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Sample records for sustaining incompatible intentions

  1. Neural correlates of the essence of conscious conflict: fMRI of sustaining incompatible intentions.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy R; Bargh, John A; Morsella, Ezequiel

    2013-09-01

    The study of intrapsychic conflict has long been central to many key theories about the control of behavior. More recently, by focusing on the nature of conflicting processes in the brain, investigators have revealed great insights about controlled versus automatic processes and the nature of self-control. Despite these advances, many theories of cognitive control or self-control remain agnostic about the function of subjective awareness (i.e., basic consciousness). Why people consciously experience some conflicts in the nervous system but not others remains a mystery. One hypothesis is that people become conscious only of conflicts involving competition for the control of skeletal muscle. To test one aspect of this larger hypothesis, in the present study, 14 participants were trained to introspect the feeling of conflict (the urge to make an error during a Stroop color-word interference task) and then were asked to introspect in the same way while sustaining simple compatible and incompatible intentions during fMRI scanning (to move a finger left or right). As predicted, merely sustaining incompatible skeletomotor intentions prior to their execution produced stronger systematic changes in subjective experience than sustaining compatible intentions, as indicated by self-report ratings obtained in the scanner. Similar ratings held for a modified Stroop-like task when contrasting incompatible versus compatible trials also during fMRI scanning. We use subjective ratings as the basis of parametric analyses of fMRI data, focusing a priori on the brain regions involved in action-related urges (e.g., parietal cortex) and cognitive control (e.g., dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, lateral PFC). The results showed that subjective conflict from sustaining incompatible intentions was consistently related to activity in the left post-central gyrus.

  2. Innovation characteristics and intention to adopt sustainable facilities management practices.

    PubMed

    Lee, So Young; Kang, Mihyun

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable facilities management (SFM) is important because typical buildings consume more resources and energy than necessary, negatively impact the environment and generate lots of waste (US Department of Energy, 2003, Green Buildings). This study examined innovation characteristics that relate to facility managers' intention to adopt SFM practices. Based on the diffusion of innovations theory (Rogers 1962, 1995, Diffusion of Innovations. 4th ed. New York: The Free Press), an SFM innovation and adoption model was proposed. A survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 240 public facilities managers in 25 facilities management divisions in Seoul, Korea, and its metropolitan areas. Structural equation modelling was employed to analyse the data. The results showed that economic advantage and human comfort aspects are predictors for the intention of SFM adoption. Observability is positively relevant to the intention of SFM adoption. Complexity, however, is not a significant predictor for the intention of SFM adoption. Practical implications for sustainable products and systems and the built environment are suggested. To incorporate an innovation like sustainable practices, it is required to meet the needs of potential adopters. Innovation characteristics that influence facility managers' intention to adopt sustainable facilities management were examined. A survey was conducted. Economic advantage, human comfort and observability are predictors for the intention of adoption of sustainable practice.

  3. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Laura S.; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants’ intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  4. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Loy, Laura S; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants' intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions.

  5. Smallholder farmers' behavioural intentions towards sustainable agricultural practices.

    PubMed

    Zeweld, Woldegebrial; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Tesfay, Girmay; Speelman, Stijn

    2017-02-01

    The introduction of sustainable practices is considered a win-win strategy for low-income countries because of its potential to simultaneously improve food security and address environmental issues. Despite the numerous studies that focus on the adoption of technological innovations, little work has been done on the socio-psychological behaviour of farmers with regard to sustainable practices. This study investigates smallholder farmers' intentions towards two practices: minimum tillage and row planting. The decomposed theory of planned behaviour is used as a theoretical framework to analyse the intentions. The findings reveal that attitudes and normative issues positively explain farmers' intentions to adopt both practices. Perceived control also has a positive significant effect on the intention to apply minimum tillage. When the intention is formed, farmers are expected to carry out their intention when opportunities arise. Moreover, perceived usefulness, social capital, and perceived ease of operation are also significant predictors of farmers' attitudes. Furthermore, social capital and training are factors that positively affect the normative issue, which in turn also positively mediates the relationship between training, social capital and intention. Finally, it is shown that neither the perceived resources nor information from the media significantly affect farmers' intentions. This paper thus confirms that social capital, personal efficacy, training and perceived usefulness play significant roles in the decision to adopt sustainable practices. In addition, willingness to adopt seems to be limited by negative attitudes and by weak normative issues. Therefore, to improve adoption of sustainable practices by smallholder farmers, attention should be given to socio-psychological issues. This could lead to improvements in farm productivity and enhance the livelihoods of smallholders.

  6. ABO incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... incompatible blood. Symptoms The following are symptoms of ABO incompatible transfusion reactions: Back pain Blood in urine Chills Feeling of "impending doom" Fever Yellow skin and whites of the eyes ( jaundice ) Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform a physical ...

  7. Rh Incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... made antibodies. Injections of a medicine called Rh immune globulin can keep your body from making Rh antibodies. It helps prevent the problems of Rh incompatibility. If treatment is needed for the baby, it can include ...

  8. Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Irja; Biggs, Simon; Cederberg, Riitta; Kosonen, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE teachers'…

  9. Home Economics Teachers' Intentions and Engagement in Teaching Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haapala, Irja; Biggs, Simon; Cederberg, Riitta; Kosonen, Anna-Liisa

    2014-01-01

    Home Economics (HE) teachers can have a central role in teaching sustainable development (SD) to young adolescents through everyday household management and the promotion of personally and globally sustainable well-being. How well the teachers cope with this task is not well known. The objective of this study was to survey Finnish HE teachers'…

  10. The influence of ethical values and food choice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Kylie; Burke, Karena J

    2013-10-01

    This study examined a three-step adaptation of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) applied to the intention of consumers to purchase sustainably sourced food. The sample consisted of 137 participants, of which 109 were female, who were recruited through a farmers market and an organic produce outlet in an Australian capital city. Participants completed an online questionnaire containing the TPB scales of attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention; measures of positive moral attitude and ethical self identity; and food choice motives. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine the predictive utility of the TPB in isolation (step 1) and the TPB expanded to include the constructs of moral attitude and ethical self-identity (step 2). The results indicated the expansion of the TPB to include these constructs added significantly to the predictive model measuring intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. The third step in the adaptation utilised this expanded TPB model and added a measure of retail channel (where consumers reported buying fresh produce) and 9 food choice motives, in order to assess the predictive utility of the inclusion of choice motivations in this context. Of the 8 food choice motives examined, only health and ethical values significantly predicted intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. However, with the addition of food choice motives, ethical self-identity was no longer a significant predictor of intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Overall the adapted TPB model explained 76% of the variance in intention to purchase sustainably sourced food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Expectancy-Value Model for Sustained Enrolment Intentions of Senior Secondary Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever studying the subject, this study is novel because it captures the perceptions of students currently enrolled in senior secondary physics and their subsequent enrolment intentions after completing modules from the physics curriculum. Participants comprised of senior secondary students in year 11 completing their first year of physics in Australia across nine high schools in New South Wales. The Sustained Enrolment Models for Physics (SEMP), which drew upon the Expectancy-Value (EV) theoretical foundation, proposed predictive relations among students' achievement motivation, sustained engagement, and enrolment intentions in relation to physics. The data showed a good fit to the theoretically developed model for all four physics topics from the year 11 curriculum. The path coefficients of the models demonstrated the strength of relationships among the variables for each of the topics. The topic specificity of SEMPs allowed the mapping of students' motivational patterns at a more sensitive level than the domain-specific level and suggested that the relative influence of motivational precursors can vary by topic. This study advanced the EV research knowledge that, while values may be significant, it is the expectancies that largely predict students' sustained choice intentions in relation to physics. Implications for these findings are discussed.

  12. An Expectancy-Value Model for Sustained Enrolment Intentions of Senior Secondary Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever…

  13. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  14. Sustaining Young People's Enrolment Intentions in Relation to Physics: Development and Validation of a Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    Currently there is a need for measures to examine the issue of sustaining students' enrolment intentions over an extended period of study in physics, a subject which is generally perceived as hard and demanding by students. This paper addresses this gap in research by describing the development and the assessment of psychometric properties of the…

  15. College and University Dining Services Administrators' Intention to Adopt Sustainable Practices: Results from US Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chao-Jung; Gregoire, Mary B.; Arendt, Susan; Shelley, Mack C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine college and university dining services administrators' (CUDSAs) intention to adopt sustainable practices. Design/methodology/approach: The theory of planned behavior (TPB) including constructs of subjective norm (SN), attitude, perceived behavior control, and personal norm (PN), formed the…

  16. An Expectancy-Value Model for Sustained Enrolment Intentions of Senior Secondary Physics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Jessy; Barker, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the predictive influences of achievement motivational variables that may sustain students' engagement in physics and influence their future enrolment plans in the subject. Unlike most studies attempting to address the decline of physics enrolments through capturing students' intention to enrol in physics before ever…

  17. Evaluation of the impact of Brazil's sustainability on the behavioral intentions of stakeholders toward the country.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, Janaina de Moura Engracia

    2016-02-01

    This paper examines the influence of sustainability as a dimension of country image on behavioral intentions (so-called conations) of stakeholders toward Brazil. In addition, sustainable consumption, a moderating variable of the country-of-origin effect (not been identified in other studies), and consumers' gender and familiarity with the country are investigated as moderating variables. The empirical research is of a descriptive nature, and in terms of data collection, a survey method has been used on a sample of undergraduate students from foreign institutions. In total, 427 questionnaires have been considered in the analysis. The results of a multiple regression analyses show that the dimensions of country image (affective, political, technical and sustainability) are reliable factors that have a positive influence on conations toward Brazil, with the affective dimension exerting the strongest influence. Further comparisons show that the sustainability dimension is more important in shaping the conations of female respondents and those with low familiarity with Brazil, whereas the political dimension is more relevant in shaping the conations of male respondents and those with high familiarity with Brazil. Finally, the sustainability dimension has a minor influence on individuals with higher levels of sustainable consumption.

  18. Psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods as defined by the Midwest Food Alliance.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Ramona; Smith, Chery

    2002-01-01

    To examine psychosocial and demographic variables associated with consumer intention to purchase sustainably produced foods using an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior. Consumers were approached at the store entrance and asked to complete a self-administered survey. Three metropolitan Minnesota grocery stores. Participants (n = 550) were adults who shopped at the store: the majority were white, female, and highly educated and earned >or= 50,000 dollars/year. Participation rates averaged 62%. The major domain investigated was consumer support for sustainably produced foods. Demographics, beliefs, attitudes, subjective norm, and self-identity and perceived behavioral control were evaluated as predictors of intention to purchase them. Descriptive statistics, independent t tests, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson product moment correlation coefficients, and stepwise multiple regression analyses (P <.05). Consumers were supportive of sustainably produced foods but not highly confident in their ability to purchase them. Independent predictors of intention to purchase them included attitudes, beliefs, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, past buying behavior, and marital status. Beliefs, attitudes, and confidence level may influence intention to purchase sustainably produced foods. Nutrition educators could increase consumers' awareness of sustainably produced foods by understanding their beliefs, attitudes, and confidence levels.

  19. Hemolysis from ABO Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Daimon P; Savage, William J

    2015-06-01

    ABO incompatibility of red blood cells leads to brisk complement-mediated lysis, particularly in the setting of red cell transfusion. The ABO blood group is the most clinically significant blood group because of preformed immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to ABO blood group antigens (isohemagglutinins) in everyone except group AB individuals. In addition to transfusion, ABO incompatibility can cause hemolysis in hematopoietic and solid organ transplantation, hemolytic disease of the newborn, and intravenous immunoglobulin infusion. It is important to prevent ABO incompatibility when possible and to anticipate complications when ABO incompatibility is unavoidable.

  20. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  1. Incompatibility and Mental Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Thomas R.; Hayes, Lauren J.; Applin, Rebecca C.; Weatherly, Anna M.

    2011-01-01

    A straightforward prediction from attention restoration theory is that the level of incompatibility in a person's life should be positively correlated with that person's level of mental (or directed attention) fatigue. The authors tested this prediction by developing a new self-report measure of incompatibility in which they attempted to isolate…

  2. Self-incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    There are several different types of self-incompatibility in different flowering plant species, and there has recently been progress in understanding their molecular genetics by using combined molecular and evolutionary approaches. Questions include the mechanism of self-incompatibility (both the nature of the proteins encoded by the genes and whether incompatibility systems all have separate genes for the pollen and pistil recognition proteins, which is the focus of this mini-review) and whether these systems involve chromosome regions with suppressed recombination and, if so, the size of these regions. PMID:21173841

  3. Incompatibility of quantum channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki

    2017-03-01

    Two quantum channels are called compatible if they can be obtained as marginals from a single broadcasting channel; otherwise they are incompatible. We derive a characterization of the compatibility relation in terms of concatenation and conjugation, and we show that all pairs of sufficiently noisy quantum channels are compatible. The complement relation of incompatibility can be seen as a unifying aspect for several important quantum features, such as impossibility of universal broadcasting and unavoidable measurement disturbance. We show that the concepts of entanglement breaking channel and antidegradable channel can be completely characterized in terms compatibility.

  4. Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Thoolen, Bart Johan; de Ridder, Denise; Bensing, Jozien; Gorter, Kees; Rutten, Guy

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and planning in maintaining self-care behaviours. In a randomised controlled trial among recent screen-detected patients, participants who received the intervention were compared with usual-care controls, examining changes in proximal outcomes (intentions, self-efficacy and proactive coping), self-care behaviour (diet, physical activity and medication) and weight over time (0, 3 and 12 months). Subsequently, the contribution of proactive coping in predicting maintenance of behavioural change was analysed using stepwise hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for baseline self-care behaviour, patient characteristics, and intentions and self-efficacy as measured after the course. The intervention was effective in improving proximal outcomes and behaviour with regard to diet and physical activity, resulting in significant weight loss at 12 months. Furthermore, proactive coping was a better predictor of long-term self-management than either intentions or self-efficacy. Proactive coping thus offers new insights into behavioural maintenance theory and can be used to develop effective self-management interventions.

  5. Disrupting Neoliberal Discourse in Critical Sustainability Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Intentional Language Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Rose, Jeff; Paisley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While education for sustainability is a critical task that is gaining ground in a plethora of educational contexts, it is frequently rendered ineffective in the face of neoliberal practice and discourse. Here we examine the pervasive impacts of neoliberalism on education for sustainability, looking specifically at discursive formations that shape…

  6. Disrupting Neoliberal Discourse in Critical Sustainability Education: A Qualitative Analysis of Intentional Language Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cachelin, Adrienne; Rose, Jeff; Paisley, Karen

    2015-01-01

    While education for sustainability is a critical task that is gaining ground in a plethora of educational contexts, it is frequently rendered ineffective in the face of neoliberal practice and discourse. Here we examine the pervasive impacts of neoliberalism on education for sustainability, looking specifically at discursive formations that shape…

  7. Using a framework to implement large-scale innovation in medical education with the intent of achieving sustainability.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Judith N; Farmer, Elizabeth A; Weston, Kathryn M; Bushnell, John A

    2015-01-16

    Particularly when undertaken on a large scale, implementing innovation in higher education poses many challenges. Sustaining the innovation requires early adoption of a coherent implementation strategy. Using an example from clinical education, this article describes a process used to implement a large-scale innovation with the intent of achieving sustainability. Desire to improve the effectiveness of undergraduate medical education has led to growing support for a longitudinal integrated clerkship (LIC) model. This involves a move away from the traditional clerkship of 'block rotations' with frequent changes in disciplines, to a focus upon clerkships with longer duration and opportunity for students to build sustained relationships with supervisors, mentors, colleagues and patients. A growing number of medical schools have adopted the LIC model for a small percentage of their students. At a time when increasing medical school numbers and class sizes are leading to competition for clinical supervisors it is however a daunting challenge to provide a longitudinal clerkship for an entire medical school class. This challenge is presented to illustrate the strategy used to implement sustainable large scale innovation. A strategy to implement and build a sustainable longitudinal integrated community-based clerkship experience for all students was derived from a framework arising from Roberto and Levesque's research in business. The framework's four core processes: chartering, learning, mobilising and realigning, provided guidance in preparing and rolling out the 'whole of class' innovation. Roberto and Levesque's framework proved useful for identifying the foundations of the implementation strategy, with special emphasis on the relationship building required to implement such an ambitious initiative. Although this was innovation in a new School it required change within the school, wider university and health community. Challenges encountered included some resistance to

  8. Drug incompatibility chemistry.

    PubMed

    Newton, David W

    2009-02-15

    The chemical interactions that cause drug incompatibility in solutions, with emphasis on the acid-base and ionized-nonionized forms of organic, weak, electrolyte drugs, are examined. When the dilution or mixing of the salt or ionized forms of organic drugs results in precipitation, the most likely cause is formation of the nonionized drug forms. More than 90% of drugs are organic, weak electrolytes, especially those compounded, manufactured, or reconstituted as injections in predominantly ionized or salt forms. Acid-base reactions are the most common causes of drug incompatibility as precipitation of nonionized drug forms. Precipitation is likely when oppositely charged, organic drug ions that contain aromatic rings are combined in relatively strong concentrations. Salts of polyvalent anions and cations are generally less soluble than salts in which both ions are monovalent or in which one ion is monovalent and its opposite ion is polyvalent. The most clinically important potential precipitates among these ions are dibasic and monohydrogen calcium phosphate. Incompatibility of drug and nutrient injections is clinically hazardous. Knowledge of products' chemical facts, organic acid-base equilibria in relation to ionization and nonionization and aqueous solubility, and ranges of pH and ingredient strength from United States Pharmacopeia monographs and product labeling is the foundation of expertise in drug incompatibility. Precipitation in injectable drug solutions should be suspected, particularly when oppositely charged drug salts are mixed in relatively strong concentrations and when pH values of dilutions create more than 1% of nonionized drug forms.

  9. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rh ... > For Parents > Rh Incompatibility A A A What's in this ...

  10. Moving beyond Legislation to Create and Sustain Intentionality in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael; Smith, Lawrence L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2009-01-01

    Current legislation has exerted tremendous influence on the instructional methods used by reading teachers. Historically, however, neither mandated curriculum nor forced change has proven consistently successful in helping sustain long-term change in teachers' instructional practices or student achievement gains. Using theories of motivation and…

  11. Moving beyond Legislation to Create and Sustain Intentionality in Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putman, S. Michael; Smith, Lawrence L.; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2009-01-01

    Current legislation has exerted tremendous influence on the instructional methods used by reading teachers. Historically, however, neither mandated curriculum nor forced change has proven consistently successful in helping sustain long-term change in teachers' instructional practices or student achievement gains. Using theories of motivation and…

  12. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern Californiamore » residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.« less

  13. Bridging the gap between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources: Predicting intentions to adopt energy management technologies in California

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bingye; Sintov, Nicole

    2016-10-24

    To achieve energy savings, emerging energy management technologies and programs require customer adoption. Although a variety of models can be used to explain the adoption of energy management technologies and programs, they overlook the seemingly unconventional element of level of affiliation with nature. In fact, connectedness to nature has been identified as an important driver of many pro-environmental behaviors, but its role in pro-environmental technology adoption is also not well understood. Can affiliation with nature help to bridge the apparent gap—and complex chain of events—between sustainable technology adoption and protecting natural resources? Based on survey data from 856 southern California residents, this study investigated the influence of connectedness to nature and other factors on intentions to adopt five energy management technologies and programs: using three platforms to monitor home energy use (website, mobile phone application, in-home display); signing up for a time-of-use pricing plan; and participating in demand response events. Regression results showed that nature connectedness was the strongest predictor of all outcomes such that higher nature connectedness predicted greater likelihood of technology and program adoption. In conclusion, these findings suggest that connectedness to nature may facilitate “bridging the logic gap” between sustainable innovation adoption and environmental protection.

  14. An invitation to quantum incompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Miyadera, Takayuki; Ziman, Mário

    2016-03-01

    In the context of a physical theory, two devices, A and B, described by the theory are called incompatible if the theory does not allow the existence of a third device C that would have both A and B as its components. Incompatibility is a fascinating aspect of physical theories, especially in the case of quantum theory. The concept of incompatibility gives a common ground for several famous impossibility statements within quantum theory, such as ‘no-cloning’ and ‘no information without disturbance’ these can be all seen as statements about incompatibility of certain devices. The purpose of this paper is to give a concise overview of some of the central aspects of incompatibility.

  15. Self-incompatibility in Brassicaceae crops: lessons for interspecific incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nasrallah, June B.

    2014-01-01

    Most wild plants and some crops of the Brassicaceae express self-incompatibility, which is a mechanism that allows stigmas to recognize and discriminate against “self” pollen, thus preventing self-fertilization and inbreeding. Self-incompatibility in this family is controlled by a single S locus containing two multiallelic genes that encode the stigma-expressed S-locus receptor kinase and its pollen coat-localized ligand, the S-locus cysteine-rich protein. Physical interaction between receptor and ligand encoded in the same S locus activates the receptor and triggers a signaling cascade that results in inhibition of “self” pollen. Sequence information for many S-locus haplotypes in Brassica species has spurred studies of dominance relationships between S haplotypes and of S-locus structure, as well as the development of methods for S genotyping. Furthermore, molecular genetic studies have begun to identify genes that encode putative components of the self-incompatibility signaling pathway. In parallel, standard genetic analysis and QTL analysis of the poorly understood interspecific incompatibility phenomenon have been initiated to identify genes responsible for the inhibition of pollen from other species by the stigma. Herewith, we review recent studies of self-incompatibility and interspecific incompatibility, and we propose a model in which a universal pollen-inhibition pathway is shared by these two incompatibility systems. PMID:24987288

  16. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  17. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Mei, Ying; Wei, Li

    2016-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2015 publications on the focus of Sustainability. It is divided into the following sections : Sustainable water and wastewater utilities Sustainable water resources management Stormwater and green infrastructure Sustainability in wastewater treatment Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, Sustainability and asset management.

  18. Mixing incompatibilities and toxic exposures.

    PubMed

    Olson, K R; Shusterman, D J

    1993-01-01

    A number of consumer and commercial products may react, upon inappropriate mixing, to produce substances of greater toxicity than the starting materials. Consumer product mixing incompatibilities have been well documented and warning labels appear on high-risk products. In industry, a wider array of potential mixing incompatibilities exists and includes potential accidents in chemical storage and hazardous material handling. Emergency response personnel are a group who often deal with inadvertent mixing related to transportation and other hazardous materials incidents. This article assembles some better-known examples of toxicologically significant exposures resulting from inadvertent or deliberate mixing of incompatible materials.

  19. Sustainability.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chein-Chi; DiGiovanni, Kimberly; Zhang, Gong; Yang, Xiahua; You, Shao-Hong

    2015-10-01

    This review on Sustainability covers selected 2014 publications on the focus of the following sections: • Sustainable water and wastewater utilities • Sustainable water resources management • Stormwater and green infrastructure • Sustainability in wastewater treatment • Life cycle assessment (LCA) applications • Sustainability and energy in wastewater industry, • Sustainability and asset management.

  20. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  1. Sustaining "Truth": Changes in Youth Tobacco Attitudes and Smoking Intentions after 3 Years of a National Antismoking Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Davis, Kevin C.; Duke, Jennifer; Messeri, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This study examines how the American Legacy Foundation's "truth[R]" campaign and Philip Morris's "Think. Don't Smoke" (TDS) campaign have influenced youth's tobacco-related attitudes, beliefs and intentions during the first 3 years of the truth campaign. We use data from eight nationally representative cross-sectional telephone surveys of 35,074…

  2. [Physicochemical incompatibilities of injectable drugs].

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Christelle; Rouault, Médéric; Cailleteau, Jérémy

    2016-02-01

    The physicochemical interactions of injectable drugs administered through a Y-site injection port are little known phenomena, poorly documented but very frequent. Physicochemical incompatibility is defined as a chemical reaction between two injectable drugs which come into contact with each other. This chemical reaction may be visible on a macroscopic level or completely invisible. The risks of these interactions are not harmless, ranging from inefficacy to the toxicity of the newly-formed compounds.

  3. The Influence of Situational Emotions on the Intention for Sustainable Consumer Behaviour in a Student-Centred Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fröhlich, Gabriele; Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Within the curriculum guidelines for Bavaria, we designed a hands-on educational programme for teaching sustainability with regard to agriculture, food and consumerism, partly implemented on a farm as an out-of-school learning setting. The participants were fifth graders ("N"?=?176). The research followed a quasi-experimental design and…

  4. The Influence of Situational Emotions on the Intention for Sustainable Consumer Behaviour in a Student-Centred Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fröhlich, Gabriele; Sellmann, Daniela; Bogner, Franz X.

    2013-01-01

    Within the curriculum guidelines for Bavaria, we designed a hands-on educational programme for teaching sustainability with regard to agriculture, food and consumerism, partly implemented on a farm as an out-of-school learning setting. The participants were fifth graders ("N"?=?176). The research followed a quasi-experimental design and…

  5. Integrating Sustainable Consumption into Environmental Education: A Case Study on Environmental Representations, Decision Making and Intention to Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadjichambis, Andreas Ch.; Paraskeva-Hadjichambi, Demetra; Ioannou, Hara; Georgiou, Yiannis; Manoli, Constantinos C.

    2015-01-01

    During the last decades, current consumption patterns have been recurrently blamed for rendering both the environment and our lifestyles unsustainable. Young children are considered a critical group in the effort to make a shift towards sustainable consumption (environmentally friendly consumption). However, young people should be able to consider…

  6. Materialism, Altruism, Environmental Values, Learning Strategies and Sustainable Claim on Purchase Intention of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) - A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syakir Shukor, Muhamad; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Merlinda Muharam, Farrah

    2017-06-01

    One of the toughest challenges in social marketing is behaviour intervention. Previous research have developed various models and theories to simultaneously examine behaviour changes and their effects. Due to resources scarcity and global warming, automakers have come out with an innovative idea of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) which has been a great improvement in the automotive industry. This invention targets for behavioral change or behavioral adoption for consumers to adjust their preferences from conventional vehicle to EEV. High market growth in automotive industry have encouraged social marketers, policymakers, governments and academics to propose suitable intervention approach in motivating preferences toward EEV. This study will explore the causal model of Environmental Responsible Behaviour (ERB) in measuring the purchase intention of EEV in Malaysia. In specific, this study focuses on two types of EEV - hybrid car and fuel efficient car. This study will hopefully add onto the body of knowledge for value orientation that influences green behaviour. From the practical perspective, this study may provide insights in assisting the stakeholders and automotive industry players on promoting the pro-behaviour toward EEV.

  7. On the temporal dynamics of spatial stimulus-response transfer between spatial incompatibility and Simon tasks.

    PubMed

    Ivanoff, Jason; Blagdon, Ryan; Feener, Stefanie; McNeil, Melanie; Muir, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to the performance (response time and accuracy) advantage for responses that spatially correspond to the task-irrelevant location of a stimulus. It has been attributed to a natural tendency to respond toward the source of stimulation. When location is task-relevant, however, and responses are intentionally directed away (incompatible) or toward (compatible) the source of the stimulation, there is also an advantage for spatially compatible responses over spatially incompatible responses. Interestingly, a number of studies have demonstrated a reversed, or reduced, Simon effect following practice with a spatial incompatibility task. One interpretation of this finding is that practicing a spatial incompatibility task disables the natural tendency to respond toward stimuli. Here, the temporal dynamics of this stimulus-response (S-R) transfer were explored with speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs). All experiments used the mixed-task paradigm in which Simon and spatial compatibility/incompatibility tasks were interleaved across blocks of trials. In general, bidirectional S-R transfer was observed: while the spatial incompatibility task had an influence on the Simon effect, the task-relevant S-R mapping of the Simon task also had a small impact on congruency effects within the spatial compatibility and incompatibility tasks. These effects were generally greater when the task contexts were similar. Moreover, the SAT analysis of performance in the Simon task demonstrated that the tendency to respond to the location of the stimulus was not eliminated because of the spatial incompatibility task. Rather, S-R transfer from the spatial incompatibility task appeared to partially mask the natural tendency to respond to the source of stimulation with a conflicting inclination to respond away from it. These findings support the use of SAT methodology to quantitatively describe rapid response tendencies.

  8. On the temporal dynamics of spatial stimulus-response transfer between spatial incompatibility and Simon tasks

    PubMed Central

    Ivanoff, Jason; Blagdon, Ryan; Feener, Stefanie; McNeil, Melanie; Muir, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    The Simon effect refers to the performance (response time and accuracy) advantage for responses that spatially correspond to the task-irrelevant location of a stimulus. It has been attributed to a natural tendency to respond toward the source of stimulation. When location is task-relevant, however, and responses are intentionally directed away (incompatible) or toward (compatible) the source of the stimulation, there is also an advantage for spatially compatible responses over spatially incompatible responses. Interestingly, a number of studies have demonstrated a reversed, or reduced, Simon effect following practice with a spatial incompatibility task. One interpretation of this finding is that practicing a spatial incompatibility task disables the natural tendency to respond toward stimuli. Here, the temporal dynamics of this stimulus-response (S-R) transfer were explored with speed-accuracy trade-offs (SATs). All experiments used the mixed-task paradigm in which Simon and spatial compatibility/incompatibility tasks were interleaved across blocks of trials. In general, bidirectional S-R transfer was observed: while the spatial incompatibility task had an influence on the Simon effect, the task-relevant S-R mapping of the Simon task also had a small impact on congruency effects within the spatial compatibility and incompatibility tasks. These effects were generally greater when the task contexts were similar. Moreover, the SAT analysis of performance in the Simon task demonstrated that the tendency to respond to the location of the stimulus was not eliminated because of the spatial incompatibility task. Rather, S-R transfer from the spatial incompatibility task appeared to partially mask the natural tendency to respond to the source of stimulation with a conflicting inclination to respond away from it. These findings support the use of SAT methodology to quantitatively describe rapid response tendencies. PMID:25191217

  9. ABO-incompatible heart transplants.

    PubMed

    Hageman, M; Michaud, N; Chinnappan, I; Klein, T; Mettler, B

    2015-04-01

    A month-old baby girl with blood type O positive received a donor heart organ from a donor with blood type B. This was the first institutional ABO-incompatible heart transplant. Infants listed for transplantation may be considered for an ABO-incompatible heart transplant based on their antibody levels and age. The United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) protocol is infants under 24 months with titers less than or equal to 1:4.(1) This recipient's anti-A and anti-B antibodies were monitored with titer assays to determine their levels; antibody levels less than 1:4 are acceptable pre-transplant in order to proceed with donor and transplant arrangements.1 Immediately prior to initiating cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a complete whole body exchange transfusion of at least two-times the patient's circulating blood volume was performed with packed red blood cells (pRBC), fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 25% albumin. Titer assays were sent two minutes after initiation of full CPB and then hourly until the cross-clamp was removed. Institutionally, reperfusion of the donor heart is not restored until the antibody level from the titer assay is known and reported as less than 1:4; failing to achieve an immulogically tolerant recipient will provide conditions for hyperacute rejection. The blood collected during the transfusion exchange was immediately processed through a cell saver so the pRBC's could be re-infused to the patient during CPB, as necessary. The remainder of the transplant was performed in the same fashion as an ABO-compatible heart transplant. The patient has shown no signs of rejection following transplantation.

  10. Plant Reproduction: Self-Incompatibility to Go.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Mendez, Alejandro; McClure, Bruce

    2016-02-08

    In a new study, the Papaver rhoeas (poppy family) self-incompatibility system has been transferred into Arabidopsis thaliana, a distantly related plant with a very different floral structure. The simple poppy self-incompatibility system may finally make it possible to introduce this potentially valuable trait into any plant.

  11. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes. PMID:28321223

  12. ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morath, Christian; Zeier, Martin; Döhler, Bernd; Opelz, Gerhard; Süsal, Caner

    2017-01-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation has long been considered a contraindication to successful kidney transplantation. During the last 25 years, increasing organ shortage enforced the development of strategies to overcome the ABO antibody barrier. In the meantime, ABOi kidney transplantation has become a routine procedure with death-censored graft survival rates comparable to the rates in compatible transplantations. Desensitization is usually achieved by apheresis and B cell-depleting therapies that are accompanied by powerful immunosuppression. Anti-A/B antibodies are aimed to be below a certain threshold at the time of ABOi kidney transplantation and during the first 2 weeks after surgery. Thereafter, even a rebound of anti-A/B antibodies does not appear to harm the kidney transplant, a phenomenon that is called accommodation, but is poorly understood. There is still concern, however, that infectious complications such as viral disease, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and severe urinary tract infections are increased after ABOi transplantations. Recent data from the Collaborative Transplant Study show that during the first year after kidney transplantation, one additional patient death from an infectious complication occurs in 100 ABOi kidney transplant recipients. Herein, we review the recent evidence on ABOi kidney transplantation with a focus on desensitization strategies and respective outcomes.

  13. Hemolysis after ABO-incompatible platelet transfusions.

    PubMed

    Chow, M P; Yung, C H; Hu, H Y; Tzeng, C H

    1991-08-01

    An 18 year old girl, with acute myeloid leukemia, developed progressive hemolysis after receiving multiple transfusions with ABO-incompatible platelets. It was caused by passive transfusion of anti-A and -B isoagglutinin from the donor plasma. Her hemoglobin level returned to normal after giving group compatible or pooled and reduced volume platelet concentrates. Transfusing group-incompatible platelets is not contraindicated, but donor plasma reduction should be considered for those patients who need prolonged platelet support. Testing for isoagglutinin titer in group O donors is an alternate method to reduce the incidence of plasma-induced hemolysis in group-incompatible platelet transfusions.

  14. Evolutionary relationships among self-incompatibility RNases

    PubMed Central

    Igic, Boris; Kohn, Joshua R.

    2001-01-01

    T2-type RNases are responsible for self-pollen recognition and rejection in three distantly related families of flowering plants—the Solanaceae, Scrophulariaceae, and Rosaceae. We used phylogenetic analyses of 67 T2-type RNases together with information on intron number and position to determine whether the use of RNases for self-incompatibility in these families is homologous or convergent. All methods of phylogenetic reconstruction as well as patterns of variation in intron structure find that all self-incompatibility RNases along with non-S genes from only two taxa form a monophyletic clade. Several lines of evidence suggest that the best interpretation of this pattern is homology of self-incompatibility RNases from the Scrophulariaceae, Solanaceae, and Rosaceae. Because the most recent common ancestor of these three families is the ancestor of ≈75% of dicot families, our results indicate that RNase-based self-incompatibility was the ancestral state in the majority of dicots. PMID:11698683

  15. Differential interspecific incompatibility in Populus breeding

    Treesearch

    A. Assibi Mahama; Ronald S., Jr. Zalesny; Richard B. Hall

    2006-01-01

    Interspecific hybrids of Populus are valuable in tree production systems. Hybrid vigor is achieved for various traits and is useful for transferring disease and pest resistance. Incompatibility, however, sometimes precludes such combinations.

  16. A Genetic Incompatibility Accelerates Adaptation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Duyen T.; Dine, Elliot; Anderson, James B.; Aquadro, Charles F.; Alani, Eric E.

    2015-01-01

    During mismatch repair (MMR) MSH proteins bind to mismatches that form as the result of DNA replication errors and recruit MLH factors such as Mlh1-Pms1 to initiate excision and repair steps. Previously, we identified a negative epistatic interaction involving naturally occurring polymorphisms in the MLH1 and PMS1 genes of baker’s yeast. Here we hypothesize that a mutagenic state resulting from this negative epistatic interaction increases the likelihood of obtaining beneficial mutations that can promote adaptation to stress conditions. We tested this by stressing yeast strains bearing mutagenic (incompatible) and non-mutagenic (compatible) mismatch repair genotypes. Our data show that incompatible populations adapted more rapidly and without an apparent fitness cost to high salt stress. The fitness advantage of incompatible populations was rapid but disappeared over time. The fitness gains in both compatible and incompatible strains were due primarily to mutations in PMR1 that appeared earlier in incompatible evolving populations. These data demonstrate a rapid and reversible role (by mating) for genetic incompatibilities in accelerating adaptation in eukaryotes. They also provide an approach to link experimental studies to observational population genomics. PMID:26230253

  17. Do Wolbachia-associated incompatibilities promote polyandry?

    PubMed

    Champion de Crespigny, Fleur E; Hurst, Laurence D; Wedell, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The genetic incompatibility avoidance hypothesis as an explanation for the polyandrous mating strategies (mating with more than one male) of females of many species has received significant attention in recent years. It has received support from both empirical studies and a meta-analysis, which concludes that polyandrous females enjoy increased reproductive success through improved offspring viability relative to monandrous females. In this study we investigate whether polyandrous female Drosophila simulans improve their fitness relative to monandrous females in the face of severe Wolbachia-associated reproductive incompatibilities. We use the results of this study to develop models that test the predictions that Wolbachia should promote polyandry, and that polyandry itself may constrain the spread of Wolbachia. Uniquely, our models allow biologically relevant rates of incompatibility to coevolve with a polyandry modifier allele, which allows us to evaluate the fate of the modifier and that of Wolbachia. Our empirical results reveal that polyandrous females significantly reduce the reproductive costs of Wolbachia, owing to infected males being poor sperm competitors. The models show that this disadvantage in sperm competition can inhibit or prevent the invasion of Wolbachia. However, despite the increased reproductive success obtained by polyandrous females, the spread of a polyandry modifier allele is constrained by any costs that might be associated with polyandry and the low frequency of incompatible matings when Wolbachia has reached a stable equilibrium. Therefore, although incompatibility avoidance may be a benefit of polyandry, our findings do not support the hypothesis that genetic incompatibilities caused by Wolbachia promote the evolution of polyandry.

  18. Sustain

    SciTech Connect

    2013-08-20

    Current building energy simulation technology requires excessive labor, time and expertise to create building energy models, excessive computational time for accurate simulations and difficulties with the interpretation of the results. These deficiencies can be ameliorated using modern graphical user interfaces and algorithms which take advantage of modern computer architectures and display capabilities. To prove this hypothesis, we developed an experimental test bed for building energy simulation. This novel test bed environment offers an easy-to-use interactive graphical interface, provides access to innovative simulation modules that run at accelerated computational speeds, and presents new graphics visualization methods to interpret simulation results. Our system offers the promise of dramatic ease of use in comparison with currently available building energy simulation tools. Its modular structure makes it suitable for early stage building design, as a research platform for the investigation of new simulation methods, and as a tool for teaching concepts of sustainable design. Improvements in the accuracy and execution speed of many of the simulation modules are based on the modification of advanced computer graphics rendering algorithms. Significant performance improvements are demonstrated in several computationally expensive energy simulation modules. The incorporation of these modern graphical techniques should advance the state of the art in the domain of whole building energy analysis and building performance simulation, particularly at the conceptual design stage when decisions have the greatest impact. More importantly, these better simulation tools will enable the transition from prescriptive to performative energy codes, resulting in better, more efficient designs for our future built environment.

  19. Incompatible measurements on quantum causal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlák, Michal; Reitzner, Daniel; Chiribella, Giulio; Ziman, Mário

    2016-05-01

    The existence of incompatible measurements, epitomized by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, is one of the distinctive features of quantum theory. So far, quantum incompatibility has been studied for measurements that test the preparation of physical systems. Here we extend the notion to measurements that test dynamical processes, possibly consisting of multiple time steps. Such measurements are known as testers and are implemented by interacting with the tested process through a sequence of state preparations, interactions, and measurements. Our first result is a characterization of the incompatibility of quantum testers, for which we provide necessary and sufficient conditions. Then we propose a quantitative measure of incompatibility. We call this measure the robustness of incompatibility and define it as the minimum amount of noise that has to be added to a set of testers in order to make them compatible. We show that (i) the robustness is lower bounded by the distinguishability of the sequence of interactions used by the tester and (ii) maximum robustness is attained when the interactions are perfectly distinguishable. The general results are illustrated in the concrete example of binary testers probing the time evolution of a single-photon polarization.

  20. The Embodiment of Intentionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, J. Scott

    Historically, the concept intentionality referred to the apparent directedness of human consciousness. Given experimental psychology's turn-of-the-century shift from consciousness to behavior, intentionality is now treated as the pre-specification of motor output, while consciousness is considered a post-stimulus, attention-attenuated input phenomenon. The present contribution challenges this approach by presenting data that indicate perception to be just as intentional as action. An alternative approach to intentionality and consciousness is then proposed, which conceptualizes organisms as energy-transformation systems that emerged, phylogenetically, via the struggle for available energy. Such systems are able to sustain themselves (i.e., survive) because they are autocatalytic; their transformation states produce products that feed back into the system as fuel. In addition, such systems are embodiments; their internal transformation states constitute encapsulations (i.e., internalizations) of transformation states that used to exist outside of the organism. Given this notion of autocatalytic embodiment, the following points are argued: (1) such systems are inherently intentional (i.e., end-directed), for the only way they can remain intact (i.e., alive) is via the active, continuous offset of perturbation to the autocatalytic transformation states that sustain them, and (2) the 'feels' traditionally referred to as consciousness, derive from the embedded, embodied, end-directed 'of-ness' inherent in all autocatalytic systems.

  1. Isoagglutinin adsorption in ABO-incompatible transplantation.

    PubMed

    Genberg, Helena; Kumlien, Gunilla; Wennberg, Lars; Tydén, Gunnar

    2010-10-01

    As the demand for kidney transplantation is constantly growing methods to expand the donor pool have become increasingly important. ABO-incompatibility has hitherto been regarded as an absolute contraindication to living donor donation. However, as ABO-incompatibility has accounted for the majority of living donor exclusions, efforts have been made to overcome this immunologic barrier. Successful desensitization protocols thus far, have combined plasmapheresis for antibody removal with splenectomy to reduce the antibody producing B-cell pool, in addition to quadruple immunosuppression. Although good graft function has been achieved, the high risks involved have been deterrent. We have developed a protocol for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation based on antigen-specific immunoadsorption and rituximab, in combination with standard maintenance immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids). We hypothesized that the anti-A/B antibodies could be effectively eliminated and good graft function achieved, without the complications of coagulopathy and transfusion reactions associated with plasmapheresis. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the substitution of splenectomy with a single dose of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab would further reduce surgical risk as well as the risk of infectious complications. In 2001 the program for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation was started at our center. To date 50 ABO-incompatible kidney transplantations have been performed according to the protocol based on antigen-specific immunoadsorption and rituximab. Safety and efficacy of the protocol has been evaluated in several studies, all showing that the antigen-specific immunoadsorption is well tolerated and without any serious side effects. Patient and graft survival as well as kidney function have been comparable to that of ABO-compatible living donor kidney transplantation and the incidence of antibody-mediated rejection 0%. We conclude that AB0

  2. Hybrid incompatibility "snowballs" between Solanum species.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Nakazato, Takuya

    2010-09-17

    Among the reproductive barriers that can isolate species, hybrid sterility is frequently due to dysfunctional interactions between loci that accumulate between differentiating lineages. Theory describing the evolution of these incompatibilities has generated the prediction, still empirically untested, that loci underlying hybrid incompatibility should accumulate faster than linearly with time--the "snowball effect." We evaluated the accumulation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) between species in the plant group Solanum and found evidence for a faster-than-linear accumulation of hybrid seed sterility QTL, thus empirically evaluating and confirming this theoretical prediction. In comparison, loci underlying traits unrelated to hybrid sterility show no evidence for an accelerating rate of accumulation between species.

  3. Incompatible Sets of Gradients and Metastability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, J. M.; James, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    We give a mathematical analysis of a concept of metastability induced by incompatibility. The physical setting is a single parent phase, just about to undergo transformation to a product phase of lower energy density. Under certain conditions of incompatibility of the energy wells of this energy density, we show that the parent phase is metastable in a strong sense, namely it is a local minimizer of the free energy in an L 1 neighbourhood of its deformation. The reason behind this result is that, due to the incompatibility of the energy wells, a small nucleus of the product phase is necessarily accompanied by a stressed transition layer whose energetic cost exceeds the energy lowering capacity of the nucleus. We define and characterize incompatible sets of matrices, in terms of which the transition layer estimate at the heart of the proof of metastability is expressed. Finally we discuss connections with experiments and place this concept of metastability in the wider context of recent theoretical and experimental research on metastability and hysteresis.

  4. The S-locus and unilateral incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hancock, C Nathan; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Beecher, Brian; McClure, Bruce

    2003-06-29

    Plants have many ways to regulate the type of pollen that arrives on the stigma surface. Once there, further control mechanisms regulate compatibility. The latter controls are largely based on biochemical interactions that support compatible pollination and prevent incompatible matings. S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI) systems are the most phylogenetically widespread mechanisms for controlling pollination. Studies of Nicotiana establish a firm link between SI and unilateral interspecific incompatibility. Although implicated in both inter- and intraspecific compatibility, S-RNase operates through at least three distinct genetic mechanisms that differ in their dependence on non-S-RNase factors. Identification and characterization of these non-S-RNase factors is currently an area of active research. Searching for genetic and biochemical interactions with S-RNase can identify candidate non-S-RNase factors. HT-protein is one factor that is required for S-allele-specific pollen rejection in the Solanaceae. Major style arabinogalactan proteins such as TTS interact biochemically with S-RNase. These glycoproteins are known to interact with compatible pollen tubes and have long been suggested as possible recognition molecules. Their binding to S-RNase implies a link between stylar systems for compatibility and incompatibility. Thus, genetic and biochemical studies suggest a highly networked picture of pollen-pistil interactions.

  5. Most incompatible measurements for robust steering tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bavaresco, Jessica; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Guerini, Leonardo; Maciel, Thiago O.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Cunha, Marcelo Terra

    2017-08-01

    We address the problem of characterizing the steerability of quantum states under restrictive measurement scenarios, i.e., the problem of determining whether a quantum state can demonstrate steering when subjected to N measurements of k outcomes. We consider the cases of either general positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) or specific kinds of measurements (e.g., projective or symmetric). We propose general methods to calculate lower and upper bounds for the white-noise robustness of a d -dimensional quantum state under different measurement scenarios that are also applicable to the study of the noise robustness of the incompatibility of sets of unknown qudit measurements. We show that some mutually unbiased bases, symmetric informationally complete measurements, and other symmetric choices of measurements are not optimal for steering the isotropic states and provide candidates for the most incompatible sets of measurements in each case. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that nonprojective POVMs do not improve over projective ones for this task.

  6. Maternity leave, women's employment, and marital incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Hyde, J S; Essex, M J; Clark, R; Klein, M H

    2001-09-01

    This research investigated the relationship between the length of women's maternity leave and marital incompatibility, in the context of other variables including the woman's employment, her dissatisfaction with the division of household labor, and her sense of role overload. Length of leave, work hours, and family salience were associated with several forms of dissatisfaction, which in turn predicted role overload. Role overload predicted increased marital incompatibility for experienced mothers but did not for first-time mothers, for whom discrepancies between preferred and actual child care were more important. Length of maternity leave showed significant interactions with other variables, supporting the hypothesis that a short leave is a risk factor that, when combined with another risk factor, contributes to personal and marital distress.

  7. Cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to the early stages of speciation.

    PubMed

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; So, Nina; Galloway, Laura F

    2016-12-01

    Genetic incompatibility is a hallmark of speciation. Cytonuclear incompatibilities are proposed to be among the first genetic barriers to arise during speciation. Accordingly, reproductive isolation (RI) within species should be heavily influenced by interactions between the organelle and nuclear genomes. However, there are few clear examples of cytonuclear incompatibility within a species. Here, we show substantial postzygotic RI in first-generation hybrids between differentiated populations of an herbaceous plant (up to 92% reduction in fitness). RI was primarily due to germination and survival, with moderate RI for pollen viability. RI for survival was asymmetric and caused by cytonuclear incompatibility, with the strength of incompatibility linearly related to chloroplast genetic distance. This cytonuclear incompatibility may be the result of a rapidly evolving plastid genome. Substantial asymmetric RI was also found for germination, but was not associated with cytonuclear incompatibility, indicating endosperm or maternal-zygote incompatibilities. These results demonstrate that cytonuclear incompatibility contributes to RI within species, suggesting that initial rates of speciation could be influenced by rates of organelle evolution. However, other genetic incompatibilities are equally important, indicating that even at early stages, speciation can be a complex process involving multiple genes and incompatibilities.

  8. The Use of Paradoxical Intention in the Treatment of Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilio, Frank M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the counseling use of paradoxical intention, in which clients are told to perform responses that seem incompatible with the goal for which they are seeking help. The use of paradoxical intention in the treatment of panic attacks is described and a case example is included. The nature and implementation of the technique are discussed.…

  9. The Use of Paradoxical Intention in the Treatment of Panic Attacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dattilio, Frank M.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the counseling use of paradoxical intention, in which clients are told to perform responses that seem incompatible with the goal for which they are seeking help. The use of paradoxical intention in the treatment of panic attacks is described and a case example is included. The nature and implementation of the technique are discussed.…

  10. Geometric incompatibility in a fault system.

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielov, A; Keilis-Borok, V; Jackson, D D

    1996-01-01

    Interdependence between geometry of a fault system, its kinematics, and seismicity is investigated. Quantitative measure is introduced for inconsistency between a fixed configuration of faults and the slip rates on each fault. This measure, named geometric incompatibility (G), depicts summarily the instability near the fault junctions: their divergence or convergence ("unlocking" or "locking up") and accumulation of stress and deformations. Accordingly, the changes in G are connected with dynamics of seismicity. Apart from geometric incompatibility, we consider deviation K from well-known Saint Venant condition of kinematic compatibility. This deviation depicts summarily unaccounted stress and strain accumulation in the region and/or internal inconsistencies in a reconstruction of block- and fault system (its geometry and movements). The estimates of G and K provide a useful tool for bringing together the data on different types of movement in a fault system. An analog of Stokes formula is found that allows determination of the total values of G and K in a region from the data on its boundary. The phenomenon of geometric incompatibility implies that nucleation of strong earthquakes is to large extent controlled by processes near fault junctions. The junctions that have been locked up may act as transient asperities, and unlocked junctions may act as transient weakest links. Tentative estimates of K and G are made for each end of the Big Bend of the San Andreas fault system in Southern California. Recent strong earthquakes Landers (1992, M = 7.3) and Northridge (1994, M = 6.7) both reduced K but had opposite impact on G: Landers unlocked the area, whereas Northridge locked it up again. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:11607673

  11. ABO incompatible renal transplant: Transfusion medicine perspective

    PubMed Central

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Nayak, Sweta; Chowdhry, Mohit; Jasuja, Sanjiv; Sagar, Gaurav; Rosamma, N. L.; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Our study presents an analysis of the trends of ABO antibody titers and the TPE (Therapeutic Plasma Exchange) procedures required pre and post ABO incompatible renal transplant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty nine patients underwent ABO incompatible renal transplant during the study period. The ABO antibody titers were done using the tube technique and titer reported was the dilution at which 1+ reaction was observed. The baseline titers of anti-A and anti-B antibodies were determined. The titer targeted was ≤8. Patients were subjected to 1 plasma volume exchange with 5% albumin and 2 units of AB group FFP (Fresh Frozen Plasma) in each sitting. TPE procedures post-transplant were decided on the basis of rising antibody titer with/ without graft dysfunction. RESULTS: The average number of TPE procedures required was 4-5 procedures/patient in the pretransplant and 2-3/patient in the post-transplant period. An average titer reduction of 1 serial dilution/procedure was noted for Anti-A and 1.1/procedure for Anti-B. Number of procedures required to reach the target titer was not significantly different for Anti-A and Anti-B (P = 0.98). Outcome of the transplant did not differ significantly by reducing titers to a level less than 8 (P = 0.32). The difference in the Anti-A and Anti-B titers at 14th day post-transplant was found to be clinically significant (P = 0.042). CONCLUSION: With an average of 4-5 TPE procedures pretransplant and 2-3 TPE procedures post transplants, ABO incompatible renal transplantations can be successfully accomplished. PMID:28316440

  12. Approximating incompatible von Neumann measurements simultaneously

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Jivulescu, Maria Anastasia; Reitzner, Daniel; Ziman, Mario

    2010-09-15

    We study the problem of performing orthogonal qubit measurements simultaneously. Since these measurements are incompatible, one has to accept additional imprecision. An optimal joint measurement is the one with the least possible imprecision. All earlier considerations of this problem have concerned only joint measurability of observables, while in this work we also take into account conditional state transformations (i.e., instruments). We characterize the optimal joint instrument for two orthogonal von Neumann instruments as being the Lueders instrument of the optimal joint observable.

  13. The Incompatibility of Living Systems: Characterizing Growth-Induced Incompatibilities in Expanded Skin.

    PubMed

    Tepole, Adrian Buganza; Gart, Michael; Purnell, Chad A; Gosain, Arun K; Kuhl, Ellen

    2016-05-01

    Skin expansion is a common surgical technique to correct large cutaneous defects. Selecting a successful expansion protocol is solely based on the experience and personal preference of the operating surgeon. Skin expansion could be improved by predictive computational simulations. Towards this goal, we model skin expansion using the continuum framework of finite growth. This approach crucially relies on the concept of incompatible configurations. However, aside from the classical opening angle experiment, our current understanding of growth-induced incompatibilities remains rather vague. Here we visualize and characterize incompatibilities in living systems using skin expansion in a porcine model: We implanted and inflated two expanders, crescent, and spherical, and filled them to 225 cc throughout a period of 21 days. To quantify the residual strains developed during this period, we excised the expanded skin patches and subdivided them into smaller pieces. Skin growth averaged 1.17 times the original area for the spherical and 1.10 for the crescent expander, and displayed significant regional variations. When subdivided into smaller pieces, the grown skin patches retracted heterogeneously and confirmed the existence of incompatibilities. Understanding skin growth through mechanical stretch will allow surgeons to improve-and ultimately personalize-preoperative treatment planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

  14. Incompatible numerical manifold method for fracture problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Gaofeng; Li, Kaitai; Jiang, Haihui

    2010-05-01

    The incompatible numerical manifold method (INMM) is based on the finite cover approximation theory, which provides a unified framework for problems dealing with continuum and discontinuities. The incompatible numerical manifold method employs two cover systems as follows. The mathematical cover system provides the nodes for forming finite covers of the solution domain and the weighted functions, and the physical cover system describes geometry of the domain and the discontinuous surfaces therein. In INMM, the mathematical finite cover approximation theory is used to model cracks that lead to interior discontinuities in the process of displacement. Therefore, the discontinuity is treated mathematically instead of empirically by the existing methods. However, one cover of a node is divided into two irregular sub-covers when the INMM is used to model the discontinuity. As a result, the method sometimes causes numerical errors at the tip of a crack. To improve the precision of the INMM, the analytical solution is used at the tip of a crack, and thus the cover displacement functions are extended with higher precision and computational efficiency. Some numerical examples are given.

  15. Intentional systems management: managing forests for biodiversity.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; B.R. Lippke; J. Sessions

    1999-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity provides for economic, social, and environmental sustainability. Intentional management is designed to manage conflicts among groups with conflicting interests. Our goal was to ascertain if intentional management and principles of conservation of biodiversity could be combined into upland and riparian forest management strategies that would...

  16. Transfusion Support for ABO-Incompatible Progenitor Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kopko, Patricia M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary ABO-incompatible transplants comprise up to 50% of allogeneic progenitor cell transplants. Major, minor and bidirectional ABO-incompatible transplants each have unique complications that can occur, including hemolysis at the time of progenitor cell infusion, hemolysis during donor engraftment, passenger lymphocyte syndrome, delayed red blood cell engraftment, and pure red cell aplasia. Appropriate transfusion support during the different phases of the allogeneic progenitor cell transplant process is an important part of ABO-incompatible transplantation. PMID:27022318

  17. Biparental chloroplast inheritance leads to rescue from cytonuclear incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Barnard-Kubow, Karen B; McCoy, Morgan A; Galloway, Laura F

    2017-02-01

    Although organelle inheritance is predominantly maternal across animals and plants, biparental chloroplast inheritance has arisen multiple times in the angiosperms. Biparental inheritance has the potential to impact the evolutionary dynamics of cytonuclear incompatibility, interactions between nuclear and organelle genomes that are proposed to be among the earliest types of genetic incompatibility to arise in speciation. We examine the interplay between biparental inheritance and cytonuclear incompatibility in Campanulastrum americanum, a plant species exhibiting both traits. We first determine patterns of chloroplast inheritance in genetically similar and divergent crosses, and then associate inheritance with hybrid survival across multiple generations. There is substantial biparental inheritance in C. americanum. The frequency of biparental inheritance is greater in divergent crosses and in the presence of cytonuclear incompatibility. Biparental inheritance helps to mitigate cytonuclear incompatibility, leading to increased fitness of F1 hybrids and recovery in the F2 generation. This study demonstrates the potential for biparental chloroplast inheritance to rescue cytonuclear compatibility, reducing cytonuclear incompatibility's contribution to reproductive isolation and potentially slowing speciation. The efficacy of rescue depended upon the strength of incompatibility, with a greater persistence of weak incompatibilities in later generations. These findings suggest that incompatible plastids may lead to selection for biparental inheritance.

  18. Incompatible Trace Element Abundances in Hawaiian Olivines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, G.; Huang, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of trace elements partitioning between olivine and silicate melt is clouded by large variations in values of partition coefficients presented in the literature. In general, partition coefficients from phenocryst-matrix results are higher than those from experimental equilibration and in-situ measurements (such as LA-ICP-MS and Ion-probe) (Blard and Farley, 2008; Lee et al., 2007). This discrepancy is possibly caused by the presence of melt or micromineral inclusions in the analyzed phenocrysts, or contamination of grain boundaries by enriched glasses or accessory phases or uranium pick up from alteration of olivines. To further investigate why analysis of natural phenocrysts usually results in relative high apparent D’s for incompatible trace elements, six aliquots of olivine grains from a single sediment sample of Waimea river watershed, on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii, were analyzed by solution ICP-MS at Harvard University for trace element concentrations. Two aliquots of olivines were leached in 1% oxalic acid for 45-60 min at 90 OC before dissolution. Leached and unleached olivines mostly show positive linear correlations in plots of incompatible trace elements versus La, which possibly indicates mixing lines between olivine and one end-member with higher incompatible element concentration (possibly melt inclusion). Assuming La concentration in olivine is zero, we estimate concentration of other incompatible elements in olivines using intercepts of these mixing lines. We obtain that U and Th concentration in the olivines to be about 1 ppb and 0.1 ppb respectively, corresponding to apparent DUol/melt and DThol/melt of 0.003 and 0.0001 if host lave has U of 0.3 ppm and Th of 1ppm (Gayer et al.,2008). Recently, helium isotopic measurements were made in these olivines (Gayer et al., 2008) and the results yield a basin-wide average erosion rate of 0.056 mma-1 for Waimea river watershed. Gayer et al. (2008) argued that

  19. Pervasive antagonistic interactions among hybrid incompatibility loci.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Rafael F; Muir, Christopher D; Josway, Sarah; Moyle, Leonie C

    2017-06-01

    Species barriers, expressed as hybrid inviability and sterility, are often due to epistatic interactions between divergent loci from two lineages. Theoretical models indicate that the strength, direction, and complexity of these genetic interactions can strongly affect the expression of interspecific reproductive isolation and the rates at which new species evolve. Nonetheless, empirical analyses have not quantified the frequency with which loci are involved in interactions affecting hybrid fitness, and whether these loci predominantly interact synergistically or antagonistically, or preferentially involve loci that have strong individual effects on hybrid fitness. We systematically examined the prevalence of interactions between pairs of short chromosomal regions from one species (Solanum habrochaites) co-introgressed into a heterospecific genetic background (Solanum lycopersicum), using lines containing pairwise combinations of 15 chromosomal segments from S. habrochaites in the background of S. lycopersicum (i.e., 95 double introgression lines). We compared the strength of hybrid incompatibility (either pollen sterility or seed sterility) expressed in each double introgression line to the expected additive effect of its two component single introgressions. We found that epistasis was common among co-introgressed regions. Interactions for hybrid dysfunction were substantially more prevalent in pollen fertility compared to seed fertility phenotypes, and were overwhelmingly antagonistic (i.e., double hybrids were less unfit than expected from additive single introgression effects). This pervasive antagonism is expected to attenuate the rate at which hybrid infertility accumulates among lineages over time (i.e., giving diminishing returns as more reproductive isolation loci accumulate), as well as decouple patterns of accumulation of sterility loci and hybrid incompatibility phenotypes. This decoupling effect might explain observed differences between pollen and

  20. Arrow physicians: are economics and medicine philosophically incompatible?

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandro

    2015-06-01

    Economics is en route to its further expansion in medicine, but many in the medical community remain unconvinced that its impact will be positive. Thus, a philosophical enquiry into the compatibility of economics and medicine is necessary to resolve the disagreements. The fundamental mission of medicine obliges physicians to practise science and compassion to serve the patient's best interests. Conventional (neoclassical) economics assumes that individuals are self-interested and that competitive markets will emerge optimal states. Economics is seemingly incompatible with the emphasis of putting patients' interests first. This idea is refuted by Professor Kenneth Arrow's health economics seminal paper. Arrow emphasizes that medical practice involves agency, knowledge, trust and professionalism, and physician-patient relation critically affects care quality. The term Arrow Physician is used to mean a humanistic carer who has a concern for the patient and acts on the best available evidence with health equity in mind. To make this practice sustainable, implementing appropriate motivations, constitutions and institutions to enable altruistic agency is critical. There is substantial evidence that polycentric governance can encourage building trust and reciprocity, so as to avoid depletion of communal resources. This paper proposes building trusting institutions through granting altruistic physicians adequate autonomy to direct resources based on patients' technical needs. It also summarizes the philosophy bases of medicine and economics. It, therefore, contributes to developing a shared language to facilitate intellectual dialogues, and will encourage trans-disciplinary research into medical practice. This should lead to medicine being reoriented to care for whole persons again.

  1. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. Incompatible...

  2. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. Incompatible...

  3. 40 CFR 264.313 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.313 Section 264.313 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Landfills § 264.313 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. Incompatible wastes...

  4. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  5. Evolution and Molecular Control of Hybrid Incompatibility in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen; E, Zhiguo; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with "parasitic" selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities.

  6. Widespread genetic incompatibility in C. elegans maintained by balancing selection.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Hannah S; Rockman, Matthew V; Kruglyak, Leonid

    2008-02-01

    Natural selection is expected to eliminate genetic incompatibilities from interbreeding populations. We have discovered a globally distributed incompatibility in the primarily selfing species Caenorhabditis elegans that has been maintained despite its negative consequences for fitness. Embryos homozygous for a naturally occurring deletion of the zygotically acting gene zeel-1 arrest if their sperm parent carries an incompatible allele of a second, paternal-effect locus, peel-1. The two interacting loci are tightly linked, with incompatible alleles occurring in linkage disequilibrium in two common haplotypes. These haplotypes exhibit elevated sequence divergence, and population genetic analyses of this region indicate that natural selection is preserving both haplotypes in the population. Our data suggest that long-term maintenance of a balanced polymorphism has permitted the incompatibility to persist despite gene flow across the rest of the genome.

  7. Evolution and Molecular Control of Hybrid Incompatibility in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chen; E, Zhiguo; Lin, Hong-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Postzygotic reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role in speciation. According to the stage at which it functions and the symptoms it displays, postzygotic RI can be called hybrid inviability, hybrid weakness or necrosis, hybrid sterility, or hybrid breakdown. In this review, we summarized new findings about hybrid incompatibilities in plants, most of which are from studies on Arabidopsis and rice. Recent progress suggests that hybrid incompatibility is a by-product of co-evolution either with “parasitic” selfish elements in the genome or with invasive microbes in the natural environment. We discuss the environmental influences on the expression of hybrid incompatibility and the possible effects of environment-dependent hybrid incompatibility on sympatric speciation. We also discuss the role of domestication on the evolution of hybrid incompatibilities. PMID:27563306

  8. Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a ‘holy grail’ of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855

  9. Potential intravenous drug incompatibilities in a pediatric unit

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. Methods A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student’s t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Relative risks were calculated for each drug involved in potential incompatibility with 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 222 children participated in the study; 132 (59.5%) children were male and 118 (53.2%) were aged between 0 and 2 years. The mean length of stay was 7.7±2.3 days. Dipyrone, penicillin G and ceftriaxona were the most commonly prescribed drugs. At least one potential incompatibility was detected in about 85% of children (1.2 incompatibility/patient ratio). Most incompatibilities detected fell into the non-tested (93.4%), precipitation (5.5%), turbidity (0.7%) or chemical decomposition (0.4%) categories. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibility. Conclusion Most pediatric prescriptions involved potential incompatibilities, with higher prevalence of non-tested incompatibilities. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibilities. PMID:27462891

  10. Is phosphorus predictably incompatible in igneous processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Barnes, S.

    1984-01-01

    Siderophile element abundances are central to recent models for core formation in the Earth and Moon and the origin of the Moon. It is important to identify siderophile elements whose behavior in igneous processes is predictable, so that primary mantle abundances can be deduced by subtracting out the effects of igneous processes. Newsom's model for core formation in the Moon requires subchondritic P, and suggests that P was depleted due to volatility. Experiments were conducted to determine P olivine/liquid distribution coefficients. Preliminary results indicate that P can be compatible with olivine during rapid cooling, but is not during isothermal crystallization with long growth times, and tends to be expelled during annealing. It is therefore not likely that P is compatible under any widespread igneous conditions, and the incompatible behavior of P in lunar crustal rocks can be safety assumed. In addition, low fO2 is insufficient to cause P compatibility, so it is unlikely that P-rich silicates formed during the early evolution of the Earth or Moon. These results indicate that P is depleted in the Moon.

  11. ABO incompatible renal transplants: Good or bad?

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Masaki; Gonzalez, Hector Daniel; Cacciola, Roberto; Aikawa, Atsushi; Yaqoob, Magdi M; Puliatti, Carmelo

    2014-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) was previously considered to be an absolute contraindication for patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) due to hyperacute rejection related to blood type barrier. Since the first successful series of ABOi-KT was reported, ABOi-KT is performed increasingly all over the world. ABOi-KT has led to an expanded donor pool and reduced the number of patients with ESKD awaiting deceased kidney transplantation (KT). Intensified immunosuppression and immunological understanding has helped to shape current desensitization protocols. Consequently, in recent years, ABOi-KT outcome is comparable to ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT). However, many questions still remain unanswered. In ABOi-KT, there is an additional residual immunological risk that may lead to allograft damage, despite using current diverse but usually intensified immunosuppressive protocols at the expense of increasing risk of infection and possibly malignancy. Notably, in ABOi-KT, desensitization and antibody reduction therapies have increased the cost of KT. Reassuringly, there has been an evolution in ABOi-KT leading to a simplification of protocols over the last decade. This review provides an overview of the history, outcome, protocol, advantages and disadvantages in ABOi-KT, and focuses on whether ABOi-KT should be recommended as a therapeutic option of KT in the future. PMID:24669364

  12. Is phosphorus predictably incompatible in igneous processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Barnes, S.

    1984-01-01

    Siderophile element abundances are central to recent models for core formation in the Earth and Moon and the origin of the Moon. It is important to identify siderophile elements whose behavior in igneous processes is predictable, so that primary mantle abundances can be deduced by subtracting out the effects of igneous processes. Newsom's model for core formation in the Moon requires subchondritic P, and suggests that P was depleted due to volatility. Experiments were conducted to determine P olivine/liquid distribution coefficients. Preliminary results indicate that P can be compatible with olivine during rapid cooling, but is not during isothermal crystallization with long growth times, and tends to be expelled during annealing. It is therefore not likely that P is compatible under any widespread igneous conditions, and the incompatible behavior of P in lunar crustal rocks can be safety assumed. In addition, low fO2 is insufficient to cause P compatibility, so it is unlikely that P-rich silicates formed during the early evolution of the Earth or Moon. These results indicate that P is depleted in the Moon.

  13. A Wolbachia deubiquitylating enzyme induces cytoplasmic incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, John F; Ronau, Judith A; Hochstrasser, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria(1) that infect arthropods, including approximately two-thirds of insect species(2). Wolbachia manipulate insect reproduction by enhancing their inheritance through the female germline. The most common alteration is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)(3-5), where eggs from uninfected females fail to develop when fertilized by sperm from Wolbachia-infected males. By contrast, if female and male partners are both infected, embryos are viable. CI is a gene-drive mechanism impacting population structure(6) and causing reproductive isolation(7), but its molecular mechanism has remained unknown. We show that a Wolbachia deubiquitylating enzyme (DUB) induces CI. The CI-inducing DUB, CidB, cleaves ubiquitin from substrates and is encoded in a two-gene operon, and the other protein, CidA, binds CidB. Binding is strongest between cognate partners in cidA-cidB homologues. In transgenic Drosophila, the cidA-cidB operon mimics CI when sperm introduce it into eggs, and a catalytically inactive DUB does not induce sterility. Toxicity is recapitulated in yeast by CidB alone; this requires DUB activity but is rescued by coexpressed CidA. A paralogous operon involves a putative nuclease (CinB) rather than a DUB. Analogous binding, toxicity and rescue in yeast were observed. These results identify a CI mechanism involving interacting proteins that are secreted into germline cells by Wolbachia, and suggest new methods for insect control.

  14. Genetics of Hybrid Incompatibility Between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum

    PubMed Central

    Moyle, Leonie C.; Graham, Elaine B.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two closely related diploid hermaphroditic plant species. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing 85% of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon hirsutum (Solanum habrochaites) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato L. esculentum (S. lycopersicum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on 5–11 QTL that individually reduce hybrid fitness by 36–90%. Seed infertility QTL act additively or recessively, consistent with findings in other systems where incompatibility loci have largely been recessive. Genetic lengths of introgressed chromosomal segments explain little of the variation for hybrid incompatibility among NILs, arguing against an infinitesimal model of hybrid incompatibility and reinforcing our inference of a limited number of discrete incompatibility factors between these species. In addition, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number. The latter two findings contrast strongly with data from Drosophila where hybrid incompatibility can be highly polygenic and complex, and male sterility evolves substantially faster than female sterility or hybrid inviability. The observed differences between Lycopersicon and Drosophila might be due to differences in sex determination system, reproductive and mating biology, and/or the prevalence of sexual interactions such as sexual selection. PMID:15466436

  15. Genetics of hybrid incompatibility between Lycopersicon esculentum and L. hirsutum.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Leonie C; Graham, Elaine B

    2005-01-01

    We examined the genetics of hybrid incompatibility between two closely related diploid hermaphroditic plant species. Using a set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) representing 85% of the genome of the wild species Lycopersicon hirsutum (Solanum habrochaites) in the genetic background of the cultivated tomato L. esculentum (S. lycopersicum), we found that hybrid pollen and seed infertility are each based on 5-11 QTL that individually reduce hybrid fitness by 36-90%. Seed infertility QTL act additively or recessively, consistent with findings in other systems where incompatibility loci have largely been recessive. Genetic lengths of introgressed chromosomal segments explain little of the variation for hybrid incompatibility among NILs, arguing against an infinitesimal model of hybrid incompatibility and reinforcing our inference of a limited number of discrete incompatibility factors between these species. In addition, male (pollen) and other (seed) incompatibility factors are roughly comparable in number. The latter two findings contrast strongly with data from Drosophila where hybrid incompatibility can be highly polygenic and complex, and male sterility evolves substantially faster than female sterility or hybrid inviability. The observed differences between Lycopersicon and Drosophila might be due to differences in sex determination system, reproductive and mating biology, and/or the prevalence of sexual interactions such as sexual selection.

  16. Semiosis stems from logical incompatibility in organic nature: Why biophysics does not see meaning, while biosemiotics does.

    PubMed

    Kull, Kalevi

    2015-12-01

    We suggest here a model of the origin of the phenomenal world via the naturalization of logical conflict or incompatibility (which is broader than, but includes logical contradiction). Physics rules out the reality of meaning because of the method of formalization, which requires that logical conflicts cannot be part of the model. We argue that (a) meaning-making requires a logical conflict; (b) logical conflict assumes a phenomenal present; (c) phenomenological specious present occurs in living systems as widely as meaning-making; (d) it is possible to provide a physiological description of a system in which the phenomenal present appears and choices are made; (e) logical conflict, or incompatibility itself, is the mechanism of intentionality; (f) meaning-making is assured by scaffolding, which is a product of earlier choices, or decision-making, or interpretation. This model can be seen as a model of semiosis. It also allows putting physiology and phenomenology (or physics and semiotics) into a natural connection.

  17. Evolution of a genetic incompatibility in the genus Xiphophorus.

    PubMed

    Scarpino, Samuel V; Hunt, Patrick J; Garcia-De-Leon, Francisco J; Juenger, Thomas E; Schartl, Manfred; Kirkpatrick, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Genetic incompatibilities are commonly observed between hybridizing species. Although this type of isolating mechanism has received considerable attention, we have few examples describing how genetic incompatibilities evolve. We investigated the evolution of two loci involved in a classic example of a Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) incompatibility in Xiphophorus, a genus of freshwater fishes from northern Central America. Hybrids develop a lethal melanoma due to the interaction of two loci, an oncogene and its repressor. We cloned and sequenced the putative repressor locus in 25 Xiphophorus species and an outgroup species, and determined the status of the oncogene in those species from the literature. Using phylogenetic analyses, we find evidence that a repeat region in the proximal promoter of the repressor is coevolving with the oncogene. The data support a hypothesis that departs from the standard BDM model: it appears the alleles that cause the incompatibilities have coevolved simultaneously within lineages, rather than in allopatric or temporal isolation.

  18. A statistical study on consumer's perception of sustainable products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pater, Liana; Izvercian, Monica; Ivaşcu, Larisa

    2017-07-01

    Sustainability and sustainable concepts are quite often but not always used correctly. The statistical research on consumer's perception of sustainable products has tried to identify the level of knowledge regarding the concept of sustainability and sustainable products, the selected criteria concerning the buying decision, the intention of purchasing a sustainable product, main sustainable products preferred by consumers.

  19. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Schultz, Jussi

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  20. [The kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dashkova, N G; Salimov, É L

    2012-01-01

    The experience of 28 allotransplantations of ABO-incompatible kidneys was compared with the treatment results of 38 ABO-compatible renal transplantations. The transplanted kidney function, morphological changes of the transplanted kidney and the comparative analysis of actuary survival in both groups showed no significant difference. The results of the study prove the validity of the kidney transplantation from the ABO-incompatible donors.

  1. ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for severe hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ju, Weiqiang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Jiao, Xingyuan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongping; He, Xiaoshun

    2015-07-01

    Effect of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation on patients with severe hepatitis B (SHB) remains unclear. Herein, we summarized 22 cases with SHB in whom were performed emergency liver transplantation from ABO-incompatible donors. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted basiliximab, tacrolimus, steroids and mycophenolate mofetil. The mean MELD score was 35.2 ± 7.1. Major complications included rejection, infections, biliary complications, hepatic artery thrombosis or stenosis and portal vein thrombosis. Patient survival rates were 40.9%, 78.9% and 82.3% in 1 year, 29.2%, 66.8% and 72.9% in 3 years, and 21.9%, 60.1% and 62.5% in 5 years for ABO-incompatible, ABO-compatible and ABO-identical groups. Graft survival rates were 39%, 78.9% and 82.3% in 1 year, 27.8%, 66.4% and 71.1% in 3 years, and 20.9%, 57.9% and 61.0% in 5 years for incompatible, compatible and identical ABO graft-recipient match. The 1-, 3-, 5-year graft and patient survival rates of ABO-incompatible were distinctly lower than that of ABO-compatible group (P < 0.05). Our results suggested that ABO-incompatible liver transplantation might be a life-saving procedure for patients with SHB as a promising alternative operation when ABO-compatible donors are not available and at least bridges the second opportunity for liver retransplantation.

  2. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  3. Intention in Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Sofhauser, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this column is to explore the meaning of intention in nursing practice and distinguish it from the concept of intentionality. The notion that nurses engage in a purposeful act of setting intention prior to delivery of nursing care is introduced, and nursing implications for setting intention in practice is offered. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The effect of Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility on host population size in natural and manipulated systems.

    PubMed Central

    Dobson, Stephen L; Fox, Charles W; Jiggins, Francis M

    2002-01-01

    Obligate, intracellular bacteria of the genus Wolbachia often behave as reproductive parasites by manipulating host reproduction to enhance their vertical transmission. One of these reproductive manipulations, cytoplasmic incompatibility, causes a reduction in egg-hatch rate in crosses between individuals with differing infections. Applied strategies based upon cytoplasmic incompatibility have been proposed for both the suppression and replacement of host populations. As Wolbachia infections occur within a broad range of invertebrates, these strategies are potentially applicable to a variety of medically and economically important insects. Here, we examine the interaction between Wolbachia infection frequency and host population size. We use a model to describe natural invasions of Wolbachia infections, artificial releases of infected hosts and releases of sterile males, as part of a traditional sterile insect technique programme. Model simulations demonstrate the importance of understanding the reproductive rate and intraspecific competition type of the targeted population, showing that releases of sterile or incompatible individuals may cause an undesired increase in the adult number. In addition, the model suggests a novel applied strategy that employs Wolbachia infections to suppress host populations. Releases of Wolbachia-infected hosts can be used to sustain artificially an unstable coexistence of multiple incompatible infections within a host population, allowing the host population size to be reduced, maintained at low levels, or eliminated. PMID:11886634

  5. Noise robustness of the incompatibility of quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinosaari, Teiko; Kiukas, Jukka; Reitzner, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The existence of incompatible measurements is a fundamental phenomenon having no explanation in classical physics. Intuitively, one considers given measurements to be incompatible within a framework of a physical theory, if their simultaneous implementation on a single physical device is prohibited by the theory itself. In the mathematical language of quantum theory, measurements are described by POVMs (positive operator valued measures), and given POVMs are by definition incompatible if they cannot be obtained via coarse-graining from a single common POVM; this notion generalizes noncommutativity of projective measurements. In quantum theory, incompatibility can be regarded as a resource necessary for manifesting phenomena such as Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality violations or Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering which do not have classical explanation. We define operational ways of quantifying this resource via the amount of added classical noise needed to render the measurements compatible, i.e., useless as a resource. In analogy to entanglement measures, we generalize this idea by introducing the concept of incompatibility measure, which is monotone in local operations. In this paper, we restrict our consideration to binary measurements, which are already sufficient to explicitly demonstrate nontrivial features of the theory. In particular, we construct a family of incompatibility monotones operationally quantifying violations of certain scaled versions of the CHSH Bell inequality, prove that they can be computed via a semidefinite program, and show how the noise-based quantities arise as special cases. We also determine maximal violations of the new inequalities, demonstrating how Tsirelson's bound appears as a special case. The resource aspect is further motivated by simple quantum protocols where our incompatibility monotones appear as relevant figures of merit.

  6. Molecular mechanisms underlying the breakdown of gametophytic self-incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Stone, J L

    2002-03-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility has occurred repeatedly throughout the evolution of flowering plants and has profound impacts on the genetic structure of populations. Recent advances in understanding of the molecular basis of self-incompatibility have provided insights into the mechanisms of its loss in natural populations, especially in the tomato family, the Solanaceae. In the Solanaceae, the gene that controls self-incompatibility in the style codes for a ribonuclease that causes the degradation of RNA in pollen tubes bearing an allele at the S-locus that matches either of the two alleles held by the maternal plant. The pollen component of the S-locus has yet to be identified. Loss of self-incompatibility can be attributed to three types of causes: duplication of the S-locus, mutations that cause loss of S-RNase activity, and mutations that do not cause loss of S-RNase activity. Duplication of the S-locus has been well studied in radiation-induced mutants but may be a relatively rare cause of the breakdown of self-incompatibility in nature. Point mutations within the S-locus that disrupt the production of S-RNase have been documented in natural populations. There are also a number of mutants in which S-RNase production is unimpaired, yet self-incompatibility is disrupted. The identity and function of these mutations is not well understood. Careful work on a handful of model organisms will enable population biologists to better understand the breakdown of self-incompatibility in nature.

  7. Cytoplasmic–Nuclear Incompatibility Between Wild Isolates of Caenorhabditis nouraguensis

    PubMed Central

    Lamelza, Piero; Ailion, Michael

    2017-01-01

    How species arise is a fundamental question in biology. Species can be defined as populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations. Therefore, understanding how reproductive barriers evolve between populations is essential for understanding the process of speciation. Hybrid incompatibility (for example, hybrid sterility or lethality) is a common and strong reproductive barrier in nature. Here we report a lethal incompatibility between two wild isolates of the nematode Caenorhabditis nouraguensis. Hybrid inviability results from the incompatibility between a maternally inherited cytoplasmic factor from each strain and a recessive nuclear locus from the other. We have excluded the possibility that maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria cause the incompatibility by treating both strains with tetracycline and show that hybrid death is unaffected. Furthermore, cytoplasmic–nuclear incompatibility commonly occurs between other wild isolates, indicating that this is a significant reproductive barrier within C. nouraguensis. We hypothesize that the maternally inherited cytoplasmic factor is the mitochondrial genome and that mitochondrial dysfunction underlies hybrid death. This system has the potential to shed light on the dynamics of divergent mitochondrial–nuclear coevolution and its role in promoting speciation. PMID:28064190

  8. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Bacterial Density in Nasonia Vitripennis

    PubMed Central

    Breeuwer, JAJ.; Werren, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    Cytoplasmically (maternally) inherited bacteria that cause reproductive incompatibility between strains are widespread among insects. In the parasitoid wasp Nasonia, incompatibility results in improper condensation and fragmentation of the paternal chromosomes in fertilized eggs. Some form of genome imprinting may be involved. Because of haplodiploidy, incompatibility results in conversion of (diploid) female eggs into (haploid) males. Experiments show that bacterial density is correlated with compatibility differences between male and female Nasonia. Males from strains with high bacterial numbers are incompatible with females from strains with lower numbers. Temporal changes in compatibility of females after tetracycline treatment are generally correlated with decreases in bacterial levels in eggs. However, complete loss of bacteria in mature eggs precedes conversion of eggs to the ``asymbiont'' compatibility type by 3-4 days. This result is consistent with a critical ``imprinting'' period during egg maturation, when cytoplasmic bacteria determine compatibility. Consequent inheritance of reduced bacterial numbers in F(1) progeny has different effects on compatibility type of subsequent male vs. female progeny. In some cases, partial incompatibility occurs which results in reduced offspring numbers, apparently due to incomplete paternal chromosome elimination resulting in aneuploidy. PMID:8244014

  9. Incompatibility-governed elasto-plasticity for continua with dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstutz, Samuel; Van Goethem, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel model for elasto-plastic continua is presented and developed from the ground up. It is based on the interdependence between plasticity, dislocation motion and strain incompatibility. A generalized form of the equilibrium equations is provided, with as additional variables, the strain incompatibility and an internal thermodynamic variable called incompatibility modulus, which drives the plastic behaviour of the continuum. The traditional equations of elasticity are recovered as this modulus tends to infinity, while perfect plasticity corresponds to the vanishing limit. The overall nonlinear scheme is determined by the solution of these equations together with the computation of the topological derivative of the dissipation, in order to comply with the second principle of thermodynamics.

  10. Compartmentalization of Incompatible Catalytic Transformations for Tandem Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jie; Dimroth, Jonas; Weck, Marcus

    2015-10-14

    In Nature, incompatible catalytic transformations are being carried out simultaneously through compartmentalization that allows for the combination of incompatible catalysts in tandem reactions. Herein, we take the compartmentalization concept to the synthetic realm and present an approach that allows two incompatible transition metal catalyzed transformations to proceed in one pot in tandem. The key is the site isolation of both catalysts through compartmentalization using a core-shell micellar support in an aqueous environment. The support is based on amphiphilic triblock copolymers of poly(2-oxazoline)s with orthogonal functional groups on the side chain that can be used to cross-link covalently the micelle and to conjugate two metal catalysts in different domains of the micelle. The micelle core and shell provide different microenvironments for the transformations: Co-catalyzed hydration of an alkyne proceeds in the hydrophobic core, while the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of the intermediate ketone into a chiral alcohol occurs in the hydrophilic shell.

  11. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Across ABO-Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Ching-Song; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT).ABO-incompatible LDLT is an aggressive treatment that crosses the blood-typing barrier for saving lives from liver diseases. Although graft and patient survival have been improved recently by various treatments, the results of adult ABO-incompatible LDLT require further evaluation.Two regimens were designed based on isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers and the time course of immunological reactions at this institute. When isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers were ≤64, liver transplantation was directly performed and rituximab (375 mg/m) was administrated on postoperative day 1 (regimen I). When isoagglutinin titers were >64, rituximab (375 mg/m) was administered preoperatively with or without plasmapheresis and boosted on postoperative day 1 (regimen II). Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and steroids.Forty-six adult ABO-incompatible and 340 ABO-compatible LDLTs were performed from 2006 to 2013. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores for ABO-incompatible recipients ranged from 7 to 40, with a median of 14. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio ranged from 0.61% to 1.61% with a median of 0.91%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.7%, 75.7%, and 71.0%, respectively, for ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients, compared to 81.0%, 75.2%, and 71.5% for ABO-C recipients (P = 0.912). The biliary complication rate was higher in ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients than in the ABO-compatible recipients (50.0% vs 29.7%, P = 0.009).In the rituximab era, the blood type barrier can be crossed to achieve adult ABO-incompatible LDLT with survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible LDLT, but with more biliary complications.

  12. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Across ABO-Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chen-Fang; Cheng, Chih-Hsien; Wang, Yu-Chao; Soong, Ruey-Shyang; Wu, Tsung-Han; Chou, Hong-Shiue; Wu, Ting-Jung; Chan, Kun-Ming; Lee, Ching-Song; Lee, Wei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of adult ABO-incompatible living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). ABO-incompatible LDLT is an aggressive treatment that crosses the blood-typing barrier for saving lives from liver diseases. Although graft and patient survival have been improved recently by various treatments, the results of adult ABO-incompatible LDLT require further evaluation. Two regimens were designed based on isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers and the time course of immunological reactions at this institute. When isoagglutinin IgG and IgM titers were ≤64, liver transplantation was directly performed and rituximab (375 mg/m2) was administrated on postoperative day 1 (regimen I). When isoagglutinin titers were >64, rituximab (375 mg/m2) was administered preoperatively with or without plasmapheresis and boosted on postoperative day 1 (regimen II). Immunosuppression was achieved by administration of mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and steroids. Forty-six adult ABO-incompatible and 340 ABO-compatible LDLTs were performed from 2006 to 2013. The Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores for ABO-incompatible recipients ranged from 7 to 40, with a median of 14. The graft-to-recipient weight ratio ranged from 0.61% to 1.61% with a median of 0.91%. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 81.7%, 75.7%, and 71.0%, respectively, for ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients, compared to 81.0%, 75.2%, and 71.5% for ABO-C recipients (P = 0.912). The biliary complication rate was higher in ABO-incompatible LDLT recipients than in the ABO-compatible recipients (50.0% vs 29.7%, P = 0.009). In the rituximab era, the blood type barrier can be crossed to achieve adult ABO-incompatible LDLT with survival rates comparable to those of ABO-compatible LDLT, but with more biliary complications. PMID:26496313

  13. [Kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors].

    PubMed

    Goriaĭnov, V A; Kaabak, M M; Babenko, N N; Shishlo, L A; Morozova, M M; Ragimov, A A; Dazhkova, N G; Salimov, E L

    2013-01-01

    The experience of 28 kidney allotransplantations from the AB0-incompatible donors was analyzed. The comparative group consisted of 38 patients, who received the AB0-compatible organ. The results were assessed using the following parameters: renal function, morphology of the biopsy samples of the transplanted kidney and actuary survival of the recipients with functioning transplants in both groups. The comparative analysis showed no significant difference between the two groups, giving the right to consider the kidney allotransplantation from the AB0-incompatible donors safe and effective.

  14. Stable coexistence of incompatible Wolbachia along a narrow contact zone in mosquito field populations.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Célestine M; Labbé, Pierrick; Rousset, François; Beji, Marwa; Makoundou, Patrick; Duron, Olivier; Dumas, Emilie; Pasteur, Nicole; Bouattour, Ali; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    In arthropods, the intracellular bacteria Wolbachia often induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) between sperm and egg, which causes conditional embryonic death and promotes the spatial spread of Wolbachia infections into host populations. The ability of Wolbachia to spread in natural populations through CI has attracted attention for using these bacteria in vector-borne disease control. The dynamics of incompatible Wolbachia infections have been deeply investigated theoretically, whereas in natural populations, there are only few examples described, especially among incompatible infected hosts. Here, we have surveyed the distribution of two molecular Wolbachia strains (wPip11 and wPip31) infecting the mosquito Culex pipiens in Tunisia. We delineated a clear spatial structure of both infections, with a sharp contact zone separating their distribution areas. Crossing experiments with isofemale lines from different localities showed three crossing types: wPip11-infected males always sterilize wPip31-infected females; however, while most wPip31-infected males were compatible with wPip11-infected females, a few completely sterilize them. The wPip11 strain was thus expected to spread, but temporal dynamics over 7 years of monitoring shows the stability of the contact zone. We examined which factors may contribute to the observed stability, both theoretically and empirically. Population cage experiments, field samples and modelling did not support significant impacts of local adaptation or assortative mating on the stability of wPip infection structure. By contrast, low dispersal probability and metapopulation dynamics in the host Cx. pipiens probably play major roles. This study highlights the need of understanding CI dynamics in natural populations to design effective and sustainable Wolbachia-based control strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Intentional Systems, Intentional Stance, and Explanations of Intentional Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-06-01

    out for DoD purposes. A number of factors have contributed to this rapid growth: • The exhaustion of both behaviorist and Freudian movements in...behavior. These include: • "Folk psychology" • Theory of Mind • Communication Theory • Intentional Action Studies While all four approaches depart from the...focus on the Theory of Mind approach toward understanding intentional behavior in what follows; the other research areas mentioned above are covered

  16. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  17. The Limits to Parapatric Speciation: Dobzhansky–Muller Incompatibilities in a Continent–Island Model

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Claudia; Bürger, Reinhard; Hermisson, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    How much gene flow is needed to inhibit speciation by the accumulation of Dobzhansky–Muller incompatibilities (DMIs) in a structured population? Here, we derive these limits in a classical migration–selection model with two haploid or diploid loci and unidirectional gene flow from a continent to an island. We discuss the dependence of the maximum gene-flow rate on ecological factors (exogeneous selection), genetic factors (epistasis, recombination), and the evolutionary history. Extensive analytical and numerical results show the following: (1) The maximum rate of gene flow is limited by exogeneous selection. In particular, maintenance of neutral DMIs is impossible with gene flow. (2) There are two distinct mechanisms that drive DMI evolution in parapatry, selection against immigrants in a heterogeneous environment and selection against hybrids due to the incompatibility. (3) Depending on the mechanism, opposite predictions result concerning the genetic architecture that maximizes the rate of gene flow a DMI can sustain. Selection against immigrants favors evolution of tightly linked DMIs of arbitrary strength, whereas selection against hybrids promotes the evolution of strong unlinked DMIs. In diploids, the fitness of the double heterozygotes is the decisive factor to predict the pattern of DMI stability. PMID:22542972

  18. 40 CFR 264.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.199 Section 264.199 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  19. 40 CFR 264.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.177 Section 264.177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.177 Special requirements for incompatible...

  20. 40 CFR 264.199 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.199 Section 264.199 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.199 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  1. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.257 Section 264.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  2. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.282 Section 264.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner...

  3. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.230 Section 264.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible...

  4. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.230 Section 264.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible...

  5. 40 CFR 264.177 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.177 Section 264.177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.177 Special requirements for incompatible...

  6. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.282 Section 264.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner...

  7. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.257 Section 264.257 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Waste Piles § 264.257 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. (a)...

  8. The Control of Human Aggression: An Incompatible Response Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.

    This is a brief report discussing ways of dealing with aggression in individuals. The author feels that previous approaches, such as catharsis or punishment, have proved inadequate, and that a more successful approach to reducing aggression involves the induction of incompatible reactions among aggressors. In the author's opinion, when angry…

  9. Student Achievement and Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior: Hand Raising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Michael Bryan; Bushell, Donald, Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Assessed reading achievement of five second-grade girls under two contingencies: (1) teacher contacts were made during on-task behavior; and (2) differential reinforcement of an incompatible behavior (DRI) with teacher contacts contingent on students' hand-raising behavior. Reading achievement and time on task were greater under the on-task…

  10. A simple genetic incompatibility causes hybrid male sterility in mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-04-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1-hms2 incompatibility.

  11. A Simple Genetic Incompatibility Causes Hybrid Male Sterility in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Sweigart, Andrea L.; Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Much evidence has shown that postzygotic reproductive isolation (hybrid inviability or sterility) evolves by the accumulation of interlocus incompatibilities between diverging populations. Although in theory only a single pair of incompatible loci is needed to isolate species, empirical work in Drosophila has revealed that hybrid fertility problems often are highly polygenic and complex. In this article we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid sterility between two closely related species of monkeyflower, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In striking contrast to Drosophila systems, we demonstrate that nearly complete hybrid male sterility in Mimulus results from a simple genetic incompatibility between a single pair of heterospecific loci. We have genetically mapped this sterility effect: the M. guttatus allele at the hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) locus acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus alleles at the hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) locus to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In a preliminary screen to find additional small-effect male sterility factors, we identified one additional locus that also contributes to some of the variation in hybrid male fertility. Interestingly, hms1 and hms2 also cause a significant reduction in hybrid female fertility, suggesting that sex-specific hybrid defects might share a common genetic basis. This possibility is supported by our discovery that recombination is reduced dramatically in a cross involving a parent with the hms1–hms2 incompatibility. PMID:16415357

  12. 40 CFR 264.230 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.230 Section 264.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.230 Special requirements for incompatible wastes...

  13. 40 CFR 264.282 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wastes. 264.282 Section 264.282 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Land Treatment § 264.282 Special requirements for incompatible wastes. The owner or...

  14. 40 CFR 264.257 - Special requirements for incompatible wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND... placed in the same pile, unless § 264.17(b) is complied with. (b) A pile of hazardous waste that is..., or other device. (c) Hazardous waste must not be piled on the same base where incompatible wastes or...

  15. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Results Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. Conclusions CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species. PMID:23895372

  16. Genetic incompatibility drives mate choice in a parasitic wasp.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Andra; Weeda, Anne C; de Boer, Jetske G; Hoffmeister, Thomas S

    2013-07-30

    Allelic incompatibility between individuals of the same species should select for mate choice based on the genetic make-up of both partners at loci that influence offspring fitness. As a consequence, mate choice may be an important driver of allelic diversity. A complementary sex determination (CSD) system is responsible for intraspecific allelic incompatibility in many species of ants, bees, and wasps. CSD may thus favour disassortative mating and in this, resembles the MHC of the vertebrate immune system, or the self-incompatibility (SI) system of higher plants. Here we show that in the monogamous parasitic wasp Bracon brevicornis (Wesmael), females are able to reject partners with incompatible alleles. Forcing females to accept initially rejected partners resulted in sex ratio distortion and partial infertility of offspring. CSD-disassortative mating occurred independent of kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in our experiment. The fitness consequences of mate choice are directly observable, not influenced by environmental effects, and more severe than in comparable systems (SI or MHC), on individuals as well as at the population level. Our results thus demonstrate the strong potential of female mate choice for maintaining high offspring fitness in this species.

  17. Potential intravenous drug incompatibilities in a pediatric unit.

    PubMed

    Leal, Karla Dalliane Batista; Leopoldino, Ramon Weyler Duarte; Martins, Rand Randall; Veríssimo, Lourena Mafra

    2016-01-01

    To investigate potential intravenous drug incompatibilities and related risk factors in a pediatric unit. A cross-sectional analytical study conducted in the pediatric unit of a university hospital in Brazil. Data on prescriptions given to children aged 0-15 years from June to October 2014 were collected. Prescriptions that did not include intravenous drugs and prescriptions with incomplete dosage regimen or written in poor handwriting were excluded. Associations between variables and the risk of potential incompatibility were investigated using the Student's t test and ANOVA; the level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Relative risks were calculated for each drug involved in potential incompatibility with 95% confidence interval. A total of 222 children participated in the study; 132 (59.5%) children were male and 118 (53.2%) were aged between 0 and 2 years. The mean length of stay was 7.7±2.3 days. Dipyrone, penicillin G and ceftriaxona were the most commonly prescribed drugs. At least one potential incompatibility was detected in about 85% of children (1.2 incompatibility/patient ratio). Most incompatibilities detected fell into the non-tested (93.4%), precipitation (5.5%), turbidity (0.7%) or chemical decomposition (0.4%) categories. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenytoin, phenobarbital or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibility. Most pediatric prescriptions involved potential incompatibilities, with higher prevalence of non-tested incompatibilities. The number of drugs and prescription of diazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin or metronidazole were risk factors for potential incompatibilities. Avaliar o potencial de incompatibilidade dos medicamentos intravenosos, identificando possíveis fatores de risco em uma unidade pediátrica. Trata-se de um estudo observacional analítico do tipo transversal realizado na unidade de pediatria de um hospital de ensino no Brasil. Os dados foram coletados de junho a outubro de

  18. Plasma exchange conditioning for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Winters, J L; Gloor, J M; Pineda, A A; Stegall, M D; Moore, S B

    2004-01-01

    The supply of deceased donor kidneys is inadequate to meet demand. To expand the pool of potential donors, ABO-incompatible transplants from living donors have been performed. We present the Mayo Clinic experience with such transplants. Enrollment was open to patients when the only available potential living kidney donor was ABO-incompatible. Conditioning consisted of plasma exchanges followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplant surgery. Post-transplant immunosuppression consisted of anti-T lymphocyte antibody, tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisone. Isoagglutinin titers and scores were determined before and after each plasma exchange. Transplant outcomes were determined. Twenty-six ABO-incompatible transplants were performed. No hyperacute rejection occurred. Mean patient follow-up was 400 days. Patient and graft survivals at last follow-up were 92 and 85%, respectively. Antibody-mediated rejection occurred in 46% and was apparently reversed in 83% by plasma exchange and increased immunosuppression. The initial plasma exchange reduced immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores by 53.5 and 34.6%, respectively. Over the course of the pretransplant plasma exchanges, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutination reactivity scores decreased by 96.4 and 68.5%, respectively. At 3 and 12 months, the immediate spin and AHG hemagglutinin reactivity scores and titers were less than those at baseline but greater than or equal to those on the day of transplantation. Despite an increase in scores and titers, antibody-mediated rejection was not present. Pre-transplant plasma exchange conditioning combined with other immunosuppressives can be used to prepare patients for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation from living donors, but antibody-mediated rejection post-transplant is a common occurrence and allograft survival may be reduced. Controlled clinical trials are needed to identify the optimum

  19. Profitability Implications of Sustainable Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    construction, commitment to sustainable business practices, and other primary factors could be influencing their economic figures. 4.1.1. Green Experience A...8 1.3.4. Confounding Factors ........................................................................ 9 1.4. Research Summary...identified as green through the application of sustainability criteria and weights [17]. The intent of the identification process is to identify as

  20. Drug incompatibilities in the adult intensive care unit of a university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Marsilio, Naiane Roveda; da Silva, Daiandy; Bueno, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study sought to identify the physical and chemical incompatibilities among the drugs administered intravenously to patients admitted to an adult intensive care unit. We also aimed to establish pharmaceutical guidelines for administering incompatible drugs. Methods This cross-sectional, prospective, and quantitative study was conducted from July to September 2015. Drug incompatibilities were identified based on an analysis of the patient prescriptions available in the hospital online management system. A pharmaceutical intervention was performed using the guidelines on the preparation and administration of incompatible drugs. Adherence to those guidelines was subsequently assessed among the nursing staff. Results A total of 100 prescriptions were analyzed; 68 were incompatible with the intravenous drugs prescribed. A total of 271 drug incompatibilities were found, averaging 4.0 ± 3.3 incompatibilities per prescription. The most commonly found drug incompatibilities were between midazolam and hydrocortisone (8.9%), between cefepime and midazolam (5.2%), and between hydrocortisone and vancomycin (5.2%). The drugs most commonly involved in incompatibilities were midazolam, hydrocortisone, and vancomycin. The most common incompatibilities occurred when a drug was administered via continuous infusion and another was administered intermittently (50%). Of the 68 prescriptions that led to pharmaceutical guidelines, 45 (66.2%) were fully adhered to by the nursing staff. Conclusion Patients under intensive care were subjected to a high rate of incompatibilities. Drug incompatibilities can be identified and eliminated by the pharmacist on the multidisciplinary team, thereby reducing undesirable effects among patients. PMID:27410410

  1. Vegetative incompatibility in filamentous fungi: a roundabout way of understanding the phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Loubradou, G; Turcq, B

    2000-05-01

    Vegetative incompatibility limits heterokaryon formation in fungi. It results from genetic differences at specific loci (het loci). Characterization of het genes and, more recently, of incompatibility reaction suppressors has, provided insight into the mechanisms involved. A link between development, vegetative incompatibility and signaling pathways has been established in Podospora anserina.

  2. [A case of Rh-incompatible transfusion in critical hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Bessho, Yukiko; Sugai, Katsuhei; Fuse, Akihisa; Hitomi, Eiji; Sugai, Yoriko

    2012-03-01

    A 66-year-old man was injured in the traffic accident and showed the signs of hemorrhagic shock. His blood type was Rh negative O. As excessive bleeding was going on, we decided to transfuse 8 units of Rh-incompatible type O red blood cell (RBC) without performing cross match test according to the guideline for treatment of critical bleeding. Though we were aware of the risks of that treatment, no hemolytic reaction nor any other side effect was observed during and after the transfusion. Anti-Rh antibody was not developed either while Anti-Rh immunoglobulin was not given to him. His blood type has been proved to be Del type red blood cell. We conclude that transfusion of Rh-incompatible blood in patient with critical hemorrhage should be encouraged to save life.

  3. Covalent Fusion of layered Incompatible Gels in Immiscible Solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Santidan; Singh, Awaneesh; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof; Balazs, Anna C.

    We carry out dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations to model a two layered stackable gel where the gels are incompatible and are present in immiscible solvent. The bottom layer of the gel is created first and then a solution of new initiators, monomers and cross-linkers is introduced on top of it. These components then undergo polymerization and form the second gel layer. We study all possible combinations of free radical polymerization (FRP) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) mechanisms with the two layers of the gel. For example, the bottom layer gel is created via ATRP, whereas the top layer gel follows FRP. Our focus is to do a systematic study of all these combinations and find out the factors responsible for combining two incompatible gels in immiscible solvents.

  4. Dual technology: making incompatible radio interface standards coexist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, Dennis J.

    1996-01-01

    Existing cellular networks handle voice traffic by using narrowband, single-technology equipment. More recently-developed radio interface standards such as TDMA and CDMA use different technology and equipment and are incompatible with the existing cellular infrastructure. The needs of wireless customers are also changing dramatically. Typical users will soon expect to be able to transmit data as well as voice. In the immediate future, users will demand advanced features such as one phone number, called ID, location ID, all of which require new technology and radio standards. To meet the need for transporting data, cellular network providers are adding equipment to transport data over existing cellular networks via CDPD. With the advent of dual technology, network providers will be able to satisfy customers' needs and increase their revenue--without installing additional data equipment. Dual technology will provide simultaneous support for incompatible standards and also supply a migration path to the advanced features of future digital phones.

  5. Asphaltene nanoparticle aggregation in mixtures of incompatible crude oils.

    PubMed

    Mason, T G; Lin, M Y

    2003-05-01

    We study the structure and phase behavior of asphaltenes comprised of large polyaromatic molecules in blends of naturally occurring crude oils using small angle neutron scattering (SANS). When two compatible oils are blended together, the asphaltenes remain dispersed as colloidal nanoparticles; however, when two incompatible oils are blended together, these asphaltene nanoparticles can aggregate to form microscale structures. We show that SANS directly probes asphaltene aggregation in unmodified (i.e., nondeuterated) crude oil mixtures due to a significant neutron scattering length density difference between the hydrogen-poor asphaltenes and the surrounding oil. Moreover, the small length scales probed by SANS are ideally suited for studying asphaltene aggregation: SANS simultaneously provides the average size and concentration of nanoscale asphaltene particles and also the volume fraction of microscale asphaltene aggregates. These discoveries yield a practical means for directly assessing the compatibility of crude oils and for diagnosing refinery fouling problems resulting from blending incompatible oils.

  6. Self-incompatibility systems as bioassays for mutagens

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, David L.; Johnson, Claire M.

    1978-01-01

    Many flowering plants are unable to set seeds with their own pollen because a system known as gametophytic self-incompatibility is operating. The basis of this system is a single multiallelic locus S, and if the S allele carried by a pollen grain matches one of the two S alleles carried in the style, as it is certain to do upon self-pollination, then pollen tube growth is inhibited. Should one of the self-pollen grains carry a mutated S allele, however, it would not match either of those carried in the style and would therefore, not be inhibited. Gametophytic self-incompatibility thus provides a mechanism for discriminating between such mutant and nonmutant pollen grains. Knowing the numbers of pollen grains available to the stigma, and also the numbers of seeds produced, it becomes possible to estimate the frequency with which mutations occur at the S locus. Assay systems of mutagenesis which employ gametophytic self incompatibility will allow very large numbers of pollen grains to be screened for S allele mutants, which should indicate the mutagenicity of the environment. These systems have the added benefit that screening is done by the stylar tissues, rather than technicians. Finally, they may be used to construct largely autonomous assay systems which would provide continuous monitoring of the environment. PMID:367777

  7. Discontinuation of steroids in ABO-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Novosel, Marija Kristina; Bistrup, Claus

    2016-04-01

    A steroid-free protocol for ABO-compatible renal transplantation has been used at our center since 1983. To minimize the adverse effects of steroids, we also developed a steroid sparing protocol for ABO-incompatible renal transplantation in 2008. The present study is a report of our results. A retrospective review of the first 50 ABO-incompatible renal transplantations performed at a single university center. If no immunological events occurred in the post-transplant period, prednisolone tapering was initiated approximately 3 months after transplantation. Forty-three patients completed prednisolone tapering after 289 ± 58 days. Three patients died during follow-up, and four patients lost graft function. None of these adverse events were rejection related. Eleven patients experienced rejections; seven were on prednisolone and four were after weaning from prednisolone. All patients responded well to antirejection treatment. Overall, 1-year rejection rate was 19%. One- and 3-year graft survival was 94% and 91%, respectively. One-year post-transplant median serum creatinine was 123 μmol/L. We found acceptable rejection rates, graft survival, and creatinine levels in patients undergoing ABO-incompatible renal transplantations with a steroid sparing protocol. However, a longer follow-up of a lager cohort is needed before firm conclusions can be made.

  8. Neonatal hyperbilirubinemia due to ABO incompatibility: does blood group matter?

    PubMed

    Akgül, Sinem; Korkmaz, Ayşe; Yiğit, Sule; Yurdakök, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Newborn infants with maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility are at a greater risk for developing subsequent significant hyperbilirubinemia, and therefore, prediction of probable risk factors, such as the degree of hemolysis, gains importance. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of fetal-neonatal blood group on the severity of hemolysis and jaundice due to maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. In a retrospective analysis of 166 cases with ABO hemolytic disease of the newborn, risk factors for the severity of jaundice were compared in infants with blood group A or B. Both groups had similar demographic parameters such as birth weight, gender and day of admission. Similarly, there were no statistically significant differences in hematological parameters, such as initial hemoglobin levels, initial and final indirect bilirubin levels, frequency of positive direct Coombs test and hemolytic findings on peripheral blood smear, duration of phototherapy, number of exchange transfusions, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy (p>0.05). We conclude that blood type has no effect on the severity of the hemolytic jaundice in ABO incompatibility.

  9. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Case, Andrea L; Finseth, Findley R; Barr, Camille M; Fishman, Lila

    2016-09-14

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Selfish evolution of cytonuclear hybrid incompatibility in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Finseth, Findley R.; Barr, Camille M.; Fishman, Lila

    2016-01-01

    Intraspecific coevolution between selfish elements and suppressors may promote interspecific hybrid incompatibility, but evidence of this process is rare. Here, we use genomic data to test alternative models for the evolution of cytonuclear hybrid male sterility in Mimulus. In hybrids between Iron Mountain (IM) Mimulus guttatus × Mimulus nasutus, two tightly linked M. guttatus alleles (Rf1/Rf2) each restore male fertility by suppressing a local mitochondrial male-sterility gene (IM-CMS). Unlike neutral models for the evolution of hybrid incompatibility loci, selfish evolution predicts that the Rf alleles experienced strong selection in the presence of IM-CMS. Using whole-genome sequences, we compared patterns of population-genetic variation in Rf at IM to a neighbouring population that lacks IM-CMS. Consistent with local selection in the presence of IM-CMS, the Rf region shows elevated FST, high local linkage disequilibrium and a distinct haplotype structure at IM, but not at Cone Peak (CP), suggesting a recent sweep in the presence of IM-CMS. In both populations, Rf2 exhibited lower polymorphism than other regions, but the low-diversity outliers were different between CP and IM. Our results confirm theoretical predictions of ubiquitous cytonuclear conflict in plants and provide a population-genetic mechanism for the evolution of a common form of hybrid incompatibility. PMID:27629037

  11. Interventions to reduce risks associated with vehicle incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Vernick, Jon S; Tung, Gregory J; Kromm, Jonathan N

    2012-01-01

    Occupants of smaller, lighter passenger cars are more likely to be killed or injured in collisions with larger, heavier sport utility vehicles and light trucks than in collisions with other cars. Interventions are needed to reduce this vehicle "incompatibility" and its consequences. The authors conducted a systematic literature review to identify evaluations of interventions to reduce incompatibility. They reviewed engineering, biomedical, and other technical literature. To be included, a study must have 1) evaluated an intervention to reduce vehicle incompatibility, or its consequences, in a crash; 2) reported new research; and 3) been published in English from 1990 to 2010. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions were designed to reduce the aggressivity of larger vehicles or improve the crashworthiness of smaller vehicles. Effective interventions included 1) modified bumper heights, 2) improved side strength of smaller vehicles, 3) side-impact air bags, 4) changes to vehicle stiffness, and 5) modifications of other front-end structures. Some of the interventions shown to be effective are now in wide use. However, others have yet to be required by regulators or voluntarily agreed to by manufacturers. If larger, heavier vehicles remain on the nation's roads, countermeasures will be needed to reduce risks for occupants of other vehicles.

  12. Allelic genealogies in sporophytic self-incompatibility systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Schierup, M H; Vekemans, X; Christiansen, F B

    1998-01-01

    Expectations for the time scale and structure of allelic genealogies in finite populations are formed under three models of sporophytic self-incompatibility. The models differ in the dominance interactions among the alleles that determine the self-incompatibility phenotype: In the SSIcod model, alleles act codominantly in both pollen and style, in the SSIdom model, alleles form a dominance hierarchy, and in SSIdomcod, alleles are codominant in the style and show a dominance hierarchy in the pollen. Coalescence times of alleles rarely differ more than threefold from those under gametophytic self-incompatibility, and transspecific polymorphism is therefore expected to be equally common. The previously reported directional turnover process of alleles in the SSIdomcod model results in coalescence times lower and substitution rates higher than those in the other models. The SSIdom model assumes strong asymmetries in allelic action, and the most recessive extant allele is likely to be the most recent common ancestor. Despite these asymmetries, the expected shape of the allele genealogies does not deviate markedly from the shape of a neutral gene genealogy. The application of the results to sequence surveys of alleles, including interspecific comparisons, is discussed. PMID:9799270

  13. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions…

  14. Is Sustainability Sustainable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonevac, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The most important concept in current environmental thinking is "sustainability". Environmental policies, economic policies, development, resource use--all of these things, according to the consensus, ought to be sustainable. But what is sustainability? What is its ethical foundation? There is little consensus about how these questions…

  15. Becoming an intentional teacher.

    PubMed

    Pugh, B J

    1991-01-01

    This series of articles, Managing Your Academic Career, presents ways to intentionally improve your teaching. This first article explains the concept of becoming an intention teacher. Subsequent articles will deal with strategies that are useful in clinical teaching, such as preparing students to value and use research in practice, and providing feedback to students in the clinical setting.

  16. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  17. A cytonuclear incompatibility causes anther sterility in Mimulus hybrids.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Lila; Willis, John H

    2006-07-01

    Multilocus interactions (also known as Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities) are thought to be the major source of hybrid inviability and sterility. Because cytoplasmic and nuclear genomes have conflicting evolutionary interests and are often highly coevolved, cytonuclear incompatibilities may be among the first to develop in incipient species. Here, we report the discovery of cytoplasm-dependent anther sterility in hybrids between closely related Mimulus species, outcrossing M. guttatus and selfing M. nasutus. A novel pollenless anther phenotype was observed in F2 hybrids with the M. guttatus cytoplasm (F2G) but not in the reciprocal F2N hybrids, F1 hybrids or parental genotypes. The pattern of phenotypic segregation in the F2G hybrids and two backcross populations fit a Mendelian single-locus recessive model, allowing us to map the underlying nuclear locus to a small region on LG7 of the Mimulus linkage map. Anther sterility was associated with a 20% reduction in flower size in backcross hybrids and we mapped a major cytoplasm-dependent corolla width QTL with its peak at the anther sterility locus. We argue that the cytonuclear anther sterility seen in hybrids reflects the presence of a cryptic cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and restorer system within the hermaphroditic M. guttatus population and therefore name the anther sterility locus restorer-of-male-fertility (RMF). The genetic mapping of RMF is a first step toward testing hypotheses about the molecular basis, individual fitness consequences, and ecological context of CMS and restoration in a system without stable CMS-restorer polymorphism (i.e., gynodioecy). The discovery of cryptic CMS in a hermaphroditic wildflower further suggests that selfish cytoplasmic evolution may play an important, but often undetected, role in shaping patterns of hybrid incompatibility and interspecific introgression in plants.

  18. Standardization of infusion solutions to reduce the risk of incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Karin; Kopelent-Frank, Hannelore; Greif, Robert

    2008-09-01

    Although critically ill patients usually have various central intravenous (i.v.) lines, numerous drugs have to be infused simultaneously through the same lines. This can result in potentially harmful in-line incompatibility that can cause decreased drug effectiveness or increased microparticle load. To minimize the risk of these medication errors at an anesthesia intensive care unit (ICU), the preparation and administration of continuously infused drugs were standardized and the practicability in daily clinical routine was evaluated. The concentration and diluent of continuously administered i.v. drugs were standardized. The drugs were grouped according to pH, medical indication, and chemical structure. The ICU staff decided to use multilumen central venous catheters, and each group of drugs was assigned to one lumen. Only drugs that belonged to the same group were infused simultaneously through the same lumen; therefore, intragroup incompatibilities had to be excluded before establishing the new drug administration plan at the ICU. The visual compatibility of 115 clinically reasonable intragroup drug mixtures was investigated. All drug combinations were compatible for six hours except mixtures containing thiopental, which was reassigned to a single-line use. In the following year, the practicability of this drug administration plan was evaluated. No deviations were found in the compliance of the staff prescribing and preparing only standardized concentrations and diluents. Further research to investigate the chemical compatibility of the drugs in these multiple mixtures will follow. A project intended to avoid incompatibility among i.v. drugs infused in the intensive care setting included steps to standardize solutions and determine which could be given together.

  19. Simultaneous Elements of Reality for Incompatible Properties by Exploiting Locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sestito, Angela

    2013-02-01

    We propose an ideal experiment enabling the simultaneous assignment of the objective values, 0 or 1, of two incompatible properties of a system made up of two separated, non-interacting spin particles when a strict interpretation of the criterion of reality of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen is adopted. We compare this experiment with the physical situation involving two-value observables of a system of two correlated spin-1/2 particles envisaged by Bohm; in particular, we show its inadequacy in the dual assignment at issue. Finally, we discuss a number of questions of interpretation of the consistent quantum theory highlighted by our experiment.

  20. Public perceptions of incompatibility between "science and religion".

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph O

    2012-04-01

    Narratives of conflict regarding the connections between science and religion receive considerable attention in multiple forums of public discourse. These discussions tend to focus on philosophical, abstract, and/or polemical, rather than empirical issues. Data from a 2007 national survey indicate that a relatively small proportion of American adults perceive incompatibility between science and religion. Those who do are divided evenly into groups privileging science and privileging religion. These groups are markedly different with regard to sociodemographic and religious characteristics. Overall, I advocate a theoretical perspective on "science and religion" that is culturally constructionist, but methodologically empiricist.

  1. Exchange living donor liver transplantation to overcome ABO incompatibility in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin; Lee, Sung-Gyu; Moon, Deok-Bog; Song, Gi-Won; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ha, Tae-Yong; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Kwan-Woo; Choi, Nam-Kyu; Park, Gil-Chun; Yu, Young-Dong; Choi, Young-Il; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Ha, Hea-Seon

    2010-04-01

    ABO incompatibility is the most common cause of donor rejection during the initial screening of adult patients with end-stage liver disease for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). A paired donor exchange program was initiated to cope with this problem without ABO-incompatible LDLT. We present our results from the first 6 years of this exchange adult LDLT program. Between July 2003 and June 2009, 1351 adult LDLT procedures, including 16 donor exchanges and 7 ABO-incompatible LDLT procedures, were performed at our institution. Initial donor-recipient ABO incompatibilities included 6 A to B incompatibilities, 6 B to A incompatibilities, 1 A to O incompatibility, 1 A+O (dual graft) to B incompatibility, 1 O to AB incompatibility, and 1 O to A incompatibility. Fourteen matches (87.5%) were ABO-incompatible, but 2 (12.5%) were initially ABO-compatible. All ABO-incompatible donors were directly related to their recipients, but 2 compatible donors were each undirected and unrelated directed. After donor reassignment through paired exchange (n = 7) or domino pairing (n = 1), the donor-recipient ABO status changed to A to A in 6, B to B in 6, O to O in 1, A to AB in 1, A+O to A in 1, and O to B in 1, and this made all matches ABO-identical (n = 13) or ABO-compatible (n = 3). Two pairs of LDLT operations were performed simultaneously on an elective basis in 12 and on an emergency basis in 4. All donors recovered uneventfully. Fifteen of the 16 recipients survived, but 1 died after 54 days. In conclusion, an exchange donor program for adult LDLT appears to be a feasible modality for overcoming donor-recipient ABO incompatibility. (c) 2010 AASLD.

  2. Sustainability Base: The Self-guided "Tour"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grymes, Rosalind; Poll, Scott

    2012-01-01

    This series of 6 information sheets was designed to familiarize readers with the performance capabilities of Sustainability Base. The set described the design intentions and operational characteristics of this LEED Platinum facility

  3. Self-incompatibility-induced programmed cell death in field poppy pollen involves dramatic acidification of the incompatible pollen tube cytosol.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Katie A; Bosch, Maurice; Haque, Tamanna; Teng, Nianjun; Poulter, Natalie S; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2015-03-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important genetically controlled mechanism to prevent inbreeding in higher plants. SI involves highly specific interactions during pollination, resulting in the rejection of incompatible (self) pollen. Programmed cell death (PCD) is an important mechanism for destroying cells in a precisely regulated manner. SI in field poppy (Papaver rhoeas) triggers PCD in incompatible pollen. During SI-induced PCD, we previously observed a major acidification of the pollen cytosol. Here, we present measurements of temporal alterations in cytosolic pH ([pH]cyt); they were surprisingly rapid, reaching pH 6.4 within 10 min of SI induction and stabilizing by 60 min at pH 5.5. By manipulating the [pH]cyt of the pollen tubes in vivo, we show that [pH]cyt acidification is an integral and essential event for SI-induced PCD. Here, we provide evidence showing the physiological relevance of the cytosolic acidification and identify key targets of this major physiological alteration. A small drop in [pH]cyt inhibits the activity of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase required for pollen tube growth. We also show that [pH]cyt acidification is necessary and sufficient for triggering several key hallmark features of the SI PCD signaling pathway, notably activation of a DEVDase/caspase-3-like activity and formation of SI-induced punctate actin foci. Importantly, the actin binding proteins Cyclase-Associated Protein and Actin-Depolymerizing Factor are identified as key downstream targets. Thus, we have shown the biological relevance of an extreme but physiologically relevant alteration in [pH]cyt and its effect on several components in the context of SI-induced events and PCD.

  4. Assessment of Suicidal Intent

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Rajkumar; Ramachandran, Arul Saravanan; Periasamy, Kalaivani; Saminathan, Kala

    2016-01-01

    Background: Suicide and suicidal attempt are an important cause of mortality and denotes severe morbidity among the population. Successful suicide attempt is associated with previous suicide attempts. Identifying factors in suicide attempters will help in formulating a comprehensive response to these issues. Objective: To identify the sub group who are more vulnerable and the factors associated with this group. Setting and Design: A cross sectional observational study of this sub group was carried out. Material and Methods: study was conducted on patients who were referred to the Psychiatry department for attempted suicide. They were assessed to identify those with high suicidal intent and study the factors associated with high suicidal intent. Statistics: Epiinfo by CDC was used to analyze the results. Results: High intent was associated with history of psychiatric illness, history of previous attempts and family history of suicidal attempts. Conclusions: A sub group was identified which had a high intent and possibly higher chance of repeating an attempt. PMID:28031588

  5. The evolution of F1 postzygotic incompatibilities in birds.

    PubMed

    Price, Trevor D; Bouvier, Michelle M

    2002-10-01

    We analyzed the rate at which postzygotic incompatibilities accumulate in birds. Our purposes were to assess the role of intrinsic F1 hybrid infertility and inviability in the speciation process, and to compare rates of loss of fertility and viability between the sexes. Among our sample more than half the crosses between species in the same genus produce fertile hybrids. Complete loss of F1 hybrid fertility takes on the order of millions of years. Loss of F1 hybrid viability occurs over longer timescales than fertility: some viable hybrids have been produced between taxa that appear to have been separated for more than 55 my. There is strong support for Haldane's rule, with very few examples where the male has lower fitness than the female. However, in contrast to Drosophila, fertility of the homogametic sex in the F1 appears to be lost before viability of the heterogametic sex in the F1. We conclude that the time span of loss of intrinsic hybrid fertility and viability is often, but not always, longer than the time to speciation. Premating isolation is an important mechanism maintaining reproductive isolation in birds. In addition, other factors causing postzygotic reproductive isolation such as ecological causes of hybrid unfitness, reduced mating success of hybrids, and genetic incompatibilities in the F2s and backcrosses may often be involved in the speciation process.

  6. Determining self-incompatibility genotypes in Belgian wild cherries.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, B; Sonneveld, T; Tobutt, K R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The self-incompatibility (S) genotypes of a collection of 65 Belgian accessions of wild cherry, selected within two populations and planted in a seed orchard, were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Initially, DNA extracts were amplified with consensus primers that amplify across the second intron of the S-ribonuclease gene which shows considerable length polymorphism. The provisional genotypes deduced were checked with the appropriate allele-specific primers for the known alleles S(1) to S(16). Putative new alleles were subjected to PCR with consensus primers amplifying across the first intron. Six new alleles, S(17) to S(22), were thus indicated on the basis of the estimated lengths of the first and second intron PCR products. Examples of these alleles were partially sequenced and were indeed mutually distinct and different from the known alleles. The incompatibility genotypes of all 65 accessions were determined and one triploid individual was found. Seventeen alleles were detected in all. Allele frequencies differed between samples and the expected total number of alleles in the underlying populations was estimated. The wild cherry populations differed significantly with respect to allelic frequencies from sweet cherry cultivars; alleles S(4) and S(5), which are moderately frequent in sweet cherry, were absent from the wild cherry accessions. The knowledge of the S genotypes will be useful for studying the gene flow within the seed orchard and these approaches should also be informative in wild populations.

  7. The different mechanisms of sporophytic self-incompatibility.

    PubMed Central

    Hiscock, Simon J; Tabah, David A

    2003-01-01

    Flowering plants have evolved a multitude of mechanisms to avoid self-fertilization and promote outbreeding. Self-incompatibility (SI) is by far the most common of these, and is found in ca. 60% of flowering plants. SI is a genetically controlled pollen-pistil recognition system that provides a barrier to fertilization by self and self-related pollen in hermaphrodite (usually co-sexual) flowering plants. Two genetically distinct forms of SI can be recognized: gametophytic SI (GSI) and sporophytic SI (SSI), distinguished by how the incompatibility phenotype of the pollen is determined. GSI appears to be the most common mode of SI and can operate through at least three different mechanisms, two of which have been characterized extensively at a molecular level in the Solanaceae and Papaveraceae. Because molecular studies of SSI have been largely confined to species from the Brassicaceae, predominantly Brassica species, it is not yet known whether SSI, like GSI, can operate through different molecular mechanisms. Molecular studies of SSI are now being carried out on Ipomoea trifida (Convolvulaceae) and Senecio squalidus (Asteraceae) and are providing important preliminary data suggesting that SSI in these two families does not share the same molecular mechanism as that of the Brassicaceae. Here, what is currently known about the molecular regulation of SSI in the Brassicaceae is briefly reviewed, and the emerging data on SSI in I. trifida, and more especially in S. squalidus, are discussed. PMID:12831470

  8. Immune Desensitization Allows Pediatric Blood Group Incompatible Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stojanovic, Jelena; Adamusiak, Anna; Kessaris, Nicos; Chandak, Pankaj; Ahmed, Zubir; Sebire, Neil J; Walsh, Grainne; Jones, Helen E; Marks, Stephen D; Mamode, Nizam

    2017-06-01

    Blood group incompatible transplantation (ABOi) in children is rare as pretransplant conditioning remains challenging and concerns persist about the potential increased risk of rejection. We describe the results of 11 ABOi pediatric renal transplant recipients in the 2 largest centers in the United Kingdom, sharing the same tailored desensitization protocol. Patients with pretransplant titers of 1 or more in 8 received rituximab 1 month before transplant; tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil were started 1 week before surgery. Antibody removal was performed to reduce titers to 1 or less in 8 on the day of the operation. No routine postoperative antibody removal was performed. Death-censored graft survival at last follow-up was 100% in the ABOi and 98% in 50 compatible pediatric transplants. One patient developed grade 2A rejection successfully treated with antithymocyte globulin. Another patient had a titer rise of 2 dilutions treated with 1 immunoadsorption session. There was no histological evidence of rejection in the other 9 patients. One patient developed cytomegalovirus and BK and 2 others EBV and BK viremia. Tailored desensitization in pediatric blood group incompatible kidney transplantation results in excellent outcomes with graft survival and rejection rates comparable with compatible transplants.

  9. Functional conservation of the Drosophila hybrid incompatibility gene Lhr

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hybrid incompatibilities such as sterility and lethality are commonly modeled as being caused by interactions between two genes, each of which has diverged separately in one of the hybridizing lineages. The gene Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) encodes a rapidly evolving heterochromatin protein that causes lethality of hybrid males in crosses between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males. Previous genetic analyses showed that hybrid lethality is caused by D. simulans Lhr but not by D. melanogaster Lhr, confirming a critical prediction of asymmetry in the evolution of a hybrid incompatibility gene. Results Here we have examined the functional properties of Lhr orthologs from multiple Drosophila species, including interactions with other heterochromatin proteins, localization to heterochromatin, and ability to complement hybrid rescue in D. melanogaster/D. simulans hybrids. We find that these properties are conserved among most Lhr orthologs, including Lhr from D. melanogaster, D. simulans and the outgroup species D. yakuba. Conclusions We conclude that evolution of the hybrid lethality properties of Lhr between D. melanogaster and D. simulans did not involve extensive loss or gain of functions associated with protein interactions or localization to heterochromatin. PMID:21366928

  10. The Incompatibility of Science and Religion Sustained: A Reply to Our Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Replies to a number of criticisms by Tom Settle, Hugh Lacey, Michael Poole, Brian Woolnough, John Wren-Lewis, and Harold Turner in a series of comments on the authors' paper entitled "Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?" Offers counterarguments and clarifies certain misunderstandings to show that these criticisms…

  11. The incompatibility of science and religion sustained: A reply to our critics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This article replies to a number of criticisms levelled at us by Tom Settle, Hugh Lacey, Michael Poole, Brian Woolnough, John Wren-Lewis, and Harold Turner in a series of comments on our paper entitled ‘Is religious education compatible with science education?’ By offering counter-arguments and by clarifying certain misunderstandings, we show that these criticisms fail to affect our position.

  12. The Incompatibility of Science and Religion Sustained: A Reply to Our Critics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Replies to a number of criticisms by Tom Settle, Hugh Lacey, Michael Poole, Brian Woolnough, John Wren-Lewis, and Harold Turner in a series of comments on the authors' paper entitled "Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?" Offers counterarguments and clarifies certain misunderstandings to show that these criticisms…

  13. Growth, cambial activity and phloem structure in compatible and incompatible peach/plum grafts.

    PubMed

    Moing, A; Carde, J P

    1988-12-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) shoots grafted onto compatible or incompatible clones of rootstocks of myrobolan plum (Prunus cerasifera L. Ehrh. cv. myrobolan) were observed in a greenhouse for 100 days after grafting. The incompatible grafts showed foliar symptoms of incompatibility and reduced shoot growth about 60 days after grafting. Light microscopic studies revealed that cambial activity stopped earlier in the rootstocks, than in the scions, of incompatible grafts. Structural modifications were also observed in the phloem of incompatible grafts. Compared with the compatible graft rootstock, the number of sieve elements differentiated from the cambial zone was reduced in the incompatible graft rootstock, whereas the production of parenchyma cells was not affected. No important ultrastructural alteration was observed in the sieve tubes of the incompatible grafts. However, osmiophilic granulations near the plasma membrane of sieve plates were observed more frequently in the rootstocks of incompatible grafts than in ungrafted myrobolan controls. It is concluded that the external symptoms of incompatibility are not related to massive structural modifications or degeneration of the conducting tissues.

  14. A Principle of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  15. A Principle of Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  16. Measuring Incompatible Observables by Exploiting Sequential Weak Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piacentini, F.; Avella, A.; Levi, M. P.; Gramegna, M.; Brida, G.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Cohen, E.; Lussana, R.; Villa, F.; Tosi, A.; Zappa, F.; Genovese, M.

    2016-10-01

    One of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics is the impossibility of measuring at the same time observables corresponding to noncommuting operators, because of quantum uncertainty. This impossibility can be partially relaxed when considering joint or sequential weak value evaluation. Indeed, weak value measurements have been a real breakthrough in the quantum measurement framework that is of the utmost interest from both a fundamental and an applicative point of view. In this Letter, we show how we realized for the first time a sequential weak value evaluation of two incompatible observables using a genuine single-photon experiment. These (sometimes anomalous) sequential weak values revealed the single-operator weak values, as well as the local correlation between them.

  17. Measuring Incompatible Observables by Exploiting Sequential Weak Values.

    PubMed

    Piacentini, F; Avella, A; Levi, M P; Gramegna, M; Brida, G; Degiovanni, I P; Cohen, E; Lussana, R; Villa, F; Tosi, A; Zappa, F; Genovese, M

    2016-10-21

    One of the most intriguing aspects of quantum mechanics is the impossibility of measuring at the same time observables corresponding to noncommuting operators, because of quantum uncertainty. This impossibility can be partially relaxed when considering joint or sequential weak value evaluation. Indeed, weak value measurements have been a real breakthrough in the quantum measurement framework that is of the utmost interest from both a fundamental and an applicative point of view. In this Letter, we show how we realized for the first time a sequential weak value evaluation of two incompatible observables using a genuine single-photon experiment. These (sometimes anomalous) sequential weak values revealed the single-operator weak values, as well as the local correlation between them.

  18. Method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuhr, W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method for applying photographic resists to otherwise incompatible substrates, such as a baking enamel paint surface, is described wherein the uncured enamel paint surface is coated with a non-curing lacquer which is, in turn, coated with a partially cured lacquer. The non-curing lacquer adheres to the enamel and a photo resist material satisfactorily adheres to the partially cured lacquer. Once normal photo etching techniques are employed the lacquer coats can be easily removed from the enamel leaving the photo etched image. In the case of edge lighted instrument panels, a coat of uncured enamel is placed over the cured enamel followed by the lacquer coats and the photo resists which is exposed and developed. Once the etched uncured enamel is cured, the lacquer coats are removed leaving an etched panel.

  19. [A clinical case of ABO-incompatible living renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Kawami, H; Shiramizu, T; Mori, Y; Yayama, T; Yonemura, T; Oka, N; Inokuchi, K

    1990-08-01

    We successfully made ABO-incompatible renal transplantation, of which report is methodologically the first in Japan and probably the second in the world to our knowledge. Sixty year-old-female (mother) with B-blood type donated her right kidney to 36 years-old male (son) with O-blood type. Pretransplant removal of plasma isoagglutinin of the recipient through plasma exchange with albumin solution followed by hemodialysis with administration of fresh frozen B-type plasma effectively reduced the anti-BIgM-antibody titre of x256 to x8 and the anti-IgG-antibody titre of x512 to x16. Splenectomy was performed at the time of transplantation. On the 10th POD, the anti-B antibody titres were more decreased to IgM antibody x2 and IgG antibody x8. Patient is doing well without any sign of rejection as of 4 months postoperatively.

  20. On the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibility in haplodiploid species.

    PubMed

    Egas, Martijn; Vala, Filipa; Breeuwer, J A J Hans

    2002-06-01

    The most enigmatic sexual manipulation by Wolbachia endosymbionts is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI): infected males are reproductively incompatible with uninfected females. In this paper, we extend the theory on population dynamics and evolution of CI, with emphasis on haplodiploid species. First, we focus on the problem of the threshold to invasion of the Wolbachia infection in a population. Simulations of the dynamics of infection in small populations show that it does not suffice to assume invasion by drift alone (or demographic "accident"). We propose several promising alternatives that may facilitate invasion of Wolbachia in uninfected populations: sex-ratio effects, meta population structure, and other fitness-compensating effects. Including sex-ratio effects of Wolbachia allows invasion whenever infected females produce more infected daughters than uninfected females produce uninfected daughters. Several studies on haplodiploid species suggest the presence of such sex-ratio effects. The simple metapopulation model we analyzed predicts that, given that infecteds are better "invaders," uninfecteds must be better "colonizers" to maintain coexistence of infected and uninfected patches. This condition seems more feasible for species that suffer local extinction due to predation (or parasitization) than for species that suffer local extinction due to overexploiting their resource(s). Finally, we analyze the evolution of CI in haplodiploids once a population has been infected. Evolution does not depend on the type of CI (female mortality or male production), but hinges solely on decreasing the fitness cost and/or increasing the transmission efficiency. Our models offer new perspectives for increasing our understanding of the population and evolutionary dynamics of CI.

  1. An investigation of self-incompatibility within the genus Restrepia.

    PubMed

    Millner, Helen J; McCrea, Alison R; Baldwin, Timothy C

    2015-03-01

    • The genus Restrepia (Orchidaceae) is indigenous to montane rain forests of Central and South America. Recently, as habitat has fragmented and wild populations dwindled, the chances for successful cross-pollination within the genus have been reduced. Since cultivated species of Restrepia have been vegetatively propagated, they remain genetically close to those in the wild, making ex situ collections of the genus useful model populations for investigating breeding systems. Restrepia are found in clade B of the Pleurothallidinae, the only clade in which self-incompatibility (SI) has not yet been confirmed. In the current study, private collections of Restrepia were used to study the operation of SI within the genus to assist future ex situ conservation of this and related genera.• A variety of self-pollination, intraspecific, and interspecific crosses were performed across the genus, and pollen tube growth was studied.• Individual species exhibited varying degrees of SI. Self-pollinations performed across 26 species in the genus produced few viable seeds, with the exception of R. aberrans. Viable "filled" seeds with embryos were shown to require an intraspecific cross. Primary hybrids between species produced >90% seeds with embryos that germinated well.• The type of SI operating within the genus was considered to be best explained by gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) with interspecific variation in its phenotypic expression. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to SI in the Pleurothallidinae and conservation strategies for Restrepia and related genera. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  2. The Pace of Hybrid Incompatibility Evolution in House Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Richard J.; White, Michael A.; Payseur, Bret A.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrids between species are often sterile or inviable. This form of reproductive isolation is thought to evolve via the accumulation of mutations that interact to reduce fitness when combined in hybrids. Mathematical formulations of this “Dobzhansky–Muller model” predict an accelerating buildup of hybrid incompatibilities with divergence time (the “snowball effect”). Although the Dobzhansky–Muller model is widely accepted, the snowball effect has only been tested in two species groups. We evaluated evidence for the snowball effect in the evolution of hybrid male sterility among subspecies of house mice, a recently diverged group that shows partial reproductive isolation. We compared the history of subspecies divergence with patterns of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detected in F2 intercrosses between two pairs of subspecies (Mus musculus domesticus with M. m. musculus and M. m. domesticus with M. m. castaneus). We used a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method to statistically measure the fit of these data to the snowball prediction. To apply this method, QTL were partitioned as either shared or unshared in the two crosses. A heuristic partitioning based on the overlap of QTL confidence intervals produced unambiguous support for the snowball effect. An alternative approach combining data among crosses favored the snowball effect for the autosomes, but a linear accumulation of incompatibilities for the X chromosome. Reasoning that the X chromosome analyses are complicated by low mapping resolution, we conclude that hybrid male sterility loci have snowballed in house mice. Our study illustrates the power of comparative genetic mapping for understanding mechanisms of speciation. PMID:26199234

  3. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  4. Supervisee Incompatibility and Its Influence on Triadic Supervision: An Examination of Doctoral Student Supervisors' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Serge F.; Lawson, Gerard; Rodriguez, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to explore supervisors' experiences of supervisee incompatibility in triadic supervision. In-depth interviews were completed with 9 doctoral student supervisors in a counselor education program, and a whole-text analysis generated 3 categories. Supervisee incompatibility took a wide variety of forms and negatively…

  5. A fine-scale genetic analysis of hybrid incompatibilities in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Presgraves, Daven C

    2003-01-01

    The sterility and inviability of species hybrids is thought to evolve by the accumulation of genes that cause generally recessive, incompatible epistatic interactions between species. Most analyses of the loci involved in such hybrid incompatibilities have suffered from low genetic resolution. Here I present a fine-resolution genetic screen that allows systematic counting, mapping, and characterizing of a large number of hybrid incompatibility loci in a model genetic system. Using small autosomal deletions from D. melanogaster and a hybrid rescue mutation from D. simulans, I measured the viability of hybrid males that are simultaneously hemizygous for a small region of the D. simulans autosomal genome and hemizygous for the D. melanogaster X chromosome. These hybrid males are exposed to the full effects of any recessive-recessive epistatic incompatibilities present in these regions. A screen of approximately 70% of the D. simulans autosomal genome reveals 20 hybrid-lethal and 20 hybrid-semilethal regions that are incompatible with the D. melanogaster X. In further crosses, I confirm the epistatic nature of hybrid lethality by showing that all of the incompatibilities are rescued when the D. melanogaster X is replaced with a D. simulans X. Combined with information from previous studies, these results show that the number of recessive incompatibilities is approximately eightfold larger than the number of dominant ones. Finally, I estimate that a total of approximately 191 hybrid-lethal incompatibilities separate D. melanogaster and D. simulans, indicating extensive functional divergence between these species' genomes. PMID:12663535

  6. 48 CFR 970.0371-6 - Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-6 Incompatibility between regular duties and... interest of the Government, if the employee's personal concern in the matter may be incompatible with the... significant financial interest; and an employee of a contractor will not be assigned the preparation of...

  7. Epstein-Barr virus-positive multiple myeloma following an ABO incompatible second renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kirushnan, B.; Subbarao, B.; Prabhu, P.

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatible kidney transplant recipients receive higher dose of immunosuppression. Previous data indicate that the incidence of malignancy is not higher in these patients. Compared to the general population, renal transplant recipients are at 4.4-fold higher risk of developing myeloma. We describe a case of posttransplant multiple myeloma in an ABO incompatible renal transplant recipient of a second graft. PMID:27512301

  8. Role of peroxynitrite in programmed cell death induced in self-incompatible pollen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Irene; Romero-Puertas, María C; Rodríguez Serrano, María; Sandalio, Luisa M; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species and NO are involved in the signaling pathway of programmed cell death (PCD). Information concerning the role of these molecules in self-incompatible pollination is scarce especially in non-model species studied in vivo. We recently reported that in the olive tree, compatible and self-incompatible pollen have different levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and that PCD is induced in self-incompatible pollen. Levels of O 2 (.-) and NO are higher in pollen after self-incompatible pollination than after compatible pollination. The presence of these reactive species was concomitant with the presence of peroxynitrite. Similar results were obtained on pollen-germination experiments both in vivo and in vitro. These data, together with observations made after treating pollinated flowers with scavengers, suggest that peroxynitrite plays a role in PCD induced after self-incompatible pollination and we propose here a model to describe the way in which it might work.

  9. Grassland Sustainability

    Treesearch

    Deborah U. Potter; Paulette L. Ford

    2004-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss grassland sustainability in the Southwest, grassland management for sustainability, national and local criteria and indicators of sustainable grassland ecosystems, and monitoring for sustainability at various scales. Ecological sustainability is defined as: [T]he maintenance or restoration of the composition, structure, and processes of...

  10. An Examination of Maryland Community College Trustees' Intentions to Promote Succession Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Daphne Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Maryland community college trustees' intentions to promote succession planning. This study focused on community college trustees' understandings of their roles and responsibilities related to sustainability of institutions, their knowledge of the leadership crisis, and their intentions to promote succession…

  11. An Examination of Maryland Community College Trustees' Intentions to Promote Succession Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Daphne Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Maryland community college trustees' intentions to promote succession planning. This study focused on community college trustees' understandings of their roles and responsibilities related to sustainability of institutions, their knowledge of the leadership crisis, and their intentions to promote succession…

  12. Current progress in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Yang, Jaeseok

    2015-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT) was introduced to expand the donor pool and minimize shortage of kidneys for transplantation. Because improved outcomes of ABOi KT were reported in Japan in the early 2000s, the number of ABOi KTs has been increasing worldwide. In addition, a better understanding of immune pathogenesis and subsequent aggressive immunosuppression has helped to make effective desensitization protocols. Current strategies of ABOi KT consist of pretransplant antibody removal using plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption to prevent hyperacute rejection and potent maintenance immunosuppression, such as tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil, to inhibit antibody-mediated rejection. Recent outcomes of ABOi KT are comparable with ABO-compatible KT. However, there are still many problems to be resolved. Very high anti-ABO antibody producers are difficult to desensitize. In addition, ABOi KT is associated with an increased risk of infection and possibly malignancy due to aggressive immunosuppression. Optimization of desensitization and patient-tailored immunosuppression protocols are needed to achieve better outcomes of ABOi KT. This review provides an overview of the history, immune mechanism, immunosuppressive protocol, outcomes, current obstacles, and future perspectives in ABOi KT. PMID:26484043

  13. Tracking factors modulating cytoplasmic incompatibilities in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Duron, Olivier; Bernard, Clotilde; Unal, Sandra; Berthomieu, Arnaud; Berticat, Claire; Weill, Mylène

    2006-09-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infect many arthropod species and may induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), resulting in abortive embryonic development. One Wolbachia host, Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes, displays high levels of variability in both CI crossing types (cytotypes) and DNA markers. We report here an analysis of 14 mosquito strains, containing 13 Wolbachia variants, and with 13 different cytotypes. Cytotypes were Wolbachia-dependent, as antibiotic treatment rendered all strains tested compatible. Cytotype distributions were independent of geographical distance between sampling sites and host subspecies, suggesting that Wolbachia does not promote a reproductive isolation depending on these parameters. Backcross analysis demonstrated a mild restoring effect of the nuclear genome, indicating that CI is mostly cytoplasmically determined for some crosses. No correlation was found between the phenotypic and genotypic variability of 16 WO prophage and transposon markers, except for the WO prophage Gp15 gene, which encodes a protein similar to a bacterial virulence factor. However, Gp15 is partially correlated with CI expression, suggesting that it could be just linked to a CI gene.

  14. Does a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia induce vestigial cytoplasmic incompatibility?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Reumer, Barbara M.; Mouton, Laurence; Kremer, Natacha; Vavre, Fabrice; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Wolbachia is a maternally inherited bacterium that manipulates the reproduction of its host. Recent studies have shown that male-killing strains can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) when introgressed into a resistant host. Phylogenetic studies suggest that transitions between CI and other Wolbachia phenotypes have also occurred frequently, raising the possibility that latent CI may be widespread among Wolbachia. Here, we investigate whether a parthenogenesis-inducing Wolbachia strain can also induce CI. Parthenogenetic females of the parasitoid wasp Asobara japonica regularly produce a small number of males that may be either infected or not. Uninfected males were further obtained through removal of the Wolbachia using antibiotics and from a naturally uninfected strain. Uninfected females that had mated with infected males produced a slightly, but significantly more male-biased sex ratio than uninfected females that had mated with uninfected males. This effect was strongest in females that mated with males that had a relatively high Wolbachia titer. Quantitative PCR indicated that infected males did not show higher ratios of nuclear versus mitochondrial DNA content. Wolbachia therefore does not cause diploidization of cells in infected males. While these results are consistent with CI, other alternatives such as production of abnormal sperm by infected males cannot be completely ruled out. Overall, the effect was very small (9%), suggesting that if CI is involved it may have degenerated through the accumulation of mutations.

  15. Incompatible multiple consistent sets of histories and measures of quantumness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliwell, J. J.

    2017-07-01

    In the consistent histories approach to quantum theory probabilities are assigned to histories subject to a consistency condition of negligible interference. The approach has the feature that a given physical situation admits multiple sets of consistent histories that cannot in general be united into a single consistent set, leading to a number of counterintuitive or contrary properties if propositions from different consistent sets are combined indiscriminately. An alternative viewpoint is proposed in which multiple consistent sets are classified according to whether or not there exists any unifying probability for combinations of incompatible sets which replicates the consistent histories result when restricted to a single consistent set. A number of examples are exhibited in which this classification can be made, in some cases with the assistance of the Bell, Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt, or Leggett-Garg inequalities together with Fine's theorem. When a unifying probability exists logical deductions in different consistent sets can in fact be combined, an extension of the "single framework rule." It is argued that this classification coincides with intuitive notions of the boundary between classical and quantum regimes and in particular, the absence of a unifying probability for certain combinations of consistent sets is regarded as a measure of the "quantumness" of the system. The proposed approach and results are closely related to recent work on the classification of quasiprobabilities and this connection is discussed.

  16. Comparative genetic organization of incompatibility group P degradative plasmids.

    PubMed Central

    Burlage, R S; Bemis, L A; Layton, A C; Sayler, G S; Larimer, F

    1990-01-01

    Plasmids that encode genes for the degradation of recalcitrant compounds are often examined only for characteristics of the degradative pathways and ignore regions that are necessary for plasmid replication, incompatibility, and conjugation. If these characteristics were known, then the mobility of the catabolic genes between species could be predicted and different catabolic pathways might be combined to alter substrate range. Two catabolic plasmids, pSS50 and pSS60, isolated from chlorobiphenyl-degrading strains and a 3-chlorobenzoate-degrading plasmid, pBR60, were compared with the previously described IncP group (Pseudomonas group P-1) plasmids pJP4 and R751. All three of the former plasmids were also members of the IncP group, although pBR60 is apparently more distantly related. DNA probes specific for known genetic loci were used to determine the order of homologous loci on the plasmids. In all of these plasmids the order is invariant, demonstrating the conservation of this "backbone" region. In addition, all five plasmids display at least some homology with the mercury resistance transposon, Tn501, which has been suggested to be characteristic of the beta subgroup of the IncP plasmids. Plasmids pSS50 and pSS60 have been mapped in detail, and repeat sequences that surround the suspected degradation genes are described. Images PMID:2254257

  17. Pregnancies and Fetal Anomalies Incompatible with Life in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Vivaldi, Lieta

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Chile allows abortion under no circumstances. Whether it’s fetal anomaly incompatible with life or congenital malformation resulting in little or no life expectancy, all Chilean women are expected to carry their pregnancies to term. In this context, in January 2015 the Chilean Congress began debating a bill to legalize abortion on three grounds, including fatal congenital malformation. The medical community, including midwives, has presented its views for and against, especially on how the law may affect clinical practices; in addition, women, many of whom have experienced a fatal congenital malformation diagnosis, have weighed in. This qualitative study draws on 22 semi-structured interviews with nine certified nurse-midwives, one neonatologist, nine obstetrician-gynecologists, one psychiatrist, one psychologist, and one sociologist who provide care during gestation, pregnancy, delivery, and post-delivery in the public and private sectors, plus three interviews with two women and the former partner of a woman who underwent the experience. These interviews starkly illustrate the plight facing women carrying nonviable fetuses, including women’s shock upon receiving the diagnosis, their feelings of bereavement and loss, and the clinical practices used in an attempt to ease their suffering under the weight of exceedingly difficult legal restrictions. These interviews confirmed that compelling women to carry nonviable fetuses to term violates their human rights. They also show that the chances of legislative change are real and that such change will present new challenges to the Chilean health care system. PMID:28630544

  18. [Alternative and natural science therapy forms: incompatible contrast].

    PubMed

    Turnheim, Klaus

    2002-12-30

    In spite of the accomplishments of science-oriented medicine, we are still confronted with a multitude of "alternative" or "complementary" therapies which claim to heal "holistically" without adverse effects. Common to alternative treatment methods, which are several or many centuries old, is the notion that a special force ("vis vitalis", "entelechy", "spiritual bioforce", etc.) is responsible for life that, ultimately, cannot be investigated. According to this perception, which is termed "vitalism", diseases are a result of changes in the immaterial force of life. Therefore, treatments have to be directed at this central regulator ("regulatory therapy"). The medicine that is based on the natural sciences, in contrast, presumes that all expressions of life including diseases are amenable to critical and rational analysis. According to this school of thought, a causal therapy can be derived only from a detailed knowledge of the various body functions down to the molecular level and the effects of drugs on these functions. Corresponding therapeutic theories have to be verified or falsified experimentally, excluding bias as much as possible. Using such "objective" methods, a statistical assessment of the beneficial and adverse effects of a treatment may be possible ("evidence-based medicine"). In the final analysis, an incompatibility of scientific concepts is at the heart of the controversy between alternative treatment methods and the medicine based on natural sciences.

  19. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation: long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Kazunari; Ishida, Hideki; Inui, Masashi; Okumi, Masayoshi; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Shimizu, Tomokazu; Omoto, Kazuya; Kondo, Tsunenori

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, over 2,000 cases of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-ILKT) have been performed in Japan, expanding the donor pool and overcoming the serious shortage of organ donors. Overall long-term outcomes (>20 years) have been excellent and almost identical to the outcomes of ABO-compatible living kidney transplantation (ABO-CLKT). In the last decade, ABO-ILKT has become accepted as a therapeutic alternative for end-stage renal failure. Recently, approximately 30% of all living donor kidney transplantations in Japan have been ABO-ILKT. In the 1990s, desensitization included preoperative plasmapheresis, splenectomy, and heavy immunosuppression that caused surgical and medical stress on patients and a higher cost than that needed for ABO-CLKT for the preoperative conditioning. However, since 2000, rituximab has replaced splenectomy making ABO-ILKT much easier. It is also less stressful for patients. In the last decade, outcomes have improved significantly and 5- and 10-year graft survival have reached 95% and 90%, respectively-identical to, or even better than outcomes of ABO-CLKT. Our current preconditioning includes plasmapheresis 0-2 times, rituximab injection, and regular immunosuppression. Neither intravenous immunoglobulin nor prophylactic plasmapheresis is used after transplantation. ABO-ILKT is a standard option for kidney transplantation requiring minimal preconditioning and regular immunosuppression after transplantation. It now provides an excellent long-term (>20 years) outcome.

  20. Reproductive Isolation of Hybrid Populations Driven by Genetic Incompatibilities

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Rosenthal, Gil G.; Andolfatto, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Despite its role in homogenizing populations, hybridization has also been proposed as a means to generate new species. The conceptual basis for this idea is that hybridization can result in novel phenotypes through recombination between the parental genomes, allowing a hybrid population to occupy ecological niches unavailable to parental species. Here we present an alternative model of the evolution of reproductive isolation in hybrid populations that occurs as a simple consequence of selection against genetic incompatibilities. Unlike previous models of hybrid speciation, our model does not incorporate inbreeding, or assume that hybrids have an ecological or reproductive fitness advantage relative to parental populations. We show that reproductive isolation between hybrids and parental species can evolve frequently and rapidly under this model, even in the presence of substantial ongoing immigration from parental species and strong selection against hybrids. An interesting prediction of our model is that replicate hybrid populations formed from the same pair of parental species can evolve reproductive isolation from each other. This non-adaptive process can therefore generate patterns of species diversity and relatedness that resemble an adaptive radiation. Intriguingly, several known hybrid species exhibit patterns of reproductive isolation consistent with the predictions of our model. PMID:25768654

  1. Current techniques for AB0-incompatible living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Rummler, Silke; Bauschke, Astrid; Bärthel, Erik; Jütte, Heike; Maier, Katrin; Ziehm, Patrice; Malessa, Christina; Settmacher, Utz

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, it was considered medical malpractice to neglect the blood group system during transplantation. Because there are far more patients waiting for organs than organs available, a variety of attempts have been made to transplant AB0-incompatible (AB0i) grafts. Improvements in AB0i graft survival rates have been achieved with immunosuppression regimens and plasma treatment procedures. Nevertheless, some grafts are rejected early after AB0i living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) due to antibody mediated rejection or later biliary complications that affect the quality of life. Therefore, the AB0i LDLT is an option only for emergency situations, and it requires careful planning. This review compares the treatment possibilities and their effect on the patients’ graft outcome from 2010 to the present. We compared 11 transplant center regimens and their outcomes. The best improvement, next to plasma treatment procedures, has been reached with the prophylactic use of rituximab more than one week before AB0i LDLT. Unfortunately, no standardized treatment protocols are available. Each center treats its patients with its own scheme. Nevertheless, the transplant results are homogeneous. Due to refined treatment strategies, AB0i LDLT is a feasible option today and almost free of severe complications. PMID:27683633

  2. Mental Disorders and Suicidal Intention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litman, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    Explores use of psychological autopsies to clarify intention in suicide. Compares clinical experience with courtroom experience. Discusses the "decriminalization" of suicide and insurance concerns, mental disorders, and intention to commit suicide. Notes that capacity to have the intent to commit suicide is lost due to mental disorders only under…

  3. Life history mediates mate limitation and population viability in self-incompatible plant species

    PubMed Central

    Thrall, Peter H; Encinas-Viso, Francisco; Hoebee, Susan E; Young, Andrew G

    2014-01-01

    Genetically controlled self-incompatibility systems represent links between genetic diversity and plant demography with the potential to directly impact on population dynamics. We use an individual-based spatial simulation to investigate the demographic and genetic consequences of different self-incompatibility systems for plants that vary in reproductive capacity and lifespan. The results support the idea that, in the absence of inbreeding effects, populations of self-incompatible species will often be smaller and less viable than self-compatible species, particularly for shorter-lived organisms or where potential fecundity is low. At high ovule production and low mortality, self-incompatible and self-compatible species are demographically similar, thus self-incompatibility does not automatically lead to reduced mate availability or population viability. Overall, sporophytic codominant self-incompatibility was more limiting than gametophytic or sporophytic dominant systems, which generally behaved in a similar fashion. Under a narrow range of conditions, the sporophytic dominant system maintained marginally greater mate availability owing to the production of S locus homozygotes. While self-incompatibility reduces population size and persistence for a broad range of conditions, the actual number of S alleles, beyond that required for reproduction, is important for only a subset of life histories. For these situations, results suggest that addition of new S alleles may result in significant demographic rescue. PMID:24683451

  4. Growth and the composition and transport of carbohydrate in compatible and incompatible peach/plum grafts.

    PubMed

    Moing, A; Salesses, G; Saglio, P H

    1987-12-01

    The growth of scions and rootstocks of compatible (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Springtime/Prunus cerasifera L. Ehrh. cv. myrobolan P2032) and incompatible (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Springtime/Prunus cerasifera L. Ehrh. cv. myrobolan P18) peach/plum grafts were compared. The composition of soluble carbohydrates in phloem and cortical tissues of both peach/plum grafts and ungrafted plums and the translocation of these compounds across the union of grafted plants were examined. Sorbitol and sucrose were the dominant sugars in the phloem and cortical tissues of plum. A cyanogenic glycoside, prunasin, was present in peach tissues in amounts equivalent to those of sorbitol or sucrose, whereas only small amounts of prunasin were detected in plum tissues. The concentration of prunasin was significantly higher in the phloem of the P18 rootstock of the incompatible graft. Sorbitol was the only sugar significantly depleted in rootstock tissues of the incompatible graft when the first foliar symptoms of graft incompatibility became evident. Translocation studies with 1-(14)C-deoxyglucose showed that the relative distribution of radioactivity across the graft union was similar in both compatible and incompatible grafts. However, the total amount of radioactivity translocated across the incompatible graft was less than one-third of that translocated across the compatible graft. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of a progressive poisoning of the root system in the incompatible graft by a compound synthesized in peach foliage. The role of prunasin as a possible candidate is discussed.

  5. Incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes during oogenesis results in ovarian failure and embryonic lethality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyang; Montooth, Kristi L; Calvi, Brian R

    2017-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction can cause female infertility. An important unresolved issue is the extent to which incompatibility between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes contributes to female infertility. It has previously been shown that a mitochondrial haplotype from D. simulans (simw(501) ) is incompatible with a nuclear genome from the D. melanogaster strain Oregon-R (OreR), resulting in impaired development, which was enhanced at higher temperature. This mito-nuclear incompatibility is between alleles of the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (Aatm) and the mitochondrial-encoded tyrosyl-tRNA that it aminoacylates. Here, we show that this mito-nuclear incompatibility causes a severe temperature-sensitive female infertility. The OreR nuclear genome contributed to death of ovarian germline stem cells and reduced egg production, which was further enhanced by the incompatibility with simw(501)  mitochondria. Mito-nuclear incompatibility also resulted in aberrant egg morphology and a maternal-effect on embryonic chromosome segregation and survival, which was completely dependent on the temperature and mito-nuclear genotype of the mother. Our findings show that maternal mito-nuclear incompatibility during Drosophila oogenesis has severe consequences for egg production and embryonic survival, with important broader relevance to human female infertility and mitochondrial replacement therapy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Non-destructive testing and assessment of dynamic incompatibility between third-party piping and drain valve systems: an industrial case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Keen Kuan; Noroozi, Siamak; Rahman, Abdul Ghaffar Abdul; Dupac, Mihai; Eng, Hoe Cheng; Chao Ong, Zhi; Khoo, Shin Yee; Vinney, John E.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the outcome of an industrial case study that involved condition monitoring of piping system that showed signs of excess fatigue due to flow-induced vibration. Due to operational requirements, a novel non-destructive assessment stratagem was adopted using different vibration analysis techniques - such as experimental modal analysis and operating deflection shapes - and complemented by visual inspection. Modal analysis carried out near a drain valve showed a dynamic weakness problem (several high-frequency flow-induced vibration frequency peaks), hence condition-based monitoring was used. This could easily be linked to design problem associated with the dynamic incompatibility due to dissimilar stiffness between two third-party supplied pipe and valve systems. It was concluded that this is the main cause for these problem types especially when systems are supplied by third parties, but assembled locally, a major cause of dynamic incompatibility. It is the local assembler's responsibility to develop skills and expertise needed to sustain the operation of these plants. This paper shows the technique used as result of one such initiative. Since high amplitude, low-frequency displacement can cause low cycle fatigue, attention must be paid to ensure flow remains as steady state as possible. The ability to assess the level of design incompatibility and the level of modification required using non-destructive testing is vital if these systems are to work continuously.

  7. Natural variation for a hybrid incompatibility between two species of Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Mason, Amanda R; Willis, John H

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the process by which hybrid incompatibility alleles become established in natural populations remains a major challenge to evolutionary biology. Previously, we discovered a two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility that causes severe hybrid male sterility between two inbred lines of the incompletely isolated wildflower species, Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. An interspecific cross between these two inbred lines revealed that the M. guttatus (IM62) allele at hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) acts dominantly in combination with recessive M. nasutus (SF5) alleles at hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2) to cause nearly complete hybrid male sterility. In this report, we extend these genetic analyses to investigate intraspecific variation for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility in natural populations of M. nasutus and M. guttatus, performing a series of interspecific crosses between individuals collected from a variety of geographic locales. Our results suggest that hms2 incompatibility alleles are common and geographically widespread within M. nasutus, but absent or rare in M. guttatus. In contrast, the hms1 locus is polymorphic within M. guttatus and the incompatibility allele appears to be extremely geographically restricted. We found evidence for the presence of the hms1 incompatibility allele in only two M. guttatus populations that exist within a few kilometers of each other. The restricted distribution of the hms1 incompatibility allele might currently limit the potential for the hms1-hms2 incompatibility to act as a species barrier between sympatric populations of M. guttatus and M. nasutus. Extensive sampling within a single M. guttatus population revealed that the hms1 locus is polymorphic and that the incompatibility allele appears to segregate at intermediate frequency, a pattern that is consistent with either genetic drift or natural selection.

  8. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible. Except as described in § 150.160, the person in charge of a... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1) Cofferdam...

  9. Conditions on the existence of maximally incompatible two-outcome measurements in general probabilistic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenčová, Anna; Plávala, Martin

    2017-08-01

    We formulate the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a pair of maximally incompatible two-outcome measurements in a finite-dimensional general probabilistic theory. The conditions are on the geometry of the state space; they require the existence of two pairs of parallel exposed faces with an additional condition on their intersections. We introduce the notion of discrimination measurement and show that the conditions for a pair of two-outcome measurements to be maximally incompatible are equivalent to requiring that a (potential, yet nonexisting) joint measurement of the maximally incompatible measurements would have to discriminate affinely dependent points. We present several examples to demonstrate our results.

  10. Decoding intentions from movement kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Andrea; Koul, Atesh; Ansuini, Caterina; Capozzi, Francesca; Becchio, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    How do we understand the intentions of other people? There has been a longstanding controversy over whether it is possible to understand others’ intentions by simply observing their movements. Here, we show that indeed movement kinematics can form the basis for intention detection. By combining kinematics and psychophysical methods with classification and regression tree (CART) modeling, we found that observers utilized a subset of discriminant kinematic features over the total kinematic pattern in order to detect intention from observation of simple motor acts. Intention discriminability covaried with movement kinematics on a trial-by-trial basis, and was directly related to the expression of discriminative features in the observed movements. These findings demonstrate a definable and measurable relationship between the specific features of observed movements and the ability to discriminate intention, providing quantitative evidence of the significance of movement kinematics for anticipating others’ intentional actions. PMID:27845434

  11. Sustaining Statewide Disaster Response Capabilities from a Fire Service Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SUSTAINING STATEWIDE...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SUSTAINING STATEWIDE DISASTER RESPONSE CAPABILITIES FROM A FIRE SERVICE PERSPECTIVE 5...ii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK iii Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited SUSTAINING STATEWIDE DISASTER RESPONSE

  12. Significance of isoagglutinin titer in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Won, Dahae; Choe, Wonho; Kim, Hee-jung; Kwon, Seog-Woon; Han, Duck-Jong; Park, Su-Kil

    2014-10-01

    ABO-incompatible (ABO-i) kidney transplantation (KT) has emerged for overcoming the shortage of organ donors. Although this technique initially achieved only low graft survival due to isoagglutinin, recently developed desensitization protocols have improved survival to levels that are comparable to ABO-compatible KT. However, isoagglutinin is still regarded as a major obstacle to ABO-i KT. In this study, we evaluate the impact of isoagglutinin titer on clinical outcomes as well as factors that may influence isoagglutinin titers. In total, data from 95 patients who underwent ABO-i KT were analyzed. Preoperatively, rituximab administration and plasmapheresis were performed until the titer was reduced to ≤1:4. Retrospective analysis included blood group; timing and dosage of rituximab; isoagglutinin titer; number of plasmapheresis; and clinical outcomes including graft survival and serum creatinine. Graft survival was 95.8% (n = 91) and average serum creatinine at 1- and 1.5-year post-ABOi-KT was 1.3. Three patients died of sepsis. The identified predictors of titer-rebound after transplant were short interval (<7 days) between rituximab and first plasmapheresis (P = 0.004); high initial titer (≥256) (P = 0.023); low titer-reduction rate (P < 0.001); and blood group O (P < 0.001). One patient who experienced a rebound developed antibody-mediated rejection. With low-dose (200 mg) rituximab, the change in isoagglutinin titer-rebound was not significant and the infection rate was significantly decreased (P = 0.001). In conclusion, isoagglutinin titer-rebound within the first 2 weeks after KT may be a risk factor for rejection. The factors identified as affecting titer-rebound after KT were high initial isoagglutinin titer, low titer-reduction rate, short interval, and blood group O.

  13. Réactions aux interfaces de bicristaux compatibles et incompatibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, A.; Décamps, B.; Priester, L.

    2003-03-01

    La rupture intergranulaire peut apparaître suite à la non accommodation des contraintes au voisinage de l'interface. La transmission du glissement au travers d'une interface est un des modes de relaxation possible qui dépend des paramètres suivants : facteurs géométriques (caractéristiques de l'interface et systèmes de glissement activés), constantes élastiques de chacune des phases. Dans cette étude, la microscopie électronique à transmission (MET) est utilisée pour analyser les configurations de dislocations résultant d'une déformation par fatigue de bicristaux d'acier austénoferritique de désorientations contrôlées. Deux types de bicristaux sont étudiés, compatible et incompatible plastiquement. Pour chacun d'eux, la déformation est initiée soit dans la phase ferritique α soit dans la phase austénitique γ selon la localisation d'une entaille préalable à l'essai mécanique. Les résultats permettent de remonter aux mécanismes élémentaires qui régissent le transfert “direct” ou “indirect” des dislocations à travers l'interface. Une corrélation avec le comportement des bicristaux à l'échelle macroscopique est également tentée.

  14. Incompatible land uses and the topology of cumulative risk.

    PubMed

    Lejano, Raul P; Smith, C Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general "mountain range" running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  15. Accommodation of angular incompatibilities between interfacial facets during precipitate growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, R. C.; Jiao, H.; Zhang, L. C.; Aindow, M.

    2006-03-01

    Precipitate growth in a duplex stainless steel and a titanium aluminide alloy has been studied using transmission electron microscopy. Particles with similar crystallography and acicular form arise in both cases, and are bounded by two principal facets. One facet, designated C, is based on a commensurate singular interface structure, and the coherency strains are accommodated by interfacial defects. The other facet, designated I, is based on a singular configuration that is incommensurate in one dimension. The orientation relationship (OR) between the particle and the matrix for the singular C structure is Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S), whereas that for the I facet is Pitsch. The angular incompatibility between these two types of facets must be accommodated to minimize the displacement field as particles grow. The present observations suggest that this is accomplished through the generation of crystal dislocations at facet junctions and their subsequent climb along the facets. The total density of defects needed to accommodate the angular discrepancy is fixed, but the partitioning of these dislocations between C and I facets is not. The actual partitioning determines the observed OR for a particle, and is determined by the kinetics of climb, which is likely to be different in the two facets. In the stainless steel, the observations are consistent with climb occurring in both the C and I facets, but faster in the I facet, leading to a distribution of observed ORs that is skewed away from Pitsch toward K-S. In the titanium aluminide alloy, no climb into the C facets was found, so a unique OR close to K-S arises.

  16. Incompatible Land Uses and the Topology of Cumulative Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejano, Raul P.; Smith, C. Scott

    2006-02-01

    The extensive literature on environmental justice has, by now, well defined the essential ingredients of cumulative risk, namely, incompatible land uses and vulnerability. Most problematic is the case when risk is produced by a large aggregation of small sources of air toxics. In this article, we test these notions in an area of Southern California, Southeast Los Angeles (SELA), which has come to be known as Asthmatown. Developing a rapid risk mapping protocol, we scan the neighborhood for small potential sources of air toxics and find, literally, hundreds of small point sources within a 2-mile radius, interspersed with residences. We also map the estimated cancer risks and noncancer hazard indices across the landscape. We find that, indeed, such large aggregations of even small, nondominant sources of air toxics can produce markedly elevated levels of risk. In this study, the risk profiles show additional cancer risks of up to 800 in a million and noncancer hazard indices of up to 200 in SELA due to the agglomeration of small point sources. This is significant (for example, estimates of the average regional point-source-related cancer risk range from 125 to 200 in a million). Most importantly, if we were to talk about the risk contour as if they were geological structures, we would observe not only a handful of distinct peaks, but a general “mountain range” running all throughout the study area, which underscores the ubiquity of risk in SELA. Just as cumulative risk has deeply embedded itself into the fabric of the place, so, too, must intervention seek to embed strategies into the institutions and practices of SELA. This has implications for advocacy, as seen in a recently initiated participatory action research project aimed at building health research capacities into the community in keeping with an ethic of care.

  17. Incidence and outcomes of BK virus allograft nephropathy among ABO- and HLA-incompatible kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Adnan; Alachkar, Nada; Bagnasco, Serena; Geetha, Duvuru; Gupta, Gaurav; Womer, Karl; Arend, Lois; Racusen, Lorraine; Montgomery, Robert; Kraus, Edward

    2012-08-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients may have a higher incidence of BK virus allograft nephropathy (BKVAN) compared with ABO-compatible recipients. It is unclear whether HLA-incompatible recipients share this risk or whether this phenomenon is unique to ABO-incompatible recipients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPATION, MEASUREMENTS: This study analyzed adult incompatible kidney transplant recipients from 1998 to 2010 (62 ABO-incompatible and 221 HLA-incompatible) and identified patients in whom BKVAN was diagnosed by biopsy (per protocol or for cause). This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database that compared BKVAN incidence and outcomes between ABO- and HLA-incompatible recipients, respectively. BKVAN link to rejection and graft accommodation phenotype were also explored. The Johns Hopkins Institutional Review Board approved this study. Risk for BKVAN was greater among ABO-incompatible than HLA-incompatible patients (17.7% versus 5.9%; P=0.008). Of BKVAN cases, 42% were subclinical, diagnosed by protocol biopsy. ABO-incompatibility and age were independent predictors for BKVAN on logistic regression. C4d deposition without histologic features of glomerulitis and capillaritis (graft accommodation-like phenotype) on 1-year biopsies of ABO-incompatible patients with and without BKVAN was 40% and 75.8%, respectively (P=0.04). Death-censored graft survival (91%) and serum creatinine level among surviving kidneys (1.8 mg/dl) were identical in ABO- and HLA-incompatible patients with BKVAN (median, 1399 and 1017 days after transplantation, respectively). ABO-incompatible kidney recipients are at greater risk for BKVAN than HLA-incompatible kidney recipients. ABO-incompatible recipients not showing the typical graft accommodation-like phenotype may be at heightened risk for BKVAN, but this observation requires replication among other groups.

  18. Molecular characterization of the S locus in two self-incompatible Brassica napus lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, K; Schafer, U; Glavin, T L; Goring, D R; Rothstein, S J

    1996-01-01

    In Brassica species, self-incompatibility has been mapped genetically to a single chromosomal location. In this region, there are two closely linked genes coding for the S locus glycoprotein (SLG) and S locus receptor kinase (SRK). They appear to comprise the pistil component of the self-incompatibility reaction. SLG and SRK are thought to recognize an unknown pollen component on the incompatible pollen, and the gene encoding this pollen component must also be linked to the SLG and SRK genes. To further our understanding of self-incompatibility, the chromosomal region carrying the SLG and SRK genes has been studied. The physical region between the SLG-910 and the SRK-910 genes in the Brassica napus W1 line was cloned, and a search for genes expressed in the anther revealed two additional S locus genes located downstream of the SLG-910 gene. Because these two genes are novel and are conserved at other S alleles, we designated them as SLL1 and SLL2 (for S locus-linked genes 1 and 2, respectively). The SLL1 gene is S locus specific, whereas the SLL2 gene is not only present at the S locus but is also present in other parts of the genomes in both self-incompatible and self-compatible Brassica ssp lines. Expression of the SLL1 gene is only detectable in anthers of self-incompatible plants and is developmentally regulated during anther development, whereas the SLL2 gene is expressed in anthers and stigmas in both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants, with the highest levels of expression occurring in the stigmas. Although SLL1 and SLL2 are linked to the S locus region, it is not clear whether these genes function in self-incompatibility or serve some other cellular roles in pollen-pistil functions. PMID:8989888

  19. ABO Antibody Titers are not Predictive of Hemolytic Reactions Due to Plasma Incompatible Platelet Transfusions

    PubMed Central

    Karafin, Matthew S.; Blagg, Lorraine; Tobian, Aaron A. R.; King, Karen E.; Ness, Paul M.; Savage, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The overall risk of hemolytic transfusion reactions from plasma (minor) incompatible platelet transfusions and the role of a critical anti-A or anti-B titer in predicting/preventing these reactions has not been clearly established. Methods We evaluated all apheresis platelet (AP) transfusions for three months. Using the gel titer method, we determined the anti-A and/or the anti-B IgG titer for all incompatible APs. Reported febrile transfusion reactions and hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs) were recorded; transfusions were not prospectively evaluated by the study team. A post-transfusion DAT and eluate were performed after a reported febrile or hemolytic reaction for patients who received plasma incompatible APs. Results 647of 4,288 AP transfusions (15.1%) were plasma incompatible. Group O APs (N = 278) had significantly higher anti-A and anti-B titers than group A or B APs (p<0.0001). No group A or B APs had a titer >128 (0/342). For group O APs, 73 had titers ≥256 (26.3%), and 27 had titers ≥512 (9.7%). No HTRs were reported to any plasma incompatible AP transfusion during the study period. Two plasma incompatible AP transfusions were associated with fever/chills and positive DATs, of which one had a positive eluate. The incidence of a DAT and eluate positive febrile transfusion reaction in the plasma incompatible AP population is 0.15% (95% CI 0.0–0.86%). Conclusion A critical anti-A or B titer is not sufficient to predict the risk of hemolysis in patients receiving plasma incompatible APs, although underreporting of reactions to the blood bank may limit the generalizability of this study. PMID:22339320

  20. Duplicated pollen-pistil recognition loci control intraspecific unilateral incompatibility in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Takada, Yoshinobu; Murase, Kohji; Shimosato-Asano, Hiroko; Sato, Takahiro; Nakanishi, Honoka; Suwabe, Keita; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Lim, Yong Pyo; Takayama, Seiji; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao

    2017-06-26

    In plants, cell-cell recognition is a crucial step in the selection of optimal pairs of gametes to achieve successful propagation of progeny. Flowering plants have evolved various genetic mechanisms, mediated by cell-cell recognition, to enable their pistils to reject self-pollen, thus preventing inbreeding and the consequent reduced fitness of progeny (self-incompatibility, SI), and to reject foreign pollen from other species, thus maintaining species identity (interspecific incompatibility)(1). In the genus Brassica, the SI system is regulated by an S-haplotype-specific interaction between a stigma-expressed female receptor (S receptor kinase, SRK) and a tapetum cell-expressed male ligand (S locus protein 11, SP11), encoded by their respective polymorphic genes at the S locus(2-6). However, the molecular mechanism for recognition of foreign pollen, leading to reproductive incompatibility, has not yet been identified. Here, we show that recognition between a novel pair of proteins, a pistil receptor SUI1 (STIGMATIC UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY 1) and a pollen ligand PUI1 (POLLEN UNILATERAL INCOMPATIBILITY 1), triggers unilateral reproductive incompatibility between plants of two geographically distant self-incompatible Brassica rapa lines, even though crosses would be predicted to be compatible based on the S haplotypes of pollen and stigma. Interestingly, SUI1 and PUI1 are similar to the SI genes, SRK and SP11, respectively, and are maintained as cryptic incompatibility genes in these two populations. The duplication of the SRK and SP11 followed by reciprocal loss in different populations would provide a molecular mechanism of the emergence of a reproductive barrier in allopatry.

  1. The Use of Duplication-Generating Rearrangements for Studying Heterokaryon Incompatibility Genes in Neurospora

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, David D.

    1975-01-01

    Heterokaryon (vegetative) incompatibility, governing the fusion of somatic hyphal filaments to form stable heterokaryons, is of interest because of its widespread occurrence in fungi and its bearing on cellular recognition. Conventional investigations of the genetic basis of heterokaryon incompatibility in N. crassa are difficult because in commonly used stocks differences are present at several het loci, all with similar incompatibility phenotypes. This difficulty is overcome by using duplications (partial diploids) that are unlikely to contain more than one het locus. A phenotypically expressed incompatibility reaction occurs when unlike het alleles are present within the same somatic nucleus, and this parallels the heterokaryon incompatibility reaction that occurs when unlike alleles in different haploid nuclei are introduced into the same somatic hypha by mycelial fusion.—Nontandem duplications were used to confirm that the incompatibility reactions in heterokaryons and in duplications are alternate expressions of the same genes. This was demonstrated for three loci which had previously been established by conventional heterokaryon tests—het-e, het-c and mt. These were each obtained in duplications as recombinant meiotic segregants from crosses heterozygous for duplication-generating chromosome rearrangements. The particular method of producing the duplications is irrelevant so long as the incompatibility alleles are heterozygous.—The duplication technique has made it possible to determine easily the het-e and het-c genotypes of numerous laboratory and wild strains of unknown constitution. In laboratory strains both loci are represented simply by two alleles. Analysis of het-c is more complicated in some wild strains, where differences have been demonstrated at one or more additional het loci within the duplication used and multiple allelism is also possible.—The results show that the duplication method can be used to identify and map additional

  2. Calorimetric studies on the thermal hazard of methyl ethyl ketone peroxide with incompatible substances.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ron-Hsin; Shu, Chi-Min; Duh, Yih-Shing; Jehng, Jih-Mirn

    2007-03-22

    In Taiwan, Japan, and China, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKPO) has caused many severe thermal explosions owing to its thermal instability and reactivity originating from the complexity of its structure. This study focused on the incompatible features of MEKPO as detected by calorimetry. The thermal decomposition and runaway behaviors of MEKPO with about 10wt.% incompatibilities, such as H(2)SO(4), HCl, NaOH, KOH, FeCl(3), and FeSO(4), were analyzed by dynamic calorimeter, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and adiabatic calorimeter, vent sizing package 2 (VSP2). Thermokinetic data, such as onset temperature, heat of decomposition, adiabatic temperature rise, and self-heat rate, were obtained and assessed. Experimental data were used for determining the incompatibility rating on hazards. From the thermal curves of MEKPO with assumed incompatible substances detected by DSC, all the onset temperatures in the other tests occurring earlier advanced, especially with alkaline or ferric materials. In some tests, significant incompatible reactions were found. Adiabatic runaway behaviors for simulating the worst case scenario were performed by using VSP2. These calorimetric data led to the same results that the alkaline or ferric solution was the most incompatible with MEKPO.

  3. Incompatibility and pollen competition in Alnus glutinosa: Evidence from pollination experiments.

    PubMed

    Steiner, W; Gregorius, H R

    1999-03-01

    Different types of incompatibility systems were found to operate simultaneously in Alnus glutinosa in the course of numerous pollination experiments, including self-pollination and pollination with controlled pollen mixtures. Isozyme genetic markers were used to identify the pollen parent of each offspring from the mixed pollination experiments, thus allowing specification of the fertilization success of each pollen parent. In a first step, these results were compared with observations on in vitro pollen germination experiments. This comparison allows for exploration of the explanatory value of different germination media as models of germination conditions on stigmas. In most cases, the data suggest that the in vitro germination conditions resemble the fertilization conditions in vivo, at least in the sense that they favor the same pollen parents. By providing a generic and operable definition of the two basic types of incompatibility, eliminating (inability to fertilize ovules) and cryptic (resulting in lowered fertilization success of a pollen parent under competition), evidence was detected for the existence of both types of incompatibility in Alnus glutinosa, where eliminating incompatibility occurred as self-incompatibility only. However, since this incompatibility seems to act primarily via pollen elimination, seed production is not likely to be negatively affected in natural populations, even for comparatively large amounts of self-pollination.

  4. Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila Simulans: Dynamics and Parameter Estimates from Natural Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, M.; Hoffmann, A. A.

    1995-01-01

    In Drosophila simulans, cytoplasmically transmitted Wolbachia microbes cause reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. A Wolbachia infection and an associated mtDNA variant have spread northward through California since 1986. PCR assays show that Wolbachia infection is prevalent throughout the continental US and Central and South America, but some lines from Florida and Ecuador that are PCR-positive for Wolbachia do not cause incompatibility. We estimate from natural populations infection frequencies and the transmission and incompatibility parameter values that affect the spread of the infection. On average, infected females from nature produce 3-4% uninfected ova. Infected females with relatively low fidelity of maternal transmission show partial incompatibility with very young infected laboratory males. Nevertheless, crosses between infected flies in nature produce egg-hatch rates indistinguishable from those produced by crosses between uninfected individuals. Incompatible crosses in nature produce hatch rates 30-70% as high as those from compatible crosses. Wild-caught infected and uninfected females are equally fecund in the laboratory. Incompatibility decreases with male age, and age-specific incompatibility levels suggest that males mating in nature may often be 2 or 3 weeks old. Our parameter estimates accurately predict the frequency of Wolbachia infection in California populations. PMID:7498773

  5. ABO-Incompatible Living Donor Kidney Transplantation without Post-Transplant Therapeutic Plasma Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Yabu, J. M.; Fontaine, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Blood group incompatibility remains a significant barrier to kidney transplantation. Approximately one-third of donors are blood group incompatible with their intended recipient. Options for these donor-recipient pairs include blood group incompatible transplantation or kidney paired donation. However, the optimal protocol for blood group incompatible transplantation is unknown. Protocols differ in techniques to remove ABO antibodies, titer targets and immunosuppression regimens. In addition, the mechanisms of graft accommodation to blood group antigens remain poorly understood. We describe a blood group incompatible protocol using pre-transplant therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab in addition to prednisone, mycophenolate mofetil and tacrolimus. In this protocol, we do not exclude patients based on a high initial titer and do not implement post-transplant TPE. All 16 patients who underwent this protocol received a living donor transplant with 100 percent patient and graft survival, and no reported episodes of antibody-mediated rejection to date with a median follow-up of 2.6 years (range 0.75 to 4.7 years). We conclude that blood group incompatible transplantation can be achieved without post-transplant TPE. PMID:25739580

  6. Contrasting levels of variability between cytoplasmic genomes and incompatibility types in the mosquito Culex pipiens.

    PubMed Central

    Guillemaud, T; Pasteur, N; Rousset, F

    1997-01-01

    Reproductive incompatibilities called cytoplasmic incompatibilities are known to affect a large number of arthropod species and are mediated by Wolbachia, a maternally transmitted microorganism. The crossing relationships between strains of potential hosts define their incompatibility types and it is generally assumed that differences between strains of Wolbachia induce different crossing types. Among all the described host species, the mosquito, Culex pipiens, displays the greatest variability of cytoplasmic incompatibility crossing types. We analysed mitochondrial and bacterial DNA variability in Culex pipiens in order to investigate some possible causes of incompatibility crossing type variability. We sequenced fragments of the ftsZ gene, and the A + T-rich control region of the mtDNA. We also sequenced the second subunit of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COII) gene, in Culex pipiens and a closely related species, C. torrentium, in order to verify the usefulness of the A + T-rich region for the present purposes. No variability was found in the Wolbachia ftsZ gene fragment, and very limited variation of the mitochondrial marker whatever the compatibility type or the origin of the host. A low variability was found in the A + T-rich region and comparison of divergence of the A + T-rich region and COII gene between C. pipiens and C. torrentium did not reveal any special constraints affecting this region. In contrast to observations in other host species, variability of incompatibility crossing types is not due to multiple infections by distantly related Wolbachia strains. PMID:9061971

  7. Evaluation of physicochemical incompatibilities during parenteral drug administration in a paediatric intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Gikic, M; Di Paolo, E R; Pannatier, A; Cotting, J

    2000-06-01

    Patients in paediatric intensive care units (PICU) often receive numerous medications by the parenteral route. Frequently two or more drugs are delivered simultaneously through the same line and the risk of physicochemical incompatibilities is thus important. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify prospectively the combinations of injectable drugs administered in the PICU of our university hospital and 2) to analyze them according to information found in the literature. The data were collected by a pharmacist over a 30-day period and classified in three categories: compatible, incompatible and undocumented. Nineteen patients were included in the study with a median age of 3.2 years. The mean number (+/- SD) of injectable drugs per patient and per day was 6.5 (+/- 2.8), for a total of 26 drugs and 7 solutes. 64 combinations of drugs were observed with 2 (31.3%), 3 (45.3%), 4 (10.9%) or 5 (12.5%) drugs. 81 drug-drug and 94 drug-solute combinations were recorded. Among these, 151 (86.3%) were compatible, 6 (3.4%) incompatible and 18 (10.3%) undocumented. The incompatibilities included furosemide (Lasix), a drug in alkaline solution and Vamina-Glucose, a total parenteral nutrition solution. No clinical consequences resulting from drug incompatibilities were shown in this study. We suggest that in vitro compatibility tests on standard drug combinations, as well as a training program for nurses on drug incompatibility problems would sensitively increase the security of parenteral drug administration.

  8. Aphid-induced defense responses in Mi-1-mediated compatible and incompatible tomato interactions.

    PubMed

    Martinez de Ilarduya, Oscar; Xie, QiGuang; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2003-08-01

    The tomato Mi-1 gene confers resistance to three species of root-knot nematode and potato aphid. We studied changes in expression of jasmonic acid (JA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense genes in response to potato and green peach aphids. We determined changes in three PR proteins, lipoxygenase and proteinase inhibitors I and II transcripts, locally and systemically in both compatible and incompatible interactions in tomato. Transcripts for PR-1 were detected earlier and accumulated to higher levels in the incompatible than in the compatible potato aphid/tomato interactions. The transcript profiles of the other genes were similar in compatible compared with incompatible interactions. Pin1 and Pin2 RNAs were detected early and transiently in both compatible and incompatible interactions. In tomato plants containing Mi-1, systemic expression of PR-1 and GluB was detected in both compatible and incompatible interactions at 48 h after infestations with either aphid. These results suggest that aphid feeding involves both SA and JA/ethylene plant defense signaling pathways and that Mi-1-mediated resistance might involve a SA-dependent signaling pathway. Potato aphid feeding generated reactive oxygen species in both compatible and incompatible interactions. However, a hypersensitive response was absent in the Mi-1-mediated resistance response to potato aphids. Reciprocal grafting experiments revealed that resistance is cell autonomous, and local expression of Mi-1 is required for Mi-1-mediated resistance against the potato aphid.

  9. Hybrid Incompatibility Arises in a Sequence-Based Bioenergetic Model of Transcription Factor Binding

    PubMed Central

    Tulchinsky, Alexander Y.; Johnson, Norman A.; Watt, Ward B.; Porter, Adam H.

    2014-01-01

    Postzygotic isolation between incipient species results from the accumulation of incompatibilities that arise as a consequence of genetic divergence. When phenotypes are determined by regulatory interactions, hybrid incompatibility can evolve even as a consequence of parallel adaptation in parental populations because interacting genes can produce the same phenotype through incompatible allelic combinations. We explore the evolutionary conditions that promote and constrain hybrid incompatibility in regulatory networks using a bioenergetic model (combining thermodynamics and kinetics) of transcriptional regulation, considering the bioenergetic basis of molecular interactions between transcription factors (TFs) and their binding sites. The bioenergetic parameters consider the free energy of formation of the bond between the TF and its binding site and the availability of TFs in the intracellular environment. Together these determine fractional occupancy of the TF on the promoter site, the degree of subsequent gene expression and in diploids, and the degree of dominance among allelic interactions. This results in a sigmoid genotype–phenotype map and fitness landscape, with the details of the shape determining the degree of bioenergetic evolutionary constraint on hybrid incompatibility. Using individual-based simulations, we subjected two allopatric populations to parallel directional or stabilizing selection. Misregulation of hybrid gene expression occurred under either type of selection, although it evolved faster under directional selection. Under directional selection, the extent of hybrid incompatibility increased with the slope of the genotype–phenotype map near the derived parental expression level. Under stabilizing selection, hybrid incompatibility arose from compensatory mutations and was greater when the bioenergetic properties of the interaction caused the space of nearly neutral genotypes around the stable expression level to be wide. F2’s showed

  10. Intention Seekers: Conspiracist Ideation and Biased Attributions of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  11. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism.

  12. Sustainability Frontiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces Sustainability Frontiers, a newly formed, international, not-for-profit alliance of sustainability and global educators dedicated to challenging and laying bare the assumptions, exposing the blind spots, and transgressing the boundaries of mainstream understandings of sustainability-related education. Among the orthodoxies…

  13. Sustainability Frontiers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces Sustainability Frontiers, a newly formed, international, not-for-profit alliance of sustainability and global educators dedicated to challenging and laying bare the assumptions, exposing the blind spots, and transgressing the boundaries of mainstream understandings of sustainability-related education. Among the orthodoxies…

  14. Outcomes Following ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation Performed After Desensitization by Nonantigen-Specific Immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Luis E; Siebert, Daniela; Süsal, Caner; Opelz, Gerhard; Leo, Albrecht; Waldherr, Rüdiger; Macher-Goeppinger, Stephan; Schemmer, Peter; Schaefer, Sebastian Markus; Klein, Katrin; Beimler, Jörg; Zeier, Martin; Schwenger, Vedat; Morath, Christian

    2015-11-01

    For desensitization of ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients we recently proposed nonantigen-specific immunoadsorption (IA) and rituximab. We now compared clinical outcomes of 34 ABO-incompatible living-donor kidney recipients who were transplanted using this protocol with that of 68 matched ABO-compatible patients. In addition, we analyzed efficacy and cost of nonantigen-specific as compared to blood group antigen-specific IA. Before desensitization, the median isoagglutinin titer of 34 ABO-incompatible patients was 1:64 (Coombs technique). Patients received a median of 7 preoperative IA treatments. Twenty-four patients had a median of 2 additional plasmapheresis treatments to reach the preoperative target isoagglutinin titer of 1:8 or less. After a median postoperative follow-up of 22 months, overall graft survival in the ABO-incompatible group was not significantly different from that in ABO-compatible patients (log-rank P = 0.20), whereas patient survival tended to be lower (log-rank P = 0.05). The incidence of rejection episodes was 15% in both groups. The ABO-incompatible kidney recipients had a higher incidence of BK virus replication (P = 0.04) and nephropathy (P = 0.01) and showed more often colonization with multidrug resistant bacteria (P = 0.02). In comparison to blood group antigen-specific IA, nonantigen-specific IA showed equal efficacy but was associated with reduction in cost. Clinical outcomes of ABO-incompatible patients desensitized with a nonantigen-specific IA device and rituximab do not differ from that of matched ABO-compatible patients although a trend toward reduced patient survival was noted. Special attention must be paid to the higher incidence of BK virus infection in recipients of ABO-incompatible grafts.

  15. Adolescents’ Pregnancy Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Valerie; East, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study explores if and how adolescents’ pregnancy intentions relate to life situations and health-related behaviors prenatally and up to 2 years postpartum. Methods Adolescent girls who reported that they had “wanted a baby” (n = 75) as their reason for pregnancy were compared with those who reported that the pregnancy “just happened” (n = 79) at four separate time periods: prenatally, at 6 and 24 months postpartum, and at 18 months postpartum for teens who became pregnant again subsequent to the study pregnancy. Results Those who stated that they wanted a baby were more likely to be Hispanic, married, and out of school before becoming pregnant. They were less likely to receive welfare as their primary means of support and to have run away from home in the past than teens who stated that their pregnancy just happened. Self-reported reason for pregnancy was unrelated to repeat pregnancy by 18 months postpartum, but those who had wanted the study baby were less likely to undergo elective termination of a subsequent pregnancy and less likely to become pregnant by a different partner. The groups diverged at 24 months postpartum when those who wanted a baby were more likely to be married to the father of the baby, be financially supported by him, receive child care assistance from him, and have attempted or succeeded at breastfeeding the study child. Conclusion Self-reported reason for pregnancy reveals many important characteristics of pregnant adolescents both at the time of presentation and up to 2 years postpartum. Young women in this study who reported intentional pregnancy seem to fare better with regard to their financial status and their relationship with the father of the baby. PMID:10331837

  16. Predictability of Expressed Career Intent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Faye

    An historical study of officer input from the various Air Force commissioning programs was initiated in 1963. The study was designed to determine the predictability of an Air Force officer's career decision and to evaluate relationships between career intent and demographic, environmental, and attitudinal factors. Career-intention information for…

  17. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  18. Extreme incompatibility of helium during mantle melting: Evidence from undegassed mid-ocean ridge basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, David W.; Michael, Peter J.; Shea, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    We report total helium concentrations (vesicles + glass) for a suite of thirteen ultradepleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (UD-MORBs) that were previously studied for volatile contents (CO2, H2O) plus major and trace elements. The selected basalts are undersaturated in CO2 + H2O at their depths of eruption and represent rare cases of undegassed MORBs. Sample localities from the Atlantic (2), Indian (1) and Pacific (7) Oceans collectively show excellent linear correlations (r2 = 0.75- 0.92) between the concentrations of helium and the highly incompatible elements C, K, Rb, Ba, Nb, Th and U. Three basalts from Gakkel Ridge in the Arctic were also studied but show anomalous behavior marked by excess lithophile trace element abundances. In the Atlantic-Pacific-Indian suite, incompatible element concentrations vary by factors of 3-4.3, while helium concentration varies by a factor of 13. The strong correlations between the concentrations of helium and incompatible elements are explained by helium behavior as the most incompatible element during mantle melting. Partial melting of an ultradepleted mantle source, formed as a residue of earlier melt extraction, accounts for the observed concentrations. The earlier melting event involved removal of a small degree melt (∼1%) at low but non-zero porosity (0.01-0.5%), leading to a small amount of melt retention that strongly leveraged the incompatible element budget of the ultradepleted mantle source. Equilibrium melting models that produce the range of trace element and helium concentrations from this source require a bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium that is lower than that for other incompatible elements by about a factor of ten. Alternatively, the bulk solid/melt distribution coefficient for helium could be similar to or even larger than that for other incompatible elements, but the much larger diffusivity of helium in peridotite leads to its more effective incompatibility and efficient extraction from a

  19. Transcriptional Regulation of Culex pipiens Mosquitoes by Wolbachia Influences Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Simon; Kambris, Zakaria; Sutton, Elizabeth R.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Parkhill, Julian; Sinkins, Steven P.

    2013-01-01

    Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) induced by the endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis causes complex patterns of crossing sterility between populations of the Culex pipiens group of mosquitoes. The molecular basis of the phenotype is yet to be defined. In order to investigate what host changes may underlie CI at the molecular level, we examined the transcription of a homolog of the Drosophila melanogaster gene grauzone that encodes a zinc finger protein and acts as a regulator of female meiosis, in which mutations can cause sterility. Upregulation was observed in Wolbachia-infected C. pipiens group individuals relative to Wolbachia-cured lines and the level of upregulation differed between lines that were reproductively incompatible. Knockdown analysis of this gene using RNAi showed an effect on hatch rates in a Wolbachia infected Culex molestus line. Furthermore, in later stages of development an effect on developmental progression in CI embryos occurs in bidirectionally incompatible crosses. The genome of a wPip Wolbachia strain variant from Culex molestus was sequenced and compared with the genome of a wPip variant with which it was incompatible. Three genes in inserted or deleted regions were newly identified in the C. molestus wPip genome, one of which is a transcriptional regulator labelled wtrM. When this gene was transfected into adult Culex mosquitoes, upregulation of the grauzone homolog was observed. These data suggest that Wolbachia-mediated regulation of host gene expression is a component of the mechanism of cytoplasmic incompatibility. PMID:24204251

  20. Strength through unity: spatial affinity between morphs improves fitness in incompatible heterostylous Melochia (Malvaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Faife-Cabrera, Michel; Navarro, Luis; Ferrero, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    In heterostylous plants, both stylar polymorphism and incompatibility system favor legitimate pollination among individuals. Weak or partial expression of incompatibility may ensure progeny when mates or pollinators are scarce in unstable habitats, but under these conditions plants with heteromorphic incompatibility would be in disadvantage. In this work we determine how the spatial distribution of morphs and the effect of proximity to the nearest potential mates affect plants' reproductive output in four Melochia species. The general prediction of decreasing reproductive success with an increasing isolation of floral morphs in plants with heteromorphic incompatibility was corroborated only in one species (i.e. M. tomentosa). Meanwhile, the other species exhibit a spatial affinity between morphs (i.e. the number of individuals with the nearest neighbor of the opposite morph exceeds expectations upon a random distribution). For M. savannarum and M. villosa we could not detect any effect of proximity to potential mates on the seed-ovule ratio. This may be due to: (1) existence of pollinators with long flying distances, like butterflies, in the populations and/or, (2) the possible occurrence of resource limitation. Spatial affinity between morphs in populations of heterostylous plants with heteromorphic incompatibility system increases reproductive success and may facilitate colonization of ephemeral habitats.

  1. Heterokaryon Incompatibility Is Suppressed Following Conidial Anastomosis Tube Fusion in a Fungal Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Francine H.; Souza, Elaine A.; Shoji, Jun-ya; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Read, Nick D.; Roca, M. Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that horizontal gene/chromosome transfer and parasexual recombination following hyphal fusion between different strains may contribute to the emergence of wide genetic variability in plant pathogenic and other fungi. However, the significance of vegetative (heterokaryon) incompatibility responses, which commonly result in cell death, in preventing these processes is not known. In this study, we have assessed this issue following different types of hyphal fusion during colony initiation and in the mature colony. We used vegetatively compatible and incompatible strains of the common bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in which nuclei were labelled with either a green or red fluorescent protein in order to microscopically monitor the fates of nuclei and heterokaryotic cells following hyphal fusion. As opposed to fusion of hyphae in mature colonies that resulted in cell death within 3 h, fusions by conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) between two incompatible strains during colony initiation did not induce the vegetative incompatibility response. Instead, fused conidia and germlings survived and formed heterokaryotic colonies that in turn produced uninucleate conidia that germinated to form colonies with phenotypic features different to those of either parental strain. Our results demonstrate that the vegetative incompatibility response is suppressed during colony initiation in C. lindemuthianum. Thus, CAT fusion may allow asexual fungi to increase their genetic diversity, and to acquire new pathogenic traits. PMID:22319613

  2. Heterokaryon incompatibility is suppressed following conidial anastomosis tube fusion in a fungal plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Francine H; Souza, Elaine A; Shoji, Jun-Ya; Connolly, Lanelle; Freitag, Michael; Read, Nick D; Roca, M Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that horizontal gene/chromosome transfer and parasexual recombination following hyphal fusion between different strains may contribute to the emergence of wide genetic variability in plant pathogenic and other fungi. However, the significance of vegetative (heterokaryon) incompatibility responses, which commonly result in cell death, in preventing these processes is not known. In this study, we have assessed this issue following different types of hyphal fusion during colony initiation and in the mature colony. We used vegetatively compatible and incompatible strains of the common bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in which nuclei were labelled with either a green or red fluorescent protein in order to microscopically monitor the fates of nuclei and heterokaryotic cells following hyphal fusion. As opposed to fusion of hyphae in mature colonies that resulted in cell death within 3 h, fusions by conidial anastomosis tubes (CAT) between two incompatible strains during colony initiation did not induce the vegetative incompatibility response. Instead, fused conidia and germlings survived and formed heterokaryotic colonies that in turn produced uninucleate conidia that germinated to form colonies with phenotypic features different to those of either parental strain. Our results demonstrate that the vegetative incompatibility response is suppressed during colony initiation in C. lindemuthianum. Thus, CAT fusion may allow asexual fungi to increase their genetic diversity, and to acquire new pathogenic traits.

  3. [Exploration on eighteen incompatible medicaments of chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuhua; Hua, Haoming; Fan, Xinsheng; Wang, Chongjun; Duan, Jinao

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the laws of eighteen incompatible medicaments of the chest pain prescriptions based on association rules mining. The database of chest pain prescription was established and then the chest pain prescriptions composed of eighteen incompatible medicaments were screened. The dynasty, couplet medicines, the property and flavor of drugs and preparation form were analyzed with the frequent item sets and corresponding analysis methods. Eight hundred and fifty chest pain prescriptions were collected, and 88 of them contained eighteen incompatible medicaments, taking 10.3% of all; the applications of ancient and modern chest pain prescriptions containing eighteen incompatible medicaments are significant difference (P < 0.05). Ancient formulas, mainly focus on the eastern jin dynasty and tang dynasty, are more often used than the modern formulas. The most common anti-drugs is on the Fuzi-Pinellia, Chuanwu-Pinellia; the property and flavor of drugs is bitter cold most closely; the decoction of the formulas is mostly used. Eighteen incompatible medicaments account for about ten percent of the chest pain prescription, not an uncommon side. There are certain rules for application of anti-drug compatibility to treat chest pain.

  4. Transcriptome changes between compatible and incompatible graft combination of Litchi chinensis by digital gene expression profile.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Zhao, Jietang; Hu, Fuchu; Qin, Yonghua; Wang, Xianghe; Hu, Guibing

    2017-06-21

    Plant grafting has been practiced widely in horticulture and proved as a useful tool in science. However, the mechanisms of graft healing or graft incompatibility remain poorly understood. In this study, Litchi chinensis cv. 'Jingganghongnuo' homograft ('J/J') and 'Jingganghongnuo'/'zhuangyuanhong' heterograft ('J/Z') as compatible and incompatible combination, respectively, was used to study transcriptional changes between incompatible and compatible graft during graft union formation. Anatomical observation indicated that three stages (2 h, 14 d and 21 d after grafting) were critical for graft union formation and selected for high-throughput sequencing. Results indicated 6060 DEGs were differentially expressed in the compatible combination and 5267 DEGs exhibiting in the incompatible one. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were involved in metabolism, wound response, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction. The expression of 9 DEGs annotated in auxin pathway was up-regulated in compatible combination than that in incompatible combination. The IAA concentration confirmed that the IAA might promote the graft compatibility. In addition, 13 DEGs related to lignin biosynthesis were differentially expressed during graft healing process. Overall, our results provide abundant sequence resources for studying mechanisms underlying graft compatibility and establish a platform for further studies of litchi and other evergreen fruit trees.

  5. Strong inbreeding depression in two Scandinavian populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Mousset, Mathilde; Hagenblad, Jenny; Hansson, Bengt; Agren, Jon

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression is a key factor influencing mating system evolution in plants, but current understanding of its relationship with selfing rate is limited by a sampling bias with few estimates for self-incompatible species. We quantified inbreeding depression (δ) over two growing seasons in two populations of the self-incompatible perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata ssp. petraea in Scandinavia. Inbreeding depression was strong and of similar magnitude in both populations. Inbreeding depression for overall fitness across two seasons (the product of number of seeds, offspring viability, and offspring biomass) was 81% and 78% in the two populations. Chlorophyll deficiency accounted for 81% of seedling mortality in the selfing treatment, and was not observed among offspring resulting from outcrossing. The strong reduction in both early viability and late quantitative traits suggests that inbreeding depression is due to deleterious alleles of both large and small effect, and that both populations experience strong selection against the loss of self-incompatibility. A review of available estimates suggested that inbreeding depression tends to be stronger in self-incompatible than in self-compatible highly outcrossing species, implying that undersampling of self-incompatible taxa may bias estimates of the relationship between mating system and inbreeding depression.

  6. The evolution of polyandry II: post-copulatory defenses against genetic incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Zeh, J. A.; Zeh, D. W.

    1997-01-01

    Fundamental to the recently-proposed hypothesis that females mate with more than one male as a hedge against genetic incompatibility is the premise that mechanisms are available to polyandrous females which enable them to safeguard their reproductive investment against the threat of incompatibility between maternal and paternal genomes. Accumulation of sperm from several males shifts the arena for sexual selection from the external environment to the female reproductive tract where, we suggest, interactions at the molecular and cellular levels provide females with direct mechanisms for assessing genetic compatibility. We present examples from the literature to illustrate how sperm competition and female choice of sperm can enable polyandrous females to minimize the risk of fertilization by genetically-incompatible sperm. Polyandry and multiple paternity also create the opportunity to reduce the cost of genetic incompatibility by reallocation of maternal resources from defective to viable offspring. This is likely to be a critically important post-copulatory mechanism for viviparous females whose intimate immunological relationship with developing embryos makes them particularly vulnerable to genetic incompatibility arising from intragenomic conflict and other processes acting at the suborganismal level.

  7. Prophage WO genes recapitulate and enhance Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility.

    PubMed

    LePage, Daniel P; Metcalf, Jason A; Bordenstein, Sarah R; On, Jungmin; Perlmutter, Jessamyn I; Shropshire, J Dylan; Layton, Emily M; Funkhouser-Jones, Lisa J; Beckmann, John F; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2017-03-09

    The genus Wolbachia is an archetype of maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that infect the germline of numerous invertebrate species worldwide. They can selfishly alter arthropod sex ratios and reproductive strategies to increase the proportion of the infected matriline in the population. The most common reproductive manipulation is cytoplasmic incompatibility, which results in embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Females infected with the same Wolbachia strain rescue this lethality. Despite more than 40 years of research and relevance to symbiont-induced speciation, as well as control of arbovirus vectors and agricultural pests, the bacterial genes underlying cytoplasmic incompatibility remain unknown. Here we use comparative and transgenic approaches to demonstrate that two differentially transcribed, co-diverging genes in the eukaryotic association module of prophage WO from Wolbachia strain wMel recapitulate and enhance cytoplasmic incompatibility. Dual expression in transgenic, uninfected males of Drosophila melanogaster crossed to uninfected females causes embryonic lethality. Each gene additively augments embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. Lethality associates with embryonic defects that parallel those of wild-type cytoplasmic incompatibility and is notably rescued by wMel-infected embryos in all cases. The discovery of cytoplasmic incompatibility factor genes cifA and cifB pioneers genetic studies of prophage WO-induced reproductive manipulations and informs the continuing use of Wolbachia to control dengue and Zika virus transmission to humans.

  8. 76 FR 53424 - Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Larose to Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... restore fish and wildlife resources while ensuring environmental sustainability of our Nation's water... Department of the Army; Corps of Engineers Intent To Prepare a Draft Supplemental Environmental Impact... intent. SUMMARY: The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) intends to prepare a supplemental...

  9. Common Intent: A Review of the Literature

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    intentionally Page vi Common Intent Literature Review Humansystems Incorporated P515728.PDF [Page: 8 of 175] Resume analytique Dans le present rapport...Review Page IX P515728.PDF [Page: 14 of 175] This page left blank intentionally Page x Common Intent Literature Review Humansystems Incorporated...technological means. Humansystems Incorporated Common Intent Literature Review Page 9 P515728.PDF [Page: 24 of 175] This page left blank intentionally

  10. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Unidirectional Incompatibility in Drosophila Simulans: Inheritance, Geographic Variation and Fitness Effects

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, A. A.; Turelli, M.

    1988-01-01

    In California, Drosophila simulans females from some populations (type W) produce relatively few adult progeny when crossed to males from some other populations (type R), but the productivity of the reciprocal cross is comparable to within-population controls. These two incompatibility types are widespread in North America and are also present elsewhere. Both types sometimes occur in the same population. Type R females always produce type R progeny irrespective of the father's type. However, matings between R males and females from stocks classified as type W produce type R progeny at low frequency. This suggests rare paternal transmission of the R incompatibility type, as we have found no evidence for segregation of incompatibility types in the W stocks. There is quantitative variation among type R lines for compatibility with W females, but not vice versa. Population cage studies and productivity tests suggest that deleterious side effects are associated with the type R cytoplasm. PMID:17246430

  12. Study on incompatibility of traditional chinese medicine: evidence from formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room.

    PubMed

    Long, Wei; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Jin, Jin; Yu, Guang-Yun; He, Xin; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Zhou, Ze-Wei; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in "eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors," an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, "eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors," is probably scientifically based.

  13. The genetics of sex chromosomes: evolution and implications for hybrid incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Norman A; Lachance, Joseph

    2012-05-01

    Heteromorphic sex chromosomes, where one sex has two different types of sex chromosomes, face very different evolutionary consequences than do autosomes. Two important features of sex chromosomes arise from being present in only one copy in one of the sexes: dosage compensation and the meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes. Other differences arise because sex chromosomes spend unequal amounts of time in each sex. Thus, the impact of evolutionary processes (mutation, selection, genetic drift, and meiotic drive) differs substantially between each sex chromosome, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes. Sex chromosomes also play a disproportionate role in Haldane's rule and other important patterns related to hybrid incompatibility, and thus speciation. We review the consequences of sex chromosomes on hybrid incompatibility. A theme running through this review is that epigenetic processes, notably those related to chromatin, may be more important to the evolution of sex chromosomes and the evolution of hybrid incompatibility than previously recognized.

  14. Adult living-donor liver transplantation with ABO-incompatible grafts.

    PubMed

    Testa, Giuliano; Vidanovic, Vladimir; Chejfec, Gregorio; Gangemi, Antonio; Iqpal, Ronak; Porubsky, Marian; Pham, Thuy; Benedetti, Enrico

    2008-03-15

    Liver transplantation using ABO-incompatible grafts is rarely performed because the reported outcome is poorer than with compatible grafts. We report our positive experience with adult-to-adult living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) using ABO-incompatible grafts. The immunosuppressive protocol consisted of plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin infusion before LDLT followed by thymoglobulin induction and splenectomy, maintenance with tacrolimus/cyclosporine (FK/CSA), mycophenolate mofetil, and a rapid steroid taper. Plasmapheresis was planned for up to 3 months after LDLT aiming at maintaining the anti-ABO titers level below 1:16. Liver biopsies were routinely stained for humoral rejection with complement 4d (C4d) and for biliary damage with cytokeratin 7. Between January 2003 and September 2004, five patients, mean age 59 years, received an ABO-incompatible LDLT. Patient and graft survival was 80% at mean follow-up of 43 months (range, 34-54) for the four surviving patients. One patient died 4 months after LDLT. Humoral rejection occurred in one patient whereas acute cellular rejection was diagnosed in four patients. ABO-incompatible LDLT can be performed with patient and graft survival similar to compatible LDLT. Minimization of immunosuppression is possible, and chronic biliary damage is not the norm. Better tools than complement 4d staining must be researched to diagnose the features of immunologic damage to the graft. If these results will be confirmed in a greater number of patients, ABO-incompatible LDLT may be proposed when ABO-compatible donors are not available or when the ABO-incompatible donor is the better candidate.

  15. Chromosome-Wide Impacts on the Expression of Incompatibilities in Hybrids of Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S; Lima, Thiago G; Kovaleva, Inna; Hatfield, Lydia

    2016-06-01

    Chromosome rearrangements such as inversions have been recognized previously as contributing to reproductive isolation by maintaining alleles together that jointly contribute to deleterious genetic interactions and postzygotic reproductive isolation. In this study, an impact of potential incompatibilities merely residing on the same chromosome was found in crosses of populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus When genetically divergent populations of this copepod are crossed, hybrids show reduced fitness, and deviations from expected genotypic ratios can be used to determine regions of the genome involved in deleterious interactions. In this study, a set of markers was genotyped for a cross of two populations of T. californicus, and these markers show widespread deviations from Mendelian expectations, with entire chromosomes showing marked skew. Despite the importance of mtDNA/nuclear interactions in incompatibilities in this system in previous studies, in these crosses the expected patterns stemming from these interactions are not widely apparent. Females lack recombination in this species, and a striking difference is observed between male and female backcrosses. This suggests that the maintenance of multiple loci on individual chromosomes can enable some incompatibilities, perhaps playing a similar role in the initial rounds of hybridization to chromosomal rearrangements in preserving sets of alleles together that contribute to incompatibilities. Finally, it was observed that candidate pairs of incompatibility regions are not consistently interacting across replicates or subsets of these crosses, despite the repeatability of the deviations at many of the single loci themselves, suggesting that more complicated models of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities may need to be considered. Copyright © 2016 Willett et al.

  16. Chromosome-Wide Impacts on the Expression of Incompatibilities in Hybrids of Tigriopus californicus

    PubMed Central

    Willett, Christopher S.; Lima, Thiago G.; Kovaleva, Inna; Hatfield, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangements such as inversions have been recognized previously as contributing to reproductive isolation by maintaining alleles together that jointly contribute to deleterious genetic interactions and postzygotic reproductive isolation. In this study, an impact of potential incompatibilities merely residing on the same chromosome was found in crosses of populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus. When genetically divergent populations of this copepod are crossed, hybrids show reduced fitness, and deviations from expected genotypic ratios can be used to determine regions of the genome involved in deleterious interactions. In this study, a set of markers was genotyped for a cross of two populations of T. californicus, and these markers show widespread deviations from Mendelian expectations, with entire chromosomes showing marked skew. Despite the importance of mtDNA/nuclear interactions in incompatibilities in this system in previous studies, in these crosses the expected patterns stemming from these interactions are not widely apparent. Females lack recombination in this species, and a striking difference is observed between male and female backcrosses. This suggests that the maintenance of multiple loci on individual chromosomes can enable some incompatibilities, perhaps playing a similar role in the initial rounds of hybridization to chromosomal rearrangements in preserving sets of alleles together that contribute to incompatibilities. Finally, it was observed that candidate pairs of incompatibility regions are not consistently interacting across replicates or subsets of these crosses, despite the repeatability of the deviations at many of the single loci themselves, suggesting that more complicated models of Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities may need to be considered. PMID:27172190

  17. S RNase and Interspecific Pollen Rejection in the Genus Nicotiana: Multiple Pollen-Rejection Pathways Contribute to Unilateral Incompatibility between Self-Incompatible and Self-Compatible Species.

    PubMed

    Murfett, J.; Strabala, T. J.; Zurek, D. M.; Mou, B.; Beecher, B.; McClure, B. A.

    1996-06-01

    In self-incompatible (SI) plants, the S locus acts to prevent growth of self-pollen and thus promotes outcrossing within the species. Interspecific crosses between SI and self-compatible (SC) species often show unilateral incompatibility that follows the SI x SC rule: SI species reject pollen from SC species, but the reciprocal crosses are usually compatible. The general validity of the SI x SC rule suggests a link between SI and interspecific pollen rejection; however, this link has been questioned because of a number of exceptions to the rule. To clarify the role of the S locus in interspecific pollen rejection, we transformed several Nicotiana species and hybrids with genes encoding SA2 or SC10 RNase from SI N. alata. Compatibility phenotypes in the transgenic plants were tested using pollen from three SC species showing unilateral incompatibility with N. alata. S RNase was implicated in rejecting pollen from all three species. Rejection of N. plumbaginifolia pollen was similar to S allele-specific pollen rejection, showing a requirement for both S RNase and other genetic factors from N. alata. In contrast, S RNase-dependent rejection of N. glutinosa and N. tabacum pollen proceeded without these additional factors. N. alata also rejects pollen from the latter two species through an S RNase-independent mechanism. Our results implicate the S locus in all three systems, but it is clear that multiple mechanisms contribute to interspecific pollen rejection.

  18. [Erythrocyte substitution and isoagglutinin titer following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation].

    PubMed

    Henneberg-Quester, K B; Luboldt, W; Schaefer, U W; Beelen, D W; Quabeck, K

    1990-01-01

    About 2 or 3 weeks after transplantation, even ABO-Incompatible bone marrow shows a successful graft. Haemopoiesis is not always free of problems. Suppression of erythropoiesis is caused by persistently incompatible agglutinins. Patient's well-being is limited by longer periods of low levels of haemoglobin concentration. Long-lasting need for transfusions is related to the well-known risk of infections. A procedure to eliminate the residual titers of alloantibodies should be discussed in time with the staff of the transfusion department.

  19. Selected physiologic compatibilities and incompatibilities between human and porcine organ systems.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Zuhaib; Busch, Jamie; Awwad, Michel; Wagner, Robert; Wells, Kevin; Cooper, David K C

    2006-11-01

    The shortage of donor organs is a major barrier to clinical organ transplantation. Although xenotransplantation is considered one of the alternatives to human organ transplantation, there are immunologic and physiologic incompatibilities between humans and pigs. With the exception of coagulation, the major potential physiologic incompatibilities relating to function of the kidney, heart, liver, lungs, pancreatic islets, and hormones are reviewed. Some of these physiologic differences can be overcome by producing genetically altered pigs to improve compatibility with humans. The possibility of producing such pigs for organ transplantation is considered.

  20. State assignment for asynchronous FSMs with the use of the incompatibility and complement graph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulisz, Józef

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents an application of a novel concept of graph - the Incompatibility and Complement Graph - to state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. A specific feature of the graph is that it contains two kinds of edges: connecting mutually incompatible nodes, and connecting mutually complementing nodes. The graph can be useful in certain class of optimization problems, in which compatibility of bit patterns both in the true, and in the complemented form has to be analyzed. An example of such a problem is covering analysis in state assignment for asynchronous FSMs. The paper presents a simple example explaining the method. Appropriate algorithms for the graph building and coloring are also presented.

  1. Compassionate intention as a therapeutic intervention by partners of cancer patients: effects of distant intention on the patients' autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Radin, Dean; Stone, Jerome; Levine, Ellen; Eskandarnejad, Shahram; Schlitz, Marilyn; Kozak, Leila; Mandel, Dorothy; Hayssen, Gail

    2008-01-01

    This double-blind study investigated the effects of intention on the autonomic nervous system of a human "sender" and distant "receiver" of those intentions, and it explored the roles that motivation and training might have in modulating these effects. Skin conductance level was measured in each member of a couple, both of whom were asked to feel the presence of the other. While the receiving person relaxed in a distant shielded room for 30 minutes, the sending person directed intention toward the receiver during repeated 10-second epochs separated by random interepoch periods. Thirty-six couples participated in 38 test sessions. In 22 couples, one of the pair was a cancer patient. In 12 of those couples, the healthy person was trained to direct intention toward the patient and asked to practice that intention daily for three months prior to the experiment (trained group). In the other 10 couples, the pair was tested before the partner was trained (wait group). Fourteen healthy couples received no training (control group). Using nonparametric bootstrap procedures, normalized skin conductance means recorded during the intention epochs were compared with the same measures recorded during randomly selected interepoch periods, used as controls. The preplanned difference examined the intention versus control means at the end of the intention epoch. Overall, receivers' skin conductance increased during the intention epochs (z = 3.9; P = .00009, two-tailed). Planned differences in skin conductance among the three groups were not significant, but a post hoc analysis showed that peak deviations were largest and most sustained in the trained group, followed by more moderate effects in the wait group, and still smaller effects in the control group. Directing intention toward a distant person is correlated with activation of that person's autonomic nervous system. Strong motivation to heal and to be healed, and training on how to cultivate and direct compassionate intention

  2. How to use intentional silence.

    PubMed

    Kemerer, Douglas

    2016-09-07

    Rationale and key points This article explains intentional silence, which can provide a therapeutic nursing presence that demonstrates compassion and respect for the patient. » Intentional silence can enhance the therapeutic relationship between the nurse and patient. » Intentional silence can be used to reduce the patient's emotional lability by ensuring that they feel listened to. » It is important that nurses are able to respond therapeutically to rhetorical statements and/or those concerning serious or severe clinical circumstances. » The nurse can use intentional silence to support the patient in acknowledging, processing and reflecting on changes in their health. Reflective activity 'How to' articles can help to update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How this article will change your practice. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at rcni.com/portfolio.

  3. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  4. The down-regulation of disgust by implementation intentions: experiential and physiological concomitants.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Patrick; Scholz, Urte; Danuser, Brigitta

    2015-06-01

    Emotion regulation plays a key role in mental health and psychopathology. Therefore, it seems important to develop effective forms of emotion regulation. Implementation intentions are if-then plans that help people attain their self-regulatory goals. Perspective-taking and response-focused implementation intentions have been shown to reduce feelings of unpleasantness and arousal, respectively, in response to briefly presented disgusting pictures. The present study addressed the open research questions whether forming these types of implementation intentions is effective in regulating affect during prolonged presentation of disgusting pictures, and whether it is associated with changes in physiological arousal. Eighty-one participants viewed disgusting, neutral, and pleasant pictures of 6 s duration under four instructions: the goal intention to not get disgusted, this goal intention furnished with a perspective-taking or a response-focused implementation intention, and no emotion regulation instructions. The dependent variables were ratings of disgust, valence, arousal, and electrodermal activity. Only perspective-taking implementation intention participants significantly reduced their disgust and unpleasantness as compared to goal-intention and control participants. Arousal and skin conductance did not significantly differ between conditions. The effectiveness of response-focused but not perspective-taking implementation intentions seems to be substantially reduced during sustained exposure duration.

  5. Sustainability 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, David

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the leading issues of this time. Climate change is real, and widespread commitment and creativity are needed to combat its negative effects. Higher education is the seedbed of the sustainability movement. Much climate research and environmental science takes place on college and university campuses, which are, by their…

  6. Sustainable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  7. Sustainable Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadwell, Louise; Dillon, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Green schools have moved into a new era that focuses on building a culture of sustainability in every aspect of learning in schools. In the early stages of sustainability education, the focus was on recycling and turning off the lights. Now, students and adults together are moving into the areas of advocacy and action that are based on a deep…

  8. Sustainability 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, David

    2008-01-01

    Sustainability is one of the leading issues of this time. Climate change is real, and widespread commitment and creativity are needed to combat its negative effects. Higher education is the seedbed of the sustainability movement. Much climate research and environmental science takes place on college and university campuses, which are, by their…

  9. Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Although empathic responses to stimuli with emotional contents may occur automatically, humans are capable to intentionally empathize with other individuals. Intentional empathy for others is even possible when they do not show emotional expressions. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of this intentionally controlled empathic process. To investigate the neuronal substrates underlying intentional empathy, we scanned 20 healthy Chinese subjects, using fMRI, when they tried to feel inside the emotional states of neutral or angry faces of familiar (Asian) and unfamiliar (Caucasian) models. Skin color evaluation of the same stimuli served as a control task. Compared to a baseline condition, the empathy task revealed a network of established empathy regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. The contrast of intentional empathy vs skin color evaluation, however, revealed three regions: the bilateral inferior frontal cortex, whose hemodynamic responses were independent of perceived emotion and familiarity and the right-middle temporal gyrus, whose activity was modulated by emotion but not by familiarity. These findings extend our understanding of the role of the inferior frontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus in empathy by demonstrating their involvement in intentional empathy. PMID:21511824

  10. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-05-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium.

  11. Molecular and quantitative signatures of biparental inbreeding depression in the self-incompatible tree species Prunus avium

    PubMed Central

    Jolivet, C; Rogge, M; Degen, B

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity strongly influences populations' adaptability to changing environments and therefore survival. Sustainable forest management practices have multiple roles including conservation of genetic resources and timber production. In this study, we aimed at better understanding the variation in genetic diversity among adult and offspring individuals, and the effects of mating system on offspring survival and growth in wild cherry, Prunus avium. We analysed adult trees and open pollinated seed-families from three stands in Germany at eight microsatellite loci and one incompatibility system locus and conducted paternity analyses. Seed viability testing and seed sowing in a nursery allowed further testing for the effects of pollen donor diversity and genetic similarity between mates on the offspring performance at the seed and seedling stages. Our results were contrasting across stands. Loss of genetic diversity from adult to seedling stages and positive effect of mate diversity on offspring performance occurred in one stand only, whereas biparental inbreeding depression and significant decrease in fixation index from adults to seedlings was detected in two stands. We discussed the effects of stand genetic diversity on the magnitude of biparental inbreeding depression at several life-stages and its consequences on the management of genetic resources in P. avium. PMID:23211795

  12. Intentions of older homebound women with regard to reaching help quickly.

    PubMed

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H; Matsuda, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal phenomenological study were to describe intentions of older women relative to reaching help quickly (RHQ), to place those intentions in personal-social context, and to compare intentions of subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and nonsubscribers. The 40 participants were aged 85 or older, resided alone, and needed help to leave home. Two contextual features ("recognizing my risk of being unable to RHQ" and "recognizing my need for a RHQ device to sustain myself") were basic to two phenomena ("negotiating reliance on people to reach quickly if I need help" and "reducing my risk of being unable to RHQ"). There was greater variation in intentions and context within each of the two naturally occurring groups (subscribers and nonsubscribers) than between them. Practitioners cannot assume that women intend to use available RHQ devices in specific situations; preventive nursing involves proactive exploration of intentions relative to RHQ.

  13. Runaway Climate Change as Challenge to the "Closing Circle" of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David; Kagawa, Fumiyo

    2010-01-01

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is the latest and thickest manifestation of the "closing circle" of policy-driven environmental education. Characterised by definitional haziness, a tendency to blur rather than lay bare inconsistencies and incompatibilities, and a cozy but ill-considered association with the globalisation agenda, the…

  14. Runaway Climate Change as Challenge to the "Closing Circle" of Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selby, David; Kagawa, Fumiyo

    2010-01-01

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is the latest and thickest manifestation of the "closing circle" of policy-driven environmental education. Characterised by definitional haziness, a tendency to blur rather than lay bare inconsistencies and incompatibilities, and a cozy but ill-considered association with the globalisation agenda, the…

  15. Wolbachia Divergence and the Evolution of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    Atyame, Célestine M.; Labbé, Pierrick; Dumas, Emilie; Milesi, Pascal; Charlat, Sylvain; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylène

    2014-01-01

    Many insect species harbor Wolbachia bacteria that induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), i.e. embryonic lethality in crosses between infected males and uninfected females, or between males and females carrying incompatible Wolbachia strains. The molecular mechanism of CI remains unknown, but the available data are best interpreted under a modification–rescue model, where a mod function disables the reproductive success of infected males’ sperm, unless the eggs are infected and express a compatible resc function. Here we examine the evolution of CI in the mosquito Culex pipiens, harbouring a large number of closely related Wolbachia strains structured in five distinct phylogenetic groups. Specifically, we used a worldwide sample of mosquito lines to assess the hypothesis that genetic divergence should correlate with the divergence of CI properties on a low evolutionary scale. We observed a significant association of Wolbachia genetic divergence with CI patterns. Most Wolbachia strains from the same group were compatible whereas those from different groups were often incompatible. Consistently, we found a strong association between Wolbachia groups and their mod-resc properties. Finally, lines from the same geographical area were rarely incompatible, confirming the conjecture that the spatial distribution of Wolbachia compatibility types should be constrained by selection. This study indicates a clear correlation between Wolbachia genotypes and CI properties, paving the way toward the identification of the molecular basis of CI through comparative genomics. PMID:24498078

  16. Multiple Wolbachia determinants control the evolution of cytoplasmic incompatibilities in Culex pipiens mosquito populations.

    PubMed

    Atyame, Celestine M; Duron, Olivier; Tortosa, Pablo; Pasteur, Nicole; Fort, Philippe; Weill, Mylene

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are maternally inherited endosymbionts that can invade arthropod populations through manipulation of their reproduction. In mosquitoes, Wolbachia induce embryonic death, known as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), whenever infected males mate with females either uninfected or infected with an incompatible strain. Although genetic determinants of CI are unknown, a functional model involving the so-called mod and resc factors has been proposed. Natural populations of Culex pipiens mosquito display a complex CI relationship pattern associated with the highest Wolbachia (wPip) genetic polymorphism reported so far. We show here that C. pipiens populations from La Réunion, a geographically isolated island in the southwest of the Indian Ocean, are infected with genetically closely related wPip strains. Crossing experiments reveal that these Wolbachia are all mutually compatible. However, crosses with genetically more distant wPip strains indicate that Wolbachia strains from La Réunion belong to at least five distinct incompatibility groups (or crossing types). These incompatibility properties which are strictly independent from the nuclear background, formally establish that in C. pipiens, CI is controlled by several Wolbachia mod/resc factors.

  17. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables.

  18. Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation with ABO-Incompatible Grafts: A German Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Goralczyk, Armin D.; Obed, Aiman; Schnitzbauer, Andreas; Doenecke, Axel; Tsui, Tung Yu; Scherer, Marcus N.; Ramadori, Giuliano; Lorf, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Adult living donor liver transplantations (ALDLTs) across the ABO blood group barrier have been reported in Asia, North Americas, and Europe, but not yet in Germany. Several strategies have been established to overcome the detrimental effects that are attached with such a disparity between donor and host, but no gold standard has yet emerged. Here, we present the first experiences with three ABO-incompatible adult living donor liver transplantations in Germany applying different immunosuppressive strategies. Four patient-donor couples were considered for ABO-incompatible ALDLT. In these patients, resident ABO blood group antibodies (isoagglutinins) were depleted by plasmapheresis or immunoadsorption and replenishment was inhibited by splenectomy and/or B-cell-targeted immunosuppression. Despite different treatments ALDLT could safely be performed in three patients and all patients had good initial graft function without signs for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Two patients had long-term graft survival with stable graft function. We thus propose the feasibility of ABO-incompatible ALDLT with these protocols and advocate further expansion of ABO incompatible ALDLT in multicenter trials to improve efficacy and safety. PMID:20148072

  19. Evidence of Natural Selection Acting on a Polymorphic Hybrid Incompatibility Locus in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Sweigart, Andrea L.; Flagel, Lex E.

    2015-01-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci—hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)—to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. PMID:25428983

  20. A bacterial symbiont in the Bacteroidetes induces cytoplasmic incompatibility in the parasitoid wasp Encarsia pergandiella.

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Martha S; Perlman, Steve J; Kelly, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts of arthropods have been implicated in several reproductive manipulations of their hosts. These include cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), parthenogenesis induction in haplodiploid species (PI), feminization and male killing. One symbiont lineage in the alpha-Proteobacteria, Wolbachia, is the only bacterium known to cause all of these effects, and has been thought to be unique in causing CI, in which the fecundity of uninfected females is reduced after mating with infected males. Here, we provide evidence that an undescribed symbiont in the Bacteroidetes group causes CI in a sexual population of the parasitic wasp Encarsia pergandiella. Wasps were crossed in all four possible combinations of infected and uninfected individuals. In the cross predicted to be incompatible, infected (I) males x uninfected (U) females, progeny production was severely reduced, with these females producing only 12.6% of the number of progeny in other crosses. The incompatibility observed in this haplodiploid species was the female mortality type; dissections showed that most progeny from the incompatible cross died as eggs. The 16S rDNA sequence of this symbiont is 99% identical to a parthenogenesis-inducing symbiont in other Encarsia, and 96% identical to a feminizing symbiont in haplodiploid Brevipalpus mites. Thus, this recently discovered symbiont lineage is capable of inducing three of the four principal manipulations of host reproduction known to be caused by Wolbachia. PMID:14561283

  1. Simple Biophysical Model Predicts Faster Accumulation of Hybrid Incompatibilities in Small Populations Under Stabilizing Selection

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Bhavin S.; Goldstein, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is fundamental to the process of generating the huge diversity of life on Earth. However, we are yet to have a clear understanding of its molecular-genetic basis. Here, we examine a computational model of reproductive isolation that explicitly incorporates a map from genotype to phenotype based on the biophysics of protein–DNA binding. In particular, we model the binding of a protein transcription factor to a DNA binding site and how their independent coevolution, in a stabilizing fitness landscape, of two allopatric lineages leads to incompatibilities. Complementing our previous coarse-grained theoretical results, our simulations give a new prediction for the monomorphic regime of evolution that smaller populations should develop incompatibilities more quickly. This arises as (1) smaller populations have a greater initial drift load, as there are more sequences that bind poorly than well, so fewer substitutions are needed to reach incompatible regions of phenotype space, and (2) slower divergence when the population size is larger than the inverse of discrete differences in fitness. Further, we find longer sequences develop incompatibilities more quickly at small population sizes, but more slowly at large population sizes. The biophysical model thus represents a robust mechanism of rapid reproductive isolation for small populations and large sequences that does not require peak shifts or positive selection. Finally, we show that the growth of DMIs with time is quadratic for small populations, agreeing with Orr’s model, but nonpower law for large populations, with a form consistent with our previous theoretical results. PMID:26434721

  2. Offsite Radiological Consequence Calculation for the Bounding Mixing of Incompatible Materials Accident

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-07-30

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. Conservative input parameters were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from the Office of River Protection.

  3. OFFSITE RADIOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCE CALCULATION FOR THE BOUNDING MIXING OF INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS ACCIDENT

    SciTech Connect

    SANDGREN, K.R.

    2003-10-09

    This document quantifies the offsite radiological consequence of the bounding mixing of incompatible materials accident for comparison with the 25 rem Evaluation Guideline established in DOE-STD-3009, Appendix A. The bounding accident is an inadvertent addition of acid to a waste tank. Conservative inputs were applied in accordance with the guidance provided. The calculated offsite dose does not challenge the Evaluation Guideline.

  4. Nudging to prevent the purchase of incompatible digital products online: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Gabriele; Hernández, Penélope; van Bavel, René; Vila, José

    2017-01-01

    Ensuring safe and satisfactory online shopping activity, especially among vulnerable consumers such as elderly and less educated citizens, is part of a larger set of consumer policy objectives seeking to strengthen trust in the electronic marketplace. This article contributes to that goal by testing the effectiveness of nudges intended to prevent the purchase of 'incompatible' digital products (i.e., those which cannot be used with the devices owned by consumers or the systems they operate). We ran a computerised lab experiment (n = 626) examining three types of nudges, the effects of age and education, and interaction effects between these variables and the nudges. Results show that emotive warning messages and placing incompatibility information at the checkout page rather than earlier in the purchasing process were effective in reducing the purchase of incompatible goods. Age was also a relevant factor: older participants were more likely to purchase incompatible goods. In addition, there was an interaction effect between all nudges and age: two nudges exacerbated the effect of age, while another mitigated it. These results suggest nudges can be an effective policy tool, confirm a generational gap in online behaviour, and highlight how nudges can moderate the effect of socio-demographic variables. PMID:28282401

  5. Female house mice avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males in a mate choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Manser, A; König, B; Lindholm, A K

    2015-01-01

    The t haplotype in house mice is a well-known selfish genetic element with detrimental, nonadditive fitness consequences to its carriers: recessive lethal mutations cause t/t homozygotes to perish in utero. Given the severe genetic incompatibility imposed by the t haplotype, we predict females to avoid fertilization by t haplotype incompatible males. Indeed, some of the strongest evidence for compatibility mate choice is related to the t haplotype in house mice. However, all previous evidence for compatibility mate choice in this system is based on olfactory preference. It is so far unknown how general these preferences are and whether they are relevant in an actual mating context. Here, we assess female compatibility mate choice related to t haplotypes in a setting that – for the first time – allowed females to directly interact and mate with males. This approach enabled us to analyse female behaviour during the testing period, and the resulting paternity success and fitness consequences of a given choice. We show that genetic incompatibilities arising from the t haplotype had severe indirect fitness consequences and t females avoided fertilization by t incompatible males. The results are inconclusive whether this avoidance of t fertilization by t females was caused by pre- or post-copulatory processes. PMID:25494878

  6. Self-incompatibility in Papaver: advances in integrating the signalling network.

    PubMed

    Eaves, Deborah J; Flores-Ortiz, Carlos; Haque, Tamanna; Lin, Zongcheng; Teng, Nianjun; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2014-04-01

    Self-fertilization, which results in reduced fitness of offspring, is a common problem in hermaphrodite angiosperms. To prevent this, many plants utilize SI (self-incompatibility), which is determined by the multi-allelic S-locus, that allows discrimination between self (incompatible) and non-self (compatible) pollen by the pistil. In poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the pistil S-determinant (PrsS) is a small secreted protein which interacts with the pollen S-determinant PrpS, a ~20 kDa novel transmembrane protein. Interaction of matching pollen and pistil S-determinants results in self-recognition, initiating a Ca²⁺-dependent signalling network in incompatible pollen. This triggers several downstream events, including alterations to the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of sPPases (soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases) and an MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase), increases in ROS (reactive oxygen species) and nitric oxide (NO), and activation of several caspase-like activities. This results in the inhibition of pollen tube growth, prevention of self-fertilization and ultimately PCD (programmed cell death) in incompatible pollen. The present review focuses on our current understanding of the integration of these signals with their targets in the SI/PCD network. We also discuss our recent functional expression of PrpS in Arabidopsis thaliana pollen.

  7. 48 CFR 970.0371-6 - Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-6 Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests. (a) Employees of a management and operating contractor shall not be permitted to make...

  8. Evidence of natural selection acting on a polymorphic hybrid incompatibility locus in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Andrea L; Flagel, Lex E

    2015-02-01

    As a common cause of reproductive isolation in diverse taxa, hybrid incompatibilities are fundamentally important to speciation. A key question is which evolutionary forces drive the initial substitutions within species that lead to hybrid dysfunction. Previously, we discovered a simple genetic incompatibility that causes nearly complete male sterility and partial female sterility in hybrids between the two closely related yellow monkeyflower species Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus. In this report, we fine map the two major incompatibility loci-hybrid male sterility 1 (hms1) and hybrid male sterility 2 (hms2)-to small nuclear genomic regions (each <70 kb) that include strong candidate genes. With this improved genetic resolution, we also investigate the evolutionary dynamics of hms1 in a natural population of M. guttatus known to be polymorphic at this locus. Using classical genetic crosses and population genomics, we show that a 320-kb region containing the hms1 incompatibility allele has risen to intermediate frequency in this population by strong natural selection. This finding provides direct evidence that natural selection within plant species can lead to hybrid dysfunction between species. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  9. Differential interspecific incompatibility among Populus hybrids in sections Aigeiros Duby and Tacamahaca Spach

    Treesearch

    Assiti A. Mahama; Richard B. Hall; Ronald S. Zalesny

    2011-01-01

    In our previous Populus breeding, compatible crosses between P. maximowiczii A. Henry and P. deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh corroborated the potential of interspecific hybrids, despite low seed set. Our current objective was to test the range of incompatibility among intraspecific and interspecific crosses using...

  10. Somatic Incompatibility in Diakaryotic-monokaryotic and Dikaryotic Pairings of Echinodontium tinctorium

    Treesearch

    A. Dan Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Somatic incompatibility in dikaryotic-monokaryotic (di-mon) and dikaryotic pairings of Echinodontium tinctorium was investigated in vitro on 4.5% malt agar. Antagonistic reactions of varying intensity occurred in all pairings between 12 allopatric dikaryons from Idaho and Arizona, between 14 sib-composed dikaryons from two Idaho sites, and in over...

  11. [Transfusions of rhesus-incompatible platelet concentrates in Rouen University Hospital: procedures and consequences].

    PubMed

    Chamouni, P; Josset, V; Bastit, D; Tavolacci, M P; Lenain, P; Varin, R; Czernichow, P

    2005-10-01

    Guidelines for distribution and use of blood products have been established for both blood transfusion institution and hospitals, in particular for the use of Rh (D)-incompatible platelet concentrates. The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) the rate of attribution for the Rh (D)-incompatible platelets concentrates, 2) the immunisation prophylaxis practices, 3) the immunological consequences using short and medium term follow-up of transfused patients. Patients with Rh (D)-incompatible platelets concentrate administered during the year 2003 at Rouen University Hospital were retrospectively selected. Patients on transfusion were described. The relationship of various factors with the injection as well as the appearance of allo-immunization was statistically tested. During a year, 280 Rh (D)-incompatible platelets concentrates were administered to 67 patients. Immunisation prophylaxis by injection of Ig anti-D was not systematically performed. Four immunizations in the Rhesus group system were identified: 2 against D antigen (Ag), 1 against E Ag and 1 against C Ag. Immunisations against D Ag occurred for two younger women considered as immunodeficient. Immunization prophylaxis was more frequent in poly-transfused patients. However no difference was observed for the other factors. Compatibility concerning Rhesus (D) is not always possible. The immunization against red cells persists, in particular against the antigens of the Rhesus group system and moreover for the immunodeficient patients. Recommendations for immunization prophylaxis by injection of specific anti-D immune-globulin (Ig) could be reconsidered.

  12. First successful perinatal management of pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Hisanobu; Obara, Hideaki; Miyakoshi, Kei; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Shimojima, Naoki; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Yamada, Yohei; Itano, Osamu; Hoshino, Ken; Kuroda, Tatsuo; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    Many papers have reported on pregnancy and delivery after liver transplantation, but there have been no reports on pregnancy after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. This paper reports the first successful pregnancy and delivery of a newborn after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation for fulminant hepatic failure. The patient was a 39-year-old female. She had an ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, donated from her husband, due to subacute fulminant hepatitis of unknown etiology. She was taking tacrolimus, methylprednisolone, and mizoribine orally for the maintenance of immunosuppression at the time of discharge. She was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 38 without any rejection episodes. At 1 year and 6 mo after transplantation, she indicated a wish to become pregnant. Therefore, treatment with mycophenolate mofetil was interrupted at that time. After two miscarriages, she finally became pregnant and delivered transvaginally 3 years after the transplantation. All of the pregnancies were conceived naturally. The newborn was female with a birth weight of 3146 g; the Apgar scores were 9 and 10. Delivery was performed smoothly, and the newborn exhibited no malformations. The mother and the newborn were discharged uneventfully. We suggest that pregnancy is possible for recipients after ABO-incompatible liver transplantation. PMID:28210092

  13. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  14. 48 CFR 970.0371-6 - Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-6 Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests. (a) Employees of a management and operating contractor shall not be permitted to...

  15. 48 CFR 970.0371-6 - Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-6 Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests. (a) Employees of a management and operating contractor shall not be permitted to...

  16. Successful ABO-incompatible living-related intestinal transplantation: a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fan, D M; Zhao, Q C; Wang, W Z; Shi, H; Wang, M; Chen, D L; Zheng, J Y; Li, M B; Wu, G S

    2015-05-01

    ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation has rarely been performed due to poor patient outcomes. Herein we present a case of successful ABO-incompatible intestinal transplantation with a 2-year follow-up. A 16-year-old female with a history of extensive bowel resection received an ABO-incompatible living donor bowel graft from her father (blood type AB graft into a type A recipient). Posttransplant immunosuppression consisted of an initial anti-CD20, plasmapheresis/intravenous immunoglobulin before transplantation, followed by an anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and splenectomy, and maintenance with tacrolimus and prednisone. Her postoperative course was remarkable for a single episode of rejection on day 14 which responded promptly to treatment with methyprednisolone and ATG. Three months after transplantation, the patient developed an abdominal abscess requiring open surgical drainage. No viral infections were encountered. Posttransplant anti-B antibody titers and anti-B7 donor-specific antibody levels remained low. At a 2-year follow-up, the patient showed a progressive weight gain of 5.0 kg. This case illustrates that ABO-incompatible living-related bowel transplantation is immunologically feasible and is associated with good outcomes for the recipient. The management of blood type antibodies and the use of adequate immunosuppression in the early period of the procedure may be the keys to the success of future cases.

  17. Objective Work-Nonwork Conflict: From Incompatible Demands to Decreased Work Role Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haun, Sascha; Steinmetz, Holger; Dormann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Research on work-nonwork conflict (WNC) is based on the assumption that incompatible demands from the work and the nonwork domain hamper role performance. This assumption implies that role demands from both domains interact in predicting role performance, but research has been largely limited to main effects. In this multi-source study, we analyze…

  18. Distinctive and Incompatible Properties of Two Common Classes of IRT Models for Graded Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    1995-01-01

    Two classes of graded response models, one based on the work of L. L. Thurstone and the other on the work of G. Rasch, are juxtaposed and shown to satisfy important but mutually incompatible criteria and to reflect different response processes. Implications of the choice between these models are discussed. (Author/SLD)

  19. Early detection of graft incompatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca) using in vitro techniques.

    PubMed

    Errea, Pilar; Garay, Lilibeth; Marín, Juan Antonio

    2001-05-01

    Graft compatibility has been studied in vitro using callus tissues of apricot (Prunus armeniaca) and different Prunus rootstocks to form scion/rootstock combinations with different degrees of graft compatibility. In these species, incompatibility is manifested by a breakdown of the trees at the union area that can occur some years after grafting. Here, the possibility of obtaining an early detection method to determine graft incompatibility is explored by callus fusion in vitro. The adhesion of the two callus partners, the development of the cells at the contact surface (cell arrangement, intensity of cell-wall staining), and the presence of lipid and phenolic compounds have been studied during the first 3 weeks after grafting in both compatible and incompatible combinations. Differences were observed at the second and the third week of callus co-culture in most of the characters determined, although these differences were present as early as the first week in the case of phenolic compounds. The behaviour of the grafts grown in vitro was correlated to that of the same combinations in the field, suggesting that callus fusion in vitro could be a possible and reliable method for an early detection of graft incompatibility in different Prunus combinations.

  20. 48 CFR 970.0371-6 - Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0371-6 Incompatibility between regular duties and private interests. (a) Employees of a management and operating contractor shall not be permitted to...

  1. Fitness advantage and cytoplasmic incompatibility in Wolbachia single- and superinfected Aedes albopictus.

    PubMed

    Dobson, S L; Rattanadechakul, W; Marsland, E J

    2004-08-01

    Wolbachia are obligate, maternally inherited, intracellular bacteria that infect numerous insects and other invertebrates. Wolbachia infections have evolved multiple mechanisms to manipulate host reproduction and facilitate invasion of naive host populations. One such mechanism is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) that occurs in many insect species, including Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito). The multiple Wolbachia infections that occur naturally in A. albopictus make this mosquito a useful system in which to study CI. Here, experiments employ mosquito strains that have been introgressed to provide genetically similar strains that harbor differing Wolbachia infection types. Cytoplasmic incompatibility levels, host longevity, egg hatch rates, and fecundity are examined. Crossing results demonstrate a pattern of additive unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility. Furthermore, relative to uninfected females, infected females are at a reproductive advantage due to both cytoplasmic incompatibility and a fitness increase associated with Wolbachia infection. In contrast, no fitness difference was observed in comparisons of single- and superinfected females. We discuss the observed results in regard to the evolution of the Wolbachia/A. albopictus symbiosis and the observed pattern of Wolbachia infection in natural populations.

  2. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation: Case report.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Kohei; Obara, Hideaki; Sugita, Kayoko; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Mori, Takehiko; Takano, Yaoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Itano, Osamu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-07-07

    Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients.

  3. Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Kohei; Obara, Hideaki; Sugita, Kayoko; Shinoda, Masahiro; Kitago, Minoru; Abe, Yuta; Hibi, Taizo; Yagi, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Kentaro; Mori, Takehiko; Takano, Yaoko; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Itano, Osamu; Hasegawa, Naoki; Iwata, Satoshi; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi (H. cinaedi), a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium, is an enterohepatic non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter species. We report the first case of H. cinaedi bacteremia with cellulitis after liver transplantation. A 48-year-old male, who had been a dog breeder for 15 years, underwent ABO-incompatible living-donor liver transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced decompensated cirrhosis using an anti-hepatitis B core antibody-positive graft. The patient was preoperatively administered rituximab and underwent plasma exchange twice to overcome blood type incompatibility. After discharge, he had been doing well with immunosuppression therapy comprising cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil, and steroid according to the ABO-incompatible protocol of our institution. However, 7 mo after transplantation, he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of recurrent cellulitis on the left lower extremity, and H. cinaedi was detected by both blood culture and polymerase chain reaction analysis. Antibiotics improved his symptoms, and he was discharged at day 30 after admission. Clinicians should be more aware of H. cinaedi in immunocompromised patients, such as ABO-incompatible transplant recipients. PMID:26167092

  4. Intentionality to Learn, in an Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: All human activity, beyond the simplest of reflexes or biological reactions, is a manifestation of intentions. When those intentions are directed toward changes in one's understanding or performance, they can be labeled "intentionality to learn". In this article, we overview particular premises about intentionality to learn and…

  5. Intentionality to Learn, in an Academic Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulikowich, Jonna M.; Alexander, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: All human activity, beyond the simplest of reflexes or biological reactions, is a manifestation of intentions. When those intentions are directed toward changes in one's understanding or performance, they can be labeled "intentionality to learn". In this article, we overview particular premises about intentionality to learn and…

  6. Intentional Schools: Living in the Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Schools with good intentions are not the same as schools being intentional. Sometimes the best intentions--a result of valuing efficiency, standard procedure (tradition), obedience, or the latest educational fad--create unintended consequences that are not necessarily in the best interest of children. Intentional schools develop a culture of…

  7. Regulation of gene expression during the vegetative incompatibility reaction in Podospora anserina. Characterization of three induced genes.

    PubMed Central

    Bourges, N; Groppi, A; Barreau, C; Clavé, C; Bégueret, J

    1998-01-01

    Vegetative incompatibility in fungi limits the formation of viable heterokaryons. It results from the coexpression of incompatible genes in the heterokaryotic cells and leads to a cell death reaction. In Podospora anserina, a modification of gene expression takes place during this reaction, including a strong decrease of total RNA synthesis and the appearance of a new set of proteins. Using in vitro translation of mRNA and separation of protein products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, we have shown that the mRNA content of cells is qualitatively modified during the progress of the incompatibility reaction. Thus, gene expression during vegetative incompatibility is regulated, at least in part, by variation of the mRNA content of specific genes. A subtractive cDNA library enriched in sequences preferentially expressed during incompatibility was constructed. This library was used to identify genomic loci corresponding to genes whose mRNA is induced during incompatibility. Three such genes were characterized and named idi genes for genes induced during incompatibility. Their expression profiles suggest that they may be involved in different steps of the incompatibility reaction. The putative IDI proteins encoded by these genes are small proteins with signal peptides. IDI-2 protein is a cysteine-rich protein. IDI-2 and IDI-3 proteins display some similarity in a tryptophan-rich region. PMID:9755195

  8. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1) Cofferdam... by two barriers. (c) The containment system for the hazardous material must not have a piping...

  9. 46 CFR 150.130 - Loading a cargo on vessels carrying cargoes with which it is incompatible.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... it is incompatible. 150.130 Section 150.130 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... any cargo in table I with which it is incompatible by two barriers such as formed by a: (1) Cofferdam... by two barriers. (c) The containment system for the hazardous material must not have a piping...

  10. Apple (Malus x domestica) transcriptome in response to the compatible pathogen Erwinia amylovora and the incompatible pathogen Pseudomonas syringae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infiltration of Erwinia amylovora (Ea) into host leaves induces an oxidative burst similar to that observed during incompatible reactions associated with Hypersensitive Response (HR). However, the subsequent progressive development of necrosis in apple and other hosts is unlike an incompatible reac...

  11. Indication of Mild Hemolytic Reaction Among Preterm Infants With ABO Incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Yogev-Lifshitz, Maya; Leibovitch, Leah; Schushan-Eisen, Irit; Taran, Camelia; Strauss, Tzipora; Maayan-Metzger, Ayala

    2016-06-01

    Among term infants, ABO incompatibility is a leading cause of hemolytic disease and neonatal jaundice. With respect to preterm infants, data are lacking. To evaluate the incidence and severity of ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease among preterm infants with respect to hemolytic and jaundice parameters. Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively from the medical records of 118 ABO-incompatible preterms born at gestational age (GA) 29-34 weeks, as well as 118 controls matched for GA, birth weight, and multiplicity. All infants were born at the Sheba Medical Center Tel-Hashomer between 2009 and 2012. The study and control groups were similar on all maternal and neonatal outcome parameters. No differences between the groups were recorded throughout hospitalization regarding hematocrit levels or the need for blood transfusion. Bilirubin levels were higher among the study (ABO-incompatible) group during the first 10 days of life; however, no significant differences were found regarding the need for phototherapy. Upon evaluating subgroups divided by GA, we found no differences on any hematological and jaundice factors among preterms of 29-31 weeks, whereas among preterms of 32-34 weeks higher positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) results (7% vs. 0% in the control, P = 0.014) as well as higher bilirubin levels were documented. Among ABO-incompatible preterm infants with GA 29-34 weeks, there is no evidence of significant hemolytic reaction derived from placental transfer of antibodies. With increasing GA, antibody transfer becomes more significant, resulting in more positive DAT results and greater incidence of neonatal jaundice. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Clinico-serologic co-relation in bi-directional ABO incompatible hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sabita; Dhar, Supriya; Mishra, Deepak; Chandy, Mammen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ABO blood group system is of prime significance in red cell transfusion and organ transplantation. However, ABO compatibility is not critical in allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and approximately 40-50% of hemopoietic stem cell transplants are ABO incompatible. This incompatibility may be major, minor or bi-directional. Though there are descriptions of transfusion practice and protocols in ABO incompatible HSCT, there are considerable variations and transfusion support in these patients can be very challenging. Aims: The immunohematologic observations in two cases of bi-directional ABO incompatible HSCT have been described, and clinico-serologic correlation has been attempted. Materials and Methods: In both cases, peripheral blood stem cell harvests were obtained using the Cobe spectra cell separator. Immunohematologic assessments in the donor and recipient were done as a part of pre HSCT evaluation. Both the standard tube technique and column agglutination method (Ortho Biovue Micro Bead System) was used. Antibody screen was done by column agglutination method using three cell panel (Surgiscreen cells). Isoagglutinin titration was done by the master dilution method and standard validated techniques were used. Results: The pattern of laboratory findings in the two cases was different and so were the clinical outcomes. Although there was early engraftment in the first case, the second case developed pure red cell aplasia and this was well-reflected in the immunohematologic assessments. Conclusion: Immunohematologic assessment correlated well with the clinical picture and could be used to predict clinical outcome and onset of complications in ABO incompatible HSCT. PMID:26420941

  13. Genetic and cellular analysis of cross-incompatibility in Zea mays.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongxian; Kermicle, Jerry L; Evans, Matthew M S

    2014-03-01

    Three genetic systems conferring cross-incompatibility have been described in Zea mays: Teosinte crossing barrier1-strong (Tcb1-s) found in teosinte, and Gametophyte factor1-strong (Ga1-s) and Ga2-s found in maize and teosinte. The reproductive barrier between maize and some weedy teosintes is controlled by the Tcb1-s locus. Multi-generation inheritance experiments on two independent Tcb1-s lineages show that the Tcb1-s barrier is unstable in some maize lines. Reciprocal crosses between Tcb1-s tester plants and three recombinants in the Tcb1-s mapping region demonstrate that the Tcb1-s haplotype contains separable male and female components. In vivo assays of the dynamics of pollen tube growth and pollen tube morphology during rejection of incompatible pollen in silks carrying the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, or Ga2-s barriers showed that, in all three, pollen tube growth is slower than in compatible crosses at early stages and had ceased by 24 h after pollination. In all three crossing barrier systems, incompatible pollen tubes have clustered callose plugs in contrast to pollen tubes of compatible crosses. Incompatible pollen tubes growing in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s silks have different morphologies: straight, curved, and kinked, respectively. The distinct morphologies suggest that these crossing barriers block incompatible pollen through different mechanisms. This study lays the foundation for cloning the Tcb1 genes and provides clues about the cellular mechanisms involved in pollen rejection in the Tcb1-s, Ga1-s, and Ga2-s crossing barriers.

  14. Heteromorphic Incompatibility and Efficiency of Pollination in Two Distylous Pentanisia Species (Rubiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    MASSINGA, PAULO H.; JOHNSON, STEVEN D.; HARDER, LAWRENCE D.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Distyly has been hypothesized to promote cross-pollination by reducing intrafloral and geitonogamous self-pollination, and enhancing intermorph pollination. Distylous plants typically display both reciprocal herkogamy and a heteromorphic incompatibility system, which allows mating only between morphs. Distyly and its pollination consequences were examined in two Pentanisia species with long-tubed flowers which are pollinated almost exclusively by butterflies. • Methods Anther and stigma heights were measured to quantify reciprocal herkogamy. The type of incompatibility system was determined by observing pollen tubes and seed production following controlled hand pollination. Pollen loads on pollinators and stigmas were also examined to assess the efficiency of intermorph pollen flow. • Key Results Pentanisia prunelloides and P. angustifolia exhibit reciprocal herkogamy and a host of ancillary dimorphisms, including pollen colour, exine sculpturing, stigmatic papilla shape and floral-tube pubescence. Controlled hand-pollinations revealed the presence of a strong heteromorphic incompatibility system in both species. The site of incompatibility differed between the morphs; intramorph pollen tubes were blocked in the style of the short-styled morph and on the stigmatic surface of the long-styled morph. Butterflies carried pollen from the short- and long-styled morphs primarily on their head and proboscis, respectively. Natural pollination resulted in a higher proportion of pollen transfer from long- to short-styled plants than vice versa. Nevertheless, fruit set did not differ between morphs. • Conclusions Both Pentanisia species are fully distylous. Reciprocal herkogamy results in pollen from the two morphs being carried on different locations on pollinators' bodies, which in turn promotes intermorph pollination. Intramorph pollination does not result in fertilization, because of an effective heteromorphic incompatibility system. PMID

  15. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  16. Genetics and Lineage-Specific Evolution of a Lethal Hybrid Incompatibility Between Drosophila mauritiana and Its Sibling Species

    PubMed Central

    Cattani, M. Victoria; Presgraves, Daven C.

    2009-01-01

    The Dobzhansky–Muller model posits that intrinsic postzygotic reproductive isolation—the sterility or lethality of species hybrids—results from the evolution of incompatible epistatic interactions between species: favorable or neutral alleles that become fixed in the genetic background of one species can cause sterility or lethality in the genetic background of another species. The kind of hybrid incompatibility that evolves between two species, however, depends on the particular evolutionary history of the causative substitutions. An allele that is functionally derived in one species can be incompatible with an allele that is functionally derived in the other species (a derived-derived hybrid incompatibility). But an allele that is functionally derived in one species can also be incompatible with an allele that has retained the ancestral state in the other species (a derived-ancestral hybrid incompatibility). The relative abundance of such derived-derived vs. derived-ancestral hybrid incompatibilities is unknown. Here, we characterize the genetics and evolutionary history of a lethal hybrid incompatibility between Drosophila mauritiana and its two sibling species, D. sechellia and D. simulans. We show that a hybrid lethality factor(s) in the pericentric heterochromatin of the D. mauritiana X chromosome, hybrid lethal on the X (hlx), is incompatible with a factor(s) in the same small autosomal region from both D. sechellia and D. simulans, Suppressor of hlx [Su(hlx)]. By combining genetic and phylogenetic information, we infer that hlx-Su(hlx) hybrid lethality is likely caused by a derived-ancestral incompatibility, a hypothesis that can be tested directly when the genes are identified. PMID:19189951

  17. Naturally occurring incompatibilities between different Culex pipiens pallens populations as the basis of potential mosquito control measures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a supplement to other control measures.

  18. Unusual heterostyly: style dimorphism and self-incompatibility are not tightly associated in Lithodora and Glandora (Boraginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, V.; Arroyo, J.; Castro, S.; Navarro, L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterostyly is a floral polymorphism characterized by the reciprocal position of stamens and stigmas in different flower morphs in a population. This reciprocal herkogamy is usually associated with an incompatibility system that prevents selfing and intra-morph fertilization, termed a heteromorphic incompatibility system. In different evolutionary models explaining heterostyly, it has been alternately argued that heteromorphic incompatibility either preceded or followed the evolution of reciprocal herkogamy. In some models, reciprocal herkogamy and incompatibility have been hypothesized to be linked together during the evolution of the heterostylous system. Methods We examine the incompatibility systems in species with different stylar polymorphisms from the genera Lithodora and Glandora (Boraginaceae). We then test whether evolution towards reciprocal herkogamy is associated with the acquisition of incompatibility. To this end, a phylogeny of these genera and related species is reconstructed and the morphological and reproductive changes that occurred during the course of evolution are assessed. Key Results Both self-compatibility and self-incompatibility are found within the studied genera, along with different degrees of intra-morph compatibility. We report for the first time extensive variability among members of the genus Glandora and related species in terms of the presence or absence of intraspecies polymorphism and heteromorphic incompatibility. Overall, our results do not support a tight link between floral polymorphism and incompatibility systems. Conclusions The independent evolution of stylar polymorphism and incompatibility appears to have occurred in this group of plants. This refutes the canonical view that there is strong linkage between these reproductive traits. PMID:21985797

  19. Sustainable Futures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainable Futures is a voluntary program that encourages industry to use predictive models to screen new chemicals early in the development process and offers incentives to companies subject to TSCA section 5.

  20. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  1. Sustainable Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Discusses South African national development priorities, sustainable development, and the future of agriculture and presents three scenarios of possible national action: production for sale and export, household food security, and conservation of natural resources. (MKR)

  2. Agriculture: Sustainability

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the food, feed, and fiber needs of our country and the social, economic and other requirements.

  3. Sustainable Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmandt, Jurgen; Ward, C. H.; Marilu Hastings, Assisted By

    2000-04-01

    Demographers predict that the world population will double during the first half of the 21st century before it will begin to level off. In this volume, a group of prominent authors examine what societal changes must occur to meet this challenge to the natural environment and the transformational changes that we must experience to achieve sustainability. Frances Cairncross, Herman E. Daly, Stephen H. Schneider and others provide a broad discussion of sustainable development. They detail economic and environmental, as well as spiritual and religious, corporate and social, scientific and political factors. Sustainable Development: The Challenge of Transition offers many insightful policy recommendations about how business, government, and individuals must change their current values, priorities, and behavior to meet present and future challenges. It will appeal to scholars and decision makers interested in global change, environmental policy, population growth, and sustainable development, and also to corporate environmental managers.

  4. [Intentional and Non-Intentional Distortion of Research Findings].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kusztal, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The flood of scientific information increases the risk of research findings distortion. The authors brought attention to the possible pitfalls of statistical inference in biomedical research. Due to intentional or non-intentional errors in study design and size, data collection and inappropriate statistical analysis some of research findings are false or exaggerated. Researchers excessively motivated to publish all possible study results sometimes seek any possible way to achieve p-value less than 0.05. False-positive study results can be obtained in underpowered studies, excessive flexibility in study designs and participants recruitment, probing different control groups, creating special subgroups or changing statistical tests.

  5. Beyond human intentions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding.

  6. Sustainable markets for sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, J.; Smyser, C.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses how the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) is involved in sustainable energy development. It presently has 50 loans and grants for non conventional renewable energy projects and ten grants for efficiency programs for $600 and $17 million respectively, representing 100 MW of power. The IDB is concerned with how to create a sustainable market for sustainable energy projects. The IDB is trying to work with government, private sector, NGOs, trading allies, credit sources, and regulators to find proper roles for such projects. He discusses how the IDB is working to expand its vision and objectives in renewable energy projects in Central and South America.

  7. Gebruikershandleiding SUSTAINED (User Manual Sustained)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    Facility CCA - Contamination Control Area Tabel 1 Objecten en mogelijke stati. maO r.ppo~t Pagina 8 C, I~ LII~LTh Fig. 2: Processchema " Sustained ". TNO...90-Al-22 9 Gebruikershandleiding Sustained Niets uit daze uilgave meg worderr vermenigvutdigdi en/of openbaar gemaakt door ,nddlet van druMk...0 V.O - 1140 rapport Pagina rapport no. FEL-90-AI22 titel .Gebruikershandleiding SUSTAINED auteurs Ir. S.A. van Merrignboer, Ing. R. van Rij instituut

  8. Neural Correlates of Intentional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E.; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C.; Toni, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    We know a great deal about the neurophysiological mechanisms supporting instrumental actions, i.e., actions designed to alter the physical state of the environment. In contrast, little is known about our ability to select communicative actions, i.e., actions directly designed to modify the mental state of another agent. We have recently provided novel empirical evidence for a mechanism in which a communicator selects his actions on the basis of a prediction of the communicative intentions that an addressee is most likely to attribute to those actions. The main novelty of those findings was that this prediction of intention recognition is cerebrally implemented within the intention recognition system of the communicator, is modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, and not by their sensorimotor complexity. The characteristics of this predictive mechanism support the notion that human communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor and linguistic processes. PMID:21151781

  9. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  10. Some Comments on the Distinction Between Intention and Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The topic of intention has recently received attention from behavior analysts (Hineline, 2003; Neuman, 2004). From a behavior-analytic perspective, it is important to identify the circumstances in which people utter such terms, and to identify the potential circumstances that maintain such utterances. It follows that from a behavior-analytic…

  11. Reclaiming the definition of sustainability.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Paul; Everard, Mark; Santillo, David; Robèrt, Karl-Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Since its inception two decades ago, the concept of sustainable development has suffered from a proliferation of definitions, such that it has increasingly come to mean many things to many different people. This has limited its credibility, called into question its practical application and the significance of associated achievements and, overall, limited the progress in environmental and social developments which it was designed to underpin. This viewpoint article is intended to re-open the concept of sustainable development for discussion 20 years on from the Brundtland Report, in the context of the current state of the world, our growing understanding of ecosystems and their response to stressors and the parallel increase in recognition of inherent limitations to that understanding. Following a brief review of the diverse manner in which the concept has developed over time, we present the case for application of a series of simple conditions for sustainability, originally developed by The Natural Step in the early 90s, which nevertheless still provide a sound basis on which progress towards sustainable development could be monitored. The paper also highlights the unavoidable links between sustainability and ethics, including those in the sensitive fields of population and quality of life. Overall we argue the need for the concept of sustainable development to be reclaimed from the plethora of economically-focused or somewhat vague and un-measurable definitions which have found increasing favour in recent years and which all too often accompany relatively minor progress against 'business as usual'. The vision encapsulated in the Brundtland Report was ground-breaking. If, however, true sustainability in human interactions with the biosphere is to be realised, a far stronger and more empirical interpretation of the original intent is urgently required. To be effective, such an interpretation must encompass and guide developments in political instruments and public

  12. Influence of short incompatible practice on the Simon effect: transfer along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

    PubMed

    Conde, Erick F Q; Fraga-Filho, Roberto Sena; Lameira, Allan Pablo; Mograbi, Daniel C; Riggio, Lucia; Gawryszewski, Luiz G

    2015-11-01

    In spatial compatibility and Simon tasks, the response is faster when stimulus and response locations are on the same side than when they are on opposite sides. It has been shown that a spatial incompatible practice leads to a subsequent modulation of the Simon effect along the horizontal dimension. It has also been reported that this modulation occurs both along and across vertical and horizontal dimensions, but only after intensive incompatible training (600 trials). In this work, we show that this modulatory effect can be obtained with a smaller number of incompatible trials, changing the spatial arrangement of the vertical response keys to obtain a stronger dimensional overlap between the spatial codes of stimuli and response keys. The results of Experiment 1 showed that 80 incompatible vertical trials abolished the Simon effect in the same dimension. Experiment 2 showed that a modulation of the vertical Simon effect could be obtained after 80 horizontal incompatible trials. Experiment 3 explored whether the transfer effect can also occur in a horizontal Simon task after a brief vertical spatial incompatibility task, and results were similar to the previous experiments. In conclusion, we suggest that the spatial arrangement between response key and stimulus locations may be critical to establish the short-term memory links that enable the transfer of learning between brief incompatible practices and the Simon effects, both along the vertical dimension and across vertical and horizontal dimensions.

  13. Malus pumila 'Spy 227' and Apple stem pitting virus: graft incompatibility and epinasty.

    PubMed

    Brakta, Ajay; Handa, Anil; Thakur, P D; Tomar, Manica; Kumar, Pardeep

    2015-06-01

    Apple stem pitting foveavirus (ASPV) is one of the most important and widespread virus infecting apples in the world. Of late, the virus has been found to be invariably associated with most of the apple plantations of Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh based on DAS-ELISA results. Bioassay of viruses in vegetatively propagated crops including apple is considered to be an essential component in indexing programmes for the production of virus free propagating material. Woody indicator Malus pumila 'Spy 227' was used for the detection of ASPV through double grafting method. Graft incompatibility and epinasty symptoms were observed on Malus pumila Spy 227 indicator plants. Further, molecular identification of the virus isolate was done by cloning and sequencing of the test isolate. Partial sequence analysis of the coat protein gene showed 89 % nucleotide identity in BLASTN analysis with ASPV isolate from China (Accession No. JF895517). This is the first record of ASPV producing Graft incompatibility on Spy 227 indicator plants.

  14. Compartmentalization of incompatible reagents within Pickering emulsion droplets for one-pot cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hengquan; Fu, Luman; Wei, Lijuan; Liang, Jifen; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-01-28

    It is a dream that future synthetic chemistry can mimic living systems to process multistep cascade reactions in a one-pot fashion. One of the key challenges is the mutual destruction of incompatible or opposing reagents, for example, acid and base, oxidants and reductants. A conceptually novel strategy is developed here to address this challenge. This strategy is based on a layered Pickering emulsion system, which is obtained through lamination of Pickering emulsions. In this working Pickering emulsion, the dispersed phase can separately compartmentalize the incompatible reagents to avoid their mutual destruction, while the continuous phase allows other reagent molecules to diffuse freely to access the compartmentalized reagents for chemical reactions. The compartmentalization effects and molecular transport ability of the Pickering emulsion were investigated. The deacetalization-reduction, deacetalization-Knoevenagel, deacetalization-Henry and diazotization-iodization cascade reactions demonstrate well the versatility and flexibility of our strategy in processing the one-pot cascade reactions involving mutually destructive reagents.

  15. (Dis)similarity in Impulsivity and Marital Satisfaction: A Comparison of Volatility, Compatibility, and Incompatibility Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Derrick, Jaye L.; Houston, Rebecca J.; Quigley, Brian M.; Testa, Maria; Kubiak, Audrey; Levitt, Ash; Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    Impulsivity is negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, but whether relationship functioning is harmed or helped when both partners are high in impulsivity is unclear. The influence of impulsivity might be exacerbated (the Volatility Hypothesis) or reversed (the Compatibility Hypothesis). Alternatively, discrepancies in impulsivity might be particularly problematic (the Incompatibility Hypothesis). Behavioral and self-report measures of impulsivity were collected from a community sample of couples. Mixed effect polynomial regressions with response surface analysis provide evidence in favor of both the Compatibility Hypothesis and the Incompatibility Hypothesis, but not the Volatility Hypothesis. Mediation analyses suggest results for satisfaction are driven by perceptions of the partner's negative behavior and responsiveness. Implications for the study of both impulsivity and relationship functioning are discussed. PMID:26949275

  16. Massive delayed hemolysis following peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with minor ABO incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Laurencet, F M; Samii, K; Bressoud, A; Tajeddin, M; Easton, J; Stelling, M J; Chapuis, B

    1997-06-01

    After hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, delayed immune hemolysis may occur when donor-derived B lymphocytes carried with the graft produce immune antibodies against the recipient's incompatible red cells. We report the occurrence of this syndrome in the context of minor blood group incompatibility between donor and recipient after peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) transplantation. On day 12 post-transplant there was abrupt onset of hemolysis necessitating supportive treatment with hydration and transfusions. Because, as compared to bone marrow, PBSC grafts are enriched with lymphocytes, more frequent and intense delayed immune hemolysis may be anticipated when using PBSC. This complication is described most often when cyclosporine alone is used for immunosuppression following the graft. The addition of methotrexate, which with CyA forms the classic regimen for the prevention of graft-vs-host disease, may diminish the frequence and severity of this adverse reaction.

  17. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  18. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  19. Intentional learning: A concept analysis.

    PubMed

    Mollman, Sarah; Candela, Lori

    2017-07-19

    To use a concept analysis to determine a clear definition of the term "intentional learning" for use in nursing. The term intentional learning has been used for years in educational, business, and even nursing literature. It has been used to denote processes leading to higher order thinking and the ability to use knowledge in new situations; both of which are important skills to develop in nursing students. But the lack of a common, accepted definition of the term makes it difficult for nurse educators to base instruction and learning experiences on or to evaluate its overall effectiveness in educating students for diverse, fast-paced clinical practices. A concept analysis following the eight-step method developed by Walker and Avant (2011). Empirical and descriptive literature.  Five defining attributes were identified: (1) self-efficacy for learning, (2) active, effortful, and engaged learning, (3) mastery of goals where learning is the goal, (4) self-directed learning, and (5) self-regulation of learning. Through this concept analysis, nursing will have a clear definition of intentional learning. This will enable nurse educators to generate, evaluate, and test learning experiences that promote further development of intentional learning in nursing students. Nurses in practice will also be able to evaluate if the stated benefits are demonstrated and how this impacts patient care and outcomes. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Models of College Persistence Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    While withdrawal from higher education may be the result of many reasons both within and beyond the control of the student or the institution, the intent of not returning to higher education indicates the acceptance of a permanent disassociation with the pursuit of the higher education endeavor. It is of paramount importance in understanding the…

  1. Models of College Persistence Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    While withdrawal from higher education may be the result of many reasons both within and beyond the control of the student or the institution, the intent of not returning to higher education indicates the acceptance of a permanent disassociation with the pursuit of the higher education endeavor. It is of paramount importance in understanding the…

  2. Sustainability Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Stichnothe, Heinz

    2017-03-17

    The long-term substitution of fossil resources can only be achieved through a bio-based economy, with biorefineries and bio-based products playing a major role. However, it is important to assess the implications of the transition to a bio-based economy. Life cycle-based sustainability assessment is probably the most suitable approach to quantify impacts and to identify trade-offs at multiple levels. The extended utilisation of biomass can cause land use change and affect food security of the most vulnerable people throughout the world. Although this is mainly a political issue and governments should be responsible, the responsibility is shifted to companies producing biofuels and other bio-based products. Organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass are considered to be the preferred feedstock for the production of bio-based products. However, it is unlikely that a bio-based economy can rely only on organic wastes and lignocellulosic biomass.It is crucial to identify potential problems related to socio-economic and environmental issues. Currently there are many approaches to the sustainability of bio-based products, both quantitative and qualitative. However, results of different calculation methods are not necessarily comparable and can cause confusion among decision-makers, stakeholders and the public.Hence, a harmonised, globally agreed approach would be the best solution to secure sustainable biomass/biofuels/bio-based chemicals production and trade, and to avoid indirect effects (e.g. indirect land use change). However, there is still a long way to go.Generally, the selection of suitable indicators that serve the purpose of sustainability assessment is very context-specific. Therefore, it is recommended to use a flexible and modular approach that can be adapted to various purposes. A conceptual model for the selection of sustainability indicators is provided that facilitates identifying suitable sustainability indicators based on relevance and significance in a

  3. Heterozygote excess in a self-incompatible and partially clonal forest tree species -- Prunus avium L.

    PubMed

    Stoeckel, Solenn; Grange, Jérôme; Fernández-Manjarres, Juan F; Bilger, Isabelle; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Mariette, Stéphanie

    2006-07-01

    Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.), a partially asexual self-incompatible forest tree, shows heterozygote excess, which is a poorly studied phenomenon. In three natural populations, we found significant heterozygote excess at almost all investigated loci (eight microsatellites and markers for the self-incompatibility locus). We examined four hypotheses to account for this observed heterozygote excess. First, negative F(IS) can result from a lack of selfed progeny in small populations of outcrossing species. A second explanation for negative F(IS) is selection during the life cycle of the most heterozygous individuals. A third explanation is negative assortative mating when reproduction occurs between individuals bearing phenotypes more dissimilar than by chance. The last explanation for negative F(IS) relies on asexual reproduction. Expectations for each hypothesis were tested using empirical data. Patterns of F(IS) differed among loci. Nevertheless, our experimental results did not confirm the small sample size hypothesis. Although one locus is probably under a hitch-hiking effect from the SI locus, we rejected the effect of the self-incompatibility locus for the genome as a whole. Similarly, although one locus showed a clear pattern consistent with the selection of heterozygous individuals, the heterosis effect over the whole genome was rejected. Finally, our results revealed that clonality probably explains significant negative F(IS) in wild cherry populations when considering all individuals. More theoretical effort is needed to develop expectations and hypotheses, and test them in the case of species combining self-incompatibility and partially asexual reproduction.

  4. SMT or TOFT? How the two main theories of carcinogenesis are made (artificially) incompatible.

    PubMed

    Bedessem, Baptiste; Ruphy, Stéphanie

    2015-09-01

    The building of a global model of carcinogenesis is one of modern biology's greatest challenges. The traditional somatic mutation theory (SMT) is now supplemented by a new approach, called the Tissue Organization Field Theory (TOFT). According to TOFT, the original source of cancer is loss of tissue organization rather than genetic mutations. In this paper, we study the argumentative strategy used by the advocates of TOFT to impose their view. In particular, we criticize their claim of incompatibility used to justify the necessity to definitively reject SMT. First, we note that since it is difficult to build a non-ambiguous experimental demonstration of the superiority of TOFT, its partisans add epistemological and metaphysical arguments to the debate. This argumentative strategy allows them to defend the necessity of a paradigm shift, with TOFT superseding SMT. To do so, they introduce a notion of incompatibility, which they actually use as the Kuhnian notion of incommensurability. To justify this so-called incompatibility between the two theories of cancer, they move the debate to a metaphysical ground by assimilating the controversy to a fundamental opposition between reductionism and organicism. We show here that this argumentative strategy is specious, because it does not demonstrate clearly that TOFT is an organicist theory. Since it shares with SMT its vocabulary, its ontology and its methodology, it appears that a claim of incompatibility based on this metaphysical plan is not fully justified in the present state of the debate. We conclude that it is more cogent to argue that the two theories are compatible, both biologically and metaphysically. We propose to consider that TOFT and SMT describe two distinct and compatible causal pathways to carcinogenesis. This view is coherent with the existence of integrative approaches, and suggests that they have a higher epistemic value than the two theories taken separately.

  5. A New Model and Method for Understanding Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Bossan, Benjamin; Koehncke, Arnulf; Hammerstein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular bacteria transmitted almost exclusively vertically through eggs. In response to this mode of transmission, Wolbachia strategically manipulate their insect hosts' reproduction. In the most common manipulation type, cytoplasmic incompatibility, infected males can only mate with infected females, but infected females can mate with all males. The mechanism of cytoplasmic incompatibility is unknown; theoretical and empirical findings need to converge to broaden our understanding of this phenomenon. For this purpose, two prominent models have been proposed: the mistiming-model and the lock-key-model. The former states that Wolbachia manipulate sperm of infected males to induce a fatal delay of the male pronucleus during the first embryonic division, but that the bacteria can compensate the delay by slowing down mitosis in fertilized eggs. The latter states that Wolbachia deposit damaging “locks” on sperm DNA of infected males, but can also provide matching “keys” in infected eggs to undo the damage. The lock-key-model, however, needs to assume a large number of locks and keys to explain all existing incompatibility patterns. The mistiming-model requires fewer assumptions but has been contradicted by empirical results. We therefore expand the mistiming-model by one quantitative dimension to create the new, so-called goalkeeper-model. Using a method based on formal logic, we show that both lock-key- and goalkeeper-model are consistent with existing data. Compared to the lock-key-model, however, the goalkeeper-model assumes only two factors and provides an idea of the evolutionary emergence of cytoplasmic incompatibility. Available cytological evidence suggests that the hypothesized second factor of the goalkeeper-model may indeed exist. Finally, we suggest empirical tests that would allow to distinguish between the models. Generalizing our results might prove interesting for the study of the mechanism and evolution of other host

  6. Effects of pollen reward removal on fecundity in a self-incompatible hermaphrodite plant.

    PubMed

    Duffy, K J; Johnson, S D

    2011-05-01

    The pollen of hermaphrodite plants is often utilised by flower-visiting animals. While pollen production has obvious benefits for plant male fitness, its consequences for plant female fitness, especially in self-incompatible hermaphrodite species, are less certain. Pollen production could either enhance seed production though increased pollinator attraction, or reduce it if ovules are discounted by deposition of self pollen, as can occur in species with late-acting self-incompatibility. To test the effects of pollen reward provision on female fitness, we artificially emasculated flowers in two populations of the succulent Aloe maculata (Asphodelaceae), which has a late-acting self-incompatibility system, over the course of its flowering period. Flowers of this species are visited by sunbirds (for nectar) and native bees (for pollen and nectar). We measured floral visitation rates, floral rejection rates, pollen deposition on stigmas and fruit and seed set in both emasculated and non-emasculated plants. We found that flowers of emasculated plants suffered reduced visitation and increased rejection (arrival without visitation) by bees, but not by sunbirds; had fewer pollen grains deposited on stigmas and showed an overall decrease in fruit set and seed set. Rates of seed abortion were, however, greatly reduced in emasculated flowers. This study shows that pollen rewards can be important for seed set, even in self-incompatible plants, which have been assumed to rely on nectar rewards for pollinator attraction. Seed abortion was, however, increased by pollen production, a result that highlights the complexity of selection on pollen production in hermaphrodite flowers.

  7. Arabidopsis Cell Death in Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with Alternaria brassicicola

    PubMed Central

    Su’udi, Mukhamad; Kim, Min Gab; Park, Sang-Ryeol; Hwang, Duk-Ju; Bae, Shin-Chul; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2011-01-01

    Two strains of necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola, Ab40857 and Ab42464, are virulent on Korean cabbage and several wild types of Arabidopsis thaliana. Interaction between Ab42464 and Col-0 was compatible, whereas interaction between Ab40857 and Col-0 was incompatible. The loss of defense, no death (dnd) 1 function abrogated the compatibility between Ab42464 and Col-0, and the accelerated cell death (acd) 2 mutation attenuated the Col-0’s resistance against Ab40857. These two fungal strains induced PR1 transcription in Col-0. Ab40857 accelerated transcription of PDF1.2, THI2.1, CAT, and POX by 12 h compared to those challenged with Ab42464. More abundant cell death was observed in Col-0 infected with Ab42464, however, callose deposition was evident in the incompatible interaction. Remarkably, Ab40857-infected areas of acd2-2 underwent rampant cell death and Ab42464 triggered callose production in dnd1-1. Furthermore, the incompatibility between Ab40857 and Col-0 was nullified by the coronatine- insensitive 1 (coi1) and phytoalexin-deficient 3 (pad3) mutations but not by nonexpresser of PR genes (npr1) and pad4. Ab40857 induced abundant cell death in pad3. Taken together, cell death during the early infection stage is a key determinant that discriminates between a compatible interaction and an incompatible one, and the resistance within Col-0 against Ab40857 is dependent on a defensesignaling pathway mediated by jasmonic acid and PAD3. PMID:21688205

  8. Prdm9 Incompatibility Controls Oligospermia and Delayed Fertility but No Selfish Transmission in Mouse Intersubspecific Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9 - Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9 - Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains. PMID:24756080

  9. Prdm9 incompatibility controls oligospermia and delayed fertility but no selfish transmission in mouse intersubspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Flachs, Petr; Bhattacharyya, Tanmoy; Mihola, Ondřej; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    PR-domain 9 (Prdm9) is the first hybrid sterility gene identified in mammals. The incompatibility between Prdm9 from Mus musculus domesticus (Mmd; the B6 strain) and the Hstx2 region of chromosome (Chr) X from M. m. musculus (Mmm; the PWD strain) participates in the complete meiotic arrest of mouse intersubspecific (PWD×B6)F1 hybrid males. Other studies suggest that also semisterile intersubspecific hybrids are relevant for mouse speciation, but the genes responsible remain unknown. To investigate the causes of this semisterility, we analyzed the role of Prdm9 and Chr X in hybrids resulting from the crosses of PWK, another Mmm-derived inbred strain. We demonstrate that Prdm9 and Chr X control the partial meiotic arrest and reduced sperm count in (PWK×B6)F1 males. Asynapsis of heterosubspecific chromosomes and semisterility were partially suppressed by removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9. Polymorphisms between PWK and PWD on Chr X but not in the Prdm9 region were responsible for the modification of the outcome of Prdm9-Chr X F1 hybrid incompatibility. Furthermore, (PWK×B6)F1 hybrid males displayed delayed fertility dependent on the Prdm9 incompatibility. While the Drosophila hybrid sterility gene Overdrive causes both delayed fertility and increased transmission of its own chromosome to the offspring, the segregation of Chr X and the Prdm9 region from the mouse (PWK×B6)F1 males was normal. Our results indicate extended functional consequences of Prdm9-Chr X intersubspecific incompatibility on the fertility of hybrids and should influence the design of fertility analyses in hybrid zones and of laboratory crosses between Mmm and Mmd strains.

  10. A gene block causing cross-incompatibility hidden in wild and cultivated rice.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Khin-Thidar; Sano, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    Unidirectional cross-incompatibility was detected in advanced generations of backcrossing between wild (Oryza rufipogon) and cultivated (O. sativa) rice strains. The near-isogenic line (NIL) of T65wx (Japonica type) carrying an alien segment of chromosome 6 from a wild strain gave a reduced seed setting only when crossed with T65wx as the male. Cytological observations showed that abortion of hybrid seeds occurred as a consequence of a failure of early endosperm development followed by abnormalities in embryo development. The genetic basis of cross-incompatibility reactions in the female and male was investigated by testcrosses using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) that were established through dissecting the introgressed segments of wild and cultivated (Indica type) strains. The results revealed that the cross-incompatibility reaction was controlled by Cif in the female and by cim in the male. When the female plant with Cif was crossed with the male plant with cim, a failure of early endosperm development was observed in the hybrid zygotes. Among cultivars of O. sativa, cim was distributed predominantly in the Japonica type but not in the Indica type. In addition, a dominant suppressor, Su-Cif, which changes the reaction in the female from incompatible to compatible was proposed to present near the centromere of chromosome 6 of the Indica type. Further, the death of young F(1) zygotes was controlled by the parental genotypes rather than by the genotype of the hybrid zygote itself since all three genes acted sporophytically, which strongly suggests an involvement of parent-of-origin effects. We discuss the results in relation to the origin of a crossing barrier as well as their maintenance within the primary gene pool. PMID:14504241

  11. Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Contributes to Hybrid Incompatibility Between Subspecies of Arabidopsis lyrata

    PubMed Central

    Aalto, Esa A.; Koelewijn, Hans-Peter; Savolainen, Outi

    2013-01-01

    In crosses between evolutionarily diverged populations, genomic incompatibilities may result in sterile hybrids, indicating evolution of reproductive isolation. In several plant families, crosses within a population can also lead to male sterile progeny because of conflict between the maternally and biparentally inherited genomes. We examined hybrid fertility between subspecies of the perennial outcrossing self-incompatible Lyrate rockcress (Arabidopsis lyrata) in large reciprocal F2 progenies and three generations of backcrosses. In one of the reciprocal F2 progenies, almost one-fourth of the plants were male-sterile. Correspondingly, almost one-half of the plants in one of the four reciprocal backcross progenies expressed male sterility. In an additional four independent F2 and backcross families, three segregated male sterility. The observed asymmetrical hybrid incompatibility is attributable to male sterility factors in one cytoplasm, for which the other population lacks effective fertility restorers. Genotyping of 96 molecular markers and quantitative trait locus mapping revealed that only 60% of the plants having the male sterile cytoplasm and lacking the corresponding restorers were phenotypically male-sterile. Genotyping data showed that there is only one restorer locus, which mapped to a 600-kb interval at the top of chromosome 2 in a region containing a cluster of pentatricopeptide repeat genes. Male fertility showed no trade-off with seed production. We discuss the role of cytoplasm and genomic conflict in incipient speciation and conclude that cytoplasmic male sterility–lowering hybrid fitness is a transient effect with limited potential to form permanent reproductive barriers between diverged populations of hermaphrodite self-incompatible species. PMID:23935000

  12. [A case of Edwards' syndrome in pregnancy complicated by serologic incompatibility and preeclampsia].

    PubMed

    Murawski, Marek; Gryboś, Marian; Zalewska, Dominika; Symonowicz, Krzysztof

    2006-12-01

    A case of Edwards' syndrome (trisomy 18) diagnosed in the third pregnancy trimester is described. The diagnosis was based on sonographic examination and cytogenetic amniocentesis. Lethal genetic fetal malformation determined the medical indication to preterm delivery. Additionally, serologic incompatibility during pregnancy was observed, as well as pregnancy induced hypertension turning into preeclampsia after the labour action was evoked. A caesarean section due to obstetric indications was done. Phenotype and lethal congenital malformations in the newborn have confirmed of the chromosome aberration prenatally diagnosed.

  13. An indel polymorphism in the hybrid incompatibility gene lethal hybrid rescue of Drosophila is functionally relevant.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Barbash, Daniel A

    2012-10-01

    Hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes are frequently observed to be rapidly evolving under selection. This observation has led to the attractive conjecture that selection-derived protein-sequence divergence is culpable for incompatibilities in hybrids. The Drosophila simulans HI gene Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) is an intriguing case, because despite having experienced rapid sequence evolution, its HI properties are a shared function inherited from the ancestral state. Using an unusual D. simulans Lhr hybrid rescue allele, Lhr(2), we here identify a conserved stretch of 10 amino acids in the C terminus of LHR that is critical for causing hybrid incompatibility. Altering these 10 amino acids weakens or abolishes the ability of Lhr to suppress the hybrid rescue alleles Lhr(1) or Hmr(1), respectively. Besides single-amino-acid substitutions, Lhr orthologs differ by a 16-aa indel polymorphism, with the ancestral deletion state fixed in D. melanogaster and the derived insertion state at very high frequency in D. simulans. Lhr(2) is a rare D. simulans allele that has the ancestral deletion state of the 16-aa polymorphism. Through a series of transgenic constructs we demonstrate that the ancestral deletion state contributes to the rescue activity of Lhr(2). This indel is thus a polymorphism that can affect the HI function of Lhr.

  14. Stimulus-response incompatibility eliminates inhibitory cueing effects with saccadic but not manual responses.

    PubMed

    Eng, Vivian; Lim, Alfred; Kwon, Simon; Gan, Su Ren; Jamaluddin, S Azrin; Janssen, Steve M J; Satel, Jason

    2017-05-01

    There are thought to be two forms of inhibition of return (IOR) depending on whether the oculomotor system is activated or suppressed. When saccades are allowed, output-based IOR is generated, whereas input-based IOR arises when saccades are prohibited. In a series of 4 experiments, we mixed or blocked compatible and incompatible trials with saccadic or manual responses to investigate whether cueing effects would follow the same pattern as those observed with more traditional peripheral onsets and central arrows. In all experiments, an uninformative cue was displayed, followed by a cue-back stimulus that was either red or green, indicating whether a compatible or incompatible response was required. The results showed that IOR was indeed observed for compatible responses in all tasks, whereas IOR was eliminated for incompatible trials-but only with saccadic responses. These findings indicate that the dissociation between input- and output-based forms of IOR depends on more than just oculomotor activation, providing further support for the existence of an inhibitory cueing effect that is distinct to the manual response modality.

  15. Identification of Bradyrhizobium elkanii Genes Involved in Incompatibility with Soybean Plants Carrying the Rj4 Allele

    PubMed Central

    Faruque, Omar M.; Miwa, Hiroki; Yasuda, Michiko; Fujii, Yoshiharu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Sato, Shusei

    2015-01-01

    Symbioses between leguminous plants and soil bacteria known as rhizobia are of great importance to agricultural production and nitrogen cycling. While these mutualistic symbioses can involve a wide range of rhizobia, some legumes exhibit incompatibility with specific strains, resulting in ineffective nodulation. The formation of nodules in soybean plants (Glycine max) is controlled by several host genes, which are referred to as Rj genes. The soybean cultivar BARC2 carries the Rj4 gene, which restricts nodulation by specific strains, including Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA61. Here we employed transposon mutagenesis to identify the genetic locus in USDA61 that determines incompatibility with soybean varieties carrying the Rj4 allele. Introduction of the Tn5 transposon into USDA61 resulted in the formation of nitrogen fixation nodules on the roots of soybean cultivar BARC2 (Rj4 Rj4). Sequencing analysis of the sequence flanking the Tn5 insertion revealed that six genes encoding a putative histidine kinase, transcriptional regulator, DNA-binding transcriptional activator, helix-turn-helix-type transcriptional regulator, phage shock protein, and cysteine protease were disrupted. The cysteine protease mutant had a high degree of similarity with the type 3 effector protein XopD of Xanthomonas campestris. Our findings shed light on the diverse and complicated mechanisms that underlie these highly host-specific interactions and indicate the involvement of a type 3 effector in Rj4 nodulation restriction, suggesting that Rj4 incompatibility is partly mediated by effector-triggered immunity. PMID:26187957

  16. Study on Incompatibility of Traditional Chinese Medicine: Evidence from Formula Network, Chemical Space, and Metabolism Room

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Jin, Jin; Yu, Guang-Yun; He, Xin; Wang, Hao; Shen, Xiu; Zhou, Ze-Wei; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Sai-Jun

    2013-01-01

    A traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula network including 362 TCM formulas was built by using complex network methodologies. The properties of this network were analyzed including network diameter, average distance, clustering coefficient, and average degree. Meanwhile, we built a TCM chemical space and a TCM metabolism room under the theory of chemical space. The properties of chemical space and metabolism room were calculated and analyzed. The properties of the medicine pairs in “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” an ancient rule for TCM incompatibility, were studied based on the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The results showed that the properties of these incompatible medicine pairs are different from those of the other TCM based on the analysis of the TCM formula network, chemical space, and metabolism room. The lines of evidence derived from our work demonstrated that the ancient rule of TCM incompatibility, “eighteen antagonisms and nineteen mutual inhibitors,” is probably scientifically based. PMID:24369478

  17. The Outcomes of Hypertransfusion in Major ABO Incompatible Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Se Hoon; Lee, Se Hoon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Jinny; Park, Joon Oh; Kim, Kihyun; Kim, Won Seog; Jung, Chul Won; Im, Young-Hyuk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Seon Woo; Lee, Kyoo Hyung; Lee, Je Hwan

    2004-01-01

    Major ABO incompatibility may be potentially associated with immediate or delayed hemolysis and delayed onset of erythropoiesis in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). To determine if hemolysis can be prevented by the inhibition of graft erythropoiesis, we performed hypertransfusion and assessed red cell transfusion requirement and independence. Between October 1995 and December 2001, 28 consecutive patients receiving major ABO incompatible HSCT at Samsung Medical Center were hypertransfused to maintain their hemoglobin levels at 15 g/dL or more. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of these patients with those of 47 patients at Asan Medical Center whose target hemoglobin levels were 10 g/dL. Reticulocyte engraftment was significantly delayed in hypertransfused group (51 days vs. 23 days; p=.001). There was no significant difference in the total amount of red cells transfused within 90 days post-HSCT (25 units vs. 26 units; p=.631). No significant difference in the time to red cell transfusion independence was observed between the two groups (63 days vs. 56 days; p=.165). In conclusion, we failed to improve red cell transfusion requirement and independence in major ABO incompatible HSCT with hypertransfusion. PMID:14966346

  18. Inbreeding depression in self-incompatible and self-compatible populations of Leavenworthia alabamica.

    PubMed

    Busch, J W

    2005-02-01

    Inbreeding depression is one of the leading factors preventing the evolution of self-fertilization in plants. In populations where self-fertilization evolves, theory suggests that natural selection against partially recessive deleterious alleles will reduce inbreeding depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this hypothesis by comparing the magnitude of inbreeding depression in self-incompatible and self-compatible populations of Leavenworthia alabamica. Within-population crosses were conducted to compare the quantity and quality of offspring produced by outcrossing and self-fertilization. These progeny were grown in a common greenhouse and inbreeding depression was measured in germination, survival, biomass, transition rate to flowering, flower number, petal length, pollen grains/anther, pollen viability, and ovule number. In comparison to outcrossing, self-fertilization led to the production of fewer and smaller seeds within self-incompatible populations. Moreover, inbreeding depression was observed in eight of 11 offspring traits within self-incompatible populations of L. alabamica. In contrast, there was significant inbreeding depression only in flower number within self-compatible populations. The results of this study are consistent with the idea that self-fertilization selectively removes partially recessive deleterious alleles causing inbreeding depression in natural plant populations. However, in plant species such as L. alabamica where self-compatibility may evolve in small populations following long-distance dispersal, declines in inbreeding depression may also be facilitated by genetic drift.

  19. Quantitative proteomics and transcriptomics of potato in response to Phytophthora infestans in compatible and incompatible interactions.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ashfaq; Alexandersson, Erik; Sandin, Marianne; Resjö, Svante; Lenman, Marit; Hedley, Pete; Levander, Fredrik; Andreasson, Erik

    2014-06-19

    In order to get global molecular understanding of one of the most important crop diseases worldwide, we investigated compatible and incompatible interactions between Phytophthora infestans and potato (Solanum tuberosum). We used the two most field-resistant potato clones under Swedish growing conditions, which have the greatest known local diversity of P. infestans populations, and a reference compatible cultivar. Quantitative label-free proteomics of 51 apoplastic secretome samples (PXD000435) in combination with genome-wide transcript analysis by 42 microarrays (E-MTAB-1515) were used to capture changes in protein abundance and gene expression at 6, 24 and 72 hours after inoculation with P. infestans. To aid mass spectrometry analysis we generated cultivar-specific RNA-seq data (E-MTAB-1712), which increased peptide identifications by 17%. Components induced only during incompatible interactions, which are candidates for hypersensitive response initiation, include a Kunitz-like protease inhibitor, transcription factors and an RCR3-like protein. More secreted proteins had lower abundance in the compatible interaction compared to the incompatible interactions. Based on this observation and because the well-characterized effector-target C14 protease follows this pattern, we suggest 40 putative effector targets. In summary, over 17000 transcripts and 1000 secreted proteins changed in abundance in at least one time point, illustrating the dynamics of plant responses to a hemibiotroph. Half of the differentially abundant proteins showed a corresponding change at the transcript level. Many putative hypersensitive and effector-target proteins were single representatives of large gene families.

  20. Deconstructing heterostyly: the evolutionary role of incompatibility system, pollinators, and floral architecture.

    PubMed

    Santos-Gally, Rocío; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Arroyo, Juan

    2013-07-01

    Darwin's early work on heterostyly and related style polymorphisms (the presence of two or three style morphs within a population) generated much interest to understand how precise interactions between ecological and genetic mechanisms influence the evolution of floral diversity. Here we tested three key hypotheses proposed to explain the evolution of heterostyly: (i) the presence of self-incompatibility; (ii) the role of pollinators in promoting dissasortative mating; and (iii) floral architecture, which restricts pollinators' movements and ensures more exact pollen deposition on their bodies. We combined data from experiments, field observations, and published studies to test whether evolution of style polymorphism in Narcissus is driven by the incompatibility system, pollinator guilds, or floral architecture, within a phylogenetic framework. Neither differences in pollinator environment nor the presence of genetic self-incompatibility were correlated with presence of style polymorphism. However, our results indicate that the evolution of style polymorphism was driven by the presence of a narrow and long floral tube. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Evidence for post-zygotic self-incompatibility in Handroanthus impetiginosus (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt Júnior, Nelson Sabino

    2017-03-16

    Late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI) has been defined as a genetically controlled self-sterility mechanism that prevents seed set by selfing, despite normal pollen tube growth and ovule penetration in self-pollinated pistils. In species of the Bignoniaceae with LSI, such as Handroanthus impetiginosus, the selfed pistils are characterized by a marked delay in ovule penetration, fertilization, and endosperm initiation, followed by uniform pistil abscission. This highlights the contentious possibility of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility system. However, previous studies were unable to confirm fusion of the sperm and egg cell nuclei in selfed ovules. In the present study, the cytology of the embryo sac, double fertilization, and pistil longevity was investigated in H. impetiginosus using comparative nuclei microspectrofluorometry of DAPI-stained sections of self- vs. unpollinated pistils. Differences in both pistil longevity and ovary size between self- and unpollinated flowers at the time of pistil abscission were significant. Zygotes with double the DNA content in their nuclei relative to unfertilized egg cell nuclei were verified in selfed ovules from the first day after pollination onward, and G1 karyogamy appeared to have occurred. Our cytological analysis clearly indicates that ovules of self-pollinated pistils in H. impetiginosus are fertilized before pistil abscission but no embryogenesis initiation occurs, which strongly supports the idea of a post-zygotic self-incompatibility mechanism.

  2. Diversity and linkage of genes in the self-incompatibility gene family in Arabidopsis lyrata.

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Deborah; Mable, Barbara K; Schierup, Mikkel H; Bartolomé, Carolina; Awadalla, Philip

    2003-01-01

    We report studies of seven members of the S-domain gene family in Arabidopsis lyrata, a member of the Brassicaceae that has a sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system. Orthologs for five loci are identifiable in the self-compatible relative A. thaliana. Like the Brassica stigmatic incompatibility protein locus (SRK), some of these genes have kinase domains. We show that several of these genes are unlinked to the putative A. lyrata SRK, Aly13. These genes have much lower nonsynonymous and synonymous polymorphism than Aly13 in the S-domains within natural populations, and differentiation between populations is higher, consistent with balancing selection at the Aly13 locus. One gene (Aly8) is linked to Aly13 and has high diversity. No departures from neutrality were detected for any of the loci. Comparing different loci within A. lyrata, sites corresponding to hypervariable regions in the Brassica S-loci (SLG and SRK) and in comparable regions of Aly13 have greater replacement site divergence than the rest of the S-domain. This suggests that the high polymorphism in these regions of incompatibility loci is due to balancing selection acting on sites within or near these regions, combined with low selective constraints. PMID:12930757

  3. Self-incompatibility in Papaver: identification of the pollen S-determinant PrpS.

    PubMed

    Poulter, Natalie S; Wheeler, Michael J; Bosch, Maurice; Franklin-Tong, Vernonica E

    2010-04-01

    Many flowering plants are hermaphrodite, posing the problem of self-fertilization and the subsequent loss of the genetic fitness of the offspring. To prevent this, many plants have developed a genetically controlled mechanism called self-incompatibility (SI). When the male and female S-determinants match, self (incompatible) pollen is recognized and rejected before fertilization can occur. In poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the pistil S-determinant (PrsS) is a small secreted protein that interacts with incompatible pollen, initiating a Ca(2+)-dependent signalling network. SI triggers several downstream events, including depolymerization of the cytoskeleton, phosphorylation of two soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases and an MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). This culminates in PCD (programmed cell death) involving several caspase-like activities. The recent discovery of the Papaver pollen S-determinant PrpS marks a significant step forward in the understanding of the Papaver SI system. PrpS encodes a ~20 kDa predicted transmembrane protein which has no homology with known proteins. It is specifically expressed in pollen, linked to the pistil S-determinant, and displays the high polymorphism expected of an S-locus determinant. The present review focuses on the discovery and characterization of PrpS which strongly support the hypothesis that Papaver SI is triggered by the interaction of PrsS and PrpS.

  4. Single gene control of postzygotic self-incompatibility in poke milkweed, Asclepias exaltata L.

    PubMed

    Lipow, S R; Wyatt, R

    2000-02-01

    Most individuals of Asclepias exaltata are self-sterile, but all plants lack prezygotic barriers to self-fertilization. To determine whether postzygotic rejection of self-fertilized ovules is due to late-acting self-incompatibility or to extreme, early acting inbreeding depression, we performed three diallel crosses among self-sterile plants related as full-sibs. The full-sibs segregated into four compatibility classes, suggesting that late acting self-incompatibility is controlled by a single gene (S-locus). Crosses between plants sharing one or both alleles at the S-locus are incompatible. An additional diallel cross was done among full-sib progeny from a cross of a self-sterile and a self-fertile plant. These progeny grouped into two compatibility classes, and plants within classes displayed varying levels of self-fertility. This suggests that the occasional self-fertility documented in natural pollinations is caused by pseudo-self-fertility alleles that alter the functioning of the S-locus.

  5. Hydrogen Peroxide Yields during the Incompatible Interaction of Tobacco Suspension Cells Inoculated with Phytophthora nicotianae1

    PubMed Central

    Able, Amanda J.; Guest, David I.; Sutherland, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Rates of H2O2 production by tobacco suspension cells inoculated with zoospores from compatible or incompatible races of the pathogen Phytophthora nicotianae were followed by direct measurement of oxygen evolution from culture supernatants following catalase addition. Rates of HO2./O2− production were compared by following the formation of the formazan of sodium, 3′-[1-[phenylamino-carbonyl]-3,4-tetrazolium]-bis(4-methoxy-6-nitro) benzene-sulfonic acid hydrate. In the incompatible interaction only, both reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced by the cultured host cells in a minor burst between 0 and 2 h and then in a major burst between 8 and 12 h after inoculation. Absolute levels of H2O2 could not be accurately measured due to its metabolism by host cells, but results are consistent with the majority of H2O2 being formed via dismutation of HO2./O2−. The effects of inhibitors of endogenous Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (diethyldithiocarbamate) and catalase (3-amino-1,2,4-triazole and salicylic acid) were also examined. Yields of ROS in the presence of the inhibitors diphenylene iodonium, allopurinol, and salicylhydroxamic acid suggest that ROS were generated in incompatible host responses by more than one mechanism. PMID:11027737

  6. High-resolution mapping reveals hundreds of genetic incompatibilities in hybridizing fish species

    PubMed Central

    Schumer, Molly; Cui, Rongfeng; Powell, Daniel L; Dresner, Rebecca; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Hybridization is increasingly being recognized as a common process in both animal and plant species. Negative epistatic interactions between genes from different parental genomes decrease the fitness of hybrids and can limit gene flow between species. However, little is known about the number and genome-wide distribution of genetic incompatibilities separating species. To detect interacting genes, we perform a high-resolution genome scan for linkage disequilibrium between unlinked genomic regions in naturally occurring hybrid populations of swordtail fish. We estimate that hundreds of pairs of genomic regions contribute to reproductive isolation between these species, despite them being recently diverged. Many of these incompatibilities are likely the result of natural or sexual selection on hybrids, since intrinsic isolation is known to be weak. Patterns of genomic divergence at these regions imply that genetic incompatibilities play a significant role in limiting gene flow even in young species. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02535.001 PMID:24898754

  7. Strain tensor selection and the elastic theory of incompatible thin sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshri, Oz; Diamant, Haim

    2017-05-01

    The existing theory of incompatible elastic sheets uses the deviation of the surface metric from a reference metric to define the strain tensor [Efrati et al., J. Mech. Phys. Solids 57, 762 (2009), 10.1016/j.jmps.2008.12.004]. For a class of simple axisymmetric problems we examine an alternative formulation, defining the strain based on deviations of distances (rather than distances squared) from their rest values. While the two formulations converge in the limit of small slopes and in the limit of an incompressible sheet, for other cases they are found not to be equivalent. The alternative formulation offers several features which are absent in the existing theory. (a) In the case of planar deformations of flat incompatible sheets, it yields linear, exactly solvable, equations of equilibrium. (b) When reduced to uniaxial (one-dimensional) deformations, it coincides with the theory of extensible elastica; in particular, for a uniaxially bent sheet it yields an unstrained cylindrical configuration. (c) It gives a simple criterion determining whether an isometric immersion of an incompatible sheet is at mechanical equilibrium with respect to normal forces. For a reference metric of constant positive Gaussian curvature, a spherical cap is found to satisfy this criterion except in an arbitrarily narrow boundary layer.

  8. Late-acting self-incompatibility--the pariah breeding system in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Peter E

    2014-08-01

    It is estimated that around half of all species of flowering plants show self-incompatibility (SI). However, the great majority of species alleged to have SI simply comply with 'the inability of a fully fertile hermaphrodite plant to produce zygotes when self-pollinated'--a definition that is neutral as to cause. Surprisingly few species have been investigated experimentally to determine whether their SI has the type of genetic control found in one of the three established mechanisms, that is, homomorphic gametophytic, homomorphic sporophytic or heteromorphic SI. Furthermore, our knowledge of the molecular basis of homomorphic SI derives from a few species in just five families--a small sample that has nevertheless revealed the existence of three different molecular mechanisms. Importantly, a sizeable cohort of species are self-sterile despite the fact that self-pollen tubes reach the ovary and in most cases penetrate ovules, a phenomenon called late-acting self-incompatibility (LSI). This review draws attention to the confusion between species that show 'self-incompatibility' and those that possess one of the 'conventional SI mechanisms' and to argue the case for recognition of LSI as having a widespread occurrence and as a mechanism that inhibits selfing and promotes outbreeding in many plant species.

  9. A rare exception to Haldane's rule: Are X chromosomes key to hybrid incompatibilities?

    PubMed

    Moran, P A; Ritchie, M G; Bailey, N W

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of Haldane's rule suggests that sex chromosomes commonly have a key role in reproductive barriers and speciation. However, the majority of research on Haldane's rule has been conducted in species with conventional sex determination systems (XY and ZW) and exceptions to the rule have been understudied. Here we test the role of X-linked incompatibilities in a rare exception to Haldane's rule for female sterility in field cricket sister species (Teleogryllus oceanicus and T. commodus). Both have an XO sex determination system. Using three generations of crosses, we introgressed X chromosomes from each species onto different, mixed genomic backgrounds to test predictions about the fertility and viability of each cross type. We predicted that females with two different species X chromosomes would suffer reduced fertility and viability compared with females with two parental X chromosomes. However, we found no strong support for such X-linked incompatibilities. Our results preclude X-X incompatibilities and instead support an interchromosomal epistatic basis to hybrid female sterility. We discuss the broader implications of these findings, principally whether deviations from Haldane's rule might be more prevalent in species without dimorphic sex chromosomes.

  10. Style self-incompatibility gene products of Nicotlana alata are ribonucleases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure, Bruce A.; Haring, Volker; Ebert, Paul R.; Anderson, Marilyn A.; Simpson, Richard J.; Sakiyama, Fumio; Clarke, Adrienne E.

    1989-12-01

    SELF-INCOMPATIBILITY in flowering plants is often controlled by a single nuclear gene (the S-gene) having several alleles1. This gene prevents fertilization by self-pollen or by pollen bearing either of the two S- alleles expressed in the style. Sequence analysis shows that three alleles of the S gene of Nicotiana alata encode style glycoproteins2,3 with regions of defined homology. Two of the homologous regions also show precise homology with ribonucleases T2 (ref. 4) and Rh (ref. 5). We report here that glycoproteins corresponding to the S1, S2, S3, S6 and S7 alleles isolated from style extracts of N. alata6 are ribonucleases. These style S-gene-encoded glycoproteins account for most of the ribonuclease activity recovered from style extracts. The ribonuclease specific activity of style extracts of the self-incompatible species N. alata is 100-1,000-fold higher than that of the related self-compatible species N. tabacum. These observations implicate ribonuclease activity in the mechanism of gametophytic self-incompatibility.

  11. Overcoming the incompatibility challenge in chemo-enzymatic and multi-catalytic cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Kourist, Robert; Schmidt, Sandy; Castiglione, Kathrin

    2017-09-06

    Multi-catalytic cascade reactions bear a great potential to minimize downstream and purification steps, leading to a drastic reduction of the produced waste. In many examples, the compatibility of chemo- and biocatalytic steps could be easily achieved. Problems associated to the incompatibility of the catalysts and their reactions, however, are very frequent. Cascade-like reactions can hardly occur in this way. One possible solution to combine in principle incompatible chemo- and biocatalytic reactions is the defined control of the microenvironment by compartmentalisation or scaffolding. Current methods for the control of the microenvironment of biocatalysts go far beyond classical enzyme immobilization and are thus believed to be very promising tools to overcome incompatibility issues and to facilitate the synthetic application of cascade reactions. In this mini-review we will summarize recent synthetic examples of (chemo-)enzymatic cascade reactions and outline promising methods for their spatial control either by using bio-derived or synthetic systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Role of ABO Incompatibility in Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Önder; Coşkun, Hasan Şanol; Arat, Mutlu; Soydan, Ender; Özcan, Muhit; Gürman, Günhan; Çelebi, Harika; Demirer, Taner; Akan, Hamdi; İlhan, Osnman; Konuk, Nahide; Uysal, Akın; Berksaç, Meral; Koç, Haluk

    2002-09-05

    ABO incompatibility is not a contraindication for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, but this procedure requires an extra effort for erythrocyte or plasma depletion in certain well established conditions. Some acute or delayed immunohematological complications such as acute or chronic hemolysis and pure red cell aplasia may be encountered. In this study the outcome and transplant related complications of ABO incompatible and identical cases, who have received allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells from their HLA identical siblings were compared with each other. Ninety-one patients (CML 36, AML 37, other 18) were analyzed retrospectively including 51 (60.4%) ABO identical patients and 36 (39.6%) ABO mismatched (MM) patients, who have a bi-directional MM (n= 5), major MM (n= 16), minor MM (n= 9) and Rh MM (n= 6). Median follow up was 13 (0.5-43.0) months. We did not observed any significant differences between two groups (identical vs non-identical) in terms of acute hemolysis preceding stem cell infusion, peritransplant transfusion demand, acute- and chronic graft versus host disease. There was no change in estimated disease free survival and overall survival durations. We did not observed any influence of ABO/Rh incompatibility on short term outcome in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in our series and did not recommend further manipulation of the infused stem cells.

  13. Tropical Drosophila pandora carry Wolbachia infections causing cytoplasmic incompatibility or male killing.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kelly M; Schiffer, Michele; Griffin, Philippa C; Lee, Siu F; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2016-08-01

    Wolbachia infections have been described in several Drosophila species, but relatively few have been assessed for phenotypic effects. Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is the most common phenotypic effect that has been detected, while some infections cause male killing or feminization, and many Wolbachia infections have few host effects. Here, we describe two new infections in a recently described species, Drosophila pandora, one of which causes near-complete CI and near-perfect maternal transmission (the "CI" strain). The other infection is a male killer (the "MK" strain), which we confirm by observing reinitiation of male production following tetracycline treatment. No incompatibility was detected in crosses between CI strain males and MK strain females, and rare MK males do not cause CI. Molecular analyses indicate that the CI and MK infections are distantly related and the CI infection is closely related to the wRi infection of Drosophila simulans. Two population surveys indicate that all individuals are infected with Wolbachia, but the MK infection is uncommon. Given patterns of incompatibility among the strains, the infection dynamics is expected to be governed by the relative fitness of the females, suggesting that the CI infection should have a higher fitness. This was evidenced by changes in infection frequencies and sex ratios in population cages initiated at different starting frequencies of the infections. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Plasmid ColE1 incompatibility determined by interaction of RNA I with primer transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, J; Itoh, T

    1981-01-01

    Mutants of plasmid pNT7 that can coexist with plasmid pMB9 in growing bacteria have been isolated. These mutants show altered incompatibility properties and increased copy numbers. Each mutant has a single base change at or near the center of one of the three palindromes in the region that specifies two RNA species: a larger one (primer transcripts) that provides a primer for DNA replication and a smaller one (RNA I) that is the incompatibility-specific inhibitor of primer formation. In vitro transcription studies show that the single base changes affect both the ability of RNA I to inhibit primer formation and the sensitivity of primer formation to inhibition by RNA I. RNA I hybridizes to the primer transcript, and the rate of hybridization is reduced by the single base changes. Based on analyses of inhibition of in vitro primer formation by RNA I and of in vivo properties of the mutant plasmids, we conclude that incompatibility between two plasmids can be attributed to inhibition of primer formation on one of the plasmids by the RNA I of the other. Inhibition of primer formation by RNA I appears to be the mechanism that determines the copy number of pNT7 and its derivatives. Images PMID:6171811

  15. The two sides of goal intentions: Intention self-concordance and intention strength as predictors of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Reinhard; Seelig, Harald; Göhner, Wiebke; Schlatterer, Martina; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2017-01-01

    The present research introduces an extended conceptualisation of self-concordance, which is considered an attribute not only of goals, but also of goal intentions. Based on a corresponding operationalisation, we investigate the interplay of both intention strength and intention self-concordance in the prediction of physical activity. Data were taken from a longitudinal study of 134 obese people who were asked to fill out a questionnaire three times every six months. Physical activity and intention self-concordance were measured by validated scales. Intentions strength was assessed by an item typically employed in the extant literature. Logistic regression analyses and path analyses showed both intention strength and self-concordance to be significant predictors of changes in physical activity over time. Additional analyses found self-efficacy to be a significant predictor of intention strength and self-concordance; for outcome expectations this was not the case. Findings support the idea that intention strength and self-concordance are two critical facets of a goal intention that need to be considered in the prediction of physical activity participation. Whereas intention strength refers to the degree of determination with which a goal intention is adopted, self-concordance rather captures the quality of this intention.

  16. Exergy sustainability.

    SciTech Connect

    Robinett, Rush D. III; Wilson, David Gerald; Reed, Alfred W.

    2006-05-01

    Exergy is the elixir of life. Exergy is that portion of energy available to do work. Elixir is defined as a substance held capable of prolonging life indefinitely, which implies sustainability of life. In terms of mathematics and engineering, exergy sustainability is defined as the continuous compensation of irreversible entropy production in an open system with an impedance and capacity-matched persistent exergy source. Irreversible and nonequilibrium thermodynamic concepts are combined with self-organizing systems theories as well as nonlinear control and stability analyses to explain this definition. In particular, this paper provides a missing link in the analysis of self-organizing systems: a tie between irreversible thermodynamics and Hamiltonian systems. As a result of this work, the concept of ''on the edge of chaos'' is formulated as a set of necessary and sufficient conditions for stability and performance of sustainable systems. This interplay between exergy rate and irreversible entropy production rate can be described as Yin and Yang control: the dialectic synthesis of opposing power flows. In addition, exergy is shown to be a fundamental driver and necessary input for sustainable systems, since exergy input in the form of power is a single point of failure for self-organizing, adaptable systems.

  17. Sustaining Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorse, Rosemary; Reisenberger, Anna

    This publication outlines prerequisites for success, critical factors in achieving excellence, and strategies for sustaining excellence once high levels of performance have been achieved. It considers how quality and improvement models might be used to support colleges in this work and draws on the work of 10 colleges in the United Kingdom that…

  18. Rh Incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... attack the baby's red blood cells. This can lead to hemolytic anemia (HEE-moh-lit-ick uh-NEE-me-uh) ... baby won't get enough oxygen. This can lead to serious problems. Severe hemolytic anemia may even be fatal to the child. Outlook ...

  19. Rh incompatibility

    MedlinePlus

    ... affected unless the mother had past miscarriages or abortions that sensitized her immune system. This because it ... injections: During every pregnancy After a miscarriage or abortion After prenatal tests such as amniocentesis and chorionic ...

  20. Approaching Environmental Sustainability: Perceptions of Self-Efficacy and Changeability.

    PubMed

    Schutte, Nicola S; Bhullar, Navjot

    2017-04-03

    This paper describes a model focused on the role of self-efficacy and belief in changeability of behavior in motivating environmentally sustainable behavior. The model was tested in two studies. The first study found that participants who had greater self-efficacy for sustainability behavior and a greater belief in their changeability of sustainability behavior had a higher level of approach motivation toward sustainability behavior and reported more such actual behavior. The second study investigated the effect of brief interventions intended to increase perception of self-efficacy for sustainability-related purchasing and changeability of sustainability-related purchasing. The intervention that focused on enhancing self-efficacy for making sustainability-related purchases had the strongest impact on intention to purchase. These findings have implications for interventions intended to change behavior related to environmental sustainability.

  1. Sustainable Sizing.

    PubMed

    Robinette, Kathleen M; Veitch, Daisy

    2016-08-01

    To provide a review of sustainable sizing practices that reduce waste, increase sales, and simultaneously produce safer, better fitting, accommodating products. Sustainable sizing involves a set of methods good for both the environment (sustainable environment) and business (sustainable business). Sustainable sizing methods reduce (1) materials used, (2) the number of sizes or adjustments, and (3) the amount of product unsold or marked down for sale. This reduces waste and cost. The methods can also increase sales by fitting more people in the target market and produce happier, loyal customers with better fitting products. This is a mini-review of methods that result in more sustainable sizing practices. It also reviews and contrasts current statistical and modeling practices that lead to poor fit and sizing. Fit-mapping and the use of cases are two excellent methods suited for creating sustainable sizing, when real people (vs. virtual people) are used. These methods are described and reviewed. Evidence presented supports the view that virtual fitting with simulated people and products is not yet effective. Fit-mapping and cases with real people and actual products result in good design and products that are fit for person, fit for purpose, with good accommodation and comfortable, optimized sizing. While virtual models have been shown to be ineffective for predicting or representing fit, there is an opportunity to improve them by adding fit-mapping data to the models. This will require saving fit data, product data, anthropometry, and demographics in a standardized manner. For this success to extend to the wider design community, the development of a standardized method of data collection for fit-mapping with a globally shared fit-map database is needed. It will enable the world community to build knowledge of fit and accommodation and generate effective virtual fitting for the future. A standardized method of data collection that tests products' fit methodically

  2. Survival Benefit with Kidney Transplants from HLA-Incompatible Live Donors

    PubMed Central

    Orandi, B.J.; Luo, X.; Massie, A.B.; Garonzik-Wang, J.M.; Lonze, B.E.; Ahmed, R.; Van Arendonk, K.J.; Stegall, M.D.; Jordan, S.C.; Oberholzer, J.; Dunn, T.B.; Ratner, L.E.; Kapur, S.; Pelletier, R.P.; Roberts, J.P.; Melcher, M.L.; Singh, P.; Sudan, D.L.; Posner, M.P.; El-Amm, J.M.; Shapiro, R.; Cooper, M.; Lipkowitz, G.S.; Rees, M.A.; Marsh, C.L.; Sankari, B.R.; Gerber, D.A.; Nelson, P.W.; Wellen, J.; Bozorgzadeh, A.; Gaber, A.O.; Montgomery, R.A.; Segev, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A report from a high-volume single center indicated a survival benefit of receiving a kidney transplant from an HLA-incompatible live donor as compared with remaining on the waiting list, whether or not a kidney from a deceased donor was received. The generalizability of that finding is unclear. METHODS In a 22-center study, we estimated the survival benefit for 1025 recipients of kidney transplants from HLA-incompatible live donors who were matched with controls who remained on the waiting list or received a transplant from a deceased donor (waiting-list-or-transplant control group) and controls who remained on the waiting list but did not receive a transplant (waiting-list-only control group). We analyzed the data with and without patients from the highest-volume center in the study. RESULTS Recipients of kidney transplants from incompatible live donors had a higher survival rate than either control group at 1 year (95.0%, vs. 94.0% for the waiting-list-or-transplant control group and 89.6% for the waiting-list-only control group), 3 years (91.7% vs. 83.6% and 72.7%, respectively), 5 years (86.0% vs. 74.4% and 59.2%), and 8 years (76.5% vs. 62.9% and 43.9%) (P<0.001 for all comparisons with the two control groups). The survival benefit was significant at 8 years across all levels of donor-specific antibody: 89.2% for recipients of kidney transplants from incompatible live donors who had a positive Luminex assay for anti-HLA antibody but a negative flow-cytometric cross-match versus 65.0% for the waiting-list-or-transplant control group and 47.1% for the waiting-list-only control group; 76.3% for recipients with a positive flow-cytometric cross-match but a negative cytotoxic cross-match versus 63.3% and 43.0% in the two control groups, respectively; and 71.0% for recipients with a positive cytotoxic cross-match versus 61.5% and 43.7%, respectively. The findings did not change when patients from the highest-volume center were excluded. CONCLUSIONS This

  3. Evolution of the self-incompatibility system in the Brassicaceae: identification of S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) in self-incompatible Capsella grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Paetsch, M; Mayland-Quellhorst, S; Neuffer, B

    2006-10-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) has been well studied in the genera Brassica and Arabidopsis, which have become models for investigation into the SI system. To understand the evolution of the SI system in the Brassicaceae, comparative analyses of the S-locus in genera other than Brassica and Arabidopsis are necessary. We report the identification of six putative S-locus receptor kinase genes (SRK) in natural populations of Capsella grandiflora, an SI species from a genus which is closely related to Arabidopsis. These S-alleles display striking similarities to the Arabidopsis lyrata SRK alleles in sequence and structure. Our phylogenetic analysis supports the scenario of differing SI evolution along the two lineages (The Brassica lineage and Arabidopsis/Capsella lineage). Our results also argue that the ancestral S-locus lacked the SLG gene (S-locus glycoprotein) and that the diversification of S-alleles predates the separation of Arabidopsis and Capsella.

  4. Gametophytic self-incompatibility is controlled by a single major locus on chromosome 1 in Lycopersicon peruvianum

    PubMed Central

    Tanksley, Steven D.; Loaiza-Figueroa, Fernando

    1985-01-01

    By using a number of previously mapped enzyme-coding genes as genetic markers, it has been possible to scan the genome of Lycopersicon peruvianum for gene(s) controlling the gametophytic self-incompatibility reaction. Regardless of genetic background or level of inbreeding, only a single locus (S), mapping to chromosome 1, was found to control the self-incompatibility reaction. Despite the widespread occurrence of this form of self-incompatibility in higher plants, to the best of our knowledge, the locus underlying the response has not been confirmed previously through genetic mapping, and the results cast doubts on hypotheses requiring multifactoral or dynamic control of gametophytic self-incompatibility. PMID:16593587

  5. Intentional Mathematics Teaching in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon; Conderman, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Studies and discussions around "good teaching practices" have often identified intentionality as the chief characteristic of outstanding teachers. Intentional teachers are identified as maintaining the habit of informed reflection as they plan, teach, reflect on, and revise the effectiveness of their practices. Intentional teaching strategies are…

  6. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  7. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  8. Intentional Mathematics Teaching in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Myoungwhon; Conderman, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Studies and discussions around "good teaching practices" have often identified intentionality as the chief characteristic of outstanding teachers. Intentional teachers are identified as maintaining the habit of informed reflection as they plan, teach, reflect on, and revise the effectiveness of their practices. Intentional teaching strategies are…

  9. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  10. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  11. Self-Incompatibility in Petunia inflata: The Relationship between a Self-Incompatibility Locus F-Box Protein and Its Non-Self S-RNases[W

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Penglin; Kao, Teh-hui

    2013-01-01

    The highly polymorphic S (for self-incompatibility) locus regulates self-incompatibility in Petunia inflata; the S-RNase regulates pistil specificity, and multiple S-locus F-box (SLF) genes regulate pollen specificity. The collaborative non-self recognition model predicts that, for any S-haplotype, an unknown number of SLFs collectively recognize all non-self S-RNases to mediate their ubiquitination and degradation. Using a gain-of-function assay, we examined the relationships between S2-SLF1 (for S2-allelic product of Type-1 SLF) and four S-RNases. The results suggest that S2-SLF1 interacts with S7- and S13-RNases, and the previously identified S1- and S3-RNases, but not with S5- or S11-RNase. An artificial microRNA expressed by the S2-SLF1 promoter, but not by the vegetative cell-specific promoter, Late Anther Tomato 52, suppressed expression of S2-SLF1 in S2 pollen, suggesting that SLF1 is specific to the generative cell. The S2 pollen with S2-SLF1 suppressed was compatible with S3-, S5-, S7-, S11-, and S13-carrying pistils, confirming that other SLF proteins are responsible for detoxifying S5- and S11-RNases and suggesting that S2-SLF1 is not the only SLF in S2 pollen that interacts with S3-, S7-, and S13-RNases. Petunia may have evolved at least two types of SLF proteins to detoxify any non-self S-RNase to minimize the deleterious effects of mutation in any SLF. PMID:23444333

  12. Sylvian fissure epidermoid cyst presenting with intention tremor

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Makkiyah, Feda; Goel, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Epidermoid tumors are benign tumors which contain keratin, cellular debris, and cholesterol, and are lined with stratified squamous epithelium. They grow in discreet silence sustained over a multitude of years. The tumors most commonly present with headache and seizures. We report the case of a 24-year-old male with a large sylvian fissure epidermoid tumor who presented with intention tremor. The patient was operated, and a near-total excision of the tumor was performed with a resolution of the tremor. PMID:27057232

  13. Teaching Sustainability/Teaching Sustainably

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Kirsten Allen, Ed.; Parker, Kelly A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Over the coming decades, every academic discipline will have to respond to the paradigm of more sustainable life practices because students will be living in a world challenged by competition for resources and climate change, and will demand that every academic discipline demonstrate substantial and corresponding relevance. This book takes as its…

  14. Teaching Sustainability/Teaching Sustainably

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartels, Kirsten Allen, Ed.; Parker, Kelly A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Over the coming decades, every academic discipline will have to respond to the paradigm of more sustainable life practices because students will be living in a world challenged by competition for resources and climate change, and will demand that every academic discipline demonstrate substantial and corresponding relevance. This book takes as its…

  15. Decoding intention: a neuroergonomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Grafton, Scott T; Tipper, Christine M

    2012-01-02

    Decoding the intentions of other people based on non-linguistic cues such as their body movement is a major requirement of many jobs. Whether it is maintaining security at an airport or negotiating with locals in a foreign country, there is a need to maximize the effectiveness of training or real-time performance in this decoding process. This review considers the potential utility of neuroergonomic solutions, and in particular, of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods for augmenting action understanding. Focus is given to body movements and hand-object interactions, where there is a rapid growth in relevant science. The interpretation of EEG-based signals is reinforced by a consideration of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrating underlying brain mechanisms that support goal oriented action. While no EEG method is currently implemented as a practical application for enhancing the understanding of unspoken intentions, there are a number of promising approaches that merit further development.

  16. Decoding intention: A neuroergonomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; Tipper, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Decoding the intentions of other people based on non-linguistic cues such as their body movement is a major requirement of many jobs. Whether it is maintaining security at an airport or negotiating with locals in a foreign country, there is a need to augment maximize the effectiveness of training or real-time performance in this decoding process. This review considers the potential utility of neuroergonomic solutions, and in particular, of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods for augmenting action understanding. Focus is given to body movements and hand-object interactions, where there is a rapid growth in relevant science. The interpretation of EEG-based signals is reinforced by a consideration of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrating underlying brain mechanisms that support goal oriented action. While no EEG method is currently implemented as a practical application for enhancing the understanding of unspoken intentions, there are a number of promising approaches that merit further development. PMID:21651985

  17. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  18. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives.

  19. Impact of MHC Class II Incompatibility on Localization of Mononuclear Cell Infiltrates to the Bronchiolar Compartment of Orthotopic Lung Allografts

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Shinji; Soong, T. Rinda; Fox-Talbot, Karen; Qian, Zhiping; Rahimi, Salma; Wasowska, Barbara A.; Rohde, Charles A.; Chen, Sabrina; Garcia, Joe G.N.; Baldwin, William M.

    2005-01-01

    Chronic pathological changes in transplanted lungs are unique because they center on the airways. We examined the relative role of MHC class I and II antigens in causing bronchial pathology in orthotopic lung transplants to rats maintained on cyclosporin A (CsA). Transplants mismatched for MHC class II antigens had significantly more peri-bronchiolar infiltrates than MHC class I incompatible transplants. No significant increase in infiltrates was found in lung transplants incompatible for MHC class I plus II antigens compared to MHC class II antigens alone. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MHC class II antigen expression was confined to macrophages in MHC class I incompatible transplants, but was upregulated on bronchial epithelium in transplants with MHC class II incompatibilities. Vascular endothelium was notably devoid of MHC class II antigen expression in all transplants. However, both peri-bronchial and peri-vascular infiltrates were frequently cuffed by alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes that expressed MHC class II antigens. PCR analysis demonstrated that IFN-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cells expressed and secreted (RANTES) were upregulated in MHC class II incompatible transplants. Thus, MHC class II incompatible orthotopic lung transplants in rats maintained on CsA immunosuppression undergo a bronchiolcentric upregulation of alloantigens. PMID:15760392

  20. Time-Course Transcriptome Analysis of Compatible and Incompatible Pollen-Stigma Interactions in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Gao, Changbin; Yue, Yao; Liu, Zhiquan; Ma, Chaozhi; Zhou, Guilong; Yang, Yong; Duan, Zhiqiang; Li, Bing; Wen, Jing; Yi, Bin; Shen, Jinxiong; Tu, Jinxing; Fu, Tingdong

    2017-01-01

    Brassica species exhibit both compatible and incompatible pollen-stigma interactions, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, RNA-seq technology was applied in a comprehensive time-course experiment (2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min) to explore gene expression during compatible/incompatible pollen-stigma interactions in stigma. Moderate changes of gene expression were observed both in compatible pollination (PC) and incompatible pollination (PI) within 10 min, whereas drastic changes showed up by 30 min, especially in PI. Stage specific DEGs [Differentially Expressed Gene(s)] were identified, and signaling pathways such as stress response, defense response, cell wall modification and others were found to be over-represented. In addition, enriched genes in all samples were analyzed as well, 293 most highly expressed genes were identified and annotated. Gene Ontology and metabolic pathway analysis revealed 10 most highly expressed genes and 37 activated metabolic pathways. According to the data, downstream components were activated in signaling pathways of both compatible and incompatible responses, and incompatible response had more complicated signal transduction networks. This study provides more detailed molecular information at different time points after compatible and incompatible pollination, deepening our knowledge about pollen-stigma interactions. PMID:28515735

  1. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  2. Intention concepts and brain-machine interfacing.

    PubMed

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret ("decode") the agent's intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent's intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications.

  3. Intention-Disguised Algorithmic Trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, William; Syverson, Paul; Liu, Zhenming; Thorpe, Christopher

    Large market participants (LMPs) must often execute trades while keeping their intentions secret. Sometimes secrecy is required before trades are completed to prevent other traders from anticipating (and exploiting) the price impact of their trades. This is known as "front-running". In other cases, LMPs with proprietary trading strategies wish to keep their positions secret even after trading because their strategies and positions contain valuable information. LMPs include hedge funds, mutual funds, and other specialized market players.

  4. Positive moods can eliminate intentional forgetting.

    PubMed

    Bäuml, Karl-Heinz; Kuhbandner, Christof

    2009-02-01

    People can intentionally forget previously studied information if, after study, a forget cue and new material to be encoded are provided. We examined how the affective state people experience during encoding of the new material modulates such directed forgetting. Positive, negative, and neutral moods were induced immediately before the new material was studied. The study materials themselves were neutral. The results showed sustained forgetting of the previously studied materials in negative moods but an elimination of the forgetting in positive moods. These findings agree with the effects of mood found for other cognitive tasks. They suggest that in positive moods, associative networks are activated, which leads to reactivation of List-1 items, and thus to elimination of the directed forgetting effects. These results contrast with recent reports on the role of emotional content in directed forgetting, which have described equivalent effects for neutral and emotional materials. Together, our findings suggest that directed forgetting is mainly affected by mood, and hardly at all by emotional content.

  5. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  6. Sustainable NREL

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  7. Sustainable NREL

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory prides itself on not only advancing the renewable energy, but "walking the talk" when it comes to sustainable practices. "When you look at our laboratories, you will see energy efficiency in action, but you'll also see renewable energy. We walk the walk and we talk the talk. We believe in it and we want to live it also."

  8. Sustainable Odds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2016-12-01

    While probability forecasting has many philosophical and mathematical attractions, it is something of a dishonest nonsense if acting on such forecasts is expected to lead to rapid ruin. Model-based probabilities, when interpreted as actionable, are shown to lead to the rapid ruin of a cooperative entity offering odds interpreting the probability forecasts at face value. Arguably, these odds would not be considered "fair", but inasmuch as some definitions of "fair odds" include this case, this presentation will focus on "sustainable odds": Odds which are not expected to lead to the rapid ruin of the cooperative under the assumption that those placing bets have no information beyond that available to the forecast system. It is argued that sustainable odds will not correspond to probabilities outside the Perfect Model Scenario, that the "implied probabilities" determined from sustainable odds will always sum to more than one, and that the excess of this sum over one reflects the skill of the forecast system, being a quantitative measure of structural model error.

  9. The absence of cryptic self-incompatibility in Clarkia unguiculata (Onagraceae).

    PubMed

    Travers, S E; Mazer, S J

    2000-02-01

    Many species exhibit reduced siring success of self-relative to outcross-pollen donors. This can be attributed either to postfertilization abortion of selfed ovules or to cryptic self-incompatibility (CSI). CSI is a form of self-incompatibility whereby the advantage to outcross pollen is expressed only following pollinations where there is gametophytic competition between self and outcross pollen. Under the definition of CSI, this differential success is due to the superior prefertilization performance (pollen germination rate and pollen tube growth rate) of outcross pollen relative to self pollen. Although CSI has been demonstrated in several plant species, no studies have assessed among-population variation in the expression of CSI. We conducted a greenhouse study on Clarkia unguiculata (an annual species with a mixed-mating system) to detect CSI, and we compare our observations to previous reports of CSI in C. gracilis and another population of C. unguiculata. In contrast to these previous studies of CSI in Clarkia, we used genetic rather than phenotypic markers to measure the relative performance of selfed vs. outcross pollen. In this study, we measured the intensity of CSI in C. unguiculata from a large population in southern California and we determined whether the magnitude of pollen competition (manipulated by controlling the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma) influenced the outcome of competition between self and outcross pollen. In contrast to previous investigations of Clarkia, we found no evidence for CSI. The mean number of seeds sired per fruit did not differ between self and outcross pollen following either single-donor or mixed pollinations. In addition, the relative success of selfed vs. outcross pollen was independent of the magnitude of pollen competition. These results suggest that: (1) one of the few nonheterostylous species previously thought to be cryptically self-incompatible is completely self-compatible (at least in the

  10. Contrasted Patterns of Molecular Evolution in Dominant and Recessive Self-Incompatibility Haplotypes in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Goubet, Pauline M.; Bergès, Hélène; Bellec, Arnaud; Prat, Elisa; Helmstetter, Nicolas; Mangenot, Sophie; Gallina, Sophie; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Fobis-Loisy, Isabelle; Vekemans, Xavier; Castric, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Self-incompatibility has been considered by geneticists a model system for reproductive biology and balancing selection, but our understanding of the genetic basis and evolution of this molecular lock-and-key system has remained limited by the extreme level of sequence divergence among haplotypes, resulting in a lack of appropriate genomic sequences. In this study, we report and analyze the full sequence of eleven distinct haplotypes of the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) in two closely related Arabidopsis species, obtained from individual BAC libraries. We use this extensive dataset to highlight sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution of each of the two genes controlling self-incompatibility themselves, as well as of the genomic region surrounding them. We find strong collinearity of the flanking regions among haplotypes on each side of the S-locus together with high levels of sequence similarity. In contrast, the S-locus region itself shows spectacularly deep gene genealogies, high variability in size and gene organization, as well as complete absence of sequence similarity in intergenic sequences and striking accumulation of transposable elements. Of particular interest, we demonstrate that dominant and recessive S-haplotypes experience sharply contrasted patterns of molecular evolution. Indeed, dominant haplotypes exhibit larger size and a much higher density of transposable elements, being matched only by that in the centromere. Overall, these properties highlight that the S-locus presents many striking similarities with other regions involved in the determination of mating-types, such as sex chromosomes in animals or in plants, or the mating-type locus in fungi and green algae. PMID:22457631

  11. Wolbachia-Induced Unidirectional Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Speciation: Mainland-Island Model

    PubMed Central

    Telschow, Arndt; Flor, Matthias; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Hammerstein, Peter; Werren, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are among the most common endosymbionts in the world. In many insect species these bacteria induce a sperm-egg incompatibility between the gametes of infected males and uninfected females, commonly called unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). It is generally believed that unidirectional CI cannot promote speciation in hosts because infection differences between populations will be unstable and subsequent gene flow will eliminate genetic differences between diverging populations. In the present study we investigate this question theoretically in a mainland-island model with migration from mainland to island. Our analysis shows that (a) the infection polymorphism is stable below a critical migration rate, (b) an (initially) uninfected “island” can better maintain divergence at a selected locus (e.g. can adapt locally) in the presence of CI, and (c) unidirectional CI selects for premating isolation in (initially) uninfected island populations if they receive migration from a Wolbachia-infected mainland. Interestingly, premating isolation is most likely to evolve if levels of incompatibility are intermediate and if either the infection causes fecundity reductions or Wolbachia transmission is incomplete. This is because under these circumstances an infection pattern with an infected mainland and a mostly uninfected island can persist in the face of comparably high migration. We present analytical results for all three findings: (a) a lower estimation of the critical migration rate in the presence of local adaptation, (b) an analytical approximation for the gene flow reduction caused by unidirectional CI, and (c) a heuristic formula describing the invasion success of mutants at a mate preference locus. These findings generally suggest that Wolbachia-induced unidirectional CI can be a factor in divergence and speciation of hosts. PMID:17684548

  12. Clinical evaluation of the endothelial tie-2 crossmatch in ABO compatible and ABO incompatible renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Kafetzi, Maria L; Boletis, John N; Melexopoulou, Christine A; Tsakris, Athanassios; Iniotaki, Aliki G; Doxiadis, Ilias I N

    2013-11-01

    The necessity of detection of other than the classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) directed antibodies prior to organ transplantation has already been repeatedly reported. A commercial flow cytometric endothelial crossmatch (CM) using isolated peripheral blood tie-2 positive cells provides a tool to detect non-MHC antibodies in addition to antibodies directed to MHC class I and II. The vast majority of circulating tie-2 positive cells expresses HLA-DR but not the A, B blood group antigens. Tie-2 cells are circulating surrogate endothelial cells. In this retrospective study we evaluated the endothelial CM in 51 renal transplantations, 30 with ABO compatible grafts and 21 with ABO incompatible grafts. Fifteen of the ABO compatible recipients (group A) developed unexplained rejection episodes (RE) while the remaining 15 had no RE (group B). Five cases of group A and none of group B had a positive tie-2 CM before transplantation (p=0.042). A positive tie-2 CM was also correlated with graft failure in ABO compatible transplants (p=0.02). No significant correlation was found between a positive pre-transplant tie-2 CM and RE in the ABO incompatible group. This study strongly suggest that a positive tie-2 CM may predict post-transplantation complications in ABO compatible grafts while negative reactions are not predictive. The test is not significantly correlated with RE in ABO incompatible grafts possibly due to applied desensitization. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic Elucidation of Nitric Oxide Signaling in Incompatible Plant-Pathogen Interactions[w

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Jürgen; Delledonne, Massimo; Mishina, Tatiana; Severi, Emmanuele; Sonoda, Masatoshi; Lamb, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Recent experiments indicate that nitric oxide (NO) plays a pivotal role in disease resistance and several other physiological processes in plants. However, most of the current information about the function of NO in plants is based on pharmacological studies, and additional approaches are therefore required to ascertain the role of NO as an important signaling molecule in plants. We have expressed a bacterial nitric oxide dioxygenase (NOD) in Arabidopsis plants and/or avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato to study incompatible plant-pathogen interactions impaired in NO signaling. NOD expression in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in decreased NO levels in planta and attenuated a pathogen-induced NO burst. Moreover, NOD expression in plant cells had very similar effects on plant defenses compared to NOD expression in avirulent Pseudomonas. The defense responses most affected by NO reduction during the incompatible interaction were decreased H2O2 levels during the oxidative burst and a blockage of Phe ammonia lyase expression, the key enzyme in the general phenylpropanoid pathway. Expression of the NOD furthermore blocked UV light-induced Phe ammonia lyase and chalcone synthase gene expression, indicating a general signaling function of NO in the activation of the phenylpropanoid pathway. NO possibly functions in incompatible plant-pathogen interactions by inhibiting the plant antioxidative machinery, and thereby ensuring locally prolonged H2O2 levels. Additionally, albeit to a lesser extent, we observed decreases in salicylic acid production, a diminished development of hypersensitive cell death, and a delay in pathogenesis-related protein 1 expression during these NO-deficient plant-pathogen interactions. Therefore, this genetic approach confirms that NO is an important regulatory component in the signaling network of plant defense responses. PMID:15347797

  14. Adding Perches for Cross-Pollination Ensures the Reproduction of a Self-Incompatible Orchid

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Qiang; Rao, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Tang, Guang-Da; Huang, Lai-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Outcrossing is known to carry genetic advantages in comparison with inbreeding. In many cases, flowering plants develop a self-incompatibility mechanism, along with a floral component adaptation mechanism, to avoid self-pollination and to promote outbreeding. Orchids commonly have a lip in their flower that functions as the a visiting plate for insect pollinators. Aside from the lip, however, many species (including Coelogyne rigida) have sheaths around the axis of inflorescence. The function of these sheaths remains unknown, and has long been a puzzle to researchers. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the function of these sheaths in relation to the lip and the pollinators, as well as their role in the modes of pollination and reproduction of Coelogyne rigida in 30 flowering populations of orchids in the limestone area of Southeast Yunnan, China. We found that self-incompatible C. rigida developed specialized bird perches around the basal axis of inflorescence to attract sunbirds and to complement their behavioral tendency to change foraging locations frequently. This self-incompatibility mechanism operates separately from the floral component adaptation mechanism. This mechanism thus prevents bees from repeatedly visiting the floral lip of the same plant which, in turn, results in autogamy. In this way, instead of preventing autogamy, C. rigida responds to these negative effects through a highly efficient cross-pollination method that successfully transfers pollen to different plants. Conclusions The proposed method ensures reproductive success, while offsetting the infertile self-pollination by insects, thereby reducing mating costs and addressing the lack of cross-pollination. The adaptation provides a novel and striking example of structural adaptation that promotes cross-pollination in angiosperms. PMID:23308277

  15. A Re-Examination of Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in California Drosophila simulans

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Lauren B.; Lipkowitz, Jeremy R.; Hoffmann, Ary A.; Turelli, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background In California Drosophila simulans, the maternally inherited Riverside strain Wolbachia infection (wRi) provides a paradigm for rapid spread of Wolbachia in nature and rapid evolutionary change. wRi induces cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), where crosses between infected males and uninfected females produce reduced egg-hatch. The three parameters governing wRi infection-frequency dynamics quantify: the fidelity of maternal transmission, the level of cytoplasmic incompatibility, and the relative fecundity of infected females. We last estimated these parameters in nature in 1993. Here we provide new estimates, under both field and laboratory conditions. Five years ago, we found that wRi had apparently evolved over 15 years to enhance the fecundity of infected females; here we examine whether CI intensity has also evolved. Methodology/Principal Findings New estimates using wild-caught flies indicate that the three key parameters have remained relatively stable since the early 1990s. As predicted by our three-parameter model using field-estimated parameter values, population infection frequencies remain about 93%. Despite this relative stability, laboratory data based on reciprocal crosses and introgression suggest that wRi may have evolved to produce less intense CI (i.e., higher egg hatch from incompatible crosses). In contrast, we find no evidence that D. simulans has evolved to lower the susceptibility of uninfected females to CI. Conclusions/Significance Evolution of wRi that reduces CI is consistent with counterintuitive theoretical predictions that within-population selection on CI-causing Wolbachia does not act to increase CI. Within taxa, CI is likely to evolve mainly via pleiotropic effects associated with the primary targets of selection on Wolbachia, i.e., host fecundity and transmission fidelity. Despite continuous, strong selection, D. simulans has not evolved appreciably to suppress CI. Our data demonstrate a lack of standing genetic variation

  16. Recent Loss of Self-Incompatibility by Degradation of the Male Component in Allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica

    PubMed Central

    Yew, Chow-Lih; Bachelier, Julien B.; Shimizu, Kentaro K.

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary transition from outcrossing to self-fertilization (selfing) through the loss of self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most prevalent events in flowering plants, and its genetic basis has been a major focus in evolutionary biology. In the Brassicaceae, the SI system consists of male and female specificity genes at the S-locus and of genes involved in the female downstream signaling pathway. During recent decades, much attention has been paid in particular to clarifying the genes responsible for the loss of SI. Here, we investigated the pattern of polymorphism and functionality of the female specificity gene, the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK), in allotetraploid Arabidopsis kamchatica. While its parental species, A. lyrata and A. halleri, are reported to be diploid and mainly self-incompatible, A. kamchatica is self-compatible. We identified five highly diverged SRK haplogroups, found their disomic inheritance and, for the first time in a wild allotetraploid species, surveyed the geographic distribution of SRK at the two homeologous S-loci across the species range. We found intact full-length SRK sequences in many accessions. Through interspecific crosses with the self-incompatible and diploid congener A. halleri, we found that the female components of the SI system, including SRK and the female downstream signaling pathway, are still functional in these accessions. Given the tight linkage and very rare recombination of the male and female components on the S-locus, this result suggests that the degradation of male components was responsible for the loss of SI in A. kamchatica. Recent extensive studies in multiple Brassicaceae species demonstrate that the loss of SI is often derived from mutations in the male component in wild populations, in contrast to cultivated populations. This is consistent with theoretical predictions that mutations disabling male specificity are expected to be more strongly selected than mutations disabling female

  17. Population Biology of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility: Maintenance and Spread of Cardinium Symbionts in a Parasitic Wasp

    PubMed Central

    Perlman, Steve J.; Kelly, Suzanne E.; Hunter, Martha S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria that cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) are perhaps the most widespread parasites of arthropods. CI symbionts cause reproductive failure when infected males mate with females that are either uninfected or infected with a different, incompatible strain. Until recently, CI was known to be caused only by the α-proteobacterium Wolbachia. Here we present the first study of the population biology of Cardinium, a recently discovered symbiont in the Bacteroidetes that causes CI in the parasitic wasp Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Cardinium occurs at high frequency (∼92%) in the field. Using wasps that were recently collected in the field, we measured parameters that are crucial for understanding how CI spreads and is maintained in its host. CI Cardinium exhibits near-perfect rates of maternal transmission, causes a strong reduction in viable offspring in incompatible crosses, and induces a high fecundity cost, with infected females producing 18% fewer offspring in the first 4 days of reproduction. We found no evidence for paternal transmission or horizontal transmission of CI Cardinium through parasitism of an infected conspecific. No evidence for cryptic parthenogenesis in infected females was found, nor was sex allocation influenced by infection. We incorporated our laboratory estimates into a model of CI dynamics. The model predicts a high stable equilibrium, similar to what we observed in the field. Interestingly, our model also predicts a high threshold frequency of CI invasion (20% for males and 24% for females), below which the infection is expected to be lost. We consider how this threshold may be overcome, focusing in particular on the sensitivity of CI models to fecundity costs. Overall our results suggest that the factors governing the dynamics of CI Wolbachia and Cardinium are strikingly similar. PMID:18245338

  18. Time course of pathologic changes in kidney allografts of positive crossmatch HLA-incompatible transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Bagnasco, Serena M; Zachary, Andrea A; Racusen, Lorraine C; Arend, Lois J; Carter-Monroe, Naima; Alachkar, Nada; Nazarian, Susanna M; Lonze, Bonnie E; Montgomery, Robert A; Kraus, Edward S

    2014-02-27

    Recipients of incompatible allografts are at increased risk of graft loss. We hypothesized that analysis of sequential biopsies from these grafts could define progression of graft lesions and identify features predictive of progression. We studied the time course of histologic injury in 745 kidney graft biopsies from 129 patients transplanted with a positive crossmatch human leukocyte antigen-incompatible kidney between 2000 and 2010 (follow-up of 1-9 years). Graft survival was 98% at 1 year and 80% at 5 years after transplantation. Throughout follow-up, 70% of patients experienced rejection, with 52% showing subclinical rejection in the first year. Cell-mediated rejection was more frequent than antibody-mediated rejection throughout follow-up. Transplant glomerulopathy (TxGN; cg≥1) developed in 47% of patients over the period of the study, as early as 3 months in a few patients. TxGN was preceded by glomerulitis in more than 90% of cases, with a median time interval of 12 months. Glomerulitis and detectable posttransplantation donor-specific antibodies were risk factors for TxGN (P<0.0001 and P<0.05). C4d-negative antibody-mediated rejection manifesting as capillaritis (g≥1 and ptc≥1) with detectable donor-specific antibodies was observed in some recipients (<20%). There was progressively higher average tubulointerstitial scarring (ci+ct) from 3 to 6 to 12 months (P<0.001). Despite good graft survival, a significant incidence of biopsy-proven rejection occurred in this subset of closely monitored human leukocyte antigen-incompatible recipients throughout follow-up. Microcirculation inflammation, particularly glomerulitis, irrespective of C4d, is associated with a high risk of development of TxGN at 1 year.

  19. Pseudotyping incompatibility between HIV-1 and gibbon ape leukemia virus Env is modulated by Vpu.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Tiffany M; Lyddon, Terri D; Cannon, Paula M; Johnson, Marc C

    2010-03-01

    The Env protein from gibbon ape leukemia virus (GaLV) has been shown to be incompatible with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in the production of infectious pseudotyped particles. This incompatibility has been mapped to the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail of GaLV Env. Surprisingly, we found that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu modulates this incompatibility. The infectivity of HIV-1 pseudotyped with murine leukemia virus (MLV) Env was not affected by Vpu. However, the infectivity of HIV-1 pseudotyped with an MLV Env with the cytoplasmic tail from GaLV Env (MLV/GaLV Env) was restricted 50- to 100-fold by Vpu. A Vpu mutant containing a scrambled membrane-spanning domain, Vpu(RD), was still able to restrict MLV/GaLV Env, but mutation of the serine residues at positions 52 and 56 completely alleviated the restriction. Loss of infectivity appeared to be caused by reduced MLV/GaLV Env incorporation into viral particles. The mechanism of this downmodulation appears to be distinct from Vpu-mediated CD4 downmodulation because Vpu-expressing cells that failed to produce infectious HIV-1 particles nonetheless continued to display robust surface MLV/GaLV Env expression. In addition, if MLV and HIV-1 were simultaneously introduced into the same cells, only the HIV-1 particle infectivity was restricted by Vpu. Collectively, these data suggest that Vpu modulates the cellular distribution of MLV/GaLV Env, preventing its recruitment to HIV-1 budding sites.

  20. It takes two to tango: self incompatibility in the bromeliad Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Morillo, Ivón M; Chi May, Francisco; Carnevali, Germán; May Pat, Filogonio

    2009-09-01

    Floral phenology and breeding system of Tillandsia streptophylla (Bromeliaceae) were studied in a low inundated forest in Yucatan, Mexico. During the flowering season, from March to August, terminal scapose 1-branched, paniculate inflorescences are produced with one flower per branch opening per day, over a period of 11-29 days. Flowers are tubular, light violet, with the stigma placed below the anthers, both protruding above the corolla. Flowers are protandrous, with anthers releasing pollen from 0500 hours and stigma becoming receptive around 0900 hours. Controlled experimental crosses suggest that Tillandsia streptophylla is self incompatible and therefore, pollinator-dependent.

  1. A simple technique for red blood cell removal in major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Mayer, G; Wernet, D; Northoff, H; Schneider, W

    1994-01-01

    A simple technique for red blood cell (RBC) removal in major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation is reported requiring two centrifugation steps, special blood bags and a mechanical device to separate the buffy coat from RBCs within the bag. In 42 transplantations an average of 84% of nucleated cells was recovered with an average contamination of 7.5 ml packed RBCs. The preparations were well tolerated in all patients whose isoagglutinin titers had not been reduced. Bone marrow engraftment was not significantly different from control groups.

  2. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta.

    PubMed

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: "the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute." Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals.

  3. Interallelic and Intergenic Incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1) Gene in Mouse Hybrid Sterility

    PubMed Central

    Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondřej; Šimeček, Petr; Gregorová, Soňa; Schimenti, John C.; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Baudat, Frédéric; de Massy, Bernard; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities explains reproductive isolation between species by incorrect epistatic interactions. Although the mechanisms of speciation are of great interest, no incompatibility has been characterized at the gene level in mammals. The Hybrid sterility 1 gene (Hst1) participates in the arrest of meiosis in F1 males of certain strains from two Mus musculus subspecies, e.g., PWD from M. m. musculus and C57BL/6J (henceforth B6) from M. m. domesticus. Hst1 has been identified as a meiotic PR-domain gene (Prdm9) encoding histone 3 methyltransferase in the male offspring of PWD females and B6 males, (PWD×B6)F1. To characterize the incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility, we phenotyped reproductive and meiotic markers in males with altered copy numbers of Prdm9. A partial rescue of fertility was observed upon removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9 from the azoospermic (PWD×B6)F1 hybrids, whereas removing one of the two Prdm9 copies in PWD or B6 background had no effect on male reproduction. Incompatibility(ies) not involving Prdm9B6 also acts in the (PWD×B6)F1 hybrids, since the correction of hybrid sterility by Prdm9B6 deletion was not complete. Additions and subtractions of Prdm9 copies, as well as allelic replacements, improved meiotic progression and fecundity also in the progeny-producing reciprocal (B6×PWD)F1 males. Moreover, an increased dosage of Prdm9 and reciprocal cross enhanced fertility of other sperm-carrying male hybrids, (PWD×B6-C3H.Prdm9)F1, harboring another Prdm9 allele of M. m. domesticus origin. The levels of Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were similar in the prepubertal testes of all types of F1 hybrids of PWD with B6 and B6-C3H.Prdm9 despite their different prospective fertility, but decreased to 53% after removal of Prdm9B6. Therefore, the Prdm9B6 allele probably takes part in posttranscriptional dominant-negative hybrid interaction(s) absent in the parental strains. PMID:23133405

  4. Interallelic and intergenic incompatibilities of the Prdm9 (Hst1) gene in mouse hybrid sterility.

    PubMed

    Flachs, Petr; Mihola, Ondřej; Simeček, Petr; Gregorová, Soňa; Schimenti, John C; Matsui, Yasuhisa; Baudat, Frédéric; de Massy, Bernard; Piálek, Jaroslav; Forejt, Jiří; Trachtulec, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The Dobzhansky-Muller model of incompatibilities explains reproductive isolation between species by incorrect epistatic interactions. Although the mechanisms of speciation are of great interest, no incompatibility has been characterized at the gene level in mammals. The Hybrid sterility 1 gene (Hst1) participates in the arrest of meiosis in F(1) males of certain strains from two Mus musculus subspecies, e.g., PWD from M. m. musculus and C57BL/6J (henceforth B6) from M. m. domesticus. Hst1 has been identified as a meiotic PR-domain gene (Prdm9) encoding histone 3 methyltransferase in the male offspring of PWD females and B6 males, (PWD×B6)F(1). To characterize the incompatibilities underlying hybrid sterility, we phenotyped reproductive and meiotic markers in males with altered copy numbers of Prdm9. A partial rescue of fertility was observed upon removal of the B6 allele of Prdm9 from the azoospermic (PWD×B6)F(1) hybrids, whereas removing one of the two Prdm9 copies in PWD or B6 background had no effect on male reproduction. Incompatibility(ies) not involving Prdm9(B6) also acts in the (PWD×B6)F(1) hybrids, since the correction of hybrid sterility by Prdm9(B6) deletion was not complete. Additions and subtractions of Prdm9 copies, as well as allelic replacements, improved meiotic progression and fecundity also in the progeny-producing reciprocal (B6×PWD)F(1) males. Moreover, an increased dosage of Prdm9 and reciprocal cross enhanced fertility of other sperm-carrying male hybrids, (PWD×B6-C3H.Prdm9)F(1), harboring another Prdm9 allele of M. m. domesticus origin. The levels of Prdm9 mRNA isoforms were similar in the prepubertal testes of all types of F(1) hybrids of PWD with B6 and B6-C3H.Prdm9 despite their different prospective fertility, but decreased to 53% after removal of Prdm9(B6). Therefore, the Prdm9(B6) allele probably takes part in posttranscriptional dominant-negative hybrid interaction(s) absent in the parental strains.

  5. Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Virulence Factors in Leptosphaeria maculans during Compatible and Incompatible Interactions with Canola

    PubMed Central

    Sonah, Humira; Zhang, Xuehua; Deshmukh, Rupesh K.; Borhan, M. Hossein; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Bélanger, Richard R.

    2016-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is a hemibiotrophic fungus that causes blackleg of canola (Brassica napus), one of the most devastating diseases of this crop. In the present study, transcriptome profiling of L. maculans was performed in an effort to understand and define the pathogenicity genes that govern both the biotrophic and the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, as well as those that separate a compatible from an incompatible interaction. For this purpose, comparative RNA-seq analyses were performed on L. maculans isolate D5 at four different time points following inoculation on susceptible cultivar Topas-DH16516 or resistant introgression line Topas-Rlm2. Analysis of 1.6 billion Illumina reads readily identified differentially expressed genes that were over represented by candidate secretory effector proteins, CAZymes, and other pathogenicity genes. Comparisons between the compatible and incompatible interactions led to the identification of 28 effector proteins whose chronology and level of expression suggested a role in the establishment and maintenance of biotrophy with the plant. These included all known Avr genes of isolate D5 along with eight newly characterized effectors. In addition, another 15 effector proteins were found to be exclusively expressed during the necrotrophic phase of the fungus, which supports the concept that L. maculans has a separate and distinct arsenal contributing to each phase. As for CAZymes, they were often highly expressed at 3 dpi but with no difference in expression between the compatible and incompatible interactions, indicating that other factors were necessary to determine the outcome of the interaction. However, their significantly higher expression at 11 dpi in the compatible interaction confirmed that they contributed to the necrotrophic phase of the fungus. A notable exception was LysM genes whose high expression was singularly observed on the susceptible host at 7 dpi. In the case of TFs, their higher expression at 7 and 11

  6. Creationism and intelligent design are incompatible with scientific progress: A response to Shanta and Vêdanta

    PubMed Central

    Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a recent opinion paper, B.K. Shanta claims science leaves no room for the subjective aspect of consciousness, and in doing so, attacks both origin of life and evolutionary research. He claims Vêdanta, one of the 6 orthodox schools of Hindu philosophy, offers an explanation: “the origin of everything material and nonmaterial is sentient and absolute.” Here I discuss how the pseudoscience of these creationist views, which are aligned with Intelligent Design, are incompatible with scientific progress and should not be published in scientific journals. PMID:27066185

  7. Genetic evidence that two independent S-loci control RNase-based self-incompatibility in diploid strawberry

    PubMed Central

    Bošković, Radovan I.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Tobutt, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    The self-incompatibility mechanism that reduces inbreeding in many plants of the Rosaceae is attributed to a multi-allelic S locus which, in the Prunoideae and Maloideae subfamilies, comprises two complementary genes, a stylar-expressed S-RNase and a pollen-expressed SFB. To elucidate incompatibility in the subfamily Rosoideae, stylar-specific RNases and self-(in)compatibility status were analysed in various diploid strawberries, especially Fragaria nubicola and F. viridis, both self-incompatible, and F. vesca, self-compatible, and in various progenies derived from them. Unexpectedly, two unlinked RNase loci, S and T, were found, encoding peptides distinct from Prunoideae and Maloideae S-RNases; the presence of a single active allele at either is sufficient to confer self-incompatibility. By contrast, in diploid Maloideae and Prunoideae a single locus encodes S-RNases that share several conserved regions and two active alleles are required for self-incompatibility. Our evidence implicates the S locus in unilateral inter-specific incompatibility and shows that S and T RNases can, remarkably, confer not only allele-specific rejection of cognate pollen but also unspecific rejection of Sn Tn pollen, where n indicates a null allele, consistent with the the presence of the pollen component, SFB, activating the cognitive function of these RNases. Comparison of relevant linkage groups between Fragaria and Prunus suggests that Prunus S-RNases, unique in having two introns, may have resulted from gene conversion in an ancestor of Prunus. In addition, it is shown that there is a non-S locus that is essential for self-incompatibility in diploid Fragaria. PMID:20008462

  8. Network mechanisms of intentional learning

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J.; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M.; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-01-01

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus–response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  9. Network mechanisms of intentional learning.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-02-15

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus-response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunization by blood-type antigen in human immunoglobulin products before ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Tokihiko; Ando, Tetsuo; Sato, Sumihiko; Kubota, Keiichi; Fuchinoue, Shohei; Teraoka, Satoshi

    2004-04-01

    A 29-year-old man wanted to receive an ABO-incompatible kidney transplant. His blood type was O, and the donor, his father, was A1. After endoscopic splenectomy performed before kidney transplantation, the recipient developed a high fever and leukocytosis, and he was treated with antibiotics and 5 g of human immunoglobulin products by intravenous infusion for 3 d. Soon after the infusions, his anti-blood type A antibody titer (anti-A titer) rose, and several sessions of plasma-exchange (PEX) and double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP) failed to lower it. Three courses of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody were administered to suppress the antibody production more specifically, and the rituximab infusions and repeated PEX and DFPP session lowered the anti-A titer and enabled kidney transplantation. Mild humoral rejection was observed 16 d after transplantation, but the recipient's serum creatinine was 1.5 mg/dL when discharged from the hospital. The increased anti-A titer may have been due to immunization by blood-type A antigen, with the human immunoglobulin products given to the patient being the source of the antigen. Administration of human immunoglobulin products to recipients of ABO-incompatible kidney transplants should be avoided, because it may cause an unexpected increase in anti-blood-type antibody titer.

  11. ABO-Incompatible Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Under the Desensitization Protocol With Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Song, G-W; Lee, S-G; Hwang, S; Kim, K-H; Ahn, C-S; Moon, D-B; Ha, T-Y; Jung, D-H; Park, G-C; Kim, W-J; Sin, M-H; Yoon, Y-I; Kang, W-H; Kim, S-H; Tak, E-Y

    2016-01-01

    ABO incompatibility is no longer considered a contraindication for adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) due to various strategies to overcome the ABO blood group barrier. We report the largest single-center experience of ABO-incompatible (ABOi) ALDLT in 235 adult patients. The desensitization protocol included a single dose of rituximab and total plasma exchange. In addition, local graft infusion therapy, cyclophosphamide, or splenectomy was used for a certain time period, but these treatments were eventually discontinued due to adverse events. There were three cases (1.3%) of in-hospital mortality. The cumulative 3-year graft and patient survival rates were 89.2% and 92.3%, respectively, and were comparable to those of the ABO-compatible group (n = 1301). Despite promising survival outcomes, 17 patients (7.2%) experienced antibody-mediated rejection that manifested as diffuse intrahepatic biliary stricture; six cases required retransplantation, and three patients died. ABOi ALDLT is a feasible method for expanding a living liver donor pool, but the efficacy of the desensitization protocol in targeting B cell immunity should be optimized.

  12. Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations for incompatible quantum measurements

    PubMed Central

    Branciard, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle is one of the main tenets of quantum theory. Nevertheless, and despite its fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum foundations, there has been some confusion in its interpretation: Although Heisenberg’s first argument was that the measurement of one observable on a quantum state necessarily disturbs another incompatible observable, standard uncertainty relations typically bound the indeterminacy of the outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured. In this paper, we quantify precisely Heisenberg’s intuition. Even if two incompatible observables cannot be measured together, one can still approximate their joint measurement, at the price of introducing some errors with respect to the ideal measurement of each of them. We present a tight relation characterizing the optimal tradeoff between the error on one observable vs. the error on the other. As a particular case, our approach allows us to characterize the disturbance of an observable induced by the approximate measurement of another one; we also derive a stronger error-disturbance relation for this scenario. PMID:23564344

  13. Defect-induced incompatibility of elastic strains: Dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröger, R.; Lookman, T.; Saxena, A.

    2008-11-01

    In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.

  14. Transmission advantage favors selfing allele in experimental populations of self-incompatible Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Judy L.; VanWyk, Emily J.; Hale, Jennifer R.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of self-fertilization is one of the most commonly traversed transitions in flowering plants, with profound implications for population genetic structure and evolutionary potential. We investigated factors influencing this transition using Witheringia solanacea, a predominantly self-incompatible species within which self-compatible genotypes have been identified. We showed that self-compatibility in this species segregates with variation at the S-locus as inherited by plants in F1 and F2 generations. To examine reproductive assurance and the transmission advantage of selfing, we placed self-compatible and self-incompatible genotypes in genetically replicated gardens and monitored male and female reproductive success, as well as selfing rates of self-compatible plants. Self-compatibility did not lead to increased fruit or seed set, even under conditions of pollinator scarcity, and the realized selfing rate of self-compatible plants was less than 10%. Self-compatible plants had higher fruit abortion rates, consistent with previous evidence showing strong inbreeding depression at the embryonic stage. Although the selfing allele did not provide reproductive assurance under observed conditions, it also did not cause pollen discounting, so the transmission advantage of selfing should promote its spread. Given observed numbers of S-alleles and selfing rates, self-compatibility should spread even under conditions of exceedingly high initial inbreeding depression. PMID:24713065

  15. Natural Framework for Device-Independent Quantification of Quantum Steerability, Measurement Incompatibility, and Self-Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-06-01

    We introduce the concept of assemblage moment matrices, i.e., a collection of matrices of expectation values, each associated with a conditional quantum state obtained in a steering experiment. We demonstrate how it can be used for quantum states and measurements characterization in a device-independent manner, i.e., without invoking any assumption about the measurement or the preparation device. Specifically, we show how the method can be used to lower bound the steerability of an underlying quantum state directly from the observed correlation between measurement outcomes. Combining such device-independent quantifications with earlier results established by Piani and Watrous [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060404 (2015)], our approach immediately provides a device-independent lower bound on the generalized robustness of entanglement, as well as the usefulness of the underlying quantum state for a type of subchannel discrimination problem. In addition, by proving a quantitative relationship between steering robustness and the recently introduced incompatibility robustness, our approach also allows for a device-independent quantification of the incompatibility between various measurements performed in a Bell-type experiment. Explicit examples where such bounds provide a kind of self-testing of the performed measurements are provided.

  16. Pure red cell aplasia following major ABO-incompatible allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kang-Er; Xu, Yang; Wu, Dong; Zhong, Juan

    2002-02-01

    Six out of 20 patients undergoing a major ABO-incompatible allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) developed pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), which did not show any effects on granulocyte and platelet engraftment, and incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD. All the 6 cases of PRCA were in blood group O recipients of grafts from blood group A donors (n = 5) or blood group B donor (n = 1), suggesting that donor/recipient pair (A/O) is associated with a high risk of PRCA after major ABO-incompatible allo-HSCT. Erythroid engraftment occurred spontaneously in four cases without specific intervention other than the RBC transfusion, which coincided with the decrease of isoagglutinin titers below 8, and the remaining 2 patients with prolonged erythroid aplasia( > 300 days) despite therapy with erythropoietin (EPO) were successfully treated by plasma exchange with donor-type plasma replacement. Cyclosporine did not appear to have played any role in causing PRCA in our patients, however, the occurrence of GVHD may facilitate the recovery of erythropoiesis.

  17. Recombination between plasmids of incompatibility groups P-1 and P-2.

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, G A; Jacob, A E; Hedges, R W

    1976-01-01

    R plasmids of incompatibility group P-2 are readily transmissible between Pseudomonas strains, but not to Escherichia coli or other enterobacteria, whereas those of group P-1 have a broad host range. Pseudomonas aeruginosa donor strains carrying both a P-1 plasmid (RP1, RP4, or R751) and a P-2 plasmid (pMG1, pMG2, pMG5, or RPL11) were mated with E. coli K-12, and selection was imposed for resistance markers on the P-2 plasmids. Transconjugants were obtained at a low frequency, in which P-2 markers were expressed and were serially transmissible in E. coli together with P-1 markers. These plasmids had P-1 incompatibility properties, conferred susceptibility to phages active on P-1 carrying strains, and behaved on sucrose gradient centrifugation as unimolecular species of higher molecular weights than the P-1 parent. Recombinant plasmid formation was independent of a functional Rec gene in both donor and recipient and, with R751, had a preferred site leading to loss of trimethoprim resistance. Interaction between insertion sequences may be involved. Thus, plasmids of group P-2 can recombine with R factors of another group quite separate in compatibility properties, host range, and pilus type. Formation of such recombinants provides one pathway by which the genetic diversity of plasmids may have evolved. PMID:821925

  18. Multilocus PCR Assays Elucidate Vegetative Incompatibility Gene Profiles of Cryphonectria parasitica in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Short, Dylan P. G.; Double, Mark; Nuss, Donald L.; Stauder, Cameron M.; MacDonald, William

    2015-01-01

    Chestnut blight is a devastating disease of Castanea spp. Mycoviruses that reduce virulence (hypovirulence) of the causative agent, Cryphonectria parasitica, can be used to manage chestnut blight. However, vegetative incompatibility (vic) barriers that restrict anastomosis-mediated virus transmission hamper hypovirulence efficacy. In order to effectively determine the vegetative incompatibility genetic structure of C. parasitica field populations, we have designed PCR primer sets that selectively amplify and distinguish alleles for each of the six known diallelic C. parasitica vic genetic loci. PCR assay results were validated using a panel of 64 European tester strains with genetically determined vic genotypes. Analysis of 116 C. parasitica isolates collected from five locations in the eastern United States revealed 39 unique vic genotypes and generally good agreement between PCR and tester strain coculturing assays in terms of vic diversity and genotyping. However, incongruences were observed for isolates from multiple locations and suggested that the coculturing assay can overestimate diversity at the six known vic loci. The availability of molecular tools for rapid and precise vic genotyping significantly improves the ability to predict and evaluate the efficacy of hypovirulence and related management strategies. PMID:26070681

  19. Flow cytometric measurement of ABO antibodies in ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Yung, Gisella Puga; Valli, Piero V; Starke, Astrid; Mueller, Regula J; Fehr, Thomas; Cesar-Ozpamir, Marija; Schanz, Urs; Weber, Markus; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Seebach, Jörg D; Stussi, Georg

    2007-12-27

    Due to different detection methods, a comparison of anti-A/B antibody (Ab) levels among transplantation centers after living donor ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is problematic. In the present study, anti-A/B Ab levels were determined prior to, and after, blood group A-to-O kidney transplantation using a recently established semiquantitative flow cytometry-based method, ABO fluorescence-activated cell sorting (ABO-FACS), and compared with standard agglutination titers and indirect antiglobulin testing. Pretransplant agglutination titers were reduced from 1:64 to 1:4, by a total of 14 Glycosorb A column immunoadsorptions (IADSs). Compared with the agglutination titers, antidonor immunoglobulin (Ig) M ABO-FACS mean fluorescence intensity ratios (MFIRs) decreased faster and remained low. No difference was observed using donor type or third-party A red blood cells (RBCs) for the ABO-FACS. Glycosorb A columns were not specific, also reducing anti-B and antiporcine IgM levels, which was confirmed by detecting anti-A/B and antiporcine Abs in the column eluates. In conclusion, analysis of pre- and posttransplant Abs from ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients by ABO-FACS allows a better understanding of Ab kinetics, which may improve the design of future IADS protocols.

  20. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs.

    PubMed

    Paz-Y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2015-06-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue to threaten the belief in supernatural causation; in such situations, creationists' rejection of and subsequent partial acceptance of the new scientific discoveries are expected. Second, change in evolution's acceptance as function of educational attainment, which explains the positive association between acceptance of evolution and level of education. And third, change in evolution's acceptance as function of religiosity, which explains the negative association between acceptance of evolution and level of religious beliefs. We rely on an ample assessment of the attitudes toward evolution by highly-educated audiences (i.e. research faculty, educators of prospective teachers, and college students in the United States) to characterize the associations among the understanding of science and evolution, personal religious convictions, and conservative ideology. We emphasize that harmonious coexistence between science and religion is illusory. If co-persisting in society, their relationship will fluctuate from moderate to intense antagonism.

  1. Unraveling incompatibility between wheat and the fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici through apoplastic proteomics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fen; Li, Wanshun; Derbyshire, Mark; Larsen, Martin R; Rudd, Jason J; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2015-05-08

    Hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici causes severe foliar disease in wheat. However, current knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in plant resistance to Z. tritici and Z. tritici virulence factors is far from being complete. The present work investigated the proteome of leaf apoplastic fluid with emphasis on both host wheat and Z. tritici during the compatible and incompatible interactions. The proteomics analysis revealed rapid host responses to the biotrophic growth, including enhanced carbohydrate metabolism, apoplastic defenses and stress, and cell wall reinforcement, might contribute to resistance. Compatibility between the host and the pathogen was associated with inactivated plant apoplastic responses as well as fungal defenses to oxidative stress and perturbation of plant cell wall during the initial biotrophic stage, followed by the strong induction of plant defenses during the necrotrophic stage. To study the role of anti-oxidative stress in Z. tritici pathogenicity in depth, a YAP1 transcription factor regulating antioxidant expression was deleted and showed the contribution to anti-oxidative stress in Z. tritici, but was not required for pathogenicity. This result suggests the functional redundancy of antioxidants in the fungus. The data demonstrate that incompatibility is probably resulted from the proteome-level activation of host apoplastic defenses as well as fungal incapability to adapt to stress and interfere with host cell at the biotrophic stage of the interaction.

  2. Donor- and recipient-derived immunity in ABO incompatible living-related liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Alexandra; Fiedler, Melanie; Beckebaum, Susanne; Cicinnati, Vito R; Herzer, Kerstin; Lenz, Veronika; Witzke, Oliver; Paul, Andreas; Roggendorf, Michael; Horn, Peter A; Lindemann, Monika

    2015-09-01

    This report describes how donor- and recipient-derived immunity was influenced by immunosuppressive treatment of ABO incompatibility (rituximab and immunoadsorption/plasmaphereses) in the long-term. We present an 8-year course of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity, isohemagglutinins and B cell numbers. Whereas cellular HBV immunity was transferred from the HBV vaccinated donor (blood group A1) to the HBV naïve recipient (blood group 0), humoral HBV specific immune transfer was lacking. Starting at month 17 after transplantation, the recipient was vaccinated six times against HBV. Anti-HBs did not appear until the sixth vaccination at month 44. Immunoadsorption prior to transplantation reduced anti-A1 IgG titers from 256 to 2. Titers after transplantation remained low (⩽64). B cell numbers were below standard values up to month 26, then normalized and exceeded normal values from year 7 to 8 post transplantation. In conclusion, donor-derived B cell immunity was lost but recipient-derived immunity persisted after ABO incompatible transplantation.

  3. Development of medicated foams that combine incompatible hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs for psoriasis treatment.

    PubMed

    Mirtič, Janja; Papathanasiou, Foteini; Rakuša, Žane Temova; Matjaž, Mirjam Gosenca; Roškar, Robert; Kristl, Julijana

    2017-03-27

    The focus was on the development of medicated foam for incorporation of two incompatible active agents for psoriasis treatment; i.e., lipophilic cholecalciferol, and hydrophilic salicylic acid. Emphasis was given to formulation of a propellant-free foam, with sufficient foaming properties, physical and chemical stability, and low irritancy potential to maintain relevance for later translation into clinical practice. Various excipients and concentrations were examined to achieve suitable foam stability parameters, viscoelasticity, and bubble-size, which relate to foamability and spreadability. The major positive impact on these properties was through a combination of surfactants, and by inclusion of a viscosity-modifying polymer. Incorporation of the incompatible drugs was then examined, noting the instability of cholecalciferol in an acidic environment, with the design aim to separate the drug distributions among the different foam phases. Cholecalciferol was stabilized in the emulsion-based foam, with at least a 30-fold lower degradation rate constant compared to its aqueous solution. The composition of the emulsion-based foam itself protected cholecalciferol from degradation, as well as the addition of the radical-scavenging antioxidant tocopheryl acetate to the oil phase. With the patient in mind, the irritancy potential was also examined, which was below the set limit that defines a non-irritant dermal product.

  4. Severe hemolytic disease of the premature newborn due to RH1 incompatibility: a case report

    PubMed Central

    UWINGABIYE, JEAN; ZAHID, HAFID; LABRINI, FAYÇAL; EL KHAZRAJI, ABDELHAK; YAHYAOUI, ANASS; HADEF, RACHID; MESSAOUDI, NEZHA

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dramatic outcome of severe hemolytic disease in a newborn due to RH1 incompatibility. A newborn with A RH1 blood group was admitted in the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital for the problem of hydrops fetalis associated with RH1 incompatibility. The blood group of his mother, aged 31, was AB RH1-negative and that of his 37 year old father was A RH1. The mother had a history of 4 term deliveries, 3 abortions, and 1 living child. There was no prevention by anti-D immunoglobulin postpartum. The mother’s irregular agglutinin test was positive and the pregnancy was poorly monitored. The laboratory tests of the newborn showed a high total serum bilirubin level (30 mg/L) and macrocytic regenerative anemia (Hemoglobin=4 g/dL, mean corpuscular volume = 183 fL, reticulocytes count =176600/m3). The blood smear showed 1256 erythroblasts per 100 leukocytes, Howell–Jolly bodies and many macrocytes. The direct antiglobulin test was positive. He was transfused with red blood cell concentrates and treated with conventional phototherapy. The evolution was unfavourable; he died three days after the death of his mother. The monitoring of these high-risk pregnancies requires specialized centers and a close collaboration between the gynaecologist and the blood transfusion specialist to strengthen the prevention, as well as clinico-biological monitoring in patients with a history of RH1 fetomaternal alloimunization. PMID:27857529

  5. Lunar prospector measurements of the distribution of incompatible elements gadolinium, samarium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Elphic, R.C.; Lawrence, D.J.; Feldman, W.C.; Barraclough, B.L.; Maurice, S.; Binder, A.B.; Lucey, P.G.

    1999-04-01

    Lunar Prospector neutron spectrometer (NS) and gamma ray spectrometer (GRS) observations have been used to map out the distribution of incompatible elements on the lunar surface. Specifically, the GRS data provide maps of the distribution of thorium and potassium while the NS data provide information on the distribution of iron and titanium, and the rare earth elements gadolinium and samarium. Using results of analysis of Celementine spectral reflectance (CSR) data, the Fe- and Ti-contributions to the NS data can be removed, leaving primarily rare earth element contributions from Gd and Sm. The Th and K maps correlate with the inferred Gd and Sm maps (r {approximately} 0.93), but there are regions of significant disagreement. One of these is in the KREEP-rich circum-Imbrium ring. No clear explanation has emerged for this disagreement, though Th, K, Gd and Sm have differing degrees of incompatibility. These results clearly are important to discussions of the geochemistry of the Procellarum-Imbrium Th-rich Terrane and the South-Pole-Aitken Terrane.

  6. Evolution Controversy: A Phenomenon Prompted by the Incompatibility between Science and Religious Beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Paz-y-Miño-C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina

    2016-01-01

    The incompatibility between science and the belief in supernatural causation helps us understand why people do not accept evolution. Belief disrupts, distorts, delays, or stops (3Ds + S) the acceptance of scientific evidence. Here we examine the evolution controversy under three predictions of the incompatibility hypothesis. First, chronological-conflict-and-accommodation, which explains the historical re-emergence of antagonism between evolution and religion when advances in science continue to threaten the belief in supernatural causation; in such situations, creationists’ rejection of and subsequent partial acceptance of the new scientific discoveries are expected. Second, change in evolution's acceptance as function of educational attainment, which explains the positive association between acceptance of evolution and level of education. And third, change in evolution's acceptance as function of religiosity, which explains the negative association between acceptance of evolution and level of religious beliefs. We rely on an ample assessment of the attitudes toward evolution by highly-educated audiences (i.e. research faculty, educators of prospective teachers, and college students in the United States) to characterize the associations among the understanding of science and evolution, personal religious convictions, and conservative ideology. We emphasize that harmonious coexistence between science and religion is illusory. If co-persisting in society, their relationship will fluctuate from moderate to intense antagonism. PMID:26877774

  7. Successful treatment of severe rhesus D-incompatible pregnancy with repeated double-filtration plasmapheresis.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Koichi; Yamaguchi, Koushi; Sato, Mai; Ogura, Masao; Ito, Shuichi; Okada, Tomomi; Wada, Seiji; Sago, Haruhiko

    2015-10-01

    Fetal anemia is caused by Rhesus (RhD) sensitization as a result of RhD incompatibility during pregnancy. The severe form of this disease can cause hydrops fetalis leading to intrauterine death. We experienced a highly sensitized 39-year-old woman with B Rh-negative blood. She had a history of three induced abortions and experienced perinatal death associated with hydrops fetalis. During the pregnancy prior to her most recent one, she was treated with double-filtration plasmapheresis (DFPP), high dose γ-globulin and intrauterine fetal blood transfusion (IUT). For her most recent pregnancy, we performed only weekly or fortnightly DFPP from 13 weeks until delivery. Anti-D antibody titer was maintained between 32 and 256 without any signs of fetal anemia. IUT was not required at any stage of the pregnancy. No adverse events were observed. She successfully delivered a healthy male infant weighing 2,289 g by Cesarean section at 35 weeks. Repeated DFPP may be an effective and safe strategy to reduce antibody titers in highly sensitized women with RhD-incompatible pregnancy, avoiding the need for IUT.

  8. Structural and Transcriptional Analysis of the Self-Incompatibility Locus of Almond

    PubMed Central

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Sassa, Hidenori; Dandekar, Abhaya M.; Gradziel, Thomas M.; Tao, Ryutaro; Hirano, Hisashi

    2003-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Scrophulariaceae is controlled by the S locus, which consists of an S-RNase gene and an unidentified “pollen S” gene. An ∼70-kb segment of the S locus of the rosaceous species almond, the S haplotype–specific region containing the S-RNase gene, was sequenced completely. This region was found to contain two pollen-expressed F-box genes that are likely candidates for pollen S genes. One of them, named SFB (S haplotype–specific F-box protein), was expressed specifically in pollen and showed a high level of S haplotype–specific sequence polymorphism, comparable to that of the S-RNases. The other is unlikely to determine the S specificity of pollen because it showed little allelic sequence polymorphism and was expressed also in pistil. Three other S haplotypes were cloned, and the pollen-expressed genes were physically mapped. In all four cases, SFBs were linked physically to the S-RNase genes and were located at the S haplotype–specific region, where recombination is believed to be suppressed, suggesting that the two genes are inherited as a unit. These features are consistent with the hypothesis that SFB is the pollen S gene. This hypothesis predicts the involvement of the ubiquitin/26S proteasome proteolytic pathway in the RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility system. PMID:12615948

  9. Structural Elements Required for Replication and Incompatibility of the Rhizobium etli Symbiotic Plasmid

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Romero, Miguel A.; Soberón, Nora; Pérez-Oseguera, Angeles; Téllez-Sosa, Juan; Cevallos, Miguel A.

    2000-01-01

    The symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CE3 belongs to the RepABC family of plasmid replicons. This family is characterized by the presence of three conserved genes, repA, repB, and repC, encoded by the same DNA strand. A long intergenic sequence (igs) between repB and repC is also conserved in all members of the plasmid family. In this paper we demonstrate that (i) the repABC genes are organized in an operon; (ii) the RepC product is essential for replication; (iii) RepA and RepB products participate in plasmid segregation and in the regulation of plasmid copy number; (iv) there are two cis-acting incompatibility regions, one located in the igs (incα) and the other downstream of repC (incβ) (the former is essential for replication); and (v) RepA is a trans-acting incompatibility factor. We suggest that incα is a cis-acting site required for plasmid partitioning and that the origin of replication lies within incβ. PMID:10809690

  10. Structural elements required for replication and incompatibility of the Rhizobium etli symbiotic plasmid.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Romero, M A; Soberón, N; Pérez-Oseguera, A; Téllez-Sosa, J; Cevallos, M A

    2000-06-01

    The symbiotic plasmid of Rhizobium etli CE3 belongs to the RepABC family of plasmid replicons. This family is characterized by the presence of three conserved genes, repA, repB, and repC, encoded by the same DNA strand. A long intergenic sequence (igs) between repB and repC is also conserved in all members of the plasmid family. In this paper we demonstrate that (i) the repABC genes are organized in an operon; (ii) the RepC product is essential for replication; (iii) RepA and RepB products participate in plasmid segregation and in the regulation of plasmid copy number; (iv) there are two cis-acting incompatibility regions, one located in the igs (incalpha) and the other downstream of repC (incbeta) (the former is essential for replication); and (v) RepA is a trans-acting incompatibility factor. We suggest that incalpha is a cis-acting site required for plasmid partitioning and that the origin of replication lies within incbeta.

  11. Rice pollen hybrid incompatibility caused by reciprocal gene loss of duplicated genes.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Yoko; Harushima, Yoshiaki; Kurata, Nori

    2010-11-23

    Genetic incompatibility is a barrier contributing to species isolation and is caused by genetic interactions. We made a whole genome survey of two-way interacting loci acting within the gametophyte or zygote using independence tests of marker segregations in an F(2) population from an intersubspecific cross between O. sativa subspecies indica and japonica. We detected only one reproducible interaction, and identified paralogous hybrid incompatibility genes, DOPPELGANGER1 (DPL1) and DOPPELGANGER2 (DPL2), by positional cloning. Independent disruptions of DPL1 and DPL2 occurred in indica and japonica, respectively. DPLs encode highly conserved, plant-specific small proteins (∼10 kDa) and are highly expressed in mature anther. Pollen carrying two defective DPL alleles became nonfunctional and did not germinate, suggesting an essential role for DPLs in pollen germination. Although rice has many duplicated genes resulting from ancient whole genome duplication, the origin of this gene duplication was in recent small-scale gene duplication, occurring after Oryza-Brachypodium differentiation. Comparative analyses suggested the geographic and phylogenetic distribution of these two defective alleles, showing that loss-of-function mutations of DPL1 genes emerged multiple times in indica and its wild ancestor, O. rufipogon, and that the DPL2 gene defect is specific to japonica cultivars.

  12. Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations for incompatible quantum measurements.

    PubMed

    Branciard, Cyril

    2013-04-23

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is one of the main tenets of quantum theory. Nevertheless, and despite its fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum foundations, there has been some confusion in its interpretation: Although Heisenberg's first argument was that the measurement of one observable on a quantum state necessarily disturbs another incompatible observable, standard uncertainty relations typically bound the indeterminacy of the outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured. In this paper, we quantify precisely Heisenberg's intuition. Even if two incompatible observables cannot be measured together, one can still approximate their joint measurement, at the price of introducing some errors with respect to the ideal measurement of each of them. We present a tight relation characterizing the optimal tradeoff between the error on one observable vs. the error on the other. As a particular case, our approach allows us to characterize the disturbance of an observable induced by the approximate measurement of another one; we also derive a stronger error-disturbance relation for this scenario.

  13. Natural Framework for Device-Independent Quantification of Quantum Steerability, Measurement Incompatibility, and Self-Testing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shin-Liang; Budroni, Costantino; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2016-06-17

    We introduce the concept of assemblage moment matrices, i.e., a collection of matrices of expectation values, each associated with a conditional quantum state obtained in a steering experiment. We demonstrate how it can be used for quantum states and measurements characterization in a device-independent manner, i.e., without invoking any assumption about the measurement or the preparation device. Specifically, we show how the method can be used to lower bound the steerability of an underlying quantum state directly from the observed correlation between measurement outcomes. Combining such device-independent quantifications with earlier results established by Piani and Watrous [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 060404 (2015)], our approach immediately provides a device-independent lower bound on the generalized robustness of entanglement, as well as the usefulness of the underlying quantum state for a type of subchannel discrimination problem. In addition, by proving a quantitative relationship between steering robustness and the recently introduced incompatibility robustness, our approach also allows for a device-independent quantification of the incompatibility between various measurements performed in a Bell-type experiment. Explicit examples where such bounds provide a kind of self-testing of the performed measurements are provided.

  14. Defect-induced incompatability of elastic strains: dislocations within the Landau theory of martensitic phase transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Groger, Roman1; Lockman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh

    2008-01-01

    In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.

  15. Simple "closed-circuit" group-specific immunoadsorption system for ABO-incompatible kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Balint, Bela; Pavlovic, Mirjana; Jevtic, Miodrag; Hrvacevic, Rajko; Ignjatovic, Ljiljana; Ostojic, Gordana; Mijuskovic, Zoran; Blagojevic, Radmila; Trkuljic, Miroljub

    2007-06-01

    There is a need for improvement of the detection and treatment of the antibody-mediated graft rejection for ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. With the development of novel pre-conditioning protocols, which employ anti-CD20 antibody, therapeutic plasma exchange plus extracorporeal immunoadsorption and standard immunosuppression application, together with the use of more sensitive and objective assays for immunological monitoring, patients that were not candidates for kidney transplant in the past, are now being transplanted. We have designed a pre-conditioning protocol for ABO-incompatible kidney transplants based on TPE plus our own simple "closed-circuit" immunoadsorption technique - combined by anti-CD20, standard immunosuppressive treatment, and without splenectomy. The results obtained in this study strongly support our hypothesis leading to the conclusion that this protocol can be used successfully, with high-quality ABO antibody depletion (p<0.001) and beneficial clinical findings. The application of this protocol is safe, and not associated with alteration in normal plasma constituent levels or with occurrence of any side effects of apheresis or clinical consequences. Finally, this pre-conditioning protocol radically reduces the treatment-cost. Definitive conclusions can only be drawn from larger, randomized, controlled clinical trials.

  16. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana. PMID:27348423

  17. Maintenance of self-incompatibility in peripheral populations of a circumboreal woodland subshrub

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ai-Qin; Xiong, Ying-Ze; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Compared with self-incompatible (SI) species, species that shift to self-compatibility (SC) are more likely to colonize a new habitat. Self-incompatibility and fruit-set failure have been widely reported in European populations of Linnaea borealis (twinflower), whereas at the eastern margin of its North American distribution it showed potential SC. We investigated the breeding system of L. borealis in northwestern China, the eastern margin of the species' distribution in Eurasia. Pollinators, breeding system and pollen limitation were examined in a nature reserve with thousands of L. borealis individuals. To investigate whether fruit set was limited by mating opportunity, we compared fruit set in high-, medium- and low-density patches of L. borealis. To examine whether clonal reproduction resulted in higher fruit-set failure, we compared fruit set among different sizes of clonal ramets. Flies contributed most pollinator visits in the studied population. It was strictly SI and natural fruit set depended on insect visits. Patch density comparisons showed that L. borealis was not pollen limited in low-density patches that had significantly fewer flowers. However, it produced significantly fewer fruits per flower when clonal ramet size increased, suggesting that the high failure of fruit set in larger clones with more flowers may be caused by geitonogamy. Generalist pollinators and clonal reproduction may help L. borealis to colonize in marginal areas without the transition of the breeding system from SI to SC, but experiencing fruit-set failure resulting from geitonogamy within clones. PMID:25336338

  18. Functional incompatibility between the fertilization systems of two allopatric populations of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    Brown, D V; Eady, P E

    2001-11-11

    Recent studies indicate that postcopulatory sexual selection may represent an important component of the speciation process by initiating reproductive isolation via the evolutionary divergence of fertilization systems. Using two geographically isolated populations of the polyandrous beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, we investigated divergence in fertilization systems by determining the extent of postcopulatory functional incompatibility. Through reciprocal, cross-population matings we were able to separately estimate the effects of male and female population origin and their interaction on the extent of last-male sperm precedence, female receptivity to further copulation and female oviposition. Our results indicate partial incompatibility between the fertilization systems of the two populations at all three functional levels. Males derived from the same population as females outcompete rival, allopatric males with respect to sperm preemption, sperm protection, and ability to stimulate female oviposition. This pattern is reciprocated in both populations indicating that postcopulatory, prezygotic events represent important mechanisms by which between-population gene flow is reduced. We suggest the partial gametic isolation observed is a by-product of the coevolution of male and female fertilization systems by a process of cryptic female choice. Our results are consistent with a mechanism akin to conventional mate choice models although they do not allow us to reject antagonistic sexual coevolution as the mechanism of cryptic female choice.

  19. Separated Immobilization of Incompatible Enzymes on Polymer Substrate via Visible Light Induced Living Photografting Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xing; He, Bin; Zhao, Changwen; Ma, Yuhong; Yang, Wantai

    2017-06-06

    The use of the mixed catalytic system with several enzymes can provide multiple benefits in terms of the cost, simplification of a multistep reaction, and effectiveness of complex chemical reactions. Although study of different enzyme coimmobilization systems has attracted increasing attention in recent years, separately immobilizing enzymes which can not coexist on one support is still one of the great challenges. In this paper, a simple and effective strategy was introduced to separately encapsulate incompatible trypsin and transglutaminase (TGase) into different poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) network layer grafted on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film via visible light induced living photografting polymerization. As a proof of concept, this dual-enzyme separately loaded film was used to catalyze the synthesis of a new target antitumor drug LTV-azacytidine. The final results demonstrated that this strategy could maintain higher activities of both enzymes than the mixed coimmobilization method. And the mass spectra analysis results demonstrated that LTV-azacytidine was successfully synthesized. We believe that this facile and mild separately immobilizing incompatible enzyme strategy has great application potential in the field of biocatalysis.

  20. Psychosocial Correlates of Adolescent Males’ Pregnancy Intention

    PubMed Central

    Rosengard, Cynthia; Phipps, Maureen G.; Adler, Nancy E.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To identify psychosocial differences between sexually experienced male adolescents who indicate intentions to get someone pregnant and those who do not. Methodology Cross-sectional study of 101 sexually experienced adolescent males recruited from an STD clinic in northern California. Student’s t-tests and regressions examined psychosocial differences between males who reported any intention versus no intention to get someone pregnant in the next six months. ANOVAs examined differences among different combinations of pregnancy plans/likelihood. Results Adolescents’ reports of their plans for getting someone pregnant differed from their assessments of the likelihood that they would do so (χ2 = 24.33, df = 1, p < .0001). Attitudes toward pregnancy and participants’ mothers’ educational attainment differentiated those with clear pregnancy intentions (Planning, and Likely) from those with clear intentions to avoid pregnancy (Not Planning & Not Likely) Conclusions To reduce the rates of adolescent childbearing, males’ pregnancy intentions must be assessed and asked about in multiple ways. PMID:16140687

  1. The phenolic content and its involvement in the graft incompatibility process of various pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Hudina, Metka; Orazem, Primoz; Jakopic, Jerneja; Stampar, Franci

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the influence of various rootstocks for pear on the phytochemical composition in the phloem above and below the graft union and the role of phenols in pear graft incompatibility. Assays of phloem with cambium from 4-year-old 'Conference', 'Abate Fetel' and 'Williams' pear trees grafted on different rootstocks: Quince MA, Quince BA 29, Fox 11, Farold 40 (Daygon), seedling Pyrus communis L. and own rooted (P. communis L.) were analyzed with HPLC-MS. The most abundant phenolic compound in phloem above and below the graft union was arbutin, followed by procyanidin B1 and chlorogenic acid. In 'Conference' and 'Abate Fetel', higher arbutin content levels were measured above the graft union, while in the incompatible scion of 'Williams' on quince MA higher arbutin content levels were measured below the graft union. In all three observed cultivars (in 'Conference' the difference was not significant) grafted on Fox 11 rootstock, the highest content of arbutin was measured below the graft union. The results indicate that not only catechin and procyanidin B1, but also arbutin and several flavonols could be involved in graft incompatibility. All cultivars grafted on quince rootstocks had higher levels of epicatechin and procyanidin B2 below the graft union, even though some differences were not significant. It seems that those phenols do not affect pear incompatibility. A severe incompatibility between Fox 11 rootstock and 'Williams' was detected.

  2. Resistance of a subset of red blood cells to clearance by antibodies in a mouse model of incompatible transfusion.

    PubMed

    Liepkalns, Justine S; Cadwell, Chantel M; Stowell, Sean R; Hod, Eldad A; Spitalnik, Steven L; Zimring, James C

    2013-06-01

    Alloimmunization to antigens on transfused red blood cells (RBCs) represents a major barrier to chronic transfusion. In extreme cases of multiple alloimmunization, clinicians may be faced with the decision of transfusing incompatible RBCs or risking death from lack of transfusion. The disastrous results of hemolytic transfusion reactions are well understood, and major pathways of clearance have been described. However, well described but poorly understood is the survival of a subset of incompatible donor RBCs during hemolysis, despite antibody binding. We utilize a tractable murine model of incompatible transfusion in which RBCs from transgenic donor mice expressing human glycophorin A (hGPA) are transfused into recipients passively immunized with anti-hGPA. As in humans, the majority of RBCs are cleared but a subset of incompatible donor RBCs persist in circulation, despite being bound by antibodies. Data contained herein reject the hypothesis that lack of clearance is due to insufficient antibody or overwhelming of phagocytic machinery; rather, we establish that surviving RBCs represent a distinct population resistant to clearance. These studies demonstrate that surviving RBCs during incompatible transfusion can represent a population that is resistant to clearance. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP)--an electrophysiological signal that appears before voluntary movements. Experiments, however, tend to study intentions in immediate relation to movements (proximal intentions), thus ignoring other aspects of intentions such as planning or deciding in advance of movement (distal intentions). The current study examines the difference in electrophysiological activity between proximal intention and distal intention, using electroencephalography (EEG). Participants had to form an intention to move and then wait 2.5 sec before performing the actual movement. In this way, the electrophysiological activity related to forming a conscious intention was separated from any confounding activity related to automated motor activity. This was compared to conditions in which participants had to act as soon as they had the intention and a condition where participants acted upon an external cue 2.5 sec prior to movement. We examined the RP for the three conditions. No difference was found in early RP, but late RP differed significantly depending on the type of intention. In addition, we analysed signals during a longer time-interval starting before the time of distal intention formation until after the actual movement concluded. Results showed a slow negative electrophysiological "intention potential" above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validity and Usefulness of Enlistment Intention Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    perfect one. Nonetheless, it has been documented that intentions do predict be- haviors as diverse as purchasing toothpaste , donating blood, engaging in...addition, we found that several factors affect the relationship between intention and enlistment and that the negative intention group is an important...supplemental data source to approximate the effects of a broader spectrum of potential options than can feasibly be field tested directly. FACTORS

  5. A systematic literature review of nurse shortage and the intention to leave.

    PubMed

    Chan, Zenobia C Y; Tam, Wun San; Lung, Maggie K Y; Wong, Wing Yan; Chau, Ching Wa

    2013-05-01

    To present the findings of a literature review regarding nurses' intention to leave their employment or the profession. The nursing shortage is a problem that is being experienced worldwide. It is a problem that, left unresolved, could have a serious impact on the provision of quality health care. Understanding the reasons why nurses leave their employment or the profession is imperative if efforts to increase retention are to be successful. Electronic databases were systematically searched to identify English research reports about nurses' intention to leave their employment or the profession. Key results concerning the issue were extracted and synthesized. The diversified measurement instruments, samples and levels of intention to leave caused difficulties in the attempt to compare or synthesize findings. The factors influencing nurses' intention to leave were identified and categorized into organizational and individual factors. The reasons that trigger nurses' intention to leave are complex and are influenced by organizational and individual factors. Further studies should be conducted to investigate how external factors such as job opportunities correlate with nurses' intention to leave. The review provides insight that can be useful in designing and implementing strategies to maintain a sustainable workforce in nursing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Job turnover intentions among Certified Pharmacy Technicians.

    PubMed

    Desselle, Shane P

    2005-01-01

    To describe the job withdrawal intentions of a nationwide sample of Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhTs). Cross-sectional descriptive design. A random sample of 3,200 CPhTs whose names and contact information were acquired from the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board. Mailed survey. Responses to questions eliciting job withdrawal intentions, reasons for remaining/staying with the employer, and various quality of worklife attitudes. Employment intentions were regressed over quality of worklife and practice environment variables in a forward-conditional logistic regression procedure. Nearly 4 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to remain with the current employer during the next 12 months. Relationships with coworkers, good benefits, and work schedule were frequently cited as reasons to stay. Poor salary, lack of advancement opportunity, and insufficient staffing were cited frequently as factors among those indicating intentions to leave. Mean hourly wages differed among respondents with intention to leave due to salary, those not citing salary as a reason to remain or leave, and those citing salary as a reason for staying. Intention to remain was associated with higher pay, perceived employer support, number of years with the current employer, and lower career turnover intentions, with organizational commitment acting as a powerful mediator for all of the variables. Differences in CPhTs' future employment intentions were described more comprehensively by perceptions of the employing organization than by perceptions of managers/supervisors and coworkers or personal/work environment variables. Implications for pharmacy organizations are discussed.

  7. Assessing communicative intents: a situated pragmatics approach.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, L E

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of communicative intents is described as it has developed over time, beginning with J.L. Austin's work published in 1975. Recommendations for best practice are offered in which a situated approach is advocated. Key elements of this approach are a focus on contextual variables and open-ended, rather than list-oriented, assessments of range of intents. It is argued that intents must be assessed relative to the environment, with documentation of environmental variables such as barriers to communicative opportunity. Further, caution is urged in using lists of intents as the sole guide to analysis, because such lists serve to limit awareness of individual differences and multifunctionality of utterances.

  8. On "intention" in the definition of suicide.

    PubMed

    Andriessen, Karl

    2006-10-01

    The need for a comprehensive nomenclature in suicidology is now well recognized. In this paper the focus is on the issue of intention, which is identified as an essential aspect of any definition of suicide and suicidal behavior primarily because of its distinction from accidental behavior. The distinction between the retrospective perspective of motives versus the prospective perspective of intentions is highlighted, and I argue that the latter is more closely related to suicidal behavior. Finally, while motives and intentions tend to be used together in research, there is a need for sound research to clarify the roles of intentions in order to better understand suicide and attempted suicide.

  9. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  10. 46 CFR 182.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSTALLATION General Provisions § 182.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems,...

  11. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems steering apparatus, and associated...

  12. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation of propulsion and auxiliary machinery, piping and pressure systems steering apparatus, and associated...

  13. Sustainability Science Needs Sustainable Data!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Chen, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    Sustainability science (SS) is an 'emerging field of research dealing with the interactions between natural and social systems, and with how those interactions affect the challenge of sustainability: meeting the needs of present and future generations while substantially reducing poverty and conserving the planet's life support systems' (Kates, 2011; Clark, 2007). Bettencourt & Kaur (2011) identified more than 20,000 scientific papers published on SS topics since the 1980s with more than 35,000 distinct authors. They estimated that the field is currently growing exponentially, with the number of authors doubling approximately every 8 years. These scholars are undoubtedly using and generating a vast quantity and variety of data and information for both SS research and applications. Unfortunately we know little about what data the SS community is actually using, and whether or not the data that SS scholars generate are being preserved for future use. Moreover, since much SS research is conducted by cross-disciplinary, multi-institutional teams, often scattered around the world, there could well be increased risks of data loss, reduced data quality, inadequate documentation, and poor long-term access and usability. Capabilities and processes therefore need to be established today to support continual, reliable, and efficient preservation of and access to SS data in the future, especially so that they can be reused in conjunction with future data and for new studies not conceived in the original data collection activities. Today's long-term data stewardship challenges include establishing sustainable data governance to facilitate continuing management, selecting data to ensure that limited resources are focused on high priority SS data holdings, securing sufficient rights to allow unforeseen uses, and preparing data to enable use by future communities whose specific research and information needs are not yet known. Adopting sustainable models for archival

  14. A game of two halves? Incentive incompatibility, starting point bias and the bidding game contingent valuation method.

    PubMed

    McNamee, Paul; Ternent, Laura; Gbangou, Adjima; Newlands, David

    2010-01-01

    The bidding game (BG) method of contingent valuation is one way to increase the precision of willingness to pay (WTP) estimates relative to the single dichotomous choice approach. However, there is evidence that the method may lead to incentive incompatible responses and be associated with starting point bias. While previous studies in health using BGs test for starting point bias, none have also investigated incentive incompatibility. Using a sample of respondents resident in Burkina Faso, West Africa, this paper examines whether the BG method is associated with both incentive incompatibility and starting point bias. We find evidence for both effects. However, average WTP values remained largely unaffected after accounting for both factors in multivariate analyses. The results suggest that the BG method is an acceptable technique in settings where prices for goods are flexible.

  15. [Frequencies of blood groups, ABO and Rh D incompatibility in post-delivery women and their liveborn].

    PubMed

    Baiochi, Eduardo; Camano, Luiz; Sass, Nelson; Colas, Osmar Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the frequency of different blood phenotypes and to predict the risk of Rh D alloimmunization and maternal-fetal incompatibility in a Brazilian population living in the West zone of the city of São Paulo-Brazil. This descriptive study evaluated 2,372 post-delivery women and their liveborn during one year. Blood types were analyzed by means of tube agglutination tests. The blood type frequencies were: 50.67 O, 32.17 A, 13.45 B, 3.75 AB, 90.34 Rh D(+) and 9.66 Rh D(-). ABO maternal-fetal incompatibility was detected in 18.4% and Rh D incompatibility in 7%. The fraction of Rh D(-) population at high risk for Rh D alloimmunization was 82%, emphasizing the importance of Rh D alloimmunization profilaxis.

  16. Design and Construction Documents Associated with N232, Sustainability Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zornetzer, Steven F.; Schuler, Raymond F.; Grymes, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    This request comprehensively covers documents associated with the design and construction of Sustainability Base, N232. The intent of this project specifically envisioned broad dissemination of these materials to others undertaking the design and construction of high-performing energy- and resource-efficient buildings in comparable climate zones.

  17. Passenger Lymphocyte Syndrome (PLS): A Single-center Retrospective Analysis of Minor ABO-incompatible Liver Transplants.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Sévérine; Philipse, Ester; Couttenye, Marie Madeleine; Bracke, Bart; Ysebaert, Dirk; Michielsen, Peter; Francque, Sven; Vanwolleghem, Thomas; Verlinden, Anke

    2017-03-28

    Background and Aims: Due to the shortage of donor livers, minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantations are commonly performed. Together with the allograft, immunocompetent B-lymphocytes, called passenger lymphocytes, are transplanted. In case of minor ABO-incompatibility, these passenger lymphocytes produce antibodies directed towards the recipient's red blood cells, which causes immune-mediated hemolysis, also known as the passenger lymphocyte syndrome (PLS). Although this is a self-limiting disorder, serious complications can occur, including graft failure. Retrospectively, we evaluated the role of PLS in minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantations performed at our center. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for all minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantations performed at the Antwerp University Hospital between 2003 and 2015. All patient files were inspected for clinical and laboratory findings. In cases of PLS diagnosis, the applied treatment was also studied. Results: In total, 10 patients underwent a minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantation and 4 showed signs of PLS. All 4 PLS patients were treated with different therapeutic strategy, corresponding to the severity of hemolysis. In all 4 cases, PLS resolved following treatment. Conclusion: When performing minor ABO-incompatible liver transplantations, knowledge of PLS is elemental. Next to a high index of clinical suspicion, we suggest routine screening for markers of hemolysis, with emphasis on haptoglobin level and direct antiglobulin test, weekly in the first 4 weeks post-transplantation as well as in case of a sudden hemoglobin drop within the first 3 months after transplantation. Peri- and postoperative transfusion support using donor-compatible blood has been suggested to prevent the occurrence or limit the extent of hemolysis.

  18. The Transcriptome of Compatible and Incompatible Interactions of Potato (Solanum tuberosum) with Phytophthora infestans Revealed by DeepSAGE Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gyetvai, Gabor; Sønderkær, Mads; Göbel, Ulrike; Basekow, Rico; Ballvora, Agim; Imhoff, Maren; Kersten, Birgit; Nielsen, Kåre-Lehman; Gebhardt, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the most important disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum). Understanding the molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility to late blight is therefore highly relevant for developing resistant cultivars, either by marker-assissted selection or by transgenic approaches. Specific P. infestans races having the Avr1 effector gene trigger a hypersensitive resistance response in potato plants carrying the R1 resistance gene (incompatible interaction) and cause disease in plants lacking R1 (compatible interaction). The transcriptomes of the compatible and incompatible interaction were captured by DeepSAGE analysis of 44 biological samples comprising five genotypes, differing only by the presence or absence of the R1 transgene, three infection time points and three biological replicates. 30.859 unique 21 base pair sequence tags were obtained, one third of which did not match any known potato transcript sequence. Two third of the tags were expressed at low frequency (<10 tag counts/million). 20.470 unitags matched to approximately twelve thousand potato transcribed genes. Tag frequencies were compared between compatible and incompatible interactions over the infection time course and between compatible and incompatible genotypes. Transcriptional changes were more numerous in compatible than in incompatible interactions. In contrast to incompatible interactions, transcriptional changes in the compatible interaction were observed predominantly for multigene families encoding defense response genes and genes functional in photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. Numerous transcriptional differences were also observed between near isogenic genotypes prior to infection with P. infestans. Our DeepSAGE transcriptome analysis uncovered novel candidate genes for plant host pathogen interactions, examples of which are discussed with respect to possible function. PMID:22328937

  19. Acute antibody-mediated rejection after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation treated successfully with antigen-specific immunoadsorption.

    PubMed

    Just, Søren Andreas; Marcussen, Niels; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Koefoed-Nielsen, Pernille; Bistrup, Claus

    2010-01-01

    ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation is possible after pre-treatment with rituximab, intravenous immunoglobulin and basiliximab combined with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. We report on the first patient treated with this protocol who developed acute antibody-mediated rejection (Banff grade II with IgG deposits) caused by ABO antibodies (anti-B). Anti-rejection treatment with anti-B-specific immunoadsorption, intravenous immunoglobulin and methylprednisolone efficiently cleared deposited IgG from the kidney allograft and re-established normal kidney function. We suggest that ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation complicated by acute antibody-mediated rejection, caused by ABO antibodies, may successfully be treated with this regime.

  20. "Our Common World" Belongs to "Us": Constructions of Otherness in Education for Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideland, Malin; Malmberg, Claes

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse how good intentions in Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) discursively construct and maintain differences between "Us" and "Them". The empirical material consists of textbooks about sustainable development used in Swedish schools. An analysis of how "Us" and…

  1. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  2. A case of tacrolimus-associated thrombotic microangiopathy after ABO-blood-type-incompatible renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Asami; Ohtsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keij; Inaguma, Daizyo; Goto, Norihiko; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Morozumi, Kunio

    2011-07-01

    De novo thrombotic microangiopathy(TMA) is most commonly triggered by calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) and the prognosis is less severe than with recurrent TMA. However, it is difficult to distinguish de novo TMA from CNI toxicity and acute antibody-mediated rejection(AMR) soon after renal transplantation. We present a case of tacrolimus-associated TMA soon after ABO blood type incompatible renal transplantation that was difficult to differentiate from acute AMR. On day 9 his urine output decreased dramatically and the Scr level increased. His anti-blood type A antibody titer increased to ×16 postopratively and the tacrolimus trough level was higher than in our immunosuppressive regimen. Although we gave priority to anti-AMR treatment, adequate dose adjustment of tacrolimus after tacrolimus nephrotoxicity was diagnosed from graft biopsy could correct allograft dysfunction.

  3. Dynamics of Cytoplasmic Incompatibility and Mtdna Variation in Natural Drosophila Simulans Populations

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, M.; Hoffmann, A. A.; McKechnie, S. W.

    1992-01-01

    In Drosophila simulans a cytoplasmically transmitted microorganism causes reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. The infection is rapidly spreading northward in California. Data on a specific mtDNA restriction site length polymorphism show that changes in the frequency of mtDNA variants are associated with this spread. All infected flies possess the same mtDNA allele, whereas the uninfected flies are polymorphic. Given that both paternal inheritance of the infection and imperfect maternal transmission have been demonstrated, one might expect instead that both infected and uninfected flies would possess both mtDNA variants. Our data suggest that imperfect female transmission of the infection (and/or the loss of the infection among progeny) is more common in nature than paternal transmission. A simple model of intrapopulation dynamics, with empirically supported parameter values, adequately describes the joint frequencies of the mtDNA variants and incompatibility types. PMID:1468627

  4. Tailor-Made Onion-Like Stereocomplex Crystals in Incompatible Enantiomeric Polylactide Containing Block Copolymer Blends

    SciTech Connect

    Sun,L.; Zhu, L.; Rong, L.; Hsiao, B.

    2006-01-01

    Stereocomplexes formed by blending enantiomeric PLA block copolymers have demonstrated great potential for applications in biomedical devices. Here, we successfully synthesized well-defined enantiomeric PLA containing block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of L- and D-lactides from hydroxyl-terminated hydrophilic [poly(ethylene oxide) or PEO] and hydrophobic [poly(ethylene-co-1,2-butylene) or PEB] oligomers. Quantitative stereocomplex formation was achieved by equimolar mixing of the incompatible PEO-b-PLLA and PEB-b-PDLA. Intriguingly, in the blend of PEB-b-PDLA and PEO-b-PLLA with different PEB and PEO molecular weights, onion-like stereocomplex crystals were observed because of unbalanced surface stresses caused by different PEO and PEB molecular weights.

  5. Proteome comparison following self- and across-pollination in self-incompatible apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianrong; Chen, Xuesen; Yuan, Zhaohe; He, Tianming; Zhang, Lijie; Wu, Yan; Liu, Wen; Liang, Qing

    2006-07-01

    The study compared the protein differences between self- and across-pollinated self-incompatible (SI) apricots by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry, the results showed that nine protein spots were expressed in self-pollinated pistil and only one was expressed in cross-pollinated pistils. Sixteen and three protein spots were up- and down-regulated in cross-pollinated pistils, respectively, compared with self-pollinated pistils. Seven protein spots were identified unambiguously by SEQUEST in NCBI protein database: Actin-12, enolase, MYB transcription-factor-like protein, heat-shock protein 70 were upregulated in cross-pollinated pistils compared with self-pollinated pistils; and actin-7, actin-8 and fructose bisphosphate aldolase-like protein were detected only in self-pollinated pistils.

  6. Pure red-cell aplasia of long duration after major ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Volin, L; Ruutu, T

    1990-01-01

    We describe a patient with an exceptionally long-lasting red-cell aplasia of 330 days following ABO-incompatible bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Before BMT, the anti-B titre was high, 1:1,024, and it was only temporarily reduced by extensive plasma exchange. The anti-B titre remained above the level of 1:64 for 270 days, and host-derived isoagglutinin could still be detected 3 years after BMT. In vitro bone marrow cultures during the red-cell aplasia showed greatly reduced numbers or total absence of CFU-E, while the number of BFU-E colonies was only moderately subnormal. Six years after BMT, bone marrow and peripheral-blood cell counts are normal.

  7. Maximal incompatibility of locally classical behavior and global causal order in multiparty scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumeler, ńmin; Feix, Adrien; Wolf, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Quantum theory in a global spacetime gives rise to nonlocal correlations, which cannot be explained causally in a satisfactory way; this motivates the study of theories with reduced global assumptions. Oreshkov, Costa, and Brukner [Nat. Commun. 3, 1092 (2012), 10.1038/ncomms2076] proposed a framework in which quantum theory is valid locally but where, at the same time, no global spacetime, i.e., predefined causal order, is assumed beyond the absence of logical paradoxes. It was shown for the two-party case, however, that a global causal order always emerges in the classical limit. Quite naturally, it has been conjectured that the same also holds in the multiparty setting. We show that, counter to this belief, classical correlations locally compatible with classical probability theory exist that allow for deterministic signaling between three or more parties incompatible with any predefined causal order.

  8. Population differences in self-fertility in the "self-incompatible" milkweed Asclepias exaltata (Asclepiadaceae).

    PubMed

    Lipow, S R; Broyles, S B; Wyatt, R

    1999-08-01

    Individual plants of Asclepias exaltata (Asclepiadaceae) typically express an unusual self-incompatibility system under single-gene control. Hand-pollinations performed in six natural populations detected occasional self-fertile plants. The frequency of self-fertile individuals ranged from 0 to 34.0% and differed significantly among populations. Self-fertility appears to be under genetic control, as the ability of most plants (80.0 %) to set fruit following self-pollinations was identical under natural and greenhouse conditions. Seed- and fruit-set, however, were significantly lower from self- vs. cross-pollinations. Allozyme analysis of the population with the highest frequency of self-fertility revealed that adult plants were not significantly inbred. Finally, fruit-set following within-population cross-pollinations did not differ from that following wide, between-population cross-pollinations.

  9. 46 CFR 190.20-5 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intent. 190.20-5 Section 190.20-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT... insulated from undue noise, heat, and odors. (b) Provided the intent of this subpart is met, consideration...

  10. Complementary systems for understanding action intentions.

    PubMed

    de Lange, Floris P; Spronk, Marjolein; Willems, Roel M; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2008-03-25

    How humans understand the intention of others' actions remains controversial. Some authors have suggested that intentions are recognized by means of a motor simulation of the observed action with the mirror-neuron system [1-3]. Others emphasize that intention recognition is an inferential process, often called "mentalizing" or employing a "theory of mind," which activates areas well outside the motor system [4-6]. Here, we assessed the contribution of brain regions involved in motor simulation and mentalizing for understanding action intentions via functional brain imaging. Results show that the inferior frontal gyrus (part of the mirror-neuron system) processes the intentionality of an observed action on the basis of the visual properties of the action, irrespective of whether the subject paid attention to the intention or not. Conversely, brain areas that are part of a "mentalizing" network become active when subjects reflect about the intentionality of an observed action, but they are largely insensitive to the visual properties of the observed action. This supports the hypothesis that motor simulation and mentalizing have distinct but complementary functions for the recognition of others' intentions.

  11. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  12. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  13. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  14. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  15. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  16. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall be...

  17. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall be...

  18. 29 CFR 1690.105 - Policy intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Policy intent. 1690.105 Section 1690.105 Labor Regulations... COORDINATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ISSUANCES General § 1690.105 Policy intent. These procedures will govern the conduct of such agencies in the development of uniform standards, guidelines and policies...

  19. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  20. The Simultaneity of Beginning Teachers' Practical Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Teachers use their practical intentions--their in-the-moment goals and concerns--to craft their spontaneous classroom decisions. This research study explored the content of (and relationship between) beginning teachers' practical intentions by asking six student teachers in mathematics to participate in a stimulated recall interview of their…