude in the three mechanisms. The simulations allow us to learn about the different types of distortions that can be experienced by a subject with impaired contrast sensitivities (blur, haloes, color shifts, local or global contrast, brightness and colorfulness reductions, etc.) and highlight the difficulties arising when trying to predict the quality of the final image from the losses in the individual mechanisms.

  14. Contrastive Rhetoric, Contrastive Poetics, or Perhaps Something Else?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scollon, Ron

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the discussion of the contemporary state of contrastive rhetoric that took place at the 1996 convention of the Teachers of English to the Speakers of Other Languages. The position taken at the convention states that no language or culture can be reduced to one or two diagrammatic structures and that stylistically preferred compositional…

  15. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  16. Multiscale image contrast amplification (MUSICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuylsteke, Pieter; Schoeters, Emile P.

    1994-05-01

    This article presents a novel approach to the problem of detail contrast enhancement, based on multiresolution representation of the original image. The image is decomposed into a weighted sum of smooth, localized, 2D basis functions at multiple scales. Each transform coefficient represents the amount of local detail at some specific scale and at a specific position in the image. Detail contrast is enhanced by non-linear amplification of the transform coefficients. An inverse transform is then applied to the modified coefficients. This yields a uniformly contrast- enhanced image without artefacts. The MUSICA-algorithm is being applied routinely to computed radiography images of chest, skull, spine, shoulder, pelvis, extremities, and abdomen examinations, with excellent acceptance. It is useful for a wide range of applications in the medical, graphical, and industrial area.

  17. Acoustic response from adherent targeted contrast agents

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shukui; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    In ultrasonic molecular imaging, encapsulated micron-sized gas bubbles are tethered to a blood vessel wall by targeting ligands. A challenging problem is to detect the echoes from adherent microbubbles and distinguish them from echoes from non-adherent agents and tissue. Echoes from adherent contrast agents are observed to include a high amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and significantly different spectral shape compared with free agents (p < 0.0003). Mechanisms for the observed acoustical difference and potential techniques to utilize these differences for molecular imaging are proposed. PMID:17225437

  18. Brightness contrast-contrast induction model predicts assimilation and inverted assimilation effects.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Yuval; Spitzer, Hedva; Einav, Shmuel

    2008-10-17

    In classical assimilation effects, intermediate luminance patches appear lighter when their immediate surround is comprised of white patches and appear darker when their immediate surround is comprised of dark patches. With patches either darker or lighter than both inducing patches, the direction of the brightness effect is reversed and termed as "inverted assimilation effect." Several explanations and models have been suggested, some are relevant to specific stimulus geometry, anchoring theory, and models that involve high level cortical processing (such as scission, etc.). None of these studies predicted the various types of assimilation effects and their inverted effects. We suggest here a compound brightness model, which is based on contrast-contrast induction (second-order adaptation mechanism). The suggested model predicts the various types of brightness assimilation effects and their inverted effects. The model is composed of three main stages: (1) composing post-retinal second-order opponent receptive fields, (2) calculations of local and remote contrast, and (3) adaptation of the second-order (contrast-contrast induction). We also utilize a variation of the Jacobi iteration process to enable elegant edge integration in order to evaluate the model is performance.

  19. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  20. Contrast-specific ultrasound techniques.

    PubMed

    Quaia, E

    2007-06-01

    The advent of microbubble contrast agents has determined an important evolution of ultrasound (US) technology due to the introduction of contrast-specific US techniques. This was due to the fact that neither colour or power Doppler are suitable for correct management of the signals produced by microbubble insonation, as they are limited by the heavy presence of artefacts. Microbubbles may be insonated by a characteristic frequency named resonance or fundamental frequency (f (0)) by using a high or low transmit power. If insonated by a high transmit power, microbubbles produce a wideband harmonic signal due to microbubble destruction. If insonated by a low transmit power, microbubbles produce harmonic frequencies (2f, 3f, 4f) due to their nonlinear physical behaviour. Contrast-specific US techniques have recently undergone an important technical development with the introduction of innovative algorithms able to register selectively the harmonic signals produced by microbubbles and to suppress the signal produced by stationary tissues. The different contrast-specific US techniques may be distinguished by their basic principle into pseudo-Doppler, harmonic, phase-modulation, amplitude-modulation and phase-and amplitude-modulation techniques.

  1. A Bibliography of Contrastive Linguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, John H.; Rice, Frank A.

    This 484-item bibliography is a revised and expanded version of William W. Gage's "Contrastive Studies in Linguistics: A Bibliographical Checklist" (CAL, 1961). Following a general section, the entries are arranged alphabetically by foreign language. The language headings are: Afrikaans, Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Bantu, Batak, Bengali,…

  2. Short wavelength abedo, contrasts and micro-organisms on Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Sanjay; Słowik, Grzegorgz; Ansari, Arif; Smith, David; Mogul, Rakesh; Vaishampayan, Parag

    2017-04-01

    The decrease in the amount of sunlight reflected by Venus at wavelengths below 500 nm, and the presence of contrast features prominent at ultraviolet wavelengths (270 - 410 nm) are two properties of the Venus clouds that despite numerous attempts, remain unexplained. Additional uncertainties include why the contrasts exist at all, and why the substance responsible for the contrasts does not appear well mixed. Nearly a century after the ultraviolet contrasts were discovered using Earth-based photographs, the substance or mechanisms responsible for the lower albedo and contrast patterns are still unknown. Many physical and chemical explanations have been proposed, but none of the hypotheses explain decrease of albedo below 500 nm, the spectral dependence of contrasts, and plausible mechanisms for presence or transport of those substances - transport from surface if the absorber is a condensation nuclei or transformations if in dissolved form due to photochemistry and the observed rapid changes in the contrasts. Considering the ultraviolet absorption shown by some terrestrial microorganisms, we speculate whether airborne bacteria (indigenous or introduced through meteoritic impact debris transported from Earth) could explain the mysterious contrast or the absorption cloud features on Venus. Plumes of cloud-borne aeroplankton, analogous to phytoplankton in Earth's oceans which are in dense enough concentrations to be observed from space, may have evolved on Venus when the planet had liquid water on its early surface, eventually migrating to a habitable zone in the clouds 50-70 km above the inhospitably hot surface today.

  3. Sparsity constrained contrast source inversion.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana B; van Dongen, Koen W A

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound imaging is used for detecting and characterizing breast lesions. A state of the art imaging method is the contrast source inversion (CSI), which solves the full wave nonlinear inverse problem. However, when the measurements are acquired in noisy environments, CSI can diverge from the correct solution after several iterations. Problems associated with noisy data were originally solved by including total variation (TV) regularization. Unfortunately, for very noisy data, TV regularization alone is not sufficient. In this work, compressed sensing ideas are used to regularize the inversion process by restricting the solution of the CSI method to be sparse in a transformation domain. The proposed method estimates the contrast source and contrast function by minimizing the mean squared error between the measured and modeled data. An extra penalty term is added to measure sparsity in the transformation domain. A second method that combines sparsity of the contrast source and minimal TV in the contrast function is also presented. The proposed methods are tested on noise-free and noisy synthetic data sets representing a scan of a cancerous breast. Numerical experiments show that, for measurements contaminated with 1% noise, the sparsity constrained CSI improves the normalized mean squared error of the reconstructed speed-of-sound profiles up to 36% in comparison with traditional CSI. Also, for measurements contaminated with 5% noise, the proposed methods improve the quality of the reconstruction up to 70% in comparison with the traditional CSI method. Experimental results also show that the methods remain convergent to the correct speed-of-sound profile as the number of iterations increases.

  4. Microlesions induced by microcavitation during contrast echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas; Li, Peng; Gordon, David; Armstrong, William

    2004-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for histologically identifiable lesions associated with myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in rats. Diagnostic ultrasound scans with 1:4 end-systolic triggering provided a short-axis view of the left ventricle in rats at 1.5 MHz with 1.45-μs pulses of 1.7 Mechanical Index. Two relatively high doses (500 μl/kg) of OptisonTM ultrasound contrast agent were given 5 min apart during 10 min of MCE. One day after scanning, rats were sacrificed and the hearts fixed for histology. Slides were scored blind by a pathologist, and photomicrographs in the anterior half of the heart sections were characterized by digital image analysis. Microlesions identified by inflammatory infiltrates were scattered primarily over the anterior half of the sections. Pathologically, there was inflammatory cell infiltration in areas of 0.6+/-0.5% of the sections for shams and 3.6+/-3.6% for MCE (P<0.01). Analysis of the photographs from the anterior wall found microlesion areas of 0.5+/-0.8% for shams and 7.4+/-5.0% for MCE (P<0.02). Diagnostic MCE at high Mechanical Index has a potential for causing microscale lesions in the myocardium by nucleation of microcavitation. [Work supported by NIH Grant EB0338.

  5. Microlesions induced by microcavitation during contrast echocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Douglas; Li, Peng; Gordon, David; Armstrong, William

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to search for histologically identifiable lesions associated with myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in rats. Diagnostic ultrasound scans with 1:4 end-systolic triggering provided a short-axis view of the left ventricle in rats at 1.5 MHz with 1.45-μs pulses of 1.7 Mechanical Index. Two relatively high doses (500 μl/kg) of OptisonTM ultrasound contrast agent were given 5 min apart during 10 min of MCE. One day after scanning, rats were sacrificed and the hearts fixed for histology. Slides were scored blind by a pathologist, and photomicrographs in the anterior half of the heart sections were characterized by digital image analysis. Microlesions identified by inflammatory infiltrates were scattered primarily over the anterior half of the sections. Pathologically, there was inflammatory cell infiltration in areas of 0.6+/-0.5% of the sections for shams and 3.6+/-3.6% for MCE (P<0.01). Analysis of the photographs from the anterior wall found microlesion areas of 0.5+/-0.8% for shams and 7.4+/-5.0% for MCE (P<0.02). Diagnostic MCE at high Mechanical Index has a potential for causing microscale lesions in the myocardium by nucleation of microcavitation. [Work supported by NIH Grant EB0338.

  6. Saliency detection via textural contrast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonjun; Kim, Changick

    2012-05-01

    We present a new approach for visual saliency detection from various natural images. It is inspired by our careful observation that the human visual system (HVS) responds sensitively and quickly to high textural contrast, derived from the discriminative directional pattern from its surroundings as well as the noticeable luminance difference, for understanding a given scene. By formulating such textural contrast within a multiscale framework, we construct a more reliable saliency map even without color information when compared to most previous approaches still suffering from the complex and cluttered background. The proposed method has been extensively tested on a wide range of natural images, and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is effective in detecting visual saliency compared to various state-of-the-art methods.

  7. High-contrast imaging testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, K; Silva, D; Poyneer, L; Macintosh, B; Bauman, B; Palmer, D; Remington, T; Delgadillo-Lariz, M

    2008-01-23

    Several high-contrast imaging systems are currently under construction to enable the detection of extra-solar planets. In order for these systems to achieve their objectives, however, there is considerable developmental work and testing which must take place. Given the need to perform these tests, a spatially-filtered Shack-Hartmann adaptive optics system has been assembled to evaluate new algorithms and hardware configurations which will be implemented in these future high-contrast imaging systems. In this article, construction and phase measurements of a membrane 'woofer' mirror are presented. In addition, results from closed-loop operation of the assembled testbed with static phase plates are presented. The testbed is currently being upgraded to enable operation at speeds approaching 500 hz and to enable studies of the interactions between the woofer and tweeter deformable mirrors.

  8. Adapted polarization state contrast image.

    PubMed

    Richert, Michael; Orlik, Xavier; De Martino, Antonello

    2009-08-03

    We propose a general method to maximize the polarimetric contrast between an object and its background using a predetermined illumination polarization state. After a first estimation of the polarimetric properties of the scene by classical Mueller imaging, we evaluate the incident polarized field that induces scattered polarization states by the object and background, as opposite as possible on the Poincar e sphere. With a detection method optimized for a 2-channel imaging system, Monte Carlo simulations of low flux coherent imaging are performed with various objects and backgrounds having different properties of retardance, dichroism and depolarization. With respect to classical Mueller imaging, possibly associated to the polar decomposition, our results show a noticeable increase in the Bhattacharyya distance used as our contrast parameter.

  9. Monitoring stiffness contrast in elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Miklos; Bharat, Shyam; Varghese, Tomy; Techavipoo, Udomchai; Liu, Wu

    2005-03-01

    Elastography is an imaging modality used to image tissue strains resulting from external quasi-static compression of tissue. Therefore, elastograms can be used to study variations in the stiffness of thermally coagulated regions of tissue. In this study, the variations in stiffness contrast of lesions formed by radio frequency (RF) ablation of canine liver tissue have been investigated. RF ablation was performed on in vitro canine liver tissue over a range of temperatures from 70 - 100 degrees C, and over a range of ablation times from 1 -- 8 minutes. Elastography was then performed on these samples and on normal tissue. It was expected that stiffness contrast would increase with increasing lesion temperature and ablation duration, on the basis that higher temperature and greater ablation durations lead to increased protein denaturation. This increase was seen with ablation duration, but is not obvious with ablation temperature. These and other results will be discussed.

  10. Subsurface contrast due to friction in heterodyne force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbiest, G. J.; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2017-02-01

    The nondestructive imaging of subsurface structures on the nanometer scale has been a long-standing desire in both science and industry. A few impressive images were published so far that demonstrate the general feasibility by combining ultrasound with an atomic force microscope. From different excitation schemes, heterodyne force microscopy seems to be the most promising candidate delivering the highest contrast and resolution. However, the physical contrast mechanism is unknown, thereby preventing any quantitative analysis of samples. Here we show that friction at material boundaries within the sample is responsible for the contrast formation. This result is obtained by performing a full quantitative analysis, in which we compare our experimentally observed contrasts with simulations and calculations. Surprisingly, we can rule out all other generally believed responsible mechanisms, like Rayleigh scattering, sample (visco)elasticity, damping of the ultrasonic tip motion, and ultrasound attenuation. Our analytical description paves the way for quantitative subsurface-AFM imaging.

  11. Magnetic and Plasmonic Contrast Agents in Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Oldenburg, Amy L; Blackmon, Richard L; Sierchio, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast. A comparison of the wide variety of nanoparticle systems is also presented, where the figures of merit depend strongly upon the choice of biological application.

  12. Magnetic and Plasmonic Contrast Agents in Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburg, Amy L.; Blackmon, Richard L.; Sierchio, Justin M.

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has gained widespread application for many biomedical applications, yet the traditional array of contrast agents used in incoherent imaging modalities do not provide contrast in OCT. Owing to the high biocompatibility of iron oxides and noble metals, magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticles, respectively, have been developed as OCT contrast agents to enable a range of biological and pre-clinical studies. Here we provide a review of these developments within the past decade, including an overview of the physical contrast mechanisms and classes of OCT system hardware addons needed for magnetic and plasmonic nanoparticle contrast. A comparison of the wide variety of nanoparticle systems is also presented, where the figures of merit depend strongly upon the choice of biological application. PMID:27429543

  13. Electrofluidic systems for contrast management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebello, Keith J.; Maranchi, Jeffrey P.; Tiffany, Jason E.; Brown, Christopher Y.; Maisano, Adam J.; Hagedon, Matthew A.; Heikenfeld, Jason C.

    2012-06-01

    Operating in dynamic lighting conditions and in greatly varying backgrounds is challenging. Current paints and state-ofthe- art passive adaptive coatings (e.g. photochromics) are not suitable for multi- environment situations. A semi-active, low power, skin is needed that can adapt its reflective properties based on the background environment to minimize contrast through the development and incorporation of suitable pigment materials. Electrofluidic skins are a reflective display technology for electronic ink and paper applications. The technology is similar to that in E Ink but makes use of MEMS based microfluidic structures, instead of simple black and white ink microcapsules dispersed in clear oil. Electrofluidic skin's low power operation and fast switching speeds (~20 ms) are an improvement over current state-ofthe- art contrast management technologies. We report on a microfluidic display which utilizes diffuse pigment dispersion inks to change the contrast of the underlying substrate from 5.8% to 100%. Voltage is applied and an electromechanical pressure is used to pull a pigment dispersion based ink from a hydrophobic coated reservoir into a hydrophobic coated surface channel. When no voltage is applied, the Young-Laplace pressure pushes the pigment dispersion ink back down into the reservoir. This allows the pixel to switch from the on and off state by balancing the two pressures. Taking a systems engineering approach from the beginning of development has enabled the technology to be integrated into larger systems.

  14. Myasthenia Gravis following Low-Osmolality Iodinated Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Luca; Dalla Vestra, Michele; Zancanaro, Andrea; Presotto, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of 79-year-old man admitted to our general hospital for a 6-week history of progressive dysphagia to solids and liquids associated with weight loss. To reach a diagnosis a total body CT scan with low-osmolality iodinate contrast agent was performed. Two hours later the patient developed an acute respiratory failure requiring orotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The laboratory and neurological tests allow formulating the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis. In literature, other three case reports have associated myasthenic crisis with exposure to low-osmolality contrast media. This suggests being careful in administering low-osmolality contrast media in myasthenic patients.

  15. Systematic misestimation in a vernier task arising from contrast mismatch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Lee, Barry B; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2008-01-01

    Luminance signals mediated by the magnocellular (MC) pathway play an important role in vernier tasks. MC ganglion cells show a phase advance in their responses to sinusoidal stimuli with increasing contrast due to contrast gain control mechanisms. If the phase information in MC ganglion cell responses were utilized by central mechanisms in vernier tasks, one might expect systematic errors caused by the phase advance. This systematic error may contribute to the contrast paradox phenomenon, where vernier performance deteriorates, rather than improves, when only one of the target pair increases in contrast. Vernier psychometric functions for a pair of gratings of mismatched contrast were measured to seek such misestimation. In associated electrophysiological experiments, MC and parvocellular (PC) ganglion cells' responses to similar stimuli were measured to provide a physiological reference. The psychophysical experiments show that a high-contrast grating is perceived as phase advanced in the drift direction compared to a low-contrast grating, especially at a high drift rate (8 Hz). The size of the phase advance was comparable to that seen in MC cells under similar stimulus conditions. These results are consistent with the MC pathway supporting vernier performance with achromatic gratings. The shifts in vernier psychometric functions were negligible for pairs of chromatic gratings under the conditions tested here, consistent with the lack of phase advance both in responses of PC ganglion cells and in frequency-doubled chromatic responses of MC ganglion cells.

  16. Contrast and lustre: A model that accounts for eleven different forms of contrast discrimination in binocular vision.

    PubMed

    Georgeson, Mark A; Wallis, Stuart A; Meese, Tim S; Baker, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    Our goal here is a more complete understanding of how information about luminance contrast is encoded and used by the binocular visual system. In two-interval forced-choice experiments we assessed observers' ability to discriminate changes in contrast that could be an increase or decrease of contrast in one or both eyes, or an increase in one eye coupled with a decrease in the other (termed IncDec). The base or pedestal contrasts were either in-phase or out-of-phase in the two eyes. The opposed changes in the IncDec condition did not cancel each other out, implying that along with binocular summation, information is also available from mechanisms that do not sum the two eyes' inputs. These might be monocular mechanisms. With a binocular pedestal, monocular increments of contrast were much easier to see than monocular decrements. These findings suggest that there are separate binocular (B) and monocular (L,R) channels, but only the largest of the three responses, max(L,B,R), is available to perception and decision. Results from contrast discrimination and contrast matching tasks were described very accurately by this model. Stimuli, data, and model responses can all be visualized in a common binocular contrast space, allowing a more direct comparison between models and data. Some results with out-of-phase pedestals were not accounted for by the max model of contrast coding, but were well explained by an extended model in which gratings of opposite polarity create the sensation of lustre. Observers can discriminate changes in lustre alongside changes in contrast.

  17. Hemodynamic and tubular changes induced by contrast media.

    PubMed

    Caiazza, Antonella; Russo, Luigi; Sabbatini, Massimo; Russo, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury induced by contrast media (CI-AKI) is the third cause of AKI in hospitalized patients. Contrast media cause relevant alterations both in renal hemodynamics and in renal tubular cell function that lead to CI-AKI. The vasoconstriction of intrarenal vasculature is the main hemodynamic change induced by contrast media; the vasoconstriction is accompanied by a cascade of events leading to ischemia and reduction of glomerular filtration rate. Cytotoxicity of contrast media causes apoptosis of tubular cells with consequent formation of casts and worsening of ischemia. There is an interplay between the negative effects of contrast media on renal hemodynamics and on tubular cell function that leads to activation of renin-angiotensin system and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the kidney. Production of ROS intensifies cellular hypoxia through endothelial dysfunction and alteration of mechanisms regulating tubular cells transport. The physiochemical characteristics of contrast media play a critical role in the incidence of CI-AKI. Guidelines suggest the use of either isoosmolar or low-osmolar contrast media rather than high-osmolar contrast media particularly in patients at increased risk of CI-AKI. Older age, presence of atherosclerosis, congestive heart failure, chronic renal disease, nephrotoxic drugs, and diuretics may multiply the risk of CI-AKI.

  18. Contrasting strategic and Milan therapies.

    PubMed

    MacKinnon, L

    1983-12-01

    Three related models of therapy are often grouped together as the strategic therapies. These are brief therapy model associated with the Mental Research Institute, approaches developed by Jay Haley and Cloë Madanes, and the model developed by the Milan associates. Controversy exists, however, as to whether the Milan model should be included as a strategic therapy. It appears that the similarities among the three models can mask deeper differences, thus confounding the confusion. This paper contrast the models in their development, theory, and practice.

  19. Synthesis of laboratory Ultrasound Contrast Agents.

    PubMed

    Park, Jingam; Park, Donghee; Shin, Unchul; Moon, Sanghyub; Kim, Chihyun; Kim, Han Sung; Park, Hyunjin; Choi, Kiju; Jung, Bongkwang; Oh, Jaemin; Seo, Jongbum

    2013-10-21

    Ultrasound Contrast Agents (UCAs) were developed to maximize reflection contrast so that organs can be seen clearly in ultrasound imaging. UCAs increase the signal to noise ratio (SNR) by linear and non-linear mechanisms and thus help more accurately visualize the internal organs and blood vessels. However, the UCAs on the market are not only expensive, but are also not optimized for use in various therapeutic research applications such as ultrasound-aided drug delivery. The UCAs fabricated in this study utilize conventional lipid and albumin for shell formation and perfluorobutane as the internal gas. The shape and density of the UCA bubbles were verified by optical microscopy and Cryo SEM, and compared to those of the commercially available UCAs, Definity® and Sonovue®. The size distribution and characteristics of the reflected signal were also analyzed using a particle size analyzer and ultrasound imaging equipment. Our experiments indicate that UCAs composed of spherical microbubbles, the majority of which were smaller than 1 um, were successfully synthesized. Microbubbles 10 um or larger were also identified when different shell characteristics and filters were used. These laboratory UCAs can be used for research in both diagnoses and therapies.

  20. Improving photoacoustic imaging contrast of brachytherapy seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Leo; Baghani, Ali; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu; Tang, Shuo

    2013-03-01

    Prostate brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy for treating prostate cancer where the radiation sources are seeds inserted into the prostate. Accurate localization of seeds during prostate brachytherapy is essential to the success of intraoperative treatment planning. The current standard modality used in intraoperative seeds localization is transrectal ultrasound. Transrectal ultrasound, however, suffers in image quality due to several factors such speckle, shadowing, and off-axis seed orientation. Photoacoustic imaging, based on the photoacoustic phenomenon, is an emerging imaging modality. The contrast generating mechanism in photoacoustic imaging is optical absorption that is fundamentally different from conventional B-mode ultrasound which depicts changes in acoustic impedance. A photoacoustic imaging system is developed using a commercial ultrasound system. To improve imaging contrast and depth penetration, absorption enhancing coating is applied to the seeds. In comparison to bare seeds, approximately 18.5 dB increase in signal-to-noise ratio as well as a doubling of imaging depth are achieved. Our results demonstrate that the coating of the seeds can further improve the discernibility of the seeds.

  1. Stabilizing method for reflection interference contrast microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kipom; Saleh, Omar A

    2008-04-20

    Reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) is a technique for measuring the shape and position of microscopic objects in solution; it has many biological and biophysical applications. Use of RICM for long-time acquisitions requires minimizing defocusing effects that are due to thermal and mechanical drift. We present a simple stabilizing method that accomplishes this using an image-analysis-based linear focus function to establish feedback control of the focal position. While implementing this routine, we used RICM for independent measurement of the apparent fluctuation in the vertical position of an immobilized bead: the measured height had a standard deviation of 0.12 nm during a 45 min acquisition while under feedback control, demonstrating the high stability achievable with our approach.

  2. Multi-contrast Photoacoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Junjie

    Photoacoustic microscopy is a hybrid imaging modality with high spatial resolution, moderate imaging depth, excellent imaging contrast and functional imaging capability. Taking full advantage of this powerful weapon, we have investigated different anatomical, functional, flow dynamic and metabolic parameter measurements using photoacoustic microscopy. Specifically, Evans-blue dye was used to enhance photoacoustic microscopy of capillaries; label-free transverse and axial blood flow was measured based on bandwidth broadening and time shift of the photoacoustic signals; metabolic rate of oxygen was quantified in vivo from all the five parameters measured by photoacoustic microcopy; whole cross-sectional imaging of small intestine was achieved on a double-illumination photoacoustic microscopy with extended depth of focus and imaging depth; hemodynamic imaging was performed on a MEMS-mirror enhanced photoacoustic microscopy with a cross-sectional imaging rate of 400 Hz. As a maturing imaging technique, PAM is expected to find new applications in both fundamental life science and clinical practice.

  3. Contrastive divergence in gaussian diffusions.

    PubMed

    Movellan, Javier R

    2008-09-01

    This letter presents an analysis of the contrastive divergence (CD) learning algorithm when applied to continuous-time linear stochastic neural networks. For this case, powerful techniques exist that allow a detailed analysis of the behavior of CD. The analysis shows that CD converges to maximum likelihood solutions only when the network structure is such that it can match the first moments of the desired distribution. Otherwise, CD can converge to solutions arbitrarily different from the log-likelihood solutions, or they can even diverge. This result suggests the need to improve our theoretical understanding of the conditions under which CD is expected to be well behaved and the conditions under which it may fail. In, addition the results point to practical ideas on how to improve the performance of CD.

  4. Perceived Duration Increases with Contrast, but Only a Little.

    PubMed

    Benton, Christopher P; Redfern, Annabelle S

    2016-01-01

    Recent adaptation studies provide evidence for early visual areas playing a role in duration perception. One explanation for the pronounced duration compression commonly found with adaptation is that it reflects adaptation-driven stimulus-specific reduction in neural activity in early visual areas. If this level of stimulus-associated neural activity does drive duration, then we would expect a strong effect of contrast on perceived duration as electrophysiological studies shows neural activity in early visual areas to be strongly related to contrast. We employed a spatially isotropic noise stimulus where the luminance of each noise element was independently sinusoidally modulated at 4 Hz. Participants matched the perceived duration of a high (0.9) or low (0.1) contrast stimulus to a previously presented standard stimulus (600 ms, contrast = 0.3). To achieve perceptually equivalent durations, the low contrast stimulus had to be presented for longer than the high contrast stimulus. This occurred when we controlled for stimulus size and when we adjusted for individual differences in perceived temporal frequency. Further, we show that the effect cannot be explained by shifts in perceived onset and offset and is not explained by a simple contrast-driven response bias. The direction of our results is clearly consistent with the idea that level of neural activity drives duration. However, the magnitude of the effect (~10% duration difference over a 0.9-0.1 contrast reduction) is in marked contrast to the larger duration distortions that can be found with repetition suppression and the oddball effect; particularly when these may be associated with smaller differences in neural activity than that expected from our contrast difference. Taken together, these results indicate that level of stimulus-related neural activity in early visual areas is unlikely to provide a general mechanism for explaining differences in perceived duration.

  5. Perceived Duration Increases with Contrast, but Only a Little

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Christopher P.; Redfern, Annabelle S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent adaptation studies provide evidence for early visual areas playing a role in duration perception. One explanation for the pronounced duration compression commonly found with adaptation is that it reflects adaptation-driven stimulus-specific reduction in neural activity in early visual areas. If this level of stimulus-associated neural activity does drive duration, then we would expect a strong effect of contrast on perceived duration as electrophysiological studies shows neural activity in early visual areas to be strongly related to contrast. We employed a spatially isotropic noise stimulus where the luminance of each noise element was independently sinusoidally modulated at 4 Hz. Participants matched the perceived duration of a high (0.9) or low (0.1) contrast stimulus to a previously presented standard stimulus (600 ms, contrast = 0.3). To achieve perceptually equivalent durations, the low contrast stimulus had to be presented for longer than the high contrast stimulus. This occurred when we controlled for stimulus size and when we adjusted for individual differences in perceived temporal frequency. Further, we show that the effect cannot be explained by shifts in perceived onset and offset and is not explained by a simple contrast-driven response bias. The direction of our results is clearly consistent with the idea that level of neural activity drives duration. However, the magnitude of the effect (~10% duration difference over a 0.9–0.1 contrast reduction) is in marked contrast to the larger duration distortions that can be found with repetition suppression and the oddball effect; particularly when these may be associated with smaller differences in neural activity than that expected from our contrast difference. Taken together, these results indicate that level of stimulus-related neural activity in early visual areas is unlikely to provide a general mechanism for explaining differences in perceived duration. PMID:28018282

  6. Biofluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oertel, Herbert

    In contrast to the topics discussed in previous chapters, biofluid mechanics is concerned with flows that are influenced by flexible biological surfaces. We distinguish between flows past living bodies in air or in water, such as bird flight or the swimming of fish, and internal flows, such as the closed blood circulation of living beings. In the previous millions of years, evolution has developed crawling, running, swimming, gliding, and flying as methods of motion of living beings, depending on their size and weight.

  7. Contrasting Causatives: A Minimalist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubino Blanco, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the mechanisms behind the linguistic expression of causation in English, Hiaki (Uto-Aztecan) and Spanish. Pylkkanen's (2002, 2008) analysis of causatives as dependent on the parameterization of the functional head v[subscript CAUSE] is chosen as a point of departure. The studies conducted in this dissertation confirm…

  8. Contrasting Causatives: A Minimalist Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubino Blanco, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation explores the mechanisms behind the linguistic expression of causation in English, Hiaki (Uto-Aztecan) and Spanish. Pylkkanen's (2002, 2008) analysis of causatives as dependent on the parameterization of the functional head v[subscript CAUSE] is chosen as a point of departure. The studies conducted in this dissertation confirm…

  9. X-ray Phase Contrast analysis - Digital wavefront development

    SciTech Connect

    Idir, Mourad; Potier, Jonathan; Fricker, Sebastien; Snigirev, Anatoly; Snigireva, Irina; Modi, M. H.

    2010-06-23

    Optical schemes that enable imaging of the phase shift produced by an object have become popular in the x-ray region, where phase can be the dominant contrast mechanism. The propagation-based technique consists of recording the interference pattern produced by choosing one or several sample-to-detector distances. Pioneering studies, carried out making use of synchrotron radiation, demonstrated that this technique results in a dramatic increase of image contrast and detail visibility, allowing the detection of structures invisible with conventional techniques. An experimental and theoretical study of in-line hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging had been performed. The theoretical description of the technique is based on Fresnel diffraction. As an illustration of the potential of this quantitative imaging technique, high-resolution x-ray phase contrast images of simple objects will be presented.

  10. [Iodinated contrast media and iodine allergy: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Meunier, B; Joskin, J; Damas, F; Meunier, P

    2013-09-01

    The term "iodine allergy" is an old phrase that refers to a reaction to iodinated contrast media. After a brief review of definitions, pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors of this clinical entity, management is urged immediate and delayed according to the most recent recommendations from the literature. We underline that iodine allergy, as such, does not really exist.

  11. Immobilized contrast-enhanced MRI: Gadolinium-based long-term MR contrast enhancement of the vein graft vessel wall.

    PubMed

    Mitsouras, Dimitris; Vemula, Praveen Kumar; Yu, Peng; Tao, Ming; Nguyen, Binh T; Campagna, Christina M; Karp, Jeffrey M; Mulkern, Robert V; Ozaki, C Keith; Rybicki, Frank J

    2011-01-01

    An implantable MR contrast agent that can be covalently immobilized on tissue during surgery has been developed. The rationale is that a durable increase in tissue contrast using an implantable contrast agent can enhance postsurgical tissue differentiation using MRI. For small-vessel (e.g., vein graft) MRI, the direct benefit of such permanent "labeling" of the vessel wall by modification of its relaxation properties is to achieve more efficient imaging. This efficiency can be realized as either increased contrast leading to more accurate delineation of vessel wall and lesion tissue boundaries, or, faster imaging without penalizing contrast-to-noise ratio, or a combination thereof. We demonstrate, for the first time, stable long-term MRI enhancement using such an exogenous contrast mechanism based on immobilizing a modified diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid gadolinium(3+) dihydrogen complex on a human vein using a covalent amide bond. Signal enhancement due to the covalently immobilized contrast agent is demonstrated for excised human vein specimens imaged at 3 T, and its long-term stability is demonstrated during a 4-month incubation period.

  12. Laser Image Contrast Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Robert L. (Inventor); Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical image enhancement system provides improved image contrast in imaging of a target in high temperature surroundings such as a furnace. The optical system includes a source of vertically polarized light such as laser and a beam splitter for receiving the light and directing the light toward the target. A retardation plate is affixed to a target-facing surface of the beam splitter and a vertical polarizer is disposed along a common optical path with the beam splitter between the retardation plate and the target. A horizontal polarizer disposed in the common optical path, receives light passing through a surface of the beam splitter opposed to the target-facing surface. An image detector is disposed at one end of the optical path. A band pass filter having a band pass filter characteristic matching the frequency of the vertically polarized light source is disposed in the path between the horizontal polarizer and the image detector. The use of circular polarization, together with cross polarizers, enables the reflected light to be passed to the detector while blocking thermal radiation.

  13. Brute force absorption contrast microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Graham R.; Mills, David

    2014-09-01

    In laboratory X-ray microtomography (XMT) systems, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is typically determined by the X-ray exposure due to the low flux associated with microfocus X-ray tubes. As the exposure time is increased, the SNR improves up to a point where other sources of variability dominate, such as differences in the sensitivities of adjacent X-ray detector elements. Linear time-delay integration (TDI) readout averages out detector sensitivities on the critical horizontal direction and equiangular TDI also averages out the X-ray field. This allows the SNR to be increased further with increasing exposure. This has been used in dentistry to great effect, allowing subtle variations in dentine mineralisation to be visualised in 3 dimensions. It has also been used to detect ink in ancient parchments that are too damaged to physically unroll. If sufficient contrast between the ink and parchment exists, it is possible to virtually unroll the tomographic image of the scroll in order that the text can be read. Following on from this work, a feasibility test was carried out to determine if it might be possible to recover images from decaying film reels. A successful attempt was made to re-create a short film sequence from a rolled length of 16mm film using XMT. However, the "brute force" method of scaling this up to allow an entire film reel to be imaged presents a significant challenge.

  14. Low resistivity, low contrast pays

    SciTech Connect

    Sneider, R.M.; Kulha, J.T. |

    1996-08-01

    Major hydrocarbon accumulations have been produced over the past 40 years in low resistivity, low contrast (LRLC) sands in the Gulf of Mexico Basin (GOM). LRLC reservoirs were commonly considered wet, tight, misidentified as a shale or overlooked, but are being re-evaluated now in other world basins, including Latin America. Seismic response, drill cuttings, cores, log response, petrophysical models, and production testing provide an integrated LRLC evaluation. Causes of LRLC pay in the GOM include: laminated clean sands with shales; silts or shaly sands; clay-coated sands; glauconitic sands; sands with interstitial dispersed clay; sands with disseminated pyrite or other conductive minerals; clay-lined burrows; clay clasts; altered volcanic/feldspathic framework grains; and very fine-grained sand with very saline water. LRLC depositional systems include: deepwater fans, with levee-channel complexes; delta front and toe deposits; shingle turbidites; and alluvial and deltaic channel fills. Geological and petrophysical models developed in the GOM for evaluation of LRLC pay are applicable in Latin America. An Archie clean sand or Waxman-Smits shaly sand model are commonly used to evaluate LRLC anomalies. Often, shaly sand models are not necessarily suited for LRLC evaluation. The Archie lithology exponent (m) and saturation exponent (n) for many LRLC reservoirs range from 1.4 to 1.85, and 1.2 to 1.8, respectively. In thinly laminated LRLC reservoirs, net sand distribution is identified with high resolution logging tools, rock examination and interval testing.

  15. Laser Image Contrast Enhancement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, Robert L. (Inventor); Holmes, Richard R. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An optical image enhancement system provides improved image contrast in imaging of a target in high temperature surroundings such as a furnace. The optical system includes a source of vertically polarized light such as laser and a beam splitter for receiving the light and directing the light toward the target. A retardation plate is affixed to a target-facing surface of the beam splitter and a vertical polarizer is disposed along a common optical path with the beam splitter between the retardation plate and the target. A horizontal polarizer disposed in the common optical path, receives light passing through a surface of the beam splitter opposed to the target-facing surface. An image detector is disposed at one end of the optical path. A band pass filter having a band pass filter characteristic matching the frequency of the vertically polarized light source is disposed in the path between the horizontal polarizer and the image detector. The use of circular polarization, together with cross polarizers, enables the reflected light to be passed to the detector while blocking thermal radiation.

  16. Phase Contrast X-ray Imaging Signatures for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Seifert, Allen; Flynn, Michael J.

    2011-06-13

    Gratings-based phase contrast imaging is a promising new radiographic technique providing three distinct contrast mechanisms, absorption, phase, and scatter, using a conventional x-ray tube source. We investigate the signatures available in these three contrast mechanisms with particular attention towards potential homeland security applications. We find that the scatter mode in particular is sensitive to textured materials, enabling lowered detection limits than absorption for materials such as powders. We investigate the length scales to which our imaging system is sensitive.

  17. Susceptibility based upon Chemical Interaction with Disease ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the challenges facing toxicology and risk assessment is that numerous host and environmental factors may modulate vulnerability and risk. An area of increasing interest is the potential for chemicals to interact with background aging and disease processes, an interaction that may yield cumulative damage, altered chemical potency, and increased disease incidence. This review outlines the interactions possible between chemicals and background disease and identifies the type of information needed to evaluate such interactions. Key among these is the existence of a clinically relevant and easy to measure biomarker of disease risk which allows the identification of vulnerable individuals based upon the level of risk biomarker. The impact of toxic chemicals on this biomarker can then be used to predict how the chemical modifies disease risk as long as related mechanistic and toxicological data are consistent with toxicant effect on the disease process. Several case studies are briefly presented which describe the toxic chemical, the clinical biomarker and the impacted disease including: fine particulate matter/decreased heart rate variability/increased cardiopulmonary events; cadmium/decreased glomerular filtration rate/increased chronic kidney disease; methyl mercury/decreased paraoxonase-1/increased cardiovascular risk; trichloroethylene/increased anti-nuclear antibody/autoimmunity; dioxin/increased CYP1A1/hypertension. These case studies point o

  18. Susceptibility based upon Chemical Interaction with Disease ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    One of the challenges facing toxicology and risk assessment is that numerous host and environmental factors may modulate vulnerability and risk. An area of increasing interest is the potential for chemicals to interact with background aging and disease processes, an interaction that may yield cumulative damage, altered chemical potency, and increased disease incidence. This review outlines the interactions possible between chemicals and background disease and identifies the type of information needed to evaluate such interactions. Key among these is the existence of a clinically relevant and easy to measure biomarker of disease risk which allows the identification of vulnerable individuals based upon the level of risk biomarker. The impact of toxic chemicals on this biomarker can then be used to predict how the chemical modifies disease risk as long as related mechanistic and toxicological data are consistent with toxicant effect on the disease process. Several case studies are briefly presented which describe the toxic chemical, the clinical biomarker and the impacted disease including: fine particulate matter/decreased heart rate variability/increased cardiopulmonary events; cadmium/decreased glomerular filtration rate/increased chronic kidney disease; methyl mercury/decreased paraoxonase-1/increased cardiovascular risk; trichloroethylene/increased anti-nuclear antibody/autoimmunity; dioxin/increased CYP1A1/hypertension. These case studies point o

  19. Contrast dependency and prior expectations in human speed perception.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulos, Grigorios; Seitz, Aaron R; Seriès, Peggy

    2014-04-01

    The perceived speed of moving objects has long been known to depend on image contrast. Lowering the contrast of first-order motion stimuli typically decreases perceived speed - the well-known "Thompson effect". It has been suggested that contrast-dependent biases are the result of optimal inference by the visual system, whereby unreliable sensory information is combined with prior beliefs. The Thompson effect is thought to result from the prior belief that objects move slowly (in Bayesian terminology, a "slow speed prior"). However, there is some evidence that the Thompson effect is attenuated or even reversed at higher speeds. Does the effect of contrast on perceived speed depend on absolute speed and what does this imply for Bayesian models with a slow speed prior? We asked subjects to compare the speeds of simultaneously presented drifting gratings of different contrasts. At low contrasts (3-15%), we found that the Thompson effect was attenuated at high speeds: at 8 and 12deg/s, perceived speed increased less with contrast than at 1 and 4deg/s; however, at higher contrasts (15-95%), the situation was reversed. A semi-parametric Bayesian model was used to extract the subjects' speed priors and was subsequently improved by combining it with a model of speed tuning. These novel findings regarding the dual, contrast-dependent effect of high speeds help reconcile existing conflicting literature and suggest that physiologically plausible mechanisms of representation of speed in the visual cortex may need to be incorporated into Bayesian models to account for certain subtleties of human speed perception. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraperitoneal contrast agents for computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, J.

    1985-08-01

    Intraperitoneal contrast agents have been used to diagnose mass lesions, adhesions, and hernias using conventional radiographic techniques. The use of intraperitoneal contrast agents in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) has been limited and is the subject of this report.

  1. Human speed perception is contrast dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Thompson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    When two parallel gratings moving at the same speed are presented simultaneously, the lower-contrast grating appears slower. This misperception is evident across a wide range of contrasts (2.5-50 percent) and does not appear to saturate (e.g. a 50 percent contrast grating appears slower than a 70 percent contrast grating moving at the same speed). On average, a 70 percent contrast grating must be slowed by 35 percent to match a 10 percent contrast grating moving at 2 deg/sec (N = 6). Furthermore, the effect is largely independent of the absolute contrast level and is a quasi-linear function of log contrast ratio. A preliminary parametric study shows that, although spatial frequency has little effect, relative orientation is important. Finally, the misperception of relative speed appears lessened when the stimuli to be matched are presented sequentially.

  2. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  3. A Contrast Analysis Approach to Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, R. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the foundations of contrast analysis as a method for examining change. Contrast analysis is a relatively high-powered, simple, and informative procedure for evaluating hypotheses about specific patterns of change. This paper reviews the general purpose and nature of contrast analysis, it discusses some of the advantages of…

  4. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  5. Spatial contrast sensitivity in clinical neurology.

    PubMed

    Bulens, C; Meerwaldt, J D; van der Wildt, G J; Keemink, C J

    1988-01-01

    We studied contrast sensitivity function in normal subjects and in three illustrative cases with various neurological disorders. This was done by measuring contrast sensitivity over a range of spatial frequencies for vertical sinewave grating stimuli. It is demonstrated that contrast sensitivity function can give information about visual function not obtainable by conventional test procedures.

  6. Contrastive Analysis and the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Dennis G.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the history, framework, and psychological basis of contrastive analysis. Presents three main points of view of contrastive analysis: (1) predictive (strong), (2) retrospective (weak), and (3) intralingual error analysis (a rejection of the contrastive analysis hypothesis). Suggests that the second viewpoint is more applicable and useful…

  7. Method for the measurement of chromatic contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kai; Liao, Ningfang; Zhao, Dazun; Li, Hongsong

    2015-03-01

    The contrast of simple achromatic periodic patterns such as square-wave gratings is well defined and agrees with the Michelson contrast, but this is not so for chromatic contrast. It would be desirable to be able to determine the contrast of two colors for use in a general legibility metric. A method for determining the contrast of chromatic square-wave gratings, which is based on the CIE 1976 color difference formula, is proposed. In order to prove the feasibility, we first investigated the contrast sensitivity function of an achromatic grating using Michelson contrast for comparison through sets of psychophysical experiments keeping the mean luminance constant at 22.54 cd/m2. Further experiments compared the curve of contrast sensitivity function for red, green, and red-green chromatic square-wave grating in terms of the proposed formula and conventional formula in LMS cone contrast space, which is frequently used in calculating the contrast of color gratings. The results revealed that proposed method is helpful in calculating the contrast of chromatic square-wave gratings and reveals important physical meaning in measuring the contrast of chromatic gratings.

  8. Advanced Techniques Using Contrast Media in Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Shiroishi, Mark S.; Law, Meng

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of advanced MRI techniques using contrast media in neuroimaging, focusing on T2*-weighted dynamic susceptibility contrast MR imaging (DSC-MRI) and T1-weighted dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI). Image acquisition and data processing methods as well as their clinical application in brain tumors, stroke, dementia and multiple sclerosis are discussed. PMID:23088946

  9. Planned Contrasts: An Overview of Comparison Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Kathy

    Contrasts or comparisons can be used to investigate specific differences between means. Contrasts, as explained by B. Thompson (1985, 1994) are coding vectors that mathematically express hypotheses. The most basic categories of contrasts are planned and unplanned. The purpose of this paper is to explain the relative advantages of using planned…

  10. System and method for floating-substrate passive voltage contrast

    DOEpatents

    Jenkins, Mark W [Albuquerque, NM; Cole, Jr., Edward I.; Tangyunyong, Paiboon [Albuquerque, NM; Soden, Jerry M [Placitas, NM; Walraven, Jeremy A [Albuquerque, NM; Pimentel, Alejandro A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    A passive voltage contrast (PVC) system and method are disclosed for analyzing ICs to locate defects and failure mechanisms. During analysis a device side of a semiconductor die containing the IC is maintained in an electrically-floating condition without any ground electrical connection while a charged particle beam is scanned over the device side. Secondary particle emission from the device side of the IC is detected to form an image of device features, including electrical vias connected to transistor gates or to other structures in the IC. A difference in image contrast allows the defects or failure mechanisms be pinpointed. Varying the scan rate can, in some instances, produce an image reversal to facilitate precisely locating the defects or failure mechanisms in the IC. The system and method are useful for failure analysis of ICs formed on substrates (e.g. bulk semiconductor substrates and SOI substrates) and other types of structures.

  11. Acute kidney injury by radiographic contrast media: pathogenesis and prevention.

    PubMed

    Andreucci, Michele; Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Sabbatini, Massimo; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24-72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both.

  12. Endothelial safety of radiological contrast media: why being concerned.

    PubMed

    Scoditti, Egeria; Massaro, Marika; Montinari, Maria Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Iodinated radiocontrast media have been the most widely used pharmaceuticals for intravascular administration in diagnostic and interventional angiographic procedures. Although they are regarded as relatively safe drugs and vascular biocompatibility of contrast media has been progressively improved, severe adverse reactions may occur, among which acute nephropathy is one of the most clinically significant complications after intravascular administration of contrast media and a powerful predictor of poor early and long-term outcomes. Since radiocontrast media are given through the arterial or the venous circulation in vascular procedures, morphological and functional changes of the microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cells substantially contribute to the pathogenesis of organ-specific and systemic adverse reactions of contrast media. Endothelial toxicity of contrast media seems to be the result of both direct proapoptotic effects and morphological derangements, as well as endothelial dysfunction and induction of inflammation, oxidative stress, thrombosis, and altered vasomotor balance, with predominant vasoconstrictive response in atherosclerotic coronary arteries and kidney microcirculation. Further understanding of pathogenetic mechanisms underlying contrast media-induced adverse reactions in cellular targets, including endothelial cells, will hopefully lead to the development of novel preventive strategies appropriately curbing the pathogenesis of contrast media vasotoxicity.

  13. Acute Kidney Injury by Radiographic Contrast Media: Pathogenesis and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Faga, Teresa; Pisani, Antonio; Michael, Ashour

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that iodinated radiographic contrast media may cause kidney dysfunction, particularly in patients with preexisting renal impairment associated with diabetes. This dysfunction, when severe, will cause acute renal failure (ARF). We may define contrast-induced Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) as ARF occurring within 24–72 hrs after the intravascular injection of iodinated radiographic contrast media that cannot be attributed to other causes. The mechanisms underlying contrast media nephrotoxicity have not been fully elucidated and may be due to several factors, including renal ischaemia, particularly in the renal medulla, the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduction of nitric oxide (NO) production, and tubular epithelial and vascular endothelial injury. However, contrast-induced AKI can be prevented, but in order to do so, we need to know the risk factors. We have reviewed the risk factors for contrast-induced AKI and measures for its prevention, providing a long list of references enabling readers to deeply evaluate them both. PMID:25197639

  14. Texture contrast attracts overt visual attention in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, Derrick J; Niebur, Ernst

    2004-02-01

    In natural vision, the central nervous system actively selects information for detailed processing through mechanisms of visual attention. It is widely held that simple stimulus features such as color, orientation and intensity contribute to the determination of visual salience and thus can act to guide the selection process in a bottom-up fashion. Contrary to this view, Einhäuser, W. & König, P. [(2003) Eur. J. Neurosci., 17, 1089-1097] conclude from their study of human eye movements that luminance contrast does not contribute to the calculation of stimulus salience and that top-down, rather than bottom-up, factors therefore determine attentional allocation in natural scenes. In this article, we dispute their conclusion and argue that the Einhäuser and König study has a number of methodological problems, the most prominent of which is the unintentional introduction of changes in texture contrast. We hypothesize that texture contrast, like luminance contrast, can contribute to the guidance of attention in a bottom-up fashion, and that an appeal to top-down factors is not necessary. To test this hypothesis, we implement a purely bottom-up model of visual selective attention where salience is derived from both luminance and texture contrast. We find that the model can quantitatively account for Einhäuser and König's results and that texture contrast strongly influences attentional guidance in this particular paradigm. The significance of this result for attentional guidance in other paradigms is discussed.

  15. A review of responsive MRI contrast agents: 2005–2014

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Dina V.; Bernstein, Adam S.; Pagel, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on MRI contrast agents that are responsive to a change in a physiological biomarker. The response mechanisms are dependent on six physicochemical characteristics, including the accessibility of water to the agent, tumbling time, proton exchange rate, electron spin state, MR frequency, or superparamagnetism of the agent. These characteristics can be affected by changes in concentrations or activities of enzymes, proteins, nucleic acids, metabolites, or metal ions, or changes in redox state, pH, temperature, or light. A total of 117 examples are presented, including examples that employ nuclei other than 1H, which attests to the creativity of multidisciplinary research efforts to develop responsive MRI contrast agents. PMID:25355685

  16. Electronic magnification and perceived contrast of video.

    PubMed

    Haun, Andrew; Woods, Russell L; Peli, Eli

    2012-11-01

    Electronic magnification of an image results in a decrease in its perceived contrast. The decrease in perceived contrast could be due to a perceived blur or to limited sampling of the range of contrasts in the original image. We measured the effect on perceived contrast of magnification in two contexts: either a small video was enlarged to fill a larger area, or a portion of a larger video was enlarged to fill the same area as the original. Subjects attenuated the source video contrast to match the perceived contrast of the magnified videos, with the effect increasing with magnification and decreasing with viewing distance. These effects are consistent with expectations based on both the contrast statistics of natural images and the contrast sensitivity of the human visual system. We demonstrate that local regions within videos usually have lower physical contrast than the whole, and that this difference accounts for a minor part of the perceived differences. Instead, visibility of 'missing content' (blur) in a video is misinterpreted as a decrease in contrast. We detail how the effects of magnification on perceived contrast can be measured while avoiding confounding factors.

  17. Contrast Adaptation Contributes to Contrast-Invariance of Orientation Tuning of Primate V1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Lionel G.; Barone, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies in rodents and carnivores have shown that orientation tuning width of single neurons does not change when stimulus contrast is modified. However, in these studies, stimuli were presented for a relatively long duration (e. g., 4 seconds), making it possible that contrast adaptation contributed to contrast-invariance of orientation tuning. Our first purpose was to determine, in marmoset area V1, whether orientation tuning is still contrast-invariant with the stimulation duration is comparable to that of a visual fixation. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed extracellular recordings and examined orientation tuning of single-units using static sine-wave gratings that were flashed for 200 msec. Sixteen orientations and three contrast levels, representing low, medium and high values in the range of effective contrasts for each neuron, were randomly intermixed. Contrast adaptation being a slow phenomenon, cells did not have enough time to adapt to each contrast individually. With this stimulation protocol, we found that the tuning width obtained at intermediate contrast was reduced to 89% (median), and that at low contrast to 76%, of that obtained at high contrast. Therefore, when probed with briefly flashed stimuli, orientation tuning is not contrast-invariant in marmoset V1. Our second purpose was to determine whether contrast adaptation contributes to contrast-invariance of orientation tuning. Stationary gratings were presented, as previously, for 200 msec with randomly varying orientations, but the contrast was kept constant within stimulation blocks lasting >20 sec, allowing for adaptation to the single contrast in use. In these conditions, tuning widths obtained at low contrast were still significantly less than at high contrast (median 85%). However, tuning widths obtained with medium and high contrast stimuli no longer differed significantly. Conclusions/Significance Orientation tuning does not appear to be contrast-invariant when

  18. Dispersive Transport of Angiographic Contrast During Antegrade Arterial Injection

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qing; Lieber, Baruch B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Angiography is commonly used during endovascular procedures to navigate catheters into a target artery and for evaluation of the arterial luminal geometry. X-ray attenuating contrast material is injected into the arteries and transported into pathologies such as aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations. Images of the transported contrast are used to guide therapeutic decisions. Experience and intuition of the interventionalist are often serving as guide for the injection force, and hence, the speed and volume of the bolus. Forceful injections of small boluses can evoke local turbulence and dispersive mixing in the zone immediately distal to the catheter tip. Turbulence by its nature acts as a strong agitating mechanism such that the bolus of contrast quickly mixes with the flowing blood to occupy the entire lumen so the artery can be visualized. The aims of the present study are (a) to determine the distance from catheter tip beyond which contrast can consider to be fully mixed with the blood during antegrade injection and (b) to determine the thickness of the boundary layer in which contrast concentration is poor, which can contribute to underestimation of vascular diameter using this method. Methods We performed in silico experiments to describe blood and angiographic contrast transport in a straight artery model. The conditions investigated are derived from clinical contrast injection rates typically found in cerebral angiography. Results A recirculation flow exists in the mixing zone distal to the catheter tip issuing the contrast and convective mixing rather than diffusion is dominating the rapid mixing process. In the vicinity of the arterial wall in the mass transfer boundary layer, however, transport is dominated by molecular diffusion. For lower molecule diffusion coefficient, the mass transfer boundary layer contains a lower concentration of contrast than for a higher molecular diffusion coefficient. Conclusions These findings imply that contrast

  19. Monitoring stem cells in phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, K. P.; Dempsey, K. P.; Collins, D. J.; Richardson, J. B.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind the proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem cells (MSCs) can offer a greater insight into the behaviour of these cells throughout their life cycles. Traditional methods of determining the rate of MSC differentiation rely on population based studies over an extended time period. However, such methods can be inadequate as they are unable to track cells as they interact; for example, in autologous cell therapies for osteoarthritis, the development of biological assays that could predict in vivo functional activity and biological action are particularly challenging. Here further research is required to determine non-histochemical biomarkers which provide correlations between cell survival and predictive functional outcome. This paper proposes using a (previously developed) advanced texture-based analysis algorithm to facilitate in vitro cells tracking using time-lapsed microscopy. The technique was adopted to monitor stem cells in the context of unlabelled, phase contrast imaging, with the goal of examining the cell to cell interactions in both monoculture and co-culture systems. The results obtained are analysed using established exploratory procedures developed for time series data and compared with the typical fluorescent-based approach of cell labelling. A review of the progress and the lessons learned are also presented.

  20. Mechanistic investigation of beta-galactosidase-activated MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Urbanczyk-Pearson, Lauren M; Femia, Frank J; Smith, Jeffrey; Parigi, Giacomo; Duimstra, Joseph A; Eckermann, Amanda L; Luchinat, Claudio; Meade, Thomas J

    2008-01-07

    We report a mechanistic investigation of an isomeric series of beta-galactosidase-activated magnetic resonance contrast agents. Our strategy focuses on the synthesis of macrocyclic caged-complexes that coordinatively saturate a chelated lanthanide. Enzyme cleavage of the complex results in an open coordination site available for water that creates a detectable MR contrast agent. The complexes consist of a DO3A Gd(III) chelator modified with a galactopyranose at the N-10 position of the macrocycle. We observed significant differences in relaxometric properties and coordination geometry that can be correlated to subtle variations of the linker between the macrocycle and the galactopyranose. After synthesis and purification of the R, S, and racemic mixtures of complexes 1 and 3 and measurement of the hydration number, water residence lifetime, and longitudinal relaxation rates, we propose mechanisms for water exclusion from the lanthanide in the precleavage state. While the stereochemistry of the linker does not influence the agents' properties, the mechanism of water exclusion for each isomer is significantly influenced by the position of modification. Data for one series with a methyl group substituted on the sugar-macrocycle linker at the alpha-position suggests a steric mechanism where the galactopyranose sugar blocks water from the Gd(III) center. In contrast, our observations for a second series with methyl substitution at the beta position of the sugar-macrocycle linker are consistent with a mechanism in which a bidentate anion occupies two available coordination sites of Gd(III) in the precleavage state.

  1. Flash Infrared Thermography Contrast Data Analysis Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshti, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides information on an IR Contrast technique that involves extracting normalized contrast versus time evolutions from the flash thermography inspection infrared video data. The analysis calculates thermal measurement features from the contrast evolution. In addition, simulation of the contrast evolution is achieved through calibration on measured contrast evolutions from many flat-bottom holes in the subject material. The measurement features and the contrast simulation are used to evaluate flash thermography data in order to characterize delamination-like anomalies. The thermal measurement features relate to the anomaly characteristics. The contrast evolution simulation is matched to the measured contrast evolution over an anomaly to provide an assessment of the anomaly depth and width which correspond to the depth and diameter of the equivalent flat-bottom hole (EFBH) similar to that used as input to the simulation. A similar analysis, in terms of diameter and depth of an equivalent uniform gap (EUG) providing a best match with the measured contrast evolution, is also provided. An edge detection technique called the half-max is used to measure width and length of the anomaly. Results of the half-max width and the EFBH/EUG diameter are compared to evaluate the anomaly. The information provided here is geared towards explaining the IR Contrast technique. Results from a limited amount of validation data on reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) hardware are included in this paper.

  2. Inverse modeling of human contrast response.

    PubMed

    Katkov, Mikhail; Tsodyks, Misha; Sagi, Dov

    2007-10-01

    Mathematical singularities found in the Signal Detection Theory (SDT) based analysis of the 2-Alternative-Forced-Choice (2AFC) method [Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006a). Analysis of two-alternative force-choice Signal Detection Theory model. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 411-420; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2006b). Singularities in the inverse modeling of 2AFC contrast discrimination data. Vision Research, 46, 256-266; Katkov, M., Tsodyks, M., & Sagi, D. (2007). Singularities explained: Response to Klein. Vision Research, doi:10.1016/j.visres.2006.10.030] imply that contrast discrimination data obtained with the 2AFC method cannot always be used to reliably estimate the parameters of the underlying model (internal response and noise functions) with a reasonable number of trials. Here we bypass this problem with the Identification Task (IT) where observers identify one of N contrasts. We have found that identification data varies significantly between experimental sessions. Stable estimates using individual session data showed Contrast Response Functions (CRF) with high gain in the low contrast regime and low gain in the high contrast regime. Noise Amplitudes (NA) followed a decreasing function of contrast at low contrast levels, and were practically constant above some contrast level. The transition between these two regimes corresponded approximately to the position of the dipper in the Threshold versus Contrast (TvC) curves that were computed using the estimated parameters and independently measured using 2AFC.

  3. Resource contrast in patterned peatlands increases along a climatic gradient.

    PubMed

    Eppinga, Maarten B; Rietkerk, Max; Belyea, Lisa R; Nilsson, Mats B; De Ruiter, Peter C; Wassen, Martin J

    2010-08-01

    Spatial patterning of ecosystems can be explained by several mechanisms. One approach to disentangling the influence of these mechanisms is to study a patterned ecosystem along a gradient of environmental conditions. This study focused on hummock-hollow patterning of peatlands. Previous models predicted that patterning in drainage-dominated peatlands is driven by a peat-accumulation mechanism, reflected by higher nutrient availability in hollows relative to hummocks. Alternatively, patterning in evapotranspiration (ET)-dominated peatlands may be driven by a nutrient-accumulation mechanism, reflected by reversed nutrient distribution, namely, higher nutrient availability in hummocks relative to hollows. Here, we tested these predictions by comparing nutrient distributions among patterned peatlands in maritime (Scotland), humid temperate (Sweden), and humid continental (Siberia) climates. The areas comprise a climatic gradient from very wet and drainage-dominated (Scotland) to less wet and ET-dominated (Siberia) peatlands. Nutrient distribution was quantified as resource contrast, a measure for hummock-hollow difference in nutrient availability. We tested the hypothesis that the climatic gradient shows a trend in the resource contrast; from negative (highest nutrient availability in hollows) in Scotland to positive (highest nutrient availability in hummocks) in Siberia. The resource contrasts as measured in vegetation indeed showed a trend along the climatic gradient: contrasts were negative to slightly positive in Scotland, positive in Sweden, and strongly positive in Siberia. This finding corroborates the main prediction of previous models. Our results, however, also provided indications for further model development. The low concentrations of nutrients in the water suggest that existing models could be improved by considering both the dissolved and adsorbed phase and explicit inclusion of both nutrient-uptake and nutrient-storage processes. Our study suggests that

  4. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Davis, Ronald W.

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging. PMID:27149617

  5. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mankos, Marian; Persson, Henrik H J; N'Diaye, Alpha T; Shadman, Khashayar; Schmid, Andreas K; Davis, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. Both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging.

  6. Model of visual contrast gain control and pattern masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, A. B.; Solomon, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    We have implemented a model of contrast gain and control in human vision that incorporates a number of key features, including a contrast sensitivity function, multiple oriented bandpass channels, accelerating nonlinearities, and a devisive inhibitory gain control pool. The parameters of this model have been optimized through a fit to the recent data that describe masking of a Gabor function by cosine and Gabor masks [J. M. Foley, "Human luminance pattern mechanisms: masking experiments require a new model," J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1710 (1994)]. The model achieves a good fit to the data. We also demonstrate how the concept of recruitment may accommodate a variant of this model in which excitatory and inhibitory paths have a common accelerating nonlinearity, but which include multiple channels tuned to different levels of contrast.

  7. "Multimodal Contrast" from the Multivariate Analysis of Hyperspectral CARS Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabarangao, Joel T.

    The typical contrast mechanism employed in multimodal CARS microscopy involves the use of other nonlinear imaging modalities such as two-photon excitation fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to produce a molecule-specific pseudocolor image. In this work, I explore the use of unsupervised multivariate statistical analysis tools such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Vertex Component Analysis (VCA) to provide better contrast using the hyperspectral CARS data alone. Using simulated CARS images, I investigate the effects of the quadratic dependence of CARS signal on concentration on the pixel clustering and classification and I find that a normalization step is necessary to improve pixel color assignment. Using an atherosclerotic rabbit aorta test image, I show that the VCA algorithm provides pseudocolor contrast that is comparable to multimodal imaging, thus showing that much of the information gleaned from a multimodal approach can be sufficiently extracted from the CARS hyperspectral stack itself.

  8. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics. Vol. 6. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek

    This volume of contrastive studies of English and Polish includes the following papers: (1) "Contrastive Analysis in a New Dimension," by Tomasz P. Krzeszowski; (2) "On the Feasibility of Pedagogical Contrastive Sociolinguistics," by Karol Janicki; (3) "The Lexicon and Contrastive Language Studies," by Miroslaw Nowakowski; (4) "Variation and…

  9. Contrast enhancement in microplanar beam radiography.

    PubMed

    Company, F Z; Allen, B J; Mino, C

    1999-12-01

    In x-ray radiography, the target produces a useful shadow from absorption of the primary beam, while the scattered radiation into the off-target region decreases the contrast of the target image. A bundle of closely spaced microplanar beams can reduce the scattered radiation and give superior image contrast compared with a single macrobeam of the same dimensions. To further reduce the scattered radiation and increase the image contrast, we place an air gap between the tissue phantom and the detector. The primary and scattered photon flux of a single microplanar beam is measured as a function of thickness inside the phantom and in the air gap. Results show that a bundle of closely spaced, microplanar beams increase the image contrast by 22% and a 2 cm air gap decreases the scattered photon flux by about half, improving the contrast by an additional 16%. Thus an overall improvement of 41% in contrast can be achieved with microplanar beam radiography.

  10. Human speed perception is contrast dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Thompson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    When two parallel gratings moving at the same speed are presented simultaneously, the lower-contrast grating appears slower. This misperception is evident across a wide range of contrasts (2.5-50 percent) and does not appear to saturate. On average, a 70 percent contrast grating must be slowed by 35 percent to match a 10 percent contrast grating moving at 2 deg/sec (N = 6). Furthermore, the effect is largely independent of the absolute contrast level and is a quasilinear function of log contrast ratio. A preliminary parametric study shows that, although spatial frequency has little effect, relative orientation is important. Finally, the misperception of relative speed appears lessened when the stimuli to be matched are presented sequentially.

  11. Rapid Dynamics of Contrast Responses in the Cat Primary Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yi

    2011-01-01

    The visual information we receive during natural vision changes rapidly and continuously. The visual system must adapt to the spatiotemporal contents of the environment in order to efficiently process the dynamic signals. However, neuronal responses to luminance contrast are usually measured using drifting or stationary gratings presented for a prolonged duration. Since motion in our visual field is continuous, the signals received by the visual system contain an abundance of transient components in the contrast domain. Here using a modified reverse correlation method, we studied the properties of responses of neurons in the cat primary visual cortex to different contrasts of grating stimuli presented statically and transiently for 40 ms, and showed that neurons can effectively discriminate the rapidly changing contrasts. The change in the contrast response function (CRF) over time mainly consisted of an increment in contrast gain (CRF shifts to left) in the developing phase of temporal responses and a decrement in response gain (CRF shifts downward) in the decay phase. When the distribution range of stimulus contrasts was increased, neurons demonstrated decrement in contrast gain and response gain. Our results suggest that contrast gain control (contrast adaptation) and response gain control mechanisms are well established during the first tens of milliseconds after stimulus onset and may cooperatively mediate the rapid dynamic responses of visual cortical neurons to the continuously changing contrast. This fast contrast adaptation may play a role in detecting contrast contours in the context of visual scenes that are varying rapidly. PMID:21998655

  12. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    DOEpatents

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  13. Effect of contrast on human speed perception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Leland S.; Thompson, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This study is part of an ongoing collaborative research effort between the Life Science and Human Factors Divisions at NASA ARC to measure the accuracy of human motion perception in order to predict potential errors in human perception/performance and to facilitate the design of display systems that minimize the effects of such deficits. The study describes how contrast manipulations can produce significant errors in human speed perception. Specifically, when two simultaneously presented parallel gratings are moving at the same speed within stationary windows, the lower-contrast grating appears to move more slowly. This contrast-induced misperception of relative speed is evident across a wide range of contrasts (2.5-50 percent) and does not appear to saturate (e.g., a 50 percent contrast grating appears slower than a 70 percent contrast grating moving at the same speed). The misperception is large: a 70 percent contrast grating must, on average, be slowed by 35 percent to match a 10 percent contrast grating moving at 2 deg/sec (N = 6). Furthermore, it is largely independent of the absolute contrast level and is a quasilinear function of log contrast ratio. A preliminary parametric study shows that, although spatial frequency has little effect, the relative orientation of the two gratings is important. Finally, the effect depends on the temporal presentation of the stimuli: the effects of contrast on perceived speed appears lessened when the stimuli to be matched are presented sequentially. These data constrain both physiological models of visual cortex and models of human performance. We conclude that viewing conditions that effect contrast, such as fog, may cause significant errors in speed judgments.

  14. Clouds of high contrast on Uranus.

    PubMed

    Karkoschka, E

    1998-04-24

    Near-infrared images of Uranus taken with the Hubble Space Telescope in July and October 1997 revealed discrete clouds with contrasts exceeding 10 times the highest contrast observed before with other techniques. At visible wavelengths, these 10 clouds had lower contrasts than clouds seen by Voyager 2 in 1986. Uranus' rotational rates for southern latitudes were identical in 1986 and 1997. Clouds in northern latitudes rotate slightly more slowly than clouds in opposite southern latitudes.

  15. What have we learned from CONTRAST?

    PubMed

    Mostovaya, Ira M; Blankestijn, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    The CONvective TRAnsport STudy (CONTRAST) is a large randomized controlled trial which compared on-line postdilution hemodiafiltration and low-flux hemodialysis in terms of mortality and cardiovascular events. This review summarizes and discusses currently available knowledge acquired by CONTRAST, including the main outcome, comparisons of hemodiafiltration to hemodialysis as well as studies performed in subgroups of CONTRAST. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. The clinical applications of contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Robert; Timperley, Jon; Szmigielski, Cezary; Cezary, Szmigielski; Monaghan, Mark; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros; Nihoyannopoulis, Petros; Senior, Roxy; Becher, Harald

    2007-06-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are approved for opacification of the heart chambers and to improve endocardial border definition. The myocardial contrast enhancement is also very useful for assessing thickening of the myocardium and myocardial perfusion. Several multicentre and numerous single-centre trials have demonstrated the usefulness of contrast echocardiography in clinical practice. Contrast echocardiography is probably one of the best validated echocardiographic techniques. Improved accuracy of contrast-enhanced images is not restricted to patients with a poor baseline image quality. Even with an optimal baseline image quality the borders are not as well defined as after LV opacification. Usage of contrast can improve image alignment and helps to avoid off-axis scanning. Contrast studies are particularly useful when a precise measurement of LV function is needed: 1. To decide about the need of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), 2. Follow-up of patients with moderate valvular disease and decision for surgical treatment, 3. Selection and monitoring of patients undergoing chemotherapy with cardiotoxic drugs, 4. Assessment of LV function in patients in intensive care and coronary care units. Optimal endocardial border delineation is crucial and often can be achieved only by ultrasound contrast: 1. Assessment of LV thrombi and masses, 2. Left ventricular non-compaction/apical hypertrophy, 3. Right ventricular dysplasia, right ventricular thrombus, 4. Stress echocardiography and regional wall motion assessment. Future echocardiography will be more 3D and more quantitative than current echocardiography. And contrast echocardiography has already proven its value for both applications.

  17. Hyperpolarized water as an authentic magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent

    PubMed Central

    McCarney, Evan R.; Armstrong, Brandon D.; Lingwood, Mark D.; Han, Songi

    2007-01-01

    Pure water in a highly 1H spin-polarized state is proposed as a contrast-agent-free contrast agent to visualize its macroscopic evolution in aqueous media by MRI. Remotely enhanced liquids for image contrast (RELIC) utilizes a 1H signal of water that is enhanced outside the sample in continuous-flow mode and immediately delivered to the sample to obtain maximum contrast between entering and bulk fluids. Hyperpolarization suggests an ideal contrast mechanism to highlight the ubiquitous and specific function of water in physiology, biology, and materials because the physiological, chemical, and macroscopic function of water is not altered by the degree of magnetization. We present an approach that is capable of instantaneously enhancing the 1H MRI signal by up to 2 orders of magnitude through the Overhauser effect under ambient conditions at 0.35 tesla by using highly spin-polarized unpaired electrons that are covalently immobilized onto a porous, water-saturated gel matrix. The continuous polarization of radical-free flowing water allowed us to distinctively visualize vortices in model reactors and dispersion patterns through porous media. A 1H signal enhancement of water by a factor of −10 and −100 provides for an observation time of >4 and 7 s, respectively, upon its injection into fluids with a T1 relaxation time of >1.5 s. The implications for chemical engineering or biomedical applications of using hyperpolarized solvents or physiological fluids to visualize mass transport and perfusion with high and authentic MRI contrast originating from water itself, and not from foreign contrast agents, are immediate. PMID:17264210

  18. Hyperpolarized water as an authentic magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent.

    PubMed

    McCarney, Evan R; Armstrong, Brandon D; Lingwood, Mark D; Han, Songi

    2007-02-06

    Pure water in a highly (1)H spin-polarized state is proposed as a contrast-agent-free contrast agent to visualize its macroscopic evolution in aqueous media by MRI. Remotely enhanced liquids for image contrast (RELIC) utilizes a (1)H signal of water that is enhanced outside the sample in continuous-flow mode and immediately delivered to the sample to obtain maximum contrast between entering and bulk fluids. Hyperpolarization suggests an ideal contrast mechanism to highlight the ubiquitous and specific function of water in physiology, biology, and materials because the physiological, chemical, and macroscopic function of water is not altered by the degree of magnetization. We present an approach that is capable of instantaneously enhancing the (1)H MRI signal by up to 2 orders of magnitude through the Overhauser effect under ambient conditions at 0.35 tesla by using highly spin-polarized unpaired electrons that are covalently immobilized onto a porous, water-saturated gel matrix. The continuous polarization of radical-free flowing water allowed us to distinctively visualize vortices in model reactors and dispersion patterns through porous media. A (1)H signal enhancement of water by a factor of -10 and -100 provides for an observation time of >4 and 7 s, respectively, upon its injection into fluids with a T(1) relaxation time of >1.5 s. The implications for chemical engineering or biomedical applications of using hyperpolarized solvents or physiological fluids to visualize mass transport and perfusion with high and authentic MRI contrast originating from water itself, and not from foreign contrast agents, are immediate.

  19. Gd-HOPO Based High Relaxivity MRI Contrast Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Ankona; Raymond, Kenneth

    2008-11-06

    Tris-bidentate HOPO-based ligands developed in our laboratory were designed to complement the coordination preferences of Gd{sup 3+}, especially its oxophilicity. The HOPO ligands provide a hexadentate coordination environment for Gd{sup 3+} in which all he donor atoms are oxygen. Because Gd{sup 3+} favors eight or nine coordination, this design provides two to three open sites for inner-sphere water molecules. These water molecules rapidly exchange with bulk solution, hence affecting the relaxation rates of bulk water olecules. The parameters affecting the efficiency of these contrast agents have been tuned to improve contrast while still maintaining a high thermodynamic stability for Gd{sup 3+} binding. The Gd- HOPO-based contrast agents surpass current commercially available agents ecause of a higher number of inner-sphere water molecules, rapid exchange of inner-sphere water molecules via an associative mechanism, and a long electronic relaxation time. The contrast enhancement provided by these agents is at least twice that of commercial contrast gents, which are based on polyaminocarboxylate ligands.

  20. High Contrast Programmable Field Masks for JWST NIRSpec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander S.

    2008-01-01

    Microshutter arrays are one of the novel technologies developed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). It will allow Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) to acquire spectra of hundreds of objects simultaneously therefore increasing its efficiency tremendously. We have developed these programmable arrays that are based on Micro-Electro Mechanical Structures (MEMS) technology. The arrays are 2D addressable masks that can operate in cryogenic environment of JWST. Since the primary JWST science requires acquisition of spectra of extremely faint objects, it is important to provide very high contrast of the open to closed shutters. This high contrast is necessary to eliminate any possible contamination and confusion in the acquired spectra by unwanted objects. We have developed and built a test system for the microshutter array functional and optical characterization. This system is capable of measuring the contrast of the microshutter array both in visible and infrared light of the NIRSpec wavelength range while the arrays are in their working cryogenic environment. We have measured contrast ratio of several microshutter arrays and demonstrated that they satisfy and in many cases far exceed the NIRSpec contrast requirement value of 2000.

  1. Interaction between a perfluorocarbon emulsion and radiographic contrast media.

    PubMed

    Franke, Ralf-Peter; Reuter, Peter; Röhlke, Wolfgang; Matschke, Klaus; Keller, Steffi; Klosterhalfen, Bernd; Mittermayer, Christian; Mrowietz, Christoph; Jung, Friedrich

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated specially designed perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions as blood substitutes in case of induced ischemia of the left heart ventricle in healthy farm pigs. Two hundred ml of perfluorocarbon emulsion were infused while 200 ml of blood were simultaneously drawn. Radiographic contrast media were given to aid placement of balloon catheters in the left coronary artery. Histopathological analysis showed that right heart failure caused the deaths of both pigs. Particles (up to>3 micro) of foreign body materials obstructed capillaries of all organs analyzed (heart, lung, liver, kidneys and spleen). Laboratory investigation showed severe interference between the PFC emulsion and radiographic contrast media, resulting in the deterioration of the PFC emulsion. The strongest interference occurred when PFC emulsion and Accupaque interacted; particle size started at an initial 311 nm and went up to >3 micro within seconds. Great care must be taken when PFC emulsions are used in combination with x-ray contrast media. None of the described radiographic contrast media should be used within 48 hours prior to the use of this PFC emulsion. Also, the use of these contrast media should be avoided for a certain period of time after using PFC emulsion. The mechanisms of elimination of PFC emulsions from the circulation are not completely understood and has yet to be evaluated.

  2. Flow quantitation by radio frequency analysis of contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Rovai, D; Lombardi, M; Mazzarisi, A; Landini, L; Taddei, L; Distante, A; Benassi, A; L'Abbate, A

    1993-03-01

    Contrast echocardiography has the potential for measuring cardiac output and regional blood flow. However, accurate quantitation is limited both by the use of non-standard contrast agents and by the electronic signal distortion inherent to the echocardiographic instruments. Thus, the aim of this study is to quantify flow by combining a stable contrast agent and a modified echo equipment, able to sample the radio frequency (RF) signal from a region of interest (ROI) in the echo image. The contrast agent SHU-454 (0.8 ml) was bolus injected into an in vitro calf vein, at 23 flow rates (ranging from 376 to 3620 ml/min) but constant volume and pressure. The ROI was placed in the centre of the vein, the RF signal was processed in real time and transferred to a personal computer to generate time-intensity curves. In the absence of recirculation, contrast washout slope and mean transit time (MTT) of curves (1.11-8.52 seconds) yielded excellent correlations with flow: r = 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. To compare the accuracy of RF analysis with that of conventional image processing as to flow quantitation, conventional images were collected in the same flow model by two different scanners: a) the mechanical sector scanner used for RF analysis, and b) a conventional electronic sector scanner. These images were digitized off-line, mean videodensity inside an identical ROI was measured and time-intensity curves were built. MTT by RF was shorter than by videodensitometric analysis of the images generated by the same scanner (p < 0.001). In contrast, MTT by RF was longer than by the conventional scanner (p < 0.001). Significant differences in MTT were also found with changes in the gain setting controls of the conventional scanner. To study the stability of the contrast effect, 6 contrast injections (20 ml) were performed at a constant flow rate during recirculation: the spontaneous decay in RF signal intensity (t1/2 = 64 +/- 8 seconds) was too long to affect MTT significantly

  3. Contrast agent enhanced pQCT of articular cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallioniemi, A. S.; Jurvelin, J. S.; Nieminen, M. T.; Lammi, M. J.; Töyräs, J.

    2007-02-01

    degraded articular cartilage in vitro. As high resolution imaging of e.g. the knee joint is possible with pQCT, the present technique may be further developed for in vivo quantification of PG depletion in osteoarthritic cartilage. However, careful in vitro and in vivo characterization of diffusion mechanics and optimal contrast agent concentrations are needed before diagnostic applications are feasible.

  4. Change Detection via Selective Guided Contrasting Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Change detection scheme based on guided contrasting was previously proposed. Guided contrasting filter takes two images (test and sample) as input and forms the output as filtered version of test image. Such filter preserves the similar details and smooths the non-similar details of test image with respect to sample image. Due to this the difference between test image and its filtered version (difference map) could be a basis for robust change detection. Guided contrasting is performed in two steps: at the first step some smoothing operator (SO) is applied for elimination of test image details; at the second step all matched details are restored with local contrast proportional to the value of some local similarity coefficient (LSC). The guided contrasting filter was proposed based on local average smoothing as SO and local linear correlation as LSC. In this paper we propose and implement new set of selective guided contrasting filters based on different combinations of various SO and thresholded LSC. Linear average and Gaussian smoothing, nonlinear median filtering, morphological opening and closing are considered as SO. Local linear correlation coefficient, morphological correlation coefficient (MCC), mutual information, mean square MCC and geometrical correlation coefficients are applied as LSC. Thresholding of LSC allows operating with non-normalized LSC and enhancing the selective properties of guided contrasting filters: details are either totally recovered or not recovered at all after the smoothing. These different guided contrasting filters are tested as a part of previously proposed change detection pipeline, which contains following stages: guided contrasting filtering on image pyramid, calculation of difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local MCC. Experiments on real and simulated image bases demonstrate the applicability of all proposed selective guided contrasting filters. All implemented

  5. Motion contrast using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingler, Jeffrey Paul

    Diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases like age-related macular degeneration is very important for treatment of the disease as well as the development of future treatments. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an optical interference technique which can measure the three-dimensional structural information of the reflecting layers within a sample. In retinal imaging, OCT is used as the primary diagnostic tool for structural abnormalities such as retinal holes and detachments. The contrast within the images of this technique is based upon reflectivity changes from different regions of the retina. This thesis demonstrates the developments of methods used to produce additional contrast to the structural OCT images based on the tiny fluctuations of motion experienced by the mobile scatterers within a sample. Motion contrast was observed for motions smaller than 50 nm in images of a variety of samples. Initial contrast method demonstrations used Brownian motion differences to separate regions of a mobile Intralipid solution from a static agarose gel, chosen in concentration to minimize reflectivity contrast. Zebrafish embryos in the range of 3-4 days post fertilization were imaged using several motion contrast methods to determine the capabilities of identifying regions of vascular flow. Vasculature identification was demonstrated in zebrafish for blood vessels of all orientations as small as 10 microns in diameter. Mouse retinal imaging utilized the same motion contrast methods to determine the contrast capabilities for motions associated with vasculature within the retina. Improved contrast imaging techniques demonstrated comparable images to fluorescein angiography, the gold standard of retinal vascular imaging. Future studies can improve the demonstrated contrast analysis techniques and apply them towards human retinal motion contrast imaging for ophthalmic diagnostic purposes.

  6. Statistical analysis of Chinese phonemic contrast.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shuiyuan; Xu, Chunshan; Liu, Haitao; Chen, Yudong

    2011-01-01

    Two phonemes that may induce minimal pairs constitute a phonemic contrast. Some phonemic contrasts may disappear for various reasons, which, nevertheless, does not seem to seriously impede linguistic communication. Does it mean that the disappeared phonemic contrasts are unimportant? In our study, we calculated the proportions (here termed degree of contrast) of minimal pairs to the words in which the two contrastive phonemes occur and explored the role of phonemic contrasts in the phonemic combinations. The degree of contrast of phonemes reflects the relation between phonemes. Our results indicate that (1) the average degree of contrast of Chinese phonemes declines exponentially with the increase in the number of syllables, rapidly approaching zero; (2) the average degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature and of the consonants that are absent in some Chinese dialects is significantly higher than that of other consonants; (3) the degree of contrast of Chinese consonants that differ from each other in only one distinctive feature is not significantly different from that of the consonants absent in some Chinese dialects; (4) Chinese phonemic combinations exhibit high degree of sparsity, which increases exponentially with the number of syllables and rapidly approaches 1. All these results show that the high degree of sparsity and the low degree of contrast of human languages not only leave enough room for new words, new dialects and new languages to appear but also contribute to effective and reliable communication, because a few phonemic mistakes are not likely to cause wrong decoding (sound recognition) and failed communication.

  7. Discrimination of Arabic Contrasts by American Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Mahmoud, Mahmoud S.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM) by examining American learners' ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB…

  8. Contrast therapy--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hing, Wayne A; White, Steven G; Bouaaphone, Anousith; Lee, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Contrast therapy is a strategy that is widely utilised in a number of sporting codes to aid recovery. This wide use might suggest that contrast therapy is an effective recovery modality however support for this assumption appears to be mainly anecdotal. The purpose of this paper is to review the efficacy of contrast therapy. To achieve this objective, a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have specifically evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of contrast therapy was performed. A search to identify appropriate literature was conducted across a number of electronic databases. The titles and abstracts of the papers identified were reviewed to select papers specifically relating to contrast therapy. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The PEDro Scale, a systematic tool used to critique RCTs, was employed to critique the methodological quality of these studies. This review highlights both the lack in quantity and quality of research regarding the efficacy of contrast therapy for sports recovery. There appears to be insufficient evidence that contrast therapy aids in recovery and the limited methodological quality of the reviewed studies makes it difficult to draw clear conclusions about this form of therapy. Future research needs to re-examine the use of contrast therapy and in particular whole body immersion recovery strategies within the appropriate sports setting. This research will need to be of sufficient quality to enable appropriate conclusions to be made with regards to its use as a recovery strategy.

  9. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…

  10. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    11-1-0229 TITLE: Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Digital Breast Tomosynthesis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Andrew Maidment...5 Introduction We propose a new technique for obtaining 4D dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) im...seconds. One com plete tomosynthesis projection series consists of a set of projection im ages acquired at distinct angles. In the proposed m ethod

  11. Contrastive Analysis: Is It a Living Fossil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbas, Ali K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the validity and utility of contrastive analysis for language teaching, focusing on the utility of contrastive analysis over error analysis in analyzing adverbial positioning in sentences produced by two groups of native speakers of English and Arabic. Contains 13 references. (MDM)

  12. Comparison and Contrast in Perceptual Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Estes, Zachary; Simmons, Claire L.

    2005-01-01

    People categorized pairs of perceptual stimuli that varied in both category membership and pairwise similarity. Experiments 1 and 2 showed categorization of 1 color of a pair to be reliably contrasted from that of the other. This similarity-based contrast effect occurred only when the context stimulus was relevant for the categorization of the…

  13. Contrast-enhanced endobronchial ultrasound: Potential value of a new method

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2017-01-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has gained importance for mediastinal lymph node staging. Contrast-enhanced EBUS is so far not a discussed technique including contrast-enhanced high mechanical index (MI)-EBUS and potentially contrast-enhanced low MI-EBUS. Possible use could include characterization of mediastinal lymph nodes for better selection of biopsies, differential diagnosis of the primary tumor, and evaluation of thrombosis or tumor in vein infiltration. PMID:28218200

  14. High-performance nanostructured MR contrast probes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fengqin; Joshi, Hrushikesh M.; Dravid, Vinayak P.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a powerful technique in biological molecular imaging and clinical diagnosis. With the rapid progress in nanoscale science and technology, nanostructure-based MR contrast agents are undergoing rapid development. This is in part due to the tuneable magnetic and cellular uptake properties, large surface area for conjugation and favourable biodistribution. In this review, we describe our recent progress in the development of high-performance nanostructured MR contrast agents. Specifically, we report on Gd-enriched nanostructured probes that exhibit T1 MR contrast and superparamagnetic Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 nanostructures that display T2 MR contrast enhancement. The effects of nanostructure size, shape, assembly and surface modification on relaxivity are described. The potential of these contrast agents for in vitro and in vivo MR imaging with respect to colloidal stability under physiological conditions, biocompatibility, and surface functionality are also evaluated. PMID:20694208

  15. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demi, Libertario; van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-10-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast.

  16. Contrast-Enhanced Digital Mammography and Angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Palma, B. A.; Villasenor, Y.; Benitez-Bribiesca, L.; Brandan, M. E.

    2007-11-26

    Angiogenesis could be a means for pouring contrast media around tumors. In this work, optimization of radiological parameters for contrast-enhanced subtraction techniques in mammography has been performed. A modification of Lemacks' analytical formalism was implemented to model the X-ray absorption in the breast with contrast medium and detection by a digital image receptor. Preliminary results of signal-to-noise ratio analysis show the advantage of subtracting two images taken at different energies, one prior and one posterior to the injection of contrast medium. Preliminary experimental results using a custom-made phantom have shown good agreement with calculations. A proposal is presented for the clinical application of the optimized technique, which aims at finding correlations between angiogenesis indicators and dynamic variables of contrast medium uptake.

  17. Towards Dynamic Contrast Specific Ultrasound Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J. G.; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We report on the first study demonstrating the ability of a recently-developed, contrast-enhanced, ultrasound imaging method, referred to as cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI), to image and quantify ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) kinetics. Unlike standard ultrasound tomography, which exploits changes in speed of sound and attenuation, CPDI is based on a marker specific to UCAs, thus enabling dynamic contrast-specific ultrasound tomography (DCS-UST). For breast imaging, DCS-UST will lead to a more practical, faster, and less operator-dependent imaging procedure compared to standard echo-contrast, while preserving accurate imaging of contrast kinetics. Moreover, a linear relation between CPD values and ultrasound second-harmonic intensity was measured (coefficient of determination = 0.87). DCS-UST can find clinical applications as a diagnostic method for breast cancer localization, adding important features to multi-parametric ultrasound tomography of the breast. PMID:27703251

  18. Rhizosphere priming effects in two contrasting soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Davidson; Kirk, Guy; Ritz, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Inputs of fresh plant-derived carbon may stimulate the turnover of existing soil organic matter by so-called priming effects. Priming may occur directly, as a result of nutrient 'mining' by existing microbial communities, or indirectly via population adjustments. However the mechanisms are poorly understood. We planted C4 Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) in pots with two contrasting C3 soils (clayey, fertile TB and sandy, acid SH), and followed the soil CO2 efflux and its δ13C. The extent of C deposition in the rhizosphere was altered by intermittently clipping the grass in half the pots; there were also unplanted controls. At intervals, pots were destructively sampled for root and shoot biomass. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured using a gas-tight PVC chamber fitted over bare soil, and connected to an infra-red gas analyser; the δ13C of efflux was measured in air sub-samples withdrawn by syringe. The extent of priming was inferred from the δ13C of efflux and the δ13C of the plant and soil end-members. In unclipped treatments, in both soils, increased total soil respiration and rhizosphere priming effects (RPE) were apparent compared to the unplanted controls. The TB soil had greater RPE overall. The total respiration in clipped TB soil was significantly greater than in the unplanted controls, but in the clipped SH soil it was not significantly different from the controls. Clipping affected plant C partitioning with greater allocation to shoot regrowth from about 4 weeks after planting. Total plant biomass decreased in the order TB unclipped > SH unclipped >TB clipped > SH clipped. The results are consistent with priming driven by microbial activation stimulated by rhizodeposits and by nitrogen demand from the growing plants under N limited conditions. Our data suggest that photosynthesis drives RPE and soil differences may alter the rate and intensity of RPE but not the direction.

  19. Feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging.

    PubMed

    Voormolen, M M; Bouakaz, A; Krenning, B J; Lancée, C T; ten Cate, F J; de Jong, N

    2004-04-01

    Improved endocardial border delineation with the application of contrast agents should allow for less complex and faster tracing algorithms for left ventricular volume analysis. We developed a fast rotating phased array transducer for 3D imaging of the heart with harmonic capabilities making it suitable for contrast imaging. In this study the feasibility of 3D harmonic contrast imaging is evaluated in vitro. A commercially available tissue mimicking flow phantom was used in combination with Sonovue. Backscatter power spectra from a tissue and contrast region of interest were calculated from recorded radio frequency data. The spectra and the extracted contrast to tissue ratio from these spectra were used to optimize the excitation frequency, the pulse length and the receive filter settings of the transducer. Frequencies ranging from 1.66 to 2.35 MHz and pulse lengths of 1.5, 2 and 2.5 cycles were explored. An increase of more than 15 dB in the contrast to tissue ratio was found around the second harmonic compared with the fundamental level at an optimal excitation frequency of 1.74 MHz and a pulse length of 2.5 cycles. Using the optimal settings for 3D harmonic contrast recordings volume measurements of a left ventricular shaped agar phantom were performed. Without contrast the extracted volume data resulted in a volume error of 1.5%, with contrast an accuracy of 3.8% was achieved. The results show the feasibility of accurate volume measurements from 3D harmonic contrast images. Further investigations will include the clinical evaluation of the presented technique for improved assessment of the heart.

  20. Carbon dynamics of contrasting agricultural practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghee, Claire; Hallett, Paul; Neilson, Roy; Robinson, David; Paterson, Eric

    2013-04-01

    Application of organic amendments can improve soil quality and provide crop nutrients. To optimise these agricultural benefits from organic applications, the capacity of microbe-driven nutrient and carbon cycling must be understood and exploited. Consideration is therefore required of the complex interactions between the rhizosphere, microbial biomass and organic amendment. We hypothesise that the labile C present in root exudates of plants increases the mineralisation of organic matter in soil, constituting a mechanism to promote nutrient acquisition. This mechanism is known as the 'priming effect', but is poorly understood in the context of agricultural carbon and nutrient management. Field data from the Centre of Sustainable Cropping (CSC) research platform (Dundee, Scotland, UK) are utilised to build an understanding of soil C and N fluxes between contrasting agricultural practices. The field site uses a split-plot design to compare (i) compost amended soils with reduced tillage and chemical inputs and (ii) conventionally managed soils, reflective of current UK commercial arable practice. Significant differences (p= <0.001) were identified between compost amended and conventionally managed soils at field-scale with respect to soil microbial biomass (SMB), total organic carbon (TOC) and mineral nitrogen. Investigation into the priming effect within compost amended soils was subsequently undertaken under laboratory conditions. Stable isotope analysis and measurements of soil biotic parameters were used to quantify priming resulting from Spring Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic) cultivation for (i) unamended and (ii) municipal compost incorporated soils. Compost treatments comprised amendments of 25, 50 and 150 t/Ha and planted soils were compared with unplanted controls. Soil mesocosms were maintained under controlled environmental conditions within labelling chambers supplied continuously with 13C-depleted CO2. Throughout a 41-day incubation period, soil CO2

  1. Microcapsules: Reverse Sonoporation and Long-lasting, Safe Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, Steven; Dicker, Stephen; Small, Eleanor; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Hahn, Stephan A.; Mleczko, Michał; Hensel, Karin; Schmitz, Georg

    We present a novel vehicle designed to serve the dual roles of enhanced ultrasound contrast and ultrasound-triggered drug delivery. The vehicle is comprised of a microcapsule that is filled with water in whose aqueous core a population of freely floating, phospholipid-coated microbubbles is suspended. At ultrasound intensities below the inertial cavitation threshold of the microbubbles, the microbubbles provide enhanced ultrasound contrast. The measured contrast is comparable in strength with SonoVue®. Encapsulation of microbubbles within microcapsules putatively eliminates - or at least significantly slows - dissolution of gas in the bulk aqueous medium, thereby avoiding disappearance of microbubbles that would otherwise occur due to pressure-induced gas diffusion across the surfactant monolayer coating the microbubble-water interface. Results suggest that our vehicle might provide longer lasting contrast in a clinical setting. We demonstrate that encapsulation of the microbubbles within microcapsules causes at least a doubling of the ultrasound intensity necessary to induce inertial cavitation. Moreover, no cell death was observed when cells were insonified in the presence of microbubble-containing microcapsules, whereas appreciable cell death occurs with unencapsulated microbubbles. These results point toward a potential safety benefit during ultrasound contrast imaging by using encapsulated microbubbles. Studies are underway to investigate the feasibility of ultrasound-triggered release of drug from the microcapsules, owing to inertial- or stable-cavitation, or both. Whereas leakage from polymeric microcapsule shells, such as poly(lactic acid), seemingly requires shell rupture and is exceedingly difficult to achieve, leakage across a lipid bilayer microcapsule shells appears feasible. Leakage across a bilayer shell has the additional benefit that the leakage mechanism can be tuned via phase behavior (liquid-ordered versus liquid-disordered) and cavitation

  2. Individual and age-related variation in chromatic contrast adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah L.; Werner, John S.; Webster, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Precortical color channels are tuned primarily to the LvsM (stimulation of L and M cones varied, but S cone stimulation held constant) or SvsLM (stimulation of S cones varied, but L and M cone stimulation held constant) cone-opponent (cardinal) axes, but appear elaborated in the cortex to form higher-order mechanisms tuned to both cardinal and intermediate directions. One source of evidence for these higher-order mechanisms has been the selectivity of color contrast adaptation for noncardinal directions, yet the degree of this selectivity has varied widely across the small sample of observers tested in previous studies. This study explored the possible bases for this variation, and in particular tested whether it reflected age-related changes in the distribution or tuning of color mechanisms. Observers included 15 younger (18–22 years of age) and 15 older individuals (66–82), who adapted to temporal modulations along one of four chromatic axes (two cardinal and two intermediate axes) and then matched the hue and contrast of test stimuli lying along eight different directions in the equiluminant plane. All observers exhibited aftereffects that were selective for both the cardinal and intermediate directions, although selectivity was weaker for the intermediate axes. The degree of selectivity increased with the magnitude of adaptation for all axes, and thus adaptation strength alone may account for much of the variance in selectivity among observers. Older observers showed a stronger magnitude of adaptation thus, surprisingly, more conspicuous evidence for higher-order mechanisms. For both age groups the aftereffects were well predicted by response changes in chromatic channels with linear spectral sensitivities, and there was no evidence for weakened channel tuning with aging. The results suggest that higher-order mechanisms may become more exposed in observers or conditions in which the strength of adaptation is greater, and that both chromatic contrast

  3. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S.; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregrate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention—the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention—affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer’s 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. PMID:21356228

  4. Exogenous attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Antoine; Landy, Michael S; Carrasco, Marisa

    2011-05-11

    Natural scenes contain a rich variety of contours that the visual system extracts to segregate the retinal image into perceptually coherent regions. Covert spatial attention helps extract contours by enhancing contrast sensitivity for 1st-order, luminance-defined patterns at attended locations, while reducing sensitivity at unattended locations, relative to neutral attention allocation. However, humans are also sensitive to 2nd-order patterns such as spatial variations of texture, which are predominant in natural scenes and cannot be detected by linear mechanisms. We assess whether and how exogenous attention--the involuntary and transient capture of spatial attention--affects the contrast sensitivity of channels sensitive to 2nd-order, texture-defined patterns. Using 2nd-order, texture-defined stimuli, we demonstrate that exogenous attention increases 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at the attended location, while decreasing it at unattended locations, relative to a neutral condition. By manipulating both 1st- and 2nd-order spatial frequency, we find that the effects of attention depend both on 2nd-order spatial frequency of the stimulus and the observer's 2nd-order spatial resolution at the target location. At parafoveal locations, attention enhances 2nd-order contrast sensitivity to high, but not to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies; at peripheral locations attention also enhances sensitivity to low 2nd-order spatial frequencies. Control experiments rule out the possibility that these effects might be due to an increase in contrast sensitivity at the 1st-order stage of visual processing. Thus, exogenous attention affects 2nd-order contrast sensitivity at both attended and unattended locations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Positioning long lines: contrast versus plain radiography

    PubMed Central

    Reece, A; Ubhi, T; Craig, A; Newell, S

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To assess the value of contrast versus plain radiography in determining radio-opaque long line tip position in neonates.
METHODS—In a prospective study, plain radiography was performed after insertion of radio-opaque long lines. If the line tip was not visible on the plain film, a second film with contrast was obtained in an attempt to visualise the tip.
RESULTS—Sixty eight lines were inserted during the study period, 62 of which were included in the study. In 31, a second radiographic examination with contrast was necessary to determine position of the tip. In 29 of these, the line tip was clearly visualised with contrast. On two occasions, the line tip could not be seen because the contrast had filled the vein and obscured the tip from view. Eight of the lines that required a second radiograph with contrast were repositioned.
CONCLUSION—Intravenous contrast should be routinely used in the assessment of long line position in the neonate.

 PMID:11207231

  6. Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /zee/-/ess/, /vee/-/eff/, /bee/-/pee/, and /dee/-/tee/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained. .

  7. Perception of familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions.

    PubMed

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2005-06-01

    This paper investigates the perception of non-native phoneme contrasts which exist in the native language, but not in the position tested. Like English, Dutch contrasts voiced and voiceless obstruents. Unlike English, Dutch allows only voiceless obstruents in word-final position. Dutch and English listeners' accuracy on English final voicing contrasts and their use of preceding vowel duration as a voicing cue were tested. The phonetic structure of Dutch should provide the necessary experience for a native-like use of this cue. Experiment 1 showed that Dutch listeners categorized English final /z/-/s/, /v/-/f/, /b/-/p/, and /d/-/t/ contrasts in nonwords as accurately as initial contrasts, and as accurately as English listeners did, even when release bursts were removed. In experiment 2, English listeners used vowel duration as a cue for one final contrast, although it was uninformative and sometimes mismatched other voicing characteristics, whereas Dutch listeners did not. Although it should be relatively easy for them, Dutch listeners did not use vowel duration. Nevertheless, they attained native-like accuracy, and sometimes even outperformed the native listeners who were liable to be misled by uninformative vowel duration information. Thus, native-like use of cues for non-native but familiar contrasts in unfamiliar positions may hardly ever be attained.

  8. Factors Affecting Crowded Acuity: Eccentricity and Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Daniel R.; Chin, Jeremy M.; Chung, Susana T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Acuity measurement is a fundamental method to assess visual performance in the clinic. Little is known about how acuity measured in the presence of neighboring letters, as in the case of letter charts, changes with contrast and with non-foveal viewing. This information is crucial for acuity measurement using low-contrast charts and when patients cannot use their fovea. In this study, we evaluated how optotype acuity, with and without flankers, is affected by contrast and eccentricity. Methods Five young adults with normal vision identified the orientation of a Tumbling-E alone or in the presence of four flanking Tumbling-Es. Edge-to-edge letter spacing ranged from 1 to 20 bar widths. Stimuli were presented on a white background for 150 ms with Weber contrast ranging from −2.5% to −99%. Flankers had the same size and contrast as the target. Testings were performed at the fovea, 3, 5 and 10 degrees in the inferior visual field. Results When plotted as a function of letter spacing, acuity remains unaffected by the presence of flankers until the flankers are within the critical spacing, which averages an edge-to-edge spacing of 4.4 bar widths at the fovea, and approximately 16 bar widths at all three eccentricities. Critical spacing decreases with a reduction in contrast. When plotted as a function of contrast, acuity only worsens when the contrast falls below approximately 24% at the fovea and 17% in the periphery, for flanked and unflanked conditions alike. Conclusions The letter spacing on conventional letter charts exceeds the critical spacing for acuity measurement at the fovea, at all contrast levels. Thus these charts are appropriate for assessing foveal acuity. In the periphery, the critical spacing is larger than the letter spacing on conventional charts. Consequently, these charts may underestimate the acuity measured in the periphery due to the effects of crowding. PMID:23770657

  9. Contrast enhanced spectroscopic optical coherence tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boppart, Stephen A. (Inventor); Xu, Chenyang (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of forming an image of a sample includes performing SOCT on a sample. The sample may include a contrast agent, which may include an absorbing agent and/or a scattering agent. A method of forming an image of tissue may include selecting a contrast agent, delivering the contrast agent to the tissue, acquiring SOCT data from the tissue, and converting the SOCT data into an image. The contributions to the SOCT data of an absorbing agent and a scattering agent in a sample may be quantified separately.

  10. Thermal contrast detected with a quantum detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Páez, Gonzalo; Scholl, Marija Strojnik

    1999-08-01

    We evaluate the thermal contrast detected by a quantum detector in a focal plane of an infrared instrument. The detected thermal contrast is shown to consist of two terms. The term corresponding to the temperature dependence of emissivity, previously neglected, is evaluated and shown to be a significant contributing factor. For the case of a metal mirror as a source of stray light, ghost images, and narcissus, the error is estimated to be about 20%. The term in the detected contrast associated with the radiative emission is shown to be proportional to temperature to the power of 2, rather than 3, published previously.

  11. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, E; Rizzo, S; Bozzini, A; Menna, S; Bellomi, M

    2006-01-01

    The importance of ultrasound examination in the diagnosis of breast cancer has been widely demonstrated. During the last few years, the introduction of ultrasound contrast media has been considered a promising tool for studying the vascular pattern of focal lesions within the breast. Our purpose was to assess whether contrast-enhanced (CE) ultrasound examination, performed using specific contrast imaging modes, can be helpful for detection and characterization of breast lesions, and for prediction of the response of breast cancer to therapy. PMID:16478698

  12. Compressed sensing for phase contrast CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gaass, Thomas; Potdevin, Guillaume; Noeel, Peter B.; Tapfer, Arne; Willner, Marian; Herzen, Julia; Bech, Martin; Pfeiffer, Franz; Haase, Axel

    2012-07-31

    Modern x-ray techniques opened the possibility to retrieve phase information. Phase-contrast computed tomography (PCCT) has the potential to significantly improve soft tissue contrast. Radiation dose, however, continues to be an issue when moving from bench to bedside. Dose reduction in this work is achieved by sparsely acquiring PCCT data. To compensate for appearing aliasing artifacts we introduce a compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction framework. We present the feasibility of CS on PCCT with numerical as well as measured phantom data. The results proof that CS compensates for under-sampling artifacts and maintains the superior soft tissue contrast and detail visibility in the reconstructed images.

  13. Estimation of contrast of refraction contrast imaging compared with absorption imaging-basic approach.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masatsugu; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Okada, Hiroshi; Kitazawa, Sohei; Kitazawa, Riko; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Sakurai, Takashi; Kondoh, Takeshi; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Maeda, Sakan; Sugimura, Kazuro; Tamura, Shinichi

    2005-03-01

    We discuss the usefulness of the refraction contrast method using highly parallel X-rays as a new approach to minute lung cancer detection. The advantages of refraction contrast images are discussed in terms of contrast, and a comparison is made with absorption images. We simulated refraction contrast imaging using globules with the density of water in air as models for minute lung cancer detection. The contrast intensified by bright and dark lines was compared on a globule with the contrast of absorption images. We adopted the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the strength of the profile curve of the photon counts at the detector. The obtained contrasts were more intense by two to three digits than those obtainable with the absorption contrast imaging method. The contrast in refraction contrast imaging was more intense than that obtainable with absorption contrast imaging. A two to three digit improvement in contrast means that it is possible to greatly reduce the exposure dose necessary for imaging. Therefore, it is expected to become possible to detect the interfaces of soft tissues, which are difficult to capture with conventional absorption imaging, at low dosages and high resolution.

  14. Perceived Speed of Compound Stimuli Is Moderated by Component Contrast, Not Overall Pattern Contrast

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The perception of speed is susceptible to manipulations of image contrast, both for simple sine wave and more complex stimuli, such that low-contrast patterns generally appear slower than their high-contrast equivalents. It is not known whether the crucial factor is the contrast of the underlying Fourier components or the contrast of the overall complex pattern. Here, two experiments investigate this issue using compound gratings, comprising two vertical sine wave stimuli with equal contrast, but a 3:1 spatial frequency ratio. Component gratings were summed in “peaks add” and in “peaks subtract” phase, creating conditions with either (a) identical component contrasts, despite differences in overall pattern contrast or (b) differences in component contrasts despite identical overall pattern contrast. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the perceived speed is determined by the contrast of the components regardless of relative phase and hence of overall pattern contrast. Experiment 2 replicated this result while eliminating potential explanations based on differences in spatial frequency content. Along with previous compound grating and plaid studies, the data support a two-stage velocity estimation process involving the derivation of separate speed signals for each Fourier component, followed by integration of these signals across spatial scales. PMID:27826408

  15. Contrastive Analysis and the Translation of Idioms: Some Remarks on Contrasting Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Eckhard

    Contrastive analysis can help solve certain problems in translation, for example, that of idioms. A contrastive analysis of source language (SL) and target language (TL) might have as its theoretical framework a contrastive lexical analysis based on generative semantics. In this approach both SL and TL idioms are broken down into their semantic…

  16. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume 5. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This collection includes twenty-one papers, a book review, and a bibliography of English-Polish contrastive studies in Poland, and is the fifth volume resulting from the Polish-English Contrastive Project. The overall purpose of the project is to prepare a Polish-English contrastive grammar and to develop pedagogical materials. Topics covered in…

  17. Compare, Contrast, Comprehend: Using Compare-Contrast Text Structures with ELLs in K-3 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreher, Mariam Jean; Gray, Jennifer Letcher

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe how to help primary-grade English language learners use compare-contrast text structures. Specifically, we explain (a) how to teach students to identify the compare-contrast text structure, and to use this structure to support their comprehension, (b) how to use compare-contrast texts to activate and extend students'…

  18. Chromatic and luminance contrast sensitivity in fullterm and preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the contributions of visual experience vs. preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, the current study compared contrast sensitivity in preterm vs. fullterm infants. If development is tied to time since conception, preterm infants should match the developmental trajectories of fullterm infants when plotted in postterm age. By contrast, if development is influenced by visual experience, preterm and fullterm infants should match when plotted in postnatal age. Luminance (light/dark) and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivities (CS) were measured in 25 preterm (born, on average, 6.6 weeks early) and 77 fullterm infants, between 1 and 6 months postterm. In the first few months, luminance CS was found to be predicted by postterm age, suggesting that preprogrammed development is sufficient to account for luminance CS. By contrast, chromatic CS exceeded that predicted by postterm age, which suggests that time since birth confers a benefit on chromatic CS. The preterms’ 6.6 weeks of additional time since birth is roughly equivalent to 3.7 weeks of development in chromatic CS. In sum, these results suggest that chromatic CS is more influenced by early postnatal visual experience than luminance CS, which may have implications for development of parvocellular and magnocellular pathways. PMID:20055548

  19. Contrast Imaging in Mouse Embryos Using High-frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Denbeigh, Janet M.; Nixon, Brian A.; Puri, Mira C.; Foster, F. Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging can convey essential quantitative information regarding tissue vascularity and perfusion and, in targeted applications, facilitate the detection and measure of vascular biomarkers at the molecular level. Within the mouse embryo, this noninvasive technique may be used to uncover basic mechanisms underlying vascular development in the early mouse circulatory system and in genetic models of cardiovascular disease. The mouse embryo also presents as an excellent model for studying the adhesion of microbubbles to angiogenic targets (including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) or αvβ3) and for assessing the quantitative nature of molecular ultrasound. We therefore developed a method to introduce ultrasound contrast agents into the vasculature of living, isolated embryos. This allows freedom in terms of injection control and positioning, reproducibility of the imaging plane without obstruction and motion, and simplified image analysis and quantification. Late gestational stage (embryonic day (E)16.6 and E17.5) murine embryos were isolated from the uterus, gently exteriorized from the yolk sac and microbubble contrast agents were injected into veins accessible on the chorionic surface of the placental disc. Nonlinear contrast ultrasound imaging was then employed to collect a number of basic perfusion parameters (peak enhancement, wash-in rate and time to peak) and quantify targeted microbubble binding in an endoglin mouse model. We show the successful circulation of microbubbles within living embryos and the utility of this approach in characterizing embryonic vasculature and microbubble behavior. PMID:25867243

  20. Pharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tasanarong, Adis

    2014-01-01

    Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the most common iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury after intravenous contrast media administration. In general, the incidence of CI-AKI is low in patients with normal renal function. However, the rate is remarkably elevated in patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, old age, high volume of contrast agent, congestive heart failure, hypotension, anemia, use of nephrotoxic drug, and volume depletion. Consequently, CI-AKI particularly in high risk patients contributes to extended hospitalizations and increases long-term morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of CI-AKI involves at least three mechanisms; contrast agents induce renal vasoconstriction, increase of oxygen free radicals through oxidative stress, and direct tubular toxicity. Several strategies to prevent CI-AKI have been evaluated in experimental studies and clinical trials. At present, intravascular volume expansion with either isotonic saline or sodium bicarbonate solutions has provided more consistent positive results and was recommended in the prevention of CI-AKI. However, the proportion of patients with risk still develops CI-AKI. This review critically evaluated the current evidence for pharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI in patients with a risk of developing CI-AKI. PMID:24719848

  1. Contrast imaging in mouse embryos using high-frequency ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Denbeigh, Janet M; Nixon, Brian A; Puri, Mira C; Foster, F Stuart

    2015-03-04

    Ultrasound contrast-enhanced imaging can convey essential quantitative information regarding tissue vascularity and perfusion and, in targeted applications, facilitate the detection and measure of vascular biomarkers at the molecular level. Within the mouse embryo, this noninvasive technique may be used to uncover basic mechanisms underlying vascular development in the early mouse circulatory system and in genetic models of cardiovascular disease. The mouse embryo also presents as an excellent model for studying the adhesion of microbubbles to angiogenic targets (including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) or αvβ3) and for assessing the quantitative nature of molecular ultrasound. We therefore developed a method to introduce ultrasound contrast agents into the vasculature of living, isolated embryos. This allows freedom in terms of injection control and positioning, reproducibility of the imaging plane without obstruction and motion, and simplified image analysis and quantification. Late gestational stage (embryonic day (E)16.6 and E17.5) murine embryos were isolated from the uterus, gently exteriorized from the yolk sac and microbubble contrast agents were injected into veins accessible on the chorionic surface of the placental disc. Nonlinear contrast ultrasound imaging was then employed to collect a number of basic perfusion parameters (peak enhancement, wash-in rate and time to peak) and quantify targeted microbubble binding in an endoglin mouse model. We show the successful circulation of microbubbles within living embryos and the utility of this approach in characterizing embryonic vasculature and microbubble behavior.

  2. In vivo imaging with near-infrared fluorescence lifetime contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akers, Walter J.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.; Lee, Hyeran; Achilefu, Samuel

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence imaging is a mainstay of biomedical research, allowing detection of molecular events in both fixed and living cells, tissues and whole animals. Such high resolution fluorescence imaging is hampered by unwanted signal from intrinsic background fluorescence and scattered light. The signal to background ratio can be improved by using extrinsic contrast agents and greatly enhanced by multispectral imaging methods. Unfortunately, these methods are insufficient for deep tissue imaging where high contrast and speedy acquisition are necessary. Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is an inherent characteristic of each fluorescent species that can be independent of intensity and spectral properties. Accordingly, FLT-based detection provides an additional contrast mechanism to optical measurements. This contrast is particularly important in the near-infrared (NIR) due to relative transparency of tissue as well as the broad absorption and emission spectra of dyes that are active in this region. Here we report comparative analysis of signal distribution of several NIR fluorescent polymethine dyes in living mice and their correlations with lifetimes obtained in vitro using solution models. The FLT data obtained from dyes dissolved in serum albumin solution correlated well with FLTs measured in vivo. Thus the albumin solution model could be used as a good predictive model for in vivo FLT behavior of newly developed fluorescent reporters. Subsequent experiments in vivo, including monitoring slow release kinetics and detecting proteinuria, demonstrate the complementary nature of FLT for fluorescence intensity imaging.

  3. Phase contrast image segmentation using a Laue analyser crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchen, Marcus J.; Paganin, David M.; Uesugi, Kentaro; Allison, Beth J.; Lewis, Robert A.; Hooper, Stuart B.; Pavlov, Konstantin M.

    2011-02-01

    Dual-energy x-ray imaging is a powerful tool enabling two-component samples to be separated into their constituent objects from two-dimensional images. Phase contrast x-ray imaging can render the boundaries between media of differing refractive indices visible, despite them having similar attenuation properties; this is important for imaging biological soft tissues. We have used a Laue analyser crystal and a monochromatic x-ray source to combine the benefits of both techniques. The Laue analyser creates two distinct phase contrast images that can be simultaneously acquired on a high-resolution detector. These images can be combined to separate the effects of x-ray phase, absorption and scattering and, using the known complex refractive indices of the sample, to quantitatively segment its component materials. We have successfully validated this phase contrast image segmentation (PCIS) using a two-component phantom, containing an iodinated contrast agent, and have also separated the lungs and ribcage in images of a mouse thorax. Simultaneous image acquisition has enabled us to perform functional segmentation of the mouse thorax throughout the respiratory cycle during mechanical ventilation.

  4. Contrast-Enhanced Image of Bellicia Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-06

    In this contrast-enhanced infrared image of Bellicia Crater on the giant asteroid Vesta, scientists from NASA Dawn mission can see signs of the mineral olivine. Olivine was not expected to be found at Bellicia.

  5. MR CONTRAST SYNTHESIS FOR LESION SEGMENTATION

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; Carass, Aaron; Shiee, Navid; Pham, Dzung L.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic resonance contrast of a neuroimaging data set has strong impact on the utility of the data in image analysis tasks, such as registration and segmentation. Lengthy acquisition times often prevent routine acquisition of multiple MR contrast images, and opportunities for detailed analysis using these data would seem to be irrevocably lost. This paper describes an example based approach which uses patch matching from a multiple contrast atlas with the intended goal of generating an alternate MR contrast image, thus effectively simulating alternative pulse sequences from one another. In this paper, we deal specifically with Fluid Attenuated Inversion Recovery (FLAIR) sequence generation from T1 and T2 pulse sequences. The applicability of this synthetic FLAIR for estimating white matter lesions segmentation is demonstrated. PMID:21132059

  6. Off-label use of contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Reimer, P; Vosshenrich, R

    2008-06-01

    When contrast agents are approved, the label describes the approved indications and particular circumstances of use such as age, organ function or pregnancy. The use of contrast agents outside their labelled indications is increasing, namely with contrast agents used for MRI. The aim of this paper is to improve the knowledge about this topic. The basis for off-label use is the physician's prerogative, which finds its basis in the "Declaration of Helsinki". Off-label use is allowed under special conditions and might be even the medical state of the art. The necessity for off-label use will continue to increase for MR-contrast agents, as the regulatory requirements for approval of new indications continuously increase, and clinical trials for registration purposes are quite costly and time consuming. As a consequence, manufacturers will concentrate on clinical studies for the essential indications.

  7. [Adverse reaction to not iodinated contrast].

    PubMed

    Palma-Gómez, Samuel; González-Díaz, Sandra Nora; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; Amaro-Vivian, Laura Elizabeth; Pérez-Vanzzini, Rafael; Gutiérrez-Mujica, José Julio; Yong-Rodríguez, Adrián

    2014-01-01

    Adverse reactions to drugs are relatively frequent in clinical practice, and some of them can be life threatening. Reactions to contrast material (CM) represent an important percentage of these adverse reactions. It has been found that 70% of reactions to contrast material happen within the first five minutes of their administration. Despite the fact that hypersensitivity reactions are traditionally classified as non-allergic, in recent years investigators have reported positive skin prick tests in patients with immediate and late reactions to contrast material. This paper reports the case of a female patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma that has presented on two distinct occasions adverse reactions to contrast material. We discuss on the type of reaction, severity, suggested prophylaxis, prognosis and recommendations, keeping in mind the underlying disease and the need to have further image studies performed.

  8. Contrast optimization in broadband passive polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Boffety, Matthieu; Hu, Haofeng; Goudail, François

    2014-12-01

    Polarimetric imaging is often performed using light with a narrow spectrum for the sake of polarization measurement accuracy. However, due to the use of narrowband filters, this reduces the amount of light entering the system and thus the signal-to-noise ratio. This may not be the best choice for target detection applications, where a high target contrast is required rather than polarimetric accuracy. We address contrast optimization for broadband passive polarimetric imaging. We show through simulation and experiments that polarimetric contrast can be significantly increased by broadening the spectrum of analyzed light. In addition, we show that the contrast can be optimized by taking into account the spectral dependence of the scene and of the polarization analysis devices.

  9. Ultrasound microbubble contrast and current clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dindyal, Shiva; Kyriakides, Constantinos

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is widely used worldwide principally because it is cheap, easily available and contains no exposure to ionizing radiation. The advent of microbubble ultrasound contrast has further increased the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of this technique thus widening its clinical applications. The third generation of ultrasound contrast agents consist of sulphur hexafluoride microbubbles encased in a phospholipid shell. This review will elaborate on the pharmacology, safety profile and method of action of these agents. We also aim to discuss the ever expanding uses for contrast enhanced ultrasound in a number of clinical specialities which include the liver, kidney, prostate, sentinel node detection, vascular tree and endovascular stent surveillance. We will also discuss some of the recent patents regarding the future uses of ultrasound microbubble contrast and recent technological advances in clinical applications.

  10. Incompatibility of Contrast Medium and Trisodium Citrate

    SciTech Connect

    Delcour, Christian Bruninx, Guy

    2013-02-15

    To test the compatibility of trisodium citrate, a catheter lock solution, with iodinated contrast medium. Iohexol, iobitridol, iodixanol, ioxaglate, ioxithalamate, iomeprol, and iopromide were tested. In all tests, 2 ml of contrast medium were mixed with 2 ml of trisodium citrate solution. Iodixanol and ioxaglate provoked a highly viscous gluelike precipitation when mixed with trisodium citrate. A brief transient precipitate was observed with iohexol, iomeprol, and ioxithalamate. Permanent precipitation occurred with iobitridol and iopromide. One must be aware of the potential for precipitation when contrast medium is mixed with trisodium citrate solution. Before trisodium citrate solution is injected, the catheter should be thoroughly flushed with saline if a contrast medium has previously been injected through it.

  11. Phase contrast imaging of cochlear soft tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani Smith, Stephanie; Hwang, Margaret; Rau, Christoph; Fishman, Andrew J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Richter, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    A noninvasive technique to image soft tissue could expedite diagnosis and disease management in the auditory system. We propose inline phase contrast imaging with hard X-rays as a novel method that overcomes the limitations of conventional absorption radiography for imaging soft tissue. In this study, phase contrast imaging of mouse cochleae was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Advanced Photon Source. The phase contrast tomographic reconstructions show soft tissue structures of the cochlea, including the inner pillar cells, the inner spiral sulcus, the tectorial membrane, the basilar membrane, and the Reissner's membrane. The results suggest that phase contrast X-ray imaging and tomographic techniques hold promise to noninvasively image cochlear structures at an unprecedented cellular level.

  12. NASA High Contrast Imaging for Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Described is NASA's ongoing program for the detection and characterization of exosolar planets via high-contrast imaging. Some of the more promising proposed techniques under assessment may enable detection of life outside our solar system. In visible light terrestrial planets are approximately 10(exp -10) dimmer than the parent star. Issues such as diffraction, scatter, wavefront, amplitude and polarization all contribute to a reduction in contrast. An overview of the techniques will be discussed.

  13. NASA High Contrast Imaging for Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Described is NASA's ongoing program for the detection and characterization of exosolar planets via high-contrast imaging. Some of the more promising proposed techniques under assessment may enable detection of life outside our solar system. In visible light terrestrial planets are approximately 10(exp -10) dimmer than the parent star. Issues such as diffraction, scatter, wavefront, amplitude and polarization all contribute to a reduction in contrast. An overview of the techniques will be discussed.

  14. Contrast as a Tool for Teaching Phonics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Elaine

    Contrast is one of the great principles of any art--two things that are different are put side-by-side so that both can be seen for comparison. This paper considers initially two kinds of contrast in phonics: the sounds of the five short vowels (a e i o u); and the sequence from left-to-right in sounding out the letters. The paper states that…

  15. Mobile app Aston contrast sensitivity test.

    PubMed

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Drew, Tom; Grewal, Bikramjit; Wolffsohn, James S

    2016-07-01

    Contrast detection is an important aspect of the assessment of visual function; however, clinical tests evaluate limited spatial frequencies and contrasts. This study validates the accuracy and inter-test repeatability of a swept-frequency near and distance mobile app Aston contrast sensitivity test, which overcomes this limitation compared to traditional charts. Twenty subjects wearing their full refractive correction underwent contrast sensitivity testing on the new near application (near app), distance app, CSV-1000 and Pelli-Robson charts with full correction and with vision degraded by 0.8 and 0.2 Bangerter degradation foils. In addition repeated measures using the 0.8 occluding foil were taken. The mobile apps (near more than distance, p = 0.005) recorded a higher contrast sensitivity than printed tests (p < 0.001); however, all charts showed a reduction in measured contrast sensitivity with degradation (p < 0.001) and a similar decrease with increasing spatial frequency (interaction > 0.05). Although the coefficient of repeatability was lowest for the Pelli-Robson charts (0.14 log units), the mobile app charts measured more spatial frequencies, took less time and were more repeatable (near: 0.26 to 0.37 log units; distance: 0.34 to 0.39 log units) than the CSV-1000 (0.30 to 0.93 log units). The duration to complete the CSV-1000 was 124 ± 37 seconds, Pelli-Robson 78 ± 27 seconds, near app 53 ± 15 seconds and distance app 107 ± 36 seconds. While there were differences between charts in contrast levels measured, the new Aston near and distance apps are valid, repeatable and time-efficient method of assessing contrast sensitivity at multiple spatial frequencies. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  16. Contrast gain-control in stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fang; Huang, Chang-Bing; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Although human observers can perceive depth from stereograms with considerable contrast difference between the images presented to the two eyes (Legge & Gu, 1989), how contrast gain control functions in stereo depth perception has not been systematically investigated. Recently, we developed a multipathway contrast gain-control model (MCM) for binocular phase and contrast perception (Huang, Zhou, Lu, & Zhou, 2011; Huang, Zhou, Zhou, & Lu, 2010) based on a contrast gain-control model of binocular phase combination (Ding & Sperling, 2006). To extend the MCM to simultaneously account for stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception, we manipulated the contrasts (ranging from 0.08 to 0.4) of the dynamic random dot stereograms (RDS) presented to the left and right eyes independently and measured both disparity thresholds for depth perception and perceived contrasts of the cyclopean images. We found that both disparity threshold and perceived contrast depended strongly on the signal contrasts in the two eyes, exhibiting characteristic binocular contrast gain-control properties. The results were well accounted for by an extended MCM model, in which each eye exerts gain control on the other eye's signal in proportion to its own signal contrast energy and also gain control over the other eye's gain control; stereo strength is proportional to the product of the signal strengths in the two eyes after contrast gain control, and perceived contrast is computed by combining contrast energy from the two eyes. The new model provided an excellent account of our data (r(2) = 0.945), as well as some challenging results in the literature.

  17. Contrast gain-control in stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Fang; Huang, Chang-Bing; Liang, Ju; Zhou, Yifeng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    Although human observers can perceive depth from stereograms with considerable contrast difference between the images presented to the two eyes (Legge & Gu, 1989), how contrast gain control functions in stereo depth perception has not been systematically investigated. Recently, we developed a multipathway contrast gain-control model (MCM) for binocular phase and contrast perception (Huang, Zhou, Lu, & Zhou, 2011; Huang, Zhou, Zhou, & Lu, 2010) based on a contrast gain-control model of binocular phase combination (Ding & Sperling, 2006). To extend the MCM to simultaneously account for stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception, we manipulated the contrasts (ranging from 0.08 to 0.4) of the dynamic random dot stereograms (RDS) presented to the left and right eyes independently and measured both disparity thresholds for depth perception and perceived contrasts of the cyclopean images. We found that both disparity threshold and perceived contrast depended strongly on the signal contrasts in the two eyes, exhibiting characteristic binocular contrast gain-control properties. The results were well accounted for by an extended MCM model, in which each eye exerts gain control on the other eye's signal in proportion to its own signal contrast energy and also gain control over the other eye's gain control; stereo strength is proportional to the product of the signal strengths in the two eyes after contrast gain control, and perceived contrast is computed by combining contrast energy from the two eyes. The new model provided an excellent account of our data (r2 = 0.945), as well as some challenging results in the literature. PMID:23820024

  18. Phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Minoda, Hiroki; Tamai, Takayuki; Iijima, Hirofumi; Hosokawa, Fumio; Kondo, Yukihito

    2015-06-01

    This report introduces the first results obtained using phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy (P-STEM). A carbon-film phase plate (PP) with a small center hole is placed in the condenser aperture plane so that a phase shift is introduced in the incident electron waves except those passing through the center hole. A cosine-type phase-contrast transfer function emerges when the phase-shifted scattered waves interfere with the non-phase-shifted unscattered waves, which passed through the center hole before incidence onto the specimen. The phase contrast resulting in P-STEM is optically identical to that in phase-contrast transmission electron microscopy that is used to provide high contrast for weak phase objects. Therefore, the use of PPs can enhance the phase contrast of the STEM images of specimens in principle. The phase shift resulting from the PP, whose thickness corresponds to a phase shift of π, has been confirmed using interference fringes displayed in the Ronchigram of a silicon single crystal specimen. The interference fringes were found to abruptly shift at the edge of the PP hole by π. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Contrast-Medium-Enhanced Digital Mammography: Contrast vs. Iodine Concentration Phantom Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Rosado-Mendez, I.; Brandan, M. E.; Villasenor, Y.; Benitez-Bribiesca, L.

    2008-08-11

    This work deals with the application of the contrast-medium-enhanced digital subtraction mammography technique in order to calibrate the contrast level in subtracted phantom images as function of iodine concentration to perform dynamic studies of the contrast-medium uptake in the breast. Previously optimized dual-energy temporal subtraction modalities were used (a) to determine radiological parameters for a dynamic clinical study composed of 1 mask+3 post-contrast images limiting the total mean glandular dose to 2.5 mGy, and (b) to perform a contrast vs iodine concentration calibration using a custom-made phantom. Calculated exposure values were applied using a commercial full-field digital mammography unit. Contrast in subtracted phantom images (one mask and one post-CM) is linear as function of iodine concentration, although the sensitivity (contrast per iodine concentration) decreases beyond 8 mg/mL. This calibration seems to apply only to thin and normal thickness breasts.

  20. Variable multimodal light microscopy with interference contrast and phase contrast; dark or bright field.

    PubMed

    Piper, T; Piper, J

    2014-07-01

    Using the optical methods described, specimens can be observed with modified multimodal light microscopes based on interference contrast combined with phase contrast, dark- or bright-field illumination. Thus, the particular visual information associated with interference and phase contrast, dark- and bright-field illumination is joined in real-time composite images appearing in enhanced clarity and purified from typical artefacts, which are apparent in standard phase contrast and dark-field illumination. In particular, haloing and shade-off are absent or significantly reduced as well as marginal blooming and scattering. The background brightness and thus the range of contrast can be continuously modulated and variable transitions can be achieved between interference contrast and complementary illumination techniques. The methods reported should be of general interest for all disciplines using phase and interference contrast microscopy, especially in biology and medicine, and also in material sciences when implemented in vertical illuminators. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  1. Unlocking new contrast in a scanning helium microscope

    PubMed Central

    Barr, M.; Fahy, A.; Martens, J.; Jardine, A. P.; Ward, D. J.; Ellis, J.; Allison, W.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Delicate structures (such as biological samples, organic films for polymer electronics and adsorbate layers) suffer degradation under the energetic probes of traditional microscopies. Furthermore, the charged nature of these probes presents difficulties when imaging with electric or magnetic fields, or for insulating materials where the addition of a conductive coating is not desirable. Scanning helium microscopy is able to image such structures completely non-destructively by taking advantage of a neutral helium beam as a chemically, electrically and magnetically inert probe of the sample surface. Here we present scanning helium micrographs demonstrating image contrast arising from a range of mechanisms including, for the first time, chemical contrast observed from a series of metal–semiconductor interfaces. The ability of scanning helium microscopy to distinguish between materials without the risk of damage makes it ideal for investigating a wide range of systems. PMID:26727303

  2. Phase-Change Contrast Agents for Imaging and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) for ultrasound-based applications have resulted in novel ways of approaching diagnostic and therapeutic techniques beyond what is possible with microbubble contrast agents and liquid emulsions. When subjected to sufficient pressures delivered by an ultrasound transducer, stabilized droplets undergo a phase-transition to the gaseous state and a volumetric expansion occurs. This phenomenon, termed acoustic droplet vaporization, has been proposed as a means to address a number of in vivo applications at the microscale and nanoscale. In this review, the history of PCCAs, physical mechanisms involved, and proposed applications are discussed with a summary of studies demonstrated in vivo. Factors that influence the design of PCCAs are discussed, as well as the need for future studies to characterize potential bioeffects for administration in humans and optimization of ultrasound parameters. PMID:22352770

  3. Ocular dominance plasticity: inhibitory interactions and contrast equivalence

    PubMed Central

    Spiegel, Daniel P.; Baldwin, Alex S.; Hess, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Brief monocular occlusion results in a transient change in ocular dominance, such that the previously patched eye makes a stronger contribution to the binocular percept after occlusion. The previously unpatched eye therefore makes a correspondingly weaker contribution to the binocular sum. To shed light on the mechanism underlying this change we investigate how the relationship between the perception of fusion, suppression, and diplopia changes after short-term monocular deprivation. Results show that fusible stimuli seen by the unpatched eye are actively suppressed as a result of patching and that this can be reversed by an interocular contrast imbalance. This suggests that dichoptic inhibition plays an important role in ocular dominance changes due to short-term occlusion, possibly by altering the contrast gain prior to binocular summation. This may help explain why this form of plasticity affects the perception of both fusible and rivalrous stimuli. PMID:28071682

  4. Flow-enhanced off-resonance saturation for remote detection of iron-based contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Philipp; Helluy, Xavier; Kampf, Thomas; Lang, Esra; Jakob, Peter M

    2010-06-01

    A switchable contrast mechanism, flow enhanced off-resonance saturation, is presented. This technique combines the effects of flow and off-resonance saturation for remote detection of iron oxide contrast agents incorporated into a vessel wall. Initial results from phantom experiments are presented and show the feasibility of this method. A specific saturation contrast could be observed. This contrast mechanism is highly dependent on field homogeneity and spectral selectivity of the off-resonance saturation pulses. The contrast scales directly with the pulse offset of the used saturation pulses, the flow velocity in the vessel, and the duration of the off-resonance saturation module prior to the imaging sequence. This technique has the potential to detect iron-loaded atherosclerotic plaques in future in vivo applications. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Dependency of reaction times to motion onset on luminance and chromatic contrast.

    PubMed

    Burr, D C; Corsale, B

    2001-04-01

    We measured reaction times for detecting the onset of motion of sinusoidal gratings of 1 c/deg, modulated in either luminance or chromatic contrast, caused to move abruptly at speeds ranging from 0.25 to 10 deg/s (0.25-10 Hz). At any given luminance or chromatic contrast, RTs varied linearly with temporal periodicity (r2 congruent with 0.97), yielding a Weber fraction of period. The value of the Weber fraction varied inversely with contrast, differently for luminance and chromatic contrast. The results were well simulated with a simple model that accumulated change in contrast over time until a critical threshold had been reached. Two crucial aspects of the model are a second-stage temporal integration mechanism, capable of accumulating information for periods of up to 2 s, and contrast gain control, different for luminance than for chromatic stimuli. The contrast response for luminance shows very low semi-saturating contrasts and high gain, similar to LGN M-cells and cells in MT; that for colour shows high semi-saturating contrasts and low gain, similar to LGN P-cells. The results suggest that motion onset for luminance and chromatic gratings are detected by different mechanisms, probably by the magno- and parvo-cellular systems.

  6. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics. Volume Eighteen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.; Drozdzial, Krystyna, Ed.

    A collection of 14 papers in contrastive linguistics includes: "Some Comments on Language Data in Contrastive Analysis" (Ruta Nagucka); "Contrastive Sociolinguistics Reconsidered" (Karol Janicki); "Variations in Polish Nasal /e/: A Contribution to the Development of Contrastive Sociolinguistic Methodology" (Jane…

  7. Clinical evaluation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography and contrast enhanced tomosynthesis--Comparison to contrast-enhanced breast MRI.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Lewin, John M; Chiang, Chia-Ling; Hung, Bao-Hui; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Liao, Jia-Bin; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) and contrast-enhanced tomosynthesis (CET) to dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI) using a multireader-multicase study. Institutional review board approval and informed consents were obtained. Total 185 patients (mean age 51.3) with BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions were evaluated before biopsy with mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET and DCE-MRI. Mediolateral-oblique and cranio-caudal views of the target breast CEDM and CET were acquired at 2 and 4 min after contrast agent injection. A mediolateral-oblique view of the non-target breast was taken at 6 min. Each lesion was scored with forced BI-RADS categories by three readers. Each reader interpreted lesions in the following order: mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET, and DCE-MRI during a single reading session. Histology showed 81 cancers and 144 benign lesions in the study. Of the 81 malignant lesions, 44% (36/81) were invasive and 56% (45/81) were non-invasive. Areas under the ROC curve, averaged for the 3 readers, were as follows: 0.897 for DCE-MRI, 0.892 for CET, 0.878 for CEDM, 0.784 for tomosynthesis and 0.740 for mammography. Significant differences in AUC were found between the group of contrast enhanced modalities (CEDM, CET, DCE-MRI) and the unenhanced modalities (all p<0.05). No significant differences were found in AUC between DCE-MRI, CET and CEDM (all p>0.05). CET and CEDM may be considered as an alternative modality to MRI for following up women with abnormal mammography. All three contrast modalities were superior in accuracy to conventional digital mammography with or without tomosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Current topics in ultrasound contrast agent application and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John S.; Kruse, Dustin E.; May, Donovan J.

    2001-05-01

    Ultrasound contrast agents are bubbles, 1-10 microns in radius, encapsulated by a lipid, protein, polymer or fluid shell. The agents have been used to distinguish the acoustic scattering signatures of blood from those of the surrounding tissue. This is possible due to the nonlinear response of the agent, which is similar to that of a free gas bubble. Upon sufficient forcing the agents will oscillate nonlinearly about their equilibrium radius, and for specific conditions, produce nonlinear resonance responses which are integer multiples of the primary resonance. Ultrasound tissue perfusion studies have been developed which are based on the destruction of contract agents coupled to the measurement of blood flow. Nevertheless, many outstanding issues remain in contrast agent design especially with respect to emerging applications. Even with the use of higher order harmonics there is a lack of an acoustic signature or destruction mechanism at frequencies above approximately 5.0 MHz with conventional agents. The design and use of a high frequency contrast agent is addressed by exploiting the multiple scattering response of agents modled as spherical elastic shells. Also considered is the nonlinear response of elastic-shelled agents. The considerations of shells modeled as linear and nonlinear elastic materials are discussed. The use of contrast agents for targeted drug delivery has recently received much attention. More specifically, the ImaRx Corporation (Tucson, Arizona) has developed thick fluid shelled agents, which release suspended taxol-based drugs from their shells upon destruction. Shape instabilities and surface waves correspond with the fragmentation and destruction of the agents. Finally, the interaction of multiple contrast agents has received little attention with respect to these emerging applications.

  9. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Donghee; Song, Gillsoo; Jo, Yongjun; Won, Jongho; Son, Taeyoon; Cha, Ohrum; Kim, Jinho; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Chul-Woo; Seo, Jongbum

    2016-01-01

    Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa) causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with microbubbles depends on the

  10. Sonophoresis Using Ultrasound Contrast Agents: Dependence on Concentration.

    PubMed

    Park, Donghee; Song, Gillsoo; Jo, Yongjun; Won, Jongho; Son, Taeyoon; Cha, Ohrum; Kim, Jinho; Jung, Byungjo; Park, Hyunjin; Kim, Chul-Woo; Seo, Jongbum

    2016-01-01

    Sonophoresis can increase skin permeability to various drugs in transdermal drug delivery. Cavitation is recognized as the predominant mechanism of sonophoresis. Recently, a new logical approach to enhance the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery was tried. It is to utilize the engineered microbubble and its resonant frequency for increase of cavitation activity. Actively-induced cavitation with low-intensity ultrasound (less than ~1 MPa) causes disordering of the lipid bilayers and the formation of aqueous channels by stable cavitation which indicates a continuous oscillation of bubbles. Furthermore, the mutual interactions of microbubble determined by concentration of added bubble are also thought to be an important factor for activity of stable cavitation, even in different characteristics of drug. In the present study, we addressed the dependence of ultrasound contrast agent concentration using two types of drug on the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery. Two types of experiment were designed to quantitatively evaluate the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery according to ultrasound contrast agent concentration. First, an experiment of optical clearing using a tissue optical clearing agent was designed to assess the efficiency of sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. Second, a Franz diffusion cell with ferulic acid was used to quantitatively determine the amount of drug delivered to the skin sample by sonophoresis with ultrasound contrast agents. The maximum enhancement ratio of sonophoresis with a concentration of 1:1,000 was approximately 3.1 times greater than that in the ultrasound group without ultrasound contrast agent and approximately 7.5 times greater than that in the control group. These results support our hypothesis that sonophoresis becomes more effective in transdermal drug delivery due to the presence of engineered bubbles, and that the efficiency of transdermal drug delivery using sonophoresis with microbubbles depends on the

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias produced by ultrasound and contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota, Claudio

    Ultrasound is used widely in medicine for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Ultrasound contrast agents are suspensions of gas-filled microbubbles used to enhance diagnostic imaging. Microbubble contrast agents can increase the likelihood of bioeffects of ultrasound associated with acoustic cavitation. Under certain exposure conditions, the interaction of ultrasound with cardiac tissues can produce cardiac arrhythmias. The general objective of this thesis was to develop a greater understanding of ultrasound-induced premature cardiac beats. The hypothesis guiding this work was that acoustic cavitation is the physical mechanism for the production of arrhythmias with ultrasound. This hypothesis was tested through a series of experiments with mice in vivo and theoretical investigations. Results of this research supported the acoustic cavitation hypothesis. The acoustic pressure threshold for premature beats was significantly lower with microbubble contrast agents present in the blood than without. With microbubbles, the threshold for premature beats was below the current output limits of diagnostic devices. The threshold was not significantly dependent upon contrast agent type and was not influenced by contrast agent dose over three orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the dependence of the threshold on acoustic frequency was consistent with the frequency dependence of acoustic cavitation. Experimentally determined thresholds for premature beats in vivo were in excellent agreement with theoretically estimated thresholds for inertial cavitation. A passive cavitation detector (PCD) was used to measure the acoustic emissions produced by cavitating microbubbles in vivo. A direct correlation between the amplitude of the PCD and the percentage of ultrasound pulses producing a premature beat was consistent with cavitation as a mechanism for this bioeffect. Although this thesis focused on the mechanistic understanding of ultrasound-induced arrhythmias, more persistent

  12. Thresholds for visual detection of Young's modulus contrast in simulated ultrasound image movies.

    PubMed

    Miller, N R; Bamber, J C

    2000-08-01

    Elasticity imaging (EI) is being developed to allow the evaluation of the mechanical properties of soft tissue, but these properties are already assessed in routine ultrasound breast examination using a method that involves the subjective interpretation of tissue motion seen in real-time B-mode image movies during palpation. We refer to this method as relative motion assessment (RMA). The purpose of this study was to begin a process of learning about the usefulness and limitations of RMA relative to the emerging method of elasticity imaging. Perception experiments were performed to measure Young's modulus contrast thresholds for positive contrast lesions under controlled conditions that could subsequently be repeated to evaluate elasticity imaging for the same task. Observer ability to grade relative lesion contrast using RMA was also assessed. Simulated sequences of B-scans of tissue moving in response to an applied force were generated and used in a two-alternative forced-choice (2-AFC) experiment to measure contrast thresholds for the detection of disc-shaped elastic lesions by RMA in the absence of ultrasound echo contrast. Results were obtained for four observers at a lesion area of about 77 speckle cells and for five observers at lesion areas of about 42 and 139 speckle cells. Young's modulus contrast thresholds were found to decrease with increasing lesion size and were well within the range of contrast values that have been measured for breast tumours in vitro. It was also found that observers were quite skilled at using RMA to grade the relative strain contrast of lesions. The nonlinear relationship between the object contrast (Young's modulus contrast) and the image contrast (strain contrast) prevented observers from detecting very small lesions with 100% accuracy, no matter how high the object contrast. A preliminary comparison of the results for RMA with published thresholds for elastography indicated that elastography is likely to offer great benefit

  13. Spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis for blood flow imaging with maximized speckle contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jianjun; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Weihua; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Hongyan; Luo, Qingming

    2010-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging is a technique used for imaging blood flow without scanning. Though several studies have attempted to combine spatial and temporal statistics of laser speckle images for reducing image noise as well as preserving acceptable spatiotemporal resolution, the statistical accuracy of these spatiotemporal methods has not been thoroughly compared. Through numerical simulation and animal experiments, this study investigates the changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise of the speckle contrast images computed by these methods with various numbers of frames and spatial windows. The simulation results show that the maximum relative error of the mean speckle contrast computed by the spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis (STLASCA) method, in which the speckle contrast images are computed by analyzing the 3-D spatiotemporal speckle image cube, is approximately 5%, while it is higher than 13% for other methods. Changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise computed by these methods for animal experiment data are consistent with the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that STLASCA achieves more accurate speckle contrast, and suggest that STLASCA most effectively utilizes the number of pixels, thus achieving maximized speckle contrast, and thereby maximizing the variation of the laser speckle contrast image.

  14. Spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis for blood flow imaging with maximized speckle contrast.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jianjun; Li, Pengcheng; Luo, Weihua; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Hongyan; Luo, Qingming

    2010-01-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging is a technique used for imaging blood flow without scanning. Though several studies have attempted to combine spatial and temporal statistics of laser speckle images for reducing image noise as well as preserving acceptable spatiotemporal resolution, the statistical accuracy of these spatiotemporal methods has not been thoroughly compared. Through numerical simulation and animal experiments, this study investigates the changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise of the speckle contrast images computed by these methods with various numbers of frames and spatial windows. The simulation results show that the maximum relative error of the mean speckle contrast computed by the spatiotemporal laser speckle contrast analysis (STLASCA) method, in which the speckle contrast images are computed by analyzing the 3-D spatiotemporal speckle image cube, is approximately 5%, while it is higher than 13% for other methods. Changes in the mean speckle contrast values and the relative noise computed by these methods for animal experiment data are consistent with the simulation results. Our results demonstrate that STLASCA achieves more accurate speckle contrast, and suggest that STLASCA most effectively utilizes the number of pixels, thus achieving maximized speckle contrast, and thereby maximizing the variation of the laser speckle contrast image.

  15. Complex dark-field contrast in grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yi; Tang, Xiangyang

    2015-03-01

    Without assuming that the sub-pixel microstructures of an object to be imaged distribute in space randomly, we investigate the influence of the object's microstructures on grating-based x-ray phase contrast imaging. Our theoretical analysis and 3D computer simulation study based on the paraxial Fresnel-Kirchhoff theory show that the existing dark-field contrast can be generalized into a complex dark-field contrast in a way such that its imaginary part quantifies the effect of the object's sub-pixel microstructures on the phase of intensity oscillations. A method based on the phase-attenuation duality that holds for soft tissues to be imaged at high x-ray energies is proposed to retrieve the imaginary part of the complex dark-field contrast for imaging. In comparison to the existing dark-field contrast, the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast exhibits significantly stronger selectivity on the shape of the object's sub-pixel microstructures. Thus the x-ray imaging corresponding to the imaginary part of complex dark-field contrast can provide additional and complementary information to that corresponding to the attenuation contrast, phase contrast and the existing dark-field contrast.

  16. New and contrastive focus in Taiwan Mandarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-Rong

    2005-09-01

    This study investigated the influence of information structure on surface acoustical parameters in Taiwan Mandarin. There were two experiments, i.e., GN and GC experiment. In GN experiment, the noun phrases placed in initial (NP1) or medial (NP2) position in a Mandarin sentence were elicited through a game. Subjects answered experimenter's questions, e.g., ``What is on pink truck's right side?'' according to colored pictures in a 4 by 4 matrix. New or given information was placed on either NP1 or NP2. In GC experiment, subjects corrected or confirmed expeirmenter's description, such as Pink truck is yellow IDs right side, by placing either contrastive information on the color term and given information on noun (cg), given information on the color term and contrastive information on noun (gc), given information on both color term and noun (gg), or contrastive information on both color term and noun (cc). Results showed that the F0 range expansion and duration lengthening were observed on syllables carrying new and contrastive information. Moreover, duration lengthening is more pronunced than F0 range expansion. Furthermore, syllables with contrastive information were lengthened more than syllables with new information.

  17. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Christoph, Dietrich F

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal "avascular" areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue(®), Sonazoid(®) and Definity(®). This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  18. Contrast media use in the operating room.

    PubMed

    Bickham, Peggy; Golembiewski, Julie

    2010-04-01

    Iodinated contrast media is frequently used in the OR, but often is not well understood by health care providers who are administering it. Although used for diagnosis rather than treatment, contrast media is classified as a drug by the FDA, and has indications, contraindications, adverse effects, drug interactions, disease interactions, and laboratory interference issues related to its use. Iodinated contrast media is classified according to osmolarity and ionicity, and these characteristics contribute to potential for adverse effects and choice of agent. Financial and safety concerns are factors to be considered when selecting an appropriate agent. Adverse effects can range from mild and self-limited to severe and life threatening; potentially the most serious of these are anaphylactoid reactions and contrast-induced acute renal failure. Knowledge of risk factors and preventive strategies is vital, as are issues related to substitution of gadolinium-based contrast, an off-label use. It is important for the perianesthesia nurse to become familiar with these commonly used imaging medications. Copyright 2010 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media.

    PubMed

    Morcos, S K; Thomsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    Adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media (ICM) are more likely to develop in patients with asthma, a history of allergy or contrast reaction and in those who are debilitated or medically unstable. These reactions can be divided into renal and general, and the latter are subdivided into acute and delayed. Acute general reactions can be minor, intermediate or severe. Fatal reactions are rare. The introduction of low-osmolality agents has caused an overall reduction in the number of non-fatal contrast reactions. Prompt recognition and treatment of acute adverse side effects to ICM is invaluable and may prevent a reaction from becoming severe. Familiarity with cardiopulmonary resuscitation is essential for successful management of life-threatening reactions. Contrast-media-induced renal impairment can be reduced with the use of low-osmolality contrast media and extracellular volume expansion. The use of ICM in diabetic patients receiving metformin should be carried out with care to avoid metformin-induced lactic acidosis. However, this problem is mainly observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

  20. [Two-photon microscopy of the cornea using intrinsic contrast].

    PubMed

    Krüger, A; Hovakimyan, M; Ramírez, D F; Stachs, O; Lubatschowski, H; Wree, A; Guthoff, R; Heisterkamp, A

    2009-12-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the cornea under physiological conditions is best performed with intrinsic contrast mechanisms for the visualisation of cells and extracellular matrix. However, the unique transparency of the cornea goes along with a lack of contrast for the extracellular matrix (ECM) in reflective mode microscopy and optical coherence tomography. Femtosecond laser-based non-linear microscopy provides novel contrast mechanisms for the visualisation of ECM. The confinement of the non-linear contrast to the focus volume provides an intrinsic sectioning property for 3D imaging. Further advantages of the infrared light are lower phototoxicity and higher penetration depth into the tissue. For the visualisation of the cornea and its layered substructures two non-linear contrast mechanisms are of main interest: Two-photon excited autofluorescence of NAD(P)H in the cytoplasma and second harmonic generation (SHG) in the collagen-I fibres of the stroma. Ex-vivo corneas of the rabbit were imaged to demonstrate the abilities of non-linear microscopy. Using the autofluorescence of NAD(P)H the corneal epithelium with squamous cells, wing cells and basal cells is visualised in three dimensions without additional exogenoeus staining. Stromal keratocytes are also imaged using the NAD(P)H autofluoresecence. The layered structure of lamella in the stroma is visible after virtual resclicing of the 3D volume data. The en-face SHG images detected through the transparent cornea in forward direction show areas of parallel streaks, which increase in size and periodically alter in orientation (90 degrees , 45 degrees) with increasing depth from anterior to posterior. These streaks are not visible in the backward SHG signal. First results on rabbit corneas, which were cross-linked with Rivoflavin and UV application showed a signature of treatment five weeks post treatment. There were zones in the stroma totally lacking NAD(P)H autofluorescence and the abundance of keratocytes was

  1. Knowledge-Driven Contrast Gain Control is Characterized by Two Distinct Electrocortical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Mišić, Bratislav V.; Schneider, Bruce A.; McIntosh, Anthony R.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity to variations in luminance (contrast) is fundamental to perception because contrasts define the edges and textures of visual objects. Recent research has shown that contrast sensitivity, in addition to being controlled by purely stimulus-driven mechanisms, is also affected by expectations and prior knowledge about the contrast of upcoming stimuli. The ability to adjust contrast sensitivity based on expectations and prior knowledge could help to maximize the information extracted when scanning familiar visual scenes. In the present study we used the event-related potentials (ERP) technique to resolve the stages that mediate knowledge-driven aspects of contrast gain control. Using groupwise independent components analysis and multivariate partial least squares, we isolated two robust spatiotemporal patterns of electrical brain activity associated with preparation for upcoming targets whose contrast was predicted by a cue. The patterns were sensitive to the informative value of the cue. When the cues were informative, these patterns were also able to differentiate among cues that predicted low-contrast targets and cues that predicted high-contrast targets. Both patterns were localized to parts of occipitotemporal cortex, and their morphology, latency, and topography resembled P2/N2 and P3 potentials. These two patterns provide electrophysiological markers of knowledge-driven preparation for impending changes in contrast and shed new light on the manner in which top-down factors modulate sensory processing. PMID:20140269

  2. Reconstruction methods for phase-contrast tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, C.

    1997-02-01

    Phase contrast imaging with coherent x-rays can be distinguished in outline imaging and holography, depending on the wavelength {lambda}, the object size d and the object-to-detector distance r. When r << d{sup 2}{lambda}, phase contrast occurs only in regions where the refractive index fastly changes, i.e. at interfaces and edges in the sample. With increasing object-to-detector distance we come in the area of holographic imaging. The image contrast outside the shadow region of the object is due to interference of the direct, undiffracted beam and a beam diffracted by the object, or, in terms of holography, the interference of a reference wave with the object wave. Both, outline imaging and holography, offer the possibility to obtain three dimensional information of the sample in conjunction with a tomographic technique. But the data treatment and the kind of information one can obtain from the reconstruction is different.

  3. Contrast dispersion imaging for cancer localization.

    PubMed

    Mischi, Massimo; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer growth is associated with angiogenic processes in many types of cancer. Several imaging strategies have therefore been developed that target angiogenesis as a marker for cancer localization. To this end, intravascular and extravascular tissue perfusion is typically assessed by dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) ultrasound (US) and MRI. All the proposed strategies, however, overlook important changes in the microvascular architecture that result from angiogenic processes. To overcome these limitations, we have recently introduced a new imaging strategy that analyzes the intravascular dispersion kinetics of contrast agents spreading through the microvasculature. Contrast dispersion is mainly determined by microvascular multi-path trajectories, reflecting the underlying microvascular architecture. This paper reviews the results obtained for prostate cancer localization by US and MRI dispersion imaging, also presenting the latest new developments and future perspectives.

  4. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-15

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  5. Enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Herbert D.; Lovhoiden, Gunnar

    1999-07-01

    A technique for enhancing the contrast of subcutaneous veins has been demonstrated. This technique uses a near infrared light source and one or more infrared sensitive CCD TV cameras to produce a contrast enhanced image of the subcutaneous veins. This video image of the veins is projected back onto the patient's skin using an LCD vein projector. The use of an infrared transmitting filter in front of the video cameras prevents any positive feedback from the visible light from the video projector from causing instabilities in the projected image. The demonstration contrast enhancing illuminator has been tested on adults, both Caucasian and African-American, and it enhances veins quite well in most cases. Preliminary studies on a 9 month old girl indicate promise for pediatric use.

  6. Contrastive stress and children's interpretation of pronouns.

    PubMed

    Solan, L

    1980-09-01

    Contrastive stress signals the hearer that the speaker thinks that certain information is not shared by the speaker and hearer. In the case of stressed pronouns the speaker is signalling the inappropriateness of applying normal interpretive strategies. Children were presented with sentences such as John hit Bill and then he hit Sam. Surprisingly, it was found that when the pronoun was stressed the children performed better than when it was unstressed. It is argued that children are employing an ad hoc strategy for interpreting stressed pronouns, and that they have not initially mastered the interaction of strategies and contrastive stress. It is further argued that prosodic features such as contrastive stress provide children with helpful clues for developing interpretive strategies.

  7. Phase contrast portal imaging using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umetani, K.; Kondoh, T.

    2014-07-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy is an experimental form of radiation treatment with great potential to improve the treatment of many types of cancer. We applied a synchrotron radiation phase contrast technique to portal imaging to improve targeting accuracy for microbeam radiation therapy in experiments using small animals. An X-ray imaging detector was installed 6.0 m downstream from an object to produce a high-contrast edge enhancement effect in propagation-based phase contrast imaging. Images of a mouse head sample were obtained using therapeutic white synchrotron radiation with a mean beam energy of 130 keV. Compared to conventional portal images, remarkably clear images of bones surrounding the cerebrum were acquired in an air environment for positioning brain lesions with respect to the skull structure without confusion with overlapping surface structures.

  8. Visualization of multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agents using ultrasound contrast sequences: an experimental study in a tissue mimicking flow phantom.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Malin; Larsson, Matilda; Oddo, Letizia; Margheritelli, Silvia; Paradossi, Gaio; Nowak, Jacek; Brodin, Lars-Åke; Caidahl, Kenneth; Bjällmark, Anna

    2013-08-29

    A multimodal polymer-shelled contrast agent (CA) with target specific potential was recently developed and tested for its acoustic properties in a single element transducer setup. Since the developed polymeric CA has different chemical composition than the commercially available CAs, there is an interest to study its acoustic response when using clinical ultrasound systems. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the acoustic response by studying the visualization capability and shadowing effect of three polymer-shelled CAs when using optimized sequences for contrast imaging. The acoustic response of three types of the multimodal CA was evaluated in a tissue mimicking flow phantom setup by measuring contrast to tissue ratio (CTR) and acoustic shadowing using five image sequences optimized for contrast imaging. The measurements were performed over a mechanical index (MI) range of 0.2-1.2 at three CA concentrations (106, 105, 104 microbubbles/ml). The CTR-values were found to vary with the applied contrast sequence, MI and CA. The highest CTR-values were obtained when a contrast sequence optimized for higher MI imaging was used. At a CA concentration of 106 microbubbles/ml, acoustic shadowing was observed for all contrast sequences and CAs. The CAs showed the potential to enhance ultrasound images generated by available contrast sequences. A CA concentration of 106 MBs/ml implies a non-linear relation between MB concentration and image intensity.

  9. Incidence of immediate gadolinium contrast media reactions.

    PubMed

    Prince, Martin R; Zhang, Honglei; Zou, Zhitong; Staron, Ronald B; Brill, Paula W

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the incidence of immediate adverse events for gadolinium-based contrast agents. All gadolinium-based contrast agent adverse events reported to radiology quality assurance committees were graded according to American College of Radiology criteria and divided by the total number of injections to determine incidence during the past 10 years. For each event, an age- and examination-matched control patient was identified to compare sex, weight, creatinine, eosinophil count, allergic history and gadolinium-based contrast agent dose differences. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) database was analyzed to compare local experience to national trends. Abdominal MRI had the highest rates of adverse events, 0.013% compared with brain (0.0045%, p < 0.001) or spine (0.0034%, p < 0.001). Adverse events were more likely in women, with a female to male ratio of 3.3, and in patients with history of prior allergic reactions (p < 0.001). Immediate adverse events rates were 0.2, 0.5, 1.2, and 3.3 per 1,000 injections for gadodiamide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadoteridol, respectively. Gadobenate dimeglumine had more severe patient reactions, including three patients who arrested (defined as the patient becoming unresponsive and the code team being called), one of whom died. From 2004 to 2009, the FDA received reports on 40 gadolinium-based contrast agent U.S. deaths unrelated to nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, with an incidence per million doses of 0.15, 0.19, 0.97, 2.7, and 0.7 for gadodiamide, gadoversetimide, gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadoteridol, respectively. This limited retrospective analysis shows that gadolinium-based contrast agents are very safe, with only rare reports of death, and raises the possibility that nonionic linear gadolinium-based contrast agents and gadopentetate dimeglumine may have fewer severe immediate adverse events

  10. Vowel identification by amplitude and phase contrast.

    PubMed

    Molis, Michelle R; Diedesch, Anna; Gallun, Frederick; Leek, Marjorie R

    2013-02-01

    Vowel identification is largely dependent on listeners' access to the frequency of two or three peaks in the amplitude spectrum. Earlier work has demonstrated that, whereas normal-hearing listeners can identify harmonic complexes with vowel-like spectral shapes even with very little amplitude contrast between "formant" components and remaining harmonic components, listeners with hearing loss require greater amplitude differences. This is likely the result of the poor frequency resolution that often accompanies hearing loss. Here, we describe an additional acoustic dimension for emphasizing formant versus non-formant harmonics that may supplement amplitude contrast information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether listeners were able to identify "vowel-like" sounds using temporal (component phase) contrast, which may be less affected by cochlear loss than spectral cues, and whether overall identification improves when congruent temporal and spectral information are provided together. Five normal-hearing and five hearing-impaired listeners identified three vowels over many presentations. Harmonics representing formant peaks were varied in amplitude, phase, or a combination of both. In addition to requiring less amplitude contrast, normal-hearing listeners could accurately identify the sounds with less phase contrast than required by people with hearing loss. However, both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired groups demonstrated the ability to identify vowel-like sounds based solely on component phase shifts, with no amplitude contrast information, and they also showed improved performance when congruent phase and amplitude cues were combined. For nearly all listeners, the combination of spectral and temporal information improved identification in comparison to either dimension alone.

  11. Stereomotion speed perception is contrast dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, K.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of contrast on the perception of stimulus speed for stereomotion and monocular lateral motion was investigated for successive matches in random-dot stimuli. The familiar 'Thompson effect'--that a reduction in contrast leads to a reduction in perceived speed--was found in similar proportions for both binocular images moving in depth, and for monocular images translating laterally. This result is consistent with the idea that the monocular motion system has a significant input to the stereomotion system, and dominates the speed percept for approaching motion.

  12. Contrast agent choice for intravenous coronary angiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, H. D.; Siddons, D. P.

    1990-05-01

    The screening of the general population for coronary artery disease would be practical if a method existed for visualizing the extent of occlusion after an intravenous injection of contrast agent. Measurements performed with monochromatic synchrotron radiation X-rays and an iodine-containing contrast agent at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory have shown that such an intravenous angiography procedure would be possible with an adequately intense monochromatic X-ray source. Because of the size and cost of synchrotron radiation facilities it would be desirable to make the most efficient use of the intensity available, while reducing as much as possible the radiation dose experienced by the patient. By choosing contrast agents containing elements with a higher atomic number than iodine, it is possible to both improve the image quality and reduce the patient radiation dose, while using the same synchrotron radiation source. By using Si monochromator crystals with a small mosaic spread, it is possible to increase the X-ray flux available for imaging by over an order of magnitude, without any changes in the storage ring or wiggler magnet. The most critical imaging task for intravenous coronary angiography utilizing synchrotron radiation X-rays is visualizing a coronary artery through the left ventricle or aorta which also contain contrast agent. Calculations have been made of the signal to noise ratio expected for this imaging task for various contrast agents with atomic numbers between that of iodine and bismuth. The X-ray energy spectrum of the X-17 superconduction wiggler beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been used for these calculations. Both perfect Si crystals and Si crystals with a small mosaic spread are considered as monochromators. Contrast agents containing Gd or Yb seem to have about the optimal calculated signal to noise ratio. Gd-DTPA is already approved for use as a contrast agent for

  13. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    PubMed

    Travieso Aja, M M; Rodríguez Rodríguez, M; Alayón Hernández, S; Vega Benítez, V; Luzardo, O P

    2014-01-01

    The degree of vascularization in breast lesions is related to their malignancy. For this reason, functional diagnostic imaging techniques have become important in recent years. Dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography is a new, apparently promising technique in breast cancer that provides information about the degree of vascularization of the lesion in addition to the morphological information provided by conventional mammography. This article describes the state of the art for dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography. Based on 15 months' clinical experience, we illustrate this review with clinical cases that allow us to discuss the advantages and limitations of this technique.

  14. The Potential of High-Contrast Coronagraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serabyn, E.

    2008-01-01

    The direct detection of faint companions near much brighter stars requires the development of very high-contrast, small field-of-view detection techniques, and the past decade has seen remarkable conceptual and instrumental progress in this area. New coronagraphic techniques are being developed and deployed, as are extreme adaptive optics (ExAO) systems that will enable the advantageous exploitation of these new techniques. This paper provides a short overview of promising high contrast coronagraphic techniques, as well as recent examples of ExAO coronagraphy and transit measurements obtained with the ExAO-level "well-corrected subaperture" at Palomar.

  15. Hypersensitivity to contrast media and dyes.

    PubMed

    Brockow, Knut; Sánchez-Borges, Mario

    2014-08-01

    This article updates current knowledge on hypersensitivity reactions to diagnostic contrast media and dyes. After application of a single iodinated radiocontrast medium (RCM), gadolinium-based contrast medium, fluorescein, or a blue dye, a hypersensitivity reaction is not a common finding; however, because of the high and still increasing frequency of those procedures, patients who have experienced severe reactions are nevertheless frequently encountered in allergy departments. Evidence on allergologic testing and management is best for iodinated RCM, limited for blue dyes, and insufficient for fluorescein. Skin tests can be helpful in the diagnosis of patients with hypersensitivity reactions to these compounds.

  16. Orion: a high contrast user facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. I.; Danson, C. N.; Duffield, S. J.; Egan, D. A.; Elsmere, S. P.; Girling, M. T.; Harvey, E. J.; Hopps, N. W.; Norman, M. J.; Parker, S. J. F.; Treadwell, P. T.; Winter, D. N.; Bett, T. H.

    2016-03-01

    The Orion facility consists of two synchronized laser systems: two CPA (Chirped Pulse Amplification) beamlines each deliver 500J to target in a 0.5ps pulse (1PW) at 1054nm; and ten long pulse beamlines each deliver 500J in 0.1-5ns temporally shaped pulse at 351nm. One of the CPA beamlines has the option to be frequency doubled at sub-aperture to produce 100J laser pulses with a nanosecond contrast of ∼ 1014. Further work is under way to enhance the contrast of both CPA beamlines in the first harmonic.

  17. Contrast of Subpicosecond Microelectron Bunch Trains

    SciTech Connect

    Muggli, Patric; Kallos, Efthymios; Yakimenko, Vitaly; Kusche, Karl; Babzien, Marcus; Park, Jangho

    2009-01-22

    We recently demonstrated that electron bunch trains with a controllable number of bunches and adjustable subpicosecond spacing can be produced using a mask technique. In this paper we calculate the bunch train contrast as a function of the beam betatron size at the mask {sigma}{sub {beta}} and of the diameter d of the mask wires separated by a period D. As expected, when {sigma}{sub {beta}}/(d/2) the contrast is high and decreases with increasing {sigma}{sub {beta}}/(d/2)

  18. Contrast media-induced compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Bettye G

    2011-01-01

    Intravascular (IV) contrast media are essential in many cases to enhance the diagnostic capabilities of medical imaging procedures. Much is known about the indications, contraindications, and adverse events associated with their use. This Directed Reading focuses on extravasation and IV contrast media-induced compartment syndrome, a less frequent, although serious, adverse event. In addition to describing the compartments within the forearm, wrist, and hand, the article explains how compartment syndrome develops, techniques used to treat the condition, and prevention strategies. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  19. Contrast Media: History and Chemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Buschur, Michael; Aspelin, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Contrast media are essential for cardiac catheterization, and the evolution of these agents has had a significant role in cardiology. Contrast agents are classified as ionic or nonionic based on water solubility and as monomers or dimers based on their chemical structures. Furthermore, these agents are classified on osmolality as high osmolar, low osmolar, or iso-osmolar. The last century has seen a rapid evolution of these agents from their discovery during the search for syphilis treatments to advancements in their chemical properties, making them safer for patients and improving tissue visualization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Contrast-induced nephropathy: An update].

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, V; Azzalini, L; Tadros, V X; Picard, F; Ly, H Q

    2016-04-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is common in hospitalized patients. Its occurrence is associated with an increased hospitalization stay and cost, morbidity and mortality. Thus, preventives strategies remain a major issue. Patients that are referred for cardiac catheterization are among the most vulnerable to develop CIN due to their comorbidities. Moreover, in some cases, such preventives measures cannot be introduced due to emergent clinical settings. After a summary regarding the properties of iodinated contrast medium, the aim of this work was to review the definition, pathophysiology, diagnosis and preventive strategies related to CIN.

  1. Relative Nephrotoxicity of Different Contrast Media.

    PubMed

    Aqeel, Iram; Garcha, Amarinder S; Rudnick, Michael R

    2014-07-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury among hospitalized patients. High-osmolar contrast agents are associated with increased risk of CIN. Low-osmolar (LOCM) and iso-osmolar (IOCM) agents show no difference in the incidence of CIN, even among high-risk patients. This finding suggests that factors other than osmolality may play a role in the pathogenesis of CIN. The use of either LOCM or IOCM agents is recommended in high-risk patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereomotion speed perception is contrast dependent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, K.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of contrast on the perception of stimulus speed for stereomotion and monocular lateral motion was investigated for successive matches in random-dot stimuli. The familiar 'Thompson effect'--that a reduction in contrast leads to a reduction in perceived speed--was found in similar proportions for both binocular images moving in depth, and for monocular images translating laterally. This result is consistent with the idea that the monocular motion system has a significant input to the stereomotion system, and dominates the speed percept for approaching motion.

  3. X-ray phase-contrast methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lider, V. V. Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2013-11-15

    This review is devoted to a comparative description of the methods for forming X-ray phase-contrast images of weakly absorbing (phase) objects. These include the crystal interferometer method, the Talbot interferometer method, diffraction-enhanced X-ray imaging, and the in-line method. The potential of their practical application in various fields of science and technology is discussed. The publications on the development and optimization of X-ray phase-contrast methods and the experimental study of phase objects are analyzed.

  4. Relationship Between Collateral Status, Contrast Transit, and Contrast Density in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroyuki; Bivard, Andrew; Lin, Longting; Spratt, Neil J; Miteff, Ferdinand; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R

    2016-03-01

    Collateral circulation is recognized to influence the life expectancy of the ischemic penumbra in acute ischemic stroke. The best method to quantify collateral status on acute imaging is uncertain. We aimed to determine the relationship between visual collateral status, quantitative collateral assessments, baseline computed tomographic perfusion measures, and tissue outcomes on follow-up imaging. Sixty-six consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke clinically eligible for recanalization therapy and with M1 or M2 middle cerebral artery occlusion were evaluated. We compared the visual collateral scoring with measures of contrast peak time delay and contrast peak density. We also compared these measures for their ability to predict perfusion lesion and infarct core volumes, final infarct, and infarct growth. Shorter contrast peak time delay (P=0.041) and higher contrast peak density (P=0.002) were associated with good collateral status. Shorter contrast peak time delay correlated with higher contrast peak density (β=-4.413; P=0.037). In logistic regression analysis after adjustment for age, sex, onset-computed tomographic time, and occlusion site, higher contrast peak density was independently associated with good collateral status (P=0.009). Multiple regression analysis showed that higher contrast peak density was an independent predictor of smaller perfusion lesion volume (P=0.029), smaller ischemic core volume (P=0.044), smaller follow-up infarct volume (P=0.005), and smaller infarct growth volume (P=0.010). Visual collateral status, contrast peak density, and contrast peak time delay were inter-related, and good collateral status was strongly associated with contrast peak density. Contrast peak density in collateral vessel may be an important factor in tissue fate in acute ischemic stroke. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Exogenous contrast agents for thermoacoustic imaging: an investigation into the underlying sources of contrast.

    PubMed

    Ogunlade, Olumide; Beard, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Thermoacoustic imaging at microwave excitation frequencies is limited by the low differential contrast exhibited by high water content tissues. To overcome this, exogenous thermoacoustic contrast agents based on gadolinium compounds, iron oxide, and single wall carbon nanotubes have previously been suggested and investigated. However, these previous studies did not fully characterize the electric, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of these agents thus precluding identification of the underlying sources of contrast. To address this, measurements of the complex permittivity, complex permeability, DC conductivity, and Grüneisen parameter have been made. These measurements allowed the origins of the contrast provided by each substance to be identified. The electric and magnetic properties of the contrast agents were characterized at 3 GHz using two rectangular waveguide cavities. The DC conductivity was measured separately using a conductivity meter. Thermoacoustic signals were then acquired and compared to those generated in water. Finally, 3D electromagnetic simulations were used to decouple the different contributions to the absorbed power density. It was found that the gadolinium compounds provided appreciable electric contrast but not originating from the gadolinium itself. The contrast was either due to dissociation of the gadolinium salt which increased ionic conductivity or its nondissociated polar fraction which increased dielectric polarization loss or a combination of both. In addition, very high concentrations were required to achieve appreciable contrast, to the extent that the Grüneisen parameter increased significantly and became a source of contrast. Iron oxide particles were found to produce low but measurable dielectric contrast due to dielectric polarization loss, but this is attributed to the coating of the particles not the iron oxide. Single wall carbon nanotubes did not provide measurable contrast of any type. It is concluded that

  6. Exogenous contrast agents for thermoacoustic imaging: An investigation into the underlying sources of contrast

    SciTech Connect

    Ogunlade, Olumide Beard, Paul

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Thermoacoustic imaging at microwave excitation frequencies is limited by the low differential contrast exhibited by high water content tissues. To overcome this, exogenous thermoacoustic contrast agents based on gadolinium compounds, iron oxide, and single wall carbon nanotubes have previously been suggested and investigated. However, these previous studies did not fully characterize the electric, magnetic, and thermodynamic properties of these agents thus precluding identification of the underlying sources of contrast. To address this, measurements of the complex permittivity, complex permeability, DC conductivity, and Grüneisen parameter have been made. These measurements allowed the origins of the contrast provided by each substance to be identified. Methods: The electric and magnetic properties of the contrast agents were characterized at 3 GHz using two rectangular waveguide cavities. The DC conductivity was measured separately using a conductivity meter. Thermoacoustic signals were then acquired and compared to those generated in water. Finally, 3D electromagnetic simulations were used to decouple the different contributions to the absorbed power density. Results: It was found that the gadolinium compounds provided appreciable electric contrast but not originating from the gadolinium itself. The contrast was either due to dissociation of the gadolinium salt which increased ionic conductivity or its nondissociated polar fraction which increased dielectric polarization loss or a combination of both. In addition, very high concentrations were required to achieve appreciable contrast, to the extent that the Grüneisen parameter increased significantly and became a source of contrast. Iron oxide particles were found to produce low but measurable dielectric contrast due to dielectric polarization loss, but this is attributed to the coating of the particles not the iron oxide. Single wall carbon nanotubes did not provide measurable contrast of any type

  7. Contrast agent influences MRI phase-contrast flow measurements in small vessels.

    PubMed

    Lagerstrand, Kerstin M; Vikhoff-Baaz, Barbro; Starck, Göran; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2010-07-01

    Contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often combined with phase contrast (PC) flow measurement to answer a particular clinical question. The contrast agent that is administered during contrast-enhanced MR angiography may still be present in the blood during the consecutive PC flow measurement. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of contrast agent on PC flow measurements in small vessels. For that purpose, both in vivo measurements and computer simulations were performed. The dependence of the PC flow quantification on the signal amplitude difference between blood and stationary background tissue for various vessel sizes was characterized. Results show that the partial-volume effect strongly affects the accuracy of the PC flow quantification when the imaged vessel is small compared to the spatial resolution. A higher blood-to-background-contrast level during imaging significantly increases the partial-volume effect and thereby reduces the accuracy of the flow quantification. On the other hand, a higher blood-to-background-contrast level facilitated the segmentation of the vessel for flow rate determination. PC flow measurements should therefore be performed after contrast agent administration in large vessels, but before contrast agent administration in small vessels.

  8. Zero Contrast Coronary Intervention Using Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance in a Patient with Allergy to Contrast Medium.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Masakazu; Tsumuraya, Naoko; Nie, Masaki; Ikari, Yuji

    2016-09-20

    The occurrence of allergy to iodinated contrast in certain patients may prevent the use of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in such cases. We present a 53-year-old male with a history of allergic reaction to iodinated contrast who successfully underwent intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guided PCI. Stent size was determined based on IVUS. After PCI, stent expansion and a lack of edge dissection or incomplete apposition were confirmed by IVUS. Thus, PCI without contrast injection under IVUS may be feasible in selected patients with allergy to iodinated contrast.

  9. Contextual effects on perceived contrast: figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast.

    PubMed

    Self, Matthew W; Mookhoek, Aart; Tjalma, Nienke; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2015-02-02

    Figure-ground segregation is an important step in the path leading to object recognition. The visual system segregates objects ('figures') in the visual scene from their backgrounds ('ground'). Electrophysiological studies in awake-behaving monkeys have demonstrated that neurons in early visual areas increase their firing rate when responding to a figure compared to responding to the background. We hypothesized that similar changes in neural firing would take place in early visual areas of the human visual system, leading to changes in the perception of low-level visual features. In this study, we investigated whether contrast perception is affected by figure-ground assignment using stimuli similar to those in the electrophysiological studies in monkeys. We measured contrast discrimination thresholds and perceived contrast for Gabor probes placed on figures or the background and found that the perceived contrast of the probe was increased when it was placed on a figure. Furthermore, we tested how this effect compared with the well-known effect of orientation contrast on perceived contrast. We found that figure-ground assignment and orientation contrast produced changes in perceived contrast of a similar magnitude, and that they interacted. Our results demonstrate that figure-ground assignment influences perceived contrast, consistent with an effect of figure-ground assignment on activity in early visual areas of the human visual system.

  10. Binocular combination of phase and contrast explained by a gain-control and gain-enhancement model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination, measuring both the perceived phase and perceived contrast of a cyclopean sine wave. We used a paradigm adapted from Ding and Sperling (2006, 2007) to measure the perceived phase by indicating the apparent location (phase) of the dark trough in the horizontal cyclopean sine wave relative to a black horizontal reference line, and we used the same stimuli to measure perceived contrast by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to one eye. We found that under normal viewing conditions (high contrast and long stimulus duration), perceived contrast is constant, independent of the interocular contrast ratio and the interocular phase difference, while the perceived phase shifts smoothly from one eye to the other eye depending on the contrast ratios. However, at low contrasts and short stimulus durations, binocular combination is more linear and contrast summation is phase-dependent. To account for phase-dependent contrast summation, we incorporated a fusion remapping mechanism into our model, using disparity energy to shift the monocular phases towards the cyclopean phase in order to align the two eyes' images through motor/sensory fusion. The Ding-Sperling model with motor/sensory fusion mechanism gives a reasonable account of the phase dependence of binocular contrast combination and can account for either the perceived phase or the perceived contrast of a cyclopean sine wave separately; however it requires different model parameters for the two. However, when fit to both phase and contrast data simultaneously, the Ding-Sperling model fails. Incorporating interocular gain enhancement into the model results in a significant improvement in fitting both phase and contrast data simultaneously, successfully accounting for both linear summation at low contrast energy and strong nonlinearity at high contrast energy. PMID:23397038

  11. Binocular combination of phase and contrast explained by a gain-control and gain-enhancement model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Klein, Stanley A; Levi, Dennis M

    2013-02-08

    We investigated suprathreshold binocular combination, measuring both the perceived phase and perceived contrast of a cyclopean sine wave. We used a paradigm adapted from Ding and Sperling (2006, 2007) to measure the perceived phase by indicating the apparent location (phase) of the dark trough in the horizontal cyclopean sine wave relative to a black horizontal reference line, and we used the same stimuli to measure perceived contrast by matching the binocular combined contrast to a standard contrast presented to one eye. We found that under normal viewing conditions (high contrast and long stimulus duration), perceived contrast is constant, independent of the interocular contrast ratio and the interocular phase difference, while the perceived phase shifts smoothly from one eye to the other eye depending on the contrast ratios. However, at low contrasts and short stimulus durations, binocular combination is more linear and contrast summation is phase-dependent. To account for phase-dependent contrast summation, we incorporated a fusion remapping mechanism into our model, using disparity energy to shift the monocular phases towards the cyclopean phase in order to align the two eyes' images through motor/sensory fusion. The Ding-Sperling model with motor/sensory fusion mechanism gives a reasonable account of the phase dependence of binocular contrast combination and can account for either the perceived phase or the perceived contrast of a cyclopean sine wave separately; however it requires different model parameters for the two. However, when fit to both phase and contrast data simultaneously, the Ding-Sperling model fails. Incorporating interocular gain enhancement into the model results in a significant improvement in fitting both phase and contrast data simultaneously, successfully accounting for both linear summation at low contrast energy and strong nonlinearity at high contrast energy.

  12. Literature Review of Japanese Contrastive Rhetoric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    This literature review serves to inform the reader on current literature on Contrastive Rhetoric (CR), with specific reference to teaching writing to Japanese students of English. It will examine the historical developments of CR and its present significance before then looking at possible reasons for unique characteristics of Japanese L2 writers…

  13. Hytrast: A New Contrast Medium for Bronchography

    PubMed Central

    Misener, F. J.; Quinlan, J. J.; Hiltz, J. E.

    1965-01-01

    In 1962 Hytrast, an aqueous suspension containing 50% w/v of combined iodine as a mixture of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-3,5-diiodopyridone-4 and 3,5-diiodopyridone-4, was introduced as a contrast medium for bronchography. Extensive clinical trials had suggested that this agent was superior to products usually employed for this purpose. At the Nova Scotia Sanatorium, Hytrast was used as a bronchographic contrast medium in 31 consecutive cases. For comparison purposes, the records of the first 50 patients in whom another contrast medium, Dionosil Oily, was used were reviewed. In all cases the contrast medium was introduced through a catheter passed into the bronchus with the aid of a laryngeal mirror, after local anesthesia was induced by pontocaine 2%. Experience in this limited number of cases was at variance with most published results. Hytrast was more irritating than Dionosil Oily, had a greater tendency to produce alveolarization, caused more frequent undesirable sequelae, and was retained in the lung for prolonged periods. PMID:14264971

  14. Embedded high-contrast distributed grating structures

    DOEpatents

    Zubrzycki, Walter J.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of fabrication methods for embedded distributed grating structures is claimed, together with optical devices which include such structures. These new methods are the only known approach to making defect-free high-dielectric contrast grating structures, which are smaller and more efficient than are conventional grating structures.

  15. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  16. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aijmer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  17. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  18. Multiscale retinocortical model of contrast processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Ian R.; Haig, Nigel D.

    1996-04-01

    Visual performance models have in the past, typically been empirical, relying on the user to supply numerical values such as target contrast and background luminance to describe the performance of the visual system, when undertaking a specified task. However, it is becoming increasingly easy to obtain computer images using for example digital cameras, scanners, imaging photometers and radiometers. We have therefore been examining the possibility of producing a quantitative model of human vision that is capable of directly processing images in order to provide predictions of performance. We are particularly interested in being able to process images of 'real' scenes. The model is inspired by human vision and the components have analogies with parts of the human visual system but their properties are governed primarily by existing psychophysical data. The first stage of the model generates a multiscale, difference of Gaussian (DoG) representation of the image (Burton, Haig and Moorhead), with a central foveal region of high resolution, and with a resolution that declines with eccentricity as the scale of the filter increases. Incorporated into this stage is a gain control process which ensures that the contrast sensitivity is consistent with the psychophysical data of van Nes and Bouman. The second stage incorporates a model of perceived contrast proposed by Cannon and Fullenkamp. Their model assumes the image is analyzed by oriented (Gabor) filters and produces a representation of the image in terms of perceived contrast.

  19. Superhydrophobic silica nanoparticles as ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiaofeng; Lin, Chih-Yu; Kang, Shih-Tsung; Chang, Yuan-Chih; Zheng, Hairong; Yang, Chia-Min; Yeh, Chih-Kuang

    2017-05-01

    Microbubbles have been widely studied as ultrasound contrast agents for diagnosis and as drug/gene carriers for therapy. However, their size and stability (lifetime of 5-12min) limited their applications. The development of stable nanoscale ultrasound contrast agents would therefore benefit both. Generating bubbles persistently in situ would be one of the promising solutions to the problem of short lifetime. We hypothesized that bubbles could be generated in situ by providing stable air nuclei since it has been found that the interfacial nanobubbles on a hydrophobic surface have a much longer lifetime (orders of days). Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with large surface areas and different levels of hydrophobicity were prepared to test our hypothesis. It is clear that the superhydrophobic and porous nanoparticles exhibited a significant and strong contrast intensity compared with other nanoparticles. The bubbles generated from superhydrophobic nanoparticles sustained for at least 30min at a MI of 1.0, while lipid microbubble lasted for about 5min at the same settings. In summary MSNs have been transformed into reliable bubble precursors by making simple superhydrophobic modification, and made into a promising contrast agent with the potentials to serve as theranostic agents that are sensitive to ultrasound stimulation.

  20. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  1. Theory and Contrastive Explanation in Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichterman, Paul; Reed, Isaac Ariail

    2015-01-01

    We propose three interlinked ways that theory helps researchers build causal claims from ethnographic research. First, theory guides the casing and re-casing of a topic of study. Second, theoretical work helps craft a clear causal question via the construction of a contrast space of the topic of investigation. Third, the researcher uses theory to…

  2. Behavioral contrast and the automaintained key peck.

    PubMed

    Wesp, R K; Lattal, K A

    1981-01-01

    In two experiments behavioral contrast was demonstrated during discrimination training in a positive automaintenance procedure. During the baseline condition in each experiment, a key was transilluminated for eight seconds by one of two colors (CS) following a variable intertrial interval signaled by a dark key. Keylight transillumination terminated with a response-independent food presentation. In the first experiment, food was eliminated during one CS for up to fifty sessions. After reinstatement of food following each CS, the discrimination was reversed. Six of the eight subjects showed positive behavioral contrast, i.e., response rates increased during the CS associated with food as they decreased during the CS associated with no food. The effect was replicated in Experiment II, but it did not occur when both the food and its associated CS were eliminated. These results were comparable to those obtained with operant discrimination training procedures (behavioral contrast) and with Pavlovian discrimination training. The results suggest that additivity theories of behavioral contrast may be insufficient to account for these data.

  3. Behavioral contrast and the automaintained key peck

    PubMed Central

    Wesp, Richard K.; Lattal, Kennon A.

    1981-01-01

    In two experiments behavioral contrast was demonstrated during discrimination training in a positive automaintenance procedure. During the baseline condition in each experiment, a key was transilluminated for eight seconds by one of two colors (CS) following a variable intertrial interval signaled by a dark key. Keylight transillumination terminated with a response-independent food presentation. In the first experiment, food was eliminated during one CS for up to fifty sessions. After reinstatement of food following each CS, the discrimination was reversed. Six of the eight subjects showed positive behavioral contrast, i.e., response rates increased during the CS associated with food as they decreased during the CS associated with no food. The effect was replicated in Experiment II, but it did not occur when both the food and its associated CS were eliminated. These results were comparable to those obtained with operant discrimination training procedures (behavioral contrast) and with Pavlovian discrimination training. The results suggest that additivity theories of behavioral contrast may be insufficient to account for these data. PMID:16812201

  4. Processing of Contrastiveness by Heritage Russian Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekerina, Irina A.; Trueswell, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Two eye-tracking experiments in the Visual World paradigm compared how monolingual Russian (Experiment 1) and heritage Russian-English bilingual (Experiment 2) listeners process contrastiveness online in Russian. Materials were color adjective-noun phrases embedded into the split-constituent construction Krasnuju polozite zvezdovku..."Red put…

  5. Sparsity and Low-Contrast Object Detectability

    PubMed Central

    Trzasko, Joshua D.; Bao, Zhonghao; Manduca, Armando; McGee, Kiaran P.; Bernstein, Matt A.

    2012-01-01

    The application of sparsity-driven reconstruction methods to MRI to date has largely focused on situations where high-contrast features (e.g., gadolinium-enhanced vessels) are of primary interest. In clinical practice, however, low contrast features such as subtle lesions are often of equal or greater interest. Using an American College of Radiology (ACR) MR quality assurance phantom and test, we describe a novel framework for systematically and automatically evaluating the low-contrast object detectability (LCOD) performance of different undersampled image reconstruction methods. This platform is used to evaluate three such methods, two based on classic Tikhonov regularization and one sparsity-driven method based on ℓ1-norm minimization (which is commonly used in Compressive Sensing applications), across a wide range of sampling rates and parameterizations. Both the automated evaluation system and a manual evaluation of anatomical images with numerically-generated low contrast inserts demonstrate that sparse reconstructions exhibit superior LCOD performance compared to both Tikhonov-regularized reconstructions. The implications of this result, and potential applications of both the described LCOD platform and generalizations of it are then discussed. PMID:22105698

  6. El metodo contrastivo (The Contrastive Method)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menton, Seymour

    1972-01-01

    Presidential address delivered at the 53rd Annual Meeting of the American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, December 30, 1971, in Chicago, Illinois. Applies the contrastive method to literature and culture in teaching Spanish. Compares points of view in interpretation and criticism of Spanish American literature, also cultural and…

  7. Lexical representation of novel L2 contrasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Masuda, Kyoko

    2005-04-01

    There is much interest among psychologists and linguists in the influence of the native language sound system on the acquisition of second languages (Best, 1995; Flege, 1995). Most studies of second language (L2) speech focus on how learners perceive and produce L2 sounds, but we know of only two that have considered how novel sound contrasts are encoded in learners' lexical representations of L2 words (Pallier et al., 2001; Ota et al., 2002). In this study we investigated how native speakers of English encode Japanese consonant quantity contrasts in their developing Japanese lexicons at different stages of acquisition (Japanese contrasts singleton versus geminate consonants but English does not). Monolingual English speakers, native English speakers learning Japanese for one year, and native speakers of Japanese were taught a set of Japanese nonwords containing singleton and geminate consonants. Subjects then performed memory tasks eliciting perception and production data to determine whether they encoded the Japanese consonant quantity contrast lexically. Overall accuracy in these tasks was a function of Japanese language experience, and acoustic analysis of the production data revealed non-native-like patterns of differentiation of singleton and geminate consonants among the L2 learners of Japanese. Implications for theories of L2 speech are discussed.

  8. English Spanish Contrasts. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Cecilio

    A guide for using language contrasts to understand and teach pronunciation differences in English and Spanish proposes that all languages are learned in basically the same order, phonetics (listening and speaking) and graphemics (reading and writing). Language can be broken down so that understandable elements (phonology, morphology, syntax, and…

  9. Atmospheric visibility estimation and image contrast calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermansson, Patrik; Edstam, Klas

    2016-10-01

    A method, referred to as contrast calibration, has been developed for transforming digital color photos of outdoor scenes from the atmospheric conditions, illumination and visibility, prevailing at the time of capturing the image to a corresponding image for other atmospheric conditions. A photo captured on a hazy day can, for instance, be converted to resemble a photo of the same scene for good visibility conditions. Converting digital color images to specified lightning and transmission conditions is useful for image based assessment of signature suppression solutions. The method uses "calibration objects" which are photographed at about the same time as the scene of interest. The calibration objects, which (indirectly) provide information on visibility and lightning conditions, consist of two flat boards, painted in different grayscale colors, and a commercial, neutral gray, reference card. Atmospheric extinction coefficient and sky intensity can be determined, in three wavelength bands, from image pixel values on the calibration objects and using this information the image can be converted to other atmospheric conditions. The image is transformed in contrast and color. For illustration, contrast calibration is applied to sample images of a scene acquired at different times. It is shown that contrast calibration of the images to the same reference values of extinction coefficient and sky intensity results in images that are more alike than the original images. It is also exemplified how images can be transformed to various other atmospheric weather conditions. Limitations of the method are discussed and possibilities for further development are suggested.

  10. English Spanish Contrasts. A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orozco, Cecilio

    A guide for using language contrasts to understand and teach pronunciation differences in English and Spanish proposes that all languages are learned in basically the same order, phonetics (listening and speaking) and graphemics (reading and writing). Language can be broken down so that understandable elements (phonology, morphology, syntax, and…

  11. Contrast sensitivity function and image discrimination.

    PubMed

    Peli, E

    2001-02-01

    A previous study tested the validity of simulations of the appearance of a natural image (from different observation distances) generated by using a visual model and contrast sensitivity functions of the individual observers [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1131 (1996)]. Deleting image spatial-frequency components that should be undetectable made the simulations indistinguishable from the original images at distances larger than the simulated distance. The simulated observation distance accurately predicted the distance at which the simulated image could be discriminated from the original image. Owing to the 1/f characteristic of natural images' spatial spectra, the individual contrast sensitivity functions (CSF's) used in the simulations of the previous study were actually tested only over a narrow range of retinal spatial frequencies. To test the CSF's over a wide range of frequencies, the same simulations and testing procedure were applied to five contrast versions of the images (10-300%). This provides a stronger test of the model, of the simulations, and specifically of the CSF's used. The relevant CSF for a discrimination task was found to be obtained by using 1-octave Gabor stimuli measured in a contrast detection task. The relevant CSF data had to be measured over a range of observation distances, owing to limitations of the displays.

  12. Nature versus Nurture: The Simple Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules; Goldstein, Julie; Roberson, Debi

    2009-01-01

    We respond to the commentary of Franklin, Wright, and Davies ("Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 102", 239-245 [2009]) by returning to the simple contrast between nature and nurture. We find no evidence from the toddler data that makes us revise our ideas that color categories are learned and never innate. (Contains 1 figure.)

  13. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aijmer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  14. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested. PMID:21218081

  15. Contrast-enhanced and targeted ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Postema, Michiel; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2011-01-07

    Ultrasonic imaging is becoming the most popular medical imaging modality, owing to the low price per examination and its safety. However, blood is a poor scatterer of ultrasound waves at clinical diagnostic transmit frequencies. For perfusion imaging, markers have been designed to enhance the contrast in B-mode imaging. These so-called ultrasound contrast agents consist of microscopically small gas bubbles encapsulated in biodegradable shells. In this review, the physical principles of ultrasound contrast agent microbubble behavior and their adjustment for drug delivery including sonoporation are described. Furthermore, an outline of clinical imaging applications of contrast-enhanced ultrasound is given. It is a challenging task to quantify and predict which bubble phenomenon occurs under which acoustic condition, and how these phenomena may be utilized in ultrasonic imaging. Aided by high-speed photography, our improved understanding of encapsulated microbubble behavior will lead to more sophisticated detection and delivery techniques. More sophisticated methods use quantitative approaches to measure the amount and the time course of bolus or reperfusion curves, and have shown great promise in revealing effective tumor responses to anti-angiogenic drugs in humans before tumor shrinkage occurs. These are beginning to be accepted into clinical practice. In the long term, targeted microbubbles for molecular imaging and eventually for directed anti-tumor therapy are expected to be tested.

  16. Contrasting Two Approaches to Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros i Sole, Cristina; Hopkins, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In this article we contrast two distance foreign language programs developed at two European institutions of higher education (the Modern Languages Program at the Open University, UK; and the English Program at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain) as instances of two pedagogical models used to address the many challenges posed by teaching…

  17. Nano/microparticles and ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-Guang; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Chen, Hang-Rong

    2013-12-28

    Microbubbles have been used for many years now in clinical practice as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging. Recently, their therapeutic applications have also attracted more attention. However, the short circulation time (minutes) and relatively large size (two to ten micrometers) of currently used commercial microbubbles do not allow effective extravasation into tumor tissue, preventing efficient tumor targeting. Fortunately, more multifunctional and theranostic nanoparticles with some special advantages over the traditional microbubbles have been widely investigated and explored for biomedical applications. The way to synthesize an ideal ultrasound contrast agent based on nanoparticles in order to achieve an expected effect on contrast imaging is a key technique. Currently a number of nanomaterials, including liposomes, polymers, micelles, dendrimers, emulsions, quantum dots, solid nanoparticles etc., have already been applied to pre or clinical trials. Multifunctional and theranostic nanoparticles with some special advantages, such as the tumor-targeted (passive or active), multi-mode contrast agents (magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography or fluorescence), carrier or enhancer of drug delivery, and combined chemo or thermal therapy etc., are rapidly gaining popularity and have shown a promising application in the field of cancer treatment. In this mini review, the trends and the advances of multifunctional and theranostic nanoparticles are briefly discussed.

  18. Processing Implied Meaning through Contrastive Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Heeyeon Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding implicature--something meant, implied, or suggested distinct from what is said--is paramount for successful human communication. Yet, it is unclear how our cognitive abilities fill in gaps of unspecified information. This study presents three distinct sets of experiments investigating how people understand implied contrasts conveyed…

  19. Contrastive and contextual vowel nasalization in Ottawa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klopfenstein, Marie

    2005-09-01

    Ottawa is a Central Algonquian language that possesses the recent innovation of contrastive vowel nasalization. Most phonetic studies done to date on contrastive vowel nasalization have investigated Indo-European languages; therefore, a study of Ottawa could prove to be a valuable addition to the literature. To this end, a percentage of nasalization (nasal airflow/oral + nasal airflow) was measured during target vowels produced by native Ottawa speakers using a Nasometer 6200-3. Nasalized vowels in the target word set were either contrastively or contextually nasalized: candidates for contextual nasalization were either regressive or perserverative in word-initial and word-final syllables. Subjects were asked to read words containing target vowels in a carrier sentence. Mean, minimum, and maximum nasalance were obtained for each target vowel across its full duration. Target vowels were compared across context (regressive or perseverative and word-initial or word-final). In addition, contexts were compared to determine whether a significant difference existed between contrastive and contextual nasalization. Results for Ottawa will be compared with results for vowels in similar contexts in other languages including Hindi, Breton, Bengali, and French.

  20. Contrasting Two Approaches to Distance Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ros i Sole, Cristina; Hopkins, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In this article we contrast two distance foreign language programs developed at two European institutions of higher education (the Modern Languages Program at the Open University, UK; and the English Program at the Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Spain) as instances of two pedagogical models used to address the many challenges posed by teaching…

  1. Collapse dynamics of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Daniel Alan

    Ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) are micron-sized gas bubbles encapsulated with thin shells on the order of nanometers thick. The damping effects of these viscoelastic coatings are widely known to significantly alter the bubble dynamics for linear and low-amplitude behavior; however, their effects on strongly nonlinear and destruction responses are much less studied. This dissertation examines the behaviors of single collapsing shelled microbubbles using experimental and theoretical methods. The study of their dynamics is particularly relevant for emerging experimental uses of UCAs which seek to leverage localized mechanical forces to create or avoid specialized biomedical effects. The central component in this work is the study of postexcitation rebound and collapse, observed acoustically to identify shell rupture and transient inertial cavitation of single UCA microbubbles. This time-domain analysis of the acoustic response provides a unique method for characterization of UCA destruction dynamics. The research contains a systematic documentation of single bubble postexcitation collapse through experimental measurement with the double passive cavitation detection (PCD) system at frequencies ranging from 0.9 to 7.1 MHz and peak rarefactional pressure amplitudes (PRPA) ranging from 230 kPa to 6.37 MPa. The double PCD setup is shown to improve the quality of collected data over previous setups by allowing symmetric responses from a localized confocal region to be identified. Postexcitation signal percentages are shown to generally follow trends consistent with other similar cavitation metrics such as inertial cavitation, with greater destruction observed at both increased PRPA and lower frequency over the tested ranges. Two different types of commercially available UCAs are characterized and found to have very different collapse thresholds; lipid-shelled Definity exhibits greater postexcitation at lower PRPAs than albumin-shelled Optison. Furthermore, by altering

  2. Similar contrast sensitivity functions measured using psychophysics and optokinetic nystagmus

    PubMed Central

    Dakin, Steven C.; Turnbull, Philip R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) is a particularly useful way of characterising functional vision, its measurement relies on observers making reliable perceptual reports. Such procedures can be challenging when testing children. Here we describe a system for measuring the CSF using an automated analysis of optokinetic nystagmus (OKN); an involuntary oscillatory eye movement made in response to drifting stimuli, here spatial-frequency (SF) band-pass noise. Quantifying the strength of OKN in the stimulus direction allows us to estimate contrast sensitivity across a range of SFs. We compared the CSFs of 30 observers with normal vision measured using both OKN and perceptual report. The approaches yield near-identical CSFs (mean R = 0.95) that capture subtle intra-observer variations in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity (both R = 0.84, p < 0.0001). Trial-by-trial analysis reveals high correlation between OKN and perceptual report, a signature of a common neural mechanism for determining stimulus direction. We also observe conditions where OKN and report are significantly decorrelated as a result of a minority of observers experiencing direction-reversals that are not reflected by OKN. We conclude that there are a wide range of stimulus conditions for which OKN can provide a valid alternative means of measuring of the CSF. PMID:27698486

  3. Nucleotide-Specific Contrast for DNA Sequencing by Electron Spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Mankos, Marian; Persson, Henrik H. J.; N’Diaye, Alpha T.; ...

    2016-05-05

    DNA sequencing by imaging in an electron microscope is an approach that holds promise to deliver long reads with low error rates and without the need for amplification. Earlier work using transmission electron microscopes, which use high electron energies on the order of 100 keV, has shown that low contrast and radiation damage necessitates the use of heavy atom labeling of individual nucleotides, which increases the read error rates. Other prior work using scattering electrons with much lower energy has shown to suppress beam damage on DNA. Here we explore possibilities to increase contrast by employing two methods, X-ray photoelectronmore » and Auger electron spectroscopy. Using bulk DNA samples with monomers of each base, both methods are shown to provide contrast mechanisms that can distinguish individual nucleotides without labels. In conclusion, both spectroscopic techniques can be readily implemented in a low energy electron microscope, which may enable label-free DNA sequencing by direct imaging.« less

  4. Vascular flow and perfusion imaging with ultrasound contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Matthew; Averkiou, Mike; Tiemann, Klaus; Lohmaier, Stefan; Powers, Jeff; Beach, Kirk

    2004-06-01

    Current techniques for imaging ultrasound (US) contrast agents (UCA) make no distinction between low-velocity microbubbles in the microcirculation and higher-velocity microbubbles in the larger vasculature. A combination of radiofrequency (RF) and Doppler filtering on a low mechanical index (MI) pulse inversion acquisition is presented that differentiates low-velocity microbubbles (on the order of mm/s) associated with perfusion, from the higher-velocity microbubbles (on the order of cm/s) in larger vessels. In vitro experiments demonstrate the ability to separate vascular flow using both harmonic and fundamental Doppler signals. Fundamental and harmonic Doppler signals from microbubbles using a low-MI pulse-inversion acquisition are compared with conventional color Doppler signals in vivo. Due to the lower transmit amplitude and enhanced backscatter from microbubbles, the in vivo signal to clutter ratios for both the fundamental (-11 dB) and harmonic (-4 dB) vascular flow signals were greater than with conventional power Doppler (-51 dB) without contrast agent. The processing investigated here, in parallel with conventional pulse-inversion processing, enables the simultaneous display of both perfusion and vascular flow. In vivo results demonstrating the feasibility and potential utility of the real-time display of both perfusion and vascular flow using US contrast agents are presented and discussed.

  5. Contrast, contours and the confusion effect in dazzle camouflage

    PubMed Central

    Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Motion dazzle camouflage’ is the name for the putative effects of highly conspicuous, often repetitive or complex, patterns on parameters important in prey capture, such as the perception of speed, direction and identity. Research into motion dazzle camouflage is increasing our understanding of the interactions between visual tracking, the confusion effect and defensive coloration. However, there is a paucity of research into the effects of contrast on motion dazzle camouflage: is maximal contrast a prerequisite for effectiveness? If not, this has important implications for our recognition of the phenotype and understanding of the function and mechanisms of potential motion dazzle camouflage patterns. Here we tested human participants' ability to track one moving target among many identical distractors with surface patterns designed to test the influence of these factors. In line with previous evidence, we found that targets with stripes parallel to the object direction of motion were hardest to track. However, reduction in contrast did not significantly influence this result. This finding may bring into question the utility of current definitions of motion dazzle camouflage, and means that some animal patterns, such as aposematic or mimetic stripes, may have previously unrecognized multiple functions. PMID:27493775

  6. Optical and acoustical dynamics of microbubble contrast agents inside neutrophils.

    PubMed Central

    Dayton, P A; Chomas, J E; Lum, A F; Allen, J S; Lindner, J R; Simon, S I; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Acoustically active microbubbles are used for contrast-enhanced ultrasound assessment of organ perfusion. In regions of inflammation, contrast agents are captured and phagocytosed by activated neutrophils adherent to the venular wall. Using direct optical observation with a high-speed camera and acoustical interrogation of individual bubbles and cells, we assessed the physical and acoustical responses of both phagocytosed and free microbubbles. Optical analysis of bubble radial oscillations during insonation demonstrated that phagocytosed microbubbles experience viscous damping within the cytoplasm and yet remain acoustically active and capable of large volumetric oscillations during an acoustic pulse. Fitting a modified version of the Rayleigh-Plesset equation that describes mechanical properties of thin shells to optical radius-time data of oscillating bubbles provided estimates of the apparent viscosity of the intracellular medium. Phagocytosed microbubbles experienced a viscous damping approximately sevenfold greater than free microbubbles. Acoustical comparison between free and phagocytosed microbubbles indicated that phagocytosed microbubbles produce an echo with a higher mean frequency than free microbubbles in response to a rarefaction-first single-cycle pulse. Moreover, this frequency increase is predicted using the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. We conclude that contrast-enhanced ultrasound can detect distinct acoustic signals from microbubbles inside of neutrophils and may provide a unique tool to identify activated neutrophils at sites of inflammation. PMID:11222315

  7. Three-dimensional image contrast using biospeckle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinho, Robson Pierangeli; Braga, Roberto A., Jr.

    2010-09-01

    The biospeckle laser (BSL) has been applied in many areas of knowledge and a variety of approaches has been presented to address the best results in biological and non-biological samples, in fast or slow activities, or else in defined flow of materials or in random activities. The methodologies accounted in the literature consider the apparatus used in the image assembling and the way the collected data is processed. The image processing steps presents in turn a variety of procedures with first or second order statistics analysis, and as well with different sizes of data collected. One way to access the biospeckle in defined flow, such as in capillary blood flow in alive animals, was the adoption of the image contrast technique which uses only one image from the illuminated sample. That approach presents some problems related to the resolution of the image, which is reduced during the image contrast processing. In order to help the visualization of the low resolution image formed by the contrast technique, this work presents the three-dimensional procedure as a reliable alternative to enhance the final image. The work based on a parallel processing, with the generation of a virtual map of amplitudes, and maintaining the quasi-online characteristic of the contrast technique. Therefore, it was possible to generate in the same display the observed material, the image contrast result and in addiction the three-dimensional image with adjustable options of rotation. The platform also offers to the user the possibility to access the 3D image offline.

  8. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia.

    PubMed

    Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A

    2016-08-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5±2.6years) emmetropes (n=17; group SE: +0.19±0.32D) and myopes (n=25; group SE: -3.74±1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p<0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p=0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Local adaptive contrast enhancement for color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijk, Judith; den Hollander, Richard J. M.; Schavemaker, John G. M.; Schutte, Klamer

    2007-04-01

    A camera or display usually has a smaller dynamic range than the human eye. For this reason, objects that can be detected by the naked eye may not be visible in recorded images. Lighting is here an important factor; improper local lighting impairs visibility of details or even entire objects. When a human is observing a scene with different kinds of lighting, such as shadows, he will need to see details in both the dark and light parts of the scene. For grey value images such as IR imagery, algorithms have been developed in which the local contrast of the image is enhanced using local adaptive techniques. In this paper, we present how such algorithms can be adapted so that details in color images are enhanced while color information is retained. We propose to apply the contrast enhancement on color images by applying a grey value contrast enhancement algorithm to the luminance channel of the color signal. The color coordinates of the signal will remain the same. Care is taken that the saturation change is not too high. Gamut mapping is performed so that the output can be displayed on a monitor. The proposed technique can for instance be used by operators monitoring movements of people in order to detect suspicious behavior. To do this effectively, specific individuals should both be easy to recognize and track. This requires optimal local contrast, and is sometimes much helped by color when tracking a person with colored clothes. In such applications, enhanced local contrast in color images leads to more effective monitoring.

  10. The binocular combination of chromatic contrast.

    PubMed

    Simmons, David R

    2005-01-01

    How is chromatic contrast combined binocularly? One index of binocularity is the binocular contrast summation ratio (BCSR), which is the improvement in contrast sensitivity with binocular rather than monocular presentation. Simmons and Kingdom (1998, Vision Research 38 1063-1071) noted that BCSRs with some red-green isoluminant stimuli were suggestive of full linear summation. This suggestion was investigated further in four subjects by measuring binocular and monocular contrast thresholds for the detection of 0.5 cycle deg(1) isoluminant (red-green) and isochromatic (yellow-black) Gabor patches. These Gabor patches had either vertically or horizontally oriented carrier gratings and were either dichoptically in phase (same coloured bars in binocular correspondence) or in dichoptic anti-phase (opposite coloured bars in binocular correspondence). Full linear summation would be indicated by BCSRs of 2 for the in-phase and close to 0 for the anti-phase conditions. Mean BCSRs at isoluminance were 1.93 and 0.90, respectively, for the in-phase and anti-phase stimuli with horizontal carriers, the former being consistent with full linear summation, but the latter not. Despite these results, BCSRs obtained with isoluminant and isochromatic stimuli under similar conditions were not statistically distinguishable from each other, although there was a tendency for summation at isoluminance with in-phase stimuli to be higher and anti-phase stimuli to be lower. These data fall short of demonstrating full linear summation of chromatic contrast between the eyes under all presentation conditions, but they do indicate that there are strong binocular interactions at red-green isoluminance, which are similar to, and possibly even stronger than, those obtained with luminance stimuli.

  11. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kristen L.; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5 ± 2.6 years) emmetropes (n = 17; group SE: +0.19 ± 0.32D) and myopes (n = 25; group SE: −3.74 ± 1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p < 0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028

  12. Solute Transport of Negatively Charged Contrast Agents Across Articular Surface of Injured Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kokkonen, H T; Chin, H C; Töyräs, J; Jurvelin, J S; Quinn, T M

    2017-04-01

    Solute transport through the extracellular matrix (ECM) is crucial to chondrocyte metabolism. Cartilage injury affects solute transport in cartilage due to alterations in ECM structure and solute-matrix interactions. Therefore, cartilage injury may be detected by using contrast agent-based clinical imaging. In the present study, effects of mechanical injury on transport of negatively charged contrast agents in cartilage were characterized. Using cartilage plugs injured by mechanical compression protocol, effective partition coefficients and diffusion fluxes of iodine- and gadolinium-based contrast agents were measured using high resolution microCT imaging. For all contrast agents studied, effective diffusion fluxes increased significantly, particularly at early times during the diffusion process (38 and 33% increase after 4 min, P < 0.05 for iodine and Gd-DTPA; and 76% increase after 10 min for diatrizoate, P < 0.05). Effective partition coefficients were unaffected in mechanically injured cartilage. Mechanical injury reduced PG content and collagen integrity in cartilage superficial zone. This study suggests that alterations in contrast agent diffusion flux, a non-equilibrium transport parameter, provides a more sensitive indicator for assessment of cartilage matrix integrity than partition coefficient and the equilibrium distribution of solute. These findings may help in developing clinical methods of contrast agent-based imaging to detect cartilage injury.

  13. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty-Two. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen articles are presented in this collection on contrastive linguistics: "On Syntactic Levels--One Tertium Comparison is in Contrastive Linguistics" (L. F. Jakobsen and J. Olsen); "Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: From Correspondence Relation to Communicative Strategy" (R. R. K. Hartmann); "How Useful Are Word…

  14. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Further Developments in Contrastive Studies, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The fifth volume in this series contains ten articles dealing with various aspects of Romanian-English contrastive analysis. They are: "Theoretical Interpretation and Methodological Consequences of 'REGULARIZATION'," by Tatiana Slama-Cazacu; "On Error Analysis," by Charles M. Carlton; "The Contrastive Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition," by…

  15. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty Three. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Ten articles are presented in this volume on contrastive linguistics. The articles and authors are as follows: "Contrastive Grammar: Theory and Practice" (F. Aarts and H. Wekker); "On the Semantic and Morphological Status of Reversative Verbs in English and German" (W.-P. Funk); "The Problem of Directionality in…

  16. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume Twenty-Six. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen articles are presented in this volume on contrastive linguistics. The articles and authors are as follows: "A Brief Falsificationist Look at Contrastive Sociolinguistics" (K. Janicki); "The Locus of French Gender Control" (W. A. Bennett); "On the English Perfect Tense and Current Relevance Implicatures" (J.…

  17. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Vol. 1. The Polish--English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This collection of papers is the first in a series resulting from the Polish-English Contrastive Project. The overall purposes of the project are to prepare a Polish-English contrastive grammar and to develop pedagogical materials. The basic model used for the research is the transformational generative one. The papers included in this volume are…

  18. Papers and Studies in Contrastive Linguistics, Volume 4. The Polish-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisiak, Jacek, Ed.

    This collection of twenty-six papers is the fourth resulting from the Polish-English Contrastive Project. The overall purpose of the project is to prepare a Polish-English contrastive grammar and to develop pedagogical materials. The basic model used for research is the transformational generative one. Among the papers on phonology, topics such as…

  19. The Romanian-English Contrastive Analysis Project; Further Developments in Contrastive Studies, Vol. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitoran, Dumitru, Ed.

    The fifth volume in this series contains ten articles dealing with various aspects of Romanian-English contrastive analysis. They are: "Theoretical Interpretation and Methodological Consequences of 'REGULARIZATION'," by Tatiana Slama-Cazacu; "On Error Analysis," by Charles M. Carlton; "The Contrastive Hypothesis in Second Language Acquisition," by…

  20. Power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Cheolkon; Su, Haonan; Wang, Lu; Ke, Peng

    2016-09-01

    We propose power constrained contrast enhancement based on brightness compensated contrast-tone mapping operation (BCCTMO). We adopt brightness compensation to restore the original perceptual luminance and combine tone mapping with contrast enhancement to improve image quality. First, we increase pixel values to compensate for the reduced brightness caused by backlight dimming while maintaining the perceived luminance. Then we perform a contrast-tone mapping operation to reduce the information loss caused by the brightness compensation and enhance contrast in images. Finally, we conduct color scaling to reproduce natural colors. We implement BCCTMO on an Android tablet with an LCD display using mathematical approximation. Experimental results demonstrate that BCCTMO produces high-quality images while minimizing distortions and saving power compared with state-of-the-art methods.

  1. The Clinical Epidemiology of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Parfrey, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Recent improvements in contrast agents and radiologic imaging tools have resulted in an increasing number of patients undergoing contrast media (CM)-enhanced examinations. Although the majority of patients undergoing these diagnostic and therapeutic procedures experience only mild adverse events, some patient subpopulations are at risk for developing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), an adverse event that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Contrast-induced nephropathy is usually defined as an increase of {>=}25% in the serum creatinine level relative to baseline. Pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder are not fully understood, but it is currently believed that disturbances in renal hemodynamics and a direct effect of CM on renal tubules are involved. In the general population, the incidence of CIN is estimated to be 1% to 6%. However, the risk may be as high as 50% in some patient subgroups. Patients with diabetes and pre-existing renal impairment are at high risk, and CIN incidence increases in patients with multiple comorbidities. The volume and osmolality of CM used also play a role in the development of CIN. Patients who develop CIN are more likely to die in-hospital and, for those who are discharged, 1-year mortality rates are high. Whether this is due to CM, comorbidity, or concurrent comorbid events is unclear. Randomized controlled trials that measure non-renal clinical outcomes are necessary to determine whether interventions that prevent CIN can also prevent non-renal adverse events. A review of the incidence, pathogenesis, and clinical consequences of CIN is provided.

  2. Reward Contrast Effects on Impulsive Choice and Timing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Aaron P.; Peterson, Jennifer R.; Kirkpatrick, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable interest in impulsive choice as a predictor of a variety of maladaptive behaviors, the mechanisms that drive choice behavior are still poorly understood. The present study sought to examine the influence of one understudied variable, reward magnitude contrast, on choice and timing behavior as changes in magnitude commonly occur within choice procedures. In addition, assessments of indirect effects on choice behavior through magnitude-timing interactions were assessed by measuring timing within the choice task. Rats were exposed to choice procedures composed of different pairs of magnitudes of rewards for either the smaller-sooner (SS) or larger-later (LL) option. In Phase 2, the magnitude of reward either increased or decreased by 1 pellet in different groups (LL increase = 1v1→1v2; SS decrease = 2v2 → 1v2; SS increase = 1v2 → 2v2), followed by a return to baseline in Phase 3. Choice behavior was affected by the initial magnitudes experienced in the task, demonstrating a strong anchor effect. The nature of the change in magnitude affected choice behavior as well. Timing behavior was also affected by the reward contrast manipulation albeit to a lesser degree and the timing and choice effects were correlated. The results suggest that models of choice behavior should incorporate reinforcement history, reward contrast elements, and magnitude-timing interactions, but that direct effects of reward contrast on choice should be given more weight than the indirect reward-timing interactions. A better understanding of the factors that contribute to choice behavior could supply key insights into this important individual differences variable. PMID:27867839

  3. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, Mark Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Tapfer, Arne; Bech, Martin; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-15

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  4. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner.

    PubMed

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  5. Contrast-to-noise ratio optimization for a prototype phase-contrast computed tomography scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Mark; Yaroshenko, Andre; Velroyen, Astrid; Bech, Martin; Tapfer, Arne; Pauwels, Bart; Bruyndonckx, Peter; Sasov, Alexander; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2015-12-01

    In the field of biomedical X-ray imaging, novel techniques, such as phase-contrast and dark-field imaging, have the potential to enhance the contrast and provide complementary structural information about a specimen. In this paper, a first prototype of a preclinical X-ray phase-contrast CT scanner based on a Talbot-Lau interferometer is characterized. We present a study of the contrast-to-noise ratios for attenuation and phase-contrast images acquired with the prototype scanner. The shown results are based on a series of projection images and tomographic data sets of a plastic phantom in phase and attenuation-contrast recorded with varying acquisition settings. Subsequently, the signal and noise distribution of different regions in the phantom were determined. We present a novel method for estimation of contrast-to-noise ratios for projection images based on the cylindrical geometry of the phantom. Analytical functions, representing the expected signal in phase and attenuation-contrast for a circular object, are fitted to individual line profiles of the projection data. The free parameter of the fit function is used to estimate the contrast and the goodness of the fit is determined to assess the noise in the respective signal. The results depict the dependence of the contrast-to-noise ratios on the applied source voltages, the number of steps of the phase stepping routine, and the exposure times for an individual step. Moreover, the influence of the number of projection angles on the image quality of CT slices is investigated. Finally, the implications for future imaging purposes with the scanner are discussed.

  6. Nanoparticle contrast agents for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, Michelle Lynn

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) provides real-time, objective, in-vivo, optical cross-sectional representations of the retina and optic nerve. Recent innovations in image acquisition, including the incorporation of Fourier/spectral-domain detection, have improved imaging speed, sensitivity and resolution. Still, there remain specific structures within ocular OCT images, such as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are of clinical interest but consistently have low contrast. This makes it difficult to differentiate between surrounding layers and structures. The objectives of this project were: (1) To establish a reliable method for OCT imaging of the healthy and diseased mouse eye in order to provide a platform for testing the utility of OCT contrast agents for ocular imaging, (2) To develop antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles suitable for targeting specific structures and enhancing OCT image contrast in the mouse eye, and (3) To examine the localized contrast-enhancing ability and biocompatibility of gold nanoparticle contrast agents in-vivo. Our organizing hypotheses were that nanoparticles could improve contrast by modulating the intensity of backscattered light detected by OCT and that they could be directed to ocular structures of interest using antibodies specific to cellular markers. A reproducible method for imaging the mouse retina and quantifying retinal thickness was developed and this technique was then applied to a mouse model for retinal ganglion cell loss, optic nerve crush. Gold nanorods were designed specifically to augment the backscattering OCT signal at the same wavelengths of light used in current ophthalmic OCT imaging schemes (resonant wavelength lambda = 840 nm). Anti-CD90.1 (Thy1.1) antibodies were conjugated to the gold nanorods and a protocol for characterization of the success of antibody conjugation was developed. Upon injection, the gold nanorods were found to remain in the vitreous post-injection, with many consumed by an early

  7. Structured Mechanical Collage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhe; Wang, Jiang; Fu, Hongbo; Lau, Rynson W H

    2014-07-01

    We present a method to build 3D structured mechanical collages consisting of numerous elements from the database given artist-designed proxy models. The construction is guided by some graphic design principles, namely unity, variety and contrast. Our results are visually more pleasing than previous works as confirmed by a user study.

  8. Studies 2. The Yugoslav Serbo-Croatian-English Contrastive Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipovic, Rudolf, Ed.

    The second volume in this series on Serbo-Croatian-English contrastive analysis contains five articles. They are: "On Contrastive Contrastive Grammar," by Eric P. Hamp; "Remarks on Contrastive Analysis and Translation," by Vladimir Ivir; "Formal and Semantic Considerations in Contrastive Analysis," by Jerry L. Liston; "On Differences in…

  9. Contrast Adaptation Implies Two Spatiotemporal Channels but Three Adapting Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Keith; Bex, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    The contrast gain control model of adaptation predicts that the effects of contrast adaptation correlate with contrast sensitivity. This article reports that the effects of high contrast spatiotemporal adaptors are maximum when adapting around 19 Hz, which is a factor of two or more greater than the peak in contrast sensitivity. To explain the…

  10. Microbubble ultrasound contrast agents: a review.

    PubMed

    Stride, E; Saffari, N

    2003-01-01

    The superior scattering properties of gas bubbles compared with blood cells have made microbubble ultrasound contrast agents important tools in ultrasound diagnosis. Over the past 2 years they have become the focus of a wide and rapidly expanding field of research, with their benefits being repeatedly demonstrated, both in ultrasound image enhancement, and more recently in drug and gene delivery applications. However, despite considerable investigation, their behaviour is by no means fully understood and, while no definite evidence of harmful effects has been obtained, there remain some concerns as to their safety. In this review the existing theoretical and experimental evidence is examined in order to clarify the extent to which contrast agents are currently understood and to identify areas for future research. In particular the disparity between the conditions considered in theoretical models and those encountered both in vitro, and more importantly in vivo is discussed, together with the controversy regarding the risk of harmful bio-effects.

  11. Phase contrast in high resolution electron microscopy

    DOEpatents

    Rose, H.H.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to a device for developing a phase contrast signal for a scanning transmission electron microscope. The lens system of the microscope is operated in a condition of defocus so that predictable alternate concentric regions of high and low electron density exist in the cone of illumination. Two phase detectors are placed beneath the object inside the cone of illumination, with the first detector having the form of a zone plate, each of its rings covering alternate regions of either higher or lower electron density. The second detector is so configured that it covers the regions of electron density not covered by the first detector. Each detector measures the number of electrons incident thereon and the signal developed by the first detector is subtracted from the signal developed by the record detector to provide a phase contrast signal. (auth)

  12. Pantopaque contrast mimicking intracanalicular vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Deep, Nicholas L; Patel, Ameet C; Hoxworth, Joseph M; Barrs, David M

    2017-08-01

    Pantopaque (iophendylate) is an oily contrast medium historically used during spine imaging. Due to its persistence in the subarachnoid space and the potential to lead to severe arachnoiditis, it is no longer used today. We present a 40-year-old male with new-onset headaches, imbalance, and vertigo. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2-mm T1 -hyperintense intracanalicular lesion. Numerous hyperdense foci were scattered throughout the subarachnoid space on computed tomography. Further history revealed the patient received Pantopaque 30 years prior, after sustaining spinal trauma. Remnant Pantopaque contrast is an important differential when evaluating a patient with a suspected intracranial tumor in order to avoid unwarranted surgical intervention. Laryngoscope, 127:1916-1919, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Contrast Gain Control Model Fits Masking Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Andrew B.; Solomon, Joshua A.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We studied the fit of a contrast gain control model to data of Foley (JOSA 1994), consisting of thresholds for a Gabor patch masked by gratings of various orientations, or by compounds of two orientations. Our general model includes models of Foley and Teo & Heeger (IEEE 1994). Our specific model used a bank of Gabor filters with octave bandwidths at 8 orientations. Excitatory and inhibitory nonlinearities were power functions with exponents of 2.4 and 2. Inhibitory pooling was broad in orientation, but narrow in spatial frequency and space. Minkowski pooling used an exponent of 4. All of the data for observer KMF were well fit by the model. We have developed a contrast gain control model that fits masking data. Unlike Foley's, our model accepts images as inputs. Unlike Teo & Heeger's, our model did not require multiple channels for different dynamic ranges.

  14. The TRENDS High-Contrast Imaging Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crepp, Justin

    2014-08-01

    We have established a multi-disciplinary program that combines precise Doppler measurements with high-contrast imaging. Using long-term RV accelerations (or 'trends'), we take a much-needed short-cut for identifying promising high-contrast imaging targets. The goal of this project is to directly detect and characterize the companions responsible for accelerating their host stars. By working at the interface of two powerful and complementary planet detection techniques, we are able to construct 3d-orbits, calculate dynamical masses, and explicitly calibrate theoretical atmospheric models for substellar objects in a regime where they currently break-down (low temperatures). Using a sample of non-detections, the TRENDS program also provides the ability to robustly determine the occurrence rate of giant planets from 0-20 AU through statistical inference.

  15. Suprathreshold Contrast Sensitivity Vision Test Chart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-14

    with data collected on patients having amblyopia , glaucoma and macular degeneration showed that the SCTS may be effectively used as an initial...dramatically in certain cases of abnormal vision, such as amblyopia (Ginsburg, 1978, 1981; Hess, Bradley and Piotrowski, 1983; Loshin and Levi, 1983). The...combination of frequencies. Amblyopia results in marked losses of contrast sensitivity particularly at high spatial frequencies, but may also result in

  16. Magnetoliposomes as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stefaan J; Vande Velde, Greetje; Ketkar-Atre, Ashwini; Himmelreich, Uwe; De Cuyper, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Among the wide variety in iron oxide nanoparticles which are routinely used as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents, magnetoliposomes (MLs) take up a special place. In the present work, the two main types (large and small MLs) are defined and their specific features are commented. For both types of MLs, the flexibility of the lipid coating allows for efficient functionalization, enabling bimodal imaging (e.g., MRI and fluorescence) or the use of MLs as theranostics. These features are especially true for large MLs, where several magnetite cores are encapsulated within a single large liposome, which were found to be highly efficient theranostic agents. By carefully fine-tuning the number of magnetite cores and attaching Gd(3+) -complexes onto the liposomal surface, the large MLs can be efficiently optimized for dynamic MRI. A special type of MLs, biogenic MLs, can also be efficiently used in this regard, with potential applications in cancer treatment and imaging. Small MLs, where the lipid bilayer is immediately attached onto a solid magnetite core, give a very high r2 /r1 ratio. The flexibility of the lipid bilayer allows the incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol)-lipid conjugates to increase blood circulation times and be used as bone marrow contrast agents. Cationic lipids can also be incorporated, leading to high cell uptake and associated strong contrast generation in MRI of implanted cells. Unique for these small MLs is the high resistance the particles exhibit against intracellular degradation compared with dextran- or citrate-coated particles. Additionally, intracellular clustering of the iron oxide cores enhances negative contrast generation and enables longer tracking of labeled cells in time. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  17. Ultrasound contrast agents for ultrasound molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Tranquart, F; Arditi, M; Bettinger, T; Frinking, P; Hyvelin, J M; Nunn, A; Pochon, S; Tardy, I

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound is a real-time imaging technique which is widely used in many clinical applications for its capacity to provide anatomic information with high spatial and temporal resolution. The advent of ultrasound contrast agents in combination with contrast-specific imaging modes has given access to perfusion assessments at an organ level, leading to an improved diagnostic accuracy. More recently, the development of biologically-targeted ultrasound contrast agents has expanded the role of ultrasound even further into molecular imaging applications. Ultrasound molecular imaging can be used to visualize the expression of intravascular markers, and to assess their local presence over time and/or during therapeutic treatment. Major applications are in the field of inflammation and neoangiogenesis due to the strictly intravascular presence of microbubbles. Various technologies have been investigated for attaching the targeting moiety to the shell from simple biotin-avidin constructs to more elaborated insertion within the shell through attachment to PEG residues. This important improvement has allowed a clinical translation of initial pre-clinical investigations, opening the way for an early detection and an accurate characterization of lesions in patients. The combination of anatomic, functional and molecular information/data provided by contrast ultrasound is a powerful tool which is still in its infancy due to the lack of agents suitable for clinical use. The advantages of ultrasound techniques combined with the molecular signature of lesions will represent a significant advance in imaging in the field of personalized medicine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Status of liposomes as MR contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Unger, E C; Shen, D K; Fritz, T A

    1993-01-01

    Recent work on the development of liposomal magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents has yielded structures with higher overall relaxivity than that of other nanoparticles of similar diameter. Liposomes incorporating membrane-bound complexes of manganase ("memsomes") produce greater hepatic enhancement per micromole of metal ion than either ferrite particles or paramagnetic chelates. Memsomes also hold promise for targeting of sites outside the liver. Work is in progress to take these agents into clinical trials.

  19. Hypoxia-sensitive NMR contrast agents

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, H.M.; Chen, K.; Pals, M.; Sentjurc, M.; Morse, P.D. 2d.

    1986-02-01

    The rate of reduction of nitroxides is shown to be more rapid in hypoxic cells. The rate of reduction and the effect of hypoxia on the reduction rate vary for different nitroxides. These findings indicate that it may be feasible to develop in vivo NMR contrast agents that selectively will indicate areas of hypoxia and thereby aid in the detection of disease processes such as neoplasia, ischemia, and inflammation.

  20. Biomedical photoacoustics beyond thermal expansion using triggered nanodroplet vaporization for contrast-enhanced imaging.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Katheryne; Homan, Kimberly; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-01-10

    Since being discovered by Alexander Bell, photoacoustics may again be seeing major resurgence in biomedical imaging. Photoacoustics is a non-ionizing, functional imaging modality capable of high contrast images of optical absorption at depths significantly greater than traditional optical imaging techniques. Optical contrast agents have been used to extend photoacoustics to molecular imaging. Here we introduce an exogenous contrast agent that utilizes vaporization for photoacoustic signal generation, providing significantly higher signal amplitude than that from the traditionally used mechanism, thermal expansion. Our agent consists of liquid perfluorocarbon nanodroplets with encapsulated plasmonic nanoparticles, entitled photoacoustic nanodroplets. Upon pulsed laser irradiation, liquid perfluorocarbon undergoes a liquid-to-gas phase transition generating giant photoacoustic transients from these dwarf nanoparticles. Once triggered, the gaseous phase provides ultrasound contrast enhancement. We demonstrate in phantom and animal studies that photoacoustic nanodroplets act as dual-contrast agents for both photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging through optically triggered vaporization.