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Sample records for suzaku broadband x-ray

  1. Broadband X-ray Spectroscopy of the ADC Source 4U 1822-37 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.; White, N.

    2006-01-01

    We will present the broadband spectra of the low mass x-ray binary 4U 1822-37, recently observed with Suzaku. 4U 1822-37 is the canonical accretion disk corona (ADC) source where the compact object is obscured by an extended corona that intercepts and scatters the central continuum emission, some of which is then reprocessed in the outer regions of the accretion disk. 4U 1822-37 therefore serves as an important link between x-ray binaries and AGN. The broadband x-ray spectra from the Suzaku XIS and HXD provide a unique opportunity to probe the physical conditions in the corona and the accretion disk for this important accretion geometry.

  2. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF γ-RAY BRIGHT RADIO GALAXIES: ORIGIN OF THE X-RAY EMISSION AND BROADBAND MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Itoh, Ryosuke; Tokuda, Shin'ya; Finke, Justin; Stawarz, Łukasz; Tanaka, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-10

    We performed a systematic X-ray study of eight nearby γ-ray bright radio galaxies with Suzaku in order to understand the origins of their X-ray emissions. The Suzaku spectra for five of those have been presented previously, while the remaining three (M87, PKS 0625–354, and 3C 78) are presented here for the first time. Based on the Fe-K line strength, X-ray variability, and X-ray power-law photon indices, and using additional information on the [O III] line emission, we argue for a jet origin of the observed X-ray emission in these three sources. We also analyzed five years of Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) GeV gamma-ray data on PKS 0625–354 and 3C 78 to understand these sources within the blazar paradigm. We found significant γ-ray variability in the former object. Overall, we note that the Suzaku spectra for both PKS 0625–354 and 3C 78 are rather soft, while the LAT spectra are unusually hard when compared with other γ-ray detected low-power (FR I) radio galaxies. We demonstrate that the constructed broadband spectral energy distributions of PKS 0625–354 and 3C 78 are well described by a one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model. The results of the modeling indicate lower bulk Lorentz factors compared to those typically found in other BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, but consistent with the values inferred from modeling other LAT-detected FR I radio galaxies. Interestingly, the modeling also implies very high peak (∼10{sup 16} Hz) synchrotron frequencies in the two analyzed sources, contrary to previously suggested scenarios for Fanaroff-Riley (FR) type I/BL Lac unification. We discuss the implications of our findings in the context of the FR I/BL Lac unification schemes.

  3. Broadband X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 observed with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Fuerst, F.; Madsen, K. K.; Rana, V.; Stern, D.; Miller, J. M.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Webb, N.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Fabian, A. C.; Parker, M. L.; Hailey, C. J.; Ptak, A.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-20

    We present results from the coordinated broadband X-ray observations of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source Holmberg IX X-1 performed by NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku in late 2012. These observations provide the first high-quality spectra of Holmberg IX X-1 above 10 keV to date, extending the X-ray coverage of this remarkable source up to ∼30 keV. Broadband observations were undertaken at two epochs, between which Holmberg IX X-1 exhibited both flux and strong spectral variability, increasing in luminosity from L {sub X} = (1.90 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} to L {sub X} = (3.35 ± 0.03) × 10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1}. Neither epoch exhibits a spectrum consistent with emission from the standard low/hard accretion state seen in Galactic black hole binaries, which would have been expected if Holmberg IX X-1 harbors a truly massive black hole accreting at substantially sub-Eddington accretion rates. The NuSTAR data confirm that the curvature observed previously in the 3-10 keV bandpass does represent a true spectral cutoff. During each epoch, the spectrum appears to be dominated by two optically thick thermal components, likely associated with an accretion disk. The spectrum also shows some evidence for a nonthermal tail at the highest energies, which may further support this scenario. The available data allow for either of the two thermal components to dominate the spectral evolution, although both scenarios require highly nonstandard behavior for thermal accretion disk emission.

  4. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of IC 4329A from a joint NuSTAR/Suzaku observation

    SciTech Connect

    Brenneman, L. W.; Elvis, M.; Madejski, G.; Fuerst, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K.; Rivers, E.; Walton, D. J.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Hailey, C. J.; Stern, D.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-06-10

    We have obtained a deep, simultaneous observation of the bright, nearby Seyfert galaxy IC 4329A with Suzaku and NuSTAR. Through a detailed spectral analysis, we are able to robustly separate the continuum, absorption, and distant reflection components in the spectrum. The absorbing column is found to be modest (∼6×10{sup 21} cm{sup −2} ), and does not introduce any significant curvature in the Fe K band. We are able to place a strong constraint on the presence of a broadened Fe Kα line (E{sub rest}=6.46{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} keV with σ=0.33{sub −0.07}{sup +0.08} keV and EW=34{sub −7}{sup +8} eV), though we are not able to constrain any of the parameters of a relativistic reflection model. These results highlight the range in broad Fe K line strengths observed in nearby, bright, active galactic nuclei (roughly an order of magnitude), and imply a corresponding range in the physical properties of the inner accretion disk in these sources. We have also updated our previously reported measurement of the high-energy cutoff of the hard X-ray emission using both observatories rather than just NuSTAR alone: E {sub cut} = 186 ± 14 keV. This high-energy cutoff acts as a proxy for the temperature of the coronal electron plasma, enabling us to further separate this parameter from the plasma's optical depth and to update our results for these parameters as well. We derive kT=50{sub −3}{sup +6} keV with τ=2.34{sub −0.11}{sup +0.16} using a spherical geometry, kT = 61 ± 1 keV with τ = 0.68 ± 0.02 for a slab geometry, with both having an equivalent goodness-of-fit.

  5. Broadband X-Ray Spectra of Two Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei NGC 1566 and NGC 4941 Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Terashima, Yuichi

    2013-06-01

    We report the first broadband X-ray spectra of the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), NGC 1566 (type 1.5) and NGC 4941 (type 2), observed with Suzaku and Swift/BAT covering the 0.5-195 keV band. Both targets have hard X-ray luminosities of ~1041-42 erg s-1 in the 15-55 keV band. The spectra of the nucleus are well reproduced by a sum of partially or fully covered transmitted emission and its reflection from the accretion disk, reprocessed emission from the torus accompanied by a strong narrow iron-Kα line, and a scattered component (for NGC 4941). We do not significantly detect a broad iron-Kα line from the inner accretion disk in both targets, and obtain an upper limit on the corresponding solid angle of Ω/2π < 0.3 in NGC 1566. The reflection strength from the torus is moderate, \\Omega /2\\pi =0.45^{+0.13}_{-0.10} in NGC 1566 and \\Omega /2\\pi =0.64^{+0.69}_{-0.27} in NGC 4941. Comparison of the equivalent width of the narrow iron-Kα line with a model prediction based on a simple torus geometry constrains its half-opening angle to be θoa ~= 60°-70° in NGC 4941. These results agree with the obscured AGN fraction obtained from hard X-ray and mid-infrared selected samples at similar luminosities. Our results support the implication that the averaged covering fraction of AGN tori is peaked at L ~ 1042-43 erg s-1 but decreases toward lower luminosities.

  6. BROADBAND X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI NGC 1566 AND NGC 4941 OBSERVED WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Terashima, Yuichi

    2013-06-20

    We report the first broadband X-ray spectra of the low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), NGC 1566 (type 1.5) and NGC 4941 (type 2), observed with Suzaku and Swift/BAT covering the 0.5-195 keV band. Both targets have hard X-ray luminosities of {approx}10{sup 41-42} erg s{sup -1} in the 15-55 keV band. The spectra of the nucleus are well reproduced by a sum of partially or fully covered transmitted emission and its reflection from the accretion disk, reprocessed emission from the torus accompanied by a strong narrow iron-K{alpha} line, and a scattered component (for NGC 4941). We do not significantly detect a broad iron-K{alpha} line from the inner accretion disk in both targets, and obtain an upper limit on the corresponding solid angle of {Omega}/2{pi} < 0.3 in NGC 1566. The reflection strength from the torus is moderate, {Omega}/2{pi}=0.45{sup +0.13}{sub -0.10} in NGC 1566 and {Omega}/2{pi}=0.64{sup +0.69}{sub -0.27} in NGC 4941. Comparison of the equivalent width of the narrow iron-K{alpha} line with a model prediction based on a simple torus geometry constrains its half-opening angle to be {theta}{sub oa} {approx_equal} 60 Degree-Sign -70 Degree-Sign in NGC 4941. These results agree with the obscured AGN fraction obtained from hard X-ray and mid-infrared selected samples at similar luminosities. Our results support the implication that the averaged covering fraction of AGN tori is peaked at L {approx} 10{sup 42-43} erg s{sup -1} but decreases toward lower luminosities.

  7. Symbiotic Stars in X-Rays. III. Suzaku Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuñez, N. E.; Nelson, T.; Mukai, K.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Luna, G. J. M.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the X-ray emission as observed by Suzaku from five symbiotic stars that we selected for deep Suzaku observations after their initial detection with ROSAT, ASCA, and Swift. We find that the X-ray spectra of all five sources can be adequately fit with absorbed optically thin thermal plasma models, with either single- or multi-temperature plasmas. These models are compatible with the X-ray emission originating in the boundary layer between an accretion disk and a white dwarf. The high plasma temperatures of kT > 3 keV for all five targets were greater than expected for colliding winds. Based on these high temperatures as well as previous measurements of UV variability and UV luminosity and the large amplitude of X-ray flickering in 4 Dra, we conclude that all five sources are accretion-powered through predominantly optically thick boundary layers. Our X-ray data allow us to observe a small optically thin portion of the emission from these boundary layers. Given the time between previous observations and these observations, we find that the intrinsic X-ray flux and the intervening absorbing column can vary by factors of three or more on a timescale of years. However, the location of the absorber and the relationship between changes in accretion rate and absorption are still elusive.

  8. Detecting X-ray Emission from Cometary Atmospheres Using the Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G V; Beiersdorfer, P; Bodewits, D; Porter, F S; Ezoe, Y; Hamaguchi, K; Hanya, M; Itoh, M; Kilbourne, C A; Kohmura, T; Maeda, Y; Negoro, H; Tsuboi, Y; Tsunemi, H; Urata, Y

    2009-11-16

    The Suzaku X-ray imaging spectrometer has been used to observe the X-ray emission from comets 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C and 8P/Tuttle. Comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C was observed during May and June of 2006, while it was near perihelion and passed within 0.1 AU of the Earth. Comet 8P/Tuttle was observed during January of 2008 when it was at its closest approach to the Earth at 0.25 AU, and again near perihelion at a distance of 0.5 Au from Earth. In the case of comet 73P/Schwassmann Wachmann 3C, the XIS spectra show line emission from highly charged oxygen and carbon ions as well as emission from what is most likely L-shell transitions from Mg, Si, and S ions. This line emission is caused by charge exchange recombination between solar wind ions and cometary neutrals, and can be used as a diagnostic of the solar wind. Here we present some of the results of the observation of the comet 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3C.

  9. Suzaku Observations of the Diffuse X-Ray Emission across the Fermi Bubbles' Edges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Kimura, M.; Takei, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Inoue, Y.; Nakamori, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ~= 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ~= 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT ~= 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ~= 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT ~= 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v exp ~ 300 km s-1 (corresponding to shock Mach number {M} \\simeq 1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

  10. Suzaku observations of the diffuse X-ray emission across the Fermi bubbles' edges

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, J.; Tahara, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Totani, T.; Sofue, Y.; Stawarz, Ł.; Kimura, M.; Takei, Y.; Tsunemi, H.; Cheung, C. C.; Inoue, Y.; Nakamori, T.

    2013-12-10

    We present Suzaku X-ray observations along two edge regions of the Fermi Bubbles, with eight ≅ 20 ks pointings across the northern part of the North Polar Spur (NPS) surrounding the north bubble and six across the southernmost edge of the south bubble. After removing compact X-ray features, diffuse X-ray emission is clearly detected and is well reproduced by a three-component spectral model consisting of unabsorbed thermal emission (temperature kT ≅ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT ≅ 0.3 keV thermal emission related to the NPS and/or Galactic halo (GH), and a power-law component at a level consistent with the cosmic X-ray background. The emission measure (EM) of the 0.3 keV plasma decreases by ≅ 50% toward the inner regions of the northeast bubble, with no accompanying temperature change. However, such a jump in the EM is not clearly seen in the south bubble data. While it is unclear whether the NPS originates from a nearby supernova remnant or is related to previous activity within or around the Galactic center, our Suzaku observations provide evidence that suggests the latter scenario. In the latter framework, the presence of a large amount of neutral matter absorbing the X-ray emission as well as the existence of the kT ≅ 0.3 keV gas can be naturally interpreted as a weak shock driven by the bubbles' expansion in the surrounding medium, with velocity v {sub exp} ∼ 300 km s{sup –1} (corresponding to shock Mach number M≃1.5), compressing the GH gas to form the NPS feature. We also derived an upper limit for any non-thermal X-ray emission component associated with the bubbles and demonstrate that, in agreement with the aforementioned findings, the non-thermal pressure and energy estimated from a one-zone leptonic model of its broadband spectrum, are in rough equilibrium with that of the surrounding thermal plasma.

  11. Suzaku X-ray observation of the GK Persei dwarf nova outburst in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    The intermediate polar GK Per exhibited a dwarf nova outburst in 2015 March-April. Suzaku X-ray telescope serendipitously captured the onset of the outburst during its pre-scheduled pointing observation spanning four days. In this paper, we present temporal and spectral analysis results of this outburst, together with those from archival data of quiescent obtained in 2009 and 2014. Our temporal analysis confirmed previously reported spin modulation of X-ray count rates in outburst with a white dwarf (WD) spin period of PWD = 351.4 ± 0.5 s. The modulation is also detected in the hard X-ray band (16-60 keV), and spectral modelling of the absorption suggests obscuration by a dense absorption with a line-of-sight column density of NH > 1023 cm-2. A complex time evolution of spin modulation profiles is seen; the spin minimum phase shifts from phase ˜0.25 in the first half of the observation to ˜0.65 in the second one, and the pulse shape significantly changes epoch by epoch. Spectral fitting in the Fe K α band revealed an increase of the fluorescent line equivalent width, from ˜80 eV (quiescent) to ˜140 eV (outburst). The equivalent widths of He-like and H-like Fe K α are consistent with being constant at ˜40 eV in the two states. Broad-band spectral fitting in the 2-60 keV band resulted in a sub-solar Fe abundance of ˜0.1 Z⊙ and the maximum plasma temperature kTmax ˜ 50-60 keV when the isobaric cooling-flow model was applied. Based on the very small temperature change against a 6-7 times increased accretion rate, the accretion geometry in early outburst is discussed.

  12. A Comprehensive Spectral Analysis of the X-Ray Pulsar 4U 1907+09 from Two Observations with the Suzaku X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Pottschmidt, Katja; Roth, Stefanie; Barragan, Laura; Furst, Felix; Suchy, Slawomir; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Jorn; Rothschild, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We present results from two observations of the wind-accreting X-ray pulsar 4U 1907+09 using the Suzaku observatory, The broadband time-averaged spectrum allows us to examine the continuum emission of the source and the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at approx. 19 keV. Additionally, using the narrow CCD response of Suzaku near 6 ke V allows us to study in detail the Fe K bandpass and to quantify the Fe Kp line for this source for the first time. The source is absorbed by fully-covering material along the line of sight with a column density of N(sub H) approx. 2 x 10(exp 22)/sq cm, consistent with a wind accreting geometry, and a high Fe abundance (approx. 3 - 4 x solar). Time and phase-resolved analyses allow us to study variations in the source spectrum. In particular, dips found in the 2006 observation which are consistent with earlier observations occur in the hard X-ray bandpass, implying a variation of the whole continuum rather than occultation by intervening material, while a dip near the end of the 2007 observation occurs mainly in the lower energies implying an increase in NH along the line of sight, perhaps indicating clumpiness in the stellar wind

  13. An X-Ray Counterpart of HESS J1427-608 Discovered with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujinaga, Takahisa; Mori, Koji; Bamba, Aya; Kimura, Shoichi; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ozaki, Masanobu; Matsuta, Keiko; Pülhofer, Gerd; Uchiyama, Hideki; Hiraga, Junko S.; Matsumoto, Hironori; Terada, Yukikatsu

    2013-06-01

    We report on the discovery of an X-ray counterpart of the unidentified very high-energy gamma-ray source HESS J1427-608. In the sky field coincident with HESS J1427-608, an extended source was found in the 2-8 keV band, and was designated as Suzaku J1427-6051. Its X-ray radial profile has an extension of σ = 0.'9 ± 0.'1 if approximated by a Gaussian. The spectrum was well fitted by an absorbed power-law with NH = (1.1 ± 0.3) × 1023 cm-2, Γ = 3.1+0.6-0.5, and the unabsorbed flux FX = (9+4-2) × 10-13 erg s-1 cm-2 in the 2-10 keV band. Using XMM-Newton archive data, we found seven point sources in the Suzaku source region. However, because their total flux and absorbing column densities are more than an order of magnitude lower than those of Suzaku J1427-6051, we consider that they are unrelated to the Suzaku source. Thus, Suzaku J1427-6051 is considered to be a truly diffuse source and an X-ray counterpart of HESS J1427-608. The possible nature of HESS J1427-608 is discussed based on the observational properties.

  14. Measurements of reflectivity of x-ray mirror for Suzaku satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Keisuke; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Naitou, Masataka; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ebara, Masatoshi; Itoh, Akiharu; Iizuka, Ryo; Yokoyama, Yushi

    2006-06-01

    Detailed measurements of reflectivity of gold, which is used for X-ray mirror for X-ray telescope onboard "Suzaku" satellite was performed in the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 BL15XU. We measured reflectivity of the mirror, which uses total reflection of gold thin layer. Grazing incidence angle is 0.5 degree and incident X-ray monochromatized in the energy range from 2.2 keV to 3.5 keV, where M-edge structure of gold appears. We used double crystal monochrometer using Si(111) crystal, (ΔE/E ~ 10 -4) to monochromatize the incident X-ray. Energy calibration was performed using L-edge of molybdenum (2530.2 eV) and K-edge of argon (3205.9 eV). From the results, that the energy of M-V and M-IV edge of gold is different from optical constant table, and almost same as the value reported by Graessle et al.(1992).1 It is important to study the optical constants of gold or other mirror material for X-ray astronomy. This results will be feed back to the response function of the X-ray telescope of Suzaku satellite. It is very important for X-ray spectroscopy in X-ray astronomy.

  15. Investigaion of X-ray emission from Martian exosphere at solar minimum with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We observed Mars in the X-ray wavelength range in April 2008 with Japanese Suzaku observatory. As far as we know, this was the first X-ray observation of Mars at solar minimum. Mars has been known to emit X-rays via scattering of solar X-rays and also charge exchange between neutral atom in its exosphere and solar wind ions (Dennerl 2002, Dennerl et al. 2006). Past theoretical studies (e.g., Krasnopolsky and Gladstone 1996) suggest that the neutral density varies at most by a factor of 10 due to the change of solar X-ray activities. Aiming at possible X-ray variation of Martian exsosphere, we analyzed image and spectrum data taken with Suzaku. No clear X-ray source is detected at the position of Mars in the energy band of 0.2-5 keV. We placed a stringent upper limit of X-ray oxygen line flux (0.5-0.65 keV) from Mars of 8.6e-5 [ph/cm2/s]. A comparison with XMM-Newton's results at solar maximum indicates that the exospheric density at solar minimum is less tha 4.4 times one at solar maximum.

  16. Suzaku Detection of Diffuse Hard X-Ray Emission Outside Vela X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Bamba, Aya; Miceli, Marco; Hewitt, John W.; Temim, Tea; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yoshii, Rie

    2011-01-01

    Vela X is a large, 3 deg x 2 deg, radio-emitting pulsar wind nebula (PWN) powered by the Vela pulsar in the Vela supernova remnant. Using four Suzaku/XIS observations pointed just outside Vela X, we find hard X-ray emission extending throughout the fields of view. The hard X-ray spectra are well represented by a power-law. The photon index is measured to be constant at Gamma approximates 2.4, similar to that of the southern outer part of Vela X. The power-law flux decreases with increasing distance from the pulsar. These properties lead us to propose that the hard X-ray emission is associated with the Vela PWN. The larger X-ray extension found in this work strongly suggests that distinct populations relativistic electrons form the X-ray PWN and Vela X, as was recently inferred from multiwavelength spectral modeling of Vela X.

  17. Suzaku X-Ray Study of an Anomalous Source XSS J12270-4859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kei; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Ishida, Manabu

    2009-08-01

    We report on the results of a Suzaku X-ray observation of XSSJ12270-4859, one of the hard X-ray sources in the INTEGRAL catalogue. This object has been classified as an intermediate polar (IP) by its optical spectra, and a putative X-ray period of ˜860s. With a 30ks exposure by Suzaku, we obtained a well-exposed spectrum in the 0.2--70keV band. We conclude against a previous IP classification based on a lack of Fe Kα emission features in the spectrum and a failure to confirm the previously reported X-ray period. Instead, the X-ray light curve is filled with exotic phenomena, including repetitive flares lasting for ˜100s, occasional dips with no apparent periodicities, spectral hardening after some flares, and bimodal changes pivoting between quiet and active phases. The rapid flux changes, the dips, and the power-law spectrum point toward an interpretation that this is a low-mass X-ray binary. Some temporal characteristics are similar to those in the Rapid Burster and GRO J1744-28, making XSS J12270-4859 a very rare object.

  18. Suzaku view of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GX 304-1 during Type I X-ray outbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra; Epili, Prahlad

    2016-04-01

    We report the timing and spectral properties of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar GX 304-1 using two Suzaku observations during its 2010 August and 2012 January X-ray outbursts. Pulsations at ˜275 s were clearly detected in the light curves from both observations. Pulse profiles were found to be strongly energy-dependent. During the 2010 observation, the prominent dips seen in soft X-ray (≤10 keV) pulse profiles were found to be absent at higher energies. However, during the 2012 observation, the pulse profiles were complex as a result of the presence of several dips. Significant changes in the shape of the pulse profiles were detected at high energies (>35 keV). A phase shift of ˜0.3 was detected while comparing the phase of the main dip in the pulse profiles below and above ˜35 keV. The broad-band energy spectrum of the pulsar was well described by a partially absorbed negative and positive power law with exponential cut-off (NPEX) model with 6.4-keV iron line and a cyclotron absorption feature. The energy of the cyclotron absorption line was found to be ˜53 and 50 keV for the 2010 and 2012 observations, respectively, indicating a marginal positive dependence on source luminosity. Based on the results obtained from phase-resolved spectroscopy, the absorption dips in the pulse profiles can be interpreted as due to the presence of additional matter at same phases. Observed positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity, and the significant pulse-phase variation of cyclotron parameters are discussed from the perspective of theoretical models on the cyclotron absorption line in X-ray pulsars.

  19. X-Ray Spectra of the High-mass X-Ray Binary 4U 1700-37 Using BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and RXTE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the high-mass binary 4U 1700-37 during its hard-soft state evolution. We use BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations for this investigation. We argue that the X-ray broadband spectra during all of the spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model consisting of a low-temperature blackbody component, two Comptonized components which are both due to the presence of a Compton cloud (CC) that up-scatters seed photons of Ts1 ≲ 1.4 keV and Ts2 < 1 keV, and an iron-line component. Using this model, we find that the photon power-law index is almost constant, Γ1 ∼ 2 for all spectral states. However, Γ2 shows behavior that is dependent on the spectral state. Namely, Γ2 is quasi-constant at the level of Γ2 ∼ 2 while the CC plasma temperature {{kT}}e(2) is less than 40 keV; on the other hand, Γ2 is in the range of 1.3 < Γ2 < 2 when {{kT}}e(2) is greater than 40 keV. We explain this quasi-stability of Γ during most of the hard-soft transitions of 4U 1700-37 in the framework of a model in which the resulting spectrum is described by two Comptonized components. We find that these Comptonized spectral components of the high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1700-37 are similar to those previously found in neutron star (NS) sources. This index dependence versus both the mass accretion rate and kTe revealed in 4U 1700-37 is universal observational evidence for the presence of an NS in 4U 1700-37.

  20. MULTIBAND DIAGNOSTICS OF UNIDENTIFIED 1FGL SOURCES WITH SUZAKU AND SWIFT X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Maeda, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Tahara, M.; Nakamori, T.

    2013-10-01

    We have analyzed all the archival X-ray data of 134 unidentified (unID) gamma-ray sources listed in the first Fermi/LAT (1FGL) catalog and subsequently followed up by the Swift/XRT. We constructed the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from radio to gamma-rays for each X-ray source detected, and tried to pick up unique objects that display anomalous spectral signatures. In these analyses, we target all the 1FGL unID sources, using updated data from the second Fermi/LAT (2FGL) catalog on the Large Area Telescope (LAT) position and spectra. We found several potentially interesting objects, particularly three sources, 1FGL J0022.2–1850, 1FGL J0038.0+1236, and 1FGL J0157.0–5259, which were then more deeply observed with Suzaku as a part of an AO-7 program in 2012. We successfully detected an X-ray counterpart for each source whose X-ray spectra were well fitted by a single power-law function. The positional coincidence with a bright radio counterpart (currently identified as an active galactic nucleus, AGN) in the 2FGL error circles suggests these sources are definitely the X-ray emission from the same AGN, but their SEDs show a wide variety of behavior. In particular, the SED of 1FGL J0038.0+1236 is not easily explained by conventional emission models of blazars. The source 1FGL J0022.2–1850 may be in a transition state between a low-frequency peaked and a high-frequency peaked BL Lac object, and 1FGL J0157.0–5259 could be a rare kind of extreme blazar. We discuss the possible nature of these three sources observed with Suzaku, together with the X-ray identification results and SEDs of all 134 sources observed with the Swift/XRT.

  1. Suzaku Observation of Diffuse X-ray Emission from the Carina Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Petre, Robert; Matsumoti, Hironori; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Holt, Stephan S.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ozawa, Hideki; Tsuboi, Yohko; Soong, Yang; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sekiguchi, Akiko; Kokubun, Motohide

    2007-01-01

    We studied extended X-ray emission from the Carina Nebula taken with the Suzaku CCD camera XIS on 2005 Aug. 29. The X-ray morphology, plasma temperature and absorption to the plasma are consistent with the earlier Einstein results. The Suzaku spectra newly revealed emission lines from various spices including oxygen, but not from nitrogen. This result restricts the N/O ratio significantly low, compared with evolved massive stellar winds, suggesting that the diffuse emission is originated in an old supernova remnant or a super shell produced by multiple supernova remnants. The X-ray spectra from the north and south of eta Car showed distinct differences between 0.3-2 keV. The south spectrum shows strong L-shell lines of iron ions and K-shell lines of silicon ions, while the north spectrum shows them weak in intensity. This means that silicon and iron abundances are a factor of 2-4 higher in the south region than in the north region. The abundance variation may be produced by an SNR ejecta, or relate to the dust formation around the star forming core.

  2. In-Orbit Performance of the Hard X-Ray Detector on Borad Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Kokubun, Motohide; Makishima, Kazuo; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Murakami, Toshio; Tashiro, Makoto; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; M.Madejski, Greg; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Terada, Yukikatsu; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Watanabe, Shin; Tamagawa, Toru; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Kubota, Aya; Isobe, Naoki; Takahashi, Isao; Sato, Goro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Hong, Soojing; /Tokyo U. /Wako, RIKEN /JAXA, Sagamihara /Kanazawa U. /Saitama U. /Hiroshima U. /Aoyama Gakuin U. /Nihon U., Narashino /SLAC

    2007-10-26

    The in-orbit performance and calibration of the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) on board the X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are described. Its basic performances, including a wide energy bandpass of 10-600 keV, energy resolutions of {approx}4 keV (FWHM) at 40 keV and {approx}11% at 511 keV, and a high background rejection efficiency, have been confirmed by extensive in-orbit calibrations. The long-term gains of PIN-Si diodes have been stable within 1% for half a year, and those of scintillators have decreased by 5-20%. The residual non-X-ray background of the HXD is the lowest among past non-imaging hard X-ray instruments in energy ranges of 15-70 and 150-500 keV. We provide accurate calibrations of energy responses, angular responses, timing accuracy of the HXD, and relative normalizations to the X-ray CCD cameras using multiple observations of the Crab Nebula.

  3. DISCOVERY OF DIFFUSE HARD X-RAY EMISSION AROUND JUPITER WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2010-02-01

    We report the discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter in a deep 160 ks Suzaku X-ray Imaging Spectrometer data. The emission is distributed over {approx}16 x 8 Jovian radius and spatially associated with the radiation belts and the Io Plasma Torus (IPT). It shows a flat power-law spectrum with a photon index of 1.4 {+-} 0.2 with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of (3.3 {+-} 0.5)x10{sup 15} erg s{sup -1}. We discussed its origin and concluded that it seems to be truly diffuse, although a possibility of multiple background point sources cannot be completely rejected with a limited angular resolution. If it is diffuse, the flat continuum indicates that X-rays arise by the nonthermal electrons in the radiation belts and/or the IPT. The synchrotron and bremsstrahlung models can be rejected from the necessary electron energy and X-ray spectral shape, respectively. The inverse-Compton scattering off solar photons by ultra-relativistic (several tens MeV) electrons can explain the energy and the spectrum but the necessary electron density is {approx}>10 times larger than the value estimated from the empirical model of Jovian charge particles.

  4. Properties of the Diffuse X-ray Background toward MBM20 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Smith, R.; Lallement, R.

    2009-12-01

    We used Suzaku observations of the molecular cloud MBM20 and a low neutral hydrogen column density region nearby to separate and characterize the foreground and background diffuse X-ray emission. A comparison with a previous observation of the same regions with XMM-Newton indicates a significant change in the foreground flux which is attributed to Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX). The data have also been compared with previous results from similar "shadow" experiments and with a SWCX model to characterize its O VII and O VIII emission.

  5. PROPERTIES OF THE DIFFUSE X-RAY BACKGROUND TOWARD MBM20 WITH SUZAKU

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, A.; Galeazzi, M.; Koutroumpa, D.; Lallement, R.

    2009-12-10

    We used Suzaku observations of the molecular cloud MBM20 and a low neutral hydrogen column density region nearby to separate and characterize the foreground and background diffuse X-ray emission. A comparison with a previous observation of the same regions with XMM-Newton indicates a significant change in the foreground flux which is attributed to Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX). The data have also been compared with previous results from similar 'shadow' experiments and with a SWCX model to characterize its O VII and O VIII emission.

  6. Suzaku observations of the hard X-ray spectrum of Vela Jr. (SNR RX J0852.0-4622)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Sawako; Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Katsuda, Satoru; Yamazaki, Ryo; Ohira, Yutaka; Iwakiri, Wataru

    2016-06-01

    We report the results of Suzaku observations of the young supernova remnant, Vela Jr. (RX J0852.0-4622), which is known to emit synchrotron X-rays, as well as TeV gamma-rays. Utilizing 39 Suzaku mapping observation data from Vela Jr., a significant hard X-ray emission is detected with the hard X-ray detector (HXD) from the northwest TeV-emitting region. The X-ray spectrum is reproduced well by a single power-law model with a photon index of 3.15^{+1.18}_{-1.14} in the 12-22 keV band. Compiling this hard X-ray spectrum with the soft X-ray spectrum simultaneously observed with the X-ray imaging spectrometer (XIS) onboard Suzaku, we find that the wide-band X-ray spectrum in the 2-22 keV band is reproduced with a single power-law or concave broken power-law model, which are statistically consistent with each other. Whichever of the two models, single or broken power-law, is appropriate, clearly the spectrum has no roll-off structure. Applying this result to the method introduced in Yamazaki et al. (2014, Res. Astron. Astrophys., 14, 165), we find that a one-zone synchrotron model with electron spectrum having a power-law plus exponential cut-off may not be applicable to Vela Jr.

  7. Shadowing Observations of the Soft X-ray Background with XMM-Newton and Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David; Shelton, Robin L.; Cumbee, Renata; Stancil, Phillip C.

    2014-08-01

    Shadows in the soft X-ray background allow one to separate the Galactic halo's X-ray emission from the local foreground emission due to the Local Bubble and/or solar wind charge exchange. Accurate measurements of the foreground emission and of the halo emission are needed to test models of solar wind charge exchange and of the origin of the hot halo gas, respectively.We present results from XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of six shadowing interstellar clouds. While results for some of these shadows have previously been published, this is the first uniform analysis of a sample of CCD-resolution shadowing observations. Our sample includes two shadows in the northern Galactic hemisphere, for which there are no published CCD-resolution shadowing observations, and a compact shadowing cloud that fits into a single XMM-Newton field.For each shadow, we fit spectral models to the on- and off-shadow spectra in order to separate the Galactic halo emission from the foreground emission. For this purpose, we explore different foreground spectral models, including a thermal plasma (Local Bubble) model, and solar wind charge exchange models. We can therefore examine the sensitivity of the inferred halo parameters to the assumed foreground model. In addition, two of our shadows have been observed with both XMM-Newton and Suzaku - we can use these shadows to test whether or not a given foreground model yields consistent halo measurements from two observations separated in time.

  8. Suzaku Reveals He-burning Products in the X-ray Emitting Planetary Nebula BD +30deg 3639

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashima, M.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Kotoku, J.; Murakami, H.; Matsushita, K.; Hayashida, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    BD +30deg 3639, the brightest planetary nebula at X-ray energies, was observed with Suzaku, an X-ray observatory launched on 2005 July 10. Using the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer, the K-lines from C VI, O VII, and O VIII were resolved for the first time, and C/O, N/O, and Ne/O abundance ratios determined. The C/O abundance ratio exceeds the solar value by nearly two orders of magnitude, and that of Ne/O by at least a factor of 5. These results indicate that the X-rays are emitted mainly by helium shell-burning products.

  9. Suzaku Observations of the Dwarf Nova V893 Scorpii: The Discovery of a Partial X-ray Eclipse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, K.; Zietsman, E.; Still, M.

    2009-12-01

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted little attention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here, we report on the pointed X-ray observations of this object using Suzaku. V893 Sco was in quiescence at the time, as indicated by the coordinated optical photometry we obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Our Suzaku data show V893 Sco to be X-ray bright, with a highly absorbed spectrum. Most importantly, we have discovered a partial X-ray eclipse in V893 Sco. This is the first time that a partial eclipse is seen in X-ray light curves of a dwarf nova. Our preliminary simulations demonstrate that the partial X-ray eclipse can be in principle reproduced if the white dwarf in V893 Sco is partially eclipsed. Higher quality observations of this object have the potential to place significant constraints on the latitudinal extent of the X-ray emission region and thereby discriminating between an equatorial boundary layer and a spherical corona. The partial X-ray eclipse therefore makes V893 Sco a key object in understanding the physics of accretion in quiescent dwarf nova.

  10. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE DWARF NOVA V893 SCORPII: THE DISCOVERY OF A PARTIAL X-RAY ECLIPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Mukai, K.; Still, M.

    2009-12-10

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted little attention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here, we report on the pointed X-ray observations of this object using Suzaku. V893 Sco was in quiescence at the time, as indicated by the coordinated optical photometry we obtained at the South African Astronomical Observatory. Our Suzaku data show V893 Sco to be X-ray bright, with a highly absorbed spectrum. Most importantly, we have discovered a partial X-ray eclipse in V893 Sco. This is the first time that a partial eclipse is seen in X-ray light curves of a dwarf nova. Our preliminary simulations demonstrate that the partial X-ray eclipse can be in principle reproduced if the white dwarf in V893 Sco is partially eclipsed. Higher quality observations of this object have the potential to place significant constraints on the latitudinal extent of the X-ray emission region and thereby discriminating between an equatorial boundary layer and a spherical corona. The partial X-ray eclipse therefore makes V893 Sco a key object in understanding the physics of accretion in quiescent dwarf nova.

  11. X-ray Weekly Monitoring of the Galactic Center Sgr A* with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yoshitomo; Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Saitoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hiroshi

    A small gas cloud, G2, is on an orbit almost straight into the supermassive blackhole Sgr A* by spring 2014. This event gives us a rare opportunity to test the mass feeding onto the blackhole by a gas. To catch a possible rise of the mass accretion from the cloud, we have been performing the bi-week monitoring of Sgr A* in autumn and spring in the 2013 fiscal year. The key feature of Suzaku is the high-sensitivity wide-band X-ray spectroscopy all in one observatory. It is characterized by a large effective area combined with low background and good energy resolution, in particular a good line spread function in the low-energy range. Since the desired flare events associated with the G2 approach is a transient event, the large effective area is critical and powerful tools to hunt them. The first monitoring in 2013 autumn was successfully made. The X-rays from Sgr A* and its nearby emission were clearly resolved from the bright transient source AX J1745.6-2901. No very large flare from Sgr A*was found during the monitoring. We also may report the X-ray properties of two serendipitous sources, the neutron star binary AX J1745.6-2901 and a magnetar SGR J1745-29.

  12. Soft X-ray study of solar wind charge exchange from the Earth's magnetosphere : Suzaku observations and a future X-ray imaging mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Miyoshi, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Terada, N.; Kasahara, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Mitsuda, K.; Nishijo, K.; Noda, A.

    2013-12-01

    Soft X-ray observations of solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) emission from the Earth's magnetosphere using the Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite Suzaku are shown, together with our X-ray imaging mission concept to characterize the solar wind interaction with the magnetosphere. In recent years, the SWCX emission from the Earth's magnetosphere, originally discovered as unexplained noise during the soft X-ray all sky survey (Snowden et al. 1994), is receiving increased attention on studying geospace. The SWCX is a reaction between neutrals in exosphere and highly charged ions in the magnetosphere originated from solar wind. Robertson et al. (2005) modeled the SWCX emission as seen from an observation point 50 Re from Earth. In the resulting X-ray intensities, the magnetopause, bow shock and cusp were clearly visible. High sensitivity soft X-ray observation with CCDs onboard recent X-ray astronomy satellites enables us to resolve SWCX emission lines and investigate time correlation with solar wind as observed with ACE and WIND more accurately. Suzaku is the 5th Japanese X-ray astronomy satellite launched in 2005. The line of sight direction through cusp is observable, while constraints on Earth limb avoidance angle of other satellites often limits observable regions. Suzaku firstly detected the SWCX emission while pointing in the direction of the north ecliptic pole (Fujimoto et al. 2007). Using the Tsyganenko 1996 magnetic field model, the distance to the nearest SWCX region was estimated as 2-8 Re, implying that the line of sight direction can be through magnetospheric cusp. Ezoe et al. (2010) reported SWCX events toward the sub-solar side of the magnetosheath. These cusp and sub-solar side magnetosheath regions are predicted to show high SWCX fluxes by Robertson et al. (2005). On the other hand, Ishikawa et al. (2013) discovered a similarly strong SWCX event when the line of sight direction did not transverse these two regions. Motivated by these detections

  13. Possible Charge-Exchange X-Ray Emission in the Cygnus Loop Detected with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Takakura, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hewitt. John W.; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2011-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopic measurements of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant indicate that metal abundances throughout most of the remnant s rim are depleted to approx.0.2 times the solar value. However, recent X-ray studies have revealed in some narrow regions along the outermost rim anomalously "enhanced" abundances (up to approx. 1 solar). The reason for these anomalous abundances is not understood. Here, we examine X-ray spectra in annular sectors covering nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that spectra in the "enhanced" abundance regions commonly show a strong emission feature at approx.0.7 keV. This feature is likely a complex of He-like O K(gamma + delta + epsilon), although other possibilities cannot be fully excluded. The intensity of this emission relative to He-like O K(alpha) appears to be too high to be explained as thermal emission. This fact, as well as the spatial concentration of the anomalous abundances in the outermost rim, leads us to propose an origin from charge-exchange processes between neutrals and H-like O. We show that the presence of charge-exchange emission could lead to the inference of apparently "enhanced" metal abundances using pure thermal emission models. Accounting for charge-exchange emission, the actual abundances could be uniformly low throughout the rim. The overall abundance depletion remains an open question. Subject headings: ISM: abundances ISM: individual objects (Cygnus Loop) ISM: supernova remnants X-rays: ISM atomic processes

  14. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE X-RAY BRIGHTEST FOSSIL GROUP ESO 3060170

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Yuanyuan; White, Raymond E. III; Miller, Eric D.

    2013-10-01

    'Fossil' galaxy groups, each dominated by a relatively isolated giant elliptical galaxy, have many properties intermediate between groups and clusters of galaxies. We used the Suzaku X-ray observatory to observe the X-ray brightest fossil group, ESO 3060170, out to R{sub 200}, in order to better elucidate the relation between fossil groups, normal groups, and clusters. We determined the intragroup gas temperature, density, and metal abundance distributions and derived the entropy, pressure, and mass profiles for this group. The entropy and pressure profiles in the outer regions are flatter than in simulated clusters, similar to what is seen in observations of massive clusters. This may indicate that the gas is clumpy and/or the gas has been redistributed. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, the total mass is estimated to be ∼1.7 × 10{sup 14} M{sub ☉} within a radius R{sub 200} of ∼1.15 Mpc, with an enclosed baryon mass fraction of 0.13. The integrated iron mass-to-light ratio of this fossil group is larger than in most groups and comparable to those of clusters, indicating that this fossil group has retained the bulk of its metals. A galaxy luminosity density map on a scale of 25 Mpc shows that this fossil group resides in a relatively isolated environment, unlike the filamentary structures in which typical groups and clusters are embedded.

  15. Possible Charge Exchange X-Ray Emission from the Cygnus Loop detected with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Hiroko; Kimura, Masashi; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Hewitt, John

    We present results of a spatially-resolved X-ray spectral analysis of nearly the entire rim of the Cygnus Loop using Suzaku (21 pointings) and XMM-Newton (1 pointing). We find that some of the spectra show a bump at ˜0.7 keV as a "shoulder" of the lines at ˜0.66 keV which is a combination of O H Lyα and O Heβ. The regions showing the "shoulder" is confined within narrow (< a few arcmin) regions behind the shock at position angles of 0-40, 110-160, and 270-330 degrees measured from north over east. Around the rim, the position angles where the X-ray excess is present correspond to relatively weak radio emission as well as optical emission from non-radiative Hα filaments. While other possibilities (e.g., Fe L emission) cannot be fully excluded, these correlations lead us to consider that the "shoulder" may be O Heγ + δ + etc lines produced by charge exchange between H-like O ions and neutral H. Whatever its origin, the "shoulder" significantly affects the spectral analysis; the best-fit parameters strongly depend on whether or not we include the "shoulder" in the spectral fitting. We will discuss this issue in terms of our previous results of our spectral analysis for the rim regions.

  16. On-orbit calibration status of the hard x-ray detector (HXD) onboard Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, S.; Fukazawa, Y.; Mizuno, T.; Takahashi, H.; Hayashi, K.; Hiragi, K.; Mizuno, M.; Yamada, S.; Kawaharada, M.; Kokubun, M.; Nakazawa, K.; Watanabe, S.; Tanaka, T.; Terada, Y.

    2010-07-01

    Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) onboard Suzaku, the Japanese 5th X-ray observatory, consists of 64 PIN photo diodes with 2 mm thickness (10-70 keV) and 16 phoswich detectors using 5 mm-thick GSO scintillators and BGO active collimators (40-600 keV), and these are surrounded by 20 units of BGO Active shields. All the detector units have been working well with no significant troubles in four and a half years since the launch on July 2005, and given many important scientific results. In this paper, we report the recent status of on-orbit calibrations for PIN/GSO detectors. For the PIN, analog/digital threshold levels of both in-orbit and on-ground are raised up to avoid the increasing noise events due to in-orbit radiation damage. For the GSO, the accuracy of the energy scale and modeling of gain variations are improved, and newly calibrated data set including background files and response matrices are released on April 2010.

  17. Suzaku observations of X-ray excess emission in the cluster of galaxies A 3112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, T.; Nevalainen, J.; Bonamente, M.; Ota, N.; Kaastra, J.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: We analysed the Suzaku XIS1 data of the A 3112 cluster of galaxies in order to examine the X-ray excess emission in this cluster reported earlier with the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites. Methods: We performed X-ray spectroscopy on the data of a single large region. We carried out simulations to estimate the systematic uncertainties affecting the X-ray excess signal. Results: The best-fit temperature of the intracluster gas depends strongly on the choice of the energy band used for the spectral analysis. This proves the existence of excess emission component in addition to the single-temperature MEKAL in A 3112. We showed that this effect is not an artifact due to uncertainties of the background modeling, instrument calibration or the amount of Galactic absorption. Neither does the PSF scatter of the emission from the cool core nor the projection of the cool gas in the cluster outskirts produce the effect. Finally we modeled the excess emission either by using an additional MEKAL or powerlaw component. Due to the small differencies between thermal and non-thermal model we can not rule out the non-thermal origin of the excess emission based on the goodness of the fit. Assuming that it has a thermal origin, we further examined the differential emission measure (DEM) models. We utilised two different DEM models, a Gaussian differential emission measure distribution (GDEM) and WDEM model, where the emission measure of a number of thermal components is distributed as a truncated power law. The best-fit XIS1 MEKAL temperature for the 0.4-7.0 keV band is 4.7 ± 0.1 keV, consistent with that obtained using GDEM and WDEM models.

  18. Suzaku Observation of Two Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in NGC 1313

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mizuno, T.; Miyawaki, R.; Ebisawa, K.; Kubota, A.; Miyamoto, M.; Winter, L.; Ueda, Y.; Isobe, N.; Dewangan, G.; Done, C.; Griffiths, R. E.; Haba, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Kotoku J.; Makishima, K.; Matsushita, K.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Namiki, M.; Petre, R.; Takahashi, H.; Tamagaw, T.; Terashima, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A study was made of two ultraluminous X-ray soures (ULXs) in the nearby face-on, late-type Sb galaxy NGC 1313 using data from Suzaku, the 5th Japanese X-ray satellite. Within the 90 ks observation, both sources named X-1 and X-2 exhibited luminosity change by about 50%. The 0.4-10 keV X-ray luminosity was measured to be 2.5 x 10(exp 40) erg per second and 5.8 x 10 erg per second for X-1 and X-2, respectively, requiring a black hole of 50-200 solar mass in order not to exceed the Eddingtion limit. For X-1: the spectrum exhibited a strong power-law component with a high energy cutoff which is thought to arise from strong Comptonization by a disk corona, suggesting the source was in a very high state. Absorption line features with equivalent widths of 40-80 eV found at 7.0 keV and 7.8 keV in the X-1 spectrum support the presence of a highly ionized plasma and a high mass accretion rate on the system. Oxygen abundance of the NGC 1313 circumstellar matter toward X-1 was found to be subsolar, viz. O/H = (5.0 plus or minus 1.0) x 10(exp -4). The spectrum of X-2 in fainter phase is best represented by a multicolor disk blackbody model with T (sub in) = 1.2-1.3 keV and becomes flatter as the flux increases; the source is interpreted to be in a slim disk state.

  19. GIANT LOBES OF CENTAURUS A RADIO GALAXY OBSERVED WITH THE SUZAKU X-RAY SATELLITE

    SciTech Connect

    Stawarz, L.; Gandhi, P.; Takahashi, T.; Takei, Y.; Tanaka, Y. T.; Fukazawa, Y.; Madejski, G.; O'Sullivan, S. P.; Cheung, C. C.; Feain, I. J.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Kataoka, J.; Takeuchi, Y.; Ostrowski, M.; Reville, B.; Siemiginowska, A.; Simionescu, A.; Werner, N.

    2013-03-20

    We report on Suzaku observations of selected regions within the southern giant lobe of the radio galaxy Centaurus A. In our analysis we focus on distinct X-ray features detected with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer within the range 0.5-10 keV, some of which are likely associated with fine structure of the lobe revealed by recent high-quality radio intensity and polarization maps. With the available photon statistics, we find that the spectral properties of the detected X-ray features are equally consistent with thermal emission from hot gas with temperatures kT > 1 keV, or with a power-law radiation continuum characterized by photon indices {Gamma} {approx} 2.0 {+-} 0.5. However, the plasma parameters implied by these different models favor a synchrotron origin for the analyzed X-ray spots, indicating that a very efficient acceleration of electrons up to {approx}> 10 TeV energies is taking place within the giant structure of Centaurus A, albeit only in isolated and compact regions associated with extended and highly polarized radio filaments. We also present a detailed analysis of the diffuse X-ray emission filling the whole field of view of the instrument, resulting in a tentative detection of a soft excess component best fitted by a thermal model with a temperature of kT {approx} 0.5 keV. The exact origin of the observed excess remains uncertain, although energetic considerations point to thermal gas filling the bulk of the volume of the lobe and mixed with the non-thermal plasma, rather than to the alternative scenario involving a condensation of the hot intergalactic medium around the edges of the expanding radio structure. If correct, this would be the first detection of the thermal content of the extended lobes of a radio galaxy in X-rays. The corresponding number density of the thermal gas in such a case is n{sub g} {approx} 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3}, while its pressure appears to be in almost exact equipartition with the volume-averaged non-thermal pressure

  20. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-Ray Emission from the Vicinity of PSR J1648-4611 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Matsumoto, Hironori; Haba, Yoshito; Kanou, Yasufumi; Miyamoto, Youhei

    2013-06-01

    We observed the pulsar PSR J1648-4611 with Suzaku. Two X-ray sources, Suzaku J1648-4610 (Src A) and Suzaku J1648-4615 (Src B), were found in the field of view. Src A is coincident with the pulsar PSR J1648-4611, which was also detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A hard-band image indicates that Src A is spatially extended. We found point sources in the vicinity of Src A by using a Chandra image of the same region, but the point sources have soft X-ray emission, and cannot explain the hard X-ray emission of Src A. The hard-band spectrum of Src A can be reproduced by a power-law model with a photon index of 2.0+0.9-0.7. The X-ray flux in the 2-10 keV band is 1.4 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1. The diffuse emission suggests a pulsar wind nebula around PSR J1648&"8211;4611, but the luminosity of Src A is much larger than that expected from the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar. Parts of the very-high-energy γ-ray emission of HESS J1646-458 may be powered by this pulsar wind nebula driven by PSR J1648-4611. Src B has soft emission, and its X-ray spectrum can be described by a power-law model with a photon index of 3.0+1.4-0.8. The X-ray flux in the 0.4-10 keV band is 6.4 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2. No counterpart for Src B has been found in the literature.

  1. Suzaku Observation of the Dwarf Nova V893 Scorpii: The Discovery of a Partial X-Ray Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, Koji; Zietsman, E.; Still, M.

    2008-01-01

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted little attention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an RXTE all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here we report on the po inted X-ray observations of this object using Suzaku. We confirm V893 Sco to be X-ray bright, whose spectrum is highly absorbed for a dwar f nova. We have also discovered a partial X-ray eclipse in V893 Sco. This is the first time that a partial eclipse is seen in Xray light c urves of a dwarf nova. We have successfully modeled the gross features of the optical and X-ray eclipse light curves using a boundary layer geometry of the X-ray emission region. Future observations may lead to confirmation of this basic picture, and allow us to place tight co nstraints on the size of the X-ray emission region. The partial X-ray eclipse therefore should make V893 Sco a key object in understanding the physics of accretion in quiescent dwarf nova.

  2. A Suzaku search for dark matter emission lines in the X-ray brightest galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, O.; Werner, N.; Allen, S. W.; Simionescu, A.; Kaastra, J. S.; Strigari, L. E.

    2015-08-01

    We present the results of a search for unidentified emission lines in deep Suzaku X-ray spectra of the central regions of the X-ray brightest galaxy clusters: Perseus, Coma, Virgo and Ophiuchus. We analyse an optimized energy range (3.2-5.3 keV) that is relatively free of instrumental features, and a plasma emission model incorporating the abundances of elements with the strongest expected emission lines at these energies (S, Ar, Ca) as free parameters. For the Perseus Cluster core, employing this model, we find evidence for an additional emission feature at an energy E=3.51^{+0.02}_{-0.01} keV with a flux of 2.87_{-0.38}^{+0.33}× 10^{-7} photons s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcmin^{-2}. At slightly larger radii, we detect an emission line at 3.59 ± 0.02 keV with a flux of 4.8_{-1.4}^{+1.7}× 10^{-8} photons s^{-1} cm^{-2} arcmin^{-2}. The properties of these features are broadly consistent with previous claims, although the radial variation of the line strength appears in tension with dark matter (DM) decay model predictions. Assuming a decaying DM origin for these features allows us to predict the energies and detected line fluxes for the other clusters. We do not detect an emission feature at the predicted energy and line flux in the Coma, Virgo and Ophiuchus clusters. The formal 99.5 per cent upper limits on the line strengths in each cluster are well below the decaying DM model predictions, disfavouring a decaying DM interpretation. The results of further analysis suggest that systematic effects associated with modelling the spectra for the Perseus Cluster, details of the assumed ionization balance and errors in the predicted spectral line emissivities may be largely responsible for the ˜3.55 keV feature.

  3. X-ray Studies of the Black Hole Binary Cygnus X-1 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Shin'ya

    2011-03-01

    In order to study X-ray properties of black hole binaries in so-called Low/Hard state, we analyzed 0.5--300 keV data of Cyg X-1, taken with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer and the Hard X-ray Detector onboard the X-ray satellite Suzaku. The data were acquired on 25 occasions from 2005 to 2009, with a total exposure of ~450 ks. The source was in the Low/Hard state throughout, and the 0.5-300 keV luminosity changed by a factor of 4, corresponding to 2-10% of the Eddington limit for a 10 Mo black hole. Among the 25 data sets, the first one was already analyzed by Makishima et al. (2008), who successfully reproduced the wide-band spectrum by a linear combination of an emission from a standard accretion disk, soft and hard Comptonization continua, and reprocessed features. Given this, we analyzed the 25 data sets for intensity-related spectral changes, on three different time scales using different analysis methods. One is the source behavior on time scales of days to months, studied via direct comparison among the 25 spectra which are averaged over individual observations. Another is spectral changes on time scales of 1-2 seconds, revealed through ``intensity-sorted spectroscopy''. The other is spectral changes on time scales down to ~0.1 seconds, conducted using ``shot analysis" technique which was originally developed by Negoro et al. (1997) with Ginga. These studies partially incorporated spectral fitting in terms of a thermal Comptonization model. We payed great attention to instrumental problems caused by the source brightness, and occasional ``dipping" episodes which affects the Cyg X-1 spectrum at low energies. The shot analysis incorporated a small fraction of XIS data that were taken in the P-sum mode with a time resolution of 7.8 msec. Through these consistent analyses of all the 25 data sets, we found that a significant soft X-ray excess develops as the source gets brighter. Comparing results from the different time scales, the soft excess was further

  4. Lensless imaging using broadband X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbey, Brian; Whitehead, Lachlan W.; Quiney, Harry M.; Vine, David J.; Cadenazzi, Guido A.; Henderson, Clare A.; Nugent, Keith A.; Balaur, Eugeniu; Putkunz, Corey T.; Peele, Andrew G.; Williams, G. J.; McNulty, I.

    2011-07-01

    High-resolution X-ray imaging techniques using optical elements such as zone plates are widely used for viewing the internal structure of samples in exquisite detail. The resolution attainable is ultimately limited by the manufacturing tolerances for the optics. Combining ideas from crystallography and holography, this limit may be surpassed by the method of coherent diffractive imaging (CDI). Although CDI shows particular promise in applications involving X-ray free-electron lasers, it is also emerging as an important new technique for imaging at third-generation synchrotrons. The limited coherent output of these sources, however, is a significant barrier to obtaining shorter exposure times. A fundamental assumption of coherent diffractive imaging is that the incident light is well-approximated by a single optical frequency. In this Letter, we demonstrate the first experimental realization of `polyCDI', using a broadband source to achieve a factor of 60 reduction in the exposure time over quasi-monochromatic coherent diffractive imaging.

  5. Suzaku Observation of Two Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in NGC1313

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, T.; Miyawaki, R.; Ebisawa, K.; Kubota, A.; Miyamoto, M.; Winter, L.; Ueda, Y.; Isobe, N.; Makishima, K.; Ngc 1313 Team

    We report about the Suzaku observation oftwo ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), X-1 and X-2, in NGC1313, together with their spectra by XMM-Newton. During the observation, both showed intensity-correlated spectral changes. The brighter source, X-1, exhibited the highest luminosity (˜ 3 × 1040 erg s-1) ever recorded from this source. Its spectral variation is ascribed to a strong power-law like component with a mild high energy curvature, while about 10 modeled by a cool disk emission. These properties suggest that the source was in the ``very high'' state, wherein the disk emission is strongly Comptonized and the optically-thick disk is truncated at a large radii or cooled off. The spectrum of X-2 is best represented, in its fainter phase, by a multicolor disk model with the innermost disk temperature of 1.2-1.3 keV, and becomes flatter as the source gets brighter. Hence X-2 is interpreted to be in a slim disk state. These results suggest that the two ULXs host black holes of a few tens to a few hundreds solar masses.

  6. SUZAKU BROADBAND SPECTROSCOPY OF SWIFT J1753.5-0127 IN THE LOW-HARD STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.; Homan, Jeroen; Miniutti, Giovanni

    2010-01-20

    We present Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low-hard state (LHS). The broadband coverage of Suzaku enables us to detect the source over the energy range 0.6-250 keV. The broadband spectrum (2-250 keV) is found to be consistent with a simple power-law (GAMMA approx 1.63). In agreement with previous observations of this system, a significant excess of soft X-ray flux is detected consistent with the presence of a cool accretion disk. Estimates of the disk inner radius infer a value consistent with the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO; R{sub in} approx< 6R{sub g} , for certain values of, e.g., N{sub H}, i), although we cannot conclusively rule out the presence of an accretion disk truncated at larger radii (R{sub in} approx 10-50R{sub g} ). A weak, relativistically broadened iron line is also detected, in addition to disk reflection at higher energy. However, the iron-K line profile favors an inner radius larger than the ISCO (R{sub in} approx 10-20R{sub g} ). The implications of these observations for models of the accretion flow in the LHS are discussed.

  7. A Suzaku X-ray Observation of One Orbit of the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient IGR J16479-4514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidoli, L.; Esposito, P.; Sguera, V.; Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Pottschmidt, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Ramano, P.; Wilms, J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a 250 ks long X-ray observation of the supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT) IGR J16479-4514 performed with Suzaku in 2012 February. During this observation, about 80% of the short orbital period (P(sub orb) approximates 3.32 days) was covered as continuously as possible for the first time. The source light curve displays variability of more than two orders of magnitude, starting with a very low emission state (10(exp -13) erg / sq cm/s; 1-10 keV) lasting the first 46 ks, consistent with being due to the X-ray eclipse by the supergiant companion. The transition to the uneclipsed X-ray emission is energy dependent. Outside the eclipse, the source spends most of the time at a level of 6-7X10)(exp-12) erg/sq. cm/s) punctuated by two structured faint flares with a duration of about 10 and 15 ks, respectively, reaching a peak flux of 3-4X10(exp -11) erg/sq. cm./S, separated by about 0.2 in orbital phase. Remarkably, the first faint flare occurs at a similar orbital phase of the bright flares previously observed in the system. This indicates the presence of a phase-locked large scale structure in the supergiant wind, driving a higher accretion rate onto the compact object. The average X-ray spectrum is hard and highly absorbed, with a column density, NH, of 10*exp 23)/sq cm, clearly in excess of the interstellar absorption. There is no evidence for variability of the absorbing column density, except that during the eclipse, where a less absorbed X-ray spectrum is observed. A narrow Fe K-alpha emission line at 6.4 keV is viewed along the whole orbit, with an intensity which correlates with the continuum emission above 7 keV. The scattered component visible during the X-ray eclipse allowed us to directly probe the wind density at the orbital separation, resulting in rho(sub w)=7X10(exp -14) g/cubic cm. Assuming a spherical geometry for the supergiant wind, the derived wind density translates into a ratio M(sub w)/v(sub infinity) = 7X10(exp -17) Solar M

  8. Suzaku spectra of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yajuan; Zhang, Haotong; zhang, Yanxia

    2015-08-01

    We present the spectral analysis of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52 using data from four Suzaku observations in 2010 March. 4U 1608-52 is a transient atoll source, and the analyzed observations contain the “island” and “banana” states, corresponding transitional, and soft states. The spectra are fitted with the hybrid model for the soft states, which consists of two thermal components (a multicolor accretion disk and a single-temperature blackbody) plus a broken power law. The fitting results show that the continuum spectra evolve during the different states. Fe emission line is often detected in low-mass X-ray binary, however, no obviously Fe line is detected in the four observations of 4U 1608-52.

  9. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, E.H.; Legros, M.; Madden, N.W.; Goulding, F.; Landis, D.

    1998-07-07

    A broad bandwidth high resolution X-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces X-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available X-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for X-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical X-ray and particle spectroscopy. 6 figs.

  10. Broadband high resolution X-ray spectral analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Eric H.; Legros, Mark; Madden, Norm W.; Goulding, Fred; Landis, Don

    1998-01-01

    A broad bandwidth high resolution x-ray fluorescence spectrometer has a performance that is superior in many ways to those currently available. It consists of an array of 4 large area microcalorimeters with 95% quantum efficiency at 6 keV and it produces x-ray spectra between 0.2 keV and 7 keV with an energy resolution of 7 to 10 eV. The resolution is obtained at input count rates per array element of 10 to 50 Hz in real-time, with analog pulse processing and thermal pile-up rejection. This performance cannot be matched by currently available x-ray spectrometers. The detectors are incorporated into a compact and portable cryogenic refrigerator system that is ready for use in many analytical spectroscopy applications as a tool for x-ray microanalysis or in research applications such as laboratory and astrophysical x-ray and particle spectroscopy.

  11. Suzaku Observations of Moderately Obscured (Compton-thin) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Ricci, Claudio; Terashima, Yuichi

    2016-07-01

    We report the results obtained by a systematic, broadband (0.5-150 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of moderately obscured (Compton-thin, 22≤slant {log}{N}{{H}}\\lt 24) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with Suzaku and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Our sample consists of 45 local AGNs at z\\lt 0.1 with {log}{L}14-195{keV}\\gt 42 detected in the Swift/BAT 70-month survey, whose Suzaku archival data are available as of 2015 December. All spectra are uniformly fit with a baseline model composed of an absorbed cutoff power-law component, reflected emission accompanied by a narrow fluorescent iron-Kα line from cold matter (torus), and scattered emission. The main results based on the above analysis are as follows. (1) The photon index is correlated with Eddington ratio, but not with luminosity or black hole mass. (2) The ratio of the luminosity of the iron-Kα line to the X-ray luminosity an indicator of the covering fraction of the torus, shows significant anticorrelation with luminosity. (3) The averaged reflection strength derived from stacked spectra above 14 keV is larger in less luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}≤slant 43.3, R={1.04}-0.19+0.17) or highly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}\\gt 23, R={1.03}-0.17+0.15) AGNs than in more luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}\\gt 43.3, R={0.46}-0.09+0.08) or lightly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}≤slant 23, R={0.59}-0.10+0.09) objects. (4) The ratio of the luminosity of the [{{O}} {{IV}}] 25.89 μm line to the X-ray luminosity is significantly smaller in AGNs with lower soft X-ray scattering fractions, suggesting that the former luminosity underestimates the intrinsic power of an AGN buried in a torus of small opening angle.

  12. Suzaku Observations of Moderately Obscured (Compton-thin) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Ricci, Claudio; Terashima, Yuichi

    2016-07-01

    We report the results obtained by a systematic, broadband (0.5–150 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of moderately obscured (Compton-thin, 22≤slant {log}{N}{{H}}\\lt 24) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with Suzaku and Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). Our sample consists of 45 local AGNs at z\\lt 0.1 with {log}{L}14-195{keV}\\gt 42 detected in the Swift/BAT 70-month survey, whose Suzaku archival data are available as of 2015 December. All spectra are uniformly fit with a baseline model composed of an absorbed cutoff power-law component, reflected emission accompanied by a narrow fluorescent iron-Kα line from cold matter (torus), and scattered emission. The main results based on the above analysis are as follows. (1) The photon index is correlated with Eddington ratio, but not with luminosity or black hole mass. (2) The ratio of the luminosity of the iron-Kα line to the X-ray luminosity an indicator of the covering fraction of the torus, shows significant anticorrelation with luminosity. (3) The averaged reflection strength derived from stacked spectra above 14 keV is larger in less luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}≤slant 43.3, R={1.04}-0.19+0.17) or highly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}\\gt 23, R={1.03}-0.17+0.15) AGNs than in more luminous ({log}{L}10-50{keV}\\gt 43.3, R={0.46}-0.09+0.08) or lightly obscured ({log}{N}{{H}}≤slant 23, R={0.59}-0.10+0.09) objects. (4) The ratio of the luminosity of the [{{O}} {{IV}}] 25.89 μm line to the X-ray luminosity is significantly smaller in AGNs with lower soft X-ray scattering fractions, suggesting that the former luminosity underestimates the intrinsic power of an AGN buried in a torus of small opening angle.

  13. A Suzaku observation of the low-mass X-ray binary GS 1826-238 in the hard state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Ko; Sakurai, Soki; Zhang, Zhongli; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The neutron star low-mass X-ray binary GS 1826-238 was observed with Suzaku on 2009 October 21, for a total exposure of 1030 ks. Except for the type I bursts, the source intensity was constant within ˜10%. Combining the Suzaku XIS, HXD-PIN, and HXD-GSO data, burst-removed persistent emission was detected over the 0.8-100 keV range, at an unabsorbed flux of 2.6 × 10-9 erg s-1 cm-2. Although the implied 0.8-100 keV luminosity, 1.5 × 1037 erg s-1 (assuming a distance of 7 kpc), is relatively high, the observed hard spectrum confirms that the source was in the hard state. The spectrum was successfully explained by an emission from a soft standard accretion disk partially Comptonized by a hot electron cloud, and a blackbody emission Comptonized by another hotter electron cloud. These results are compared with those from previous studies, including those on the same source by Thompson et al. (2005, ApJ, 634, 1261) and Cocchi, Farinelli, and Paizis (2011, A&A, 529, A155), as well as that of Aql X-1 in the hard state obtained with Suzaku (Sakurai et al. 2014, PASJ, 66, 10).

  14. SUZAKU X-RAY SPECTRA AND PULSE PROFILE VARIATIONS DURING THE SUPERORBITAL CYCLE OF LMC X-4

    SciTech Connect

    Hung Liwei; Hickox, Ryan C.; Boroson, Bram S.; Vrtilek, Saeqa D. E-mail: rhickox@cfa.harvard.ed E-mail: svrtilek@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-09-10

    We present results from spectral and temporal analyses of Suzaku and RXTE observations of the high-mass X-ray binary LMC X-4. Using the full 13 years of available RXTE/all-sky monitor data, we apply the ANOVA and Lomb Normalized Periodogram methods to obtain an improved superorbital period measurement of 30.32 {+-} 0.04 days. The phase-averaged X-ray spectra from Suzaku observations during the high state of the superorbital period can be modeled in the 0.6-50 keV band as the combination of a power law with {Gamma} {approx} 0.6 and a high-energy cutoff at {approx}25 keV, a blackbody with kT {sub BB} {approx} 0.18 keV, and emission lines from Fe K{sub {alpha}}, O VIII, and Ne IX (X Ly{alpha}). Assuming a distance of 50 kpc, the source has luminosity L {sub X} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} in the 2-50 keV band, and the luminosity of the soft (blackbody) component is L {sub BB} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 37} erg s{sup -1}. The energy-resolved pulse profiles show single-peaked soft (0.5-1 keV) and hard (6-10 keV) pulses but a more complex pattern of medium (2-10 keV) pulses; cross-correlation of the hard with the soft pulses shows a phase shift that varies between observations. We interpret these results in terms of a picture in which a precessing disk reprocesses the hard X-rays and produces the observed soft spectral component, as has been suggested for the similar sources Her X-1 and SMC X-1.

  15. Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wonsuk; Liu, Wenjun; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Fuoss, Paul H; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O

    2016-09-01

    A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifying in situ chamber design. This approach was demonstrated with Au nanoparticles and will enable, for example, individual grains in a polycrystalline material of specific orientation to be selected, then imaged in three dimensions while under load. PMID:27577782

  16. Utilizing broadband X-rays in a Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging experiment.

    PubMed

    Cha, Wonsuk; Liu, Wenjun; Harder, Ross; Xu, Ruqing; Fuoss, Paul H; Hruszkewycz, Stephan O

    2016-09-01

    A method is presented to simplify Bragg coherent X-ray diffraction imaging studies of complex heterogeneous crystalline materials with a two-stage screening/imaging process that utilizes polychromatic and monochromatic coherent X-rays and is compatible with in situ sample environments. Coherent white-beam diffraction is used to identify an individual crystal particle or grain that displays desired properties within a larger population. A three-dimensional reciprocal-space map suitable for diffraction imaging is then measured for the Bragg peak of interest using a monochromatic beam energy scan that requires no sample motion, thus simplifying in situ chamber design. This approach was demonstrated with Au nanoparticles and will enable, for example, individual grains in a polycrystalline material of specific orientation to be selected, then imaged in three dimensions while under load.

  17. Suzaku Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the Suzaku spacecraft. Suzaku (originally known as Astro-E2) was launched July 10, 2005, and maintains a low-Earth orbit while it observes X-rays from the universe. The satel...

  18. BROADBAND SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF IGR J16207-5129

    SciTech Connect

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Walter, R.

    2010-08-10

    An analysis of IGR J16207-5129 is presented based on observations taken with Suzaku. The data set represents {approx}80 ks of effective exposure time in a broad energy range between 0.5 and 60 keV, including unprecedented spectral sensitivity above 15 keV. The average source spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law in which we measured a large intrinsic absorption of N {sub H} =(16.2{sup +0.9} {sub -1.1}) x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. This confirms that IGR J16207-5129 belongs to the class of absorbed high-mass X-ray binaries. We were able to constrain the cutoff energy at 19{sup +8} {sub -4} keV, which argues in favor of a neutron star as the primary. Our observation includes an epoch in which the source count rate is compatible with no flux suggesting a possible eclipse. We discuss the nature of this source in light of these and of other recent results.

  19. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I Kα emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with N warm ~ 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat Γ ~ 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  20. The Swift Burst Alert Telescope Detected Seyfert 1 Galaxies: X-Ray Broadband Properties and Warm Absorbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K[alpha] emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with Nwarm [approx] 1021 cm-2, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat [Gamma] [approx] 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  1. Modeling Broadband X-Ray Absorption of Massive Star Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Cohen,David H.; Zsargo, Janos; Martell, Erin M.; MacArthur, James P.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Gagne, Marc; Hillier, D. John

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for computing the net transition of X-rays emitted by shock-heated plasma distributed throughout a partially optically thick stellar wind from a massive star. We find the transmission by an exact integration of the formal solution, assuming the emitting plasma and absorbing plasma are mixed at a constant mass ratio above some minimum radius, below which there is assumed to be no emission. This model is more realistic than either the slab absorption associated with a corona at the base of the wind or the exospheric approximation that assumes all observed X-rays are emitted without attenuation from above the radius of optical depth unity. Our model is implemented in XSPEC as a pre-calculated table that can be coupled to a user-defined table of the wavelength dependent wind opacity. We provide a default wind opacity model that is more representative of real wind opacities than the commonly used neutral ISM tabulation. Preliminary modeling of Chandra grating data indicates that the X-ray hardness trend of OB stars with spectral subtype cars largely be understood as a wind absorption effect.

  2. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of Cygnus X-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.

    1983-01-01

    Cygnus X-2 was observed with the broad-band X-ray spectroscopy experiment, HEAO 1 A-2, in the energy range 0.4-18 keV for four intervals of approximately 31 s over the course of 5 days in 1977. The spectra can be adequately represented by single-temperature thermal bremmstrahlung continua with temperatures ranging from 3.7 x 10 to the 7th K to 6.4 x 10 to the 7th K. An examination of the spectra and the spectra-luminosity relationship effectively rules out one degenerate dwarf model for the X-ray emission. The far-UV continuum emission could be dominated by this continuum component during X-ray high states, an effect which would be detected in optical UV line observations. A Comptonized X-ray cloud around a neutron star remains a viable model for the observed X-ray spectra.

  3. NUSTAR and SUZAKU X-ray spectroscopy of NGC 4151: Evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk

    DOE PAGES

    Keck, M. L.; Brenneman, L. W.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dauser, T.; Elvis, M.; Fabian, A. C.; et al

    2015-06-15

    We present X-ray timing and spectral analyses of simultaneous 150 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. We disentangle the continuum emission, absorption, and reflection properties of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) by applying inner accretion disk reflection and absorption-dominated models. With a time-averaged spectral analysis, we find strong evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find that relativistic emission arises from a highly ionized inner accretion disk with a steep emissivity profile, which suggests an intense, compact illuminating source. We find a preliminary, near-maximal black hole spinmore » $$a\\gt 0.9$$ accounting for statistical and systematic modeling errors. We find a relatively moderate reflection fraction with respect to predictions for the lamp post geometry, in which the illuminating corona is modeled as a point source. Through a time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that modest coronal and inner disk reflection (IDR) flux variation drives the spectral variability during the observations. As a result, we discuss various physical scenarios for the IDR model and we find that a compact corona is consistent with the observed features.« less

  4. Search for X-Ray Emission Associated with the Shapley Supercluster with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Gupta, Anjali; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Takei, Yoh; Ohashi, Takaya; Sato, Kosuke; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Henry, J. Patrick; Kelley, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Suzaku performed observations of 3 regions in and around the Shapley supercluster: a region located between A3558 and A3556, at approx 0.9 times the virial radii of both clusters, and two other regions at 1 deg and 4 away from the first pointing. The 4 deg -otfset observation was used to evaluate the Galactic foreground emission. We did not detect significant redshifted Oxygen emission lines (O VII and O VIII) in the spectra of all three pointings, after subtracting the contribution of foreground and background emission. An upper limit for the redshifted O VIII Ka line intensity of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is 1.5 x 10(exp -7) photons / s / sq cm / sq arcmin, which corresponds to an overdensity of approx 380 (Z/0.1 Solar Z)(exp -1/2)(L/3 Mpc)(exp -1/2), assuming T = 3 x 10(exp 6) K. We found excess continuum emission in the 1 deg-offset and on-filament regions, represented by thermal models with kT approximates 1 keV and approximates 2 keV, respectively. The redshifts of both 0 and that of the supercluster (0.048) are consistent with the observed spectra. The approx 1 keV emission can be also fitted with Ne-rich Galactic (zero redshift) thin thermal emission. Radial intensity profile of 2 keV component suggests contribution from A3558 and A3556, but with significant steepening of the intensity slope in the outer region of A3558. Finally, we summarized the previous Suzaku search for the WHIM and discussed the feasibility of constraining the WHIM. An overdensity of <400 can be detectable using O VII and O VIII emission lines in a range of 1.4 x 10(exp 6) K < T < 5 x 10(exp 6) K or a continuum emission in a relatively high temperature range T > 5 x 10 (exp 6) K with the Suzaku XIS. The non detection with Suzaku suggests that typical line-of-sight average overdensity is < 400.

  5. Suzaku X-Ray and Optical Spectroscopic Observations of SS 433 in the 2006 April Multiwavelength Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Kaori; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kotani, Taro; Namiki, Masaaki; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Ozaki, Shinobu; Iijima, Takashi; Fabrika, Sergei; Yuasa, Takayuki; Yamada, Shin'ya; Makishima, Kazuo

    2010-04-01

    We report on results of the 2006 April multiwavelength campaign of SS 433, focusing on X-ray data observed with Suzaku at two orbital phases (in- and out-of-eclipse phases) and on simultaneous optical spectroscopic observations. Analyzing the FeXXV Kα lines originating from the jets, we detected a rapid variability of the Doppler shifts, dz/dt ≈ 0.019/0.33d-1, which is larger than those expected from the precession and/or nodding motion. This phenomenon probably corresponds to ``jitter'' motions observed for the first time in X-rays, for which significant variabilities in both the jet angle and the intrinsic speed are required. From time lags between optical Doppler curves and X-ray ones, we estimated a distance between the optical jets and the base to be ˜(3--4) × 1014cm. Based on the radiatively cooling jet model, we determined that the innermost temperatures of the jets are T0 = 13±2 keV for the out-of-eclipse phase and 16±3keV for the in-eclipse (the average of the blue and red jets) from the line intensity ratio of FeXXV Kα and FeXXVI Kα. While the broad-band-continuum spectra over the 5-40keV band in eclipse is consistent with a multitemperature-bremsstrahlung emission expected from the jets and its reflection component from cold matter, the out-of-eclipse spectrum is harder than the jet emission with the base temperature determined above, implying the presence of an additional hard component.

  6. Broad-band short term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G.; Reeves, J.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M.; Tombesi, F.

    2015-07-01

    We present an analysis of a recent 500 ks Suzaku observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_{bol}˜10^{47} erg s^{-1}) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. Short term X-ray spectral variability has been detected, which may be caused by two variable coverers of column density log (N_{H,1}/cm^{-2})=22.3±0.1 and log (N_{H,2}/cm(-2) )=23.2±0.1 We find that the partial covering requires an outflow velocity of ˜0.25 c, coincident with the velocity of the highly ionised outflow at the 99.9 % confidence level. Therefore the partial covering clouds could be the denser clumpy part of an inhomogeneous wind. An obscuration event occurs 1250 ks into the observation, where the spectrum becomes totally opaque at Fe K. This implies that the size of the absorber and likewise the X-ray emitter, to be less than 20 Rg. We also analyse the flaring behaviour in the lightcurve. The behaviour of the soft and hard X-ray flux, suggested a corona characterised by an extended "warm" region of ˜20 Rg in size combined with more compact regions of "hot" electrons of ˜8 Rg in size.

  7. Suzaku Investigation into the Nature of the Nearest Ultraluminous X-Ray Source, M33 X-8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Naoki; Kubota, Aya; Sato, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Tsunefumi

    2012-12-01

    The X-ray spectrum of the nearest ultraluminous X-ray source, M 33 X-8, obtained by Suzaku during 2010 January 11-13, was closely analyzed in order to examine its nature. It is, by far, the only data with the highest signal statistic in the 0.4-10 keV range. Despite being able to reproduce the X-ray spectrum, Comptonization of the disk photons failed to give a physically meaningful solution. A modified version of the multi-color disk model, in which the dependence of the disk temperature on the radius is described as r-p, with p being a free parameter, can also approximate the spectrum. From this model, the innermost disk temperature and bolometric luminosity were obtained as Tin = 2.00+0.06-0.05 keV and Ldisk = 1.36 × 1039 (cos i )-1 erg s-1, respectively, where i is the disk inclination. A small temperature gradient of p = 0.535-0.004-0.005, together with the high disk temperature, is regarded as signatures of the slim accretion disk model, suggesting that M 33 X-8 was accreting at a high mass-accretion rate. With a correction factor for the slim-disk taken into account, the innermost disk radius, Rin = 81.9+5.9-6.5 (cos i )-0.5 km, corresponds to a black-hole mass of M˜ 10⊙ (cos i )-0.5. Accordingly, the bolometric disk luminosity is estimated to be about 80(cos i )-0.5% of the Eddington limit. A numerically calculated slim-disk spectrum was found to reach a similar result. Thus, the extremely super-Eddington luminosity is not required to explain the nature of M 33 X-8. This conclusion is utilized to argue for the existence of intermediate-mass black holes with M gtrsim 100⊙ radiating at the sub/trans-Eddington luminosity, among ultraluminous X-ray sources with Ldisc gtrsim 1040 erg s-1.

  8. SUZAKU WIDE BAND ANALYSIS OF THE X-RAY VARIABILITY OF TeV BLAZAR Mrk 421 IN 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ushio, Masayoshi; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Sato, Rie; Tanaka, Takaaki; Madejski, Grzegorz; Hayashida, Masaaki; Kataoka, Jun; Mazin, Daniel; Ruegamer, Stefan; Teshima, Masahiro; Wagner, Stefan; Yaji, Yuichi

    2009-07-10

    We present the results of X-ray observations of the well studied TeV blazar Mrk 421 with the Suzaku satellite in 2006 April 28. During the observation, Mrk 421 was undergoing a large flare and the X-ray flux was variable, decreasing by {approx}50%, from 7.8 x 10{sup -10} to 3.7 x 10{sup -10} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} in about 6 hr, followed by an increase by {approx}35%. Thanks to the broad bandpass coupled with high sensitivity of Suzaku, we measured the evolution of the spectrum over the 0.4-60 keV band in data segments as short as {approx}1 ks. The data show deviations from a simple power-law model, but also a clear spectral variability. The time-resolved spectra are fitted by a synchrotron model, where the observed spectrum is due to a exponentially cutoff power-law distribution of electrons radiating in uniform magnetic field; this model is preferred over a broken power law. As another scenario, we separate the spectrum into 'steady' and 'variable' components by subtracting the spectrum in the lowest-flux period from those of other data segments. In this context, the difference ('variable') spectra are all well described by a broken power-law model with photon index {gamma} {approx} 1.6, breaking at energy {epsilon}{sub brk} {approx_equal} 3 keV to another photon index {gamma} {approx} 2.1 above the break energy, differing from each other only by normalization, while the spectrum of the 'steady' component is best described by the synchrotron model. We suggest that the rapidly variable component is due to relatively localized shock (Fermi I) acceleration, while the slowly variable ('steady') component is due to the superposition of shocks located at larger distance along the jet, or due to other acceleration process, such as the stochastic acceleration on magnetic turbulence (Fermi II) in the more extended region.

  9. X-ray analysis of the galaxy group UGC 03957 beyond R200 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thölken, Sophia; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Hasenbusch, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Context. In the last few years, the outskirts of galaxy clusters have been studied in detail and the analyses have brought up interesting results such as indications of possible gas clumping and the breakdown of hydrostatic, thermal, and ionization equilibrium. These phenomena affect the entropy profiles of clusters, which often show deviations from the self-similar prediction around R200. However, significant uncertainties remain for groups of galaxies. In particular the question, of whether entropy profiles are similar to those of galaxy clusters. Aims: We investigated the gas properties of the galaxy group UGC 03957 up to 1.4 R200 ≈ 1.4 Mpc in four azimuthal directions with the Suzaku satellite. We checked for azimuthal symmetry and obtained temperature, entropy, density, and gas mass profiles. Previous studies point to deviations from equilibrium states at the outskirts of groups and clusters and so we studied the hydrodynamical status of the gas at these large radii. Methods: We performed a spectral analysis of five Suzaku observations of UGC 03957 with ~138 ks good exposure time in total and five Chandra snapshot observations for point source detection. We investigated systematic effects such as point spread function and uncertainties in the different background components, and performed a deprojection of the density and temperature profile. Results: We found a temperature drop of a factor of ~3 from the center to the outskirts that is consistent with previous results for galaxy clusters. The metal abundance profile shows a flat behavior towards large radii, which is a hint for galactic winds as the primary ICM enrichment process. The entropy profile is consistent with numerical simulations after applying a gas mass fraction correction. Feedback processes and AGN activity might be one explanation for entropy modification, imprinting out to larger radii in galaxy groups than in galaxy clusters. Previous analyses for clusters and groups often showed an

  10. Moduli Dark Matter and the Search for Its Decay Line using Suzaku X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusenko, Alexander; Loewenstein, Michael; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2013-01-01

    Light scalar fields called moduli arise from a variety of different models involving supersymmetry and/or string theory; thus their existence is a generic prediction of leading theories for physics beyond the standard model. They also present a formidable, long-standing problem for cosmology. We argue that an anthropic solution to the moduli problem exists in the case of small moduli masses and that it automatically leads to dark matter in the form of moduli. The recent discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs boson implies a lower bound on the moduli mass of about a keV. This form of dark matter is consistent with the observed properties of structure formation, and it is amenable to detection with the help of x-ray telescopes. We present the results of a search for such dark matter particles using spectra extracted from the first deep x-ray observations of the Draco and Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxies, which are darkmatter- dominated systems with extreme mass-to-light ratios and low intrinsic backgrounds. No emission line is positively detected, and we set new constraints on the relevant new physics.

  11. X-ray View of Four High-Luminosity Swift-BAT AGN: Unveiling Obscuration and Reflection with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorettil, V.; Angelini, L.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Koss, M.; Malaguti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. A complete census of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is necessary to reveal the history of the super massive black hole (SMBH) growth and galaxy evolution in the Universe given the complex feedback processes and the fact that much of this growth occurs in an obscured phase. In this context, hard X-ray surveys and dedicated follow-up observations represent a unique tool for selecting highly absorbed AGN and for characterizing the obscuring matter surrounding the SMBH. Here we focus on the absorption and reflection occurring in highly luminous, quasar-like AGN, to study the relation between the geometry of the absorbing matter and the AGN nature (e.g. X-ray, optical, and radio properties), and to help to determine the column density dependency on the AGN luminosity. Methods. The Swift/BAT nine-month survey observed 153 AGN, all with ultra-hard X-ray BAT fluxes in excess of 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter and an average redshift of 0.03. Among them, four of the most luminous BAT AGN (44.73 less than LogLBAT less than 45.31) were selected as targets of Suzaku follow-up observations: J2246.0+3941 (3C 452), J0407.4+0339 (3C 105), J0318.7+6828, and J0918.5+0425. The column density, scattered/reflected emission, the properties of the Fe K line, and a possible variability are fully analyzed. For the latter, the spectral properties from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT public observations were compared with the present Suzaku analysis, adding an original spectral analysis when non was available from the literature. Results. Of our sample, 3C 452 is the only certain Compton-thick AGN candidate because of i) the high absorption (N(sub H) approximately 4 × 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) and strong Compton reflection; ii) the lack of variability; iii) the "buried" nature, i.e. the low scattering fraction (less than 0.5%) and the extremely low relative [OIII] luminosity. In contrast 3C 105 is not reflection-dominated, despite the comparable column density

  12. Suzaku monitoring of hard X-ray emission from η Carinae over a single binary orbital cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.; Yuasa, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu; Pittard, Julian M.; Russell, Christopher M. P.

    2014-11-10

    The Suzaku X-ray observatory monitored the supermassive binary system η Carinae 10 times during the whole 5.5 yr orbital cycle between 2005 and 2011. This series of observations presents the first long-term monitoring of this enigmatic system in the extremely hard X-ray band between 15 and 40 keV. During most of the orbit, the 15-25 keV emission varied similarly to the 2-10 keV emission, indicating an origin in the hard energy tail of the kT ∼ 4 keV wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma. However, the 15-25 keV emission declined only by a factor of three around periastron when the 2-10 keV emission dropped by two orders of magnitude due probably to an eclipse of the WWC plasma. The observed minimum in the 15-25 keV emission occurred after the 2-10 keV flux had already recovered by a factor of ∼3. This may mean that the WWC activity was strong, but hidden behind the thick primary stellar wind during the eclipse. The 25-40 keV flux was rather constant through the orbital cycle, at the level measured with INTEGRAL in 2004. This result may suggest a connection of this flux component to the γ-ray source detected in this field. The helium-like Fe Kα line complex at ∼6.7 keV became strongly distorted toward periastron as seen in the previous cycle. The 5-9 keV spectra can be reproduced well with a two-component spectral model, which includes plasma in collision equilibrium and a plasma in non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) with τ ∼ 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3} s{sup –1}. The NEI plasma increases in importance toward periastron.

  13. XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectroscopic studies of unidentified X-ray sources towards the Galactic bulge: 1RXS J180556.1-343818 and 1RXS J173905.2-392615

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideyuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    With XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations, for the first time, we acquired broad-band spectra of two unidentified X-ray sources towards the Galactic bulge: 1RXS J180556.1-343818 and 1RXS J173905.2-392615. The 1RXS J180556.1-343818 spectrum in the 0.3-7 keV band was explained by X-ray emission that originated from an optically-thin thermal plasma with temperatures of 0.5 and 1.8 keV. The estimated absorption column density of NH ˜ 4 × 1020 cm-2 was significantly smaller than the Galactic H I column density towards the source. A candidate for its optical counterpart, HD 321269, was found within 4″. In terms of the X-ray properties and the positional coincidence, it is quite conceivable that 1RXS J180556.1-343818 is an active G giant. We also found a dim X-ray source that was positionally consistent with 1RXS J173905.2-392615. Assuming that the X-ray spectrum can be reproduced with an absorbed, optically-thin thermal plasma model with kT = 1.6 keV, the X-ray flux in the 0.5-8 keV band was 8.7 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2, fainter by a factor of ˜7 than that of 1RXS J173905.2-392615 during the ROSAT observation. The follow-up observations we conducted revealed that these two sources would belong to the Galactic disk, rather than the Galactic bulge.

  14. Broad-band X-ray emission and the reality of the broad iron line from the neutron star-white dwarf X-ray binary 4U 1820-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Aditya S.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pahari, M.; Misra, R.; Kembhavi, A. K.; Raychaudhuri, B.

    2016-09-01

    Broad relativistic iron lines from neutron star X-ray binaries are important probes of the inner accretion disc. The X-ray reflection features can be weakened due to strong magnetic fields or very low iron abundances such as is possible in X-ray binaries with low mass, first generation stars as companions. Here, we investigate the reality of the broad iron line detected earlier from the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1820-30 with a degenerate helium dwarf companion. We perform a comprehensive, systematic broad-band spectral study of the atoll source using Suzaku and simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift observations. We have used different continuum models involving accretion disc emission, thermal blackbody and thermal Comptonization of either disc or blackbody photons. The Suzaku data show positive and negative residuals in the region of Fe K band. These features are well described by two absorption edges at 7.67 ± 0.14 keV and 6.93 ± 0.07 keV or partial covering photoionized absorption or by blurred reflection. Though, the simultaneous Swift and NuSTAR data do not clearly reveal the emission or absorption features, the data are consistent with the presence of either absorption or emission features. Thus, the absorption based models provide an alternative to the broad iron line or reflection model. The absorption features may arise in winds from the inner accretion disc. The broad-band spectra appear to disfavour continuum models in which the blackbody emission from the neutron-star surface provides the seed photons for thermal Comptonization. Our results suggest emission from a thin accretion disc (kTdisc ˜ 1 keV), Comptonization of disc photons in a boundary layer most likely covering a large fraction of the neutron-star surface and innermost parts of the accretion disc, and blackbody emission (kTbb ˜ 2 keV) from the polar regions.

  15. Broad-band spectroscopy of the transient X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during 2013 giant outburst: Detection of pulsating soft X-ray excess component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epili, Prahlad; Naik, Sachindra; Jaisawal, Gaurava K.

    2016-05-01

    We present the results obtained from detailed timing and spectral studies of the Be/X-ray binary pulsar KS 1947+300 during its 2013 giant outburst. We used data from Suzaku observations of the pulsar at two epochs, i.e. on 2013 October 22 (close to the peak of the outburst) and 2013 November 22. X-ray pulsations at ˜18.81 s were clearly detected in the light curves obtained from both observations. Pulse periods estimated during the outburst showed that the pulsar was spinning up. The pulse profile was found to be single-peaked up to ˜10 keV beyond which a sharp peak followed by a dip-like feature appeared at hard X-rays. The dip-like feature has been observed up to ˜70 keV. The 1-110 keV broad-band spectroscopy of both observations revealed that the best-fit model was comprised of a partially absorbed Negative and Positive power law with EXponential cutoff (NPEX) continuum model along with a blackbody component for the soft X-ray excess and two Gaussian functions at 6.4 and 6.7 keV for emission lines. Both the lines were identified as emission from neutral and He-like iron atoms. To fit the spectra, we included the previously reported cyclotron absorption line at 12.2 keV. From the spin-up rate, the magnetic field of the pulsar was estimated to be ˜1.2×1012 G and found to be comparable to that obtained from the detection of the cyclotron absorption feature. Pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy revealed the pulsating nature of the soft X-ray excess component in phase with the continuum flux. This confirms that the accretion column and/or accretion stream are the most probable regions of the soft X-ray excess emission in KS1947+300. The presence of the pulsating soft X-ray excess in phase with continuum emission may be the possible reason for not observing the dip at soft X-rays.

  16. Observation of the Talbot effect using broadband hard x-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.M.; Conley, R.; Cho, I. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Kang, H. C.; Liu, C.; Macrander, A. T.; Noh, D. Y.

    2010-11-15

    We demonstrated the Talbot effect using a broadband hard x-ray beam ({Delta}{lambda}/{lambda} {approx}1). The exit wave-field of the x-ray beam passing through a grating with a sub micro-meter scale period was successfully replicated and recorded at effective Talbot distance, Z{sub T}. The period was reduced to half at Z{sub T}/4 and 3/4Z{sub T}, and the phase reversal was observed at Z{sub T}/2. The propagating wave-field recorded on photoresists was consistent with a simulated result.

  17. THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE DETECTED SEYFERT 1 GALAXIES: X-RAY BROADBAND PROPERTIES AND WARM ABSORBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Lisa M.; Veilleux, Sylvain; McKernan, Barry; Kallman, T. R.

    2012-02-01

    We present results from an analysis of the broadband, 0.3-195 keV, X-ray spectra of 48 Seyfert 1-1.5 sources detected in the very hard X-rays with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). This sample is selected in an all-sky survey conducted in the 14-195 keV band. Therefore, our sources are largely unbiased toward both obscuration and host galaxy properties. Our detailed and uniform model fits to Suzaku/BAT and XMM-Newton/BAT spectra include the neutral absorption, direct power-law, reflected emission, soft excess, warm absorption, and narrow Fe I K{alpha} emission properties for the entire sample. We significantly detect O VII and O VIII edges in 52% of our sample. The strength of these detections is strongly correlated with the neutral column density measured in the spectrum. Among the strongest detections, X-ray grating and UV observations, where available, indicate outflowing material. The ionized column densities of sources with O VII and O VIII detections are clustered in a narrow range with N{sub warm} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}, while sources without strong detections have column densities of ionized gas an order of magnitude lower. Therefore, we note that sources without strong detections likely have warm ionized outflows present but at low column densities that are not easily probed with current X-ray observations. Sources with strong complex absorption have a strong soft excess, which may or may not be due to difficulties in modeling the complex spectra of these sources. Still, the detection of a flat {Gamma} {approx} 1 and a strong soft excess may allow us to infer the presence of strong absorption in low signal-to-noise active galactic nucleus spectra. Additionally, we include a useful correction from the Swift BAT luminosity to bolometric luminosity, based on a comparison of our spectral fitting results with published spectral energy distribution fits from 33 of our sources.

  18. Broadband short term X-ray variability of the quasar PDS 456

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M. T.; Tombesi, F.; Gofford, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recent 500 ks net exposure Suzaku observation, carried out in 2013, of the nearby (z=0.184) luminous (L_bol˜1047 erg s-1) quasar PDS 456 in which the X-ray flux was unusually low. The short term X-ray spectral variability has been interpreted in terms of variable absorption and/or intrinsic continuum changes. In the former scenario, the spectral variability is due to variable covering factors of two regions of partially covering absorbers. We find that these absorbers are characterised by an outflow velocity comparable to that of the highly ionised wind, i.e. ˜ 0.25 c, at the 99.9% (3.26σ) confidence level. This suggests that the partially absorbing clouds may be the denser clumpy part of the inhomogeneous wind. Following an obscuration event we obtained a direct estimate of the size of the X-ray emitting region, to be not larger than 20 R_g in PDS 456.

  19. Peculiar lapse of periodic eclipsing event at low-mass X-ray binary GRS 1747-312 during Suzaku observation in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saji, Shigetaka; Mori, Hideyuki; Matsumoto, Hironori; Dotani, Tadayasu; Iwai, Masachika; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ozaki, Masanobu; Tawara, Yuzuru

    2016-06-01

    GRS 1747-312 is a neutron star low-mass X-ray binary in the globular cluster Terzan 6, located at a distance of 9.5 kpc from the Earth. During its outbursts, periodic eclipses were known to occur. Observations for the outbursts were performed with Chandra in 2004 and Swift in 2013. XMM-Newton observed its quiescent state in 2004. In addition, when Suzaku observed it in 2009 as a part of Galactic center mapping observations, GRS 1747-312 was found to be in a low-luminosity state with Lx ˜ 1.2 × 1035 erg s-1. All of the observations except for XMM-Newton included the time of the eclipses predicted. We analyzed archival data of these observations. During the Chandra and Swift observations, we found clear flux decreases at the expected time of the eclipses. During the Suzaku observation, however, there were no clear signs for the predicted eclipses. The lapse of the predicted eclipses during the Suzaku observation can be explained by a contaminant source quite close to GRS 1747-312. When GRS 1747-312 is in the quiescent state, we observe X-rays from the contaminant source rather than from GRS 1747-312. However, we have no clear evidence for the contaminant source in our data. The lapse might also be explained by thick material (NH > 1024 cm-2) between the neutron star and the companion star, though the origin of the thick material is not clear.

  20. X-Ray and Optical Correlation of Type I Seyfert NGC 3516 Studied with Suzaku and Japanese Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Hirofumi; Minezaki, Takeo; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Morihana, Kumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Hikaru; Imai, Masataka; Moritani, Yuki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Takagi, Yuhei; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoichi; Yamada, Shin'ya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    From 2013 April to 2014 April, we performed X-ray and optical simultaneous monitoring of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. We employed Suzaku and five Japanese ground-based telescopes—the Pirka, Kiso Schmidt, Nayuta, MITSuME, and the Kanata telescopes. The Suzaku observations were conducted seven times with various intervals ranging from days or weeks to months, with an exposure of ˜50 ks each. The optical B-band observations not only covered those of Suzaku almost simultaneously, but also followed the source as frequently as possible. As a result, NGC 3516 was found in its faint phase with a 2-10 keV flux of 0.21-2.70 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2. The 2-45 keV X-ray spectra were composed of a dominant variable hard power-law (PL) continuum with a photon index of ˜1.7 and a non-relativistic reflection component with a prominent Fe-Kα emission line. Producing the B-band light curve by differential image photometry, we found that the B-band flux changed by ˜2.7 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2, which is comparable to the X-ray variation, and we detected a significant flux correlation between the hard PL component in X-rays and the B-band radiation, for the first time in NGC 3516. By examining their correlation, we found that the X-ray flux preceded that in the B band by {2.0}-0.6+0.7 days (1σ error). Although this result supports the X-ray reprocessing model, the derived lag is too large to be explained by the standard view, which assumes a “lamppost”-type X-ray illuminator located near a standard accretion disk. Our results are better explained by assuming a hot accretion flow and a truncated disk.

  1. X-Ray and Optical Correlation of Type I Seyfert NGC 3516 Studied with Suzaku and Japanese Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Hirofumi; Minezaki, Takeo; Watanabe, Makoto; Kokubo, Mitsuru; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Itoh, Ryosuke; Morihana, Kumiko; Saito, Yoshihiko; Nakao, Hikaru; Imai, Masataka; Moritani, Yuki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Uemura, Makoto; Kawabata, Koji; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Arai, Akira; Takagi, Yuhei; Morokuma, Tomoki; Doi, Mamoru; Itoh, Yoichi; Yamada, Shin’ya; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    From 2013 April to 2014 April, we performed X-ray and optical simultaneous monitoring of the type 1.5 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516. We employed Suzaku and five Japanese ground-based telescopes—the Pirka, Kiso Schmidt, Nayuta, MITSuME, and the Kanata telescopes. The Suzaku observations were conducted seven times with various intervals ranging from days or weeks to months, with an exposure of ∼50 ks each. The optical B-band observations not only covered those of Suzaku almost simultaneously, but also followed the source as frequently as possible. As a result, NGC 3516 was found in its faint phase with a 2–10 keV flux of 0.21–2.70 × 10‑11 erg s‑1 cm‑2. The 2–45 keV X-ray spectra were composed of a dominant variable hard power-law (PL) continuum with a photon index of ∼1.7 and a non-relativistic reflection component with a prominent Fe–Kα emission line. Producing the B-band light curve by differential image photometry, we found that the B-band flux changed by ∼2.7 × 10‑11 erg s‑1 cm‑2, which is comparable to the X-ray variation, and we detected a significant flux correlation between the hard PL component in X-rays and the B-band radiation, for the first time in NGC 3516. By examining their correlation, we found that the X-ray flux preceded that in the B band by {2.0}-0.6+0.7 days (1σ error). Although this result supports the X-ray reprocessing model, the derived lag is too large to be explained by the standard view, which assumes a “lamppost”-type X-ray illuminator located near a standard accretion disk. Our results are better explained by assuming a hot accretion flow and a truncated disk.

  2. A clumpy stellar wind and luminosity-dependent cyclotron line revealed by the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Markowitz, Alex; Fürst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-09-01

    We present results from the first Suzaku observation of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 1538–522. The broadband spectral coverage of Suzaku allows for a detailed spectral analysis, characterizing the cyclotron resonance scattering feature at 23.0 ± 0.4 keV and the iron Kα line at 6.426 ± 0.008 keV, as well as placing limits on the strengths of the iron Kβ line and the iron K edge. We track the evolution of the spectral parameters both in time and in luminosity, notably finding a significant positive correlation between cyclotron line energy and luminosity. A dip and spike in the light curve is shown to be associated with an order-of-magnitude increase in column density along the line of sight, as well as significant variation in the underlying continuum, implying the accretion of a overdense region of a clumpy stellar wind. We also present a phase-resolved analysis, with most spectral parameters of interest showing significant variation with phase. Notably, both the cyclotron line energy and the iron Kα line intensity vary significantly with phase, with the iron line intensity significantly out of phase with the pulse profile. We discuss the implications of these findings in the context of recent work in the areas of accretion column physics and cyclotron resonance scattering feature formation.

  3. Broad-band soft x-ray diagnostic instruments at the LLNL Novette laser facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tirsell, K.G.; Lee, P.H.Y.; Nilson, D.G.; Medecki, H.

    1983-09-15

    Complementary broad-band instruments have been developed to measure time dependent, absolute soft x-ray spectra at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Nd glass laser irradiation facilities. Absolute flux measurements of x rays emitted from laser-produced plasmas are important for understanding laser absorption and energy transport. We will describe two new 10-channel XRD systems that have been installed at the LLNL Novette facility for use in the 0.15- to 1.5-keV range. Since XRD channel time response is limited by available oscilloscope performance to 120 ps, a soft x-ray streak camera has been developed for better time resolution (20 ps) and greater dynamic range (approx.10/sup 3/) in the same x-ray energy region. Using suitable filters, grazing incidence mirrors, and a gold or cesium-iodide transmission cathode, this streak camera instrument has been installed at Novette to provide one broad and four relatively narrow channels. It can also be used in a single channel, spatially discriminating mode by means of pinhole imaging. The complementary nature of these instruments has been enhanced by locating them in close proximity and matching their channel energy responses. As an example of the use of these instruments, we present results from Novette 2..omega..(0.53 ..mu..m) gold disk irradiations at 1 ns and 10/sup 14/ to 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/.

  4. IGR J17544-2619 IN DEPTH WITH SUZAKU: DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR CLUMPY WINDS IN A SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rampy, Rachel A.; Smith, David M.; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2009-12-10

    We present direct evidence for dense clumps of matter in the companion wind in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) binary. This is seen as a brief period of enhanced absorption during one of the bright, fast flares that distinguish these systems. The object under study was IGR J17544-2619, and a total of 236 ks of data were accumulated with the Japanese satellite Suzaku. The activity in this period spans a dynamic range of almost 10{sup 4} in luminosity and gives a detailed look at SFXT behavior.

  5. IGR J17544-2619 in Depth With Suzaku: Direct Evidence for Clumpy Winds in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampy, Rachel A.; Smith, David M.; Negueruela, Ignacio

    2009-12-01

    We present direct evidence for dense clumps of matter in the companion wind in a Supergiant Fast X-ray Transient (SFXT) binary. This is seen as a brief period of enhanced absorption during one of the bright, fast flares that distinguish these systems. The object under study was IGR J17544-2619, and a total of 236 ks of data were accumulated with the Japanese satellite Suzaku. The activity in this period spans a dynamic range of almost 104 in luminosity and gives a detailed look at SFXT behavior.

  6. Probing the mysteries of the X-ray binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V; however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85{sub −0.05}{sup +0.04} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  7. Probing the Mysteries of the X-Ray Binary 4U 1210-64 with ASM, PCA, MAXI, BAT, and Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Joel B.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Mukai, Koji; Pottschmidt, Katja

    2014-10-01

    4U 1210-64 has been postulated to be a high-mass X-ray binary powered by the Be mechanism. X-ray observations with Suzaku, the ISS Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI), and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer Proportional Counter Array (PCA) and All Sky Monitor (ASM) provide detailed temporal and spectral information on this poorly understood source. Long-term ASM and MAXI observations show distinct high and low states and the presence of a 6.7101 ± 0.0005 day modulation, interpreted as the orbital period. Folded light curves reveal a sharp dip, interpreted as an eclipse. To determine the nature of the mass donor, the predicted eclipse half-angle was calculated as a function of inclination angle for several stellar spectral types. The eclipse half-angle is not consistent with a mass donor of spectral type B5 V however, stars with spectral types B0 V or B0-5 III are possible. The best-fit spectral model consists of a power law with index Γ = 1.85^{+0.04}_{-0.05} and a high-energy cutoff at 5.5 ± 0.2 keV modified by an absorber that fully covers the source as well as partially covering absorption. Emission lines from S XVI Kα, Fe Kα, Fe XXV Kα, and Fe XXVI Kα were observed in the Suzaku spectra. Out of eclipse, the Fe Kα line flux was strongly correlated with unabsorbed continuum flux, indicating that the Fe I emission is the result of fluorescence of cold dense material near the compact object. The Fe I feature is not detected during eclipse, further supporting an origin close to the compact object.

  8. A Suzaku Study of Ejecta Structure and Origin of Hard X-ray Emission in the Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2012-01-01

    We report an X-ray study of the evolved Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1S6.2+S.7 based on six pointing observations with Suzaku. The remnant's large extent (100' in diameter) allows us to investigate its radial structure in the northwestern and eastern directions from the apparent center. The X-ray spectra. were well fit with a two-component non-equilibrium ionization model representing the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM) and the metal-rich ejecta. We found prominent central concentrations of Si, S and Fe from the ejecta component; the lighter elements of O, Ne and Mg were distributed more uniformly. The temperature of the ISM component suggests a slow shock (610-960 km/s), hence the remnant's age is estimated to be 7,000-15,000 yr, assuming its distance to be approx. 1.1 kpc. G1S6.2+5.7 has also been thought to emit hard, non-thermal X-rays, despite being considerably older than any other such remnant. In response to a recent discovery of a background cluster of galaxies (2XMM J045637.2+522411), we carefully excluded its contribution, and reexamined the origin of the hard X-ray emission. We found that the residual hard X-ray emission is consistent with the expected level of the cosmic X-ray background. Thus, no robust evidence for the non-thermal emission was obtained from G156.2+5.7. These results are consistent with the picture of an evolved SNR.

  9. The Broadband XMM-Newton and NuSTAR X-Ray Spectra of Two Ultraluminous X-Ray Sources in the Galaxy IC 342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Bachetti, Matteo; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Barret, Didier; Miller, Jon M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn C.; Craig, William W.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Stern, Daniel; Webb, Natalie A.; Zhang, William W.

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ~7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04+0.08-0.06 × 1040 erg s-1 for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 1039 erg s-1 for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  10. Toward broad-band x-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance in longitudinal geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Ollefs, K.; Meckenstock, R.; Spoddig, D.; Römer, F. M.; Hassel, Ch.; Schöppner, Ch.; Farle, M.; Ney, V.; Ney, A.

    2015-06-14

    An ultrahigh-vacuum-compatible setup for broad-band X-ray detected ferromagnetic resonance (XFMR) in longitudinal geometry is introduced which relies on a low-power, continuous-wave excitation of the ferromagnetic sample. A simultaneous detection of the conventional ferromagnetic resonance via measuring the reflected microwave power and the XFMR signal of the X-ray absorption is possible. First experiments on the Fe and Co L{sub 3}-edges of a permalloy film covered with Co nanostripes as well as the Fe and Ni K-edges of a permalloy film are presented and discussed. Two different XFMR signals are found, one of which is independent of the photon energy and therefore does not provide element-selective information. The other much weaker signal is element-selective, and the dynamic magnetic properties could be detected for Fe and Co separately. The dependence of the latter XFMR signal on the photon helicity of the synchrotron light is found to be distinct from the usual x-ray magnetic circular dichroism effect.

  11. A Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope spectrum of the massive X-ray binary X Persei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Eric M.; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Jahoda, Keith; Marshall, Frank; Petre, Robert; Boldt, Elihu; Mushotzky, Richard; Swank, Jean; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Smale, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Broad Band X-Ray Telescope, covering the 0.3-12 keV bandpass with moderate spectral resolution, observed the Be/X-ray binary X Per in 1990 December during the Astro-l mission on the Space Shuttle Columbia. The data obtained are the best to date to search for lines and edges. The data are well fitted by a power-law spectrum with a high-energy cutoff. A low value for the high-energy cutoff is found, implying a slightly weaker magnetic field strength for the X-ray pulsar. No iron line is present at about 6.5 keV with an equivalent width greater than 30-40 eV. The BBXRT observation corresponded to the 'off' state of X Per's recent 'phase change'.

  12. A search for a keV signature of radiatively decaying dark matter with Suzaku XIS observations of the X-ray diffuse background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, Norio; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2016-06-01

    We performed the deepest search for an X-ray emission line at between 0.5 and 7 keV from non-baryonic dark matter by the Suzaku XIS. Dark matter associated with the Milky Way was selected as the target to obtain the best signal-to-noise ratio. From the Suzaku archive, we selected 187 data sets of blank-sky regions that were dominated by the X-ray diffuse background. The data sets were from 2005 to 2013. The instrumental responses were adjusted by multiple calibration data sets of the Crab Nebula. We also improved the technique of subtracting lines of instrumental origin. These energy spectra were well described by X-ray emission due to charge exchange around the Solar System, hot plasma in and around the Milky Way, and the superposition of extra-galactic point sources. A signal of a narrow emission-line was searched for, and the significance of detection was evaluated in consideration of the blind search method (the Look-elsewhere Effect). Our results exhibited no significant detection of an emission line feature from dark matter. The 3 σ upper limit for the emission line intensity between 1 and 7 keV was ˜ 10-2 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1, or ˜ 5 × 10-4 photons cm-2 s-1 sr-1 per M⊙ pc-2, assuming a dark matter distribution with the Galactic rotation curve. The parameters of sterile neutrinos as candidates of dark-matter were also constrained.

  13. Suzaku Observation of Strong Fluorescent Iron Line Emission from the Young Stellar Object V1647 Ori during Its New X-ray Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Grosso, Nicolas; Kastner, Joel H.; Weintraub, David A.; Richmond, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Suzaku X-ray satellite observed the young stellar object V1647 Ori on 2008 October 8 during the new mass accretion outburst reported in August 2008. During the 87 ksec observation with a net exposure of 40 ks, V1647 Ori showed a. high level of X-ray emission with a gradual decrease in flux by a factor of 5 and then displayed an abrupt flux increase by an order of magnitude. Such enhanced X-ray variability was also seen in XMM-Newton observations in 2004 and 2005 during the 2003-2005 outburst, but has rarely been observed for other young stellar objects. The spectrum clearly displays emission from Helium-like iron, which is a signature of hot plasma (kT approx.5 keV). It also shows a fluorescent iron Ka line with a remarkably large equivalent width of approx. 600 eV. Such a, large equivalent width indicates that a part of the incident X-ray emission that irradiates the circumstellar material and/or the stellar surface is hidden from our line of sight. XMM-Newton spectra during the 2003-2005 outburst did not show a strong fluorescent iron Ka line ; so that the structure of the circumstellar gas very close to the stellar core that absorbs and re-emits X-ray emission from the central object may have changed in between 2005 and 2008. This phenomenon may be related to changes in the infrared morphology of McNeil's nebula between 2004 and 2008.

  14. OTELO SURVEY: DEEP BVRI BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY OF THE GROTH STRIP. II. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMITTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Povic, M.; Perez GarcIa, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Castaneda, H.; Lorenzo, M. Fernandez; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Alfaro, E.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J. E-mail: miguel.sanchez@sciops.esa.in

    2009-11-20

    The Groth field is one of the sky regions that will be targeted by the OSIRIS Tunable Filter Emission Line Object survey in the optical 820 nm and 920 nm atmospheric windows. In the present paper, public Chandra X-ray data with total exposure time of 200 ks are analyzed and combined with optical broadband data of the Groth field, in order to study a set of optical structural parameters of the X-ray emitters and its relation with X-ray properties. To this aim, we processed the raw, public X-ray data using the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations, and determined and analyzed different structural parameters, in order to produce a morphological classification of X-ray sources. We present the morphology of 340 X-ray emitters with optical counterpart detected. Objects have been classified by X-ray type using a diagnostic diagram relating X-ray-to-optical ratio (X/O) to hardness ratio. We did not find any clear correlation between X-ray and morphological types. We analyzed the angular clustering of X-ray sources with optical counterpart using two-point correlation functions. A significant positive angular clustering was obtained from a preliminary analysis of four subsamples of the X-ray sources catalog. The clustering signal of the optically extended counterparts is similar to that of strongly clustered populations like red and very red galaxies, suggesting that the environment plays an important role in active galactic nuclei phenomena. Finally, we combined optical structural parameters with other X-ray and optical properties, and we confirmed an anticorrelation between the X/O ratio and the Abraham concentration index, which might suggest that early-type galaxies have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  15. Broadband Suzaku Observations of IGR J16207-5129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, A.; Tomsick, J. A.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Pottschmidt, K.; Walter, R.

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of IGRJ16207-5129 is presented based on observations taken with Suzaku. The data set represents approximately 80 ks of effective exposure time in a broad energy range between 0.5 and 60 keV, including unprecedented spectral sensitivity above 15 keV. The average source spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law in which we measured a large intrinsic absorption of N(sub H) = (16.2 (sup +0.9)(sub -1.1) x 10(sup 22) per square centimeter. This confirms that IGRJ16207-5129 belongs to the class of absorbed HMXBs. We were able to constrain the cutoff energy at 19(sup +8)(sub -4)keV which argues in favor of a neutron star as the primary. Our observation includes an epoch in which the source count rate is compatible with no flux suggesting a possible eclipse. We discuss the nature of this source in light of these and of other recent results.

  16. Broad-Band Spectroscopy of Hercules X-1 with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asami, Fumi; Enoto, Teruaki; Iwakiri, Wataru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Mihara, Tatehiro; Nagase, Fumiaki

    2014-01-01

    Hercules X-1 was observed with Suzaku in the main-on state from 2005 to 2010. The 0.4- 100 keV wide-band spectra obtained in four observations showed a broad hump around 4-9 keV in addition to narrow Fe lines at 6.4 and 6.7 keV. The hump was seen in all the four observations regardless of the selection of the continuum models. Thus it is considered a stable and intrinsic spectral feature in Her X-1. The broad hump lacked a sharp structure like an absorption edge. Thus it was represented by two different spectral models: an ionized partial covering or an additional broad line at 6.5 keV. The former required a persistently existing ionized absorber, whose origin was unclear. In the latter case, the Gaussian fitting of the 6.5-keV line needs a large width of sigma = 1.0-1.5 keV and a large equivalent width of 400-900 eV. If the broad line originates from Fe fluorescence of accreting matter, its large width may be explained by the Doppler broadening in the accretion flow. However, the large equivalent width may be inconsistent with a simple accretion geometry.

  17. Spectral and timing properties of the black hole X-ray binary H1743–322 in the low/hard state studied with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Shidatsu, M.; Ueda, Y.; Hori, T.; Yamada, S.; Done, C.; Yamaoka, K.; Kubota, A.; Nagayama, T.; Moritani, Y.

    2014-07-10

    We report on the results from Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole X-ray binary H1743–322 in the low/hard state during its outburst in 2012 October. We appropriately take into account the effects of dust scattering to accurately analyze the X-ray spectra. The time-averaged spectra in the 1-200 keV band are dominated by a hard power-law component of a photon index of ≈1.6 with a high-energy cutoff at ≈60 keV, which is well described with the Comptonization of the disk emission by the hot corona. We estimate the inner disk radius from the multi-color disk component, and find that it is 1.3-2.3 times larger than the radius in the high/soft state. This suggests that the standard disk was not extended to the innermost stable circular orbit. A reflection component from the disk is detected with R = Ω/2π ≈ 0.6 (Ω is the solid angle). We also successfully estimate the stable disk component independent of the time-averaged spectral modeling by analyzing short-term spectral variability on a ∼1 s timescale. A weak low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation at 0.1-0.2 Hz is detected, whose frequency is found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity and photon index. This result may be explained by the evolution of the disk truncation radius.

  18. X-ray follow-ups of TeV unID sources using Suzaku--HESS J1745--303--

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Kohri, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Hironori; Wagner, Stefan; Puehlhofer, Gerd; Kosack, Karl

    2008-12-24

    H.E.S.S. TeV gamma-ray telescope discovered many new sources on the Galactic plane. They should be Galactic particle accelerators but their nature is still unknown since they have few information in other wavelength. Jp-US X-ray telescope Suzaku has made follow-up observations for several TeV unID sources, using the low and stable background and the large effective area. The results are full of varieties; compact counterparts (HESS J1804-216, HESS J1837-609) and diffuse counterparts (HESS J1614-518, CTB 37B). Most interesting results are no-detection even with long exposure (HESS J1616-508, HESS J1745-303). In this talk, we present one of the most interesting result, HESS J1745-303, which is located on near the Galactic center.

  19. THE BROADBAND XMM-NEWTON AND NuSTAR X-RAY SPECTRA OF TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE GALAXY IC 342

    SciTech Connect

    Rana, Vikram; Harrison, Fiona A.; Walton, Dominic J.; Furst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A.; Miller, Jon M.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn C.; Hailey, Charles J.; Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W.; Stern, Daniel

    2015-02-01

    We present results for two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), IC 342 X-1 and IC 342 X-2, using two epochs of XMM-Newton and NuSTAR observations separated by ∼7 days. We observe little spectral or flux variability above 1 keV between epochs, with unabsorbed 0.3-30 keV luminosities being 1.04{sub −0.06}{sup +0.08}×10{sup 40} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-1 and 7.40 ± 0.20 × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup –1} for IC 342 X-2, so that both were observed in a similar, luminous state. Both sources have a high absorbing column in excess of the Galactic value. Neither source has a spectrum consistent with a black hole binary in low/hard state, and both ULXs exhibit strong curvature in their broadband X-ray spectra. This curvature rules out models that invoke a simple reflection-dominated spectrum with a broadened iron line and no cutoff in the illuminating power-law continuum. X-ray spectrum of IC 342 X-1 can be characterized by a soft disk-like blackbody component at low energies and a cool, optically thick Comptonization continuum at high energies, but unique physical interpretation of the spectral components remains challenging. The broadband spectrum of IC 342 X-2 can be fit by either a hot (3.8 keV) accretion disk or a Comptonized continuum with no indication of a seed photon population. Although the seed photon component may be masked by soft excess emission unlikely to be associated with the binary system, combined with the high absorption column, it is more plausible that the broadband X-ray emission arises from a simple thin blackbody disk component. Secure identification of the origin of the spectral components in these sources will likely require broadband spectral variability studies.

  20. Relativistically broadened iron line in the Suzaku observation of the neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1705-44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Young, A. J.

    2009-10-01

    The X-ray spectra of accreting compact objects often exhibit discrete emission features associated with fluorescent emission in the accretion disc, the strongest of which is the Fe Kα fluorescence line at 6.4-6.97keV. These reflection features are amongst the best tools in the study of the inner region of accretion flow around a compact object. Here, we report on three Suzaku observations of the neutron star X-ray binary 4U 1705-44 where a broad, skewed Fe Kα emission line is clearly visible above the continuum. By using a relativistically blurred reflection model, we find that in 4U 1705-44 the inner disc radius extends down to rin = 10.5+1.0-1.7GM/c2 and is at an angle of 29.8+1.1-1.0 deg to the line of sight. Furthermore, we find that the level of ionization in the surface layers of the accretion disc changes by two orders of magnitude between the three observations, however the inner radius obtained from the line profile remains stable.

  1. NUSTAR and SUZAKU X-ray spectroscopy of NGC 4151: Evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk

    SciTech Connect

    Keck, M. L.; Brenneman, L. W.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dauser, T.; Elvis, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Fuerst, F.; García, J.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Madejski, G.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zoghbi, A.

    2015-06-15

    We present X-ray timing and spectral analyses of simultaneous 150 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Suzaku X-ray observations of the Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151. We disentangle the continuum emission, absorption, and reflection properties of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) by applying inner accretion disk reflection and absorption-dominated models. With a time-averaged spectral analysis, we find strong evidence for relativistic reflection from the inner accretion disk. We find that relativistic emission arises from a highly ionized inner accretion disk with a steep emissivity profile, which suggests an intense, compact illuminating source. We find a preliminary, near-maximal black hole spin $a\\gt 0.9$ accounting for statistical and systematic modeling errors. We find a relatively moderate reflection fraction with respect to predictions for the lamp post geometry, in which the illuminating corona is modeled as a point source. Through a time-resolved spectral analysis, we find that modest coronal and inner disk reflection (IDR) flux variation drives the spectral variability during the observations. As a result, we discuss various physical scenarios for the IDR model and we find that a compact corona is consistent with the observed features.

  2. Modulations of broad-band radio continua and X-ray emissions in the large X-ray flare on 03 November 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauphin, C.; Vilmer, N.; Lüthi, T.; Trottet, G.; Krucker, S.; Magun, A.

    The GOES X3.9 flare on 03 November 2003 at ˜09:45 UT was observed from metric to millimetric wavelengths by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH), the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN) and by radio instruments operated by the Institute of Applied Physics (University of Bern). This flare was simultaneously observed and imaged up to several 100 keV by the RHESSI experiment. The time profile of the X-ray emission above 100 keV and of the radio emissions shows two main parts, impulsive emission lasting about 3 min and long duration emission (partially observed by RHESSI) separated in time by 4 min. We shall focus here on the modulations of the broad-band radio continua and of the X-ray emissions observed in the second part of the flare. The observations suggest that gyrosynchrotron emission is the prevailing emission mechanism even at decimetric wavelengths for the broad-band radio emission. Following this interpretation, we deduce the density and the magnetic field of the decimetric sources and briefly comment on possible interpretations of the modulations.

  3. Suzaku Observations of Thermal and Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission from the Middle-Aged Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Petre, Robert; Hwang, Una; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We present results from X-ray analysis of a Galactic middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) G156.2+5.7 which is bright and largely extended in X-ray wavelengths, showing a clear circular shape (radius approx.50'). Using the Suzaku satellite, we observed this SNR in three pointings; partially covering the northwestern (NW) rim, the eastern (E) rim, and the central portion of this SNR. In the NW rim and the central portion, we confirm that the X-ray spectra consist of soft and hard-tail emission, while in the E rim we find no significant hard-tail emission. The soft emission is well fitted by either a one-component or two-component non-equilibrium ionization (NEI) model. In the NW and E rims, a one-component (the swept-up interstellar medium) NEI model well represents the soft emission. On the other hand, in the central portion, a two-component (the interstellar medium and the metal-rich ejecta) NEI model fits the soft emission better than the one-component NEI model from a statistical point of view. The relative abundances in the ejecta component suggest that G156.2+5.7 is a remnant from a core-collapse SN explosion whose progenitor mass is less than 15 Solar Mass. The origin of the hard-tail emission detected in the NW rim and the central portion of the SNR is highly likely non-thermal synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. In the NW rim, the relativistic electrons seems to be accelerated by a forward shock with a slow velocity of APPROX.500 km/sec.

  4. Ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard x-ray driven by laser-produced energetic electron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Yin; Shen, Baifei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Lingang; Xu, Jiancai; Yu, Yahong; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Yi, Longqing; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2013-09-15

    We propose a new method of obtaining a compact ultra-bright, ultra-broadband hard X-ray source. This X-ray source has a high peak brightness in the order of 10{sup 22} photons/(s mm{sup 2} mrad{sup 2} 0.1\\%BW), an ultrashort duration (10 fs), and a broadband spectrum (flat distribution from 0.1 MeV to 4 MeV), and thus has wide-ranging potential applications, such as in ultrafast Laue diffraction experiments. In our scheme, laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) provide driven electron beams. A foil target is placed oblique to the beam direction so that the target normal sheath field (TNSF) is used to provide a bending force. Using this TNSF-kick scheme, we can fully utilize the advantages of current LPAs, including their high charge, high energy, and low emittance.

  5. XMM-Newton and Suzaku X-Ray Shadowing Measurements of the Solar Wind Charge Exchange, Local Bubble, and Galactic Halo Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2015-07-01

    We present results from a sample of XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of interstellar clouds that cast shadows in the soft X-ray background (SXRB)—the first uniform analysis of such a sample from these missions. By fitting to the on- and off-shadow spectra, we separated the foreground and Galactic halo components of the SXRB. We tested different foreground models—two solar wind charge exchange (SWCX) models and a Local Bubble (LB) model. We also examined different abundance tables. We found that Anders & Grevesse abundances, commonly used in previous SXRB studies, may result in overestimated foreground brightnesses and halo temperatures. We also found that assuming a single solar wind ionization temperature for a SWCX model can lead to unreliable results. We compared our measurements of the foreground emission with predictions of the SWCX emission from a smooth solar wind, finding only partial agreement. Using available observation-specific SWCX predictions and various plausible assumptions, we placed an upper limit on the LB's O vii intensity of ∼0.8 {{photons}} {{{cm}}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{{sr}}}-1 (90% confidence). Comparing the halo results obtained with SWCX and LB foreground models implies that, if the foreground is dominated by SWCX and is brighter than ∼1.5× {10}-12 {{erg}} {{{cm}}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{{deg}}}-2 (0.4–1.0 {{keV}}), then using an LB foreground model may bias the halo temperature upward and the 0.5–2.0 {{keV}} surface brightness downward by ∼(0.2-0.3)× {10}6 {{K}} and ∼(1-2)× {10}-12 {{erg}} {{{cm}}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 {{{deg}}}-2, respectively. Similarly, comparing results from different observatories implies that there may be uncertainties in the halo temperature and surface brightness of up to ∼0.2× {10}6 {{K}} and ∼25%, respectively, in addition to the statistical uncertainties. These uncertainties or biases may limit the ability of X-ray measurements to discriminate between Galactic halo models.

  6. Strength of shock-loaded single-crystal tantalum [100] determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction.

    PubMed

    Comley, A J; Maddox, B R; Rudd, R E; Prisbrey, S T; Hawreliak, J A; Orlikowski, D A; Peterson, S C; Satcher, J H; Elsholz, A J; Park, H-S; Remington, B A; Bazin, N; Foster, J M; Graham, P; Park, N; Rosen, P A; Rothman, S R; Higginbotham, A; Suggit, M; Wark, J S

    2013-03-15

    The strength of shock-loaded single crystal tantalum [100] has been experimentally determined using in situ broadband x-ray Laue diffraction to measure the strain state of the compressed crystal, and elastic constants calculated from first principles. The inferred strength reaches 35 GPa at a shock pressure of 181 GPa and is in excellent agreement with a multiscale strength model [N. R. Barton et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 073501 (2011)], which employs a hierarchy of simulation methods over a range of length scales to calculate strength from first principles.

  7. Two-dimensional stimulated resonance Raman spectroscopy of molecules with broadband x-ray pulses

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Jason D.; Zhang, Yu; Healion, Daniel; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    Expressions for the two-dimensional stimulated x-ray Raman spectroscopy (2D-SXRS) signal obtained using attosecond x-ray pulses are derived. The 1D- and 2D-SXRS signals are calculated for trans-N-methyl acetamide (NMA) with broad bandwidth (181 as, 14.2 eV FWHM) pulses tuned to the oxygen and nitrogen K-edges. Crosspeaks in 2D signals reveal electronic Franck-Condon overlaps between valence orbitals and relaxed orbitals in the presence of the core-hole. PMID:22583220

  8. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of a QSO sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, D. M.; Marshall, F. E.

    1983-01-01

    A sample of 25 QSOs was used to investigate the average spectrum between the soft X-ray energy band of the Einstein Observatory image proportional counter, and the higher energy band of the HEAO 1 A2 experiment. The spectrum is similar to thoe exhibited by Seyfert galaxies and narrow emission line galaxies above 2 keV. The spectrum is soft enough that if these objects are typical of the higher redshift, more radio-quiet QSOs, then it is possible to exclude QSOs as being the dominant origin of the diffuse X-ray background.

  9. Broadband Ultrahigh-Resolution Spectroscopy of Particle-Induced X Rays: Extending the Limits of Nondestructive Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palosaari, M. R. J.; Käyhkö, M.; Kinnunen, K. M.; Laitinen, M.; Julin, J.; Malm, J.; Sajavaara, T.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J.; Reintsema, C.; Swetz, D.; Schmidt, D.; Ullom, J. N.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2016-08-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) based on x-ray emission is widely used, for example, in the semiconductor and concrete industries. Here, we demonstrate significant quantitative and qualitative improvements in broadband x-ray NDA by combining particle-induced emission with detection based on superconducting microcalorimeter arrays. We show that the technique offers great promise in the elemental analysis of thin-film and bulk samples, especially in the difficult cases where tens of different elements with nearly overlapping emission lines have to be identified down to trace concentrations. We demonstrate the efficiency and resolving capabilities by spectroscopy of several complex multielement samples in the energy range 1-10 keV, some of which have a trace amount of impurities not detectable with standard silicon drift detectors. The ability to distinguish the chemical environment of an element is also demonstrated by measuring the intensity differences and chemical shifts of the characteristics x-ray peaks of titanium compounds. In particular, we report measurements of the K α /K β intensity ratio of thin films of TiN and measurements of Ti K α satellite peak intensities in various Ti thin-film compounds. We also assess the detection limits of the technique, comment on detection limits possible in the future, and discuss possible applications.

  10. BROADBAND X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE GAMMA-RAY BINARY 1FGL J1018.6–5856

    SciTech Connect

    An, Hongjun; Bhalerao, Varun; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Tomsick, John A.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2015-06-20

    We report on NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift observations of the gamma-ray binary 1FGL J1018.6–5856. We measure the orbital period to be 16.544 ± 0.008 days using Swift data spanning 1900 days. The orbital period is different from the 2011 gamma-ray measurement which was used in the previous X-ray study of An et al. using ∼400 days of Swift data, but is consistent with a new gamma-ray solution reported in 2014. The light curve folded on the new period is qualitatively similar to that reported previously, having a spike at phase 0 and broad sinusoidal modulation. The X-ray flux enhancement at phase 0 occurs more regularly in time than was previously suggested. A spiky structure at this phase seems to be a persistent feature, although there is some variability. Furthermore, we find that the source flux clearly correlates with the spectral hardness throughout all orbital phases, and that the broadband X-ray spectra measured with NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, and Swift are well fit with an unbroken power-law model. This spectrum suggests that the system may not be accretion-powered.

  11. Coordinated Broadband Monitoring of Variable X-Ray Sources in NGC 1313

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, Markus

    2005-01-01

    The nearby (3.7 Mpc) late-type barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313 contains three ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) that are offset from the center of the galaxy. Two of these have been associated with optical ionized nebulae, and their spectral and variability properties indicate that they contain black holes. The third ULX is SN 1978K, which was the second supernova to be detected and recognized as a supernova from its radio emission, and the first from its X-rays. In this project, we have started a long-term program of X-ray (XMM-Newton), optical (VLT), and radio (ATCA) observations of these and other sources in NGC 1313. This program has been continued through Cycle 3. XMM-Newton observations in cycle 2 consisted of eight 10 ksec priority A monitoring observations between 2003 November 25 and 2004 January 16. The data obtained from these observations have been fully analyzed, and the results have been published in Smith et al. (2004). The results included the identification of the optical counterpart of ULX X-2, and firm upper limits for the radio counterparts of ULXs X-1 and X-2. Previously unknown X-ray spectral variability has been detected in ULXs X-1 and X-2. For SNR 1978K, we were able to extend and refine the X-ray decay light curve. In tandem, we developed a semi-analytical model for the spectral variability of microquasar jets, which will be refined and applied to the combined results from our cycle 2 + 3 observations after the cycle-3 data have been fully analyzed.

  12. The broad-band x ray spectral variability of Mkn 841

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, I. M.; Nandra, K.; Fabian, A. C.; Turner, T. J.; Done, C.; Day, C. S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a detailed spectral analysis of four X-ray observations of the luminous Seyfert 1.5 galaxy Mkn 841 performed using the EXOSAT and Ginga satellites over the period June 1984 to July 1990 are reported. Preliminary results from a short ROSAT PSPC observation of Mkn 841 in July 1990 are also presented. Variability is apparent in both the soft (0.1-1.0 keV) and medium (1-20 keV) energy bands. Above 1 keV, the spectra are adequately modelled by a power-law with a strong emission line of equivalent width approximately 450 eV. The energy of the line (approximately 6.4 keV) is indicative of K-shell fluorescence from neutral iron, leading to the interpretation that the line arises via X-ray illumination of cold material surrounding the source. In addition to the flux variability, the continuum shape also changes in a dramatic fashion, with variations in the apparent photon index Delta(Gamma) approximately 0.6. The large equivalent width of the emission line clearly indicates a strongly enhanced reflection component in the source, compared to other Seyferts observed with Ginga. The spectral changes are interpreted in terms of a variable power-law continuum superimposed on a flatter reflection component. For one Ginga observation, the reflected flux appears to dominate the medium energy X-ray emission, resulting in an unusually flat slope (Gamma approximately 1.0). The soft X-ray excess is found to be highly variable by a factor approximately 10. These variations are not correlated with the hard flux, but it seems likely that the soft component arises via reprocessing of the hard X-rays. We find no evidence for intrinsic absorption, with the equivalent hydrogen column density constrained to be less than or equal to few x 10(exp 20) cm(exp -2). The implications of these results for physical models for the emission regions in this and other X-ray bright Seyferts are briefly discussed.

  13. X-Ray Emitting GHz-Peaked Spectrum Galaxies: Testing a Dynamical-Radiative Model with Broad-Band Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Ostorero, L.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Diaferio, A.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M.C.; Wagner, S.J.; /Heidelberg Observ.

    2010-06-07

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the GPS spectral energy distribution (SED) with the source expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broad-band SEDs of a sample of eleven X-ray emitting GPS galaxies with Compact-Symmetric-Object (CSO) morphology, and show that: (i) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism; (ii) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N{sub H}) and radio (N{sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  14. X-RAY-EMITTING GHz-PEAKED-SPECTRUM GALAXIES: TESTING A DYNAMICAL-RADIATIVE MODEL WITH BROADBAND SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ostorero, L.; Diaferio, A.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Kowalska, I.; Cheung, C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Begelman, M. C.; Wagner, S. J.

    2010-06-01

    In a dynamical-radiative model we recently developed to describe the physics of compact, GHz-peaked-spectrum (GPS) sources, the relativistic jets propagate across the inner, kpc-sized region of the host galaxy, while the electron population of the expanding lobes evolves and emits synchrotron and inverse-Compton (IC) radiation. Interstellar-medium gas clouds engulfed by the expanding lobes, and photoionized by the active nucleus, are responsible for the radio spectral turnover through free-free absorption (FFA) of the synchrotron photons. The model provides a description of the evolution of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of GPS sources with their expansion, predicting significant and complex high-energy emission, from the X-ray to the {gamma}-ray frequency domain. Here, we test this model with the broadband SEDs of a sample of 11 X-ray-emitting GPS galaxies with compact-symmetric-object morphology, and show that (1) the shape of the radio continuum at frequencies lower than the spectral turnover is indeed well accounted for by the FFA mechanism and (2) the observed X-ray spectra can be interpreted as non-thermal radiation produced via IC scattering of the local radiation fields off the lobe particles, providing a viable alternative to the thermal, accretion-disk-dominated scenario. We also show that the relation between the hydrogen column densities derived from the X-ray (N {sub H}) and radio (N {sub HI}) data of the sources is suggestive of a positive correlation, which, if confirmed by future observations, would provide further support to our scenario of high-energy emitting lobes.

  15. The broad-band X-ray spectrum of a QSO sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Worrall, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A sample of 25 QSOs is used to investigate the average spectrum between the soft X-ray energy band of the Einstein Observatory Image Proportional Counter, and the higher energy band of the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment. Assuming a power-law spectrum, a 90 percent confidence range is found for alpha(F(v) approximately v to the -alpha of 0.83 (+0.32, -0.22) for N(H) lower than 3 x 10 to the 20th atoms/sq cm. Higher column densities for QSOs are not anticipated, but if N(H) were about 10 to the 22nd atoms/sq cm, then alpha would be greater then 0.97. The present spectrum is similar to those exhibited by Seyfert galaxies and narrow emission line galaxies above 2 keV. The spectrum is soft enough that, if these objects are typical of the higher redshift, more radio-quiet QSOs, then QSOs can be excluded as being the dominant origin of the diffuse X-ray background.

  16. Development of broadband X-ray interference lithography large area exposure system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chaofan; Wu, Yanqing; Zhu, Fangyuan; Yang, Shumin; Liu, Haigang; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Liansheng; Tai, Renzhong

    2016-04-01

    The single-exposure patterned area is about several 102 × 102 μm2 which is mainly decided by the mask area in multi-beam X-ray interference lithography (XIL). The exposure area is difficult to stitch to a larger one because the patterned area is surrounded by 0th diffraction exposure areas. To block the 0th diffraction beams precisely and effectively, a new large area exposure technology is developed in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility by applying an order-sorting aperture with a new in situ monitoring scheme in the XIL system. The patterned area could be stitched readily up to several square centimeters and even bigger by this technology.

  17. Development of broadband X-ray interference lithography large area exposure system.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chaofan; Wu, Yanqing; Zhu, Fangyuan; Yang, Shumin; Liu, Haigang; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Liansheng; Tai, Renzhong

    2016-04-01

    The single-exposure patterned area is about several 10(2) × 10(2) μm(2) which is mainly decided by the mask area in multi-beam X-ray interference lithography (XIL). The exposure area is difficult to stitch to a larger one because the patterned area is surrounded by 0th diffraction exposure areas. To block the 0th diffraction beams precisely and effectively, a new large area exposure technology is developed in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility by applying an order-sorting aperture with a new in situ monitoring scheme in the XIL system. The patterned area could be stitched readily up to several square centimeters and even bigger by this technology. PMID:27131667

  18. Investigating Dueling Scenarios in NGC 7582 with Broadband X-ray Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, E.

    2015-09-01

    NGC 7582 is a well-studied X-ray bright Seyfert 2 with moderately heavy (NH = 10^{23} - 10^{24} cm^{-2}), highly variable absorption and unusually strong reflection spectral features. The spectral shape changed around the year 2000, dropping in observed flux and becoming much more highly absorbed. Two scenarios have been put forth to explain this spectral change: 1) the source "shut off" around this time, decreasing in intrinsic luminosity, with a delayed decrease in reflection features due to the light crossing time of the Compton-thick material or 2) the source is a "hidden nucleus" which has recently become more heavily obscured, with only a portion of the power law continuum leaking through. NuSTAR observed NGC 7582 twice in 2012 two weeks apart in order to quantify the reflection using high-quality data above 10 keV. We analyze both NuSTAR observations placing them in the context of historical X-ray, infrared and optical observations, including re-analysis of RXTE data from 2003-2005. We find that the most plausible scenario is that NGC 7582 has a hidden nucleus which has recently become more heavily absorbed by a patchy torus with a covering fraction of 80-90% and a column density of 3.6 x 10^{24} cm^{-2}. We find the need for an additional highly variable full-covering absorber with NH= 4-6 x 10^{23} cm^{-2}, possibly associated with a hidden broad line region or a dust lane in the host galaxy.

  19. Suzaku and BeppoSAX X-ray Spectra of the Persistently Accreting Neutron-star Binary 4U 1705-44

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A.; Homan, Jeroen

    2010-08-01

    We present an analysis of the broadband spectra of 4U 1705-44 obtained with Suzaku in 2006-2008 and by BeppoSAX in 2000. The source exhibits two distinct states: the hard state shows emission from 1 to 150 keV, while the soft state is mostly confined to be <40 keV. We model soft-state continuum spectra with two thermal components, one of which is a multicolor accretion disk and the other is a single-temperature blackbody (BB) to describe the boundary layer, with additional weak Comptonization represented by either a simple power law or the SIMPL model by Steiner et al. The hard-state continuum spectra are modeled by a single-temperature BB for the boundary layer plus strong Comptonization, modeled by a cutoff power law. While we are unable to draw firm conclusions about the physical properties of the disk in the hard state, the accretion disk in the soft state appears to approximately follow L vprop T 3.2. The deviation from L vprop T 4, as expected from a constant inner disk radius, might be caused by a luminosity-dependent spectral hardening factor and/or real changes of the inner disk radius in some part of the soft state. The boundary layer apparent emission area is roughly constant from the hard to the soft states, with a value of about 1/11 of the neutron star surface. The magnetic field on the surface of the neutron star in 4U 1705-44 is estimated to be less than about 1.9 × 108 G, assuming that the disk is truncated by the innermost stable circular orbit or by the neutron star surface. Broad relativistic Fe lines are detected in most spectra and are modeled with the diskline model. The strength of the Fe lines is found to correlate well with the boundary layer emission in the soft state. In the hard state, the Fe lines are probably due to illumination of the accretion disk by the strong Comptonization emission.

  20. SUZAKU AND BeppoSAX X-RAY SPECTRA OF THE PERSISTENTLY ACCRETING NEUTRON-STAR BINARY 4U 1705-44

    SciTech Connect

    Lin Dacheng; Remillard, Ronald A.; Homan, Jeroen

    2010-08-20

    We present an analysis of the broadband spectra of 4U 1705-44 obtained with Suzaku in 2006-2008 and by BeppoSAX in 2000. The source exhibits two distinct states: the hard state shows emission from 1 to 150 keV, while the soft state is mostly confined to be <40 keV. We model soft-state continuum spectra with two thermal components, one of which is a multicolor accretion disk and the other is a single-temperature blackbody (BB) to describe the boundary layer, with additional weak Comptonization represented by either a simple power law or the SIMPL model by Steiner et al. The hard-state continuum spectra are modeled by a single-temperature BB for the boundary layer plus strong Comptonization, modeled by a cutoff power law. While we are unable to draw firm conclusions about the physical properties of the disk in the hard state, the accretion disk in the soft state appears to approximately follow L {proportional_to} T {sup 3.2}. The deviation from L {proportional_to} T{sup 4}, as expected from a constant inner disk radius, might be caused by a luminosity-dependent spectral hardening factor and/or real changes of the inner disk radius in some part of the soft state. The boundary layer apparent emission area is roughly constant from the hard to the soft states, with a value of about 1/11 of the neutron star surface. The magnetic field on the surface of the neutron star in 4U 1705-44 is estimated to be less than about 1.9 x 10{sup 8} G, assuming that the disk is truncated by the innermost stable circular orbit or by the neutron star surface. Broad relativistic Fe lines are detected in most spectra and are modeled with the diskline model. The strength of the Fe lines is found to correlate well with the boundary layer emission in the soft state. In the hard state, the Fe lines are probably due to illumination of the accretion disk by the strong Comptonization emission.

  1. A broadband X-ray study of the Geminga pulsar with NuSTAR And XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Halpern, Jules P.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.; Hailey, Charles J.; Dufour, Francois; Kaspi, Victoria M.; An, Hongjun; Bachetti, Matteo; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the first hard X-ray detection of the Geminga pulsar above 10 keV using a 150 ks observation with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observatory. The double-peaked pulse profile of non-thermal emission seen in the soft X-ray band persists at higher energies. Broadband phase-integrated spectra over the 0.2-20 keV band with NuSTAR and archival XMM-Newton data do not fit to a conventional two-component model of a blackbody plus power law, but instead exhibit spectral hardening above ∼5 keV. We find that two spectral models fit the data well: (1) a blackbody (kT {sub 1} ∼ 42 eV) with a broken power law (Γ{sub 1} ∼ 2.0, Γ{sub 2} ∼ 1.4 and E {sub break} ∼ 3.4 keV) and (2) two blackbody components (kT {sub 1} ∼ 44 eV and kT {sub 2} ∼ 195 eV) with a power-law component (Γ ∼ 1.7). In both cases, the extrapolation of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the thermal component is consistent with the UV data, while the non-thermal component overpredicts the near-infrared data, requiring a spectral flattening at E ∼ 0.05-0.5 keV. While strong phase variation of the power-law index is present below ∼5 keV, our phase-resolved spectroscopy with NuSTAR indicates that another hard non-thermal component with Γ ∼ 1.3 emerges above ∼5 keV. The spectral hardening in non-thermal X-ray emission as well as spectral flattening between the optical and X-ray bands argue against the conjecture that a single power law may account for multi-wavelength non-thermal spectra of middle-aged pulsars.

  2. Broad-band monitoring tracing the evolution of the jet and disc in the black hole candidate X-ray binary MAXI J1659-152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Horst, A. J.; Curran, P. A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Linford, J. D.; Gorosabel, J.; Russell, D. M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Lundgren, A. A.; Taylor, G. B.; Maitra, D.; Guziy, S.; Belloni, T. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Jonker, P. G.; Kamble, A.; Paragi, Z.; Homan, J.; Kuulkers, E.; Granot, J.; Altamirano, D.; Buxton, M. M.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Fender, R. P.; Garrett, M. A.; Gehrels, N.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kennea, J. A.; Krimm, H. A.; Mangano, V.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Romano, P.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y. J.

    2013-12-01

    MAXI J1659-152 was discovered on 2010 September 25 as a new X-ray transient, initially identified as a gamma-ray burst, but was later shown to be a new X-ray binary with a black hole as the most likely compact object. Dips in the X-ray light curves have revealed that MAXI J1659-152 is the shortest period black hole candidate identified to date. Here we present the results of a large observing campaign at radio, submillimetre, near-infrared (nIR), optical and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. We have combined this very rich data set with the available X-ray observations to compile a broad-band picture of the evolution of this outburst. We have performed broad-band spectral modelling, demonstrating the presence of a spectral break at radio frequencies and a relationship between the radio spectrum and X-ray states. Also, we have determined physical parameters of the accretion disc and put them into context with respect to the other parameters of the binary system. Finally, we have investigated the radio-X-ray and nIR/optical/UV-X-ray correlations up to ˜3 yr after the outburst onset to examine the link between the jet and the accretion disc, and found that there is no significant jet contribution to the nIR emission when the source is in the soft or intermediate X-ray spectral state, consistent with our detection of the jet break at radio frequencies during these states.

  3. Broadband observations of the X-ray burster 4U1705-44 with BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraino, S.; Santangelo, A.; Mück, B.; Kaaret, P.; Di Salvo, T.; D'Aì, A.; Iaria, R.; Egron, E.

    2016-06-01

    Context. 4U1705-44 is one of the most-studied type I X-ray burster and Atoll sources. This source represents a perfect candidate to test different models proposed to self-consistently track the physical changes occurring between different spectral states because it shows clear spectral state transitions. Aims: The broadband coverage, the sensitivity and energy resolution of the BeppoSAX satellite offers the opportunity to disentangle the components that form the total X-ray spectrum and to study their changes according to the spectral state. Methods: Using two BeppoSAX observations carried out in August and October 2000, respectively, for a total effective exposure time of ~100 ks, we study the spectral evolution of the source from a soft to hard state. Energy spectra are selected according to the source position in the color-color diagram (CCD). Results: We succeeded in modeling the spectra of the source using a physical self-consistent scenario for both the island and banana branches (the double Comptonization scenario). The components observed are the soft Comptonization and hard Comptonization, the blackbody, and a reflection component with a broad iron line. When the source moves from the banana state to the island state, the parameters of the two Comptonization components change significantly and the blackbody component becomes too weak to be detected. Conclusions: We interpret the soft Comptonization component as emission from the hot plasma surrounding the neutron star, hard Comptonization as emission from the disk region, and the blackbody component as emission from the inner accretion disk. The broad feature in the iron line region is compatible with reflection from the inner accretion disk.

  4. Recent and Future Observations in the X-ray and Gamma-ray Bands: Chandra, Suzaku, GLAST, and NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Madejski, Greg; /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-02

    This paper presents a brief overview of the accomplishments of the Chandra satellite that are shedding light on the origin of high energy particles in astrophysical sources, with the emphasis on clusters of galaxies. It also discusses the prospects for the new data to be collected with instruments recently launched--such as Suzaku--or those to be deployed in the near future, and this includes GLAST and NuSTAR.

  5. BROADBAND X-RAY IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE CRAB NEBULA AND PULSAR WITH NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen; An, Hongjun; Boggs, Steven; Craig, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Nynka, Melania; Markwardt, Craig; Zhang, William; Stern, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    We present broadband (3-78 keV) NuSTAR X-ray imaging and spectroscopy of the Crab nebula and pulsar. We show that while the phase-averaged and spatially integrated nebula + pulsar spectrum is a power law in this energy band, spatially resolved spectroscopy of the nebula finds a break at ∼9 keV in the spectral photon index of the torus structure with a steepening characterized by ΔΓ ∼ 0.25. We also confirm a previously reported steepening in the pulsed spectrum, and quantify it with a broken power law with break energy at ∼12 keV and ΔΓ ∼ 0.27. We present spectral maps of the inner 100'' of the remnant and measure the size of the nebula as a function of energy in seven bands. These results find that the rate of shrinkage with energy of the torus size can be fitted by a power law with an index of γ = 0.094 ± 0.018, consistent with the predictions of Kennel and Coroniti. The change in size is more rapid in the NW direction, coinciding with the counter-jet where we find the index to be a factor of two larger. NuSTAR observed the Crab during the latter part of a γ-ray flare, but found no increase in flux in the 3-78 keV energy band.

  6. Suzaku broad-band spectrum of 4U 1705-44: probing the reflection component in the hard state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Salvo, T.; Iaria, R.; Matranga, M.; Burderi, L.; D'Aí, A.; Egron, E.; Papitto, A.; Riggio, A.; Robba, N. R.; Ueda, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Iron emission lines at 6.4-6.97 keV, identified with Kα radiative transitions, are among the strongest discrete features in the X-ray band. These are one of the most powerful probes to infer the properties of the plasma in the innermost part of the accretion disc around a compact object. In this paper, we present a recent Suzaku observation, 100-ks effective exposure, of the atoll source and X-ray burster 4U 1705-44, where we clearly detect signatures of a reflection component which is distorted by the high-velocity motion in the accretion disc. The reflection component consists of a broad iron line at about 6.4 keV and a Compton bump at high X-ray energies, around 20 keV. All these features are consistently fitted with a reflection model, and we find that in the hard state the smearing parameters are remarkably similar to those found in a previous XMM-Newton observation performed in the soft state. In particular, we find that the inner disc radius is Rin = 17 ± 5Rg (where Rg is the gravitational radius, GM/c2), the emissivity dependence from the disc radius is r-2.5 ± 0.5, the inclination angle with respect to the line of sight is i = 43° ± 5°, and the outer radius of the emitting region in the disc is Rout > 200Rg. We note that the accretion disc does not appear to be truncated at large radii, although the source is in a hard state at ˜3 per cent of the Eddington luminosity for a neutron star. We also find evidence of a broad emission line at low energies, at 3.03 ± 0.03 keV, compatible with emission from mildly ionized argon (Ar XVI-XVII). Argon transitions are not included in the self-consistent reflection models that we used and we therefore added an extra component to our model to fit this feature. The low-energy line appears compatible with being smeared by the same inner disc parameters found for the reflection component.

  7. BROADBAND SPECTROSCOPY USING TWO SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HMXB GX 301-2

    SciTech Connect

    Suchy, Slawomir; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard E.; Fuerst, Felix; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Pottschmidt, Katja; Caballero, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    We present the analysis of two Suzaku observations of GX 301-2 at two orbital phases after the periastron passage. Variations in the column density of the line-of-sight absorber are observed, consistent with accretion from a clumpy wind. In addition to a cyclotron resonance scattering feature (CRSF), multiple fluorescence emission lines were detected in both observations. The variations in the pulse profiles and the CRSF throughout the pulse phase have a signature of a magnetic dipole field. Using a simple dipole model we calculated the expected magnetic field values for different pulse phases and were able to extract a set of geometrical angles, loosely constraining the dipole geometry in the neutron star. From the variation of the CRSF width and energy, we found a geometrical solution for the dipole, making the inclination consistent with previously published values.

  8. Broadband Spectroscopy Using Two Suzaku Observations of the HMXB GX 301-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Caballero, Isabel; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Wilms, Joern; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of two Suzaku observations of GX 301-2 at two orbital phases after the periastron passage. Variations in the column density of the line-of-sight absorber are observed, consistent with accretion from a clumpy wind. In addition to a CRSF, multiple fluorescence emission lines were detected in both observations. The variations in the pulse profiles and the CRSF throughout the pulse phase have a signature of a magnetic dipole field. Using a simple dipole model we calculated the expected magnetic field values for different pulse phases and were able to extract a set of geometrical angles, loosely constraining the dipole geometry in the neutron star. From the variation of the CRSF width and energy, we found a geometrical solution for the dipole, making the inclination consistent with previously published values.

  9. OZSPEC-2: An improved broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high-energy density physics experiments (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, R. F.; Anderson, S. G.; Booth, R.; Brown, G. V.; Emig, J.; Fulkerson, S.; McCarville, T.; Norman, D.; Schneider, M. B.; Young, B. K. F.

    2008-10-15

    A novel time, space, and energy-resolved x-ray spectrometer has been developed which produces, in a single snapshot, a broadband and relatively calibrated spectrum of the x-ray emission from a high-energy density laboratory plasma. The opacity zipper spectrometer (OZSPEC-1) records a nearly continuous spectrum for x-ray energies from 240 to 5800 eV in a single shot. The second-generation OZSPEC-2, detailed in this work, records fully continuous spectra on a single shot from any two of these three bands: 270-650, 660-1580, and 1960-4720 eV. These instruments thus record thermal and line radiation from a wide range of plasmas. These instruments' single-shot bandwidth is unmatched in a time-gated spectrometer; conversely, other broadband instruments are either time-integrated (using crystals or gratings), lack spectral resolution (diode arrays), or cover a lower energy band (gratings). The OZSPECs are based on the zipper detector, a large-format (100x35 mm) gated microchannel plate detector, with spectra dispersed along the 100 mm dimension. OZSPEC-1 and -2 both use elliptically bent crystals of OHM, RAP, and/or PET. Individual spectra are gated in 100 ps. OZSPEC-2 provides one-dimensional spatial imaging with 30-50 {mu}m resolution over a 1500 {mu}m field of view at the source. The elliptical crystal design yields broad spectral coverage with resolution E/{delta}E>500, strong rejection of hard x-ray backgrounds, and negligible source broadening for extended sources. Near-term applications include plasma opacity measurements, detailed spectra of inertial fusion Hohlraums, and laboratory astrophysics experiments.

  10. Modelling the variable broad-band optical/UV/X-ray spectrum of PG1211+143: implications for the ionized outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadakis, I. E.; Nicastro, F.; Panagiotou, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. We present the results from a detailed analysis of the 2007 Swift monitoring campaign of the quasar PG1211+143. Aims: We study its broad-band optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distribution and its variations, with the use of physically motivated models. Methods: We constructed broad-band, optical/UV-X-ray spectral energy distributions over three X-ray flux intervals, and we fitted them with a model which accounts for the disc and the X-ray coronal emission. We also added a spectral model component to account for the presence of the warm absorber which has been well established from past observations of the source. Results: We detected no optical/UV variations over the two-month period of the monitoring campaign. On the other hand, the X-rays are highly variable in a correlated way in the soft and hard X-ray bands with an amplitude larger than has been commonly observed in nearby Seyferts, even on longer time scales. The three flux spectra are well fitted by the model we considered. The disc inner temperature remains constant at ~2 eV, while X-rays are variable in slope and normalization. The absorber covers almost 90% of the central source. It is outflowing with a velocity less than 2.3 × 104 km s-1 (3σ upper limit), and has a column density of log NH ~ 23.2. Its ionization parameter varies by a factor of 1.6, and it is in photo-ionizing equilibrium with the ionizing flux. It is located at a distance of less than 0.35 pc from the central source, and its relative thickness, ΔR/R, is less than 0.1. The absorber's ionization parameter variations can explain the larger than average amplitude of the X-ray variations. Conclusions: The absence of optical/UV variations are consistent with the high black hole mass estimate of ~108M⊙ for this object, which implies variability time scales longer than the period of the Swift observations. It argues against the presence of inward propagating fluctuations in the disc as the reason for the flux variability in this

  11. The Effect of Broadband Soft X-Rays in SO2-Containing Ices: Implications on the Photochemistry of Ices toward Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (˜keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (˜eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H2O:CO2:NH3:SO2 (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO2-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high-vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles, acids, and other compounds such as H2O2, H3O+, SO3, CO, and OCN-. The dissociation cross section of parental species was on the order of (2-7) × 10-18 cm2. The ice temperature does not seem to affect the stability of SO2 in the presence of X-rays. Formation cross sections of new species produced were also determined. Molecular half-lives at ices toward YSOs due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. The low values obtained employing two different models of the radiation field of YSOs (TW Hydra and typical T-Tauri star) reinforce that soft X-rays are indeed a very efficient source of molecular dissociation in such environments.

  12. Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster, Antlia: Dynamically Young but with Remarkably Relaxed Outskirts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy A.; Wik, Daniel R.; Sun, Ming; Sarazin, Craig L.; Fujita, Yutaka; Reiprich, Thomas H.

    2016-09-01

    We present the results of seven Suzaku mosaic observations (>200 ks in total) of the nearest non-cool core cluster, the Antlia Cluster (or Group), beyond its degree-scale virial radius in its eastern direction. The temperature is consistent with the scaled profiles of many other clusters. Its pressure follows the universal profile. The density slope in its outskirts is significantly steeper than that of the nearest cool core cluster (Virgo) with a similar temperature as Antlia, but shallower than those of the massive clusters. The entropy increases all the way out to R 200, which is consistent in value with the baseline model predicted by a gravity heating-only mechanism in the outskirts. Antlia is quite relaxed in this direction. However, the entropy inside ˜R 500 is significantly higher than the baseline model, which is similar to many other nearby low mass clusters or groups. The enclosed gas-mass fraction does not exceed the cosmic value out to 1.3{R}200. Thus, there is no evidence of significant gas clumping, electron-ion non-equipartition, or departure from the hydrostatic equilibrium approximation that are suggested to explain the entropy and gas fraction anomalies found in the outskirts of some massive clusters. We also present scaling relations for the gas fraction ({f}{{gas,200}}), entropy (K 200), and temperature (T 500) using 22 groups and clusters with published data in the literature. The enclosed baryon fraction at R 200 is broadly consistent with the cosmic value. The power law slope of the K 200-T 500 relation is 0.638 ± 0.205. The entropy deficit at R 200 cannot be fully accounted for by the bias or deviation in the gas fraction.

  13. X-RAY SPECTRAL CUTOFF AND THE LACK OF HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES M81 X-6 AND HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Dewangan, G. C.; Misra, R.; Jithesh, V.; Ravikumar, C. D.

    2013-07-10

    We present broadband X-ray spectral study of two ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), M81 X-6 and Holmberg IX X-1, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. We perform joint broadband spectral analysis of the brightest sources in the field, i.e., the two ULXs and the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in M81, and demonstrate that the X-ray spectra of the ULXs cut off at energies {approx}> 3 keV with negligible contribution at high energies in the Suzaku HXD/PIN band. The 90% upper limit on the 10-30 keV band luminosity of an underlying broadband power-law component is 3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. These limits are more than an order of magnitude lower than the bolometric (0.1-30 keV) luminosity of 6.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1} for M81 X-6 and 1.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} for Holmberg IX X-1. Our results confirm earlier indications of spectral cutoffs inferred from the XMM-Newton observations of bright ULXs and show that there is not an additional high-energy power-law component contributing significantly to the X-ray emission. The spectral form of the two ULXs are very different from those of Galactic black hole X-ray binaries (BHBs) or AGNs. This implies that the ULXs are neither simply scaled-up versions of stellar-mass BHBs nor scaled-down versions of AGNs.

  14. Broadband X-ray edge-enhancement imaging of a boron fibre on lithium fluoride thin film detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichelatti, E.; Bonfigli, F.; Vincenti, M. A.; Cecilia, A.; Vagovič, P.; Baumbach, T.; Montereali, R. M.

    2016-10-01

    The white beam (∼6-80 keV) available at the TopoTomo X-ray beamline of the ANKA synchrotron facility (KIT, Karlsruhe, Germany) was used to perform edge-enhancement imaging tests on lithium fluoride radiation detectors. The diffracted X-ray image of a microscopic boron fibre, consisting of tungsten wire wrapped by boron cladding, was projected onto lithium fluoride thin films placed at several distances, from contact to 1 m . X-ray photons cause the local formation of primary and aggregate colour centres in lithium fluoride; these latter, once illuminated under blue light, luminesce forming visible-light patterns-acquired by a confocal laser scanning microscope-that reproduce the intensity of the X-ray diffracted images. The tests demonstrated the excellent performances of lithium fluoride films as radiation detectors at the investigated photon energies. The experimental results are here discussed and compared with those calculated with a model that takes into account all the processes that concern image formation, storing and readout.

  15. A broadband high-resolution elliptical crystal x-ray spectrometer for high energy density physics experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Heeter, R F; Booth, R; Emig, J; Fulkerson, S; McCarville, T; Norman, D; Young, B F

    2006-03-31

    Spectroscopic investigation of high temperature laser produced plasmas in general, and x-ray opacity experiments in particular, often requires instruments with both a broad coverage of x-ray energies and high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution. We analyze the design, model the response, and report the commissioning of a spectrometer using elliptical crystals in conjunction with a large format, gated microchannel plate detector. Measurements taken with this instrument at the JANUS laser facilities demonstrate the designed spectral range of 0.24 to 5.8 keV, and spectral resolution E/{Delta}E > 500, resulting in 2 to 3 times more spectral data than achieved by previous spectrometer designs. The observed 100 picosecond temporal resolution and 35 {micro}m spatial resolution are consistent with the requirements of high energy density opacity experiments.

  16. The 5 Hour Pulse Period and Broadband Spectrum of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 3A 1954+319

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcu, Diana M.; Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Grinberg, Victoria; Miller, Sebstian; Wilms, Joern; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Cadolle Bel, Marion

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the highly variable accreting X-ray pulsar 3A 1954+319 using 2005-2009 monitoring data obtained with INTEGRAL and Swift. This considerably extends the pulse period history and covers flaring episodes in 2005 and 2008. In 2006 the source was identified as one of only a few known symbiotic X-ray binaries, Le" systems composed of a neutron star accreting from the inhomogeneous medium around an M-giant star. The extremely long pulse period of approximately 5.3 h is directly visible in the 2008 INTEGRAL-ISGRI outburst light curve. The pulse profile is double peaked and not significantly energy dependent. During the outburst a strong spin-up of -1.8 x 10(exp -4) h h(exp -1) occurred. Between 2005 and 2008 a long term spin-down trend of 2.1 x 10(exp -5) h h(exp -1) was observed for the first time for this source. The 3-80 keV pulse peak spectrum of 3A 1954+319 during the 2008 flare could be well described by a thermal Comptonization model. We interpret the results within the framework of a recently developed quasi-spherical accretion model for symbiotic X-ray binaries.

  17. A Broad-band Spectral and Timing Study of the X-Ray Binary System Centaurus X-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audley, Michael Damian

    1998-01-01

    This dissertation describes a multi-mission investigation of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Centaurus X-3. Cen X-3 was observed with the Broad Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) in December 1990. This was the first high-resolution solid state X-ray spectrometer to cover the iron K fluorescence region. The Fe K emission feature was resolved into two components for the first time. A broad 6.7 keV feature was found to be a blend of lines from Fe XXI-Fe XXVI with energies ranging from 6.6 to 6.9 keV due to photoionization of the companion's stellar wind. A narrow line at 6.4 keV due to fluorescence of iron in relatively low ionization states was also found. The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at about 40 mHz were used to estimate the surface magnetic field of Cen X-3 as approx. 2.6 x 10(exp 12) G and to predict that there should be a cyclotron scattering resonance absorption feature (CSRF) near 30 keV. In order to further resolve the iron line complex and to investigate the pulse-phase dependence of the iron line intensities, Cen X-3 was observed with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA). Using ASCA's state-of-the-art non-dispersive X-ray spectrometers the 6.4 keV fluorescent iron line was found to be pulsing while the intensities of the 6.7 and 6.9 keV recombination lines do not vary with pulse phase. This confirms that the 6.4 keV line is due to reflection by relatively neutral matter close to the neutron star while the recombination lines originate in the extended stellar wind. The continuum spectrum was found to be modified by reflection from matter close to the neutron star. Observations with the EXOSAT GSPC were used to search for a CSRF. The EXOSAT spectra were consistent with the presence of a CSRF but an unambiguous detection was not possible because of a lack of sensitivity at energies higher than the cyclotron energy. Cen X-3 was then observed with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and evidence for a CSRF at 25.1 +/- 0.3 keV was

  18. THE EFFECT OF BROADBAND SOFT X-RAYS IN SO{sub 2}-CONTAINING ICES: IMPLICATIONS ON THE PHOTOCHEMISTRY OF ICES TOWARD YOUNG STELLAR OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pilling, S.; Bergantini, A.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the effects produced mainly by broadband soft X-rays up to 2 keV (plus fast (∼keV) photoelectrons and low-energy (∼eV) induced secondary electrons) in the ice mixtures containing H{sub 2}O:CO{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}:SO{sub 2} (10:1:1:1) at two different temperatures (50 and 90 K). The experiments are an attempt to simulate the photochemical processes induced by energetic photons in SO{sub 2}-containing ices present in cold environments in the ices surrounding young stellar objects (YSO) and in molecular clouds in the vicinity of star-forming regions, which are largely illuminated by soft X-rays. The measurements were performed using a high-vacuum portable chamber from the Laboratório de Astroquímica e Astrobiologia (LASA/UNIVAP) coupled to the spherical grating monochromator beamline at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS) in Campinas, Brazil. In situ analyses were performed by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Sample processing revealed the formation of several organic molecules, including nitriles, acids, and other compounds such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, H{sub 3}O{sup +}, SO{sub 3}, CO, and OCN{sup −}. The dissociation cross section of parental species was on the order of (2–7) × 10{sup −18} cm{sup 2}. The ice temperature does not seem to affect the stability of SO{sub 2} in the presence of X-rays. Formation cross sections of new species  produced were also determined. Molecular half-lives at ices toward YSOs due to the presence of incoming soft X-rays were estimated. The low values obtained employing two different models of the radiation field of YSOs (TW Hydra and typical T-Tauri star) reinforce that soft X-rays are indeed a very efficient source of molecular dissociation in such environments.

  19. Broad-band spectral analysis of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pintore, F.; Sanna, A.; Di Salvo, T.; Del Santo, M.; Riggio, A.; D'Aì, A.; Burderi, L.; Scarano, F.; Iaria, R.

    2016-04-01

    We analysed a 115-ks XMM-Newton observation and the stacking of 8 d of INTEGRAL observations, taken during the raise of the 2015 outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021. The source showed numerous type-I burst episodes during the XMM-Newton observation, and for this reason we studied separately the persistent and burst epochs. We described the persistent emission with a combination of two soft thermal components, a cold thermal Comptonization component (˜2 keV) and an additional hard X-ray emission described by a power law (Γ ˜ 2.3). The continuum components can be associated with an accretion disc, the neutron star (NS) surface and a thermal Comptonization emission coming out of an optically thick plasma region, while the origin of the high-energy tail is still under debate. In addition, a number of broad (σ = 0.1-0.4 keV) emission features likely associated with reflection processes have been observed in the XMM-Newton data. The estimated 1.0-50 keV unabsorbed luminosity of the source is ˜5 × 1037 erg s-1, about 25 per cent of the Eddington limit assuming a 1.4 M⊙ NS. We suggest that the spectral properties of SAX J1748.9-2021 are consistent with a soft state, differently from many other accreting X-ray millisecond pulsars which are usually found in the hard state. Moreover, none of the observed type-I burst reached the Eddington luminosity. Assuming that the burst ignition and emission are produced above the whole NS surface, we estimate an NS radius of ˜7-8 km, consistent with previous results.

  20. Suzaku Observations of Charge Exchange Emission from Solar System Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Fujimoto, R.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishikawa, K.; Oishi, S.; Miyoshi, Y; Terada, N.; Futaana, Y.; Porter, F. S.; Brown, G. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results of charge exchange emission from solar system objects observed with the Japanese Suzaku satellite are reviewed. Suzaku is of great importance to investigate diffuse X-ray emission like the charge exchange from planetary exospheres and comets. The Suzaku studies of Earth's exosphere, Martian exosphere, Jupiter's aurorae, and comets are overviewed.

  1. GLAST and Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    2007-01-01

    The upcoming years will see a formidable synergy of high-energy observatories for the study of extragalactic objects, especially AGN. In particular, the launch of GLAST will allow us coordinated monitoring of sources with Suzaku over a very large energy band, from medium X-rays to GeV energies. In this talk I will review the science issues that such a remarkable coverage will enable us to address.

  2. BROADBAND X-RAY SPECTRAL INVESTIGATIONS OF MAGNETARS, 4U 0142+61, 1E 1841–045, 1E 2259+586, AND 1E 1048.1–5937

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Shan-Shan; Göğüş, Ersin

    2015-12-10

    We have generated an extended version of a rather simplified but physically oriented three-dimensional magnetar emission model, STEMS3D, to allow spectral investigations up to 100 keV. We then applied our model to the broadband spectra of four magnetars: 4U 0142+61, 1E 1841–045, 1E 2259+586, and 1E 1048.1–5937, using data collected with Swift/XRT or XMM-Newton in soft X-rays, and the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array in the hard X-ray band. We found that the hard X-ray emission of 4U 0142+61 was spectrally hard compared to earlier detections, indicating that the source was likely in a transition to or from a harder state. We find that the surface properties of the four magnetars are consistent with what we have obtained using only the soft X-ray data with STEMS3D, implying that our physically motivated magnetar emission model is a robust tool. Based on our broadband spectral investigations, we conclude that resonant scattering of the surface photons in the magnetosphere alone cannot account for the hard X-ray emission in magnetars; therefore, an additional non-thermal process, or a population of relativistic electrons is required. We also discuss the implication of the non-detection of persistent hard X-ray emission in 1E 1048.1–5937.

  3. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.

    1999-01-01

    The primary goal of this proposal was to perform an accurate measurement of the broadband x-ray spectrum of a neutron-star low-mass x-ray binary found in a hard x-ray state. This goal was accomplished using data obtained under another proposal, which has provided exciting new information on the hard x-ray emission of neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. In "BeppoSAX Observations of the Atoll X-Ray Binary 4U0614+091", we present our analysis of the spectrum of 4U0614+091 over the energy band from 0.3-150 keV. Our data confirm the presence of a hard x-ray tail that can be modeled as thermal Comptonization of low-energy photons on electrons having a very high temperature, greater than 220 keV, or as a non-thermal powerlaw. Such a very hard x-ray spectrum has not been previously seen from neutron-star low-mass x-ray binaries. We also detected a spectral feature that can be interpreted as reprocessing, via Compton reflection, of the direct emission by an optically-thick disk and found a correlation between the photon index of the power-law tail and the fraction of radiation reflected which is similar to the correlation found for black hole candidate x-ray binaries and Seyfert galaxies. A secondary goal was to measure the timing properties of the x-ray emission from neutronstar low-mass x-ray binaries in their low/hard states.

  4. X-ray shearing interferometer

    DOEpatents

    Koch, Jeffrey A.

    2003-07-08

    An x-ray interferometer for analyzing high density plasmas and optically opaque materials includes a point-like x-ray source for providing a broadband x-ray source. The x-rays are directed through a target material and then are reflected by a high-quality ellipsoidally-bent imaging crystal to a diffraction grating disposed at 1.times. magnification. A spherically-bent imaging crystal is employed when the x-rays that are incident on the crystal surface are normal to that surface. The diffraction grating produces multiple beams which interfere with one another to produce an interference pattern which contains information about the target. A detector is disposed at the position of the image of the target produced by the interfering beams.

  5. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  6. Fermi-LAT and Suzaku Observations of the Radio Galaxy Centaurus B

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuta, Junichiro; Tanaka, Y.T.; Stawarz, L.; O'Sullivan, S.P.; Cheung, C.C.; Kataoka, J.; Funk, S.; Yuasa, T.; Odaka, H.; Takahashi, T.; Svoboda, J.; /European Space Agency

    2012-08-17

    CentaurusB is a nearby radio galaxy positioned in the Southern hemisphere close to the Galactic plane. Here we present a detailed analysis of about 43 months accumulation of Fermi-LAT data and of newly acquired Suzaku X-ray data for Centaurus B. The source is detected at GeV photon energies, although we cannot completely exclude the possibility that it is an artifact due to incorrect modeling of the bright Galactic diffuse emission in the region. The LAT image provides a weak hint of a spatial extension of the {gamma} rays along the radio lobes, which is consistent with the lack of source variability in the GeV range. We note that the extension cannot be established statistically due to the low number of the photons. Surprisingly, we do not detect any diffuse emission of the lobes at X-ray frequencies, with the provided upper limit only marginally consistent with the previously claimed ASCA flux. The broad-band modeling shows that the observed {gamma}-ray flux of the source may be produced within the lobes, if the diffuse non-thermal X-ray emission component is not significantly below the derived Suzaku upper limit. This association would imply that efficient in-situ acceleration of the ultrarelativistic particles is occurring and that the lobes are dominated by the pressure from the relativistic particles. However, if the diffuse X-ray emission is much below the Suzaku upper limits, the observed {gamma}-ray flux is not likely to be produced within the lobes, but instead within the unresolved core of Centaurus B. In this case, the extended lobes could be dominated by the pressure of the magnetic field.

  7. The variable hard X-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NuSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Arévalo, Patricia; Bauer, Franz E.; Risaliti, Guido; Brandt, William N.; Luo, Bin; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Alexander, David M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Lansbury, George B.; Boggs, Steve E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Hailey, Charles J.; Koss, Michael J.; Madejski, Greg M.; Matt, Giorgio; and others

    2014-09-20

    We present a broadband (∼0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E <10 keV stays approximately constant. From modeling the complex reflection/transmission spectrum, we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of τ{sub Thomson} ∼ 2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of ∼0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high-energy variability, which implies that most of the high-energy flux is transmitted rather than Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis at constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validates similar methods used for analyzing the spectra of other bright, Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The lower limits on the e-folding energy are between 200 and 300 keV, consistent with previous BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and Swift Burst Alert Telescope observations. The accretion rate, estimated from the X-ray luminosity and assuming a bolometric correction typical of type 2 AGN, is in the range ∼0.1-0.3 λ{sub Edd} depending on the flux state. The substantial observed X-ray luminosity variability of NGC 4945 implies that large errors can arise from using single-epoch X-ray data to derive L/L {sub Edd} values for obscured AGNs.

  8. The Variable Hard X-Ray Emission of NGC4945 as Observed by NuSTAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio; Arevalo, Patricia; Risaliti, Guido; Bauer, Franz E.; Brandt, William N.; Stern, Daniel; Harrison, Fiona A.; Alexander, David M.; Boggs, Steve E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Gandhi, Poshak; Hailey, Charles J.; Koss, Michael R.; Lansbury, George B.; Luo, Bin; Madejski, Greg M.; Matt, Giorgio; Walton, Dominic J.; Zhang, Will

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (approx. 0.5 - 79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (> 10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a factor 2 on timescales of 20 ksec. A variable primary continuum dominates the high energy spectrum (> 10 keV) in all the states, while the reflected/scattered flux which dominates at E< 10 keV stays approximately constant. From modelling the complex reflection/transmission spectrum we derive a Compton depth along the line of sight of Thomson approx.2.9, and a global covering factor for the circumnuclear gas of approx. 0.15. This agrees with the constraints derived from the high energy variability, which implies that most of the high energy flux is transmitted, rather that Compton-scattered. This demonstrates the effectiveness of spectral analysis in constraining the geometric properties of the circumnuclear gas, and validates similar methods used for analyzing the spectra of other bright, Compton-thick AGN. The lower limits on the e-folding energy are between 200 - 300 keV, consistent with previous BeppoSAX, Suzaku and Swift BAT observations. The accretion rate, estimated from the X-ray luminosity and assuming a bolometric correction typical of type 2 AGN, is in the range approx. 0.1 - 0.3 lambda(sub Edd) depending on the flux state. The substantial observed X-ray luminosity variability of NGC4945 implies that large errors can arise from using single-epoch X-ray data to derive L/L(sub Edd) values for obscured AGNs.

  9. A new model for the X-ray continuum of the magnetized accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farinelli, Ruben; Ferrigno, Carlo; Bozzo, Enrico; Becker, Peter A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Accreting highly magnetized pulsars in binary systems are among the brightest X-ray emitters in our Galaxy. Although a number of high-quality broad-band (0.1-100 keV) X-ray observations are available, the spectral energy distribution of these sources is usually investigated by adopting pure phenomenological models rather than models linked to the physics of accretion. Aims: In this paper, a detailed spectral study of the X-ray emission recorded from the high-mass X-ray binary pulsars Cen X-3, 4U 0115+63, and Her X-1 is carried out by using BeppoSAX and joined Suzaku +NuStar data, together with an advanced version of the compmag model, which provides a physical description of the high-energy emission from accreting pulsars, including the thermal and bulk Comptonization of cyclotron and bremsstrahlung seed photons along the neutron star accretion column. Methods: The compmag model is based on an iterative method for solving second-order partial differential equations, whose convergence algorithm has been improved and consolidated during the preparation of this paper. Results: Our analysis shows that the broad-band X-ray continuum of all considered sources can be self-consistently described by the compmag model. The cyclotron absorption features (not included in the model) can be accounted for by using Gaussian components. From the fits of the compmag model to the data we inferred the physical properties of the accretion columns in all sources, finding values reasonably close to those theoretically expected according to our current understanding of accretion in highly magnetized neutron stars. Conclusions: The updated version of the compmag model has been tailored to the physical processes that are known to occur in the columns of highly magnetized accreting neutron stars and it can thus provide a better understanding of the high-energy radiation from these sources. The availability of broad-band high-quality X-ray data, such as those provided by BeppoSAX in

  10. Application of a physical continuum model to recent X-ray observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana Monica; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Gottlieb, Amy; Fuerst, Felix; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Ballhausen, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    We present a uniform spectral analysis in the 0.5-50 keV energy range of a sample of accreting pulsars by applying an empirical broad-band continuum cut-off power-law model. We also apply the newly implemented physical continuum model developed by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to a number of high-luminosity sources. The X-ray spectral formation process in this model consists of the Comptonization of bremsstrahlung, cyclotron, and black body photons emitted by the hot, magnetically channeled, accreting plasma near the neutron star surface. This model describes the spectral formation in high-luminosity accreting pulsars, where the dominant deceleration mechanism is via a radiation-dominated radiative shock. The resulting spectra depend on five physical parameters: the mass accretion rate, the radius of the accretion column, the electron temperature and electron scattering cross-sections inside the column, and the magnetic field strength. The empirical model is fitted to Suzaku data of a sample of high-mass X-ray binaries covering a broad luminosity range (0.3-5 x 10 37 erg/s). The physical model is fitted to Suzaku data from luminous sources: LMC X-4, Cen X-3, GX 304-1. We compare the results of the two types of modeling and summarize how they can provide new insight into the process of accretion onto magnetized neutron stars.

  11. Joint x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  13. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics for the period 1 Jan. to 31 Dec. 1990 is presented. Topics studied include: soft x ray background, new sounding rocket payload: x ray calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  14. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1990-01-01

    The annual progress report on Cosmic X Ray Physics is presented. Topics studied include: the soft x ray background, proportional counter and filter calibrations, the new sounding rocket payload: X Ray Calorimeter, and theoretical studies.

  15. Flaring X-ray state observed in M87

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jong, Sandra

    M87 is one of the 15 radio galaxies that have been detected with Fermi/LAT, and has also been observed in the VHE band. However, until now a significant detection in the hard X-ray band (>10 keV) had not been available. Due to the large angle of the jet and the line of sight radio galaxies were not postulated to be bright in gamma-rays and VHE, and the mechanism driving this emission is still unclear. We have detected M 87 using Suzaku/PIN data taken in late November 2006 with a flux of f(20 - 60 keV) = 1E-11 erg/cm**2/s. The long-term, average hard X-ray emission over almost 10 years of INTEGRAL observations is below the sensitivity limit of IBIS/ISGRI and an upper limit to the 20-60 keV band is set to f < 3E-12 erg/cm**2/s. We present a summary of the techniques used and the results yielded. We collected historical radio/IR/optical and VHE data and combined them with the X-ray and gamma-ray data, to create broad-band spectral energy distributions for the average low-flux state and the flaring state. We also show that modelling the core emission of M87 using a single-zone synchrotron self-Compton model does represent the SED, suggesting that the core emission is dominated by a BL Lac type AGN core.

  16. Chest x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  17. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains. PMID:26967404

  18. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-26

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >10^{8}) with broadband ≃5-13  meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 10^{3} signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  19. High Mass X-ray Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are interesting objects that provide a wide range of observational probes to the nature of the two stellar components, accretion process, stellar wind and orbital parameters of the systems. Most of the transient HMXBs are found to Be/X-ray binaries (~67%), consisting of a compact object (neutron star) in orbit around the companion Be star. The orbit of the compact object around the Be star is wide and highly eccentric. Be/X-ray binaries are generally quiescent in X-ray emission. The transient X-ray outbursts seen in these objects are known to be due to interaction between the compact object and the circumstellar disk surrounding the Be star. In the recent years, another class of transient HMXBs have been found which have supergiant companions and show shorter X-ray outbursts. X-ray, infrared and optical observations of these HMXBs provide vital information regarding these systems. The timing and broad-band X-ray spectral properties of a few HMXB pulsars, mainly Be/X-ray binary pulsars during regular X-ray outbursts will be discussed.

  20. A hard X-ray view on two distant TeV-blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.; Costamante, L.; Reimer, O.

    2008-12-24

    We present a data set derived from {approx}50 ksec continuous Suzaku observations and covered with quasi-simultaneous TeV-observations (HESS, MAGIC) of two of the more distant TeV-blazars detected to date: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113. Both sources are found in a non-variable state with combined XIS-PIN spectra indicating downward curvature up to several tens of keV. 1ES 101-232 was found in a quiet state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. We discuss the contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) of both sources and implications from absorption in the EBL for the redshift of 1ES 1553+113.

  1. Experimental investigation of bright spots in broadband, gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Barrios, M. A.; Suter, L. J.; Glenn, S.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Collins, G. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Izumi, N.; Ma, T.; Scott, H.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Regan, S. P.; Epstein, R.; Kyrala, G. A.

    2013-07-15

    Bright spots in the hot spot intensity profile of gated x-ray images of ignition-scale implosions at the National Ignition Facility [G. H. Miller et al., Opt. Eng. 443, (2004)] are observed. X-ray images of cryogenically layered deuterium-tritium (DT) and tritium-hydrogen-deuterium (THD) ice capsules, and gas filled plastic shell capsules (Symcap) were recorded along the hohlraum symmetry axis. Heterogeneous mixing of ablator material and fuel into the hot spot (i.e., hot-spot mix) by hydrodynamic instabilities causes the bright spots. Hot-spot mix increases the radiative cooling of the hot spot. Fourier analysis of the x-ray images is used to quantify the evolution of bright spots in both x- and k-space. Bright spot images were azimuthally binned to characterize bright spot location relative to known isolated defects on the capsule surface. A strong correlation is observed between bright spot location and the fill tube for both Symcap and cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets, indicating the fill tube is a significant seed for the ablation front instability causing hot-spot mix. The fill tube is the predominant seed for Symcaps, while other capsule non-uniformities are dominant seeds for the cryogenically layered DT and THD ice targets. A comparison of the bright spot power observed for Si- and Ge-doped ablator targets shows heterogeneous mix in Symcap targets is mostly material from the doped ablator layer.

  2. The Contribution of Compton-Thick AGN/ULIRGs to the X-Ray Background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nardini, Emanuele

    fraction of the obscured AGN population. Their broadband spectral energy distribution can then be used to calibrate new photometric diagnostics based on mid-IR colors and bolometric corrections, capable of selecting their faint counterparts within the IR deep fields. The wealth of data in the WISE and Spitzer archives will allow a complete census of this AGN subclass. The reflection efficiency inferred from our new Suzaku observations will make it possible to address from a quantitative point of view the issue of the Compton-thick AGN/ULIRG contributon to the X-ray background.

  3. Thoracic spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  4. New broad-band filtering device with rectangular efficiency shape based on x-ray focusing by strongly curved HOPG crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhoff, B.; Kanngiesser, B.; Malzer, W.

    1996-12-31

    X-ray focusing based on Bragg reflection at curved crystals allows collection of large solid angles of incident radiation, subsequent monochromatization, and an efficient condensation of the reflected beam into a small spatial region in a pre-selected focal plane. Thus, for the Bragg reflected radiation, one can achieve higher intensities than for the radiation passing directly to the same small area in the focal plane. The first-order reflection of X-rays at Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite (HOPG) crystals offers a very high intensity of the reflected radiation. Furthermore, a special deposition procedure ensures the production of doubly-curved HOPG crystals with local curvature radii down to even less than 5 mm. By means of appropriate variations of both the local curvature radii and the crystal thickness not only efficient X-ray focusing is achievable, but also a desired modeling of the energetic band-pass characteristics of the device. A new HOPG device was designed to ensure a rectangular efficiency shape in the energy range from 9 keV to 16 keV. Furthermore, a high amount of the radiation emitted by a source with 1 mm diameter had to be focused int o a 10 square-mm Si(Li) detector by this HOPG crystal. Both the theoretical construction of this crystal based on ray tracing calculations and the experimental investigation of its performance is presented. Furthermore, its use in the detection line of an EDXRF set-up for a drastic repartition of the detected photon distribution is demonstrated.

  5. Dental x-rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film; Digital image ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some of them are: Bitewing. Shows the crown ...

  6. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  7. X-Ray Lasers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapline, George; Wood, Lowell

    1975-01-01

    Outlines the prospects of generating coherent x rays using high-power lasers and indentifies problem areas in their development. Indicates possible applications for coherent x rays in the fields of chemistry, biology, and crystallography. (GS)

  8. X Ray Topography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balchin, A. A.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses some aspects in X-ray topography, including formation of dislocations, characteristics of stacking faults, x-ray contrast in defect inspection, Berg-Barrett technique, and Lang traversing crystal and Borrmann's methods. (CC)

  9. X-Ray Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  10. X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  11. Hand x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - hand ... A hand x-ray is taken in a hospital radiology department or your health care provider's office by an ... technician. You will be asked to place your hand on the x-ray table, and keep it ...

  12. The ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2: A broadband study with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier; Webb, Natalie A.; Rana, Vikram; Walton, Dominic J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Fabian, Andrew C.; Hailey, Charles J.; Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, Andrew F.; Zhang, William W.; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    We present the results of NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of the two ultraluminous X-ray sources: NGC 1313 X-1 and X-2. The combined spectral bandpass of the two satellites enables us to produce the first spectrum of X-1 between 0.3 and 30 keV, while X-2 is not significantly detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV. The NuSTAR data demonstrate that X-1 has a clear cutoff above 10 keV, whose presence was only marginally detectable with previous X-ray observations. This cutoff rules out the interpretation of X-1 as a black hole in a standard low/hard state, and it is deeper than predicted for the downturn of a broadened iron line in a reflection-dominated regime. The cutoff differs from the prediction of a single-temperature Comptonization model. Further, a cold disk-like blackbody component at ∼0.3 keV is required by the data, confirming previous measurements by XMM-Newton only. We observe a spectral transition in X-2, from a state with high luminosity and strong variability to a lower-luminosity state with no detectable variability, and we link this behavior to a transition from a super-Eddington to a sub-Eddington regime.

  13. Thin Shell, Segmented X-Ray Mirrors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Thin foil mirrors were introduced as a means of achieving high throughput in an X-ray astronomical imaging system in applications for which high angular resolution were not necessary. Since their introduction, their high filling factor, modest mass, relative ease of construction, and modest cost have led to their use in numerous X-ray observatories, including the Broad Band X-ray Telescope, ASCA, and Suzaku. The introduction of key innovations, including epoxy replicated surfaces, multilayer coatings, and glass mirror substrates, has led to performance improvements, and in their becoming widely used for X-ray astronomical imaging at energies above 10 keV. The use of glass substrates has also led to substantial improvement in angular resolution, and thus their incorporation into the NASA concept for the International X-ray Observatory with a planned 3 in diameter aperture. This paper traces the development of foil mirrors from their inception in the 1970's through their current and anticipated future applications.

  14. Spatial distribution and broad-band spectral characteristics of the diffuse X-ray background, 0.1 - 1.0 keV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.; Burrows, D. N.

    1979-01-01

    Preliminary maps covering more than 85 percent of the sky are presented for three energy bands: the B band, the C band, and the M band. The study was undertaken to find evidence that most of the diffuse X-ray background at energies less than 1 keV is local to the galaxy and that it is most probably due to thermal radiation from a low density plasma which fills a substantial fraction of interstellar space. A preliminary analysis of the data is provided including a report that most of the B and C band flux has a common origin, probably in a 10 to the 6th power K region surrounding the Sun, and that most of the M band flux does not originate from the same material.

  15. Accelerator-driven X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong

    2015-11-09

    After an introduction which mentions x-ray tubes and storage rings and gives a brief review of special relativity, the subject is treated under the following topics and subtopics: synchrotron radiation (bending magnet radiation, wiggler radiation, undulator radiation, brightness and brilliance definition, synchrotron radiation facilities), x-ray free-electron lasers (linac-driven X-ray FEL, FEL interactions, self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), SASE self-seeding, fourth-generation light source facilities), and other X-ray sources (energy recovery linacs, Inverse Compton scattering, laser wakefield accelerator driven X-ray sources. In summary, accelerator-based light sources cover the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Synchrotron radiation (bending magnet, wiggler and undulator radiation) has unique properties that can be tailored to the users’ needs: bending magnet and wiggler radiation is broadband, undulator radiation has narrow spectral lines. X-ray FELs are the brightest coherent X-ray sources with high photon flux, femtosecond pulses, full transverse coherence, partial temporal coherence (SASE), and narrow spectral lines with seeding techniques. New developments in electron accelerators and radiation production can potentially lead to more compact sources of coherent X-rays.

  16. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... X-ray? What is Panoramic X-ray? Panoramic radiography , also called panoramic x-ray , is a two- ... Exams Dental Cone Beam CT X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety About this Site ...

  17. Broadband X-Ray Spectra of GX 339-4 and the Geometry of Accreting Black Holes in the Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick; Kalemci; Kaaret; Markoff; Corbel; Migliari; Fender; Bailyn; Buxton

    2008-01-01

    A major question in the study of black hole binaries involves our understanding of the accretion geometry when the sources are in the "hard" state. In this state, the X-ray energy spectrum is dominated by a hard power-law component and radio observations indicate the presence of a steady and powerful "compact" jet. Although the common hard state picture is that the accretion disk is truncated, perhaps at hundreds of gravitational radii (R(sub g)) from the black hole, recent results for the recurrent transient GX 339-4 by Miller and co-workers show evidence for optically thick material very close to the black hole's innermost stable circular orbit. That work focused on an observation of GX 339-4 at a luminosity of about 5% of the Eddington limit (L(sub Edd)) and used parameters from a relativistic reflection model and the presence of a soft, thermal component as diagnostics. In this work, we use similar diagnostics, but extend the study to lower luminosities (2.3% and 0.8% L(sub Edd)) using Swift and RXTE observations of GX 339-4. We detect a thermal component with an inner disk temperature of approx.0.2 keV at 2.3% L(sub Edd). At 0.8% L(sub Edd), the spectrum is consistent with the presence of such a component, but the component is not required with high confidence. At both luminosities, we detect broad features due to iron Ka that are likely related to reflection of hard X-rays off the optically thick material. If these features are broadened by relativistic effects, they indicate that optically thick material resides within 10 R(sub g) down to 0.8% L(sub Edd), and the measurements are consistent with the inner radius of the disk remaining at approx.4 R(sub g) down to this level. However, we also discuss an alternative model for the broadening, and we note that the evolution of the thermal component is not entirely consistent with the constant inner radius interpretation. Finally, we discuss the results in terms of recent theoretical work by Liu and co-workers on

  18. Broadband X-Ray Spectra of GX 339-4 and the Geometry of Accreting Black Holes in the Hard State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Kalemci, Emrah; Kaaret, Philip; Markoff, Sera; Corbel, Stephane; Migliari, Simone; Fender, Rob; Bailyn, Charles D.; Buxton, Michelle M.

    2008-01-01

    A major question in the study of black hole binaries involves our understanding of the accretion geometry when the sources are in the "hard" state, with an X-ray energy spectrum dominated by a hard power-law component and radio emission coming from a steady "compact" jet. Although the common hard state picture is that the accretion disk is truncated, perhaps at hundreds of gravitational radii (Rg) from the black hole, recent results for the recurrent transient GX 339-4 by Miller and coworkers show evidence for disk material very close to the black hole's innermost stable circular orbit. That work studied GX 339-4 at a luminosity of approximately 5% of the Eddington limit (L(sub Edd) and used parameters from a relativistic reflection model and the presence of a thermal component as diagnostics. Here we use similar diagnostics but extend the study to lower luminosities (2.3% and 0.8% L(sub Edd)) using Swift and RXTE observations of GX 339-4. We detect a thermal component with an inner disk temperature of approximately 0.2 keV at 2.3% L (sub Edd). At both luminosities, we detect broad features due to iron K-alpha that are likely related to reflection of hard X-rays off disk material. If these features are broadened by relativistic effects, they indicate that the material resides within 10 Rg, and the measurements are consistent with the disk's inner radius remaining at approximately 4 Rg down to 0.8% L(sub Edd). However, we also discuss an alternative model for the broadening, and we note that the evolution of the thermal component is not entirely consistent with the constant inner radius interpretation. Finally, we discuss the results in terms of recent theoretical work by Liu and co-workers on the possibility that material may condense out of an Advection-Dominated Accretion Flow to maintain an inner optically thick disk.

  19. Dante Soft X-ray Power Diagnostic for NIF

    SciTech Connect

    Dewald, E; Campbell, K; Turner, R; Holder, J; Landen, O; Glenzer, S; Kauffman, R; Suter, L; Landon, M; Rhodes, M; Lee, D

    2004-04-15

    Soft x-ray power diagnostics are essential for measuring spectrally resolved the total x-ray flux, radiation temperature, conversion efficiency and albedo that are important quantities for the energetics of indirect drive hohlraums. At the Nova or Omega Laser Facilities, these measurements are performed mainly with Dante, but also with DMX and photo-conductive detectors (PCD's). The Dante broadband spectrometer is a collection of absolute calibrated vacuum x-ray diodes, thin filters and x-ray mirrors used to measure the soft x-ray emission for photon energies above 50 eV.

  20. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  1. Suzaku Observations of Luminous Quasars: Revealing the Nature of High-energy Blazar Emission in Low-level Activity States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Colafrancesco, S.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Giebels, B.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grandi, P.; Grenier, I. A.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Madejski, G. M.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nestoras, I.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reyes, L. C.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sambruna, R.; Sander, A.; Sato, R.; Sgrò, C.; Shaw, M. S.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Villata, M.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Sikora, M.; Schady, P.; Roming, P.; Chester, M. M.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-06-01

    We present the results from the Suzaku X-ray observations of five flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), namely PKS 0208-512, Q 0827+243, PKS 1127-145, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 454.3. All these sources were additionally monitored simultaneously or quasi-simultaneously by the Fermi satellite in gamma rays and the Swift UVOT in the UV and optical bands, respectively. We constructed their broadband spectra covering the frequency range from 1014 Hz up to 1025 Hz, and those reveal the nature of high-energy emission of luminous blazars in their low-activity states. The analyzed X-ray spectra are well fitted by a power-law model with photoelectric absorption. In the case of PKS 0208-512, PKS 1127-145, and 3C 454.3, the X-ray continuum showed indication of hardening at low energies. Moreover, when compared with the previous X-ray observations, we see a significantly increasing contribution of low-energy photons to the total X-ray fluxes when the sources are getting fainter. The same behavior can be noted in the Suzaku data alone. A likely explanation involves a variable, flat-spectrum component produced via inverse-Compton emission, plus an additional, possibly steady soft X-ray component prominent when the source gets fainter. This soft X-ray excess is represented either by a steep power-law (photon indices Γ ~ 3-5) or a blackbody-type emission with temperatures kT ~ 0.1-0.2 keV. We model the broadband spectra of the five observed FSRQs using synchrotron self-Compton and/or external-Compton radiation models. Our modeling suggests that the difference between the low- and high-activity states in luminous blazars is due to the different total kinetic power of the jet, most likely related to varying bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow within the blazar emission zone.

  2. A Broadband X-Ray Spectral Study of the Intermediate-mass Black Hole Candidate M82 X-1 with NuSTAR, Chandra, and Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona A.; Barret, Didier; Davis, Shane W.; Fürst, Felix; Madsen, Kristin K.; Middleton, Matthew; Miller, Jon M.; Stern, Daniel; Tao, Lian; Walton, Dominic J.

    2016-09-01

    M82 X-1 is one of the brightest ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) known, which, assuming Eddington-limited accretion and other considerations, makes it one of the best intermediate-mass black-hole (IMBH) candidates. However, the ULX may still be explained by super-Eddington accretion onto a stellar remnant black hole. We present simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Swift/XRT observations during the peak of a flaring episode with the aim of modeling the emission of M82 X-1 and yielding insights into its nature. We find that thin accretion disk models all require accretion rates at or above the Eddington limit in order to reproduce the spectral shape, given a range of black-hole masses and spins. Since at these high Eddington ratios the thin-disk model breaks down due to radial advection in the disk, we discard the results of the thin-disk models as unphysical. We find that the temperature profile as a function of disk radius (T(r)\\propto {r}-p) is significantly flatter (p={0.55}-0.04+0.07) than expected for a standard thin disk (p = 0.75). A flatter profile is instead characteristic of a slim disk, which is highly suggestive of super-Eddington accretion. Furthermore, radiation hydrodynamical simulations of super-Eddington accretion have shown that the predicted spectra of these systems are very similar to what we observe for M82 X-1. We therefore conclude that M82 X-1 is a super-Eddington accretor. Our mass estimates inferred from the inner disk radius imply a stellar remnant black hole ({M}{{BH}} = {26}-6+9 M ⊙) when assuming zero spin and face-on inclination, or an IMBH for maximal spin and a highly inclined disk.

  3. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, N.M.; Stearns, D.G.; Hawryluk, A.M.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.

    1987-08-07

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5--50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20--250 A. The support membrane is 10--200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window. 6 figs.

  4. X-ray beamsplitter

    DOEpatents

    Ceglio, Natale M.; Stearns, Daniel S.; Hawryluk, Andrew M.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray beamsplitter which splits an x-ray beam into two coherent parts by reflecting and transmitting some fraction of an incident beam has applications for x-ray interferometry, x-ray holography, x-ray beam manipulation, and x-ray laser cavity output couplers. The beamsplitter is formed of a wavelength selective multilayer thin film supported by a very thin x-ray transparent membrane. The beamsplitter resonantly transmits and reflects x-rays through thin film interference effects. A thin film is formed of 5-50 pairs of alternate Mo/Si layers with a period of 20-250 A. The support membrane is 10-200 nm of silicon nitride or boron nitride. The multilayer/support membrane structure is formed across a window in a substrate by first forming the structure on a solid substrate and then forming a window in the substrate to leave a free-standing structure over the window.

  5. X-ray Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowicz, Andrzej A.; Van Grieken, Rene E.

    1984-01-01

    Provided is a selective literature survey of X-ray spectrometry from late 1981 to late 1983. Literature examined focuses on: excitation (photon and electron excitation and particle-induced X-ray emission; detection (wavelength-dispersive and energy-dispersive spectrometry); instrumentation and techniques; and on such quantitative analytical…

  6. X-ray

    MedlinePlus

    ... is very low. Most experts feel that the benefits of appropriate x-ray imaging greatly outweigh any risks. Young children and babies in the womb are more sensitive to the risks of x-rays. Tell your health care provider if you think you might be pregnant.

  7. X-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John M.

    1976-01-01

    Apparatus and method for producing coherent secondary x-rays that are controlled as to direction by illuminating a mixture of high z and low z gases with an intense burst of primary x-rays. The primary x-rays are produced with a laser activated plasma, and these x-rays strip off the electrons of the high z atoms in the lasing medium, while the low z atoms retain their electrons. The neutral atoms transfer electrons to highly excited states of the highly striped high z ions giving an inverted population which produces the desired coherent x-rays. In one embodiment, a laser, light beam provides a laser spark that produces the intense burst of coherent x-rays that illuminates the mixture of high z and low z gases, whereby the high z atoms are stripped while the low z ones are not, giving the desired mixture of highly ionized and neutral atoms. To this end, the laser spark is produced by injecting a laser light beam, or a plurality of beams, into a first gas in a cylindrical container having an adjacent second gas layer co-axial therewith, the laser producing a plasma and the intense primary x-rays in the first gas, and the second gas containing the high and low atomic number elements for receiving the primary x-rays, whereupon the secondary x-rays are produced therein by stripping desired ions in a neutral gas and transfer of electrons to highly excited states of the stripped ions from the unionized atoms. Means for magnetically confining and stabilizing the plasma are disclosed for controlling the direction of the x-rays.

  8. Study of Swift/Bat Selected Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei Observed with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tazaki, Fumie; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard

    2016-11-01

    We systematically analyze the broadband (0.5–200 keV) X-ray spectra of hard X-ray (>10 keV) selected local low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) observed with Suzaku and Swift/BAT. The sample consists of 10 LLAGNs detected with Swift/BAT with intrinsic 14–195 keV luminosities smaller than 1042 erg s‑1 available in the Suzaku archive, covering a wide range of the Eddington ratio from 10‑5 to 10‑2. The overall spectra can be reproduced with an absorbed cut-off power law, often accompanied by reflection components from distant cold matter, and/or optically thin thermal emission from the host galaxy. In all of the objects, relativistic reflection components from the innermost disk are not required. Eight objects show a significant narrow iron-Kα emission line. Comparing their observed equivalent widths with the predictions from the Monte-Carlo-based torus model by Ikeda et al. (2009), we constrain the column density in the equatorial plane to be {log} {N}{{H}}{{eq}}\\gt 22.7, or the torus half-opening angle θ oa < 70°. We infer that the Eddington ratio (λ Edd) is a key parameter that determines the torus structure of LLAGNs: the torus becomes large at λ Edd ≳ 2 × 10‑4, whereas at lower accretion rates it is little developed. The luminosity correlation between the hard X-ray and mid-infrared (MIR) bands of the LLAGNs follows the same correlation as for more luminous AGNs. This implies that mechanisms other than AGN-heated dust are responsible for the MIR emission in low Eddington ratio LLAGNs.

  9. X-ray crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  10. Laboratory x ray lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D. L.

    1989-08-01

    One of the most innovative spinoffs of ICF technology and physics was the development of the x ray wavelength laser. The first incontrovertible demonstration of this type of laser came from LLNL in 1984 using the Novette laser to pump a selenium foil target. The power and energy of Novette were then needed to produce a column of plasma of sufficient length to achieve a sufficient gainlength product (approximately 5.5, this corresponds to an amplification of approximately 250X) that could unquestionably illustrate the lasing effect. LLNL ICF expertise was also required to develop time-resolved spectrometers used to view the lasing transitions at approximately 20 nm, a region of the XUV spectrum normally dominated by high backgrounds. The design of the x ray laser amplifier, which required maintaining nonequilibrium level populations in a tailored plasma having the proper conditions for gain and x ray laser beam propagation, was accomplished with modified versions of ICF kinetics and hydrodynamics codes. Since the first demonstration, progress in the development of the x ray laser was rapid. New achievements include production of megawatt power levels at 20 nm, amplified spontaneous emission levels approaching saturation intensity GL of approximately 17 at 20 nm, efficiency (x ray laser energy/pump energy) approximately 10(exp 6), the demonstration of double and triple pass amplification (hinting at the possibility of producing x ray wavelength resonators), the focusing of x ray lasers to pump other types of lasers and the first demonstration of an x ray hologram produced by an x ray laser. The generation of amplification at ever shorter wavelength is possible using various types of inversion schemes. We depict below this progress benchmarked against production of gain in the water window (2.2 to 4.4 nm,), where applications to biological imaging may be facilitated.

  11. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  12. X-ray laser

    DOEpatents

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    An X-ray laser (10) that lases between the K edges of carbon and oxygen, i.e. between 44 and 23 Angstroms, is provided. The laser comprises a silicon (12) and dysprosium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like dysprosium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped to their upper X-ray laser state by line emission from hydrogen-like silicon ions (32). The novel X-ray laser should prove especially useful for the microscopy of biological specimens.

  13. Hard X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project is to study the hard x-ray emission from x-ray bursters. One target of opportunity observation was made for this investigation during 1997. We obtained 38ks of data on the source 4UI705-44. The project is closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", and "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters."

  14. X-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a form of electromagnetic radiation, just like visible light. Structures that are dense (such as bone) will block most of the x-ray particles, and will appear white. Metal and contrast media (special dye used to highlight ...

  15. Pelvis x-ray

    MedlinePlus

    X-ray - pelvis ... Tumors Degenerative conditions of bones in the hips, pelvis, and upper legs ... hip joint Tumors of the bones of the pelvis Sacroiliitis (inflammation of the area where the sacrum ...

  16. Medical X-Rays

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ... and Exporting Electronic Products Compliance Program Guidance Manual CP 7386.003 Field Compliance Testing of Diagnostic (Medical) ...

  17. X-Ray Diffraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  18. X-ray - skeleton

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to look for: Fractures or broken bone Cancer that has spread to other areas of the ... 2014:chap 8. Read More Bone tumor Broken bone Cancer Metastasis Osteomyelitis X-ray Update Date 5/9/ ...

  19. Cosmic x ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, Dan; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1992-01-01

    This final report covers the period 1 January 1985 - 31 March 1992. It is divided into the following sections: the soft x-ray background; proportional counter and filter calibrations; sounding rocket flight preparations; new sounding rocket payload: x-ray calorimeter; and theoretical studies. Staff, publications, conference proceedings, invited talks, contributed talks, colloquia and seminars, public service lectures, and Ph. D. theses are listed.

  20. Short-term X-ray spectral variability of the quasar PDS 456 observed in a low-flux state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzeu, G. A.; Reeves, J. N.; Nardini, E.; Braito, V.; Costa, M. T.; Tombesi, F.; Gofford, J.

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a recent, 2013 Suzaku campaign on the nearby (z = 0.184) luminous (Lbol ˜ 1047 erg s-1) quasar PDS 456. This consisted of three observations, covering a total duration of ˜1 Ms and a net exposure of 455 ks. During these observations, the X-ray flux was unusually low, suppressed by a factor of >10 in the soft X-ray band when compared to previous observations. We investigated the broad-band continuum by constructing a spectral energy distribution (SED), making use of the optical/UV photometry and hard X-ray spectra from the later simultaneous XMM-Newton and NuSTAR campaign in 2014. The high-energy part of this low-flux SED cannot be accounted for by physically self-consistent accretion disc and corona models without attenuation by absorbing gas, which partially covers a substantial fraction of the line of sight towards the X-ray continuum. At least two layers of absorbing gas are required, of column density log (NH,low/cm-2) = 22.3 ± 0.1 and log (NH,high/cm-2) = 23.2 ± 0.1, with average line-of-sight covering factors of ˜80 per cent (with typical ˜5 per cent variations) and 60 per cent (±10-15 per cent), respectively. During these observations PDS 456 displays significant short-term X-ray spectral variability, on time-scales of ˜100 ks, which can be accounted for by variable covering of the absorbing gas along the line of sight. The partial covering absorber prefers an outflow velocity of v_pc = 0.25^{+0.01}_{-0.05} c at the >99.9 per cent confidence level over the case where vpc = 0. This is consistent with the velocity of the highly ionized outflow responsible for the blueshifted iron K absorption profile. We therefore suggest that the partial covering clouds could be the denser, or clumpy part of an inhomogeneous accretion disc wind. Finally estimates are placed upon the size-scale of the X-ray emission region from the source variability. The radial extent of the X-ray emitter is found to be of the order ˜15-20Rg

  1. Explorer Program: X-ray Timing Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This booklet describes the X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE), one in a series of Explorer missions administered by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science and managed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The X-ray astronomy observatory is scheduled for launch into low-Earth orbit by Delta 2 expendable launch vehicle in late summer of 1995. The mission is expected to operate for at least 2 years and will carry out in-depth timing and spectral studies of the X-ray sources in the 2 to 200 kilo-electron Volt (keV) range. XTE is intended to study the temporal and broad-band spectral phenomena associated with stellar and galactic systems containing compact objects, including neutron stars, white dwarfs, and black holes.

  2. Revealing a hard X-ray spectral component that reverberates within one light hour of the central supermassive black hole in Ark 564

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustini, M.; Turner, T. J.; Reeves, J. N.; Miller, L.; Legg, E.; Kraemer, S. B.; George, I. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Arakelian 564 (Ark 564, z = 0.0247) is an X-ray-bright narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy. By using advanced X-ray timing techniques, an excess of "delayed" emission in the hard X-ray band (4-7.5 keV) following about 1000 s after "flaring" light in the soft X-ray band (0.4 - 1 keV) was recently detected. Aims: We report on the X-ray spectral analysis of eight XMM-Newton and one Suzaku observation of Ark 564. Our aim is to characterise the X-ray spectral properties of the source in the light of these recently reported results. Methods: High-resolution spectroscopy was performed with the RGS in the soft X-ray band, while broad-band spectroscopy was performed with the EPIC-pn and XIS/PIN instruments. We analysed time-averaged, flux-selected, and time-resolved spectra. Results: Despite the strong variability in flux during our observational campaign, the broad-band spectral shape of Ark 564 does not vary dramatically and can be reproduced either by a superposition of a power law and a blackbody emission or by a Comptonized power-law emission model. High-resolution spectroscopy revealed ionised gas along the line of sight at the systemic redshift of the source, with a low column density (NH ~ 1021 cm-2) and a range of ionisation states (-0.8 < log (ξ/erg cm s-1) < 2.4). Broad-band spectroscopy revealed a very steep intrinsic continuum (photon index Γ ~ 2.6) and a rather weak emission feature in the iron K band (EW ~ 150 eV); modelling this feature with a reflection component requires highly ionised gas, log (ξ/erg cm s-1) > 3.5. A reflection-dominated or an absorption-dominated model are similarly able to well reproduce the time-averaged data from a statistical point of view, in both cases requiring contrived geometries and/or unlikely physical parameters. Finally, through time-resolved analysis we spectroscopically identified the "delayed" emission as a spectral hardening above ~4 keV; the most likely interpretation for this component is a reprocessing of the

  3. Exploring hot gas at junctions of galaxy filaments with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsuishi, I.; Sasaki, S.; Kawahara, H.; Sekiya, N.; Yamasaki, N. Y; Sousbie, T.

    2014-03-10

    We performed five pointing observations with Suzaku to search for hot gases associated with the junctions of galaxy filaments where no significant diffuse X-ray sources were previously detected. We discovered X-ray sources successfully in all five regions including merging groups of galaxies, Suzaku J0957+2610 and Suzaku J1134+2105, and analyzed two bright sources in each field. Spectral analysis indicates that three sources originate from X-ray diffuse halos associated with optically bright galaxies or groups of galaxies with kT ∼ 0.6-0.8 keV. The three other sources are possibly group- and cluster-scale X-ray halos with temperatures of ∼1 keV and ∼4 keV, respectively while the others are compact object origins such as active galactic nuclei. All of the three observed intracluster media within the junctions of the galaxy filaments previously found are involved in ongoing mergers. Thus, we demonstrate that deep X-ray observations at the filament junctions identified by galaxy surveys are a powerful means to explore previously undetected growing halos in a hierarchical structure.

  4. SUZAKU OBSERVATIONS OF THE HMXB 1A 1118-61

    SciTech Connect

    Suchy, Slawomir; Rothschild, Richard E.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern; Fuerst, Felix; Barragan, Laura; Grinberg, Victoria; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Caballero, Isabel; Terada, Yukikatsu; Iwakari, Wataru; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-05-20

    We present broadband analysis of the Be/X-ray transient 1A 1118-61 by Suzaku at the peak of its third observed outburst in 2009 January and two weeks later when the source flux had decayed by an order of magnitude. The continuum was modeled with a cutoffpl model as well as a compTT model, with both cases requiring an additional blackbody component at lower energies. We confirm the detection of a cyclotron line at {approx}55 keV and discuss the possibility of a first harmonic at {approx}110 keV. Pulse profile comparisons show a change in the profile structure at lower energies, an indication for possible changes in the accretion geometry. Phase-resolved spectroscopy in the outburst data shows a change in the continuum throughout the pulse period. The decrease in the cyclotron resonance scattering feature centroid energy also indicates that the viewing angle on the accretion column is changing throughout the pulse period.

  5. X-RAY EVOLUTION OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Bamba, Aya; Anada, Takayasu; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Yamazaki, Ryo; Vink, Jacco

    2010-08-20

    During the search for counterparts of very high energy gamma-ray sources, we serendipitously discovered large, extended, low surface brightness emission from pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) around pulsars with the ages up to {approx}100 kyr, a discovery made possible by the low and stable background of the Suzaku X-ray satellite. A systematic study of a sample of eight of these PWNe, together with Chandra data sets, has revealed that the nebulae keep expanding up to {approx}100 kyr, although the timescale of the synchrotron X-ray emission is only {approx}60 yr for typical magnetic fields of 100 {mu}G. Our result suggests that the accelerated electrons up to {approx}80 TeV can escape from the PWNe without losing most energies. Moreover, in order to explain the observed correlation between the X-ray size and the pulsar spin-down age, the magnetic field strength in the PWNe must decrease with time.

  6. X-ray beam finder

    DOEpatents

    Gilbert, H.W.

    1983-06-16

    An X-ray beam finder for locating a focal spot of an X-ray tube includes a mass of X-ray opaque material having first and second axially-aligned, parallel-opposed faces connected by a plurality of substantially identical parallel holes perpendicular to the faces and a film holder for holding X-ray sensitive film tightly against one face while the other face is placed in contact with the window of an X-ray head.

  7. The X-Ray Properties of the Dwarf Nova V893 Scorpii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, K.; Zietsman, E.; Still, M.

    V893 Sco is an eclipsing dwarf nova that had attracted littleattention from X-ray astronomers until it was proposed as the identification of an RXTE all-sky slew survey (XSS) source. Here we report on the first ever pointed X-ray observation of this object using Suzaku. We confirm V893 Sco to be an X-ray bright dwarf nova, although the flux we measure is 30 than the XSS flux. We then consider the reliability of the X-ray luminosity function of dwarf novae inferred from the XSS. Finally, we analyze the X-ray light curve of V893 Sco and show that it has a partial X-ray eclipse.

  8. X-ray emission mechanism for the gamma-ray binary LS 5039

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Masaki

    2012-07-01

    We address an unsolved issue in the model of the gamma-ray binary LS 5039, which consists of an O star and a compact object not yet identified. In previous studies, the X-ray emission observed with Suzaku has been assumed to be due to the synchrotron emission from high energy electrons, and the inverse Compton (IC) emission from low energy electrons has been neglected. However, this IC emission can affect the X-ray emission. In this study, we calculate the IC emission from low energy electrons (γ < 10^4) accelerated near the compact object, including those created by the radiative cooling. We find that the IC emission of the low energy electrons can be responsible for the Suzaku band if the minimum Lorentz factor of injected electrons γ_{min} is around 10^3. In addition, we show that the Suzaku light curve is well reproduced if γ_{min} varies in proportion to the Fermi flux.

  9. Hard X-ray Pump, X-ray Probe Spectroscopy of Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loether, Aaron; Decamp, Matt; Walko, Donald

    Recent advancements in intense x-ray pulses have made it possible to perform hard x-ray pump probe spectroscopy. Inspired by optical pump probe, we've built a retroreflector for use with synchrotron based x-rays, using Germanium crystals at Bragg condition in place of mirrors, to control relative timing of x-ray pulses and perform time resolved measurements. Testing of multiple versions of the retroreflector was done both experimentally and via simulation; the comparison allows us to show efficiencies achievable theoretically and realistically. A proof of concept time resolved diffraction experiment on a Germanium 111 crystal was performed utilizing high intensity broadband x-ray pulses and the resulting heating and propagated strains were measured by low intensity monochromatic x-ray pulses. This work was supported from the DOE-EPSCoR Grant No. DE-FG02-11ER46816. Use of the 178 Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, 179 Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  10. Extreme Blazars Studied with Fermi-LAT and Suzaku: 1ES 0347-121 and Blazar Candidate HESS J1943+213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y. T.; Stawarz, Ł.; Finke, J.; Cheung, C. C.; Dermer, C. D.; Kataoka, J.; Bamba, A.; Dubus, G.; De Naurois, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Fukazawa, Y.; Thompson, D. J.

    2014-06-01

    We report on our study of high-energy properties of two peculiar TeV emitters: the "extreme blazar" 1ES 0347-121 and the "extreme blazar candidate" HESS J1943+213 located near the Galactic plane. Both objects are characterized by quiescent synchrotron emission with flat spectra extending up to the hard X-ray range, and both were reported to be missing GeV counterparts in the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) two-year Source Catalog. We analyze a 4.5 yr accumulation of the Fermi-LAT data, resulting in the detection of 1ES 0347-121 in the GeV band, as well as in improved upper limits for HESS J1943+213. We also present the analysis results of newly acquired Suzaku data for HESS J1943+213. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by a single power law extending up to 25 keV with photon index 2.00 ± 0.02 and a moderate absorption in excess of the Galactic value, which is in agreement with previous X-ray observations. No short-term X-ray variability was found over the 80 ks duration of the Suzaku exposure. Under the blazar hypothesis, we modeled the spectral energy distributions of 1ES 0347-121 and HESS J1943+213, and we derived constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field strength and source energetics. We conclude that although the classification of HESS J1943+213 has not yet been determined, the blazar hypothesis remains the most plausible option since, in particular, the broadband spectra of the two analyzed sources along with the source model parameters closely resemble each other, and the newly available Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer and UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey data for HESS J1943+213 are consistent with the presence of an elliptical host at the distance of approximately ~600 Mpc.

  11. A Hard X-ray View on Two Distant VHE Blazars: 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.; Costamente, L.; Madejski, G.; Reimer, O.; Dorner, D.; /Wurzburg U.

    2008-05-02

    TeV-blazars are known as prominent non-thermal emitters across the entire electromagnetic spectrum with their photon power peaking in the X-ray and TeV-band. If distant, absorption of -ray photons by the extragalactic background light (EBL) alters the intrinsic TeV spectral shape, thereby affecting the overall interpretation. Suzaku observations for two of the more distant TeV-blazars known to date, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113, were carried out in May and July 2006, respectively, including a quasi-simultaneous coverage with the state of the art Cherenkov telescope facilities. We report on the resulting data sets with emphasis on the X-ray band, and set into context to their historical behavior. During our campaign, we did not detect any significant X-ray or {gamma}-ray variability. 1ES 1101-232 was found in a quiescent state with the lowest X-ray flux ever measured. The combined XIS and HXD PIN data for 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 1553+113 clearly indicate spectral curvature up to the highest hard X-ray data point ({approx} 30 keV), manifesting as softening with increasing energy. We describe this spectral shape by either a broken power law or a log-parabolic fit with equal statistical goodness of fits. The combined 1ES 1553+113 very high energy spectrum (90-500 GeV) did not show any significant changes with respect to earlier observations. The resulting contemporaneous broadband spectral energy distributions of both TeV-blazars are discussed in view of implications for intrinsic blazar parameter values, taking into account the {gamma}-ray absorption in the EBL.

  12. Suzaku confirms NGC 3660 is an unabsorbed Seyfert 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Brightman, Murray; Bianchi, Stefano; Matt, Giorgio; Nandra, Kirpal; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2016-06-01

    An enigmatic group of objects, unabsorbed Seyfert 2s may have intrinsically weak broad line regions, obscuration in the line of sight to the BLR but not to the X-ray corona, or so much obscuration that the X-ray continuum is completely suppressed and the observed spectrum is actually scattered into the line of sight from nearby material. NGC 3660 has been shown to have weak broad optical/near-infrared lines, no obscuration in the soft X-ray band, and no indication of "changing look" behavior. The only previous hard X-ray detection of this source by Beppo-SAX seemed to indicate that the source might harbor a heavily obscured nucleus. However, our analysis of a long-look Suzaku observation of this source shows that this is not the case, and that this source has a typical power-law X-ray continuum with normal reflection and no obscuration. We conclude that NGC 3660 is confirmed to have no unidentified obscuration and that the anomolously high Beppo-SAX measurement must be due to source confusion or similar, being inconsistent with our Suzaku measurements as well as non-detections from Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE).

  13. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  14. X-ray lithography masking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Henry I. (Inventor); Lim, Michael (Inventor); Carter, James (Inventor); Schattenburg, Mark (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    X-ray masking apparatus includes a frame having a supporting rim surrounding an x-ray transparent region, a thin membrane of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material attached at its periphery to the supporting rim covering the x-ray transparent region and a layer of x-ray opaque material on the thin membrane inside the x-ray transparent region arranged in a pattern to selectively transmit x-ray energy entering the x-ray transparent region through the membrane to a predetermined image plane separated from the layer by the thin membrane. A method of making the masking apparatus includes depositing back and front layers of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material on front and back surfaces of a substrate, depositing back and front layers of reinforcing material on the back and front layers, respectively, of the hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing the material including at least a portion of the substrate and the back layers of an inside region adjacent to the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material, removing a portion of the front layer of reinforcing material opposite the inside region to expose the surface of the front layer of hard inorganic x-ray transparent material separated from the inside region by the latter front layer, and depositing a layer of x-ray opaque material on the surface of the latter front layer adjacent to the inside region.

  15. The ASTRO-H X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2016-04-01

    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in Feb, 2016. ASTRO-H is a combination of high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array, and wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors. Imaging spectroscopy of extended sources by the micro-calorimeter with spectral resolution of <7 eV can reveal line broadening and Doppler shifts due to turbulent or bulk velocities. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.The ASTRO-H mission objectives are to study the evolution of yet-unknown obscured super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets.ASTRO-H will be launched into a circular orbit with altitude of about 575 km, and inclination of 31 degrees.ASTRO-H is in many ways similar to Suzaku in terms of orbit, pointing, and tracking capabilities. After we launch the satellite, the current plan is to use the first three months for check-out and start the PV phase with observations proprietary to the ASTRO-H team. Guest observing time will start from about 10 months after the launch. About 75 % of the satellite time will be devoted to GO observations after the PV phase is completed.In this

  16. X-ray Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray Spectrometer (XRS) instrument is a revolutionary non-dispersive spectrometer that will form the basis for the Astro-E2 observatory to be launched in 2005. We have recently installed a flight spare X R S microcalorimeter spectrometer at the EBIT-I facility at LLNL replacing the XRS from the earlier Astro-E mission and providing twice the resolution. The X R S microcalorimeter is an x-ray detector that senses the heat deposited by the incident photon. It achieves a high energy resolution by operating at 0.06K and by carefully controlling the heat capacity and thermal conductance. The XRS/EBIT instrument has 32 pixels in a square geometry and achieves an energy resolution of 6 eV at 6 keV, with a bandpass from 0.1 to 12 keV (or more at higher operating temperature). The instrument allows detailed studies of the x-ray line emission of laboratory plasmas. The XRS/EBIT also provides an extensive calibration "library" for the Astro-E2 observatory.

  17. X-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Dr. S. N. Zhang has lead a seven member group (Dr. Yuxin Feng, Mr. XuejunSun, Mr. Yongzhong Chen, Mr. Jun Lin, Mr. Yangsen Yao, and Ms. Xiaoling Zhang). This group has carried out the following activities: continued data analysis from space astrophysical missions CGRO, RXTE, ASCA and Chandra. Significant scientific results have been produced as results of their work. They discovered the three-layered accretion disk structure around black holes in X-ray binaries; their paper on this discovery is to appear in the prestigious Science magazine. They have also developed a new method for energy spectral analysis of black hole X-ray binaries; four papers on this topics were presented at the most recent Atlanta AAS meeting. They have also carried Monte-Carlo simulations of X-ray detectors, in support to the hardware development efforts at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). These computation-intensive simulations have been carried out entirely on the computers at UAH. They have also carried out extensive simulations for astrophysical applications, taking advantage of the Monte-Carlo simulation codes developed previously at MSFC and further improved at UAH for detector simulations. One refereed paper and one contribution to conference proceedings have been resulted from this effort.

  18. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Philip

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to use the All-Sky Monitor on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in combination with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to simultaneously measure the x-ray (2-12 keV) and hard x-ray (20-100 keV) emission from x-ray bursters. The investigation was successful. We made the first simultaneous measurement of hard and soft x-ray emission and found a strong anticorrelation of hard and soft x-ray emission from the X-Ray Burster 4U 0614+091. The monitoring performed under this investigation was also important in triggering target of opportunity observations of x-ray bursters made under the investigation hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters approved for RXTE cycles 1 and 2. These observations lead to a number of papers on high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations and on hard x-ray emission from the x-ray bursters 4U 0614+091 and 4U 1705-44.

  19. Fluctuation X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Saldin, PI: D. K.; Co-I's: J. C. H. Spence and P. Fromme

    2013-01-25

    The work supported by the grant was aimed at developing novel methods of finding the structures of biomolecules using x-rays from novel sources such as the x-ray free electron laser and modern synchrotrons

  20. Dual X-ray absorptiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altman, Albert; Aaron, Ronald

    2012-07-01

    Dual X-ray absorptiometry is widely used in analyzing body composition and imaging. Both the method and its limitations are related to the Compton and photoelectric contributions to the X-ray attenuation coefficients of materials.

  1. X-ray characterization by energy-resolved powder diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, G.; Hooker, S. M.

    2016-08-01

    A method for single-shot, nondestructive characterization of broadband x-ray beams, based on energy-resolved powder diffraction, is described. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to simulate data for x-ray beams in the keV range with parameters similar to those generated by betatron oscillations in a laser-driven plasma accelerator. The retrieved x-ray spectra are found to be in excellent agreement with those of the input beams for realistic numbers of incident photons. It is demonstrated that the angular divergence of the x rays can be deduced from the deviation of the detected photons from the Debye-Scherrer rings which would be produced by a parallel beam. It is shown that the angular divergence can be measured as a function of the photon energy, yielding the angularly resolved spectrum of the input x-ray beam.

  2. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  3. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  4. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  5. X-ray satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    An overview of the second quarter 1985 development of the X-ray satellite project is presented. It is shown that the project is proceeding according to plan and that the projected launch date of September 9, 1987 is on schedule. An overview of the work completed and underway on the systems, subsystems, payload, assembly, ground equipment and interfaces is presented. Problem areas shown include cost increases in the area of focal instrumentation, the star sensor light scattering requirements, and postponements in the data transmission subsystems.

  6. SMM x ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, J. L. R.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the X-ray Polychromator (XRP) experiment was to study the physical properties of solar flare plasma and its relation to the parent active region to understand better the flare mechanism and related solar activity. Observations were made to determine the temperature, density, and dynamic structure of the pre-flare and flare plasma as a function of wavelength, space and time, the extent to which the flare plasma departs from thermal equilibrium, and the variation of this departure with time. The experiment also determines the temperature and density structure of active regions and flare-induced changes in the regions.

  7. Soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-12-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs.

  8. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.

    1991-12-31

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits is disclosed. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and eliminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an excellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography. 26 figures.

  9. X-ray lithography source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary

    1991-01-01

    A high-intensity, inexpensive X-ray source for X-ray lithography for the production of integrated circuits. Foil stacks are bombarded with a high-energy electron beam of 25 to 250 MeV to produce a flux of soft X-rays of 500 eV to 3 keV. Methods of increasing the total X-ray power and making the cross section of the X-ray beam uniform are described. Methods of obtaining the desired X-ray-beam field size, optimum frequency spectrum and elminating the neutron flux are all described. A method of obtaining a plurality of station operation is also described which makes the process more efficient and economical. The satisfying of these issues makes transition radiation an exellent moderate-priced X-ray source for lithography.

  10. Monitoring X-Ray Emission from X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer together with data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to study the long-term temporal evolution of these sources in the x-ray and hard x-ray bands. The project was closely related to "Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters", NASA project NAG5-3891, and and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project NAG5-4633, and shares publications in common with both of these. The project involved preparation of software for use in monitoring and then the actual monitoring itself. These efforts have lead to results directly from the ASM data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with the ASM and BATSE.

  11. Analyzing the Spectra of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael

    , we will develop the new software module (essentially a computer code representing the theoretical model) necessary to perform the analysis of accretion-powered pulsar X-ray spectra in the XSPEC spectral analysis environment. Also in this first year we will analyze new Suzaku Cycle 6 Target of Opportunity observations of GX 304-1 and 4U 0115+63, two known cyclotron line sources, that we have recently carried out. In the second year of this study we will apply our new XSPEC spectral continuum module to the archival X-ray observational data from a number of accreting X-ray pulsars from the RXTE/PCA/HEXTE and Suzaku/XIS/HXD instruments to extract basic accretion parameters. Our source list contains eight pulsars, seven of which have observed cyclotron scattering lines. These pulsars span a range in magnetic field strength, luminosity, expected accretion rate, expected polar cap size, and Comptonizing temperature. In the second year of this work we also plan to make our new fully tested XSPEC continuum analysis module available to the Goddard Space Flight Center HEASARC for distribution to the astrophysical research community. The development and analysis tasks proposed here will provide for the first time a physical basis for the analysis and interpretation of data on accreting X-ray pulsar spectra.

  12. Eclipse and Collapse of the Colliding Wind X-ray Emission from Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaguchi, Kenji; Corcoran, Michael F.

    2012-01-01

    X-ray emission from the massive stellar binary system, Eta Carinae, drops strongly around periastron passage; the event is called the X-ray minimum. We launched a focused observing campaign in early 2009 to understand the mechanism of causing the X-ray minimum. During the campaign, hard X-ray emission (<10 keV) from Eta Carinae declined as in the previous minimum, though it recovered a month earlier. Extremely hard X-ray emission between 15-25 keV, closely monitored for the first time with the Suzaku HXD/PIN, decreased similarly to the hard X-rays, but it reached minimum only after hard X-ray emission from the star had already began to recover. This indicates that the X-ray minimum is produced by two composite mechanisms: the thick primary wind first obscured the hard, 2-10 keV thermal X-ray emission from the wind-wind collision (WWC) plasma; the WWC activity then decays as the two stars reach periastron.

  13. Solar X-ray physics

    SciTech Connect

    Bornmann, P.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Research on solar X-ray phenomena performed by American scientists during 1987-1990 is reviewed. Major topics discussed include solar images observed during quiescent times, the processes observed during solar flares, and the coronal, interplanetary, and terrestrial phenomena associated with solar X-ray flares. Particular attention is given to the hard X-ray emission observed at the start of the flare, the energy transfer to the soft X-ray emitting plasma, the late resolution of the flare as observed in soft X-ray, and the rate of occurrence of solar flares as a function of time and latitude. Pertinent aspects of nonflaring, coronal X-ray emission and stellar flares are also discussed. 175 refs.

  14. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Stone, Gary F.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Chornenky, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature x-ray source comprises a compact vacuum tube assembly containing a cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the anode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connection for an initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is highly x-ray transparent and made, for example, from boron nitride. The compact size and potential for remote operation allows the x-ray source, for example, to be placed adjacent to a material sample undergoing analysis or in proximity to the region to be treated for medical applications.

  15. Activity from the Be/X-ray binary system V0332+53 during its intermediate-luminosity outburst in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-García, M. D.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Özbey Arabacı, M.; Zurita, C.; Suso, J.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Beklen, E.; Kiaeerad, F.; Garrido, R.; Hudec, R.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: We present a study of the Be/X-ray binary system V 0332+53 with the main goal of characterizing its behaviour mainly during the intermediate-luminosity X-ray event in 2008. In addition, we aim to contribute to the understanding of the behaviour of the donor companion by including optical data from our dedicated campaign starting in 2006. Methods: V 0332+53 was observed by RXTE and Swift during the decay of the intermediate-luminosity X-ray outburst of 2008, and with Suzaku before the rising of the third normal outburst of the 2010 series. In addition, we present recent data from the Spanish ground-based astronomical observatories of El Teide (Tenerife), Roque de los Muchachos (La Palma), and Sierra Nevada (Granada), and since 2006 from the Turkish TÜBİTAK National Observatory (Antalya). We have performed temporal analyses to investigate the transient behaviour of this system during several outbursts. Results: Our optical study revealed that continuous mass ejection episodes from the Be star have been taking place since 2006 and another is currently ongoing. The broad-band 1-60 keV X-ray spectrum of the neutron star during the decay of the 2008 outburst was well fitted with standard phenomenological models that were enhanced by an absorption feature of unknown origin at about 10 keV and a narrow iron K-alpha fluorescence line at 6.4 keV. For the first time in V 0332+53 we tentatively see an increase in the cyclotron line energy with increasing flux (although further and more sensitive observations are needed to confirm this). The fast aperiodic variability shows a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) at 227 ± 9 mHz only during the lowest luminosities, which might indicate that the inner regions surrounding the magnetosphere are more visible during the lowest flux states.

  16. Mining the Suzaku Archive for Elliptical Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loewenstein, Michael

    Despite significant progress, our understanding of the formation and evolution of giant elliptical galaxies is incomplete. Many unresolved details about the star formation and assembly history, dissipation and feedback processes, and how these are connected in space and time relate to complex gasdynamical processes that are not directly observable, but that leave clues in the form of the level and pattern of heavy element enrichment in the hot ISM. The low background and relatively sharp spectral resolution of the Suzaku X-ray Observatory XIS CCD detectors enable one to derive a particularly extensive abundance pattern in the hot ISM out to large galactic radii for bright elliptical galaxies. These encode important clues to the chemical and dynamical history of elliptical galaxies. The Suzaku archive now includes data on many of the most suitable galaxies for these purposes. To date, these have been analyzed in a very heterogeneous manner -- some at an early stage in the mission using instrument calibration and analysis tools that have greatly evolved in the interim. Given the level of maturity of the data archive, analysis software, and calibration, the time is right to undertake a uniform analysis of this sample and interpret the results in the context of a coherent theoretical framework for the first time. We propose to (1) carefully and thoroughly analyze the available X-ray luminous elliptical galaxies in the Suzaku database, employing the techniques we have established in our previous work to measure hot ISM abundance patterns. Their interpretation requires careful deconstruction within the context of physical gasdynamical and chemical evolutionary models. Since we have developed models for elliptical galaxy chemical evolution specifically constructed to place constraints on the history and development of these systems based on hot ISM abundances, we are uniquely positioned to interpret -- as well as to analyze -- X-ray spectra of these objects. (2) We will

  17. Topological X-Rays Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We continue our study of topological X-rays begun in Lynch ["Topological X-rays and MRI's," iJMEST 33(3) (2002), pp. 389-392]. We modify our definition of a topological magnetic resonance imaging and give an affirmative answer to the question posed there: Can we identify a closed set in a box by defining X-rays to probe the interior and without…

  18. THE TRUNCATED DISK FROM SUZAKU DATA OF GX 339-4 IN THE EXTREME VERY HIGH STATE

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Manami; Kubota, Aya; Yamada, Shinya; Done, Chris; Kolehmainen, Mari; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Torii, Shunsuke E-mail: aya@shibaura-it.ac.jp

    2012-07-01

    We report on the geometry of accretion disk and high-energy coronae in the strong Comptonization state (the very high/steep power law/hard intermediate state) based on a Suzaku observation of the famous Galactic black hole GX 339-4. These data were taken just before the peak of the 2006-2007 outburst, and the average X-ray luminosity in the 0.7-200 keV band is estimated to be 2.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} for a distance of 8 kpc. We fit the spectrum with both simple (independent disk and corona) and sophisticated (energetically coupled disk and corona) models; all fits imply that the underlying optically thick disk is truncated significantly before the innermost stable circular orbit around the black hole. We show this directly by a comparison with similar broadband data from a disk-dominated spectrum at almost the same luminosity observed by XMM-Newton and RXTE 3 days after the Suzaku observation. During the Suzaku observation, the quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency changes from 4.3 Hz to 5.5 Hz, while the spectrum softens. The energetically coupled model gives a corresponding 5% {+-} 8% decrease in the derived inner radius of the disk. While this is not significant, it is consistent with the predicted change in QPO frequency from the Lense-Thirring precession of the hot flow interior to the disk and/or a deformation mode of this flow, as a higher QPO frequency implies a smaller size scale for the corona. This is consistent with the truncated disk extending further inward toward the black hole.

  19. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  20. Monte-Carlo Simulations of the Suzaku-XRS Residual Background Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perinati, E.; Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; Colasanti, L.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Mineo, T.; Mitsuda, K.; Bonardi, A.; Santangelo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic micro-calorimeters are suitable to detect small amounts of energy deposited by electromagnetic and nuclear interactions, which makes them attractive in a variety of applications on ground and in space. The only X-ray microcalorimeter that operated in orbit to date is the X-Ray Spectrometer on-board of the Japanese Suzaku satellite. We discuss the analysis of the components of its residual background spectrum with the support of Monte-Carlo simulations.

  1. Suzaku Captures a Possible Eclipse in IGR J16207-5129 and Identifies a Weak-Flaring State in IGR J17391-3021

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A.; Rodriquez, Jerome; Chaty, Sylvain; Pottschmidt, Katja; Walter, Roland; Romano, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    We present the results from analyses of Suzaku observations of the supergiant X-ray binaries IGR Jl6207-5129 and IGR Jl7391-3021. For IGR Jl6207-5129, we provide the first broadband (0.5-60 keV) spectrum from which we confirm a large intrinsic column density (N(sub H) = 16 X 10(exp 22)/square cm), and constrain the cutoff energy for the first time (E(sub c) 19 keV). We observed a prolonged (> 30 ks) attenuation of the X-ray flux which we tentatively attribute to an eclipse of the probable neutron star by its massive companion. For IGR Jl739J-3021, we witnessed a transition from quiescence to a low-activity phase punctuated by weak flares whose peak luminosities in the 0.5-10 keV band are only a factor of 5 times that of the pre-flare emission. The weak flaring is accompanied by an increase in the absorbing column which suggests the accretion of obscuring clumps of wind. Placing this observation in the context of the recent Swift monitoring campaign, we now recognize that these low-activity epochs constitute the most common emission phase for this system, and perhaps in other supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) as well.

  2. Measurements of Si hybrid CMOS x-ray detector characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, Stephen D.; Falcone, Abe D.; Burrows, David N.; Cook, Robert; Bai, Yibin; Farris, Mark

    2009-08-01

    The development of Hybrid CMOS Detectors (HCDs) for X-Ray telescope focal planes will place them in contention with CCDs on future satellite missions due to their faster frame rates, flexible readout scenarios, lower power consumption, and inherent radiation hardness. CCDs have been used with great success on the current generation of X-Ray telescopes (e.g. Chandra, XMM, Suzaku, and Swift). However their bucket-brigade readout architecture, which transfers charge across the chip with discrete component readout electronics, results in clockrate limited readout speeds that cause pileup (saturation) of bright sources and an inherent susceptibility to radiation induced displacement damage that limits mission lifetime. In contrast, HCDs read pixels with low power, on-chip multiplexer electronics in a random access fashion. Faster frame rates achieved with multi-output readout design will allow the next generation's larger effective area telescopes to observe bright sources free of pileup. Radiation damaged lattice sites effect a single pixel instead of an entire row. Random access, multi-output readout will allow for novel readout modes such as simultaneous bright-source-fast/whole-chip-slow readout. In order for HCDs to be useful as X-Ray detectors, they must show noise and energy resolution performance similar to CCDs while retaining advantages inherent to HCDs. We will report on readnoise, conversion gain, and energy resolution measurements of an X-Ray enhanced Teledyne HAWAII-1RG (H1RG) HCD and describe techniques of H1RG data reduction.

  3. Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With grazing incidence telescopes, x-ray astronomy became a major branch of astrophysics. They are an indispensable tool in the study of >106 K thermal and non-thermal high energy phenomena occurring in objects from the solar system to the most distant sites in the universe. They have shed light upon dark matter and dark energy. Four cosmic missions with focusing grazing incidence x-ray telescopes based upon the Wolter 1 geometry are currently in space. They include two observatory class facilities launched in 1999, NASA's high resolution x-ray and ESA's high throughput XMM-Newton. Two others are Japan's Suzaku, performing a variety of studies, and the Swift XRT, which finds precise positions for the x-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Four new cosmic missions with Wolter-like focusing telescopes are scheduled for launch. They will provide much broader bandwidth (NuSTAR and Astro-H), perform a new sky survey with more exposure time and a broader energy range than previous surveys (eROSITA), have an imaging detector with much better energy resolution (Astro-H), and measure polarization (GEMS). The Kirkpatrick-Baez and the lobster-eye are two types of potentially useful grazing incidence telescopes that have not yet been in orbit. It may not be possible to improve upon Chandra's 0.5 arcsec resolution without new technology.

  4. Soft X-ray astronomy using grazing incidence optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The instrumental background of X-ray astronomy with an emphasis on high resolution imagery is outlined. Optical and system performance, in terms of resolution, are compared and methods for improving the latter in finite length instruments described. The method of analysis of broadband images to obtain diagnostic information is described and is applied to the analysis of coronal structures.

  5. Variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence x ray telescope is disclosed, which capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more ellipsoidal mirrors are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis, each mirror having a concave surface coated with a multilayer synthetic microstructure coating to reflect a desired wavelength. The ellipsoidal mirrors are segments of respective ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second focus of each of the ellipsoids so that each of the ellipsoidal mirrors may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector. In one embodiment the mirrors are inclined at different angles and has its respective second focus at a different location, separate detectors being located at the respective second focus. The mirrors are arranged so that the magnification and field of view differ, and a solenoid activated arm may withdraw at least one mirror from the beam to select the mirror upon which the beam is to impinge so that selected magnifications and fields of view may be detected.

  6. The Symbiotic System SS73 17 seen with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.; Mushotzky, Richard; Kallman, Tim; Tueller, Jack; Mukai, Koji; Markwardt, Craig

    2007-01-01

    We observed with Suzaku the symbiotic star SS73 17, motivated by the discovery by the INTEGRAL satellite and the Swift BAT survey that it emits hard X-rays. Our observations showed a highly-absorbed X-ray spectrum with NH > loz3 emp2, equivalent to Av > 26, although the source has B magnitude 11.3 and is also bright in UV. The source also shows strong, narrow iron lines including fluorescent Fe K as well as Fe xxv and Fe XXVI. The X-ray spectrum can be fit with a thermal model including an absorption component that partially covers the source. Most of the equivalent width of the iron fluorescent line in this model can be explained as a combination of reprocessing in a dense absorber plus reflection off a white dwarf surface, but it is likely that the continuum is partially seen in reflection as well. Unlike other symbiotic systems that show hard X-ray emission (CH Cyg, RT Cru, T CrB, GX1+4), SS73 17 is not known to have shown nova-like optical variability, X-ray flashes, or pulsations, and has always shown faint soft X-ray emission. As a result, although it is likely a white dwarf, the nature of the compact object in SS73 17 is still uncertain. SS73 17 is probably an extreme example of the recently discovered and relatively small class of hard X-ray emitting symbiotic systems.

  7. The Suzaku Observation of the Nucleus of theRadio-Loud Active Galaxy Centaurus A: Constraints on Abundances of the Accreting Material

    SciTech Connect

    Markowitz, A.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Bamba, A.; Isobe, N.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Mushotzky, R.; Okajima, T.; Ptak, A.; Reeves, J.N.; Ueda, Y.; Yamasaki, T.; Yaqoob, T.

    2007-06-27

    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The net exposure times after screening were: 70 ks per X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) camera, 60.8 ks for the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD) PIN, and 17.1 ks for the HXD-GSO. The hard X-rays are fit by two power-laws of the same slope, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} respectively. The spectrum is consistent with previous suggestions that the power-law components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, but it is also consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature vapec model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The Fe K{alpha} line width yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. Fe, Ca, and S K-shell absorption edges are detected. Elemental abundances are constrained via absorption edge depths and strengths of the fluorescent and diffuse plasma emission lines. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.1) of the circumnuclear material suggests that it could not have originated in the relatively metal-poor outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative abundances are consistent with enrichment from Type II and Ia supernovae.

  8. X-ray beam pointer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive, readily assembled pointer aims X-ray machine for welded assembly radiographs. Plumb bob used for vertical alinement and yardstick used to visualize X-ray paths were inconvenient and inaccurate. Pointer cuts alinement time by one-half and eliminates necessity of retakes. For 3,000 weld radiographs, pointer will save 300 worker-hours and significant materials costs.

  9. X-ray based extensometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, E. H.; Pease, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A totally new method of extensometry using an X-ray beam was proposed. The intent of the method is to provide a non-contacting technique that is immune to problems associated with density variations in gaseous environments that plague optical methods. X-rays are virtually unrefractable even by solids. The new method utilizes X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence or X-ray induced optical fluorescence of targets that have melting temperatures of over 3000 F. Many different variations of the basic approaches are possible. In the year completed, preliminary experiments were completed which strongly suggest that the method is feasible. The X-ray induced optical fluorescence method appears to be limited to temperatures below roughly 1600 F because of the overwhelming thermal optical radiation. The X-ray induced X-ray fluorescence scheme appears feasible up to very high temperatures. In this system there will be an unknown tradeoff between frequency response, cost, and accuracy. The exact tradeoff can only be estimated. It appears that for thermomechanical tests with cycle times on the order of minutes a very reasonable system may be feasible. The intended applications involve very high temperatures in both materials testing and monitoring component testing. Gas turbine engines, rocket engines, and hypersonic vehicles (NASP) all involve measurement needs that could partially be met by the proposed technology.

  10. The Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS) for the ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammon, D.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Okajima, T.; Petre, R.; Porter, F. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Smith, R. K.; Soong, Y.; Szymkowiak, A. E.; Mitsuda, K.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Fujimoto, R.; Kawaharada, M.

    2008-03-01

    The ISAS/JAXA New Exploration X-Ray Telescope (NEXT) is now under development for launch in 2013. The observatory is designed to provide extremely high spectral resolution with large collecting area below 10 keV using an x-ray calorimeter, and a very large band pass (up to 300 keV) with extraordinary sensitivity over the range 10-80 keV using focusing x-ray optics. In this talk we will discuss plans for the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer (SXS), which uses an x-ray calorimeter array to provide the high spectral resolution. The SXS is a joint effort between ISAS and NASA and recently proposed to NASA as a Mission of Opportunity for the US participation. The SXS incorporates a 6x6 calorimeter array that has strong heritage in the Suzaku program and better than 7 eV energy resolution, with 4-5 eV expected based on recent laboratory tests. The cryogenic system will be a hybrid design with both liquid helium and mechanical coolers to provide a robust, redundant system with long life (> 3 years). The x-ray optical system (6 m focal length) uses thin-foil conical optics to provide at least 220 square cm at 6 keV. The SXS will enable a wide variety of interesting science topics to be pursued, including testing theories of structure formation using velocity measurements of clusters of galaxies and inferring the energy output from the jets and winds of active galaxies. The SXS will accurately measure metal abundances in the oldest galaxies, providing unique information on the origin of the elements, and observe matter in extreme gravitational fields, enabling time-resolved spectra from material approaching the event horizon of a black hole. Along with providing the instrument, we have proposed a well supported guest investigator program that will enable full US participation.

  11. X-Ray Tomographic Reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnie Schmittberger

    2010-08-25

    Tomographic scans have revolutionized imaging techniques used in medical and biological research by resolving individual sample slices instead of several superimposed images that are obtained from regular x-ray scans. X-Ray fluorescence computed tomography, a more specific tomography technique, bombards the sample with synchrotron x-rays and detects the fluorescent photons emitted from the sample. However, since x-rays are attenuated as they pass through the sample, tomographic scans often produce images with erroneous low densities in areas where the x-rays have already passed through most of the sample. To correct for this and correctly reconstruct the data in order to obtain the most accurate images, a program employing iterative methods based on the inverse Radon transform was written. Applying this reconstruction method to a tomographic image recovered some of the lost densities, providing a more accurate image from which element concentrations and internal structure can be determined.

  12. Focusing X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen; Brissenden, Roger; Davis, William; Elsner, Ronald; Elvis, Martin; Freeman, Mark; Gaetz, Terrance; Gorenstein, Paul; Gubarev, Mikhall; Jerlus, Diab; Juda, Michael; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey; Murray, Stephen; Petre, Robert; Podgorski, William; Ramsey, Brian; Reid, Paul; Saha, Timo; Wolk, Scott; Troller-McKinstry, Susan; Weisskopf, Martin; Wilke, Rudeger; Zhang, William

    2010-01-01

    During the half-century history of x-ray astronomy, focusing x-ray telescopes, through increased effective area and finer angular resolution, have improved sensitivity by 8 orders of magnitude. Here, we review previous and current x-ray-telescope missions. Next, we describe the planned next-generation x-ray-astronomy facility, the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). We conclude with an overview of a concept for the next next-generation facility, Generation X. Its scientific objectives will require very large areas (about 10,000 sq m) of highly-nested, lightweight grazing-incidence mirrors, with exceptional (about 0.1-arcsec) resolution. Achieving this angular resolution with lightweight mirrors will likely require on-orbit adjustment of alignment and figure.

  13. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission Around Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Miyoshi, Y.; Uchiyama, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to 6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of 3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts and the bright spot seemed to move according to the Io's motion. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. We hence examined three mechanisms: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon related to Io.

  14. Hard X-Ray Emission of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, Phillip

    1997-01-01

    The main results from this investigation were serendipitous. The long observation approved for the study of the hard X-ray emission of X-ray bursters lead, instead, to one of the largest early samples of the behavior of fast quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOS) in an atoll sources. Our analysis of this data set lead to the several important discoveries including the existence of a robust correlation between QPO frequency and the flux of a soft blackbody component of the X-ray spectrum in the atoll source 4U 0614+091.

  15. Radio-Loud AGN: The Suzaku View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    2009-01-01

    We review our Suzaku observations of Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs). The continuum above 2 approx.keV in BLRGs is dominated by emission from an accretion flow, with little or no trace of a jet, which is instead expected to emerge at GeV energies and be detected by Fermi. Concerning the physical conditions of the accretion disk, BLRGs are a mixed bag. In some sources the data suggest relatively high disk ionization, in others obscuration of the innermost regions, perhaps by the jet base. While at hard X-rays the distinction between BLRGs and Seyferts appears blurry, one of the cleanest observational differences between the two classes is at soft X-rays, where Seyferts exhibit warm absorbers related to disk winds while BLRGs do not. We discuss the possibility that jet formation inhibits disk winds, and thus is related to the remarkable dearth of absorption features at soft X-rays in BLRGs and other radio-loud AGN.

  16. Probing the Disk-Jet Connection of the Radio Galaxy 3C120 Observed With Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Kataoka, Jun; Reeves, James N.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Markowitz, Alex G.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Arimoto, Makoto; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tsubuku, Yoshihiro; Ushio, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Shin; Gallo, Luigi C.; Madejski, Greg M.; Terashima, Yuichi; Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Kohmura, Takayoshi; /Tokyo Inst. Tech. /NASA, Goddard /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE /JAXA, Sagamihara /SLAC /Ehime U. /Wako, RIKEN /Saitama U. /Kogakuin U.

    2007-01-03

    Broad line radio galaxies (BLRGs) are a rare type of radio-loud AGN, in which the broad optical permitted emission lines have been detected in addition to the extended jet emission. Here we report on deep (40ksec x 4) observations of the bright BLRG 3C 120 using Suzaku. The observations were spaced a week apart, and sample a range of continuum fluxes. An excellent broadband spectrum was obtained over two decades of frequency (0.6 to 50 keV) within each 40 ksec exposure. We clearly resolved the iron K emission line complex, finding that it consists of a narrow K{sub {alpha}} core ({sigma} {approx_equal} 110 eV or an EW of 60 eV), a 6.9 keV line, and an underlying broad iron line. Our confirmation of the broad line contrasts with the XMM-Newton observation in 2003, where the broad line was not required. The most natural interpretation of the broad line is iron K line emission from a face-on accretion disk which is truncated at {approx} 10 r{sub g}. Above 10 keV, a relatively weak Compton hump was detected (reflection fraction of R {approx_equal} 0.6), superposed on the primary X-ray continuum of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 1.75. Thanks to the good photon statistics and low background of the Suzaku data, we clearly confirm the spectral evolution of 3C 120, whereby the variability amplitude decreases with increasing energy. More strikingly, we discovered that the variability is caused by a steep power-law component of {Lambda} {approx_equal} 2.7, possibly related to the non-thermal jet emission. We discuss our findings in the context of similarities and differences between radio-loud/quiet objects.

  17. What can be Learned from X-ray Spectroscopy Concerning Hot Gas in Local Bubble and Charge Exchange Processes?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snowden, Steve

    2007-01-01

    What can be learned from x-ray spectroscopy in observing hot gas in local bubble and charge exchange processes depends on spectral resolution, instrumental grasp, instrumental energy band, signal-to-nose, field of view, angular resolution and observatory location. Early attempts at x-ray spectroscopy include ROSAT; more recently, astronomers have used diffuse x-ray spectrometers, XMM Newton, sounding rocket calorimeters, and Suzaku. Future observations are expected with calorimeters on the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma mission, and the Solar Wind Charge Exchange (SWCX). The Geospheric SWCX may provide remote sensing of the solar wind and magnetosheath and remote observations of solar CMEs moving outward from the sun.

  18. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    MAKISHIMA, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1–7) × 108 T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  19. The Extended X-ray Nebula of PSR J1420-6048

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-19

    The vicinity of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1420-6038 has undergone extensive study in the search for counterparts, revealing the energetic young pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and its surrounding wind nebula as a likely candidate for at least part of the emission from this bright and extended gamma-ray source. We report on new Suzaku observations of PSR J1420-6048, along with analysis of archival XMM Newton data. The low background of Suzaku permits mapping of the extended X-ray nebula, indicating a tail stretching {approx} 8 minutes north of the pulsar. The X-ray data, along with archival radio and VHE data, hint at a pulsar birthsite to the North, and yield insights into its evolution and the properties of the ambient medium. We further explore such properties by modeling the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the extended nebula.

  20. Development of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT): Engineering Model Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2011-09-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments onboard, with a sensitive energy band up to 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector and the other for an X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. X-ray reflecting surface is a gold thin layer ( 2000A) transferred from a smooth glass mandrel to the substrate by a replication method using an epoxy buffer layer (12 um). It is similar to the Suzaku XRT, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Goals of angular resolution and effective area are 1 arcmin and 390 cm2 at 6 keV, respectively. We made several improvements from Suzaku to ASTRO-H, such as thicker substrates, more forming mandrels, thinner epoxy layer for replication, stiffer housings, precise alignment bars, etc. With all these changes, we have fabricated the engineering test unit of the SXT. In this paper, we will discuss all the changes made, their effects, and report X-ray performance of the SXT test unit. An angular resolution of the test unit was measured at new Goddard X-ray calibration facility (100 m X-ray beamline) and was found to be 65 arcsec at 4.5 keV. We will also discuss further improvements toward the flight unit to be delivered to JAXA in 2012.

  1. Fossil group origins - VI. Global X-ray scaling relations of fossil galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundert, A.; Gastaldello, F.; D'Onghia, E.; Girardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Barrena, R.; Corsini, E. M.; De Grandi, S.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Lozada-Muñoz, M.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Wilcots, E.; Zarattini, S.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first pointed X-ray observations of 10 candidate fossil galaxy groups and clusters. With these Suzaku observations, we determine global temperatures and bolometric X-ray luminosities of the intracluster medium (ICM) out to r500 for six systems in our sample. The remaining four systems show signs of significant contamination from non-ICM sources. For the six objects with successfully determined r500 properties, we measure global temperatures in the range 2.8 ≤ TX ≤ 5.3 keV, bolometric X-ray luminosities of 0.8 × 1044 ≤ LX, bol ≤ 7.7 × 1044 erg s-1, and estimate masses, as derived from TX, of M500 ≳ 1014 M⊙. Fossil cluster scaling relations are constructed for a sample that combines our Suzaku observed fossils with fossils in the literature. Using measurements of global X-ray luminosity, temperature, optical luminosity, and velocity dispersion, scaling relations for the fossil sample are then compared with a control sample of non-fossil systems. We find the fits of our fossil cluster scaling relations are consistent with the relations for normal groups and clusters, indicating fossil clusters have global ICM X-ray properties similar to those of comparable mass non-fossil systems.

  2. X-Ray photonics: X-rays inspire electron movies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    The advent of high-energy, short-pulse X-ray sources based on free-electron lasers, laser plasmas and high-harmonic generation is now making it possible to probe the dynamics of electrons within molecules.

  3. Be/X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    The interest in X/ γ-ray Astronomy has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the ability to send X-ray space missions above the Earth’s atmosphere. There are more than half a million X-ray sources detected and over a hundred missions (past and currently operational) devoted to the study of cosmic X/ γ rays. With the improved sensibilities of the currently active missions new detections occur almost on a daily basis. Among these, neutron-star X-ray binaries form an important group because they are among the brightest extra-solar objects in the sky and are characterized by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales ranging from milliseconds to months and years. Their main source of power is the gravitational energy released by matter accreted from a companion star and falling onto the neutron star in a relatively close binary system. Neutron-star X-ray binaries divide into high-mass and low-mass systems according to whether the mass of the donor star is above ˜8 or below ˜2 M⊙, respectively. Massive X-ray binaries divide further into supergiant X-ray binaries and Be/X-ray binaries depending on the evolutionary status of the optical companion. Virtually all Be/X-ray binaries show X-ray pulsations. Therefore, these systems can be used as unique natural laboratories to investigate the properties of matter under extreme conditions of gravity and magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called “Be phenomenon”, such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/ R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass

  4. X-ray burst sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, W. H. G.

    1986-01-01

    There are about 100 bright X-ray sources in the Galaxy that are accretion-driven systems composed of a neutron star and a low mass companion that fills its critical Roche lobe. Many of these systems generate recurring X-ray bursts that are the result of thermonuclear flashes in the neutron star's surface layers, and are accompanied by a somewhat delayed optical burst due to X-ray heating of accretion disk. The Rapid Burster discovered in 1976 exhibits an interval between bursts that is strongly correlated with the energy in the preceding burst. There is no optical identification for this object.

  5. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-01-01

    The FluoroScan Imaging System is a high resolution, low radiation device for viewing stationary or moving objects. It resulted from NASA technology developed for x-ray astronomy and Goddard application to a low intensity x-ray imaging scope. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc, (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), a NASA licensee, further refined the FluoroScan System. It is used for examining fractures, placement of catheters, and in veterinary medicine. Its major components include an x-ray generator, scintillator, visible light image intensifier and video display. It is small, light and maneuverable.

  6. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Okajima, Takashi; Hahne, Devin

    2011-09-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for X-ray spectroscopic study non-dispersively and to carry out survey complementally, which will be borne out of US-Japanese collaborative effort. Among the onboard instruments there are four conically approximated Wolter-I X-ray mirrors, among which two of them are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV, currently being fabricated in the X-ray Optics Lab at Goddard Space Flight Center. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 μm nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over the Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. In this paper, we report the results of calibration of the engineering model of SXT (EM), and project the quality of the flight mirrors.

  7. Ground-based x-ray calibration of the Astro-H soft x-ray telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Sato, Toshiki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Okajima, Takashi; Soong, Yang; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Mori, Hideyuki; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari

    2014-07-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite Astro-H, planned to be launched in 2015, will have several instruments for covering a wide energy band from a few hundreds eV to 600 keV. There are four X-ray telescopes, and two of them are soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs) covering up to about 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector (SXS) and the other is for an X-ray CCD detector (SXI). The design of the SXTs is a conical approximation of the Wolter Type-I optics, which is also adopted for the telescopes on the previous mission Suzaku launched in 2005. It consists 203 thin-foil reflectors coated with gold monolayer (2000 Å) on the aluminum substrate (101.6 mm length) with the thickness of 0.15, 0.23 and 0.31 mm. These are nested confocally within the radius of 58 to 225 mm. The focal length of SXTs is 5.6 m. The weight is as light as ~ 43 kg per telescope. We present the current status of the calibration activity of two SXTs (SXT-1 and SXT-2). The developments of two SXTs were completed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). First X-ray measurements with a diverging beam at the GSFC 100m beamline found an angular resolution at 8.0 keV to be 1.1 and 1.0 arcmin (HPD) for SXT-1 and SXT-2, respectively. The full characterization of the X-ray performance has been now continuously calibrated with the 30m X-ray beamline facility at the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) in Japan. We adopted a raster scan method with a narrow X-ray pencil beam with the divergence of ~ 15". X-ray characterization of the two SXTs has been measured from May and December 2013, respectively. In the case of SXT-1, the on-axis effective area was approximately 580, 445, 370, 270, 185 and 90 cm2 at energies of 1.5, 4.5, 8.0, 9.4, 11.1 and 12.9 keV respectively. The effective area of SXT-2 is 2% larger than that of SXT-1 irrespective to X-ray energy. The on-axis angular resolution of SXT-1 was evaluated as 1.3 - 1.5 arcmin (HPD) in the 1

  8. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    SciTech Connect

    Syryamkin, V. I. Klestov, S. A.

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  9. Imaging X-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, P. A.; Jackson, J. W., Jr.; Alcorn, G. E.; Marshall, F. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An X-ray spectrometer for providing imaging and energy resolution of an X-ray source is described. This spectrometer is comprised of a thick silicon wafer having an embedded matrix or grid of aluminum completely through the wafer fabricated, for example, by thermal migration. The aluminum matrix defines the walls of a rectangular array of silicon X-ray detector cells or pixels. A thermally diffused aluminum electrode is also formed centrally through each of the silicon cells with biasing means being connected to the aluminum cell walls and causes lateral charge carrier depletion between the cell walls so that incident X-ray energy causes a photoelectric reaction within the silicon producing collectible charge carriers in the form of electrons which are collected and used for imaging.

  10. X-ray fiducial foils

    SciTech Connect

    Alford, C.; Serduke, F.; Makowiecki, D.; Jankowski, A.; Wall, M.

    1991-03-13

    An x-ray spectrum from a laser fusion experiment was passed through an Al, Si, Y multilayer foil. The position of the absorption edges of the Al, Si, and Y was used to calibrate the x-ray energy spectrum recorded on photographic film. The foil consisted of 4000 {angstrom} of Al, 6000 {angstrom} of Si and 4000 {angstrom} of Y sputter deposited on a 1.5 {mu}m thick Mylar{reg sign} film. It was necessary to layer the structure in order to achieve the required mechanical strength and dimensional stability. The results include analysis of the x-ray energy spectrum and microstructural characterization of the foil using x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone x-ray is used to: diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. demonstrate proper alignment and stabilization of bony fragments following treatment of a fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, ...

  12. X-Ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Model 60007A InnerView Real-time X-ray Imaging System, produced by National Imaging Systems, a division of FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc. (formerly HealthMate, Inc.), Northbrook, IL, is a third generation spinoff from x-ray astronomy technology. Goddard Space Flight Center developed the original technology into the Lixiscope, a small, portable, minimal radiation x-ray instrument that could be used at the scene of an accident. FlouroScan Imaging Systems, Inc., adapted this technology to develop the FlouroScan, a low-intensity, x-ray system that could be used without the lead aprons, film badges and lead-lined walls that conventional systems require. The InnerView is a spinoff of non-destructive testing and product inspection.

  13. Miniature x-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  14. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... have very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top ...

  15. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... Results A radiologist, a doctor specially trained in reading and interpreting X-ray images, will look at ...

  16. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  18. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  19. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of keeping still while the X-ray is ...

  20. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  1. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... For older kids, be sure to explain the importance of staying still while the X-ray is ...

  2. Enhancement of X-ray dose absorption for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sara; Nahar, S.; Pradhan, A.; Barth, R.

    2013-05-01

    A promising technique for cancer treatment is radiation therapy with high-Z (HZ) nanomoities acting as radio-sensitizers attached to tumor cells and irradiated with X-rays. But the efficacy of radiosenstization is highly energy dependent. We study the physical effects in using platinum (Pt) as the radio-sensitizing agent, coupled with commonly employed broadband x-ray sources with mean energies around 100 keV, as opposed to MeV energies produced by clinical linear accelerators (LINAC) used in radiation therapy. Numerical calculations, in vitro, and in vivo studies of F98 rat glioma (brain cancer) demonstrate that irradiation from a medium energy X-ray (MEX) 160 kV source is far more effective than from a high energy x-ray (HEX) 6 MV LINAC. We define a parameter to quantify photoionization by an x-ray source, which thereby provides a measure of subsequent Auger decays. The platinum (Z = 78) results are also relevant to ongoing studies on x-ray interaction with gold (Z = 79) nanoparticles, widely studied as an HZ contrast agent. The present study should be of additional interest for a combined radiation plus chemotherapy treatment since Pt compounds such cis-Pt and carbo-Pt are commonly used in chemotherapy.

  3. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    DOEpatents

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  4. X-Rays, Pregnancy and You

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Procedures Medical Imaging Medical X-ray Imaging X-Rays, Pregnancy and You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... the decision with your doctor. What Kind of X-Rays Can Affect the Unborn Child? During most x- ...

  5. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to your desktop! more... Why Do I Need X-Rays? Article Chapters Why Do I Need X-Rays? ... of tooth decay. Updated: January 2012 Related Articles: X-Rays The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Sets the ...

  6. Nanometer x-ray lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Frank T.; Khan Malek, Chantal G.

    1999-10-01

    New developments for x-ray nanomachining include pattern transfer onto non-planar surfaces coated with electrodeposited resists using synchrotron radiation x-rays through extremely high-resolution mask made by chemically assisted focused ion beam lithography. Standard UV photolithographic processes cannot maintain sub-micron definitions over large variation in feature topography. The ability of x-ray printing to pattern thin or thick layers of photoresist with high resolution on non-planar surfaces of large and complex topographies with limited diffraction and scattering effects and no substrate reflection is known and can be exploited for patterning microsystems with non-planar 3D geometries as well as multisided and multilayered substrates. Thin conformal coatings of electro-deposited positive and negative tone photoresist have been shown to be x-ray sensitive and accommodate sub-micro pattern transfer over surface of extreme topographical variations. Chemically assisted focused ion beam selective anisotropic erosion was used to fabricate x-ray masks directly. Masks with feature sizes less than 20 nm through 7 microns of gold were made on bulk silicon substrates and x-ray mask membranes. The technique is also applicable to other high density materials. Such masks enable the primary and secondary patterning and/or 3D machining of Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems over large depths or complex relief and the patterning of large surface areas with sub-optically dimensioned features.

  7. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, K.W.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bitter, M.; Fredrickson, E.; Von Goeler, S.; Hsuan, H.; Johnson, L.C.; Liew, S.L.; McGuire, K.; Pare, V.

    1987-01-01

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/..delta..E is greater than 10/sup 4/ and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

  8. Detection of first harmonic of cyclotron line in Be/X-ray binary pulsar Cep X-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaisawal, Gaurava K.; Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    We present broad-band spectral properties of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar Cep X-4 by using a Suzaku observation, performed during the decline phase of outburst in 2014 July. The pulsation period of the pulsar was estimated to be 66.3 s during the observation. Soft X-ray pulse profile of the pulsar was found to be double peaked which evolved into a single peaked pulse profile at higher energies. The 1-70 keV energy spectrum of the pulsar was well described with several continuum models such as partial covering Negative and Positive power-law with Exponential cut-off (NPEX), high-energy cut-off power-law and CompTT models. Additional components such as a cyclotron absorption line at ˜28 keV and two Gaussian functions for 6.4 and 6.9 keV iron emission lines were required to describe the the observed features in the spectrum. An additional absorption like feature was also detected in the pulsar spectrum at ˜45 keV. This feature was found to be model independent and was detected with >4 sigma confidence level. We identified this additional feature as the first harmonic of the fundamental cyclotron line at 28 keV. The energy ratio between first cyclotron harmonic and fundamental line was found to be lower (1.7) than the conventional factor of 2. This indicates that the line forming regions are at different heights or viewed at large angles. Phase-resolved spectroscopy was performed to understand the changes in the cyclotron line parameters with pulsar phases. The fundamental and first cyclotron harmonic line parameters show a significant variation with pulse phase. This can be explained as the effects of the viewing angle or the role of complicated magnetic field of the neutron star.

  9. Spectral Modeling of the Comptonized Continua of Accreting X-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Michael Thomas; Pottschmidt, Katja; Becker, Peter A.; Marcu, Diana; Wilms, Jörn; Wood, Kent S.

    2015-01-01

    We are undertaking a program to analyze the X-ray spectra of the accretion flows onto strongly magnetic neutron stars in high mass binary systems such as Cen X-3, and XTE J1946+274. These accreting pulsars typically have X-ray spectra consisting of broad Comptonized cutoff power-laws. Current theory suggests these X-ray spectra result from radiation-dominated shocks that develop in the high-velocity magnetically channeled plasma accretion flows onto the surfaces of the neutron stars. These X-ray pulsars often, but not always, show cyclotron resonant scattering features implying neutron star surface magnetic field strengths above 1012 G. Proper fitting of cyclotron line centroids (for example, to investigate how the line centroid varies with X-ray luminosity) requires a robust model for the Comptonized X-ray continuum upon which the cyclotron lines are superposed, and this can be provided by a continuum model based on the physics of the accretion column.We discuss in this presentation our ongoing program for the analysis of the X-ray spectra formed in these systems. Our program consists of two parts. First, we are modeling the X-ray spectra from the Suzaku X-ray satellite of accreting X-ray pulsars Cen X-3 and XTE J1946+274 utilizing the best currently existing empirical models. The second part of our program is building a new analysis tool based on the analytical model of Becker and Wolff (2007). In the high temperature optically thick plasma flows, the processes of bremsstrahlung emission from the hot plasma, black body emission from a thermal mound near the neutron star surface, and cyclotron emission from electrons in the first Landau excited state, all contribute to the total observed X-ray spectrum. We show recent results from our new implementation and its comparison with the Suzaku data for these X-ray pulsars.This research is supported by the NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program.

  10. Matched-filtering line search methods applied to Suzaku data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Naoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Enoto, Teruaki; Axelsson, Magnus; Ohashi, Takaya

    2016-10-01

    A detailed search for emission and absorption lines and an assessment of their upper limits are performed for Suzaku data. The method utilizes a matched-filtering approach to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio for a given energy resolution, which could be applicable to many types of line search. We first applied it to well-known active galactic nuclei spectra that have been reported to have ultra-fast outflows, and find that our results are consistent with previous findings at the ˜3σ level. We proceeded to search for emission and absorption features in two bright magnetars 4U 0142+61 and 1RXS J1708-4009, applying the filtering method to Suzaku data. We found that neither source showed any significant indication of line features, even using long-term Suzaku observations or dividing their spectra into spin phases. The upper limits on the equivalent width of emission/absorption lines are constrained to be a few eV at ˜1 keV and a few hundreds of eV at ˜10 keV. This strengthens previous reports that persistently bright magnetars do not show proton cyclotron absorption features in soft X-rays and, even if they exist, they would be broadened or much weaker than below the detection limit of X-ray CCD.

  11. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors.

  12. The Astro-H Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, F. Scott; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Mitsuda, Kazuhiasa; Ohashi, Takaya; Astro-H/SXS Collaboration

    2009-12-01

    The Soft-X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) is a high spectral resolution, cryogenic x-ray spectrometer that will fly on the Japan/U.S. Astro-H observatory in 2014. The SXS is composed of a 36 pixel, imaging, x-ray calorimeter array that will operate at 0.05 K utilizing a 2-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator and a redundant pre-cooler design using both a 40 liter liquid helium tank and a 1.7 K Joule-Thomson (JT) cryocooler. Additional redundant Stirling cycle coolers provide pre-cooling for the (JT) and cool the outer thermal shields for the JT and the helium tank. The detector system, while similar to that flown on Suzaku, is composed of larger 0.81×0.81mm pixels, but has significantly better performance, currently predicted to be better than 4 eV FWHM at 6 keV with 95% quantum efficiency. This instrument is the result of a close collaboration between many institutions in the U.S. and Japan over the last 25 years. Here we will present an overview of the SXS instrument, the SXS cooling system, and recent laboratory improvements to the detector system.

  13. My 35 Years in X-ray Astronomy (Not)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urry, C. M.

    2013-01-01

    My contact with X-ray astronomy started with HEAO-1, just before launch, when I was a summer student at the Harvard/Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Another summer position followed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, where I later did my PhD thesis on HEAO1 and HEAO2 (and IUE) data. Next I was a postdoc at MIT working with Einstein and Ginga observations, and I then continued observing blazars and other AGN with ASCA, Exosat, RXTE, Chandra, XMM, Swift, Suzaku, and Fermi. I have also witnessed or participated in many proposals for future X-ray missions. Fortunately for the audience, I will not recall all these times... So many photons, so little time! But this long history does mean I met most of the great figures in X-ray astronomy when they were young and I probably have embarrassing stories to tell about many of them. For my 2-minute vignette in a panel discussion, I will entertain you with one of the more interesting (and pertinent) memories. Acknowledgement: Thank you to all my high-energy astrophysics colleagues, who taught me a great deal, and to NASA for the hit parade of high-energy missions.

  14. The Astro-H Soft X-Ray Mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Soong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Astro-H is led by the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) in collaboration with many other institutions including the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Goddard's contributions include two soft X-ray telescopes (SXTs). The telescopes have an effective area of 562 square cm at 1 keV and 425 square cm at 6 keV with an image quality requirement of 1.7 arc-minutes half power diameter (HPD). The engineering model has demonstrated 1.1 arc-minutes HPD error. The design of the SXT is based on the successful Suzaku mission mirrors with some enhancements to improve the image quality. Two major enhancements are bonding the X-ray mirror foils to alignment bars instead of allowing the mirrors to float, and fabricating alignment bars with grooves within 5 microns of accuracy. An engineering model SXT was recently built and subjected to several tests including vibration, thermal, and X-ray performance in a beamline. Several lessons were learned during this testing that will be incorporated in the flight design. Test results and optical performance are discussed, along with a description of the design of the SXT.

  15. X-ray spectra of galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, S. S.

    1980-01-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the various classes of Galactic X-ray sources are discussed, with particular emphasis on binary sources containing an accreting compact object, where post-emission scattering in an accretion disk often prevents the initially produced X-radiation from being observed directly. Theoretical interpretations and X-ray observations are considered for the cataclysmic variables, binary systems with a white dwarf as the compact object and which suffer relatively less from Thomson scattering, and the similar phenomenological spectral characteristics of the bulge sources, including soft transients, bursters and steady X-ray sources with thermal spectra, thought to represent an accreting neutron star, are pointed out. The spectral characteristics of X-ray pulsars in accreting binary systems (rather than the Crab pulsar, which is losing rotational kinetic energy with time) are then presented and interpreted in terms of accretion in the polar regions, and mechanisms for the newly discovered X-ray emission from late-type RS CVn stars are considered.

  16. Near-Infrared and X-Ray Observations of XSS J12270-4859

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kei; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Ebisawa, Ken; Ishida, Manabu; Mukai, Koji; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nishiyama, Shogo; Gandhi, Poshak

    2011-11-01

    XSS J12270-4859 (J12270) is an enigmatic source of unknown nature. Previous studies revealed that the source has unusual X-ray temporal characteristics, including repetitive short-term flares, followed by spectral hardening, non-periodic dips, and dichotomy in activity; i.e., intervals filled with flares and those without. Together with a power-law X-ray spectrum, it is suggested to be a low-mass X-ray binary. In order to better understand the object, we present the results of our near-infrared (NIR) photometry and linear polarimetry observations as well as X-ray spectroscopy observations, which overlap with each other partially in time, taken respectively with the InfraRed Survey Facility (IRSF) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). We detected several simultaneous NIR and X-ray flares for the first time. No significant NIR polarization was obtained. We assembled data taken with IRSF, RXTE, Suzaku, Swift, and other missions in the literature and compared the flare profile and the spectral energy distribution (SED) with some representative high-energy sources. Based on some similarities of the repetitive NIR and X-ray flaring characteristics and the broad SED, we argue that J12270 is reminiscent of microquasars with a synchrotron jet, which is at a very low-luminosity state of ≈ 10-4 Eddington luminosity for a stellar mass black hole or neutron star at a reference distance of 1 kpc.

  17. White dwarf mass estimation with a new comprehensive X-ray spectral model of intermediate polars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Takayuki; Ishida, Manabu

    A white dwarf (WD) mass is important astrophysical quantity because the WD explodes as a type Ia supernova when its mass reaches the Chandrasekhar mass limit of 1.4 solar mass. Many WD masses in intermediate polars (IPs) were measured with their X-ray spectra emitted from plasma flows channeled by strong magnetic fields of the WDs. For the WD mass estimation, multi-temperature X-ray spectral models have been used which made by summing up X-ray spectra emitted from the top to the bottom of the plasma flow. However, in previous studies, distributions of physical quantities such as temperature and density etc., which are base of the X-ray spectral model, were calculated with assumptions of accretion rate per unit area (call "specific accretion rate") a = 1 g cm(-2) s(-1) and cylindrical geometry for the plasma flows. In fact, a part of the WD masses estimated with the X-ray spectral model is not consistent with that dynamically measured. Therefore, we calculated the physical quantity distributions with the dipolar geometry and the wide range of the specific accretion rate a = 0.0001 - 100 g cm(-2) s(-1) . The calculations showed that the geometrical difference changes the physical quantity distributions and the lower specific accretion rate leads softer X-ray spectrum under a critical specific accretion rate. These results clearly indicate that the previous assumptions are not good approximation for low accretion IPs. We made a new spectral model of the plasma flow with our physical quantity distributions and applied that to Suzaku observations of high and low accretion rate IPs V1223 Sagittarii and EX Hydrae. As a results, our WD masses are almost consistent with the those dynamically measured. We will present the summary of our theoretical calculation and X-ray spectral model, and application to the {¥it Suzaku} observations.

  18. RT Crucis: a look into the X-ray emission of a peculiar symbiotic star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducci, L.; Doroshenko, V.; Suleimanov, V.; Nikołajuk, M.; Santangelo, A.; Ferrigno, C.

    2016-07-01

    Symbiotic stars are a heterogeneous class of interacting binaries. Among them, RT Cru has been classified as prototype of a subclass that is characterised by hard X-ray spectra that extend past ~20 keV. We analyse ~8.6 Ms of archival INTEGRAL data collected during the period 2003-2014, ~ 140 ks of Swift/XRT data, and a Suzaku observation of 39 ks, to study the spectral X-ray emission and investigate the nature of the compact object. Based on the 2MASS photometry, we estimate the distance to the source of 1.2-2.4 kpc. The X-ray spectrum obtained with Swift/XRT, JEM-X, IBIS/ISGRI, and Suzaku data is well fitted by a cooling flow model modified by an absorber that fully covers the source and two partially covering absorbers. Assuming that the hard X-ray emission of RT Cru originates from an optically thin boundary layer around a non-magnetic white dwarf, we estimated a mass of the white dwarf of MWD ≈ 1.2M⊙. The mass accretion rate obtained for this source might be too high for the optically thin boundary layer scenario. Therefore we investigate other plausible scenarios to model its hard X-ray emission. We show that, alternatively, the observed X-ray spectrum can be explained with the X-ray emission from the post-shock region above the polar caps of a magnetised white dwarf with mass MWD ≈ 0.9-1.1M⊙.

  19. (Bayesian) Inference for X-ray Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huppenkothen, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Fourier techniques have been incredibly successful in describing variability of X-ray binaries (XRBs) and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). The detection and characterization of both broadband noise components and quasi-periodic oscillations as well as their behavior in the context of spectral changes during XRB outbursts has become an important tool for studying the physical processes of accretion and ejection in these systems. In this talk, I will review state-of-the-art techniques for characterizing variability in compact objects and show how these methods help us understand the causes of the observed variability and how we may use it to probe fundamental physics. Despite numerous successes, however, it has also become clear that many scientific questions cannot be answered with traditional timing methods alone. I will therefore also present recent advances, some in the time domain like CARMA, to modeling variability with generative models and discuss where these methods might lead us in the future.

  20. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne; Hill, Joe; Barthelmy, S.; Black, K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Sakamoto, T.; Kaaret, P.; McConnell, M.; Bloser, P.; Macri, J.; Legere, J.; Ryan, J.; Smith, B., Jr.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    Tihs is a viewgraph presentation of a discussion of the X-ray Polarimeter. Gamma-ray bursts are one of the most powerful explosions in the universe and have been detected out to distances of almost 13 billion light years. The exact origin of these energetic explosions is still unknown but the resulting huge release of energy is thought to create a highly relativistic jet of material and a power-law distribution of electrons. There are several theories describing the origin of the prompt GRB emission that currently cannot be distinguished. Measurements of the linear polarization would provide unique and important constraints on the mechanisms thought to drive these powerful explosions. We present the design of a sensitive, and extremely versatile gamma-ray burst polarimeter. The instrument is a photoelectric polarimeter based on a time-projection chamber. The photoelectric time-projection technique combines high sensitivity with broad band-pass and is potentially the most powerful method between 2 and 100 keV where the photoelectric effect is the dominant interaction process We present measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays obtained with a prototype detector and describe the two mission concepts, the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GRBP) for thc U S Naval Academy satellite MidSTAR-2, and thc Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) onboard POET, a broadband polarimetry concept for a small explorer mission.

  1. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A multispectural glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system. The primary optical system further includes an optical axis having a primary focus at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus. A rotating carrier is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam. In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5A or longer. Each of the identifical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus at which a detector is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam.

  2. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  3. Ultrafast X-ray Sources

    SciTech Connect

    George Neil

    2010-04-19

    Since before the scattering of X-rays off of DNA led to the first understanding of the double helix structure, sources of X-rays have been an essential tool for scientists examining the structure and interactions of matter. The resolution of a microscope is proportional to the wavelength of light so x-rays can see much finer structures than visible light, down to single atoms. In addition, the energy of X-rays is resonant with the core atomic levels of atoms so with appropriate wavelengths the placement of specific atoms in a large molecule can be determined. Over 10,000 scientists use synchrotron sources, storage rings of high energy electrons, each year worldwide. As an example of such use, virtually every picture of a protein or drug molecule that one sees in the scientific press is a reconstruction based on X-ray scattering of synchrotron light from the crystallized form of that molecule. Unfortunately those pictures are static and proteins work through configuration (shape) changes in response to energy transfer. To understand how biological systems work requires following the energy flow to these molecules and tracking how shape changes drive their interaction with other molecules. We'd like to be able to freeze the action of these molecules at various steps along the way with an X-ray strobe light. How fast does it have to be? To actually get a picture of a molecule in a fixed configuration requires X-ray pulses as short as 30 femtoseconds (1/30 of a millionth of a millionth of a second). To capture the energy flow through changes in electronic levels requires a faster strobe, less than 1 femtosecond! And to acquire such information in smaller samples with higher accuracy demands brighter and brighter X-rays. Unfortunately modern synchrotrons (dubbed 3rd Generation Light Sources) cannot deliver such short bright pulses of X-rays. An entirely new approach is required, linear-accelerator (linac-)-based light sources termed 4th or Next Generation Light Sources

  4. X-rays surgical revolution.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Wilhelm Roentgen (1845-1923) created a surgical revolution with the discovery of the X-rays in late 1895 and the subsequent introduction of this technique for the management of surgical patients. No other physician or scientist had ever imagined such a powerful and worthwhile discovery. Other scientists paved the way for Roentgen to approach the use of these new X-rays for medical purposes. In this way, initially, and prior to Roentgen, Thompson, Hertz, and Lenard applied themselves to the early developments of this technology. They made good advances but never reached the clearly defined understanding brought about by Roentgen. The use of a Crookes tube, a barium platinocyanide screen, with fluorescent light and the generation of energy to propagate the cathode rays were the necessary elements for the conception of an X-ray picture. On November 8, 1895, Roentgen began his experiments on X-ray technology when he found that some kind of rays were being produced by the glass of the tube opposite to the cathode. The development of a photograph successfully completed this early imaging process. After six intense weeks of research, on December 22, he obtained a photograph of the hand of his wife, the first X-ray ever made. This would be a major contribution to the world of medicine and surgery.

  5. Clocking Femtosecond X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalieri, A L; Fritz, D M; Lee, S H; Bucksbaum, P H; Reis, D A; Mills, D M; Pahl, R; Rudati, J; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Lowney, D P; MacPhee, A G; Weinstein, D; Falcone, R W; Als-Nielsen, J; Blome, C; Ischebeck, R; Schlarb, H; Tschentscher, T; Schneider, J; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Chapman, H N; Lee, R W; Hansen, T N; Synnergren, O; Larsson, J; Techert, S; Sheppard, J; Wark, J S; Bergh, M; Calleman, C; Huldt, G; der Spoel, D v; Timneanu, N; Hajdu, J; Bong, E; Emma, P; Krejcik, P; Arthur, J; Brennan, S; Gaffney, K J; Lindenberg, A M; Hastings, J B

    2004-10-08

    The Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) produces the brightest ultrafast x-ray pulses in the world, and is the first to employ compressed femtosecond electron bunches for the x-ray source. Both SPPS and future X-ray Free Electron Lasers (XFEL's) will use precise measurements of individual electron bunches to time the arrival of x-ray pulses for time-resolved experiments. At SPPS we use electro-optic sampling (EOS) to perform these measurements. Here we present the first results using this method. An ultrafast laser pulse (135 fs) passes through an electro-optic crystal adjacent to the electron beam. The refractive index of the crystal is distorted by the strong electromagnetic fields of the ultra-relativistic electrons, and this transient birefringence is imprinted on the laser polarization. A polarizer decodes this signal, producing a time-dependent image of the compressed electron bunch. Our measurements yield the relative timing between an ultrafast optical laser and an ultrafast x-ray pulse to within 60 fs, making it possible to use the SPPS to observe atomic-scale ultrafast dynamics initiated by laser-matter interaction.

  6. The SWIRE/Chandra Survey: The X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Kilgard, Roy; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Minsun; Polletta, Mari; Lonsdale, Carol; Smith, Harding E.; Surace, Jason; Owen, Frazer N.; Franceschini, A.; Siana, Brian; Shupe, David

    2009-12-01

    We report a moderate-depth (70 ks), contiguous 0.7 deg2 Chandra survey in the Lockman Hole Field of the Spitzer/SWIRE Legacy Survey coincident with a completed, ultra-deep VLA survey with deep optical and near-infrared imaging in-hand. The primary motivation is to distinguish starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), including the significant, highly obscured (log N H > 23) subset. Chandra has detected 775 X-ray sources to a limiting broadband (0.3-8 keV) flux ~4 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1. We present the X-ray catalog, fluxes, hardness ratios, and multi-wavelength fluxes. The log N versus log S agrees with those of previous surveys covering similar flux ranges. The Chandra and Spitzer flux limits are well matched: 771 (99%) of the X-ray sources have infrared (IR) or optical counterparts, and 333 have MIPS 24 μm detections. There are four optical-only X-ray sources and four with no visible optical/IR counterpart. The very deep (~2.7 μJy rms) VLA data yield 251 (>4σ) radio counterparts, 44% of the X-ray sources in the field. We confirm that the tendency for lower X-ray flux sources to be harder is primarily due to absorption. As expected, there is no correlation between observed IR and X-ray fluxes. Optically bright, type 1, and red AGNs lie in distinct regions of the IR versus X-ray flux plots, demonstrating the wide range of spectral energy distributions in this sample and providing the potential for classification/source selection. Many optically bright sources, which lie outside the AGN region in the optical versus X-ray plots (fr /fx >10), lie inside the region predicted for red AGNs in IR versus X-ray plots, consistent with the presence of an active nucleus. More than 40% of the X-ray sources in the VLA field are radio-loud using the classical definition, RL . The majority of these are red and relatively faint in the optical so that the use of RL to select those AGNs with the strongest radio emission becomes questionable. Using the 24 μm to radio

  7. On-orbit Performance Of The Suzaku/XRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The Suzaku high-resolution X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) is the first orbiting x-ray microcalorimeter. This instrument, which maintains the sensor at less than 0.1K and utilizes liquid He and solid Ne cryogens, is capable of providing very high, non-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. The microcalorimeter approach enables increasing spectral resolving power toward increasing energy. This fundamental characteristic makes it the instrument of choice for a variety of spectral diagnostics that can be uniquely obtained from studies of Fe K-line features common in such objects as cluster of galaxies and active galaxies, to name only two important classes out of many. The array aspect allows for imaging spectroscopy of extended sources without spectral degradation. Unfortunately, a design flaw in the XRS dewar/spacecraft interface caused the premature loss of liquid helium and rendered the instrument miusable. Nonetheless, during the three weeks following the launch of Suzaku, the instrument performed extremely well and demonstrated that the basic microcalorimeter concept is sound for space applications. An energy resolution of 7 eV FWHM at 6keV was obtained in orbit as measured using internal calibration sources. We will describe the XRS design and operation, explain what happened, and then present some lessons learned for future space missions utilizing this powerful technology.

  8. X-ray tensor tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malecki, A.; Potdevin, G.; Biernath, T.; Eggl, E.; Willer, K.; Lasser, T.; Maisenbacher, J.; Gibmeier, J.; Wanner, A.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2014-02-01

    Here we introduce a new concept for x-ray computed tomography that yields information about the local micro-morphology and its orientation in each voxel of the reconstructed 3D tomogram. Contrary to conventional x-ray CT, which only reconstructs a single scalar value for each point in the 3D image, our approach provides a full scattering tensor with multiple independent structural parameters in each volume element. In the application example shown in this study, we highlight that our method can visualize sub-pixel fiber orientations in a carbon composite sample, hence demonstrating its value for non-destructive testing applications. Moreover, as the method is based on the use of a conventional x-ray tube, we believe that it will also have a great impact in the wider range of material science investigations and in future medical diagnostics. The authors declare no competing financial interests.

  9. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Stacey Giles briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  10. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    University of Alabama engineer Lance Weiss briefs NASA astronaut Dr. Bornie Dunbar about the design and capabilities of the X-ray Crystallography Facility under development at the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL, April 21, 1999. The X-ray Crystallography Facility is designed to speed the collection of protein structure information from crystals grown aboard the International Space Station. By measuring and mapping the protein crystal structure in space, researchers will avoid exposing the delicate crystals to the rigors of space travel and make important research data available to scientists much faster. The X-ray Crystallography facility is being designed and developed by the Center for Macromolecular Crystallography of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, a NASA Commercial Space Center.

  11. ASTROSAT/LAXPC observations of X-Ray binaries: A new window to hard X-Ray science aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Singh Yadav, Jagdish; Antia, H. M.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2016-07-01

    In this presentation I would like to discuss some of the recent results obtained from ASTROSAT/LAXPC observations of X-Ray binaries. With the specific focus on hard X-Ray regime, where LAXPC performs much better than RXTE due to large effective area, we obtained interesting results which has never observed before from high energy timing instrument. In this talk, we will revisit RXTE results in terms of power density spectra, time-lag, fractional rms as a function of photon energy and compare them to LAXPC results and will discuss the nature of the same above 30 keV which was totally unexplored area in timing domain. We will compare broadband spectral and timing properties of accretion flow in different X-ray binaries as observed from LAXPC.

  12. Aperiodic multilayer structures in soft X-ray radiation optics

    SciTech Connect

    Vishnyakov, E A; Kamenets, F F; Kondratenko, V V; Lugin, M S; Panchenko, A V; Pershin, Yu P; Pirozhkov, A S; Ragozin, Evgenii N

    2012-02-28

    We review the works related to the development of aperiodic multilayer structures - optical elements for the soft X-ray range. The potentialities of aperiodic multilayer mirrors as regards reflection of soft X-ray radiation in a broad wavelength range, first and foremost at normal radiation incidence, as well as the capabilities of broadband polariser mirrors are investigated. The results of multiparametric optimisation and experimental results for Mo/Si aperiodic mirrors ({lambda} {>=} 12.5 nm) as well as calculations for several promising material pairs (Pd/Y, Ag/Y, etc.) for {lambda} {<=} 12.5 nm are outlined. The effect of transition layers on the reflectivity is considered, in particular by taking into account the smooth variation of the permittivity near interfacial boundaries. The use of broadband mirrors in laser-plasma spectroscopic experiments is discussed.

  13. X-ray Observations of the Outskirts of the Nearest Non-Cool Core Cluster: the Antlia Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Irwin, Jimmy; Wik, Daniel R.

    2014-08-01

    Recent Suzaku X-ray observations have revealed hot gas properties of a number of clusters of galaxies out to their virial radii, allowing us to explore regions that was not possible in the past. We will present results of our Suzaku mosaic observations of the nearest non-cool core cluster, the Antlia Cluster, out to its degree-scale virial radius in the East direction. Together with Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, systematic uncertainty caused by background point sources is greatly reduced. Physical properties such as surface brightness and temperature profiles will be presented and compared to theoretical models and other clusters. Implications of our results will be discussed.

  14. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  15. Portable X-Ray Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  16. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the beryllium-filtered data from Flight 17.020 was completed. The data base provided by the Wisconsin diffuse X-ray sky survey is being analyzed by correlating the B and C band emission with individual velocity components of neutral hydrogen. Work on a solid state detector to be used in high resolution spectroscopy of diffuse or extend X-ray sources is continuing. A series of 21 cm observations was completed. A paper on the effects of process parameter variation on the reflectivity of sputter-deposited tungsten-carvon multilayers was published.

  17. The First Suzaku Observation of 4U 1532-522

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, Richard

    Observations of neutron star pulsars in binary systems with a massive main sequence star provide us with important information about the physical processes in the wind of the massive star, the coupling between the wind material and the strong magnetic field of the neutron star, and the physics present in the region just above the magnetic poles. The goal of this proposal is to better understand the physical processes and geometry of the 4U1538-522/QV Nor system through precision spectroscopy with the Japanese X-ray satellite Suzaku on several timescales, comparison to earlier results, and in-depth analysis of RXTE observations. The analysis of the Suzaku observation is of prime importance due to the excellent performance of the instruments aboard. While reanalysis of the RXTE data is a secondary goal, it remains important for placing the Suzaku observation in context of the orbital phase and history of the binary system. Similarly, comparison to the low energy results from XMM-Newton, Chandra, and BeppoSAX X-ray missions is a secondary goal that can yield significant insight into the system. We request funding to analyze our successful Suzaku proposal, since no funding is available from the project. This investigation addresses the Astrophysics Strategic Science Goal To discover how the universe works and to explore how the universe evolves, the Science Question How do matter, energy, space, and time behave under the extraordinarily diverse conditions of the cosmos, and the Science Objective to understand the origin and destiny of the universe and the nature of black holes, dark energy, dark matter, and gravity.

  18. Compact x-ray source and panel

    DOEpatents

    Sampayon, Stephen E.

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  19. Suzaku follow-up of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei detected in Swift/BAT survey: NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio

    2016-06-01

    We present the broad-band (0.5-100 keV) spectra of three heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), NGC 1106, UGC 03752, and NGC 2788A, observed with Suzaku and the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). The targets are selected from the Swift/BAT 70-month catalog on the basis of their high hardness ratio between above and below 10 keV, and their X-ray spectra are reported here for the first time. We apply three models: a conventional model utilizing an analytic reflection code, and two Monte Carlo based torus models with a doughnut-like geometry (MYTorus: Murphy & Yaqoob, 2009, MNRAS, 397, 1549) and with a nearly spherical geometry (Ikeda torus: Ikeda et al., 2009, ApJ, 692, 608). The three models can successfully reproduce the spectra, and the Ikeda torus model gives a better description than the MYTorus model in all targets. We identify NGC 1106 and NGC 2788A as Compton-thick AGNs. We point out that the common presence of unabsorbed reflection components below 7.1 keV in obscured AGNs, as observed from UGC 03752, is evidence for clumpy tori. This implies that detailed studies utilizing clumpy torus models are required to reach correct interpretation of the X-ray spectra of AGNs.

  20. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  1. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, M.A.; Boyers, D.G.; Pincus, C.I.; Maccagno, P.

    1990-08-21

    Disclosed is an intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator. 8 figs.

  2. Focused X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Piestrup, Melvin A.; Boyers, David G.; Pincus, Cary I.; Maccagno, Pierre

    1990-01-01

    An intense, relatively inexpensive X-ray source (as compared to a synchrotron emitter) for technological, scientific, and spectroscopic purposes. A conical radiation pattern produced by a single foil or stack of foils is focused by optics to increase the intensity of the radiation at a distance from the conical radiator.

  3. X-rays and magnetism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Ohldag, Hendrik

    2015-09-01

    Magnetism is among the most active and attractive areas in modern solid state physics because of intriguing phenomena interesting to fundamental research and a manifold of technological applications. State-of-the-art synthesis of advanced magnetic materials, e.g. in hybrid structures paves the way to new functionalities. To characterize modern magnetic materials and the associated magnetic phenomena, polarized x-rays have emerged as unique probes due to their specific interaction with magnetic materials. A large variety of spectroscopic and microscopic techniques have been developed to quantify in an element, valence and site-sensitive way properties of ferro-, ferri-, and antiferromagnetic systems, such as spin and orbital moments, and to image nanoscale spin textures and their dynamics with sub-ns time and almost 10 nm spatial resolution. The enormous intensity of x-rays and their degree of coherence at next generation x-ray facilities will open the fsec time window to magnetic studies addressing fundamental time scales in magnetism with nanometer spatial resolution. This review will give an introduction into contemporary topics of nanoscale magnetic materials and provide an overview of analytical spectroscopy and microscopy tools based on x-ray dichroism effects. Selected examples of current research will demonstrate the potential and future directions of these techniques.

  4. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  5. Performance of the ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Soong, Y.

    2013-04-01

    The X-ray astronomy satellite, ASTRO-H, being developed under the collaboration among JAXA, NASA's GSFC and ESA, will have two Soft X-ray Telescopes (SXTs), among other instruments onboard, with a sensitive energy band up to 15 keV. One is for an X-ray micro-calorimeter detector and the other for an X-ray CCD detector. The SXT uses a conically approximated Wolter I grazing incidence optic implemented by thin aluminum foil substrates with thickness of 0.152, 0.229, and 0.305 mm. X-ray reflecting surface is a gold thin layer (2000A) transferred from a smooth glass mandrel to the substrate by a replication method using an epoxy buffer layer (12 um). It is similar to the Suzaku X-ray telescope, but with larger diameter (45 cm) and longer focal length (5.6 m). Recently we have completed the first flight SXT (SXT-1). X-ray measurments with a diverging beam at the Goddard 100-m beamline found an angular resolution to be 1.13 arcmin (HPD) at 4.5 keV. Since we also found that this performance has radial dependence, the angular resolution will be different for a parallel beam, i.e. in orbit. It will be measured by the full performance characterization at ISAS/JAXA, Japan, later this year. SXT-1 has successfully gone through environmental testing (vibration and thermal) and the performance ramains same. In this paper, we will report X-ray test results obtained at the Goddard X-ray beamline.

  6. Monochromatic X-ray propagation in multi-Z media for imaging and diagnostics including Kα Resonance Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, Maximillian; Lim, Sara; Nahar, Sultana; Pradhan, Anil

    2016-05-01

    Aimed at monochromatic X-ray imaging and therapy, broadband, monochromatic, and quasi-monochromatic X-ray sources and propagation through low and high-Z (HZ) media were studied with numerically and experimentally. Monte Carlo simulations were performed using the software package Geant4, and a new code Photx, to simulate X-ray image contrast, depth of penetration, and total attenuation. The data show that monochromatic and quasi-monochromatic X-rays achieve improved contrast at lower absorbed radiation doses compared to conventional broadband 120 kV or CT scans. Experimental quasi-monochromatic high-intensity laser-produced plasma sources and monochromatic synchrotron beam data are compared. Physical processes responsible for X-ray photoexcitation and absorption are numerically modelled, including a novel mechanism for accelerating Kα resonance fluorescence via twin monochromatic X-ray beam. Potential applications are medical diagnostics and high-Z material detection. Acknowledgement: Ohio Supercomputer Center, Columbus, OH.

  7. ASTRO-H Soft X-ray Telescope (SXT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, Yang; Okajima, Takashi; Serlemitsos, Peter J.; Odell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Ishida, Manabu; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Iizuka, Ryo; Hayashi, Takayuki; Tawara, Yuzuru; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Mori, Hideyuki; Miyazawa, Takuya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Sugita, Satoshi; Tamura, Keisuke; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Izumiya, Takanori; Minami, Sari; Sato, Toshiki; Tomikawa, Kazuki; Kikuchi, Naomichi; Iwase, Toshihiro

    2014-07-01

    ASTRO-H is an astrophysics satellite dedicated for non-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic study on selective celestial X-ray sources. Among the onboard instruments there are four Wolter-I X-ray mirrors of their reflectors' figure in conical approximation. Two of the four are soft X-ray mirrors1, of which the energy range is from a few hundred eV to 15 keV within the effective aperture being defined by the nested reflectors' radius ranging between 5.8 cm to 22.5 cm. The focal point instruments will be a calorimeter (SXS) and a CCD camera (SXI), respectively. The mirrors were in quadrant configuration with photons being reflected consecutively in the primary and secondary stage before converging on the focal plane of 5.6 m away from the interface between the two stages. The reflectors of the mirror are made of heat-formed aluminum substrate of the thickness gauged of 152 μm, 229 μm, and 305 μm of the alloy 5052 H-19, followed by epoxy replication on gold-sputtered smooth Pyrex cylindrical mandrels to acquire the X-ray reflective surface. The epoxy layer is 10 m nominal and surface gold layer of 0.2 μm. Improvements on angular response over its predecessors, e.g. Astro-E1/Suzaku mirrors, come from error reduction on the figure, the roundness, and the grazing angle/radius mismatching of the reflecting surface, and tighter specs and mechanical strength on supporting structure to reduce the reflector positioning and the assembly errors. Each soft x-ray telescope (SXT), SXT-1 or SXT-2, were integrated from four independent quadrants of mirrors. The stray-light baffles, in quadrant configuration, were mounted onto the integrated mirror. Thermal control units were attached to the perimeter of the integrated mirror to keep the mirror within operating temperature in space. The completed instrument went through a series of optical alignment, thus made the quadrant images confocal and their optical axes in parallel to achieve highest throughput possible. Environmental tests

  8. X-ray reprocessing in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Biswajit

    2016-07-01

    We will discuss several aspects of X-ray reprocessing into X-rays or longer wavelength radiation in different kinds of binary systems. In high mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing of hard X-rays into emission lines or lower temperature black body emission is a useful tool to investigate the reprocessing media like the stellar wind, clumpy structures in the wind, accretion disk or accretion stream. In low mass X-ray binaries, reprocessing from the surface of the companion star, the accretion disk, warps and other structures in the accretion disk produce signatures in longer wavelength radiation. X-ray sources with temporal structures like the X-ray pulsars and thermonuclear burst sources are key in such studies. We will discuss results from several new investigations of X-ray reprocessing phenomena in X-ray binaries.

  9. Searching for supergiant fast X-ray transients with Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Bozzo, E.; Esposito, P.; Sbarufatti, B.; Haberl, F.; Ponti, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Ducci, L.; Segreto, A.; Jin, C.; Masetti, N.; Del Santo, M.; Campana, S.; Mangano, V.

    2016-09-01

    Supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs) are high mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) hosting a neutron star and an OB supergiant companion. We examine the available Swift data, as well as other new or archival/serendipitous data, on three sources: IGR J17407-2808, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, and IGR J18175-2419, whose X-ray characteristics qualify them as candidate SFXT, to explore their properties and test whether they are consistent with an SFXT nature. Since IGR J17407-2808 and 2XMM J185114.3-000004 triggered the Burst Alert Telescope on board Swift, the Swift data enable us to provide their first arcsecond localisations, leading to an unequivocal identification of the source CXOU J174042.0-280724 as the soft X-ray counterpart of IGR J17407-2808, as well as their first broadband spectra, which can be fit with models generally describing accreting neutron stars in HMXBs. While still lacking optical spectroscopy to assess the spectral type of the companion, we propose 2XMM J185114.3-000004 as a very strong SFXT candidate. The nature of IGR J17407-2808 remains, instead, more uncertain. Its broadband properties cannot exclude the fact that the emission originates from either an HMXB (and in that case, an SFXT) or, more likely, a low-mass X-ray binary. Finally, based on the deep non-detection in our XRT monitoring campaign and a careful reanalysis of the original INTEGRAL data in which the discovery of the source was first reported, we show that IGR J18175-2419 is likely a spurious detection.

  10. The 300 Kpc Long X-Ray Jet in PKS 1127-145, Z=1.18 Quasar: Constraining X-Ray Emission Models

    SciTech Connect

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; Stawarz, Lukasz; Cheung, C.C.; Harris, D.E.; Sikora, Marek; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; Bechtold, Jill; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.

    2006-11-20

    We present a {approx} 100 ksec Chandra X-ray observation and new VLA radio data of the large scale, 300 kpc long X-ray jet in PKS 1127-145, a radio loud quasar at redshift z=1.18. With this deep X-ray observation we now clearly discern the complex X-ray jet morphology and see substructure within the knots. The X-ray and radio jet intensity profiles are seen to be strikingly different with the radio emission peaking strongly at the two outer knots while the X-ray emission is strongest in the inner jet region. The jet X-ray surface brightness gradually decreases by an order of magnitude going out from the core. The new X-ray data contain sufficient counts to do spectral analysis of the key jet features. The X-ray energy index of the inner jet is relatively flat with {alpha}{sub x} = 0.66 {+-} 0.15 and steep in the outer jet with {alpha}{sub x} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. We discuss the constraints implied by the new data on the X-ray emission models and conclude that ''one-zone'' models fail and at least a two component model is needed to explain the jet's broad-band emission. We propose that the X-ray emission originates in the jet proper while the bulk of the radio emission comes from a surrounding jet sheath. We also consider intermittent jet activity as a possible cause of the observed jet morphology.

  11. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region I: Hard X-Ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Tomsick, John A.; Alexander, David M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Canipe, Alicia M.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Kitaguchi, Takao; Koglin, Jason E.; Luu, Vy; Madsen, Kristen K.; Mao, Peter H.; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Perri, Matteo; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Puccetti, Simonetta; Rana, Vikram; Stern, Daniel; Westergaard, Niels J.; Zhang, William W.; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ˜ 1.3-2.3 up to ˜50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (˜1023 cm-2), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ˜ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to LX ≳ 1038 erg s-1. Above ˜20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95-0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses MWD ˜ 0.9 M⊙. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95-0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745-290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  12. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers. (LSP)

  13. Blocking Filters with Enhanced Throughput for X-Ray Microcalorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, David; Betcher, Jacob; Hagen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    New and improved blocking filters (see figure) have been developed for microcalorimeters on several mission payloads, made of high-transmission polyimide support mesh, that can replace the nickel mesh used in previous blocking filter flight designs. To realize the resolution and signal sensitivity of today s x-ray microcalorimeters, significant improvements in the blocking filter stack are needed. Using high-transmission polyimide support mesh, it is possible to improve overall throughput on a typical microcalorimeter such as Suzaku s X-ray Spectrometer by 11%, compared to previous flight designs. Using polyimide to replace standard metal mesh means the mesh will be transparent to energies 3 keV and higher. Incorporating polyimide s advantageous strength-to-weight ratio, thermal stability, and transmission characteristics permits thinner filter materials, significantly enhancing through - put. A prototype contamination blocking filter for ASTRO-H has passed QT-level acoustic testing. Resistive traces can also be incorporated to provide decontamination capability to actively restore filter performance in orbit.

  14. The quiescent X-ray spectrum of accreting black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Mark T.; Reis, Rubens C.; Miller, Jon M.; Cackett, Edward M.; Degenaar, Nathalie

    2014-07-01

    The quiescent state is the dominant accretion mode for black holes on all mass scales. Our knowledge of the X-ray spectrum is limited due to the characteristic low luminosity in this state. Herein, we present an analysis of the sample of dynamically confirmed stellar-mass black holes observed in quiescence in the Chandra/XMM-Newton/Suzaku era resulting in a sample of eight black holes with ˜570 ks of observations. In contrast to the majority of active galactic nuclei where observations are limited by contamination from diffuse gas, the stellar-mass systems allow for a clean study of the X-ray spectrum resulting from the accretion flow alone. The data are characterized using simple models. We find a model consisting of a power law or thermal bremsstrahlung to both provide excellent descriptions of the data, where we measure Γ = 2.06 ± 0.03 and kT = 5.03^{+0.33}_{-0.31} keV, respectively, in the 0.3-10 keV bandpass, at a median luminosity of Lx ˜ 5.5 × 10-7LEdd. This result in discussed in the context of our understanding of the accretion flow on to stellar and supermassive black holes at low luminosities.

  15. Soft x-ray imager (SXI) onboard ASTRO-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Dotani, Tadayasu; Hiraga, Junko S.; Anabuki, Naohisa; Bamba, Aya; Hatsukade, Isamu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Mori, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Makoto

    2010-07-01

    We are designing an X-ray CCD camera (SXI) for ASTRO-H, including many new items. We have developed the CCD, CCD-NeXT4, that is a P-channel type CCD. It has a thick depletion layer of 200μm with an imaging area of 30mm square. Since it is back-illuminated, it has a good low energy response and is robust against the impact of micro-meteorites. We will employ 4 chips to cover the area of 60mm square. A mechanical rather than peltier cooler will be employed so that we can cool the CCD to -120°C. We will also introduce an analog ASIC that is placed very close to the CCD. It performs well, having a similar noise level to that assembled by using individual parts used on SUZAKU. We also employ a modulated X-ray source (MXS), that improves the accuracy of the calibration. The SXI will have one of the largest SΩ among various satellites.

  16. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, Craig R.; Bionta, Richard M.; Ables, Elden

    1994-01-01

    An x-ray detector which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope.

  17. Microgap x-ray detector

    DOEpatents

    Wuest, C.R.; Bionta, R.M.; Ables, E.

    1994-05-03

    An x-ray detector is disclosed which provides for the conversion of x-ray photons into photoelectrons and subsequent amplification of these photoelectrons through the generation of electron avalanches in a thin gas-filled region subject to a high electric potential. The detector comprises a cathode (photocathode) and an anode separated by the thin, gas-filled region. The cathode may comprise a substrate, such a beryllium, coated with a layer of high atomic number material, such as gold, while the anode can be a single conducting plane of material, such as gold, or a plane of resistive material, such as chromium/silicon monoxide, or multiple areas of conductive or resistive material, mounted on a substrate composed of glass, plastic or ceramic. The charge collected from each electron avalanche by the anode is passed through processing electronics to a point of use, such as an oscilloscope. 3 figures.

  18. Hard X-ray astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Past hard X-ray and lower energy satellite instruments are reviewed and it is shown that observation above 20 keV and up to hundreds of keV can provide much valuable information on the astrophysics of cosmic sources. To calculate possible sensitivities of future arrays, the efficiencies of a one-atmosphere inch gas counter (the HEAO-1 A-2 xenon filled HED3) and a 3 mm phoswich scintillator (the HEAO-1 A-4 Na1 LED1) were compared. Above 15 keV, the scintillator was more efficient. In a similar comparison, the sensitivity of germanium detectors did not differ much from that of the scintillators, except at high energies where the sensitivity would remain flat and not rise with loss of efficiency. Questions to be addressed concerning the physics of active galaxies and the diffuse radiation background, black holes, radio pulsars, X-ray pulsars, and galactic clusters are examined.

  19. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  20. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  1. Investigating the X-ray and Gamma-ray Properties of Type Ia Mixed Morphology Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, Aytap; Slane, Patrick; Auchettl, Katie

    2016-07-01

    Recent X-ray observations revealed a recombining plasma (RP) in some core-collapse mixed-morphology Galactic supernova remnants (MM SNRs). We searched for evidence of RPs in the Type Ia MM SNRs using their Suzaku spectra. We found that the plasma of these SNRs is still ionizing. We investigated the possible reasons for the non-detection of RP in Type Ia MM SNRs and explored their X-ray properties. We also analyzed their gamma-ray data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope to investigate a possible connection to the gamma-ray properties of these SNRs.

  2. Entangled valence electron-hole dynamics revealed by stimulated attosecond x-ray Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Healion, Daniel; Zhang, Yu; Biggs, Jason D.; Govind, Niranjan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-09-06

    We show that broadband x-ray pulses can create wavepackets of valence electrons and holes localized in the vicinity of a selected atom (nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur in cysteine) by resonant stimulated Raman scattering. The subsequent dynamics reveals highly correlated motions of entangled electrons and hole quasiparticles. This information goes beyond the time-dependent total charge density derived from x-ray diffraction.

  3. AM Herculis - Simultaneous X-ray, optical, and near-IR coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szkody, P.; Tuohy, I. R.; Cordova, F. A.; Stockman, H. S.; Angel, J. R. P.; Wisniewski, W.

    1980-01-01

    A 6 hour X-ray pointing at AM Her using the HEAO 1 satellite is correlated with simultaneous broadband V and I photometry and visual circular polarimetry. The absence of correlations on either a flickering or an orbital time scale implies distinct regions for the visual and X-ray emission. Significant changes in the light curves are observed from one binary cycle to the next.

  4. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  5. Tuberculosis, advanced - chest x-rays (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue, and can cause tissue death. These chest x-rays show advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. There are multiple light ... location of cavities within these light areas. The x-ray on the left clearly shows that the opacities ...

  6. Producing X-rays at the APS

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  7. Producing X-rays at the APS

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    An introduction and overview of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, the technology that produces the brightest X-ray beams in the Western Hemisphere, and the research carried out by scientists using those X-rays.

  8. Discovery of new X-ray sources near the unidentified gamma-ray source HESS J1841-055

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, K. K.; Nobukawa, M.; Tsuru, T. G.; Koyama, K.

    2015-06-01

    HESS J1841-055 is a diffuse unidentified gamma-ray source with the size of ∼1°.3 × 1°. No conclusive counterpart in other wavelengths has so far detected. To search for X-rays responsible for the TeV emission, the Suzaku observations were conducted, which covered a half region of the HESS source. In the soft band (0.5-2.0 keV), we discovered a diffuse emission, Suzaku J1840.2-0552, with the size of ∼10‧ . Since its spectrum was fitted by an optically thin thermal plasma model, Suzaku J1840.2-0552 is likely to be a supernova remnant. We also discovered an extended source, Suzaku J1840.2-0544, in the hard band (2.0-8.0 keV) with an emission line at 6.1 keV. From the spectral feature and large interstellar absorption, this source is likely to be a cluster of galaxies behind the Galactic plane at the red-shift of ∼0.09. The other diffuse source spatially overlaps with the SNR candidate G26.6-0.2, which shows a non-thermal dominant spectrum. Since no other candidate is found in the hard X-ray band, we infer that these largely extended sources could be possible counterparts of HESS J1841-055.

  9. Chandra and XMM-Newton: Atomic Data Needs For X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    With the launches of the Chandra X-ray Observatory and XM M-Newton, high resolution X-ray spectra of cosmic sources are broadening our understanding of the physical conditions, such as temperature, density, Ionization state, and elemental abundances. X-ray emitting astrophysical plasmas can be generally classified by their dominant ionization mechanism, either collisional ionization or X-ray photoionization. The atomic data needs are significantly different for these two cases; however, for both cases it is important that we identify robust and accurate diagnostics and that we verify completeness of the broadband models. We discuss the status of tile atomic data currently used in atomic databases for X-ray astronomy, in view of theoretical and experimental atomic physics considerations. We will also discuss the application of these models to new astrophysical data.

  10. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  11. Simultaneous observation of the gamma-ray binary LS I+61 303 with GLAST and Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Takuya; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Katagiri, Hideaki; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nagae, Osamu; Ohsugi, Takashi

    2007-07-12

    The gamma-ray binary LS I+61 303 is a bright gamma-ray source, and thus an attracting object for GLAST. We proposed to observe this object with the X-ray satellite Suzaku (AO-2), simultaneously with GLAST, radio wave, and optical spectro-polarimetry, in order to probe the geometrical state of the binary system emitting the gamma-ray radiation, as a function of the binary orbital phase for the first time. This is essential to understand the mechanism of jet production and gamma-ray emission. The idea is not only to measure the multi-band overall continuum shape, but also to make use of continuous monitoring capability of GLAST, wide X-ray band of Suzaku, and good accessibility of the Kanata optical/NIR telescope (Hiroshima University) with the sensitive optical spectro-polarimetry. Further collaboration with TeV gamma-ray telescopes is also hoped to constrain the jet constitution.

  12. X-Ray Spectrum of a Narrow-Line QSO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    During the reporting period, seven papers using ASCA data, supported in whole or in part by this grant, were published or submitted to refereed journals. Their abstracts are given in this report, and the complete bibliographic references are listed in the Appendix. Titles include (1) A Broad-Band X-ray Study of the Geminga Pulsar; (2) ASCA Observations of PSR 1920+10 and PSR 0950+08; (3) X-ray and Optical Spectroscopy of IRAS 20181-2244: Not a Type 2 QSO, but a I Zw I Object; (4) Models for X-ray Emission from Isolated Pulsars; (5) Optical and X-ray Spectroscopy of 1E 0449.4-1823: Demise of the Original Type 2 QSO; (6) The ASCA Spectrum of the Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A: A Simple Power Law with No Fe Ka Line; and (7) ASCA Spectra of NGC 4388 and ESO 103-G35: Absorption, Reflection, and Variability in Intermediate Type Seyfert Galaxies.

  13. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  14. Student X-Ray Fluorescence Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetzer, Homer D.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Describes the experimental arrangement for x-ray analysis of samples which involves the following: the radioisotopic x-ray disk source; a student-built fluorescence chamber; the energy dispersive x-ray detector, linear amplifier and bias supply; and a multichannel pulse height analyzer. (GS)

  15. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    DOEpatents

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  16. Measuring the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, F.; Pollock, B. B.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Ralph, J. E.; Chen, Y. -H.; Alessi, D.; Pak, A.; Clayton, C. E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Joshi, C.

    2014-07-22

    This paper presents a new technique to measure the angular dependence of betatron x-ray spectra in a laser-wakefield accelerator. Measurements are performed with a stacked image plates spectrometer, capable of detecting broadband x-ray radiation up to 1 MeV. It can provide measurements of the betatron x-ray spectrum at any angle of observation (within a 40 mrad cone) and of the beam profile. A detailed description of our data analysis is given, along with comparison for several shots. As a result, these measurements provide useful information on the dynamics of the electrons are they are accelerated and wiggled by the wakefield.

  17. Tunable thin film polarizer for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Minghong; Cobet, Christoph; Esser, Norbert

    2007-03-01

    A low pass polarizer that suppresses higher-order diffraction light from vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray monochromators is presented in this paper. This vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray polarizer is based on a concept of sandwiched metal-dielectric-metal triple reflection configuration. By appropriate optimization of material and angle of incidence, the proposed Au-SiC-Au polarizer demonstrates the capability of matching to desired cutoff edge of photon energy. Furthermore, the optimized soft x-ray polarizer shows the possibility to tune cutoff photon energy in a broadband spectral region ranging from 80 down to down to 20 eV.

  18. Gas bulk motion in the Perseus Cluster measured with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, T.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Iizuka, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ueda, S.; Matsushita, K.; Sato, K.; Nakazawa, K.; Ota, N.; Takizawa, M.

    2014-02-10

    We present the results from Suzaku observations of the Perseus Cluster, which is relatively close, the brightest in the X-ray sky, and a relaxed object with a cool core. A number of exposures of central regions and offset pointing with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer cover a region within radii of 20'-30'. The central data are used to evaluate the instrumental energy-scale calibration with accuracy confirmed to within around 300 km s{sup –1} by the spatial and temporal variation of the instruments. These deep and well-calibrated data are used to measure X-ray redshifts of the intracluster medium. A hint of gas bulk motion, with radial velocity of about –(150-300) km s{sup –1} relative to the main system, was found at 2'-4' (45-90 kpc) west of the cluster center, where an X-ray excess and a cold front were found previously. No other velocity structure was discovered. Over spatial scales of 50-100 kpc and within 200 kpc radii of the center, the gas-radial-velocity variation is below 300 km s{sup –1}, while over scales of 400 kpc within 600 kpc radii, the variation is below 600 km s{sup –1}. These X-ray redshift distributions are compared spatially with those of optical member galaxies for the first time in galaxy clusters. Based on X-ray line widths, gas turbulent velocities within these regions are also constrained within 1000-3000 km s{sup –1}. These results of gas dynamics in the core and larger scales in association with cluster merger activities are discussed, and the future potential of high-energy resolution spectroscopy with ASTRO-H is considered.

  19. Swift and Fermi Observations of X-Ray Flares: The Case of Late Internal Shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troja, E.; Piro, L.; Vasileiou, V.; Omodei, N.; Burgess, J. M.; Cutini, S.; Connaughton, V.; McEnery, J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer a unique broadband view of their afterglow emission, spanning more than 10 decades in energy. We present the sample of X-ray flares observed by both Swift and Fermi during the first three years of Fermi operations. While bright in the X-ray band, X-ray flares are often undetected at lower (optical), and higher (MeV to GeV) energies. We show that this disfavors synchrotron self-Compton processes as the origin of the observed X-ray emission. We compare the broadband properties of X-ray flares with the standard late internal shock model, and find that in this scenario, X-ray flares can be produced by a late-time relativistic (gamma greater than 50) outflow at radii R approximately 10(exp 13) - 10(exp 14) cm. This conclusion holds only if the variability timescale is significantly shorter than the observed flare duration, and implies that X-ray flares can directly probe the activity of the GRB central engine.

  20. SWIFT AND FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF X-RAY FLARES: THE CASE OF LATE INTERNAL SHOCK

    SciTech Connect

    Troja, E.; Piro, L.; Vasileiou, V.; Burgess, J. M.; Connaughton, V.; Cutini, S.; McEnery, J. E. E-mail: luigi.piro@iaps.inaf.it

    2015-04-10

    Simultaneous Swift and Fermi observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) offer a unique broadband view of their afterglow emission, spanning more than 10 decades in energy. We present the sample of X-ray flares observed by both Swift and Fermi during the first three years of Fermi operations. While bright in the X-ray band, X-ray flares are often undetected at lower (optical), and higher (MeV to GeV) energies. We show that this disfavors synchrotron self-Compton processes as the origin of the observed X-ray emission. We compare the broadband properties of X-ray flares with the standard late internal shock model, and find that in this scenario, X-ray flares can be produced by a late-time relativistic (Γ > 50) outflow at radii R ∼ 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} cm. This conclusion holds only if the variability timescale is significantly shorter than the observed flare duration, and implies that X-ray flares can directly probe the activity of the GRB central engine.

  1. A Suzaku View of Cyclotron Line Sources and Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pottschmidt, K.; Suchy, S.; Rivers, E.; Rothschild, R. E.; Marcu, D. M.; Barragan, L.; Kuehnel, M.; Fuerst, F.; Schwarm, F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Schoenherr, G.; Caballero, I.; Camero-Arranz, A.; Bodaghee, A.; Doroshenko, V.; Klochkov, D.; Santangelo, A.; Staubert, R.; Kretschmar, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Finger, M. H.; Terada, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Seventeen accreting neutron star pulsars, mostly high mass X-ray binaries with half of them Be-type transients, are known to exhibit Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Features (CRSFs) in their X-ray spectra, with characteristic line energies from 10 to 60 keY. To date about two thirds of them, plus a few similar systems without known CRSFs, have been observed with Suzaku. We present an overview of results from these observations, including the discovery of a CRSF in the transient IA1118-61 and pulse phase resolved spectroscopy of OX 301-2. These observations allow for the determination of cyclotron line parameters to an unprecedented degree of accuracy within a moderate amount of observing time. This is important since these parameters vary - e.g., with orbital phase, pulse phase, or luminosity - depending on the geometry of the magnetic field of the pulsar and the properties of the accretion column at the magnetic poles. We briefly introduce a spectral model for CRSFs that is currently being developed and that for the first time is based on these physical properties. In addition to cyclotron line measurements, selected highlights from the Suzaku analyses include dip and flare studies, e.g., of 4U 1907+09 and Vela X-I, which show clumpy wind effects (like partial absorption and/or a decrease in the mass accretion rate supplied by the wind) and may also display magnetospheric gating effects.

  2. The Suzaku Observation of the Nucleus of the Radio Loud Active Galaxy Centaurus A: Constraints on Abundances in the Accreting Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markowitz, A.; Takahashi, T.A; Watanabe, S.; Nakazawa, K.; Fukazawa, Y.; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Bamba, A.; Isobe, N.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Mushotzky, R.; Okajima, T.; Ptak, A.; Reeves, J. N.; Ueda, Y.; Yamasaki, T.; Yaqoob, T.

    2007-01-01

    A Suzaku observation of the nucleus of the radio-loud AGN Centaurus A in 2005 has yielded a broadband spectrum spanning 0.3 to 250 keV. The hard X-rays are fit by two power laws, absorbed by columns of 1.5 and 7 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. The dual power-laws are consistent with previous suggestions that the powerlaw components are X-ray emission from the sub-pc VLBI jet and from Bondi accretion at the core, or are consistent with a partial covering interpretation. The soft band is dominated by thermal emission from the diffuse plasma and is fit well by a two-temperature VAPEC model, plus a third power-law component to account for scattered nuclear emission, kpc-scale jet emission, and emission from X-ray Binaries and other point sources. Narrow fluorescent emission lines from Fe, Si, S, Ar, Ca and Ni are detected. The width of the Fe Ka line yields a 200 light-day lower limit on the distance from the black hole to the line-emitting gas. K-shell absorption edges due to Fe, Ca, and S are detected. Elemental abundances are constrained via the fluorescent lines strengths, absorption edge depths and the diffuse plasma emission lines. The high metallicity ([Fe/H]=+0.l) of the circumnuclear material compared to that in the metal-poor outer halo suggests that the accreting material could not have originated in the outer halo unless enrichment by local star formation has occurred. Relative abundances are consistent with enrichment from Type II and Ia supernovae.

  3. SPECTRAL SURVEY OF X-RAY BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    SciTech Connect

    Rivers, Elizabeth; Markowitz, Alex; Rothschild, Richard

    2011-03-15

    Using long-term monitoring data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have selected 23 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with sufficient brightness and overall observation time to derive broadband X-ray spectra from 3 to {approx}>100 keV. Our sample includes mainly radio-quiet Seyferts, as well as seven radio-loud sources. Given the longevity of the RXTE mission, the greater part of our data is spread out over more than a decade, providing truly long-term average spectra and eliminating inconsistencies arising from variability. We present long-term average values of absorption, Fe line parameters, Compton reflection strengths, and photon indices, as well as fluxes and luminosities for the hard and very hard energy bands, 2-10 keV and 20-100 keV, respectively. We find tentative evidence for high-energy rollovers in three of our objects. We improve upon previous surveys of the very hard X-ray energy band in terms of accuracy and sensitivity, particularly with respect to confirming and quantifying the Compton reflection component. This survey is meant to provide a baseline for future analysis with respect to the long-term averages for these sources and to cement the legacy of RXTE, and especially its High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment, as a contributor to AGN spectral science.

  4. Development of Multilayer Optics for EUV, Soft X-Ray and X-Ray Regions in IPOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z. S.; Zhu, J. T.; Wang, F. L.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, H. C.; Qin, S. J.; Chen, L. Y.

    In EUV and X-ray regions, multilayer mirrors are the essential and necessary optics elements. The good prospects of the EUV and X-ray optics for next generation lithography system, microscopy in the "water windows", astronomy telescope, spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and X-ray laser have impelled the development of multilayer. This report introduced the recent results of the multilayer optics elements in institute of precision optical engineering (IPOE), Tongji University, China, including beam splitters, broad band/angular polarizers, supermirrors, and high-reflectance mirrors. The product of reflectivity and transmittance is above 4% for the Mo/Si multilayer beam splitter at 13.9 nm. Over the 15-17 nm wavelength range, the s-reflectivity of the non-periodic Mo/Si broadband multilayer polarizers is reasonably constant, as high as 36.6%, and the degree of polarization is more than 97.8%. The experimental results of some X-ray supermirrors and high-reflectance mirrors in our lab were also presented.

  5. Cosmic X-ray physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Cox, D. P.; Kraushaar, W. L.; Sanders, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    The soft X-ray sky survey data are combined with the results from the UXT sounding rocket payload. Very strong constraints can then be placed on models of the origin of the soft diffuse background. Additional observational constraints force more complicated and realistic models. Significant progress was made in the extraction of more detailed spectral information from the UXT data set. Work was begun on a second generation proportional counter response model. The first flight of the sounding rocket will have a collimator to study the diffuse background.

  6. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  7. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  8. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, R.B.

    1996-05-21

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  9. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1996-01-01

    An X-ray debris shield for use in X-ray lithography that is comprised of an X-ray window having a layer of low density foam exhibits increased longevity without a substantial increase in exposure time. The low density foam layer serves to absorb the debris emitted from the X-ray source and attenuate the shock to the window so as to reduce the chance of breakage. Because the foam is low density, the X-rays are hardly attenuated by the foam and thus the exposure time is not substantially increased.

  10. X-ray imaging for palaeontology.

    PubMed

    Hohenstein, P

    2004-05-01

    Few may be aware that X-ray imaging is used in palaeontology and has been used since as early as 1896. The X-raying, preparation and exposure of Hunsrück slate fossils are described. Hospital X-ray machines are used by the author in his work. An X-ray is vital to provide evidence that preparation of a slate is worthwhile as well as to facilitate preparation even if there is little external sign of what lies within. The beauty of the X-ray exposure is an added bonus.

  11. Ionospheric effects of solar x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danskin, Donald

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric absorption of radio waves caused by solar x-ray bursts is measured directly by Riometers from the Canada Riometer Array. The absorption is found to be proportional to the square root of the flux intensity of the X-ray burst with time delays of 18-20 seconds between the peak X-ray emission and absorption in the ionosphere. A detailed analysis showed that some X-ray flares during 2011-2014 are more effective at producing absorption than others. Solar longitude of X-ray burst for several X-class flares shows no consistent pattern of enhancement in the absorption.

  12. Atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jason E. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Wilcox, Jaroslava Z. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention comprises an apparatus for performing in-situ elemental analyses of surfaces. The invention comprises an atmospheric electron x-ray spectrometer with an electron column which generates, accelerates, and focuses electrons in a column which is isolated from ambient pressure by a:thin, electron transparent membrane. After passing through the membrane, the electrons impinge on the sample in atmosphere to generate characteristic x-rays. An x-ray detector, shaping amplifier, and multi-channel analyzer are used for x-ray detection and signal analysis. By comparing the resultant data to known x-ray spectral signatures, the elemental composition of the surface can be determined.

  13. A Burst Chasing X-ray Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joanne E.; Barthelmy, Scott; Black, J. kevin; Deines-Jones, Philip; Jahoda, Keith; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kaaret, Philip; McConnell, Mark L.; Bloser, Peter F.; Macri, John R.; Legere, Jason S.; Ryan, James M.; Smith, Billy R., Jr.; Zhang, Bing

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are one of the most powerful explosions in the universe and have been detected out to distances of almost 13 billion light years. The exact origin of these energetic explosions is still unknown but the resulting huge release of energy is thought to create a highly relativistic jet of material and a power-law distribution of electrons. There are several theories describing the origin of the prompt GRB emission that currently cannot be distinguished. Measurements of the linear polarization would provide unique and important constraints on the mechanisms thought to drive these powerful explosions. We present the design of a sensitive, and extremely versatile gamma-ray burst polarimeter. The instrument is a photoelectric polarimeter based on a time-projection chamber. The photoelectric time-projection technique combines high sensitivity with broad band-pass and is potentially the most powerful method between 2 and 100 keV where the photoelectric effect 1s the dominant interaction process We present measurements of polarized and unpolarized X-rays obtained with a prototype detector and describe the two mission concepts, the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter (GRBP) for thc U S Naval Academy satellite MidSTAR-2, and thc Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) onboard POET, a broadband polarimetry concept for a small explorer mission.

  14. X-ray lithography using holographic images

    DOEpatents

    Howells, Malcolm R.; Jacobsen, Chris

    1995-01-01

    A non-contact X-ray projection lithography method for producing a desired X-ray image on a selected surface of an X-ray-sensitive material, such as photoresist material on a wafer, the desired X-ray image having image minimum linewidths as small as 0.063 .mu.m, or even smaller. A hologram and its position are determined that will produce the desired image on the selected surface when the hologram is irradiated with X-rays from a suitably monochromatic X-ray source of a selected wavelength .lambda.. On-axis X-ray transmission through, or off-axis X-ray reflection from, a hologram may be used here, with very different requirements for monochromaticity, flux and brightness of the X-ray source. For reasonable penetration of photoresist materials by X-rays produced by the X-ray source, the wavelength X, is preferably chosen to be no more than 13.5 nm in one embodiment and more preferably is chosen in the range 1-5 nm in the other embodiment. A lower limit on linewidth is set by the linewidth of available microstructure writing devices, such as an electron beam.

  15. Extended range X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An X-ray telescope system is described which is comprised of a tubular mount having a collecting region remote from the one axial end. A soft X-ray/XUV subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively soft, near on-axis X-rays/XUV radiation incident on a first portion of the collecting region into a first detector sensitive to relatively soft X-rays/XUV radiation. A hard X-ray subsystem associated with the collecting region directs only relatively hard near on-axis X-rays incident on a second portion of the collecting region into a second detector sensitive to relatively hard X-rays.

  16. Evolution of X-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossj, B.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of X-ray astronomy up to the launching of the Einstein observatory is presented. The evaluation proceeded through the following major steps: (1) discovery of an extrasolar X-ray source, Sco X-1, orders of magnitude stronger than astronomers believed might exist; (2) identification of a strong X-ray source with the Crab Nebula; (3) identification of Sco X-1 with a faint, peculiar optical object; (4) demonstration that X-ray stars are binary systems, each consisting of a collapsed object accreting matter from an ordinary star; (5) discovery of X-ray bursts; (6) discovery of exceedingly strong X-ray emission from active galaxies, quasars and clusters of galaxies; (7) demonstration that the principal X-ray source is a hot gas filling the space between galaxies.

  17. On stellar X-ray emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Stellar X-ray astronomy represents an entirely new astronomical discipline which has emerged during the past five years. It lies at the crossroads of solar physics, stellar physics, and general astrophysics. The present review is concerned with the main physical problems which arise in connection with a study of the stellar X-ray data. A central issue is the extent to which the extrapolation from solar physics is justified and the definition (if possible) of the limits to such extrapolation. The observational properties of X-ray emission from stars are considered along with the solar analogy and the modeling of X-ray emission from late-type stars, the modeling of X-ray emission from early-type stars, the physics of stellar X-ray emission, stellar X-ray emission in the more general astrophysical context, and future prospects.

  18. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  19. G346.6-0.2: Non-thermal X-ray emission from a Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, K.; Wong, B. T. T.; Ng, C.-Y.; Slane, P.

    2016-06-01

    The detection of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a unique window into studying particle acceleration at the shock-front. All of the 14 or so SNRs in which non-thermal X-ray synchrotron emission has been detected are shell-like in nature, and show no direct evidence of interaction with large nearby molecular clouds. Here we present a new X-ray study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology (MM) SNR G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. We found that the X-ray emission arises from a cool recombining plasma with sub-solar abundances, confirming previous Suzaku results. In addition, we identified an additional power-law component in the spectrum, with a photon index of ˜2. We investigated its possible origin and conclude that it most likely arises from synchrotron emission produced by particles accelerated at the shock. This makes G346.6-0.2 an important new object in the class of synchrotron emitting SNRs, as unlike shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, MM SNRs are usually thought to have shock velocities that are effectively too slow to accelerate electrons. The dense environment and nature of the remnant, provide conditions unseen in shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, providing a unique opportunity to study the effect that these properties have on the production of X-ray synchrotron emission.

  20. G346.6-0.2: The Mixed-Morphology Supernova Remnant with Non-Thermal X-Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Ng, Stephen C.-Y.; Wong, B. T. T.

    2016-07-01

    The detection of non-thermal X-ray emission from supernova remnants (SNRs) provides us with a unique window into studying particle acceleration at the shock-front. All of the 14 or so SNRs in which non-thermal X-ray synchrotron emission has been detected are shell-like in nature, and show no evidence of interaction with large nearby molecular clouds. Here we present a new X-ray study of the molecular cloud interacting mixed-morphology (MM) SNR G346.6-0.2 using XMM-Newton. We found that the X-ray emission arises from a cool recombining plasma with subsolar abundances, confirming previous Suzaku results. In addition, we identified an additional power-law component in the spectrum, with a photon index of ˜2. We investigated its possible origin and conclude that it most likely arises from synchrotron emission produced by particles accelerated at the shock. This makes G346.6-0.2 an important new object in the class of synchrotron emitting SNRs, as unlike shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, MM SNRs are usually thought to have shock velocities that are effectively too slow to accelerate electrons. The dense environment and nature of the remnant, provide conditions unseen in shell type X-ray synchrotron SNRs, providing a unique opportunity to study the effect that these properties have on the production of X-ray synchrotron emission.

  1. X-ray deconvolution microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship pn with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  2. X-ray omni microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paganin, D; Gureyev, T E; Mayo, S C; Stevenson, A W; Nesterets, Ya I; Wilkins, S W

    2004-06-01

    The science of wave-field phase retrieval and phase measurement is sufficiently mature to permit the routine reconstruction, over a given plane, of the complex wave-function associated with certain coherent forward-propagating scalar wave-fields. This reconstruction gives total knowledge of the information that has been encoded in the complex wave-field by passage through a sample of interest. Such total knowledge is powerful, because it permits the emulation in software of the subsequent action of an infinite variety of coherent imaging systems. Such 'virtual optics', in which software forms a natural extension of the 'hardware optics' in an imaging system, may be useful in contexts such as quantitative atom and X-ray imaging, in which optical elements such as beam-splitters and lenses can be realized in software rather than optical hardware. Here, we develop the requisite theory to describe such hybrid virtual-physical imaging systems, which we term 'omni optics' because of their infinite flexibility. We then give an experimental demonstration of these ideas by showing that a lensless X-ray point projection microscope can, when equipped with the appropriate software, emulate an infinite variety of optical imaging systems including those which yield interferograms, Zernike phase contrast, Schlieren imaging and diffraction-enhanced imaging.

  3. X-ray deconvolution microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ehn, Sebastian; Epple, Franz Michael; Fehringer, Andreas; Pennicard, David; Graafsma, Heinz; Noël, Peter; Pfeiffer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in single-photon-counting detectors are enabling the development of novel approaches to reach micrometer-scale resolution in x-ray imaging. One example of such a technology are the MEDIPIX3RX-based detectors, such as the LAMBDA which can be operated with a small pixel size in combination with real-time on-chip charge-sharing correction. This characteristic results in a close to ideal, box-like point spread function which we made use of in this study. The proposed method is based on raster-scanning the sample with sub-pixel sized steps in front of the detector. Subsequently, a deconvolution algorithm is employed to compensate for blurring introduced by the overlap of pixels with a well defined point spread function during the raster-scanning. The presented approach utilizes standard laboratory x-ray equipment while we report resolutions close to 10 μm. The achieved resolution is shown to follow the relationship [Formula: see text] with the pixel-size p of the detector and the number of raster-scanning steps n. PMID:27446649

  4. Nature of the Unidentified TeV Source HESS J1614-518, Revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Yajima, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2011-11-01

    We report on new Suzaku and XMM-Newton results concerning HESS J1614-518, which is one of the brightest extended TeV γ-ray sources and has two regions with intense γ-ray emission. We newly observed the south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 with Suzaku, since the north region, including the position of the 1st brightest peak of the TeV γ-ray emission, has already been observed. No X-ray counterpart was found at the position of the 2nd brightest peak of the TeV γ-ray emission; we estimated the upper limit of the X-ray flux to be 1.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. The soft X-ray source Suzaku J1614-5152, which was found at the edge of the field of view in a previous observation, was also detected at the middle of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we revealed that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, can be described by a power-law model with a photon index of Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5, or a blackbody model with temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04 keV. In the blackbody model, the hydrogen-equivalent column density is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission, Suzaku J1614-5141, which was found at the 1st peak position. If true, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  5. X-ray diagnostic calibration with the tabletop laser facility EQUINOX.

    PubMed

    Reverdin, Charles; Paurisse, M; Caillaud, T; Combis, P; Duval, A; Gontier, D; Husson, D; Rubbelynck, C; Zuber, C

    2008-10-01

    The broadband x-ray emission of a target irradiated by a laser can be used to check the calibration of detectors. At CEA-DIF we have a tabletop picosecond laser facility called EQUINOX with 0.3 J at 800 nm. The laser is focused inside a target chamber onto a solid target and produces bright radiation in the 100-2000 eV spectral range. The x-ray source is routinely monitored with a pinhole camera for source dimension measurement and with x-ray diodes for flux measurement. In addition an x-ray transmission grating spectrometer, a crystal spectrometer, and a single count charge coupled device camera measure the x-ray spectrum between 100 eV and 15 keV. The absolute calibration of those sets of spectrometers allows us to fully characterize x-ray emission spectra. Typical duration is less than 100 ps. The spectrum can be tuned by changing target material, pulse length, and x-ray filters. An application to checking the calibration of x-ray diodes used in the broad band spectrometer DMX with single shots will be presented. PMID:19044587

  6. X-ray diagnostic calibration with the tabletop laser facility EQUINOX

    SciTech Connect

    Reverdin, Charles; Paurisse, M.; Caillaud, T.; Combis, P.; Duval, A.; Gontier, D.; Husson, D.; Rubbelynck, C.; Zuber, C.

    2008-10-15

    The broadband x-ray emission of a target irradiated by a laser can be used to check the calibration of detectors. At CEA-DIF we have a tabletop picosecond laser facility called EQUINOX with 0.3 J at 800 nm. The laser is focused inside a target chamber onto a solid target and produces bright radiation in the 100-2000 eV spectral range. The x-ray source is routinely monitored with a pinhole camera for source dimension measurement and with x-ray diodes for flux measurement. In addition an x-ray transmission grating spectrometer, a crystal spectrometer, and a single count charge coupled device camera measure the x-ray spectrum between 100 eV and 15 keV. The absolute calibration of those sets of spectrometers allows us to fully characterize x-ray emission spectra. Typical duration is less than 100 ps. The spectrum can be tuned by changing target material, pulse length, and x-ray filters. An application to checking the calibration of x-ray diodes used in the broad band spectrometer DMX with single shots will be presented.

  7. X-ray diagnostic calibration with the tabletop laser facility EQUINOXa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Paurisse, M.; Caillaud, T.; Combis, P.; Duval, A.; Gontier, D.; Husson, D.; Rubbelynck, C.; Zuber, C.

    2008-10-01

    The broadband x-ray emission of a target irradiated by a laser can be used to check the calibration of detectors. At CEA-DIF we have a tabletop picosecond laser facility called EQUINOX with 0.3J at 800nm. The laser is focused inside a target chamber onto a solid target and produces bright radiation in the 100-2000eV spectral range. The x-ray source is routinely monitored with a pinhole camera for source dimension measurement and with x-ray diodes for flux measurement. In addition an x-ray transmission grating spectrometer, a crystal spectrometer, and a single count charge coupled device camera measure the x-ray spectrum between 100eV and 15keV. The absolute calibration of those sets of spectrometers allows us to fully characterize x-ray emission spectra. Typical duration is less than 100ps. The spectrum can be tuned by changing target material, pulse length, and x-ray filters. An application to checking the calibration of x-ray diodes used in the broad band spectrometer DMX with single shots will be presented.

  8. A soft X-ray lag detected in Centaurus A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Yutaro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Shidatsu, Megumi; Arimoto, Makoto; Yoshii, Taketoshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Pike, Sean; Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2016-06-01

    We performed time-lag analysis on the X-ray light curves of Centaurus A (Cen A) obtained by the Gas Slit Camera (GSC) aboard the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI) in three energy bands (2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV). We discovered a soft X-ray lag relative to higher energies (soft lag) on a timescale of days in a flaring episode by employing the discrete correlation function (DCF) and the z-transformed discrete correlation function (ZDCF) method. In the episode, a peak and a centroid in the DCF and the ZDCF was observed at a soft lag of ˜ 5 d in 2-4 keV versus 4-10 keV and in 4-10 keV versus 10-20 keV, and ˜ 10 d in 2-4 keV versus 10-20 keV. We found it difficult to explain the observed X-ray variation by a single energy injection with the one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, in which the soft lags in these three energy bands reflect the different cooling times of the relativistic electrons, by assuming the magnetic field and minimum Lorentz factor estimated from a broad-band spectral energy distribution. Alternatively, if the phenomenon is interpreted as cooling of Comptonizing electrons in a corona covering the accretion disk, the temperature of the corona producing the variable X-rays should be ˜ 10 keV for reconciliation with the soft lag in the energy range of 2-20 keV.

  9. The broadband spectrum of Centaurus X-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottlieb, Amy; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Kühnel, Matthias; Falkner, Sebastian; Britton Hemphill, Paul; Suchy, Slawomir; Becker, Peter A.; Wood, Kent S.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of a Suzaku observation of the accreting pulsar and high mass X-ray binary Centaurus X-3. The observation was performed in 2008 and covers one 2.1 day binary orbit. Strong flux and hardness variability is present in the energy range from 0.8 to 60 keV. We selected a part of the observation covering ~40% of the first half of the orbit during which the spectral shape was stable and less absorbed than during other parts of the observation. We confirm earlier results that the broadband spectrum can be modeled with acutoff power law modified by a partial absorber, three iron lines -- from near-neutral, helium-like, and hydrogen-like iron --, and a cyclotron resonant scattering line at 30 keV. The pulse profile shows a shift above the cyclotron line energy which is qualitatively consistent with recent theoretical predictions. In addition we findthat the presence of the so-called ``13 keV'' bump is model dependent and that there are indications for further line-like spectral components at 1 keV and 6 keV and a broader residual around 2 keV. We also apply the newly implemented radiation dominated radiative shock model for luminous accretion pulsars by Becker and Wolff (2007, ApJ 654, 435) to model the broadband spectrum. Replacing the cutoff power law with the physical continuum while retaining all other components we obtain a similar goodness of fit as before. From the physical continuum model we determine a mass accretion rate of ~2.17 x 10^17 g/s, an accretion column radius of 65 (+12, -4) m, and a temperature of the accreted plasma of 3.1 (+0.4, -0.1) keV.

  10. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  11. Athena and future plans of the X-ray astronomy in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Hiro

    2015-09-01

    High-Energy AstroPhysics Association in Japan (HEAPA) officially decided to contribute to the success of Athena based on our expertise through the development of ASTRO-H, Suzaku, and other satellites. The Athena Working Group (WG) of ISAS/JAXA was set up and the WG applied to the call for the MoO mission of ISAS/JAXA. In this talk, we would like to explain the Japanese contribution to the Athena satellite. Also we would like to talk about the future plan of Japanese X-ray astronomy missions. For example, Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS) and Next-Generation Hard X-ray Telescope (NGHXT) will be introduced, and the relation between the Athena project and those missions will be given.

  12. Search for astrophysical rotating Ellis wormholes with x-ray reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Menglei; Cardenas-Avendano, Alejandro; Bambi, Cosimo; Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta

    2016-07-01

    Recently, two of us have found numerically rotating Ellis wormholes as solutions of four-dimensional Einstein gravity coupled to a phantom field. In this paper, we investigate possible observational signatures to identify similar objects in the Universe. These symmetric wormholes have a mass and are compact, so they may look like black holes. We study the iron line profile in the x-ray reflection spectrum of a thin accretion disk around rotating Ellis wormholes and we find some specific observational signatures that can be used to distinguish these objects from Kerr black holes. We simulate some observations with XIS/Suzaku assuming typical parameters for a bright active galactic nucleus and we conclude that current x-ray missions cannot apply strong constraints.

  13. Baryons at the edge of the X-ray-brightest galaxy cluster.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W; Mantz, Adam; Werner, Norbert; Takei, Yoh; Morris, R Glenn; Fabian, Andrew C; Sanders, Jeremy S; Nulsen, Paul E J; George, Matthew R; Taylor, Gregory B

    2011-03-25

    Studies of the diffuse x-ray-emitting gas in galaxy clusters have provided powerful constraints on cosmological parameters and insights into plasma astrophysics. However, measurements of the faint cluster outskirts have become possible only recently. Using data from the Suzaku x-ray telescope, we determined an accurate, spatially resolved census of the gas, metals, and dark matter out to the edge of the Perseus Cluster. Contrary to previous results, our measurements of the cluster baryon fraction are consistent with the expected universal value at half of the virial radius. The apparent baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at larger radii, suggesting a clumpy distribution of the gas, which is important for understanding the ongoing growth of clusters from the surrounding cosmic web.

  14. Baryons at the edge of the X-ray-brightest galaxy cluster.

    PubMed

    Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W; Mantz, Adam; Werner, Norbert; Takei, Yoh; Morris, R Glenn; Fabian, Andrew C; Sanders, Jeremy S; Nulsen, Paul E J; George, Matthew R; Taylor, Gregory B

    2011-03-25

    Studies of the diffuse x-ray-emitting gas in galaxy clusters have provided powerful constraints on cosmological parameters and insights into plasma astrophysics. However, measurements of the faint cluster outskirts have become possible only recently. Using data from the Suzaku x-ray telescope, we determined an accurate, spatially resolved census of the gas, metals, and dark matter out to the edge of the Perseus Cluster. Contrary to previous results, our measurements of the cluster baryon fraction are consistent with the expected universal value at half of the virial radius. The apparent baryon fraction exceeds the cosmic mean at larger radii, suggesting a clumpy distribution of the gas, which is important for understanding the ongoing growth of clusters from the surrounding cosmic web. PMID:21436446

  15. A wide-field soft X-ray camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.

    1981-01-01

    A wide-field soft X-ray camera (WFSXC) sensitive in the 50 to 250 eV band is described. The camera features Wolter-Schwarzschild optics with an 8 degree field of view and 300 cu cu collecting area. The focal plane instrument is a microchannel plate detector. Broad-band energy discrimination is provided by thin-film filters mounted immediately in front of the focal plane. The WFSXC is capable of detecting sources with intensities greater than 5 percent of HZ 43 during typical sounding rocket exposures, and it would approach the same sensitivity range as EUVE during a typical exposure from the Shuttle.

  16. Diffractive X-Ray Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Gerald K.

    2010-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray telescopes, using zone plates, phase Fresnel lenses, or related optical elements have the potential to provide astronomers with true imaging capability with resolution many orders of magnitude better than available in any other waveband. Lenses that would be relatively easy to fabricate could have an angular resolution of the order of micro-arc-seconds or even better, that would allow, for example, imaging of the distorted spacetime in the immediate vicinity of the super-massive black holes in the center of active galaxies. What then is precluding their immediate adoption? Extremely long focal lengths, very limited bandwidth, and difficulty stabilizing the image are the main problems. The history, and status of the development of such lenses is reviewed here and the prospects for managing the challenges that they present are discussed.

  17. Ultraluminous X-ray Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladstone, Jeanette

    2012-07-01

    The first black hole was observed almost 50 years ago, ˜ 1 year after Sco X-1 (although its nature was not confirmed for ˜ 11 years). Observations of black holes have been ongoing since then, falling in to two distinct categories; stellar-mass (sMBHs; 3 - 80 M_{⊙}) and super-massive black holes (10^6 - 10^9 M_⊙). The missing link between these two types, intermediate mass black holes, has been the target of many searches due to their cosmological implications. Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) have been proposed to harbor such objects, but recent observational evidence has strongly suggested that the majority contain sMBHs. However, a handful of the brightest ULXs are so luminous that they defy this explanation. Here we will discuss the nature of both standard ULXs and this new bright subgroup of this population.

  18. Industrial X-Ray Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In 1990, Lewis Research Center jointly sponsored a conference with the U.S. Air Force Wright Laboratory focused on high speed imaging. This conference, and early funding by Lewis Research Center, helped to spur work by Silicon Mountain Design, Inc. to break the performance barriers of imaging speed, resolution, and sensitivity through innovative technology. Later, under a Small Business Innovation Research contract with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the company designed a real-time image enhancing camera that yields superb, high quality images in 1/30th of a second while limiting distortion. The result is a rapidly available, enhanced image showing significantly greater detail compared to image processing executed on digital computers. Current applications include radiographic and pathology-based medicine, industrial imaging, x-ray inspection devices, and automated semiconductor inspection equipment.

  19. The ROSAT Deep Survey. 2; Optical Identification, Photometry and Spectra of X-Ray Sources in the Lockman Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, M.; Hasinger, G.; Gunn, J.; Schneider, D.; Burg, R.; Giacconi, R.; Lehmann, I.; MacKenty, J.; Truemper, J.; Zamorani, G.

    1998-01-01

    The ROSAT Deep Survey includes a complete sample of 50 X-ray sources with fluxes in the 0.5 - 2 keV band larger than 5.5 x 10(exp -15)erg/sq cm/s in the Lockman field (Hasinger et al., Paper 1). We have obtained deep broad-band CCD images of the field and spectra of many optical objects near the positions of the X-ray sources. We define systematically the process leading to the optical identifications of the X-ray sources. For this purpose, we introduce five identification (ID) classes that characterize the process in each case. Among the 50 X-ray sources, we identify 39 AGNs, 3 groups of galaxies, 1 galaxy and 3 galactic stars. Four X-ray sources remain unidentified so far; two of these objects may have an unusually large ratio of X-ray to optical flux.

  20. Soft x-ray interferometry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument`s components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200{angstrom} wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency.

  1. SUZAKU OBSERVATION OF THE GIANT RADIO GALAXY 3C 326

    SciTech Connect

    Isobe, Naoki; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Seta, Hiromi; Gandhi, Poshak; Hayato, Asami; Nagai, Hiroshi; Hada, Kazuhiro; Matsuta, Keiko

    2009-11-20

    A Suzaku observation of a giant radio galaxy, 3C 326, which has a physical size of about 2 Mpc, was conducted on 2008 January 19-21. In addition to several X-ray sources, diffuse emission was significantly detected and associated with its west lobe, but the east lobe was contaminated by an unidentified X-ray source WARP J1552.4+2007. After careful evaluation of the X-ray and non-X-ray background, the 0.4-7 keV X-ray spectrum of the west lobe is described by a power-law model modified with the Galactic absorption. The photon index and 1 keV flux density were derived as GAMMA = 1.82{sup +0.26}{sub -0.24} +- 0.04 and S {sub X} = 19.4{sup +3.3}{sub -3.2} +- 3.0 nJy, respectively, where the first and second errors represent the statistical and systematic ones. The diffuse X-rays were attributed to be inverse Compton (IC) radiation by the synchrotron radio electrons scattering off the cosmic microwave background photons. This radio galaxy is the largest among those with lobes detected through IC X-ray emission. A comparison of the radio to X-ray fluxes yields the energy densities of electron and magnetic field as u{sub e} = (2.3 +- 0.3 +- 0.3) x 10{sup -13} erg cm{sup -3} and u{sub m} = (1.2{sup +0.2}{sub -0.1} +- 0.2) x 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -3}, respectively. The galaxy is suggested to host a low-luminosity nucleus with an absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity of <2 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}, together with a relatively weak radio core. The energetics in the west lobe of 3C 326 were compared with those of moderate radio galaxies with a size of approx100 kpc. The west lobe of 3C 326 is confirmed to agree with the correlations for the moderate radio galaxies, u{sub e} propor to D {sup -2.2+}-{sup 0.4} and u{sub m} propor to D {sup -2.4+}-{sup 0.4}, where D is their total physical size. This implies that the lobes of 3C 326 are still being energized by the jet, despite the current weakness of the nuclear activity.

  2. THE TRANSIENT ACCRETING X-RAY PULSAR XTE J1946+274: STABILITY OF X-RAY PROPERTIES AT LOW FLUX AND UPDATED ORBITAL SOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Marcu-Cheatham, Diana M.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Kühnel, Matthias; Müller, Sebastian; Falkner, Sebastian; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Caballero, Isabel; Jenke, Peter J.; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Fürst, Felix; Grinberg, Victoria; Hemphill, Paul B.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Klochkov, Dmitry; Terada, Yukikatsu; and others

    2015-12-10

    We present a timing and spectral analysis of the X-ray pulsar XTE J1946+274 observed with Suzaku during an outburst decline in 2010 October and compare with previous results. XTE J1946+274 is a transient X-ray binary consisting of a Be-type star and a neutron star with a 15.75 s pulse period in a 172 days orbit with 2–3 outbursts per orbit during phases of activity. We improve the orbital solution using data from multiple instruments. The X-ray spectrum can be described by an absorbed Fermi–Dirac cut-off power-law model along with a narrow Fe Kα line at 6.4 keV and a weak Cyclotron Resonance Scattering Feature (CRSF) at ∼35 keV. The Suzaku data are consistent with the previously observed continuum flux versus iron line flux correlation expected from fluorescence emission along the line of sight. However, the observed iron line flux is slightly higher, indicating the possibility of a higher iron abundance or the presence of non-uniform material. We argue that the source most likely has only been observed in the subcritical (non-radiation dominated) state since its pulse profile is stable over all observed luminosities and the energy of the CRSF is approximately the same at the highest (∼5 × 10{sup 37} erg s{sup −1}) and lowest (∼5 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup −1}) observed 3–60 keV luminosities.

  3. X-rays for medical use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  4. Absolute measurements of x-ray backlighter sources at energies above 10 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B. R.; Park, H. S.; Remington, B. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, S.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Comley, A.; Back, C. A.; Szabo, C.; Seely, J. F.; Feldman, U.; Hudson, L. T.; Seltzer, S.; Haugh, M. J.; Ali, Z.

    2011-05-15

    Line emission and broadband x-ray sources with x-ray energies above 10 keV have been investigated using a range of calibrated x-ray detectors for use as x-ray backlighters in high energy density (HED) experiments. The conversion efficiency of short- and long-pulse driven Mo and Ag line-emission backlighters at 17 and 22 keV was measured to investigate the crossover region between short- and long-pulse conversion efficiency. It was found that significant 17 and 22 keV line emissions were observed using a 3 {omega}, 1 ns long-pulse drive for Mo and Ag targets and a comparison between the measured Mo x-ray spectrum and calculations using an atomic physics code suggests that the line emission is due to thermal emission from N-like Mo atoms. Electron temperatures derived from fits to the continuum region of the x-ray spectra agree well with the T{sub hot} scaling as 100x(I{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 1/3}. The continuum emissions from empty and 1 atm Kr-filled imploded CH shell targets were also measured for the use as broadband backlighters.

  5. An outburst scenario for the X-ray spectral variability in 3C 111

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; García, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-09-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E = 0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R ≃ 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at EC ≃ 150-200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Lyα emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized-disc reflection, this should be emitted at rin ≥ 50 rg or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h ≥ 30 rg above the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modelled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0^{+6.1}_{-3.2} keV or a photoionized plasma with log ξ = 4.52^{+0.10}_{-0.16} erg s-1 cm and column density NH > 3 × 1023 cm-2. However, the first and second scenarios are less favoured on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blueshifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultrafast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter log ξ = 4.47^{+0.76}_{-0.04} erg s-1 cm, column density N_H = (5.3^{+1.8}_{-1.3})× 10^{22} cm-2 and outflow velocity vout = 0.104 ± 0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind, initially lying out of the line of sight and observed in emission, then crosses our view to the source and it is observed in absorption as a mildly relativistic UFO.

  6. An Outburst Scenario for the X-ray Spectral Variability in 3C 111

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Garcia, J.; Lohfink, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a combined Suzaku and Swift BAT broad-band E=0.6-200 keV spectral analysis of three 3C 111 observations obtained in 2010. The data are well described with an absorbed power-law continuum and a weak (R approximately equal to 0.2) cold reflection component from distant material. We constrain the continuum cutoff at E(sub C) approximately equal to 150- 200 keV, which is in accordance with X-ray Comptonization corona models and supports claims that the jet emission is only dominant at much higher energies. Fe XXVI Ly alpha emission and absorption lines are also present in the first and second observations, respectively. The modelling and interpretation of the emission line is complex and we explore three possibilities. If originating from ionized disc reflection, this should be emitted at r(sub in) greater than or equal to 50 r(sub g) or, in the lamp-post configuration, the illuminating source should be at a height of h greater than or equal to 30 r(sub g) over the black hole. Alternatively, the line could be modeled with a hot collisionally ionized plasma with temperature kT = 22.0(sup +6.1)(sub -3.2) keV or a photo-ionized plasma with logXi=4.52(sup +0.10)(sub -0.16) erg per second cm, and column density N(sub H) greater than 3×10(sup 23) per square centimeter. However, the first and second scenarios are less favored on statistical and physical grounds, respectively. The blue-shifted absorption line in the second observation can be modelled as an ultra-fast outflow (UFO) with ionization parameter logXi=4.47(sup +0.76) (sub -0.04) erg per second cm, column density NH=(5.3(sup +1.8)(sub -1.3))×10(sup 22) per square centimeter and outflow velocity v(sub out) = 0.104+/-0.006c. Interestingly, the parameters of the photoionized emission model remarkably match those of the absorbing UFO, supporting the possibility that the same material could be responsible for both emission and absorption. We suggest an outburst scenario in which an accretion disc wind

  7. X-ray transmissive debris shield

    DOEpatents

    Spielman, Rick B.

    1994-01-01

    A composite window structure is described for transmitting x-ray radiation and for shielding radiation generated debris. In particular, separate layers of different x-ray transmissive materials are laminated together to form a high strength, x-ray transmissive debris shield which is particularly suited for use in high energy fluences. In one embodiment, the composite window comprises alternating layers of beryllium and a thermoset polymer.

  8. Handbook of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith; Smith, Randall; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Ellis, Richard; Huchra, John; Kahn, Steve; Rieke, George; Stetson, Peter B.

    2011-11-01

    Practical guide to X-ray astronomy for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers. Presenting X-ray optics, basic detector physics and data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of X-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The appendices provide reference material often required during data analysis. The handbook web page contains figures and tables: http://xrayastronomyhandbook.com/

  9. Topological X-Rays and MRIs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Let K be a compact subset of the interior of the unit disk D in the plane and suppose one can't see through the boundary of D and identify K. However, assume that one can take "topological X-rays" of D which measure the "density" of K along the lines of the X-rays. By taking these X-rays from all directions, a "topological MRI" is generated for…

  10. Lobster-Eye X-Ray Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Marsikova, V.; Inneman, A.

    2010-07-15

    We report on technical and astrophysical aspects of Lobster-Eye wide-field X-ray telescopes expected to monitor the sky with high sensitivity and angular resolution of order of 1 arcmin. They will contribute essentially to study of various astrophysical objects such as AGN, SNe, Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), X-ray flashes (XRFs), galactic binary sources, stars, CVs, X-ray novae, various transient sources, etc.

  11. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  12. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, D.

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  13. High speed x-ray beam chopper

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Armon; Mills, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    A fast, economical, and compact x-ray beam chopper with a small mass and a small moment of inertia whose rotation can be synchronized and phase locked to an electronic signal from an x-ray source and be monitored by a light beam is disclosed. X-ray bursts shorter than 2.5 microseconds have been produced with a jitter time of less than 3 ns.

  14. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities. PMID:26811449

  15. Observation of femtosecond X-ray interactions with matter using an X-ray-X-ray pump-probe scheme.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ichiro; Inubushi, Yuichi; Sato, Takahiro; Tono, Kensuke; Katayama, Tetsuo; Kameshima, Takashi; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Owada, Shigeki; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Yabashi, Makina

    2016-02-01

    Resolution in the X-ray structure determination of noncrystalline samples has been limited to several tens of nanometers, because deep X-ray irradiation required for enhanced resolution causes radiation damage to samples. However, theoretical studies predict that the femtosecond (fs) durations of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) pulses make it possible to record scattering signals before the initiation of X-ray damage processes; thus, an ultraintense X-ray beam can be used beyond the conventional limit of radiation dose. Here, we verify this scenario by directly observing femtosecond X-ray damage processes in diamond irradiated with extraordinarily intense (∼10(19) W/cm(2)) XFEL pulses. An X-ray pump-probe diffraction scheme was developed in this study; tightly focused double-5-fs XFEL pulses with time separations ranging from sub-fs to 80 fs were used to excite (i.e., pump) the diamond and characterize (i.e., probe) the temporal changes of the crystalline structures through Bragg reflection. It was found that the pump and probe diffraction intensities remain almost constant for shorter time separations of the double pulse, whereas the probe diffraction intensities decreased after 20 fs following pump pulse irradiation due to the X-ray-induced atomic displacement. This result indicates that sub-10-fs XFEL pulses enable conductions of damageless structural determinations and supports the validity of the theoretical predictions of ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions. The X-ray pump-probe scheme demonstrated here would be effective for understanding ultraintense X-ray-matter interactions, which will greatly stimulate advanced XFEL applications, such as atomic structure determination of a single molecule and generation of exotic matters with high energy densities.

  16. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of 9 white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that was previously detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The 9 new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbiotic stars known to be X-ray sources by approximately 30%. Swift/XRT detected all of the new X-ray sources at energies greater than 2 keV. Their X-ray spectra are consistent with thermal emission and fall naturally into three distinct groups. The first group contains those sources with a single, highly absorbed hard component, which we identify as probably coming from an accretion-disk boundary layer. The second group is composed of those sources with a single, soft X-ray spectral component, which likely arises in a region where low-velocity shocks produce X-ray emission, i.e. a colliding-wind region. The third group consists of those sources with both hard and soft X-ray spectral components. We also find that unlike in the optical, where rapid, stochastic brightness variations from the accretion disk typically are not seen, detectable UV flickering is a common property of symbiotic stars. Supporting our physical interpretation of the two X-ray spectral components, simultaneous Swift UV photometry shows that symbiotic stars with harder X-ray emission tend to have stronger UV flickering, which is usually associated with accretion through a disk. To place these new observations in the context of previous work on X-ray emission from symbiotic stars, we modified and extended the alpha/beta/gamma classification scheme for symbiotic-star X-ray spectra that was introduced by Muerset et al. based upon observations with the ROSAT satellite, to include a new sigma classification for sources with

  17. X-ray laser microscope apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Suckewer, Szymon; DiCicco, Darrell S.; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Meixler, Lewis D.; Sathre, Robert; Skinner, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A microscope consisting of an x-ray contact microscope and an optical microscope. The optical, phase contrast, microscope is used to align a target with respect to a source of soft x-rays. The source of soft x-rays preferably comprises an x-ray laser but could comprise a synchrotron or other pulse source of x-rays. Transparent resist material is used to support the target. The optical microscope is located on the opposite side of the transparent resist material from the target and is employed to align the target with respect to the anticipated soft x-ray laser beam. After alignment with the use of the optical microscope, the target is exposed to the soft x-ray laser beam. The x-ray sensitive transparent resist material whose chemical bonds are altered by the x-ray beam passing through the target mater GOVERNMENT LICENSE RIGHTS This invention was made with government support under Contract No. De-FG02-86ER13609 awarded by the Department of Energy. The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  18. Separating Peaks in X-Ray Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David; Taylor, Clayborne; Wade, Thomas

    1987-01-01

    Deconvolution algorithm assists in analysis of x-ray spectra from scanning electron microscopes, electron microprobe analyzers, x-ray fluorescence spectrometers, and like. New algorithm automatically deconvolves x-ray spectrum, identifies locations of spectral peaks, and selects chemical elements most likely producing peaks. Technique based on similarities between zero- and second-order terms of Taylor-series expansions of Gaussian distribution and of damped sinusoid. Principal advantage of algorithm: no requirement to adjust weighting factors or other parameters when analyzing general x-ray spectra.

  19. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  20. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Tennant, Allyn; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Girogio; Kaspi, Vicky; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald

    2008-01-01

    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful - yet inexpensive - dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --- particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsiz:e the important physical and astrophysical questions such as mission would address.

  1. Colloid Coalescence with Focused X Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Weon, B. M.; Kim, J. T.; Je, J. H.; Yi, J. M.; Wang, S.; Lee, W.-K.

    2011-07-01

    We show direct evidence that focused x rays enable us to merge polymer colloidal particles at room temperature. This phenomenon is ascribed to the photochemical scission of colloids with x rays, reducing the molecular weight, glass transition temperature, surface tension, and viscosity of colloids. The observation of the neck bridge growth with time shows that the x-ray-induced colloid coalescence is analogous to viscoelastic coalescence. This finding suggests a feasible protocol of photonic nanofabrication by sintering or welding of polymers, without thermal damage, using x-ray photonics.

  2. X-rays from the youngest stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    1994-01-01

    The X-ray properties of classical and weak-lined T Tauri stars are briefly reviewed, emphasizing recent results from the ROSAT satellite and prospects for ASCA. The interpretation of the high level of T Tauri X-rays as enhanced solar-type magnetic activity is discussed and criticized. The census of X-ray emitters is significantly increasing estimates of galactic star formation efficiency, and X-ray emission may be important for self-regulation of star formation. ASCA images will detect star formation regions out to several kiloparsecs and will study the magnetically heated plasma around T Tauri stars. However, images will often suffer from crowding effects.

  3. [X-ray diagnosis of histiocytosis X].

    PubMed

    Khomenko, A G; Dmitrieva, L I; Khikkel', Kh G; Stepanian, I E

    1988-01-01

    The results of a dynamic x-ray study of 27 patients suffering from histiocytosis X with lung involvement were analyzed; the study was supplemented by CT in 4 cases. X-ray semiotics of the disease was investigated with relation to its stage. X-ray symptom complexes were defined: interstitial, interstitial-granulomatous, and focal (tumorous). The authors have emphasized the fact that the small focal-cystic and pneumothoracic x-ray variants of the disease, described in literature, are not nosological entities but reflect only its stage and complications.

  4. Compound refractive X-ray lens

    DOEpatents

    Nygren, David R.; Cahn, Robert; Cederstrom, Bjorn; Danielsson, Mats; Vestlund, Jonas

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for focusing X-rays. In one embodiment, his invention is a commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens. The commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a volume of low-Z material. The volume of low-Z material has a first surface which is adapted to receive X-rays of commercially-applicable power emitted from a commercial-grade X-ray source. The volume of low-Z material also has a second surface from which emerge the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which were received at the first surface. Additionally, the commercial-grade compound refractive X-ray lens includes a plurality of openings which are disposed between the first surface and the second surface. The plurality of openings are oriented such that the X-rays of commercially-applicable power which are received at the first surface, pass through the volume of low-Z material and through the plurality openings. In so doing, the X-rays which emerge from the second surface are refracted to a focal point.

  5. Spectral and timing nature of the symbiotic X-ray binary 4U 1954+319: The slowest rotating neutron star in an X-ray binary system

    SciTech Connect

    Enoto, Teruaki; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-10

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ∼5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (∼7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-Kα line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (∼60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (≳ 10{sup 12} G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10{sup 33}-10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1}), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ∼10{sup 13} G NS, this scheme can explain the ∼5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (∼10{sup 16} G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (∼50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ∼10{sup 13} G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  6. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in AN X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'Ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jorn

    2014-01-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its approx. 5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (is approx. 7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-K alpha line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (approx. 60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (approx. greater than 10(exp12) G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (10(exp33)-10(exp35) erg s(exp-1)), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a approx. 10(exp13) G NS, this scheme can explain the approx. 5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (approx. 10(exp16) G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (approx. 50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfv´en shell for a approx. 10(exp13) G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  7. Spectral and Timing Nature of the Symbiotic X-Ray Binary 4U 1954+319: The Slowest Rotating Neutron Star in an X-Ray Binary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enoto, Teruaki; Sasano, Makoto; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Makishima, Kazuo; Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, Diana; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Fuerst, Felix; Wilms, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    The symbiotic X-ray binary (SyXB) 4U 1954+319 is a rare system hosting a peculiar neutron star (NS) and an M-type optical companion. Its ~5.4 hr NS spin period is the longest among all known accretion-powered pulsars and exhibited large (~7%) fluctuations over 8 yr. A spin trend transition was detected with Swift/BAT around an X-ray brightening in 2012. The source was in quiescent and bright states before and after this outburst based on 60 ks Suzaku observations in 2011 and 2012. The observed continuum is well described by a Comptonized model with the addition of a narrow 6.4 keV Fe-Kα line during the outburst. Spectral similarities to slowly rotating pulsars in high-mass X-ray binaries, its high pulsed fraction (~60%-80%), and the location in the Corbet diagram favor high B-field (gsim 1012 G) over a weak field as in low-mass X-ray binaries. The observed low X-ray luminosity (1033-1035 erg s-1), probable wide orbit, and a slow stellar wind of this SyXB make quasi-spherical accretion in the subsonic settling regime a plausible model. Assuming a ~1013 G NS, this scheme can explain the ~5.4 hr equilibrium rotation without employing the magnetar-like field (~1016 G) required in the disk accretion case. The timescales of multiple irregular flares (~50 s) can also be attributed to the free-fall time from the Alfvén shell for a ~1013 G field. A physical interpretation of SyXBs beyond the canonical binary classifications is discussed.

  8. Suzaku Observations of the HMXB 1A 1118-61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchy, Slawomir; Pottschmidt, Katja; Rothschild, Richard E.; Wilms, Joern; Fuerst, Felis; Barragan, Laura; Caballero, Isabel; Grinberg, Victoria; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Doroshenko, Victor; Santangelo, Andrea; Staubert, Ruediger; Terada, Yukikatsu; Iwakari, Wataru; Makishima, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    We present broad band analysis of the Be/X-ray transient lA 1118-61 by Suzaku at the peak of its 3rd observed outburst in January 2009 and 2 weeks later when the source flux had decayed by an order of magnitude. The continuum was modeled with a cutoffpl model as well as a compTT model, with both cases requiring an additional black body component at lower energies, We confirm the detection of a cyclotron line at approx. 55 keV and discuss the possibility of a first harmonic at approx. 110 keV. Pulse profile comparisons show a change in the profile structure at lower energies, an indication for possible changes in the accretion geometry, Phase resolved spectroscopy in the outburst data show a change in the continuum throughout the pulse period. The decrease in the CRSF centroid energy also indicates that the viewing angle on the accretion column is changing throughout the pulse period. Subject headings: X-rays: stars - X-rays: binaries - stars: pulsars: individual (lA 1118-61) - stars: magnetic fields

  9. The High-Resolution X-Ray Microcalorimeter Spectrometer, SXS, on Astro-H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard L.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Brown, Gregory V.; Costantini, Elisa; DiPirro, Michael J.; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Gendreau, Keith C.; denHerder, Jan-Willem; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Kitamoto, Shunji; McCammon, Dan; Murakami, Masahide; Murakami, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Mina; Ohashi, Takaya; Okamoto, Atsushi; Paltani, Stephane; Pohl, Martin; Porter, F. Scott; Sato, Yoichi; Shinozaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    The science and an overview of the Soft X-ray Spectrometer onboard the STRO-H mission are presented. The SXS consists of X-ray focusing mirrors and a microcalorimeter array and is developed by international collaboration lead by JAXA and NASA with European participation. The detector is a 6 x 6 format microcalorimeter array operated at a cryogenic temperature of 50 mK and covers a 3' x 3' field of view of the X-ray telescope of 5.6 m focal length. We expect an energy resolution better than 7 eV (FWHM, requirement) with a goal of 4 eV. The effective area of the instrument will be 225 square centimeters at 7 keV; by a factor of about two larger than that of the X-ray microcalorimeter on board Suzaku. One of the main scientific objectives of the SXS is to investigate turbulent and/or macroscopic motions of hot gas in clusters of galaxies.

  10. X-Ray Imaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OBrien, Susan K.; Workman, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The space environment in which the Space Station Freedom and other space platforms will orbit is truly a hostile environment. For example, the currently estimated integral fluence for electrons above 1 Mev at 2000 nautical miles is above 2 x 1O(exp 10) electrons/sq cm/day and the proton integral fluence is above 1 x 10(exp 9) protons/sq cm/day. At the 200 - 400 nautical miles, which is more representative of the altitude which will provide the environment for the Space Station, each of these fluences will be proportionally less; however, the data indicates that the radiation environment will obviously have an effect on structural materials exposed to the environment for long durations. The effects of this combined environment is the issue which needs to be understood for the long term exposure of structures in space. At the same time, there will be substantial potential for collisions between the space platforms and space debris. The current NASA catalogue contains over 4500 objects floating in space which are not considered payloads. This debris can have significant effects on collision with orbiting spacecraft. In order to better understand the effect of these hostile phenomena on spacecraft, several types of studies are being performed to simulate at some level the effect of the environment. In particular the study of debris clouds produced by hypervelocity impact on the various surfaces anticipated on the Space Station is very important at this point in time. The need to assess the threat of such debris clouds on space structures is an on-going activity. The Space Debris Impact facility in Building 4612 provides a test facility to monitor the types of damage produced with hypervelocity impact. These facilities are used to simulate space environmental effects from energetic particles. Flash radiography or x-ray imaging has traditionally provided such information and as such has been an important tool for recording damage in situ with the event. The proper

  11. X-Ray Investigation of the Diffuse Emission around Plausible γ-Ray Emitting Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Kookaburra Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Bamba, Aya; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Tadayuki

    2012-05-01

    We report on the results from Suzaku X-ray observations of the radio complex region called Kookaburra, which includes two adjacent TeV γ-ray sources HESS J1418-609 and HESS J1420-607. The Suzaku observation revealed X-ray diffuse emission around a middle-aged pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and a plausible pulsar wind nebula (PWN) Rabbit with elongated sizes of σX = 1farcm66 and σX = 1farcm49, respectively. The peaks of the diffuse X-ray emission are located within the γ-ray excess maps obtained by H.E.S.S. and the offsets from the γ-ray peaks are 2farcm8 for PSR J1420-6048 and 4farcm5 for Rabbit. The X-ray spectra of the two sources were well reproduced by absorbed power-law models with Γ = 1.7-2.3. The spectral shapes tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks. Assuming the one-zone electron emission model as the first-order approximation, the ambient magnetic field strengths of HESS J1420-607 and HESS J1418-609 can be estimated as 3 μG and 2.5 μG, respectively. The X-ray spectral and spatial properties strongly support that both TeV sources are PWNe, in which electrons and positrons accelerated at termination shocks of the pulsar winds are losing their energies via the synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering as they are transported outward.

  12. An advanced high resolution x-ray imager for laser-plasma interaction observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennetiere, D.; Troussel, Ph.; Courtois, C.; Wrobel, R.; Audebert, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present here the latest results obtained with our high resolution broadband X-ray microscope. These results, both spatial and spectral, were obtained in several facilities such as Berlin's synchrotron Bessy II and LULI's laser ELFIE 100TW. The results show clearly the opportunity in high resolution microscopy that offer mirror based diagnostics.

  13. THz Pump and X-Ray Probe Development at LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan S; Durr, Hermann; Lindenberg, Aaron; Stanford U., Materials Sci.Dept.; Reis, David; Frisch, Josef; Loos, Henrik; Petree, Mark; Daranciang, Dan; Fuchs, Matthias; Ghimire, Shambhu; Goodfellow, John; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.

    2011-11-08

    We report on measurements of broadband, intense, coherent transition radiation at terahertz frequencies, generated as the highly compressed electron bunches in Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) pass through a thin metal foil. The foil is inserted at 45{sup o} to the electron beam, 31 m downstream of the undulator. The THz emission passes downward through a diamond window to an optical table below the beamline. A fully compressed 350-pC bunch produces up to 0.5 mJ in a nearly half-cycle pulse of 50 fs FWHM with a spectrum peaking at 10 THz. We estimate a peak field at the focus of over 2.5 GV/m. A 20-fs Ti:sapphire laser oscillator has recently been installed for electro-optic measurements. We are developing plans to add an x-ray probe to this THz pump, by diffracting FEL x rays onto the table with a thin silicon crystal. The x rays would arrive with an adjustable time delay after the THz. This will provide a rapid start to user studies of materials excited by intense single-cycle pulses and will serve as a step toward a THz transport line for LCLS-II.

  14. Multispectral variable magnification glancing incidence x ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A multispectral, variable magnification, glancing incidence, x-ray telescope capable of broadband, high resolution imaging of solar and stellar x-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources is discussed. The telescope includes a primary optical system which focuses the incoming radiation to a primary focus. Two or more rotatable mirror carriers, each providing a different magnification, are positioned behind the primary focus at an inclination to the optical axis. Each carrier has a series of ellipsoidal mirrors, and each mirror has a concave surface covered with a multilayer (layered synthetic microstructure) coating to reflect a different desired wavelength. The mirrors of both carriers are segments of ellipsoids having a common first focus coincident with the primary focus. A detector such as an x-ray sensitive photographic film is positioned at the second respective focus of each mirror so that each mirror may reflect the image at the first focus to the detector at the second focus. The carriers are selectively rotated to position a selected mirror for receiving radiation from the primary optical system, and at least the first carrier may be withdrawn from the path of the radiation to permit a selected mirror on the second carrier to receive the radiation.

  15. Seven years with the Swift Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.

    2015-09-01

    Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients (SFXTs) are HMXBs with OB supergiant companions. I review the results of the Swift SFXT project, which since 2007 has been exploiting Swift's capabilities in a systematic study of SFXTs and supergiant X-ray binaries (SGXBs) by combining follow-ups of outbursts, when detailed broad-band spectroscopy is possible, with long-term monitoring campaigns, when the out-of-outburst fainter states can be observed. This strategy has led us to measure their duty cycles as a function of luminosity, to extract their differential luminosity distributions in the soft X-ray domain, and to compare, with unprecedented detail, the X-ray variability in these different classes of sources. I also discuss the "seventh year crisis", the challenges that the recent Swift observations are making to the prevailing models attempting to explain the SFXT behavior.

  16. High energy x-ray imager for inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, Riccardo; Koch, Jeffrey A.; Young, Bruce; Ng, Ed; Phillips, Tom; Dauffy, Lucile

    2006-10-01

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analyses of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding inertial confinement fusion capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background, and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma rays, and x rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  17. A High Energy X-ray Imager for Inertial Confinement Fusion at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tommasini, R; Koch, J A; Young, B; Ng, E; Phillips, T; Dauffy, L

    2006-05-03

    X-ray imaging is a fundamental diagnostic tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research, and provides data on the size and the shape of the core in implosions. We report on the feasibility and performance analysis of an ignition x-ray imager to be used on cryogenic DT implosions at the National Ignition Facility. The system is intended to provide time-integrated, broadband, moderate-energy x-ray core images of imploding ICF capsules. It is optimized with respect to spatial-resolution, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratios, taking into account the extreme operating conditions expected at NIF due to high expected neutrons yields, gamma-rays, and x-rays from laser-plasma interactions.

  18. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-x-ray reflectors.

    PubMed

    Joensen, K D; Voutov, P; Szentgyorgyi, A; Roll, J; Gorenstein, P; Høghøj, P; Christensen, F E

    1995-12-01

    Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-x-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when applied to x-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard-x-ray reflector and a hard-x-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs.

  19. High Resolution X-Ray Explorer (HIREX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Leon

    1999-01-01

    SAO has carried out a study to determine the feasibility of building an orbiting telescope capable of resolving 7 km structure on the Sun. In order to achieve the required imaging the telescope must have a resolution 0.01 arcsec. This fact challenges the state of the art of orbiting telescopes in several areas: mirror figuring; optical metrology; optical mounting; mirror figure control; system alignment; optical stability; observatory pointing; and image stability image stability. The telescope design concept is based on a 0.6m Cassegrain-style telescope with a 240 meter effective focal length. This is achieved with 2 mirrors supported at opposite ends of a 27 m space-deployable boom. The telescope mirrors are coated with multilayers designed to reflect a broad XUV passband. A third, small mirror, near the focal plane performs the function of selecting the narrow band that is finally imaged. Image stabilization to the 0.005 a,rcsec level is achieved by active control of the secondary mirror. The primary mirror is held unadjustably to the spacecraft, its pointing set by the space- craft orientation. The secondary mirror is mounted on a 6-axis stage that permits its position to be changed to align the telescope in space. The stage is intended for intermittent adjustment, both because of its speed of travel, and the TBD alignment procedure. The third mirror is called the TXI (Tuneable X-ray Imager). It is mounted on a gimbal that permits it to be tipped over a 60 degree range, selecting between the individual wavelengths in the initial bandpass. It can also rotated completely out of the way to allow the full, broadband EUV flux to strike the focal plane.

  20. X-RAY ECLIPSE DIAGNOSIS OF THE EVOLVING MASS LOSS IN THE RECURRENT NOVA U SCORPII 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, D.; Drake, J. J.; Tsujimoto, M.; Ness, J.-U.; Osborne, J. P.; Starrfield, S.; Kitamoto, S.

    2013-05-20

    We report the Suzaku detection of the earliest X-ray eclipse seen in the recurrent nova U Scorpii 2010. A target-of-opportunity observation 15 days after the outburst found a 27% {+-} 5% dimming in the 0.2-1.0 keV energy band at the predicted center of an eclipse. In comparison with the X-ray eclipse depths seen at two later epochs by XMM-Newton, the source region shrank by about 10%-20% between days 15 and 35 after the outburst. The X-ray eclipses appear to be deeper than or similar to contemporaneous optical eclipses, suggesting the X-ray and optical source region extents are comparable on day 15. We raise the possibility of the energy dependency in the photon escape regions, and that this would be a result of the supersoft X-ray opacity being higher than the Thomson scattering opacity at the photosphere due to bound-free transitions in abundant metals that are not fully ionized. Assuming a spherically symmetric model, we constrain the mass-loss rate as a function of time. For a ratio of actual to Thomson opacity of 10-100 in supersoft X-rays, we find an ejecta mass of about 10{sup -7}-10{sup -6} M{sub Sun }.

  1. Automated Hybridization of X-ray Absorber Elements-A Path to Large Format Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S.; Kelley, R.; Allen, C.; Kilbourne, C.; Costen, N.; Miller, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the design of microcalorimeters, it is often desirable to produce the X-ray absorber separately from the detector element. In this case, the attachment of the absorber to the detector element with the required thermal and mechanical characteristics is a major challenge. In such arrays, the attachment has been done by hand. This process is not easily extended to the large format arrays required for future X- ray astronomy missions such as the New x-ray Telescope or NeXT. In this paper we present an automated process for attaching absorber tiles to the surface of a large-scale X-ray detector array. The absorbers are attached with stycast epoxy to a thermally isolating polymer structure made of SU-8. SU-8 is a negative epoxy based photo resist produced by Microchem. We describe the fabrication of the X-ray absorbers and their suspension on a handle die in an adhesive matrix. We describe the production process for the polymer isolators on the detector elements. We have developed a new process for the alignment, and simultaneous bonding of the absorber tiles to an entire detector array. This process uses equipment and techniques used in the flip-chip bonding industry and approaches developed in the fabrication of the XRS-2 instrument. XRS-2 was an X-ray spectrometer that was launched on the Suzaku telescope in July 10, 2005. We describe the process and show examples of sample arrays produced by this process. Arrays with up to 300 elements have been bonded. The present tests have used dummy absorbers made of Si. In future work, we will demonstrate bonding of HgTe absorbers.

  2. Testing X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster outskirts with cosmological simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Avestruz, Camille; Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Vikhlinin, Alexey

    2014-08-20

    The study of galaxy cluster outskirts has emerged as one of the new frontiers in extragalactic astrophysics and cosmology with the advent of new observations in X-ray and microwave. However, the thermodynamic properties and chemical enrichment of this diffuse and azimuthally asymmetric component of the intracluster medium (ICM) are still not well understood. This work, for the first time, systematically explores potential observational biases in these regions. To assess X-ray measurements of galaxy cluster properties at large radii (>R {sub 500c}), we use mock Chandra analyses of cosmological galaxy cluster simulations. The pipeline is identical to that used for Chandra observations, but the biases discussed in this paper are relevant for all X-ray observations outside of R {sub 500c}. We find the following from our analysis: (1) filament regions can contribute as much as 50% at R {sub 200c} to the emission measure; (2) X-ray temperatures and metal abundances from model fitted mock X-ray spectra in a multi-temperature ICM respectively vary to the level of 10% and 50%; (3) resulting density profiles vary to within 10% out to R {sub 200c}, and gas mass, total mass, and baryon fractions all vary to within a few percent; (4) the bias from a metal abundance extrapolated a factor of five higher than the true metal abundance results in total mass measurements biased high by 20% and total gas measurements biased low by 10%; and (5) differences in projection and dynamical state of a cluster can lead to gas density slope measurements that differ by a factor of 15% and 30%, respectively. The presented results can partially account for some of the recent gas profile measurements in cluster outskirts by, e.g., Suzaku. Our findings are pertinent to future X-ray cosmological constraints from cluster outskirts, which are least affected by non-gravitational gas physics, as well as to measurements probing gas properties in filamentary structures.

  3. Long-Term Hard X-Ray Monitoring of X-Ray Bursters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Kaaret, Philip

    1999-01-01

    The scientific goal of this project was to monitor a selected sample of x-ray bursters using data from the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory to characterize the hard x-ray emission of these objects over long time intervals. The project was closely related to "Monitoring x-ray emission from x-ray bursters", NASA project, and "Hard x-ray emission of x-ray bursters", NASA project, and shares publications in common with both of these. These efforts have lead to results directly from the BATSE data and also from Target of Opportunity Observations (TOO) made with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer based on detection of transient hard x-ray outbursts with BATSE. The following papers have used BATSE data or data obtained with BATSE TOO triggers.

  4. Wide field x-ray telescopes: Detecting x-ray transients/afterglows related to GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Pina, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf; Gorenstein, Paul

    1998-05-16

    The recent discovery of X-ray afterglows of GRBs opens the possibility of analyses of GRBs by their X-ray detections. However, imaging X-ray telescopes in current use mostly have limited fields of view. Alternative X-ray optics geometries achieving very large fields of view have been theoretically suggested in the 70's but not constructed and used so far. We review the geometries and basic properties of the wide-field X-ray optical systems based on one- and two-dimensional lobster-eye geometry and suggest technologies for their development and construction. First results of the development of double replicated X-ray reflecting flats for use in one-dimensional X-ray optics of lobster-eye type are presented and discussed. The optimum strategy for locating GRBs upon their X-ray counterparts is also presented and discussed.

  5. Superconducting High-Resolution X-Ray Spectrometers For Chemical State Analysis Of Dilute Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Stephan; Drury, Owen B.; Funk, Tobias; Sherrell, Darren; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Labov, Simon E.; Cramer, Stephen P.

    2004-05-01

    Cryogenic X-ray spectrometers operating at temperatures below 1 K combine high energy resolution with broadband efficiency for X-ray energies up to 10 keV. They offer advantages for chemical state analysis of dilute samples by fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in cases where conventional Ge or Si(Li) detectors lack energy resolution and grating spectrometers lack detection efficiency. We are developing soft X-ray spectrometers based on superconducting Nb-Al-AlOx-Al-Nb tunnel junction (STJ) technology. X-rays absorbed in one of the superconducting electrodes generate excess charge carriers in proportion to their energy, thereby producing a measurable temporary increase in tunneling current. For STJ operation at the synchrotron, we have designed a two-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) with a cold finger that holds a 3 × 3 array of STJs inside the UHV sample chamber at a temperature of ˜0.1 K within ˜15 mm of a room temperature sample. Our STJ spectrometer can have an energy resolution below 10 eV FWHM for X-ray energies up to 1 keV, and has total count rate capabilities above 100,000 counts/s. We will describe detector performance in synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence experiments and demonstrate its use for XAS on a dilute metal site in a metalloprotein.

  6. Photoionization-pumped, Ne II, x-ray laser studies project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, M.C.; Hagelstein, P.L.; Eckart, M.J.; Forsyth, J.M.; Gerrassimenko, M.; Soures, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The energetics of this pumping scheme are shown. Short-pulse (50 to 100 ps) laser irradiation of an appropriate x-ray flashlamp medium generates broad-band emission in the range of 300 to 800 eV which preferentially photoionizes Ne to the /sup 2/S state of Ne II creating an inversion at approximately 27 eV. Although this approach does not depend on precise spectral overlap between the x-ray pump radiation and the medium to be pumped, it does require that the x-ray medium remain un-ionized prior to photoionization by the soft x-ray emission. Well-controlled focus conditions are required to ensure that the x-ray medium is not subjected to electron or x-ray preheat prior to irradiation by the soft x-ray source. The magnitude of the population inversion is predicted to be critically dependent upon rapid photoionization of the two states; therefore, ultra-short pulse irradiation of the laser flashlamps is required.

  7. The Global Implications of the Hard X-ray Excess in Type 1 AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, Malachi; Turner, T.; Miller, L.; Reeves, J.

    2013-04-01

    Suzaku observations of 1H 0419-577 and PDS 456, both type 1 AGN, revealed a marked 'hard excess' of flux above 10 keV, likely due to the presence of a Compton-thick absorber covering a large fraction of the continuum source. The discovery is intriguing, given the clear view to the optical BLR in type 1 objects. These results motivated an exploratory study of the hard excess phenomenon in the local type 1 AGN population, using the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). We selected radio quiet type 1 - 1.9 AGN from the 58-month BAT catalog and cross-correlated them with the holdings in the Suzaku public archive. The hardness of the X-ray spectrum, combined with measurements of the equivalent width of Fe Ka emission suggest that type 1 X-ray spectra are shaped by an ensemble of Compton-thick clouds, partially covering the continuum. I discuss our methodology, the observational findings and the possible location of the Compton-thick gas.

  8. X-ray studies of neutron stars and their magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing results obtained over the past quarter century mainly with Japanese X-ray astronomy satellites, a review is given to some aspects of neutron stars (NSs), with a particular emphasis on the magnetic fields (MFs) of mass-accreting NSs and magnetars. Measurements of electron cyclotron resonance features in binary X-ray pulsars, using the Ginga and Suzaku observatories, clarified that their surface MFs are concentrated in a narrow range of (1-7) × 10(8) T. Extensive studies of magnetars with Suzaku reinforced their nature as neutron stars with truly strong MFs, and revealed several important clues to their formation, evolution, and physical states. Taking all these results into account, a discussion is made on the origin and evolution of these strong MFs. One possible scenario is that the MF of NSs is a manifestation of some fundamental physics, e.g., neutron spin alignment or chirality violation, and the MF makes transitions from strong to weak states. PMID:27169348

  9. The X-Ray Evolution of the Symbiotic Star V407 Cygni During Its 2010 Outburst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.; Chomiuk, L.; Donato, D.; Sokoloski, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a summary of Swift and Suzaku X-ray observations of the 2010 nova outburst of the symbiotic star, V407 Cyg. The Suzaku spectrum obtained on day 30 indicates the presence of the supersoft component from the white dwarf surface, as well as optically thin component from the shock between the nova ejecta and the Mira wind. The Swift observations then allow us to track the evolution of both components from day 4 to day 150. Most notable is the sudden brightening of the optically think component around day 20. We identify this as the time when the blast wave reached the immediate vicinity of the photosphere of the Mira. We have developed a simplified model of the blast wave-wind interaction that can reproduce the gross features of the X-ray evolution of V407 Cyg. If the model is correct, the binary separation is likely to be large and the mass loss rate of the Mira is likely to be relatively low.

  10. SN X-ray Progenitor?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Identifying stars that explode, right before they explode, is a tricky proposition since the end of starlife comes swiftly: in thermonuclear deflagrations, in nuclear exhaustion, or maybe in a rapid swirling merger of two dead stellar cores. On the right in the image above is an image of the galaxy NGC 1404 taken by the UV/optical Telescope (UVOT) on the Swift observatory. The circle surrounds SN 2007on, a supernova of Type Ia produced by the explosion of a white dwarf star in a binary system. These types of supernovae are important since they are believed to be 'standard candles', events which have the same intrinsic brightness which can serve as an important yardstick to measure cosmic distances. On the left is an image of the same galaxy taken by the Chandra X-ray observatory four years before the supernova. Conspicuous in the SN source circle is a bright source in the Chandra image, believed to be emission from a compact object+normal star companion: a similar system to the supposed precursor of SN 2007on. If true this would be the first time a Type Ia supernova precursor has ever been seen. But astronomers are still debating whether the Chandra source really is the precursor or not; it seems there's a slight but significant difference in the location of the Chandra source and the supernova. Stay tuned for more developments.

  11. SMM X-ray polychromator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, Keith T.; Haisch, Bernhard M. (Compiler); Lemen, James R. (Compiler); Acton, L. W.; Bawa, H. S.; Claflin, E. S.; Freeland, S. L.; Slater, G. L.; Kemp, D. L.; Linford, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    The range of observing and analysis programs accomplished with the X-Ray Polychromator (XRP) instruments during the decline of solar cycle 21 and the rise of the solar cycle 22 is summarized. Section 2 describes XRP operations and current status. This is meant as a guide on how the instrument is used to obtain data and what its capabilities are for potential users. The science section contains a series of representative abstracts from recently published papers on major XRP science topics. It is not meant to be a complete list but illustrates the type of science that can come from the analysis of the XRP data. There then follows a series of appendixes that summarize the major data bases that are available. Appendix A is a complete bibliography of papers and presentations produced using XRP data. Appendix B lists all the spectroscopic data accumulated by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS). Appendix C is a compilation of the XRP flare catalogue for events equivalent to a GOES C-level flare or greater. It lists the start, peak and end times as well as the peak Ca XIX flux.

  12. Diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    DOEpatents

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2016-08-09

    A method and apparatus are provided for implementing Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses using MicroElectroMechanical systems (MEMS) based diffractive optics. An oscillating crystalline MEMS device generates a controllable time-window for diffraction of the incident X-ray radiation. The Bragg-diffraction leveraged modulation of X-ray pulses includes isolating a particular pulse, spatially separating individual pulses, and spreading a single pulse from an X-ray pulse-train.

  13. X-rays and gamma-rays from accretion flows onto black holes in Seyferts and X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Johnson, W. Neil; Poutanen, Juri; Magdziarz, Pawel; Gierlinski, Marek

    1997-01-01

    Observations and theoretical models of X-ray/gamma ray spectra of radio quiet Seyfert galaxies and Galactic black hole candidates are reviewed. The spectra from these objects share the following characteristics: an underlying power law with a high energy cutoff above 200 keV; a Compton reflection component with a Fe K alpha line, and a low energy absorption by intervening cold matter. The X-ray energy spectral index, alpha, is typically in the range between 0.8 and 1 in Seyfert spectra, and that of the hard state spectra of the black hole candidates Cygnus X-1 and GX 339-4 is typically between 0.6 and 0.8. The Compton reflection component corresponds with cold matter covering a solid angle of between 0.8pi and 2pi as seen from the X-ray source. The broadband spectra of both classes of sources are well fitted by Compton upscattering of soft photons in thermal plasma. The fits yield a thermal plasma temperature of 100 keV and the Thomson optical depth of 1. All the spectra presented are cut off before the electron rest energy 511 keV, indicating that electron/positron pair production is an important process.

  14. Development of Multilayer Optics in EUV, Soft X-Ray and X-Ray Range at IPOE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanshan; Zhu, Jingtao; Zhang, Zhong; Cheng, Xinbin; Xu, Jing; Wang, Fengli; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Chen, Lingyan

    Multilayer coatings are key optical components in the EUV, soft X-ray and X-ray range. At Institute of Precision Optical Engineering (IPOE), the development of multilayer optics has been impelled for their wide applications in X-ray laser, plasma diagnostics, astronomical observation and synchrotron radiation. The paper presents our recent results of periodic multilayers of Mo/Si, Cr/C, Cr/Sc, La/B4C, Mo/B4C, Si/C, Si/SiC, Mg/SiC Mo/Y and Ru/Y. To improve the reflectivity of Ru/Y multilayer mirrors, Mo layers were inserted between Ru and Y layer. The Mo barrier layers suppress intermixing between Ru and Y, thereby increasing the reflectivity of Ru/Y multilayer. We also discuss the application of Mo/Si, Mo/Y, Mo/B4C, La/B4C non-periodic multilayers in EUV broadband polarization measurement.

  15. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    MedlinePlus

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  16. X-ray determination of parts alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    A method for determining the alignment of adjoining metal objects is provided. The method comprises producing an X-ray image of adjoining surfaces of the two metal objects. The X-ray beam is tangential to the point the surfaces are joined. The method is particularly applicable where the alignment of the two metal objects is not readily susceptible to visual inspection.

  17. X-Ray Determination of Weld Misalinement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Simple technique uses ordinary X-ray equipment. Weld line between hemispheres of hidden spherical pressure vessel examined for misalinement between hemispheres. Central X-ray tangent to pressure vessel at weld line. Technique not limited to spheres. Also used to check alinement between insulated sections of pipelines or chemical-reaction vessels without removing insulation or interrupting flow or process.

  18. X-ray Attenuation and Absorption Calculations.

    1988-02-25

    This point-source, polychromatic, discrete energy X-ray transport and energy deposition code system calculates first-order spectral estimates of X-ray energy transmission through slab materials and the associated spectrum of energy absorbed by the material.

  19. X-rays Flares and Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, Eric D.

    2011-04-01

    X-ray observations of star forming regions show that magnetic reconnection flares are powerful and frequent in pre-main sequence solar-type stars. Well-defined samples in the Orion Nebula Cluster and Taurus clouds exhibit flares with peak X- ray luminosities Lx˜10^29 - 10^32 erg/s, orders of magnitude stronger and more frequent than contemporary solar flares. X-rays are emitted in magnetic loops extending 0.1-10 R * above the stellar surface and thus have a favorable geometry to irradiate the protoplanetary disk. Several lines of evidence - fluorescent iron X-ray emission line, forbidden [NeII] infrared line, and excited molecular bands - support X-ray irradiation of cold material in some young systems. Several astrophysical consequences of X-ray irradiation are outlined. As ionization fractions need only reach 10-12 to induce the magnetorotational instability and associated turbulence, X-rays may be the principal determinant of the extent of the viscous "active zone" and laminar "dead zone" in the layered accretion disk. X-ray irradiation may thus play a major role in planet formation processes: particle settling; meter-size inspiral; protoplanetary migration; and dissipation of the gaseous disk.

  20. X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holography.

    PubMed

    Balyan, Minas

    2013-09-01

    An X-ray dynamical diffraction Fraunhofer holographic scheme is proposed. Theoretically it is shown that the reconstruction of the object image by visible light is possible. The spatial and temporal coherence requirements of the incident X-ray beam are considered. As an example, the hologram recording as well as the reconstruction by visible light of an absolutely absorbing wire are discussed.

  1. Phased Contrast X-Ray Imaging

    ScienceCinema

    Erin Miller

    2016-07-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is developing a range of technologies to broaden the field of explosives detection. Phased contrast X-ray imaging, which uses silicon gratings to detect distortions in the X-ray wave front, may be applicable to mail or luggage scanning for explosives; it can also be used in detecting other contraband, small-parts inspection, or materials characterization.

  2. X-Ray Emissions from Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladstone, G. R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Grodent, D.; Crary, F. J.; Elsner, R. F.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Lewis, W. S.; Jahn, J.-M.; Bhardwaj, A.; Clarke, J. T.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    X-ray emissions from Jupiter have been observed for over 20 years. Jovian x-ray emissions are associated with high-latitude aurora and with solar fluorescence and/or an energetic particle source at low-latitudes as identified by past Einstein and ROSAT observations. Enhanced auroral x-rays were also observed to be associated with the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9. The high-latitude x-ray emissions are best explained by energetic sulfur and oxygen ion precipitation from the Jovian magnetosphere, a suggestion that has been confirmed by recent Chandra ACIS observations. Exciting new information about Jovian x-ray emissions has been made possible with Chandra's High Resolution Camera. We report here for the first time the detection of a forty minute oscillation associated with the Jovian x-ray aurora. With the help of ultraviolet auroral observations from Hubble Space Telescope, we pinpoint the auroral mapping of the x-rays and provide new information on the x-ray source mechanism.

  3. Course Manual for X-Ray Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Drug Administration (DHEW), Rockville, MD. Bureau of Radiological Health.

    This publication is the third of three sequential course manuals for instructors in x-ray science and engineering. This course manual has been tested by introducing it into the Oregon State University curriculum. The publication is prepared for the purpose of improving the qualifications of x-ray users and to reduce the ionizing radiation exposure…

  4. VETA-1 x ray detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, W. A.; Flanagan, Kathy A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Goddard, R. G.; Kellogg, Edwin M.; Norton, T. J.; Ouellette, J. P.; Roy, A. G.; Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1992-01-01

    The alignment and X-ray imaging performance of the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) Verification Engineering Test Article-I (VETA-I) was measured by the VETA-I X-Ray Detection System (VXDS). The VXDS was based on the X-ray detection system utilized in the AXAF Technology Mirror Assembly (TMA) program, upgraded to meet the more stringent requirements of the VETA-I test program. The VXDS includes two types of X-ray detectors: (1) a High Resolution Imager (HRI) which provides X-ray imaging capabilities, and (2) sealed and flow proportional counters which, in conjunction with apertures of various types and precision translation stages, provide the most accurate measurement of VETA-I performance. Herein we give an overview of the VXDS hardware including X-ray detectors, translation stages, apertures, proportional counters and flow counter gas supply system and associated electronics. We also describe the installation of the VXDS into the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF). We discuss in detail the design and performance of those elements of the VXDS which have not been discussed elsewhere; translation systems, flow counter gas supply system, apertures and thermal monitoring system.

  5. Subpicosecond Coherent Manipulation of X-Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bernhard W.

    2004-05-12

    The Takagi-Taupin theory is synthesized with the eikonal theory in a unified space-time approach, based upon microscopic electromagnetism. It is designed specifically to address x-ray diffraction in crystal structures being modified within down to a few femtosconds. Possible applications in the subpicosecond coherent manipulation of x-rays are given.

  6. Adenocarcinoma - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows adenocarcinoma of the lung. There is a rounded light spot in the right upper lung (left side ... density. Diseases that may cause this type of x-ray result would be tuberculous or fungal granuloma, and ...

  7. X-Ray Detection Visits the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Luis; Farinha, Ana; Pinto, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Film has been used to detect x-rays since the early days of their discovery by Rontgen. Although nowadays superseded by other techniques, film still provides a cheap means of x-ray detection, making it attractive in high-school or undergraduate university courses. If some sort of quantitative result is required, the film's optical absorbance or…

  8. Coccidioidomycosis - chest x-ray (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This chest x-ray shows the affects of a fungal infection, coccidioidomycosis. In the middle of the left lung (seen on the ... defined borders. Other diseases that may explain these x-ray findings include lung abscesses, chronic pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic ...

  9. The future in X-ray surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, Günther

    2015-08-01

    I will chair this "Way Forward" discusson about the future in X-ray Surveys at the Focus Meeting #6Cosmological X-ray Surveys: probing the Hot and Energetic Cosmos. Participants will be R. Gilli,G. Pratt, G. Fabbiano, X. Barcons, T. Ohashi, F. Harrison.

  10. X-rays from intermediate mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robrade, Jan

    I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.

  11. The Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility. Observing the Universe in X-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, V.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the Advanced X ray Astronophysics Facility (AXAF) program is presented. Beginning with a brief introduction to X ray astrophysics, the AXAF observatory is described including the onboard instrumentation and system capabilities. Possible X ray sources suitable for AXAF observation are identified and defined.

  12. Stochastic stimulated electronic x-ray Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kimberg, Victor; Rohringer, Nina

    2016-05-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a well-established tool for studying electronic, nuclear, and collective dynamics of excited atoms, molecules, and solids. An extension of this powerful method to a time-resolved probe technique at x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to ultimately unravel ultrafast chemical and structural changes on a femtosecond time scale is often challenging, due to the small signal rate in conventional implementations at XFELs that rely on the usage of a monochromator setup to select a small frequency band of the broadband, spectrally incoherent XFEL radiation. Here, we suggest an alternative approach, based on stochastic spectroscopy, which uses the full bandwidth of the incoming XFEL pulses. Our proposed method is relying on stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where in addition to a pump pulse that resonantly excites the system a probe pulse on a specific electronic inelastic transition is provided, which serves as a seed in the stimulated scattering process. The limited spectral coherence of the XFEL radiation defines the energy resolution in this process and stimulated RIXS spectra of high resolution can be obtained by covariance analysis of the transmitted spectra. We present a detailed feasibility study and predict signal strengths for realistic XFEL parameters for the CO molecule resonantly pumped at the [Formula: see text] transition. Our theoretical model describes the evolution of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the transmitted x-ray radiation, by solving the equation of motion for the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the system self consistently with the propagation by Maxwell equations. PMID:26958585

  13. Stochastic stimulated electronic x-ray Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kimberg, Victor; Rohringer, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) is a well-established tool for studying electronic, nuclear, and collective dynamics of excited atoms, molecules, and solids. An extension of this powerful method to a time-resolved probe technique at x-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) to ultimately unravel ultrafast chemical and structural changes on a femtosecond time scale is often challenging, due to the small signal rate in conventional implementations at XFELs that rely on the usage of a monochromator setup to select a small frequency band of the broadband, spectrally incoherent XFEL radiation. Here, we suggest an alternative approach, based on stochastic spectroscopy, which uses the full bandwidth of the incoming XFEL pulses. Our proposed method is relying on stimulated resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, where in addition to a pump pulse that resonantly excites the system a probe pulse on a specific electronic inelastic transition is provided, which serves as a seed in the stimulated scattering process. The limited spectral coherence of the XFEL radiation defines the energy resolution in this process and stimulated RIXS spectra of high resolution can be obtained by covariance analysis of the transmitted spectra. We present a detailed feasibility study and predict signal strengths for realistic XFEL parameters for the CO molecule resonantly pumped at the O1s→π* transition. Our theoretical model describes the evolution of the spectral and temporal characteristics of the transmitted x-ray radiation, by solving the equation of motion for the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom of the system self consistently with the propagation by Maxwell equations. PMID:26958585

  14. White beam x-ray waveguide optics

    SciTech Connect

    Jarre, A.; Salditt, T.; Panzner, T.; Pietsch, U.; Pfeiffer, F.

    2004-07-12

    We report a white beam x-ray waveguide (WG) experiment. A resonant beam coupler x-ray waveguide (RBC) is used simultaneously as a broad bandpass (or multibandpass) monochromator and as a beam compressor. We show that, depending on the geometrical properties of the WG, the exiting beam consists of a defined number of wavelengths which can be shifted by changing the angle of incidence of the white x-ray synchrotron beam. The characteristic far-field pattern is recorded as a function of exit angle and energy. This x-ray optical setup may be used to enhance the intensity of coherent x-ray WG beams since the full energetic acceptance of the WG mode is transmitted.

  15. Solar x ray astronomy rocket program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The dynamics were studied of the solar corona through the imaging of large scale coronal structures with AS&E High Resolution Soft X ray Imaging Solar Sounding Rocket Payload. The proposal for this program outlined a plan of research based on the construction of a high sensitivity X ray telescope from the optical and electronic components of the previous flight of this payload (36.038CS). Specifically, the X ray sensitive CCD camera was to be placed in the prime focus of the grazing incidence X ray mirror. The improved quantum efficiency of the CCD detector (over the film which had previously been used) allows quantitative measurements of temperature and emission measure in regions of low x ray emission such as helmet streamers beyond 1.2 solar radii or coronal holes. Furthermore, the improved sensitivity of the CCD allows short exposures of bright objects to study unexplored temporal regimes of active region loop evolution.

  16. Handbook Of X-ray Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, Keith A.; Smith, R. K.; Siemiginowska, A.; Edgar, R. J.; Grant, C. E.; Kuntz, K. D.; Schwartz, D. A.

    2011-09-01

    This poster advertises a book to be published in September 2011 by Cambridge University Press. Written for graduate students, professional astronomers and researchers who want to start working in this field, this book is a practical guide to x-ray astronomy. The handbook begins with x-ray optics, basic detector physics and CCDs, before focussing on data analysis. It introduces the reduction and calibration of x-ray data, scientific analysis, archives, statistical issues and the particular problems of highly extended sources. The book describes the main hardware used in x-ray astronomy, emphasizing the implications for data analysis. The concepts behind common x-ray astronomy data analysis software are explained. The appendices present reference material often required during data analysis.

  17. X-ray diffraction: instrumentation and applications.

    PubMed

    Bunaciu, Andrei A; Udriştioiu, Elena Gabriela; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2015-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a powerful nondestructive technique for characterizing crystalline materials. It provides information on structures, phases, preferred crystal orientations (texture), and other structural parameters, such as average grain size, crystallinity, strain, and crystal defects. X-ray diffraction peaks are produced by constructive interference of a monochromatic beam of X-rays scattered at specific angles from each set of lattice planes in a sample. The peak intensities are determined by the distribution of atoms within the lattice. Consequently, the X-ray diffraction pattern is the fingerprint of periodic atomic arrangements in a given material. This review summarizes the scientific trends associated with the rapid development of the technique of X-ray diffraction over the past five years pertaining to the fields of pharmaceuticals, forensic science, geological applications, microelectronics, and glass manufacturing, as well as in corrosion analysis.

  18. Apollo 15 X-ray fluorescence experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J.; Gerard, J.; Schmadebeck, R.; Lowman, P.; Blodgett, H.; Yin, L.; Eller, E.; Lamothe, R.; Gorenstein, P.

    1971-01-01

    The X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, carried in the SIM bay of the command service module was employed principally for compositional mapping of the lunar surface while in lunar orbit, and secondarily, for X-ray astronomical observations during the trans-earth coast. The lunar surface measurements involved observations of the intensity and characteristics energy distribution of the secondary or fluorescent X-rays produced by the interaction of solar X-rays with the lunar surface. The astronomical observations consisted of relatively long periods of measurements of X-rays from pre-selected galactic sources such as Cyg-X-1 and Sco X-1 as well as from the galactic poles.

  19. X-rays from hot subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mereghetti, Sandro; La Palombara, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Thanks to the high sensitivity of the instruments on board the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, it has become possible to explore the properties of the X-ray emission from hot subdwarfs. The small but growing sample of hot subdwarfs detected in X-rays includes binary systems, in which the X-rays result from wind accretion onto a compact companion (white dwarf or neutron star), as well as isolated sdO stars in which X-rays are probably due to shock instabilities in the wind. X-ray observations of these low mass stars provide information which can be useful also for our understanding of the winds of more luminous and massive early-type stars and can lead to the discovery of particularly interesting binary systems.

  20. X-Rays from Green Pea Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brorby, Matthew

    2014-09-01

    X-rays may have contributed to the heating and reionization of the IGM in the early universe. High mass X-ray binaries (HMXB) within small, low-metallicity galaxies are expected to be the main source of X-rays at this time. Since studying these high-redshift galaxies is currently impossible, we turn to local analogs that have the same properties the galaxies in the early are expected to have. A number of recent studies have shown an enhanced number of HMXBs in nearby low metallicity galaxies. We propose to observe a sample of metal-deficient luminous compact galaxies (LCG) in order to determine if the X-ray luminosity is enhanced relative to SFR, thereby providing further evidence to the importance of X-rays in the early universe.

  1. Wide-band X-ray spectral and timing analysis of AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiragi, Kazuyoshi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Mizuno, Motohiro; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Yamasaki, Tomonori

    X-ray spectra of AGNs contain conplex features such as the continuum, emission line, ab-sorption, reflection component, high energy cut-off. These features are thought to reflect the material structure around AGN, and X-ray studies can clarify a physical geometry of AGNs. Especially, the hard X-ray observation above 10 keV is important to measure the reflection component. So far, hard X-ray studies of time variation of AGN spectra have been limited because of high background rate. Suzaku HXD achieve the highest S/N ratio by an effective background rejection. Combining the data with the XIS soft X-ray date, we can study the AGN X-ray spectra in more detail than ever. Here, we report the spectral and timing analysis of 14 Seyfert galaxies observed with Suzaku, in order to decompose each spectral component. The reflection component via a torus is considered to be less variable, while the varible component is considered to come from the central engine directly. Using this consideration, we tried to decompose a direct component and a reflection component. We compared the spectral parameters obtained by spectral fitting with direct nuclear plus reflection with those obtained from the difference spectra between high and low state. In particular, we forcus attention on the power-law index, reflection fraction, and the Fe-Ka line. As a result, the photon index, the Fe line intensity, and the refrection component is almost the same between high and low state. However, some of them are not the case, and the equivalent width of Fe-Ka line against the best-fit reflection component is unreasonable for some objects. These indicate that two-component model is valid for most of Seyfert galaxies, but the behavior of some Seyfert galaxies cannot be explained by two-conmponent model. Highly ionized Fe-K lines are observed as both emission and absorption, and some objects show a time variability of these lines. We will report this matter.

  2. Discovery of Diffuse Hard X-ray Emission associated with Jupiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezoe, Y.; Miyoshi, Y.; Ishikawa, K.; Ohashi, T.; Terada, N.; Uchiyama, Y.; Negoro, H.

    2009-12-01

    Our discovery of diffuse hard (1-5 keV) X-ray emission around Jupiter is reported. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations revealed several types of X-rays in the vicinity of Jupiter such as auroral and disk emission from Jupiter and faint diffuse X-rays from the Io Plasma Torus (see Bhardwaj et al. 2007 for review). To investigate possible diffuse hard X-ray emission around Jupiter with the highest sensitivity, we conducted data analysis of Suzaku XIS observations of Jupiter on Feb 2006. After removing satellite and planetary orbital motions, we detected a significant diffuse X-ray emission extending to ~6 x 3 arcmin with the 1-5 keV X-ray luminosity of ~3e15 erg/s. The emitting region very well coincided with the Jupiter's radiation belts. The 1-5 keV X-ray spectrum was represented by a simple power law model with a photon index of 1.4. Such a flat continuum strongly suggests non-thermal origin. Although such an emission can be originated from multiple background point sources, its possibility is quite low. We hence examined three mechanisms, assuming that the emission is truly diffuse: bremsstrahlung by keV electrons, synchrotron emission by TeV electrons, and inverse Compton scattering of solar photons by MeV electrons. The former two can be rejected because of the X-ray spectral shape and implausible existence of TeV electrons around Jupiter, respectively. The last possibility was found to be possible because tens MeV electrons, which have been confirmed in inner radiation belts (Bolton et al. 2002), can kick solar photons to the keV energy range and provide a simple power-law continuum. We estimated an average electron density from the X-ray luminosity assuming the oblate spheroid shaped emitting region with 8 x 8 x 4 Jovian radii. The necessary density was 0.02 1/cm3 for 50 MeV electrons. Hence, our results may suggest a new particle acceleration phenomenon around Jupiter.

  3. Quantitative Measurements of X-ray Intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Schneider, M.

    2011-09-01

    This chapter describes the characterization of several X-ray sources and their use in calibrating different types of X-ray cameras at National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). The cameras are employed in experimental plasma studies at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), including the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The sources provide X-rays in the energy range from several hundred eV to 110 keV. The key to this effort is measuring the X-ray beam intensity accurately and traceable to international standards. This is accomplished using photodiodes of several types that are calibrated using radioactive sources and a synchrotron source using methods and materials that are traceable to the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The accreditation procedures are described. The chapter begins with an introduction to the fundamental concepts of X-ray physics. The types of X-ray sources that are used for device calibration are described. The next section describes the photodiode types that are used for measuring X-ray intensity: power measuring photodiodes, energy dispersive photodiodes, and cameras comprising photodiodes as pixel elements. Following their description, the methods used to calibrate the primary detectors, the power measuring photodiodes and the energy dispersive photodiodes, as well as the method used to get traceability to international standards are described. The X-ray source beams can then be measured using the primary detectors. The final section then describes the use of the calibrated X-ray beams to calibrate X-ray cameras. Many of the references are web sites that provide databases, explanations of the data and how it was generated, and data calculations for specific cases. Several general reference books related to the major topics are included. Papers expanding some subjects are cited.

  4. Detection of x ray sources in PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deponte, J.; Primini, F. A.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of detecting discrete sources in x-ray images has much in common with the problem of automatic source detection at other wavelengths. In all cases, one searches for positive brightness enhancements exceeding a certain threshold, which appear consistent with what one expects for a point source, in the presence of a (possibly) spatially variable background. Multidimensional point spread functions (e.g., dependent on detector position and photon energy) are also common. At the same time, the problem in x-ray astronomy has some unique aspects. For example, for typical x-ray exposures in current or recent observatories, the number of available pixels far exceeds the number of actual x-ray events, so Poisson, rather than Gaussian statistics apply. Further, extended cosmic x-ray sources are common, and one often desires to detect point sources in the vicinity or even within bright, diffuse x-ray emission. Finally, support structures in x-ray detectors often cast sharp shadows in x-ray images making it necessary to detect sources in a region of rapidly varying exposure. We have developed a source detection package within the IRAF/PROS environment which attempts to deal with some of the problems of x-ray source detection. We have patterned our package after the successful Einstein Observatory x-ray source detection programs. However, we have attempted to improve the flexibility and accessibility of the functions and to provide a graphical front-end for the user. Our philosophy has been to use standard IRAF tasks whenever possible for image manipulation and to separate general functions from mission-specific ones. We will report on the current status of the package and discuss future developments, including simulation tasks, to allow the user to assess detection efficiency and source significance, tasks to determine source intensity, and alternative detection algorithms.

  5. Nature of the unidentified TeV source HESS J1614-518 revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Yajima, Yukie; Matsumoto, Hironori

    2012-03-01

    We report new results concerning HESS J1614-518, which exhibits two regions with intense γ-ray emission. The south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 were observed with Suzaku in 2008, while the north region with the 1st brightest peak was observed in 2006. No X-ray counterpart is found at the 2nd brightest peak; the upper limit of the X-ray flux is estimated as 1.6×10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. A previously-known soft X-ray source, Suzaku J1614-5152, is detected at the center of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we reveal that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, could be described by a power-law model with the photon index Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5 or a blackbody model with the temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04keV. In the blackbody model, the estimated column density NH = 1.1+0.3-0.2×1022cm-2 is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission in Suzaku J1614-5141, spatially coincident with the 1st peak position. In this case, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  6. Nature of the Unidentified TeV Source HESS J1614-518 Revealed by Suzaku and XMM-Newton Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, M.; Yajima, Y.; Matsumoto, H.

    2013-03-01

    We report new results concerning HESS J1614-518, which exhibits two regions with intense γ-ray emission. The south and center regions of HESS J1614-518 were observed with Suzaku in 2008, while the north region with the 1st brightest peak was observed in 2006. No X-ray counterpart is found at the 2nd brightest peak; the upper limit of the X-ray flux is estimated as 1.6 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 2-10 keV band. A previously-known soft X-ray source, Suzaku J1614-5152, is detected at the center of HESS J1614-518. Analyzing the XMM-Newton archival data, we reveal that Suzaku J1614-5152 consists of multiple point sources. The X-ray spectrum of the brightest point source, XMMU J161406.0-515225, could be described by a power-law model with the photon index Γ = 5.2+0.6-0.5 or a blackbody model with the temperature kT = 0.38+0.04-0.04 {keV}. In the blackbody model, the estimated column density N H = 1.1+0.3-0.2 × 1022 {cm}-2 is almost the same as that of the hard extended X-ray emission in Suzaku J1614-5141, spatially coincident with the 1st peak position. In this case, XMMU J161406.0-515225 may be physically related to Suzaku J1614-5141 and HESS J1614-518.

  7. Influence of soft X-ray of a vacuum spark with laser initiation on the surface properties of solid solutions CdXHg1-XTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananyin, O. B.; Bogdanov, G. S.; Vovchenko, E. D.; Gerasimov, I. A.; Melekhov, A. P.; Krapiva, P. S.; Novikov, I. K.; Ramakoti, R. S.; Sredin, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    At a certain form of broadband source soft X-ray spectrum is expected to achieve selective radiation exposure to one of the elements of a multi-component material CdXHg1-XTe. In this case we can talk about a change of the surface properties of the substance as a result of selective absorption of soft X-rays.

  8. NuSTAR HARD X-RAY SURVEY OF THE GALACTIC CENTER REGION. I. HARD X-RAY MORPHOLOGY AND SPECTROSCOPY OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Perez, Kerstin; Nynka, Melania; Zhang, Shuo; Canipe, Alicia M.; Krivonos, Roman; Tomsick, John A.; Barrière, Nicolas; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Hong, Jaesub; Ponti, Gabriele; Bauer, Franz; Alexander, David M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Barret, Didier; Christensen, Finn E.; Forster, Karl; Giommi, Paolo; and others

    2015-12-01

    We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456–2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). NuSTAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Γ ∼ 1.3–2.3 up to ∼50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). NuSTAR detects non-thermal X-ray continuum emission spatially correlated with the 6.4 keV Fe Kα fluorescence line emission associated with two Sgr A molecular clouds: MC1 and the Bridge. Broadband X-ray spectral analysis with a Monte-Carlo based X-ray reflection model self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (∼10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Γ ∼ 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L{sub X} ≳ 10{sup 38} erg s{sup −1}. Above ∼20 keV, hard X-ray emission in the central 10 pc region around Sgr A* consists of the candidate PWN G359.95–0.04 and the CHXE, possibly resulting from an unresolved population of massive CVs with white dwarf masses M{sub WD} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}. Spectral energy distribution analysis suggests that G359.95–0.04 is likely the hard X-ray counterpart of the ultra-high gamma-ray source HESS J1745–290, strongly favoring a leptonic origin of the GC TeV emission.

  9. Erratum: X-Ray Study of the Outer Region of Abell 2142 with Suzaku

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akamatsu, Hiroki; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Ohashi, Takaya; Sato, Kosuke; Takei, Yoh; Ota, Naomi

    2012-08-01

    In the paper [PASJ 63, S1019 (2012)], there was an error in the estimation of gas mass. The correct gas mass at the virial radius is 2.40±0.20 × 1014 M⊙. Thus, the gas mass fraction also changes from 14.4+7.1-4.1% to 21.8+10.7-6.3%. Although this value is still consistent with the weak-lensing result of ˜ 18% (Okabe & Umetsu 2008, PASJ, 60, 345), our result allows possibilities for the low electron temperature compared with that of ions, gas clumpiness in the cluster outskirts as reported in the Perseus cluster (Simionescu et al. 2011, Science, 331, 1576) and non-thermal pressure such as turbulence and bulk motions in ICM (Kawaharada et al. 2010, ApJ, 714, 423). The conclusions in the paper are not affected by this change.

  10. Suzaku observations of the 2013 outburst of KS 1947+300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, Ralf; Kühnel, Matthias; Pottschmidt, Katja; Fürst, Felix; Hemphill, Paul B.; Falkner, Sebastian; Gottlieb, Amy M.; Grinberg, Victoria; Kretschmar, Peter; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Rothschild, Richard E.; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-06-01

    We report on the timing and spectral analysis of two Suzaku observations with different flux levels of the high-mass X-ray binary KS 1947+300 during its 2013 outburst. In agreement with simultaneous NuSTAR observations, the continuum is well described by an absorbed power law with a cutoff and an additional blackbody component. In addition, we find fluorescent emission from neutral, He-like, and even H-like iron. We determine a pulse period of ~18.8 s with the source showing a spin-up between the two observations. Both Suzaku observations show very similar behavior of the pulse profile, which is strongly energy dependent. This profile has an evolution from a profile with one peak at low energies to a profile with two peaks of different widths toward higher energies seen in both the Suzaku and NuSTAR data. Such an evolution to a more complex profile at higher energies is rarely seen in X-ray pulsars, most cases show the opposite behavior. Pulse phase-resolved spectral analysis shows a variation in the absorbing column density, NH, over pulse phase. Spectra taken during the pulse profile minima are intrinsically softer compared to the pulse phase-averaged spectrum.

  11. The X-ray properties of the magnetic cataclysmic variable UU Columbae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Martino, D.; Matt, G.; Mukai, K.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Burwitz, V.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Haberl, F.; Mouchet, M.

    2006-07-01

    Aims.XMM-Newton observations to determine for the first time the broad-band X-ray properties of the faint, high galactic latitude intermediate polar UU Col are presented. Methods: .We performed X-ray timing analysis in different energy ranges of the EPIC cameras, which reveals the dominance of the 863 s white dwarf rotational period. The spin pulse is strongly energy dependent. Weak variabilities at the beat 935 s and at the 3.5 h orbital periods are also observed, but the orbital modulation is detected only below 0.5 keV. Simultaneous UV and optical photometry shows that the spin pulse is anti-phased with respect to the hard X-rays. Analysis of the EPIC and RGS spectra reveals the complexity of the X-ray emission, which is composed of a soft 50 eV black-body component and two optically thin emission components at 0.2 keV and 11 keV strongly absorbed by dense material with an equivalent hydrogen column density of 1023 cm-2 that partially (50%) covers the X-ray source. Results: .The complex X-ray and UV/optical temporal behaviour indicates that accretion occurs predominantly (~80%) via a disc with a partial contribution (~20%) directly from the stream. The main accreting pole dominates at high energies whilst the secondary pole mainly contributes in the soft X-rays and at lower energies. The bolometric flux ratio of the soft-to-hard X-ray emissions is found to be consistent with the prediction of the standard accretion shock model. We find the white dwarf in UU Col accretes at a low rate and possesses a low magnetic moment. It is therefore unlikely that UU Col will evolve into a moderate field strength polar, so that the soft X-ray intermediate polars still remain an enigmatic small group of magnetic cataclysmic variables.

  12. Wide-Range Multiwavelength Observations of Northern TeV Blazars With MAGIC / HESS, Suzaku And KVA

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashida, M.; Rugamer, S.; Mazin, D.; Firpo, R.; Mannheim, K.; Tavecchio, F.; Teshima, M.; Horns, D.; Costamante, L.; Schwarzburg, S.; Wagner, S.; Takahashi, T.; Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sato, R.; Ushio, M.; /JAXA, Sagamihara

    2007-11-14

    We have conducted multiwavelength observations of several northern TeV blazars employing the ground-based {gamma}-ray observatories MAGIC and HESS, the optical KVA telescope, and the Suzaku X-ray satellite. The data taken in 2006 establish measurements of the contemporaneous spectral energy distributions of the rapidly variable blazar emission over a wide range of frequencies. Results allow us to test leptonic and hadronic emission and particle acceleration models which predict different correlations between the optical, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray emissions. In this presentation, we report on the highlights of the results of these observations.

  13. A Comparison of X-Ray and Optical Emission in Cassiopeia A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ~102-3 cm-3) and a much lower density (n ~0.1-1 cm-3) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ≈5000 km s-1 reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 104 K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core-collapse supernova remnants.

  14. A comparison of X-ray and optical emission in Cassiopeia A

    SciTech Connect

    Patnaude, Daniel J.; Fesen, Robert A.

    2014-07-10

    Broadband optical and narrowband Si XIII X-ray images of the young Galactic supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (Cas A) obtained over several decades are used to investigate spatial and temporal emission correlations on both large and small angular scales. The data examined consist of optical and near-infrared ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope images taken between 1951 and 2011, and of X-ray images from Einstein, ROSAT, and Chandra taken between 1979 and 2013. We find weak spatial correlations between the remnant's X-ray and optical emission features on large scales, but several cases of good optical/X-ray correlations on small scales for features which have brightened due to recent interactions with the reverse shock. We also find instances (1) where a time delay is observed between the appearance of a feature's optical and X-ray emissions, (2) of displacements of several arcseconds between a feature's X-ray and optical emission peaks, and (3) of regions showing no corresponding X-ray or optical emissions. To explain this behavior, we propose a highly inhomogeneous density model for Cas A's ejecta consisting of small, dense optically emitting knots (n ∼10{sup 2-3} cm{sup –3}) and a much lower density (n ∼0.1-1 cm{sup –3}) diffuse X-ray emitting component often spatially associated with optical emission knots. The X-ray emitting component is sometimes linked to optical clumps through shock-induced mass ablation generating trailing material leading to spatially offset X-ray/optical emissions. A range of ejecta densities can also explain the observed X-ray/optical time delays since the remnant's ≈5000 km s{sup –1} reverse shock heats dense ejecta clumps to temperatures around 3 × 10{sup 4} K relatively quickly, which then become optically bright while more diffuse ejecta become X-ray bright on longer timescales. Highly inhomogeneous ejecta as proposed here for Cas A may help explain some of the X-ray/optical emission features seen in other young core

  15. Suzaku observations of SNR1987A - a rusty remnent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasinger, G.; Itoh, M.; Bamba, A.; Terada, Y.; Mori, K.; Kenzaki, K.; Suzaku Snr1987A Observation Team

    We report results of Suzaku observations of SNR1987A focused on the XIS data The observations were made on November 4 2005 day 6829 after the explosion The spectrum is described with two-component thermal emission models The temperatures of the two components are sim 0 3 keV and sim 2 7 keV respectively The X-ray flux in 0 5-2 keV band was 2 28 pm 0 06 times 10 -12 erg cm -2 s -1 which follows the exponential rise with the time scale of sim 800 days since day sim 4000 after the explosion Assuming that the two components have the same elemental abundances deficiency of O and Fe was observed while the abundances of N Si and S showed higher values than the average of the LMC One of the possible interpretations of the deficiency of O and Fe is that these elements are confined in dust grains

  16. Recent X-ray Variability of Eta Car Approaching The X-ray Eclipse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.; Swank, J. H.; Ishibashi, K.; Gull, T.; Humphreys, R.; Damineli, A.; Walborn, N.; Hillier, D. J.; Davidson, K.; White, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss recent X-ray spectral variability of the supermassive star Eta Car in the interval since the last X-ray eclipse in 1998. We concentrate on the interval just prior to the next X-ray eclipse which is expected to occur in June 2003. We compare the X-ray behavior during the 2001-2003 cycle with the previous cycle (1996-1998) and note similarities and differences in the temporal X-ray behavior. We also compare a recent X-ray observation of Eta Car obtained with the Chandra high energy transmission grating in October 2002 with an earlier observation from Nov 2002, and interpret these results in terms of the proposed colliding wind binary model for the star. In addition we discuss planned observations for the upcoming X-ray eclipse.

  17. Selection of patients for x-ray examinations: Chest x-ray screening examinations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Five chest x-ray referral criteria statements have been developed and unanimously endorsed by a panel of physicians convened as part of a major voluntary cooperative effort between FDA's National Center for Devices and Radiological Health (NCDRH) and the medical professional community. The referral criteria statements include recommendations concerning the following applications of chest x-ray screening: mandated routine chest x-ray screening examinations, routine prenatal chest x-ray examinations, routine hospital admission chest x-ray examinations, chest x-ray examinations for tuberculosis detection and control, and routine chest x-ray examinations for occupational medicine. The complete text of the five referral criterial statements plus a brief discussion of the rationale for the development of each statement is presented.

  18. Observation of living cells by x-ray microscopy with a laser-plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomie, Toshihisa; Shimizu, Hazime; Majima, Toshikazu; Yamada, Mitsuo; Kanayama, Toshihiko; Yano, M.; Kondo, H.

    1991-12-01

    We studied laser-produced plasma as an x-ray source for x-ray microscopy. Using water- window x rays, contact x-ray images of living sea urchin sperm were taken by a 500 picosecond x-ray pulse. The resist relief was examined by atomic force microscope and informations characteristic of x-ray microscopy were obtained. The finest feature noticed in the x-ray image was 0.1 micrometers .

  19. On the Weak-Wind Problem in Massive Stars: X-Ray Spectra Reveal a Massive Hot Wind in mu Columbae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Todt, Helge; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Kitamoto, Shunji

    2012-01-01

    Mu Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the "weak-wind problem"--identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra--is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are "weak-wind" stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.

  20. ON THE WEAK-WIND PROBLEM IN MASSIVE STARS: X-RAY SPECTRA REVEAL A MASSIVE HOT WIND IN {mu} COLUMBAE

    SciTech Connect

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Oskinova, Lidia M.; Todt, Helge; Ignace, Richard; Waldron, Wayne L.; Hamaguchi, Kenji

    2012-09-10

    {mu} Columbae is a prototypical weak-wind O star for which we have obtained a high-resolution X-ray spectrum with the Chandra LETG/ACIS instrument and a low-resolution spectrum with Suzaku. This allows us, for the first time, to investigate the role of X-rays on the wind structure in a bona fide weak-wind system and to determine whether there actually is a massive hot wind. The X-ray emission measure indicates that the outflow is an order of magnitude greater than that derived from UV lines and is commensurate with the nominal wind-luminosity relationship for O stars. Therefore, the {sup w}eak-wind problem{sup -}identified from cool wind UV/optical spectra-is largely resolved by accounting for the hot wind seen in X-rays. From X-ray line profiles, Doppler shifts, and relative strengths, we find that this weak-wind star is typical of other late O dwarfs. The X-ray spectra do not suggest a magnetically confined plasma-the spectrum is soft and lines are broadened; Suzaku spectra confirm the lack of emission above 2 keV. Nor do the relative line shifts and widths suggest any wind decoupling by ions. The He-like triplets indicate that the bulk of the X-ray emission is formed rather close to the star, within five stellar radii. Our results challenge the idea that some OB stars are 'weak-wind' stars that deviate from the standard wind-luminosity relationship. The wind is not weak, but it is hot and its bulk is only detectable in X-rays.