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Sample records for swedish environmental objectives

  1. Images of environmental management: competing metaphors in focus group discussions of Swedish environmental quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system--that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  2. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  3. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  4. Environmental Management at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arvidsson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Since 1996, all Swedish public authorities, which includes most universities, have been made responsible for contributing to the sustainable development of the society. Swedish universities are thus required to submit annual environmental reports about their policies, structures and actions. This study provides a review of the activities that…

  5. Management by Objectives: The Swedish Experience in Upper Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, Erik; Wilson, Timothy L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore how managing by objectives (MBO) has been adopted in Swedish schools and to reflect on some of the consequences in a longitudinal study. Results relate to whether introduction has increased student performance and whether it works as a tool for the principals to create more effective schools.…

  6. Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education: Directives, Driving Forces, Hindrances, Environmental Aspects and Environmental Co-Ordinators in Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammalisto, Kaisu; Arvidsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems…

  7. Environmental Management in Swedish Higher Education: Directives, Driving Forces, Hindrances, Environmental Aspects and Environmental Co-Ordinators in Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammalisto, Kaisu; Arvidsson, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study of environment management systems implementation in Swedish universities contributes to the dialogue about the role of management systems as tools in developing sustainability in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical study is based on Government directives that make environmental management systems…

  8. The object of environmental ethics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  9. Integration of Refugee Children and Their Families in the Swedish Preschool: Strategies, Objectives and Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunneblad, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This article is from a study about the integration of refugee children (aged one to five) and their families in Sweden. Refugee children and parents who have received a residence permit are entitled to be introduced into the Swedish society. One of the first encounters refugee children and families have with Swedish society is with the preschool.…

  10. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  11. The Relevance of Objective and Subjective Social Position for Self-Rated Health: A Combined Approach for the Swedish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the health effects of subjective class position stratified by objective social position. Four types of subjective class were analysed separately for individuals with manual or non-manual occupational background. The cross-sectional analysis is based on the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey from 2000 and includes 4,139…

  12. "Swedishness" as a Norm for Learners of English in Swedish Schools: A Study of National and Local Objectives and Criteria in Compulsory Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tholin, Jörgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the Swedish steering documents for English-language education are ethnically biased, that is, whether Swedish culture and language or "Swedishness" are used as norms when teaching and assessing students. To examine whether such bias exists, the central curricula and syllabi from 1994 and 2000, as well as local…

  13. Evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the Swedish environmental classification and information system for pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Agerstrand, Marlene; Rudén, Christina

    2010-05-01

    The Swedish environmental and classification system for pharmaceuticals is a voluntary, industry-owned system with the purpose to provide environmental information about active pharmaceutical ingredients in the Swedish market. In this paper we report the results from a detailed evaluation of the accuracy and consistency of the risk assessments conducted within this system. The evaluation focused on the following three aspects: 1) comparison of the companies' risk assessments with the classification system's own guidance document, 2) how the risk assessments are affected if additional effect data is used, and 3) the consistency of different risk assessments for the same pharmaceutical substance. The analyses show that the system's guidance gives no criteria for when to consider a study "long-term" or "short-term", and that this confusion affected the outcome of the risk assessments in some cases. Furthermore, when the system's guidance document is followed and the risk assessment was supplemented with effect data from the open scientific literature, then the risk classification for a substantial number of the evaluated substances was altered. Our analyses also revealed that in some cases risk assessors disagree on the outcome of the assessment for the same active pharmaceutical ingredient. Finally we list some recommendations to improve the classification system. The recommendations include clarifying concepts and instructions in the guidance document, introduction of a standardized way of reporting data to the website, and promotion of use of non-standard test data when considered the most relevant.

  14. Environmental contamination by vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) in Swedish broiler production.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Oskar; Greko, Christina; Bengtsson, Björn

    2009-12-02

    Vancomycin resistant enterococci are a frequent cause of nosocomial infections and their presence among farm animals is unwanted. Using media supplemented with vancomycin an increase in the proportion of samples from Swedish broilers positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci has been detected. The situation at farm level is largely unknown. The aims of this study were to obtain baseline knowledge about environmental contamination with vancomycin resistant enterococci in Swedish broiler production and the association between environmental contamination and colonisation of birds. Environmental samples were taken before, during and after a batch of broilers at three farms. Samples were cultured both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. In addition, caecal content from birds in the batch following at each farm was cultured qualitatively for vancomycin resistant enterococci. The number of samples positive for vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Also the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the positive samples and the proportion of caecal samples containing vancomycin resistant enterococci varied among the farms. Still, the temporal changes in environmental contamination followed a similar pattern in all farms. Vancomycin resistant enterococci persist in the compartments even after cleaning and the temporal changes in environmental contamination were similar among farms. There were however differences among farms regarding both degree of contamination and proportion of birds colonized with vancomycin resistant enterococci. The proportion of colonized birds and the amount of vancomycin resistant enterococci in the compartments seems to be associated. If the factor(s) causing the differences among farms could be identified, it might be possible to reduce both the risk for colonisation by vancomycin resistant enterococci of the subsequent flock and the risk for spread of vancomycin resistant

  15. The Swedish CArdioPulmonary BioImage Study: objectives and design.

    PubMed

    Bergström, G; Berglund, G; Blomberg, A; Brandberg, J; Engström, G; Engvall, J; Eriksson, M; de Faire, U; Flinck, A; Hansson, M G; Hedblad, B; Hjelmgren, O; Janson, C; Jernberg, T; Johnsson, Å; Johansson, L; Lind, L; Löfdahl, C-G; Melander, O; Östgren, C J; Persson, A; Persson, M; Sandström, A; Schmidt, C; Söderberg, S; Sundström, J; Toren, K; Waldenström, A; Wedel, H; Vikgren, J; Fagerberg, B; Rosengren, A

    2015-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary diseases are major causes of death worldwide, but currently recommended strategies for diagnosis and prevention may be outdated because of recent changes in risk factor patterns. The Swedish CArdioPulmonarybioImage Study (SCAPIS) combines the use of new imaging technologies, advances in large-scale 'omics' and epidemiological analyses to extensively characterize a Swedish cohort of 30 000 men and women aged between 50 and 64 years. The information obtained will be used to improve risk prediction of cardiopulmonary diseases and optimize the ability to study disease mechanisms. A comprehensive pilot study in 1111 individuals, which was completed in 2012, demonstrated the feasibility and financial and ethical consequences of SCAPIS. Recruitment to the national, multicentre study has recently started.

  16. Proposed Learning Objectives for Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Don

    This document lists proposed environmental concepts for the high school education level of achievement. These concepts were developed by the Federal Interagency Committee on Education (FICE) for consideration by students, teachers, and others in the education community. These objectives are intended to cover the learning needed by an individual to…

  17. Environmental Aspects, Objectives and Targets Identification Process

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2002-07-29

    The purpose of this report is to document the environmental aspects and associated environmental impacts of the Bechtel SAIC Company (BSC) scope of work, evaluate the significance of those environmental aspects based on established criteria, and establish environmental objectives and targets for specific environmental aspects. This report is intended to be used by environmental staff in the evaluation of BSC work packages during the annual risk-based planning process. This report shall be fully reviewed and revised annually during the annual work planning process to reflect changes in BSC operations, facilities, and scope of work. Planned BSC work will be evaluated to determine if the work is covered by a previously defined activity, product or service (see Table 2); if work activities require redefinition or addition of a new activity; and if the significant evaluation for each environment aspect is still valid based on scope of planned work. New workscope initiated during the fiscal year through the Baseline Change Proposal process (i.e., not as part of the annual work plan) also will be reviewed for new environmental aspects and determination of whether the new workscope would change the significance rating of any environmental aspect. If a new environmental aspect is identified in a new work activity, product, or service but the aspect is not determined to be significant (see Section 4), then this report can be changed through an interim change notice (ICN). This report can be changed five times through an ICN before a full revision is required. However, if new workscope causes an environmental aspect to be graded as significant using the evaluation process in Section 4, this report shall be revised though a full review and revision.

  18. Evaluation of 20 years of environmental monitoring data around Swedish nuclear installations.

    PubMed

    Wallberg, Petra; Moberg, Leif

    2002-01-01

    Twenty years of environmental monitoring data around the Swedish nuclear power plants and the Studsvik research facilities have been evaluated. In the marine environment, Fucus vesiculosus generally has high activity concentrations and the presence of a large variety of radionuclides in comparison with other bioindicators. However, for single nuclides the detection frequency was higher for 110mAg in Littorina spp and for 152Eu in Macoma baltica in comparison with other bioindicators. Close to the discharge point the activity concentration of 60Co in F. vesiculosus and in the discharge water were correlated. In the terrestrial environment, few radionuclides were detected and the activity concentrations were generally low. Of the terrestrial indicators, mosses had the highest activity concentrations and also comprised the largest variety of radionuclides. The radiation doses to humans based on measurements of released activity were small. Based on the results from the evaluation, alternative sampling strategies for the monitoring program are discussed.

  19. Genetic and family and community environmental effects on drug abuse in adolescence: a Swedish national twin and sibling study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-02-01

    Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse by twin sibling modeling. The authors followed up with epidemiological analyses to identify shared environmental influences on drug abuse. Drug abuse was defined using public medical, legal, or pharmacy records. Twin and sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household, small residential area, or municipality was obtained from Statistics Sweden. The authors predicted concordance for drug abuse by years of co-residence until the older sibling turned 21 and risk for future drug abuse in adolescents living with parental figures as a function of family-level socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. The best twin sibling fit model predicted substantial heritability for drug abuse in males (55%) and females (73%), with environmental factors shared by siblings operating only in males and accounting for 23% of the variance in liability. For each year of living in the same household, the probability of sibling concordance for drug abuse increased 2%-5%. When not residing in the same household, concordance was predicted from residence in the same small residential area or municipality. Risk for drug abuse was predicted both by family socioeconomic status and neighborhood social deprivation. Controlling for family socioeconomic status, each year of living in a high social deprivation neighborhood increased the risk for drug abuse by 2%. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse is highly heritable. A substantial proportion of the shared environmental effect on drug abuse comes from community-wide rather than household-level influences. Genetic effects demonstrated in twin studies have led to molecular analyses to elucidate biological pathways. In a parallel manner, environmental effects can be followed up by

  20. Environmental transmission of violent criminal behavior in siblings: a Swedish national study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Morris, N A; Lönn, S L; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Violent criminal behaviour (VCB) runs strongly in families partly because of shared environmental factors. Can we clarify the environmental processes that contribute to similarity of risk for VCB in siblings? We assessed VCB from the Swedish National Crime Register for the years 1973-2011 in siblings born 1950-1991. We examined by conditional logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression, respectively, whether resemblance for VCB in sibling pairs was influenced by their age difference and whether VCB was more strongly 'transmitted' from older→younger versus younger→older siblings. In our best-fit logistic model, for each year of age difference in full sibling pairs, the risk for VCB in the sibling of a case versus control proband declined by 2.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-3.0]. In our best-fit Cox model, the hazard rate for VCB in a sibling when the affected proband was older versus younger was 1.4, 2.1 and 2.9 respectively for a 1-, 5- and 10-year difference in siblings. Controlling for genetic effects by examining only full siblings, sibling resemblance for risk for VCB was significantly greater in pairs closer versus more distant in age. Older siblings more strongly transmitted risk for VCB to their younger siblings than vice versa. These results strongly support the importance of familial-environmental influences on VCB and provide some insight into the possible mechanisms at work.

  1. Objectivity and ethics in environmental health science.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2003-01-01

    During the past several decades, philosophers of science and scientists themselves have become increasingly aware of the complex ways in which scientific knowledge is shaped by its social context. This awareness has called into question traditional notions of objectivity. Working scientists need an understanding of their own practice that avoids the naïve myth that science can become objective by avoiding social influences as well as the reductionist view that its content is determined simply by economic interests. A nuanced perspective on this process can improve research ethics and increase the capacity of science to contribute to equitable public policy, especially in areas such as environmental and occupational health, which have direct implications for profits, regulation, legal responsibility, and social justice. I discuss research into health effects of the 1979 accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, USA, as an example of how scientific explanations are shaped by social concepts, norms, and preconceptions. I describe how a scientific practice that developed under the influence of medical and nuclear physics interacted with observations made by exposed community members to affect research questions, the interpretation of evidence, inferences about biological mechanisms in disease causation, and the use of evidence in litigation. By considering the history and philosophy of their disciplines, practicing researchers can increase the rigor, objectivity, and social responsibility of environmental health science. PMID:14594636

  2. Comparative environmental assessment of wood transport models: a case study of a Swedish pulp mill.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Berg, Staffan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, Ma Teresa

    2009-05-15

    Wood transportation from forest landing to forest-based industries uses large amounts of energy. In the case of Sweden, where forest operations are highly and efficiently mechanized, this stage consumes more fossil fuels than other elements of the wood supply chain (such as silviculture and logging operations). This paper intends to compare the environmental burdens associated to different wood transport models considering a Swedish pulp mill as a case study by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as an analytical tool. Five scenarios (the current one and four alternative reliable scenarios) were proposed and analysed taking into account two variables. On the one hand, the influence of imported pulpwood share from Baltic countries and on the other hand, the use of rail transportation for wood transport. In particular, the following impact categories were assessed: Eutrophication, Global Warming, Photochemical Oxidant Formation, Acidification and Fossil fuel extraction. The environmental results indicate that transport alternatives including electric and diesel trains, as well as the reduction in Baltic wood imports should present better environmental performance than the current scenario in terms of all the impact categories under study. Remarkable differences were identified with regard to energy requirements. This divergence is related to different long-distance transport strategies (lorry, boat and/or train) as well as the relative import of wood selected. The combination of lorry and train in wood transportation from Southern Sweden plus the reduction of wood imports from 25% to 15% seems to be more favourable from an environmental perspective. The results obtained allow forecasting the importance of the wood transport strategy in the wood supply chain in LCA of forest products and the influence of energy requirements in the results.

  3. Mortality among Swedish Journalists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Furhoff, Lars

    1987-01-01

    Charts the various environmental factors that might influence the mortality rate of Swedish journalists. Concludes that, although there may be a slightly higher death rate among Swedish journalists in the 50-59 age group, the death rate for journalists is the same as for the population in general. (MM)

  4. Environmental Education Objectives and Field Activities, Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, James M.; Cissell, Charles A.

    Contained in this teacher's guide are educational objectives and numerous field activity suggestions for environmental education. Part one deals with the total environmental education program, primarily developed for fifth grade students, but adaptable to any level, age six to adult. Sample objectives of an environmental education program, general…

  5. Environmental influences on familial resemblance for drug abuse in first-cousin pairs: a Swedish national study

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Using three independent methods, prior studies in Swedish sibling pairs indicate that environmental factors contribute substantially to familial aggregation for drug abuse (DA). Could we replicate these results in cousin pairs? Method Using multiple Swedish public databases (1964–2011), we defined DA using medical, legal or pharmacy registry records and examined concordance in full cousin pairs as a function of age differences, younger–older relationships and geographical proximity while growing up. Results Replicating prior results in siblings, cousin pairs were significantly more similar in their history of DA if they were (i) closer versus more distant in age and (ii) grew up in high versus low geographical proximity to one another. Furthermore, controlling for background factors, having an older cousin with DA conveys a greater risk for DA than having a younger drug-abusing cousin. The greater transmission of DA from older to younger versus younger to older cousin was more prominent in pairs who grew up close to one another. In age difference and geographical proximity analyses, effects were consistently strongest in male–male cousin pairs. In analyses of older → younger versus younger → older transmission, effects were stronger in male–male and male–female than in female–female or female–male relative pairs. Conclusions In accord with prior results in siblings, environmental factors contribute substantially to the familial aggregation of DA in cousins and these effects are, in general, stronger in males than in females. PMID:23611305

  6. Genetic and environmental influences on adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: a large Swedish population-based study of twins.

    PubMed

    Larsson, H; Asherson, P; Chang, Z; Ljung, T; Friedrichs, B; Larsson, J-O; Lichtenstein, P

    2013-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently persists into adulthood. Family and twin studies delineate a disorder with strong genetic influences among children and adolescents based on parent- and teacher-reported data but little is known about the genetic and environmental contribution to DSM-IV ADHD symptoms in adulthood. We therefore aimed to investigate the impact of genetic and environmental influences on the inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms of ADHD in adults. Twin methods were applied to self-reported assessments of ADHD symptoms from a large population-based Swedish twin study that included data from 15 198 Swedish male and female twins aged 20 to 46 years. The broad heritability [i.e., A + D, where A is an additive genetic factor and D (dominance) a non-additive genetic factor] was 37% (A = 11%, D = 26%) for inattention and 38% (A = 18%, D = 20%) for hyperactivity-impulsivity. The results also indicate that 52% of the phenotypic correlation between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity (r = 0.43) was explained by genetic influences whereas the remaining part of the covariance was explained by non-shared environmental influences. These results were replicated across age strata. Our findings of moderate broad heritability estimates are consistent with previous literature on self-rated ADHD symptoms in older children, adolescents and adults and retrospective reports of self-rated childhood ADHD by adults but differ from studies of younger children with informant ratings. Future research needs to clarify whether our data indicate a true decrease in the heritability of ADHD in adults compared to children, or whether this relates to the use of self-ratings in contrast to informant data.

  7. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  8. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  9. Within-family environmental transmission of drug abuse: a Swedish national study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2013-02-01

    CONTEXT Drug abuse (DA) strongly runs in families. Does this result solely from genetic factors or does the family environment contribute? OBJECTIVE To determine the familial environmental contribution to the risk for DA. DESIGN Follow-up in 9 public databases (1961-2009) in siblings and spouses. SETTING Sweden. PARTICIPANTS A total of 137 199 sibling pairs and 7561 spousal pairs containing a proband with DA and matched control probands. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. RESULTS In the best-fit model, which contained significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects, among full sibling pairs containing a proband with DA, the relative risk for DA in the sibling declined from more than 6.0 for siblings born within 2 years of each other to less than 4.5 when born 10 years apart. Controlling for age differences in full sibling pairs, the hazard rate for DA in a sibling when the affected proband was older vs younger was 1.42 (95% CI, 1.31-1.54). In the best-fit model, which contained significant linear, quadratic, and cubic effects, among spousal pairs containing a proband with DA, the relative risk for DA in the spouse declined from more than 25.0 within 1 year of proband DA registration to 6.0 after 5 years. CONCLUSIONS Controlling for genetic effects by examining only full siblings, sibling resemblance for the risk for DA was significantly greater in pairs closer vs more distant in age. Older siblings more strongly transmitted the risk for DA to their younger siblings than vice versa. After one spouse is registered for DA, the other spouse has a large short-lived increase in DA risk. These results support strong familial environmental influences on DA at various life stages. A complete understanding of the familial transmission of DA will require knowledge of how genetic and familial environmental risk factors act and interact over development.

  10. Injuries in Swedish skydiving

    PubMed Central

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2007-01-01

    Objective To create a basis for prevention of modern skydiving injuries. Design Descriptive epidemiological study. Setting National total material. Patients Data on all reported injury events (n = 257) in Swedish skydiving 1999–2003 (total 539 885 jumps) were retrieved from the Swedish Parachute Association. Non‐fatally injured skydivers were sent a questionnaire asking for event and injury details (response rate 89%), and supplementary hospital records were retrieved for the most serious injuries (n = 85). Human, equipment and environmental factors were assessed for risk. Main Outcome Measurements Frequency and severity of injuries. Results Incidence of non‐fatal injury events was 48 per 100 000 jumps. The lower extremities, spine and shoulders were important regions of injury. The most serious injuries were experienced by licensed skydivers, but students in training had a higher injury rate and more often left the sport because of the injury. Of two student‐training systems, one had an incidence less than half that of the other. Conclusions A basis for prevention was created, showing a potential for reduction of frequency and severity of injuries with training and technical interventions. PMID:17224436

  11. Environmental management system objectives & targets results summary FY 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2014-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL/NM Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2013.

  12. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets annual results summary :

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2013-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexicos (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NMs operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2012.

  13. Environmental Management System Objectives & Targets Results Summary - FY 2015.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas W.

    2016-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established Sandia Corporation and SNL Site-specific objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY 2015.

  14. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  15. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  16. Comparison of exhaust emissions from Swedish environmental classified diesel fuel (MK1) and European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) reference fuel: a chemical and biological characterization, with viewpoints on cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Westerholm, R; Christensen, A; Törnqvist, M; Ehrenberg, L; Rannug, U; Sjögren, M; Rafter, J; Soontjens, C; Almén, J; Grägg, K

    2001-05-01

    Diesel fuels, classified as environmentally friendly, have been available on the Swedish market since 1991. The Swedish diesel fuel classification is based upon the specification of selected fuel composition and physical properties to reduce potential environmental and health effects from direct human exposure to exhaust. The objective of the present investigation was to compare the most stringent, environmentally classified Swedish diesel fuel (MK1) to the reference diesel fuel used in the "European Program on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies" (EPEFE) program. The study compares measurements of regulated emissions, unregulated emissions, and biological tests from a Volvo truck using these fuels. The regulated emissions from these two fuels (MK1 vs EPEFE) were CO (-2.2%), HC (12%), NOx (-11%), and particulates (-11%). The emissions of aldehydes, alkenes, and carbon dioxide were basically equivalent. The emissions of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 1-nitropyrene were 88% and 98% lower than those of the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The emissions of semi-volatile PAHs and 1-nitropyrene were 77% and 80% lower than those from the EPEFE fuel, respectively. The reduction in mutagenicity of the particle extract varied from -75 to -90%, depending on the tester strain. The reduction of mutagenicity of the semi-volatile extract varied between -40 and -60%. Furthermore, the dioxin receptor binding activity was a factor of 8 times lower in the particle extracts and a factor of 4 times lower in the semi-volatile extract than that of the EPEFE fuel. In conclusion, the MK1 fuel was found to be more environmentally friendly than the EPEFE fuel.

  17. Multi objective multi refinery optimization with environmental and catastrophic failure effects objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khogeer, Ahmed Sirag

    2005-11-01

    Petroleum refining is a capital-intensive business. With stringent environmental regulations on the processing industry and declining refining margins, political instability, increased risk of war and terrorist attacks in which refineries and fuel transportation grids may be targeted, higher pressures are exerted on refiners to optimize performance and find the best combination of feed and processes to produce salable products that meet stricter product specifications, while at the same time meeting refinery supply commitments and of course making profit. This is done through multi objective optimization. For corporate refining companies and at the national level, Intea-Refinery and Inter-Refinery optimization is the second step in optimizing the operation of the whole refining chain as a single system. Most refinery-wide optimization methods do not cover multiple objectives such as minimizing environmental impact, avoiding catastrophic failures, or enhancing product spec upgrade effects. This work starts by carrying out a refinery-wide, single objective optimization, and then moves to multi objective-single refinery optimization. The last step is multi objective-multi refinery optimization, the objectives of which are analysis of the effects of economic, environmental, product spec, strategic, and catastrophic failure. Simulation runs were carried out using both MATLAB and ASPEN PIMS utilizing nonlinear techniques to solve the optimization problem. The results addressed the need to debottleneck some refineries or transportation media in order to meet the demand for essential products under partial or total failure scenarios. They also addressed how importing some high spec products can help recover some of the losses and what is needed in order to accomplish this. In addition, the results showed nonlinear relations among local and global objectives for some refineries. The results demonstrate that refineries can have a local multi objective optimum that does not

  18. Towards a sustainable diet combining economic, environmental and nutritional objectives.

    PubMed

    Donati, Michele; Menozzi, Davide; Zighetti, Camilla; Rosi, Alice; Zinetti, Anna; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-11-01

    Foods consumed and dietary patterns are strong determinants of health status. Diet and nutrition have a key role in health promotion and maintenance during the entire lifetime, but what we choose to eat and drink greatly affects the environmental impact on ecosystems as well as monetary resources. Some studies suggest that a healthy diet with a low environmental impact is not necessarily more expensive. This paper aims to identify a healthy, greener and cheaper diet based on current consumption patterns. Dietary information was collected from 104 young adults in the last year of high school in Parma (Italy). Diet was monitored with 7-day dietary records. Subsequently, food items were decoded to obtain nutritional, economic and environmental impact data. An optimization tool based on mathematical programming (Multi-Objective Linear Programming) was used to identify sustainable diet. Three different 7-day diets were identified, based on nutrition recommendations for the healthy Italian adult population, characterized by different targets and optimizing different impacts: first the diet at the lowest cost (Minimum Cost Diet - MCD), then the Environmentally Sustainable Diet (ESD) obtained by minimizing the three environmental indicators (CO2e emissions, H2O consumption and amount of land to regenerate the resources - m(2)). Finally, the Sustainable Diet (SD) was identified by integrating environmental and economic sustainability objectives. Lastly, suggestions and recommendations for communication campaigns and other interventions to achieve sustainable diet are suggested. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2016-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern. PMID:27594931

  20. Considering social and environmental concerns as reservoir operating objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmant, A.; Georis, B.; Doulliez, P.

    2003-04-01

    Sustainability principles are now widely recognized as key criteria for water resource development schemes, such as hydroelectric and multipurpose reservoirs. Development decisions no longer rely solely on economic grounds, but also consider environmental and social concerns through the so-called environmental and social impact assessments. The objective of this paper is to show that environmental and social concerns can also be addressed in the management (operation) of existing or projected reservoir schemes. By either adequately exploiting the results of environmental and social impact assessments, or by carrying out survey of water users, experts and managers, efficient (Pareto optimal) reservoir operating rules can be derived using flexible mathematical programming techniques. By reformulating the problem as a multistage flexible constraint satisfaction problem, incommensurable and subjective operating objectives can contribute, along with classical economic objectives, to the determination of optimal release decisions. Employed in a simulation mode, the results can be used to assess the long-term impacts of various operating rules on the social well-being of affected populations as well as on the integrity of the environment. The methodology is illustrated with a reservoir reallocation problem in Chile.

  1. Performance objectives and criteria for conducting DOE environmental audits

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    This document contains the Performance Objectives and Criteria (POC) that have been developed for environmental audits and assessments conducted by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health. The Environmental POC can serve multiple purposes. Primarily, they are to serve as guidelines for the technical specialists conducted the audits and assessments, and for the team management. The POC can also serve as supporting documents for training of technical discipline specialists and Team Leaders and as bases for DOE programs and field offices and contractors conducting audit or assessment activities or improving environmental protection programs. It must be recognized that not all of the POC will necessarily apply to all DOE facilities. The users of this document must rely upon their knowledge of the facility and their professional judgment, or the judgment of qualified environmental professionals to determine the applicability of each POC. The POC cover eleven technical disciplines: air; surface water and drinking water quality; groundwater; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; radiation; quality assurance; inactive waste sites and releases; ecological and cultural resources; the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); and environmental management systems.

  2. Objectives and limitations of scientific studies with reference to the Swedish R&D programme 1992 for handling and final disposal of nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sjoeblom, R.; Dverstorp, B.; Wingefors, S.

    1994-12-31

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) has recently concluded its evaluation of the Swedish programme for the development of a system for the management of nuclear waste. The programme was compiled and issued by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). In this process of programme formulation and review, considerable attention has been paid to the question of how scientific studies should be directed and performed in order to provide the support needed in the programme.

  3. Genetic and familial environmental influences on the risk for drug abuse: a national Swedish adoption study.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Kristina; Ohlsson, Henrik; Palmér, Karolina; Maes, Hermine; Winkleby, Marilyn A; Sundquist, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Prior research suggests that drug abuse (DA) is strongly influenced by both genetic and familial environmental factors. No large-scale adoption study has previously attempted to verify and integrate these findings. To determine how genetic and environmental factors contribute to the risk for DA. Follow-up in 9 public databases (1961-2009) of adopted children and their biological and adoptive relatives. Sweden. The study included 18 115 adopted children born between 1950 and 1993; 78,079 biological parents and siblings; and 51,208 adoptive parents and siblings. Drug abuse recorded in medical, legal, or pharmacy registry records. Risk for DA was significantly elevated in the adopted offspring of biological parents with DA (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.66-2.62), in biological full and half siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.64; and odds ratio, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.19-1.67, respectively), and in adoptive siblings of adopted children with DA (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.43-2.65). A genetic risk index (including biological parental or sibling history of DA, criminal activity, and psychiatric or alcohol problems) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental history of divorce, death, criminal activity, and alcohol problems, as well as an adoptive sibling history of DA and psychiatric or alcohol problems) both strongly predicted the risk for DA. Including both indices along with sex and age at adoption in a predictive model revealed a significant positive interaction between the genetic and environmental risk indices. Drug abuse is an etiologically complex syndrome strongly influenced by a diverse set of genetic risk factors reflecting a specific liability to DA, by a vulnerability to other externalizing disorders, and by a range of environmental factors reflecting marital instability, as well as psychopathology and criminal behavior in the adoptive home. Adverse environmental effects on DA are more pathogenic in individuals

  4. A systems thinking approach to environmental follow-up in a Swedish Central Public Authority: hindrances and possibilities for learning from experience.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    This study analysed the environmental follow-up of a public organisation from a systems thinking approach, including follow-up within different phases of operation and with different environmental management tools. The Swedish Rail Administration (SRA), a public authority responsible for Swedish rail infrastructure, was used as a case organisation. The main aim was to identify different follow-up activities during planning, construction and operation of rail infrastructure. Additional aims were to identify limiting factors for effective environmental follow-up and to provide suggestions on how SRA follow-up can better be used as an organisational learning tool. The follow-up proved to be highly influenced by Environmental Management System and was mainly used for showing compliance with legal regulations or contract requirements. Use of environmental monitoring data was limited to the specific project in which the follow-up was carried out, possibly because of the project-based structure of the organisation following rail deregulation. Theory on organisational learning was applied in the study to discuss how to improve the distribution and use of follow-up data. A more complete 'organisational memory' seems to be required for learning from experience and adapting to change.

  5. A Systems Thinking Approach to Environmental Follow-Up in a Swedish Central Public Authority: Hindrances and Possibilities for Learning from Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, Kristina

    2011-07-01

    This study analysed the environmental follow-up of a public organisation from a systems thinking approach, including follow-up within different phases of operation and with different environmental management tools. The Swedish Rail Administration (SRA), a public authority responsible for Swedish rail infrastructure, was used as a case organisation. The main aim was to identify different follow-up activities during planning, construction and operation of rail infrastructure. Additional aims were to identify limiting factors for effective environmental follow-up and to provide suggestions on how SRA follow-up can better be used as an organisational learning tool. The follow-up proved to be highly influenced by Environmental Management System and was mainly used for showing compliance with legal regulations or contract requirements. Use of environmental monitoring data was limited to the specific project in which the follow-up was carried out, possibly because of the project-based structure of the organisation following rail deregulation. Theory on organisational learning was applied in the study to discuss how to improve the distribution and use of follow-up data. A more complete `organisational memory' seems to be required for learning from experience and adapting to change.

  6. Environmental considerations in Swedish Forestry: A study of the administrative process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerberg, Katarina

    1985-01-01

    This report briefly describes the implementation process involving nature conservation considerations in forestry, according to a recently passed law in Sweden. Described are the forestry and political systems in Sweden regarding nature conservation in forestry, as well as of the administrative process involved when a forest is going to be clearcut. Conclusions are based upon the conditions and outcome of two clearcutting cases outlined in this report, and are focused on the interactions and control functions among various agencies and levels of government. The policy on the consideration of nature in forestry is, to a large extent, formed at a very low level in the bureaucracy and is subject to negotiation from case to case. Checkups between different agencies as a form of concurrent government become important means of implementing environmental considerations in forestry, having the split roles and interests of the authorities in mind.

  7. Environmental flows and water quality objectives for the River Murray.

    PubMed

    Gippel, C; Jacobs, T; McLeod, T

    2002-01-01

    Over the past decade, there intense consideration of managing flows in the River Murray to provide environmental benefits. In 1990 the Murray-Darling Basin Ministerial Council adopted a water quality policy: To maintain and, where necessary, improve existing water quality in the rivers of the Murray-Darling Basin for all beneficial uses - agricultural, environmental, urban, industrial and recreational, and in 1994 a flow policy: To maintain and where necessary improve existing flow regimes in the waterways of the Murray-Darling Basin to protect and enhance the riverine environment. The Audit of Water Use followed in 1995, culminating in the decision of the Ministerial Council to implement an interim cap on new diversions for consumptive use (the "Cap") in a bid to halt declining river health. In March 1999 the Environmental Flows and Water Quality Objectives for the River Murray Project (the Project) was set up, primarily to establish be developed that aims to achieve a sustainable river environment and water quality, in accordance with community needs, and including an adaptive approach to management and operation of the River. It will lead to objectives for water quality and environmental flows that are feasible, appropriate, have the support of the scientific, management and stakeholder communities, and carry acceptable levels of risk. This paper describes four key aspects of the process being undertaken to determine the objectives, and design the flow options that will meet those objectives: establishment of an appropriate technical, advisory and administrative framework; establishing clear evidence for regulation impacts; undergoing assessment of environmental flow needs; and filling knowledge gaps. A review of the impacts of flow regulation on the health of the River Murray revealed evidence for decline, but the case for flow regulation as the main cause is circumstantial or uncertain. This is to be expected, because the decline of the River Murray results

  8. [Electron microscopic study of pathogenic bacteria on environmental objects].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I B; Lenchenko, E M

    1998-01-01

    The morphological picture of different bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Yersinia enterocolitica O3, Y.pseudotuberculosis 1, Y.frederiksenii, Y.intermedia, Y.kristensenii) on environmental objects was studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bacteria adhered to the surface of pieces of fodder, egg shell, cabbage leaves and form microcolonies, whose morphology was similar to colonies, grown on nutrient media. The cells produced extracellular substances, seen in SEM as integuments. These integuments were gourd to protect the population from the action of unfavorable factors.

  9. Swedish nuclear dilemma: Energy and the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nordhaus, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    One of the things that makes life both very frustrating and also very interesting is that accomplishing one objective frequently means backpedaling on another. Since economics is the study of tradeoffs, this means that there is generally plenty for economists to do. William Nordhaus is one of the best economists anywhere, and he has written a wonderful book about the tradeoffs faced by one country--Sweden--if and as it acts on a decision its citizens made in 1980 to phase out the use of nuclear power there. The author adds that this decision has been reaffirmed by the Swedish Parliament on several occasions since the 1980 referendum, though with some elusive qualifications. What will be both the environmental and also the economic implications of a Swedish phaseout of the use of nuclear power to generate electricity there. These are the two issues Nordhaus addresses in this book.

  10. The Swedish radiological environmental protection regulations applied in a review of a license application for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Pål; Stark, Karolina; Xu, Shulan; Nordén, Maria; Dverstorp, Björn

    2017-04-17

    For the first time, a system for specific consideration of radiological environmental protection has been applied in a major license application in Sweden. In 2011 the Swedish Nuclear Fuel & Waste Management Co. (SKB) submitted a license application for construction of a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel at the Forsmark site. The license application is supported by a post-closure safety assessment, which in accordance with regulatory requirements includes an assessment of environmental consequences. SKB's environmental risk assessment uses the freely available ERICA Tool. Environmental media activity concentrations needed as input to the tool are calculated by means of complex biosphere modelling based on site-specific information gathered from site investigations, as well as from supporting modelling studies and projections of future biosphere conditions in response to climate change and land rise due to glacial rebound. SKB's application is currently being reviewed by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). In addition to a traditional document review with an aim to determine whether SKB's models are relevant, correctly implemented and adequately parametrized, SSM has performed independent modelling in order to gain confidence in the robustness of SKB's assessment. Thus, SSM has used alternative stylized reference biosphere models to calculate environmental activity concentrations for use in subsequent exposure calculations. Secondly, an alternative dose model (RESRAD-BIOTA) is used to calculate doses to biota that are compared with SKB's calculations with the ERICA tool. SSM's experience from this review is that existing tools for environmental dose assessment are possible to use in order to show compliance with Swedish legislation. However, care is needed when site representative species are assessed with the aim to contrast them to generic reference organism. The alternative modelling of environmental concentrations resulted in much lower

  11. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  12. Mars Environmental Survey (MESUR): Science objectives and mission description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, G. Scott; Wercinski, Paul F.; Sarver, George L.; Hanel, Robert P.; Ramos, Ruben

    1992-01-01

    In-situ observations and measurements of Mars are objectives of a feasibility study beginning at the Ames Research Center for a mission called the Mars Environmental SURvey (MESUR). The purpose of the MESUR mission is to emplace a pole-to-pole global distribution of landers on the Martian surface to make both short- and long-term observations of the atmosphere and surface. The basic concept is to deploy probes which would directly enter the Mars atmosphere, provide measurements of the upper atmospheric structure, image the local terrain before landing, and survive landing to perform meteorology, seismology, surface imaging, and soil chemistry measurements. MESUR is intended to be a relatively low-cost mission to advance both Mars science and human presence objectives. Mission philosophy is to: (1) 'grow' a network over a period of years using a series of launch opportunities, thereby minimizing the peak annual costs; (2) develop a level-of-effort which is flexible and responsive to a broad set of objectives; (3) focus on science while providing a solid basis for human exploration; and (4) minimize project cost and complexity wherever possible. In order to meet the diverse scientific objectives, each MESUR lander will carry the following strawman instrument payload consisting of: (1) Atmospheric structure experiment, (2) Descent and surface imagers, (3) Meteorology package, (4) Elemental composition instrument, (5) 3-axis seismometer, and (6) Thermal analyzer/evolved gas analyzer. The feasibility study is primarily to show a practical way to design an early capability for characterizing Mars' surface and atmospheric environment on a global scale. The goals are to answer some of the most urgent questions to advance significantly our scientific knowledge about Mars, and for planning eventual exploration of the planet by robots and humans.

  13. Radiological protection of the environment from the Swedish point of view.

    PubMed

    Hohm, Lars-Erik; Hubbard, Lynn; Larsson, Carl-Magnus; Sundell-Bergman, Synnöve

    2002-09-01

    The current system of radiological protection is aimed at protecting human health, and largely neglects both the effects of radiation on the environment and the managerial aspects of environmental protection. The Swedish Radiation Protection Act was revised in 1988 and includes environmental protection as one of its aims. In practice, little guidance had been given in the regulations based on the Act until 1998, when the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) formulated environmental aims in its regulations concerning protection of human health and the environment in connection to the final management of spent nuclear fuel and waste. These regulations focus on protection of biodiversity and biological resources, based on ecosystem characterisation. In a broader perspective, the Swedish Parliament established 15 national environmental quality objectives in 1999, covering all aspects of protecting the environment, including the effects of radiation. This paper reviews the background for radiological protection of the environment from both an international and a Swedish perspective, describing the aims and current activities in establishing a system for assessing environmental effects and their consequences that can be used in decision-making. Such activities are largely a result of the European Union research project FASSET (Framework for Assessment of Environmental Impact), carried out under the 5th Framework Programme of the Union. This work is complemented at the Swedish national level by government support to initiate a national environmental monitoring and assessment programme for characterising the radiation environment, which will provide the foundation for decision-making.

  14. Mapping the environmental risk of a tourist harbor in order to foster environmental security: Objective vs. subjective assessments.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, Irene; Irene, Petrosillo; Vassallo, Paolo; Paolo, Vassallo; Valente, Donatella; Donatella, Valente; Mensa, Jean Alberto; Alberto, Mensa Jean; Fabiano, Mauro; Mauro, Fabiano; Zurlini, Giovanni; Giovanni, Zurlini

    2010-07-01

    A new definition of environmental security gives equal importance to the objective and subjective assessments of environmental risk. In this framework, the management of tourist harbors has to take into account managers' perceptions. The subject of the present study is a tourist harbor in southern Italy where six different managers are present. This paper aims to assess subjectively and objectively the environmental risks associated with the harbor, and to compare the results to provide estimates of environmental security. Hereby managers have been interviewed and a simple model is used for making preliminary assessment of environmental risks. The comparison of the results highlighted a common mismatch between risk perception and risk assessment. We demonstrated that the old part of the harbor is less secure than the new part. In addition, one specific manager representing a public authority showed a leading role in ensuring the environmental security of the whole harbor.

  15. Informed multi-objective decision-making in environmental management using Pareto optimality

    Treesearch

    Maureen C. Kennedy; E. David Ford; Peter Singleton; Mark Finney; James K. Agee

    2008-01-01

    Effective decisionmaking in environmental management requires the consideration of multiple objectives that may conflict. Common optimization methods use weights on the multiple objectives to aggregate them into a single value, neglecting valuable insight into the relationships among the objectives in the management problem.

  16. Environmental clustering of drug abuse in households and communities: multi-level modeling of a national Swedish sample

    PubMed Central

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Both epidemiological and genetically informative studies indicate that shared environmental influences contribute to resemblance in siblings for drug abuse (DA). To what degree do these influences arise from living in the same household versus residing in the same community? Methods We performed a cross-classified multi-level logistic regression on all individuals born in Sweden 1975–1990 (N = 1558,654). We assessed the proportion of the total population variation in DA that was due to household versus community effects controlling for genetic resemblance. DA was assessed from medical, criminal and pharmacy records. Results Expressed as an intraclass correlation (ICC), the combined household/community effects accounted for ~8 % of the total population variation in DA. The variance attributed to the community was greater than that seen for household (4.5 versus 3.4 %). In males, the variance components were slightly larger and nearly equal at the community (5.3 %) and household level (5.1 %). In females, household effects (4.8 %) were stronger than those arising from the community (3.2 %). Conclusion In the total population and among males, community effects on DA were somewhat more potent than household effects. However, in females, household effects on DA were stronger than community effects. In Sweden, shared environmental effects for DA arise both at the household and at the community level. Community effects on DA are more potent in males than in females. PMID:25708193

  17. Recent environmental changes and filamentous algal mats in shallow bays on the Swedish west coast — A result of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossellu, Michele; Nordberg, Kjell

    2010-04-01

    Over the last thirty years, many shallow estuarine bays, located in Scandinavian sheltered coastal environments, have been subject to the increased dominance of opportunistic species of filamentous green algae, oxygen deficiency in bottom waters and the alteration of flora and fauna. Human-induced eutrophication has been held responsible for these recent changes, but from this study the importance of climatic factors emerges. This research is based on the analysis of sediment cores from 8 shallow areas ( d < 50 cm) along the Bohuslän archipelago, Swedish west coast, and focuses on their recent (< 100 years) sedimentary evolution. Evidence of hydrodynamic change was observed in the sediments, where modern fining-upward sequences contrast with the expected coarsening upward model due to ongoing land uplift. Heavy metal concentrations from modern pollution and 14C dating of mollusk shells and eelgrass roots provided the age control, and allowed to place these changes within the last three decades. Data were compared with historical meteorological records (seasonal warming, modification of dominant winds and upwelling and reduction of sea-ice), and a clear connection emerged between the environmental changes and variations in the North Atlantic Ocean weather pattern. The increase of winter temperature and reduction of reworking winter sea-ice in these sheltered bays increased the storing of nutrients in the sediments and the turnover of organic matter, favoring the early growth stage of opportunistic algae in the most sheltered areas of the archipelago. This, together with human-induced modifications (overfishing and eutrophication), increased the possibility of opportunistic explosions, which in turn determined a reduced water exchange, the increased deposition of fine sediments and organic matter and evolving hypoxic conditions.

  18. Tools for integrating environmental objectives into policy and practice: What works where?

    SciTech Connect

    Runhaar, Hens

    2016-07-15

    An abundance of approaches, strategies, and instruments – in short: tools – have been developed that intend to stimulate or facilitate the integration of a variety of environmental objectives into development planning, national or regional sectoral policies, international agreements, business strategies, etc. These tools include legally mandatory procedures, such as Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment; more voluntary tools such as environmental indicators developed by scientists and planning tools; green budgeting, etc. A relatively underexplored question is what integration tool fits what particular purposes and contexts, in short: “what works where?”. This paper intends to contribute to answering this question, by first providing conceptual clarity about what integration entails, by suggesting and illustrating a classification of integration tools, and finally by summarising some of the lessons learned about how and why integration tools are (not) used and with what outcomes, particularly in terms of promoting the integration of environmental objectives.

  19. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives and targets : annual results summary - FY2011.

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2012-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each Fiscal Year (FY) SNL/NM performs an analysis to identify environmental aspects, and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are established to mitigate potential impacts of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to, and rational for, annually revised environmental aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2011.

  20. Experiences from a biomarker study on farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) used for environmental monitoring in a Swedish river.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niklas; Larsson, Ake

    2009-07-01

    Biomarkers in fish may serve as a useful tool for evaluating the pollution load in the environment and for early warning signals about new environmental threats. By employing a strategy with fish that are caged or reared in tanks, problems linked to migration and feeding status can be reduced or eliminated. Such a strategy, however, also may introduce other confounding factors linked to, for example, hierarchical behavior or disease outbreaks. In the present study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were reared in plastic tanks at four sites in the Göta älv river system (plus one external reference) in western Sweden during 2006 and 2007. Because of low population density and high water turnover in the area, pollution levels are expected to be low. Therefore, this should be a good test for the sensitivity of the methodology. Several significant differences were found between sites as well as between years, such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in bile, and concentration of inorganic ions in blood plasma, but it also was seen that factors other than pollution could be contributing to these differences. The condition factor (CF) varied between sites, possibly because of differences in feeding resulting from variations in water turbidity. Furthermore, even the small differences in CF that were found within sites correlated significantly to several of the biomarkers. It was shown that PAHs likely are the most important EROD inducers in Göta älv and that variation over time is greater than variation between sites. Because CF differed between sites despite a standardized feeding ration, starving of the fish during the exposure period should be considered for future studies.

  1. Perceived and objective environmental measures and physical activity among urban adults.

    PubMed

    Hoehner, Christine M; Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Elliott, Michael B; Handy, Susan L; Brownson, Ross C

    2005-02-01

    Enhancing community environments to support walking and bicycling serves as a promising approach to increase population levels of physical activity. However, few studies have simultaneously assessed perceptions and objectively measured environmental factors and their relative association with transportation or recreational physical activity. For this cross-sectional study, high- and low-income study areas were selected among census tracts in St. Louis MO ("low-walkable" city) and Savannah GA ("high-walkable" city). Between February and June 2002, a telephone survey of 1068 adults provided measures of the perceived environment and physical activity behavior. In this timeframe, objective measures were collected through environmental audits of all street segments (n =1158). These measures were summarized using 400-m buffers surrounding each respondent. Neighborhood characteristics included the land use environment, transportation environment, recreational facilities, aesthetics, and social environment. Associations were examined between neighborhood features and transportation- and recreation-based activity. After adjusting for age, gender, and education, transportation activity was negatively associated with objective measures of sidewalk levelness and perceived and objective neighborhood aesthetics. It was positively associated with perceived and objectively measured number of destinations and public transit, perceived access to bike lanes, and objective counts of active people in the neighborhood. Recreational activity was positively associated with perceived access to recreational facilities and objective measures of attractive features. These findings indicate that physical activities for transportation or recreational are associated with different perceived and objective environmental characteristics. Modifications to these features may change the physical activity behavior of residents exposed to them.

  2. [High voltage objects and radiocommunication investments in view of requirements of the environmental protection act].

    PubMed

    Szuba, Marek

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the most important elements of the localization procedure of high voltage overhead lines and substations and radiocommunication objects which are the source of electromagnetic fields. These fields are perceived as a major threat to human health. The point of departure to make a choice of investments is the special classification of technical installations described in one of the executive directive issued by virtue of the Environmental Protection Act. This special executive directive enumerates a lot of technical objects (installation), classified in the group of investments which have significant impact on the environment and some objects which could be classified in this group. For all this technical installations (e.g., overhead high voltage power lines) the provisions of the Environmental Protection Act impose an obligation to take particular steps to assure transparency of the environmental protection procedures, transborder procedures and the protection of areas included in the Natura 2000 network.

  3. Environmental multi-objective optimization of the use of biomass resources for energy.

    PubMed

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-02-17

    Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally-optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multi-objective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline. The robustness of the optimal solution was analyzed with respect to parameter uncertainty and choice of environmental objectives.

  4. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Soil Monitoring Program for the Idaho National Laboratory Site

    SciTech Connect

    Haney, Thomas Jay

    2016-02-01

    This document describes the process used to develop data quality objectives for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Soil Monitoring Program in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance. This document also develops and presents the logic that was used to determine the specific number of soil monitoring locations at the INL Site, at locations bordering the INL Site, and at locations in the surrounding regional area. The monitoring location logic follows the guidance from the U.S. Department of Energy for environmental surveillance of its facilities.

  5. Data Quality Objectives Supporting the Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program for the INL Site

    SciTech Connect

    Lundell, J. F.; Magnuson, S. O.; Scherbinske, P.; Case, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    This document presents the development of the data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Environmental Direct Radiation Monitoring Program and follows the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) DQO process (EPA 2006). This document also develops and presents the logic to determine the specific number of direct radiation monitoring locations around INL facilities on the desert west of Idaho Falls and in Idaho Falls, at locations bordering the INL Site, and in the surrounding regional area. The selection logic follows the guidance from the Department of Energy (DOE) (2015) for environmental surveillance of DOE facilities.

  6. Economic-environmental dispatch based on multi-objective quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Xiejin

    2017-04-01

    The optimal solution of economic-environmental dispatch not only leads to the condition of least generation cost but minimize the pollutant emission of power plants. Multi-Objective Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (MOQPSO) algorithm based on Pareto Dominant strategy and crowding distance ordering is used to solve this multi-objective problem. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified by calculation example.

  7. [Calculation of environmental flows in river reaches based on ecological objectives].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhi-Feng

    2005-09-01

    Based on the identifying the ecological objectives, environmental flows in river reaches is calculated after the relation between parameters of objectives, and river discharges is determined. The ecological objectives are determined in a two step process: theobjective will be determined for the critical period of the year, then the temporal variation will be defined. Considering the compatibility between the different kinds of environmental flow requirements, the strictest objective is settled to be the ecological objectives for the critical period of the year. The temporal variation of the natural river discharge monthly is settled to be the temporal variation of ecological objectives. In the studies of the environmental flows in the river reaches downstream for Guanting reservoir in the Yongding River of Haihe River Basin, the requirements of velocities for spawning of the fish in April are regarded as the ecological objectives in the most critical period because this also is the period of highest water demand for irrigation. The relation between objectives and river discharge is identified using historical data at the river station. The results indicate that the minimum, medium and ideal lever of annual environmental flow requirements are 1.56 x 10(8) m3, 5.97 x 10(8) m3 and 11.02 x 10(8) m3, about 7.19%, 27.51% and 50.78 % of the natural river discharge respectively. The ratio of water requirements monthly should be 20 % in the flood period (Aug.) and be 20% in biological propagation period in spring (Apr. - Jun.).

  8. Swedish Support to Non-Formal Adult Education Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA).

    This document presents an overview of support for economic development provided by the Swedish government to a variety of nonformal adult education programs in developing nations (mostly in Africa). The four sections of the report provide details of the following: (1) scope, objectives, and methods of Swedish development cooperation; (2) the…

  9. Word Order Errors. Swedish-English Contrastive Studies, Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlbom, Ulla

    The materials employed in this investigation were 769 translations from Swedish into English made by Swedish university students studying English. The principal objective was to study aspects of learner behavior (in treating English word order) to obtain information about the types of errors Swedish students commit in English production and…

  10. Sentence intonation in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Gårding, E

    1979-01-01

    In 'A Prosodic Typology for Swedish Dialects' (Nordic Prosody 1978), BRUCE and GARDING proposed a schema for generating fundamental frequency patterns of statements in four Swedish dialects. Dialectal variation was obtained by timing word accents and sentence accent differently in a common frame expressing statement intonation. In addition to presenting the method, this paper also shows how it can be applied to two different interrogative frames, one for yes/no questions with non-inverted word order and one for inverted order.

  11. Many Objective Robust Decision Making for Complex Environmental Systems Undergoing Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Nataraj, S.; Reed, P. M.; Lempert, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources planning has traditionally used historical data within benefit-maximizing frameworks for system design. The validity of this approach is threatened by environmental change and population growth, which create deep uncertainties that modify the distributions of data that characterize the system. Furthermore, solutions from the traditional benefit-maximizing approaches may prove inferior when multiple, complex objectives are introduced (e.g., maximizing reliable performance or environmental quality). To address these issues, this presentation introduces a framework termed many objective robust decision making (MORDM), which combines many objective evolutionary optimization, robust decision making (RDM), and interactive visual analytics to facilitate the management of complex environmental systems. Many objective evolutionary search enables the discovery of the key tradeoffs in complex planning problems. Subsequently RDM is used to determine the robustness of the component solutions within the many objective tradeoffs to deeply uncertain future conditions. Each solution is tested under the ensemble of future extreme states of the world (SOW). Interactive visual analytics are used to explore whether solutions of interest are robust to a wide range of plausible future conditions (i.e., assessment of their Pareto satisficing behavior in alternative SOW). Scenario discovery methods that use statistical data mining algorithms are then used to identify what assumptions and system conditions strongly control the cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and reliability of the robust alternatives. The framework is demonstrated using a case study that examines a single city's water supply in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas, USA. Results suggest that including robustness as a decision criterion can dramatically change the formulation of complex environmental management problems as well as the negotiated selection of candidate alternatives to implement. MORDM

  12. Single and multiple objective biomass-to-biofuel supply chain optimization considering environmental impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valles Sosa, Claudia Evangelina

    Bioenergy has become an important alternative source of energy to alleviate the reliance on petroleum energy. Bioenergy offers diminishing climate change by reducing Green House Gas Emissions, as well as providing energy security and enhancing rural development. The Energy Independence and Security Act mandate the use of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels including 16 billion gallons of cellulosic biofuels by the year 2022. It is clear that Biomass can make a substantial contribution to supply future energy demand in a sustainable way. However, the supply of sustainable energy is one of the main challenges that mankind will face over the coming decades. For instance, many logistical challenges will be faced in order to provide an efficient and reliable supply of quality feedstock to biorefineries. 700 million tons of biomass will be required to be sustainably delivered to biorefineries annually to meet the projected use of biofuels by the year of 2022. Approaching this complex logistic problem as a multi-commodity network flow structure, the present work proposes the use of a genetic algorithm as a single objective optimization problem that considers the maximization of profit and the present work also proposes the use of a Multiple Objective Evolutionary Algorithm to simultaneously maximize profit while minimizing global warming potential. Most transportation optimization problems available in the literature have mostly considered the maximization of profit or the minimization of total travel time as potential objectives to be optimized. However, on this research work, we take a more conscious and sustainable approach for this logistic problem. Planners are increasingly expected to adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, especially due to the rising importance of environmental stewardship. The role of a transportation planner and designer is shifting from simple economic analysis to promoting sustainability through the integration of environmental objectives. To

  13. User's Manual for the Object User Interface (OUI): An Environmental Resource Modeling Framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Markstrom, Steven L.; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2008-01-01

    The Object User Interface is a computer application that provides a framework for coupling environmental-resource models and for managing associated temporal and spatial data. The Object User Interface is designed to be easily extensible to incorporate models and data interfaces defined by the user. Additionally, the Object User Interface is highly configurable through the use of a user-modifiable, text-based control file that is written in the eXtensible Markup Language. The Object User Interface user's manual provides (1) installation instructions, (2) an overview of the graphical user interface, (3) a description of the software tools, (4) a project example, and (5) specifications for user configuration and extension.

  14. Mouthing of Soil Contaminated Objects is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomohiko; Perin, Jamie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Akter, Mahmuda; Talukder, Kaisar A; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Faruque, Abu G; George, Christine Marie

    2017-06-01

    To characterise childhood mouthing behaviours and to investigate the association between object-to-mouth and food-to-mouth contacts, diarrhoea prevalence and environmental enteropathy. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 216 children ≤30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Mouthing contacts with soil and food and objects with visible soil were assessed by 5-h structured observation. Stool was analysed for four faecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin and calprotectin. Overall 82% of children were observed mouthing soil, objects with visible soil, or food with visible soil during the structured observation period. Sixty two percent of children were observed mouthing objects with visible soil, 63% were observed mouthing food with visible soil, and 18% were observed mouthing soil only. Children observed mouthing objects with visible soil had significantly elevated faecal calprotectin concentrations (206.81 μg/g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.27, 407.36). There was also a marginally significant association between Escherichia coli counts in soil from a child's play space and the prevalence rate of diarrhoea (diarrhoea prevalence ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 0.97, 4.25). These findings provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that childhood mouthing behaviour in environments with faecal contamination can lead to environmental enteropathy in susceptible paediatric populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that young children mouthing objects with soil, which occurred more frequently than soil directly (60% vs. 18%), was an important exposure route to faecal pathogens and a risk factor for environmental enteropathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Comparing objective and subjective status: gender and space (and environmental justice?).

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Kelly, Shona

    2007-03-01

    The environmental justice literature has described differential health effects of environmental toxins and pollutants on people of different socio-economic status (SES) that may not always reflect differing levels of exposure. We offer four questions or contentions that together may contribute to understanding this conundrum and then present an empirical exploration of one of these questions: Does the relationship between SES and self-perceived status vary in space? Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults conducted in twenty-five communities in British Columbia, Canada, a supplementary data set containing demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the communities themselves, and multilevel modelling techniques, this article describes relationships between objective and subjective measures of social status, by gender and in space. Our analysis contributes to the development of innovative environmental justice models by bringing some spatial sensitivity to interrelationships among these aspects of status.

  16. Environmental measurements and technology for non-proliferation objectives. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Broadway, J.A.

    1998-03-31

    The purpose of this study is to identify multi-disciplinary and single focus laboratories from the environmental and public health communities that can serve as technical center of opportunity for nuclear, inorganic and organic analyses. The objectives of the Office of Research and Development effort are twofold: (1) to identify the technology shortcomings and technologies gaps (thus requirements) within these communities that could benefit from state-of-the-art infield analysis technologies currently under development and (2) to promote scientist-to-scientist dialog and technical exchange under such existing US government internship programs (eg SABIT/USDOC) to improve skills and work relationships. Although the data analysis will focus on environmentally sensitive signatures and materials, the office of Research and Development wishes to further its nuclear non-proliferation objectives by assessing the current technical skill and ingenious analytical tools in less-developed countries so as to broaden the base of capability for multi-species measurement technology development.

  17. Ways forward for aquatic conservation: Applications of environmental psychology to support management objectives.

    PubMed

    Walker-Springett, Kate; Jefferson, Rebecca; Böck, Kerstin; Breckwoldt, Annette; Comby, Emeline; Cottet, Marylise; Hübner, Gundula; Le Lay, Yves-François; Shaw, Sylvie; Wyles, Kayleigh

    2016-01-15

    The success or failure of environmental management goals can be partially attributed to the support for such goals from the public. Despite this, environmental management is still dominated by a natural science approach with little input from disciplines that are concerned with the relationship between humans and the natural environment such as environmental psychology. Within the marine and freshwater environments, this is particularly concerning given the cultural and aesthetic significance of these environments to the public, coupled with the services delivered by freshwater and marine ecosystems, and the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems to human-driven environmental perturbations. This paper documents nine case studies which use environmental psychology methods to support a range of aquatic management goals. Examples include understanding the drivers of public attitudes towards ecologically important but uncharismatic river species, impacts of marine litter on human well-being, efficacy of small-scale governance of tropical marine fisheries and the role of media in shaping attitudes towards. These case studies illustrate how environmental psychology and natural sciences can be used together to apply an interdisciplinary approach to the management of aquatic environments. Such an approach that actively takes into account the range of issues surrounding aquatic environment management is more likely to result in successful outcomes, from both human and environmental perspectives. Furthermore, the results illustrate that better understanding the societal importance of aquatic ecosystems can reduce conflict between social needs and ecological objectives, and help improve the governance of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, this paper concludes that an effective relationship between academics and practitioners requires fully utilising the skills, knowledge and experience from both sectors.

  18. Hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources: A fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshandehroo, Gholam Reza

    2017-08-01

    Sustainable management of water resources necessitates close attention to social, economic and environmental aspects such as water quality and quantity concerns and potential conflicts. This study presents a new fuzzy-based multi-objective compromise methodology to determine the socio-optimal and sustainable policies for hydro-environmental management of groundwater resources, which simultaneously considers the conflicts and negotiation of involved stakeholders, uncertainties in decision makers' preferences, existing uncertainties in the groundwater parameters and groundwater quality and quantity issues. The fuzzy multi-objective simulation-optimization model is developed based on qualitative and quantitative groundwater simulation model (MODFLOW and MT3D), multi-objective optimization model (NSGA-II), Monte Carlo analysis and Fuzzy Transformation Method (FTM). Best compromise solutions (best management policies) on trade-off curves are determined using four different Fuzzy Social Choice (FSC) methods. Finally, a unanimity fallback bargaining method is utilized to suggest the most preferred FSC method. Kavar-Maharloo aquifer system in Fars, Iran, as a typical multi-stakeholder multi-objective real-world problem is considered to verify the proposed methodology. Results showed an effective performance of the framework for determining the most sustainable allocation policy in groundwater resource management.

  19. The Swedish space programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helger, Arne

    The Swedish National Space Board (SNSB) under the Ministry of Industry is the central governmental agency responsible for the goverment-funded Swedish national and international space and remote sensing activities. The technical implementation is mainly contracted by the Board to the state-owned Swedish Space Corporation (SSC). International cooperation is a cornerstone in the Swedish space activities, absorbing more than 80% of the total national budget. Within ESA, Sweden participates in practically all infrastructure and applications programs. Basic research, mainly concentrated to the near earth space physics, microgravity and remote sensing are important elements in the Swedish space program. Sweden participates in the French Spot program. At Esrange, data reception, and satellite control, and tracking, telemetry command (TT&C) are performed for many international satellite projects. An SSC subsidiary, SATELLITBILD, is archiving, processing and distributing remote sensing data worldwide. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has established a portable TT&C station for JERS-1 at Esrange, Kiruna. A center for international research on the ozone problem has been established at Esrange and Kiruna. A new sounding rocket for 15 minutes of microgravity research, MAXUS, has been developed by SSC in cooperation with Germany. A national scientific satellite, FREJA, is planned to be launched late 1992.

  20. Mismatch between perceived and objectively measured environmental obesogenic features in European neighbourhoods.

    PubMed

    Roda, C; Charreire, H; Feuillet, T; Mackenbach, J D; Compernolle, S; Glonti, K; Ben Rebah, M; Bárdos, H; Rutter, H; McKee, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Brug, J; Lakerveld, J; Oppert, J-M

    2016-01-01

    Findings from research on the association between the built environment and obesity remain equivocal but may be partly explained by differences in approaches used to characterize the built environment. Findings obtained using subjective measures may differ substantially from those measured objectively. We investigated the agreement between perceived and objectively measured obesogenic environmental features to assess (1) the extent of agreement between individual perceptions and observable characteristics of the environment and (2) the agreement between aggregated perceptions and observable characteristics, and whether this varied by type of characteristic, region or neighbourhood. Cross-sectional data from the SPOTLIGHT project (n = 6037 participants from 60 neighbourhoods in five European urban regions) were used. Residents' perceptions were self-reported, and objectively measured environmental features were obtained by a virtual audit using Google Street View. Percent agreement and Kappa statistics were calculated. The mismatch was quantified at neighbourhood level by a distance metric derived from a factor map. The extent to which the mismatch metric varied by region and neighbourhood was examined using linear regression models. Overall, agreement was moderate (agreement < 82%, kappa < 0.3) and varied by obesogenic environmental feature, region and neighbourhood. Highest agreement was found for food outlets and outdoor recreational facilities, and lowest agreement was obtained for aesthetics. In general, a better match was observed in high-residential density neighbourhoods characterized by a high density of food outlets and recreational facilities. Future studies should combine perceived and objectively measured built environment qualities to better understand the potential impact of the built environment on health, particularly in low residential density neighbourhoods.

  1. Comparison of a web-based food record tool and a food-frequency questionnaire and objective validation using the doubly labelled water technique in a Swedish middle-aged population.

    PubMed

    Nybacka, Sanna; Bertéus Forslund, Heléne; Wirfält, Elisabet; Larsson, Ingrid; Ericson, Ulrika; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Bergström, Göran; Hedblad, Bo; Winkvist, Anna; Lindroos, Anna Karin

    2016-01-01

    Two web-based dietary assessment tools have been developed for use in large-scale studies: the Riksmaten method (4-d food record) and MiniMeal-Q (food-frequency method). The aim of the present study was to examine the ability of these methods to capture energy intake against objectively measured total energy expenditure (TEE) with the doubly labelled water technique (TEEDLW), and to compare reported energy and macronutrient intake. This study was conducted within the pilot study of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS), which included 1111 randomly selected men and women aged 50-64 years from the Gothenburg general population. Of these, 200 were enrolled in the SCAPIS diet substudy. TEEDLW was measured in a subsample (n 40). Compared with TEEDLW, both methods underestimated energy intake: -2·5 (sd  2·9) MJ with the Riksmaten method; -2·3 (sd 3·6) MJ with MiniMeal-Q. Mean reporting accuracy was 80 and 82 %, respectively. The correlation between reported energy intake and TEEDLW was r 0·4 for the Riksmaten method (P < 0·05) and r 0·28 (non-significant) for MiniMeal-Q. Women reported similar average intake of energy and macronutrients in both methods whereas men reported higher intakes with the Riksmaten method. Energy-adjusted correlations ranged from 0·14 (polyunsaturated fat) to 0·77 (alcohol). Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable agreement for energy and energy-adjusted protein and carbohydrate intake, whereas the agreement for fat intake was poorer. According to energy intake data, both methods displayed similar precision on energy intake reporting. However, MiniMeal-Q was less successful in ranking individuals than the Riksmaten method. The development of methods to achieve limited under-reporting is a major challenge for future research.

  2. An objective decision model of power grid environmental protection based on environmental influence index and energy-saving and emission-reducing index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jun-shu; Jin, Yan-ming; Hao, Wei-hua

    2017-01-01

    Based on modelling the environmental influence index of power transmission and transformation project and energy-saving and emission-reducing index of source-grid-load of power system, this paper establishes an objective decision model of power grid environmental protection, with constraints of power grid environmental protection objectives being legal and economical, and considering both positive and negative influences of grid on the environmental in all-life grid cycle. This model can be used to guide the programming work of power grid environmental protection. A numerical simulation of Jiangsu province’s power grid environmental protection objective decision model has been operated, and the results shows that the maximum goal of energy-saving and emission-reducing benefits would be reached firstly as investment increasing, and then the minimum goal of environmental influence.

  3. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins

    PubMed Central

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA® Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging. PMID:24910280

  4. Environmental enrichment improves novel object recognition and enhances agonistic behavior in male mice.

    PubMed

    Mesa-Gresa, Patricia; Pérez-Martinez, Asunción; Redolat, Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is an experimental paradigm in which rodents are housed in complex environments containing objects that provide stimulation, the effects of which are expected to improve the welfare of these subjects. EE has been shown to considerably improve learning and memory in rodents. However, knowledge about the effects of EE on social interaction is generally limited and rather controversial. Thus, our aim was to evaluate both novel object recognition and agonistic behavior in NMRI mice receiving EE, hypothesizing enhanced cognition and slightly enhanced agonistic interaction upon EE rearing. During a 4-week period half the mice (n = 16) were exposed to EE and the other half (n = 16) remained in a standard environment (SE). On PND 56-57, animals performed the object recognition test, in which recognition memory was measured using a discrimination index. The social interaction test consisted of an encounter between an experimental animal and a standard opponent. Results indicated that EE mice explored the new object for longer periods than SE animals (P < .05). During social encounters, EE mice devoted more time to sociability and agonistic behavior (P < .05) than their non-EE counterparts. In conclusion, EE has been shown to improve object recognition and increase agonistic behavior in adolescent/early adulthood mice. In the future we intend to extend this study on a longitudinal basis in order to assess in more depth the effect of EE and the consistency of the above-mentioned observations in NMRI mice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Laser Solutions for Reducing the Environmental Risks Associated with Orbital Debris and Near Earth Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Jonathan W.; Howell, Joe T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Increasing activity in space is gradually increasing the amount of orbital debris in low earth orbit. As the debris increases, the environmental risk (hypervelocity collisions) associated with spaceflight also increases. Debris larger than 10 cm can typically be detected and tracked sufficiently to allow risk avoidance to be achieved by maneuvering to safe distances. Risk reduction for objects smaller than I cm may be accomplished through shielding. However, intermediate sized debris remains a problem. A convenient risk reduction solution has been identified using modem laser technology. In this approach, a relatively low energy laser facility operating near e equator may significantly reduce the amount of intermediate sized debris (1 - 10 cm) in a few years of operation. A sufficiently intense laser pulse arriving at a debris objects surface will ablate a micro-thin layer of material. As this hot gas rapidly expands away from the object, a small change in momentum is imparted. The momentum change for one pulse is insignificant. However, since the laser can provide 10-1000 pulses per second over several minutes, the cumulative effect is substantive. The object's perigee may be lowered in this manner into atmosphere where it will be vaporized. This same technique may be employed on a larger scale for risk reduction in asteroids, meteoroids, and comets colliding with the Earth at hypervelocities.

  6. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Incorporating Deeply Uncertain Factors into the Many Objective Search Process: Improving Adaptation to Environmental Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprzyk, J. R.; Watson, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    Deep uncertainty refers to situations in which decision makers or stakeholders do not know, or cannot fully agree upon, the full suite of risk factors within a planning problem. This phenomenon is especially important when considering scenarios of future environmental change, since there exist multiple trajectories of environmental forcings (e.g., streamflow timing and magnitude) and socioeconomic factors (e.g., population growth). This presentation first briefly reviews robust optimization and scenario approaches that have been proposed to plan for systems under deep uncertainty. One recently introduced framework is Many Objective Robust Decision Making (MORDM). MORDM combines two techniques: evolutionary algorithm search is used to generate planning alternatives, and robust decision making methods are used to sample performance over a large range of plausible factors and, subsequently, choose a robust solution. Within MORDM, Pareto approximate tradeoff sets of solutions are used to balance objectives and examine alternatives. However, MORDM does not currently incorporate the deeply uncertain scenario information into the search process itself. In this presentation, we suggest several avenues for doing so, that are focused on modifying the suite of uncertain data that is selected within the search process. Visualizations that compare tradeoff sets across different sets of assumptions can be used to guide decision makers' learning and, ultimately, their selection of several candidate solutions for further planning. For example, the baseline assumptions about probability distributions can be compared to optimization results under severe events to determine adaptive management strategies. A case study of water planning in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) in Texas is used to demonstrate the approach. Our LRGV results compare baseline optimization with new solution sets that examine optimal management strategies under scenarios characterized by lower than average

  8. Swedish Successful Schools Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoog, Jonas; Johansson, Olof; Olofsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the results of a follow-up study of two Swedish schools in which, five years previously, the principals had been successful leaders. Had this success been maintained? Design/methodology/approach: Two schools were revisited to enable the authors to interview principals and teachers as well as…

  9. Objective assessment of facial skin aging and the associated environmental factors in Japanese monozygotic twins.

    PubMed

    Ichibori, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Takashi; Tanigawa, Tomoko; Kanazawa, Shigeyuki; Shingaki, Kenta; Torii, Kosuke; Tomita, Koichi; Yano, Kenji; Sakai, Yasuo; Hosokawa, Ko

    2014-06-01

    Twin studies, especially those involving monozygotic (MZ) twins, facilitate the analysis of factors affecting skin aging while controlling for age, gender, and genetic susceptibility. The purpose of this study was to objectively assess various features of facial skin and analyze the effects of environmental factors on these features in MZ twins. At the Osaka Twin Research Center, 67 pairs of MZ twins underwent medical interviews and photographic assessments, using the VISIA(®) Complexion Analysis System. First, the average scores of the right and left cheek skin spots, wrinkles, pores, texture, and erythema were calculated; the differences between the scores were then compared in each pair of twins. Next, using the results of medical interviews and VISIA data, we investigated the effects of environmental factors on skin aging. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficient test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The intrapair differences in facial texture scores significantly increased as the age of the twins increased (P = 0.03). Among the twin pairs who provided answers to the questions regarding history differences in medical interviews, the twins who smoked or did not use skin protection showed significantly higher facial texture or wrinkle scores compared with the twins not exposed to cigarettes or protectants (P = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The study demonstrated that skin aging among Japanese MZ twins, especially in terms of facial texture, was significantly influenced by environmental factors. In addition, smoking and skin protectant use were important environmental factors influencing skin aging.

  10. Environmental Management System (EMS) objectives & targets : annual results summary %3CU%2B2013%3E FY10.

    SciTech Connect

    Waffelaert, Pascale S.; Vetter, Douglas Walter

    2011-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico's (SNL/NM) Environmental Management System is the integrated approach for members of the workforce to identify and manage environmental risks. Each fiscal year (FY) significant environmental aspects are identified and the environmental programs associated with them are charged with the task of routinely monitoring and measuring the objectives and targets that are designed to mitigate the impact of SNL/NM's operations on the environment. An annual summary of the results achieved towards meeting established objectives and targets provides a connection to and rational for annually revised significant aspects. The purpose of this document is to summarize the results achieved and documented in FY2010.

  11. A framework for sustainable invasive species management: environmental, social and economic objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Phillips-Mao, Laura; Quiram, Gina; Sharpe, Leah; Stark, Rebecca; Sugita, Shinya; Weiler, Annie

    2011-01-01

    Applying the concept of sustainability to invasive species management (ISM) is challenging but necessary, given the increasing rates of invasion and the high costs of invasion impacts and control. To be sustainable, ISM must address environmental, social, and economic factors (or *pillars*) that influence the causes, impacts, and control of invasive species across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Although these pillars are generally acknowledged, their implementation is often limited by insufficient control options and significant economic and political constraints. In this paper, we outline specific objectives in each of these three *pillars* that, if incorporated into a management plan, will improve the plan's likelihood of sustainability. We then examine three case studies that illustrate how these objectives can be effectively implemented. Each pillar reinforces the others, such that the inclusion of even a few of the outlined objectives will lead to more effective management that achieves ecological goals, while generating social support and long-term funding to maintain projects to completion. We encourage agency directors and policy-makers to consider sustainability principles when developing funding schemes, management agendas, and policy.

  12. [Gas chromatographic determination of N,N-asymmetric dimethylhydrazine in different environmental objects].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L V; Egorova, G I; Mironov, A A

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes different guidelines used to develop a procedure for gas chromatographic determination of N,N-asymmetric dimethylhydrazine (NDMH) in various environmental objects in the area of a missile-dismantling base. The authors showed that the use of a capillary column with a 5-microm liquid phase layer on a Kristall-5000 chromatograph with a nitrogenous phosphoric detector (Russia) allowed development of a unified gas chromatographic procedure for determining NDMH in air, water, soil, biological material (urine), and plant cover (moss, couch-grass). The procedures differ in the way how to prepare samples and the analysis itself is based on conversion of NDMH to N,N-dimethylhydrazone-4-nitrobenzaldehyde, its liquid extraction from water, concentration of the extract via evaporation and assay by the internal standard test.

  13. Regression study of environmental quality objectives for soil, fresh water, and marine water, derived independently.

    PubMed

    Vega, M M; Urzelai, A; Angulo, E

    1997-12-01

    A regression study among environmental quality objectives on soil, marine and fresh water is studied, considering toxicity data on ecological representative species of invertebrates. The study was carried out by comparing VIE-C values, as defined by E. Angulo and A. Urzelai (1994, in Plan Director para la Protección del Suelo. Calidad del Suelo. Valores Indicativos de Evaluacion, pp. 121-184. IHOBE, Bilbao). To derive these VIE-C values, no-observed-effect concentrations from chronic single-species assays that consider relevant parameters in population dynamics are used. The calculations follow the method of N. M. van Straalen and C.A.J. Denneman (1989, Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 18, 241-251). Equations relating long-term toxicity data of fresh/marine waters, soil/marine water, and soil/fresh water for five metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn) are calculated, indicating good correlation between environments: 0.85, 0.78, and 0.89, respectively. On the basis of these results this approach may be useful to obtain soil quality criteria values from other environmental compartments, when soil data are not available.

  14. Reduction environmental effects of civil aircraft through multi-objective flight plan optimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Gonzalez, L. F.; Walker, R.; Periaux, J.; Onate, E.

    2010-06-01

    With rising environmental alarm, the reduction of critical aircraft emissions including carbon dioxides (CO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) is one of most important aeronautical problems. There can be many possible attempts to solve such problem by designing new wing/aircraft shape, new efficient engine, etc. The paper rather provides a set of acceptable flight plans as a first step besides replacing current aircrafts. The paper investigates a green aircraft design optimisation in terms of aircraft range, mission fuel weight (CO2) and NOx using advanced Evolutionary Algorithms coupled to flight optimisation system software. Two multi-objective design optimisations are conducted to find the best set of flight plans for current aircrafts considering discretised altitude and Mach numbers without designing aircraft shape and engine types. The objectives of first optimisation are to maximise range of aircraft while minimising NOx with constant mission fuel weight. The second optimisation considers minimisation of mission fuel weight and NOx with fixed aircraft range. Numerical results show that the method is able to capture a set of useful trade-offs that reduce NOx and CO2 (minimum mission fuel weight).

  15. Environmental perceptions and objective walking trail audits inform a community-based participatory research walking intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Given the documented physical activity disparities that exist among low-income minority communities and the increased focused on socio-ecological approaches to address physical inactivity, efforts aimed at understanding the built environment to support physical activity are needed. This community-based participatory research (CBPR) project investigates walking trails perceptions in a high minority southern community and objectively examines walking trails. The primary aim is to explore if perceived and objective audit variables predict meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, MET/minutes/week of physical activity, and frequency of trail use. Methods A proportional sampling plan was used to survey community residents in this cross-sectional study. Previously validated instruments were pilot tested and appropriately adapted and included the short version of the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire, trail use, and perceptions of walking trails. Walking trails were assessed using the valid and reliable Path Environmental Audit Tool which assesses four content areas including: design features, amenities, maintenance, and pedestrian safety from traffic. Analyses included Chi-square, one-way ANOVA's, multiple linear regression, and multiple logistic models. Results Numerous (n = 21) high quality walking trails were available. Across trails, there were very few indicators of incivilities and safety features rated relatively high. Among the 372 respondents, trail use significantly predicted meeting recommendations for walking and physical activity, and MET/minutes/week. While controlling for other variables, significant predictors of trail use included proximity to trails, as well as perceptions of walking trail safety, trail amenities, and neighborhood pedestrian safety. Furthermore, while controlling for education, gender, and income; for every one time per week increase in using walking trails, the odds for meeting walking

  16. Swedish Family Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrstrom, Staffan

    1986-01-01

    Family policy remains one of the leading issues of Swedish domestic politics. All parties are agreed that families with children must be given a better deal in the wake of the economic crisis. But how is this to be done and how quickly can it be achieved? Is the expansion of day nursery facilities to be speeded up, or are parents to be given a…

  17. Swedish views on selenium.

    PubMed

    Bruce, A

    1986-01-01

    For a long time selenium was known only for its toxic characteristics. During the last few decades selenium deficiency has been recognized as an important agricultural problem in Sweden. On average, grains and pastures only contain one tenth of the amount of selenium considered necessary to avoid symptoms of deficiency. However, the incidence of muscle degeneration among the animals has been low, probably due to imported animal feed. Since 1980 selenium has been added to animal feed, but only minor changes in the selenium content of Swedish food stuffs have been recorded. Some studies have shown that the average Swedish dietary intake of selenium is 10-70 micrograms/day. The lowest levels were found in vegan diets, based on locally-grown products. Swedish studies have found depressed glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) levels in patients with various skin disorders, including acne; myotonic dystrophy and rheumatic arthritis. Clinical trials with selenium supplementation have given positive results in some of these disorders as well as in some patients with disabling muscular and joint pains. Today there is a large sale of selenium tablets sometimes with additional vitamin E. The marketing of these tablets, however, is often based on unsubstantiated claims.

  18. Genetic and environmental determinants of violence risk in psychotic disorders: a multivariate quantitative genetic study of 1.8 million Swedish twins and siblings

    PubMed Central

    Sariaslan, A; Larsson, H; Fazel, S

    2016-01-01

    Patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders (for example, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) have elevated risks of committing violent acts, particularly if they are comorbid with substance misuse. Despite recent insights from quantitative and molecular genetic studies demonstrating considerable pleiotropy in the genetic architecture of these phenotypes, there is currently a lack of large-scale studies that have specifically examined the aetiological links between psychotic disorders and violence. Using a sample of all Swedish individuals born between 1958 and 1989 (n=3 332 101), we identified a total of 923 259 twin-sibling pairs. Patients were identified using the National Patient Register using validated algorithms based on International Classification of Diseases (ICD) 8–10. Univariate quantitative genetic models revealed that all phenotypes (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance misuse, and violent crime) were highly heritable (h2=53–71%). Multivariate models further revealed that schizophrenia was a stronger predictor of violence (r=0.32; 95% confidence interval: 0.30–0.33) than bipolar disorder (r=0.23; 0.21–0.25), and large proportions (51–67%) of these phenotypic correlations were explained by genetic factors shared between each disorder, substance misuse, and violence. Importantly, we found that genetic influences that were unrelated to substance misuse explained approximately a fifth (21% 20–22%) of the correlation with violent criminality in bipolar disorder but none of the same correlation in schizophrenia (Pbipolar disorder<0.001; Pschizophrenia=0.55). These findings highlight the problems of not disentangling common and unique sources of covariance across genetically similar phenotypes as the latter sources may include aetiologically important clues. Clinically, these findings underline the importance of assessing risk of different phenotypes together and integrating interventions for psychiatric disorders, substance misuse, and

  19. Examining Complexity across Domains: Relating Subjective and Objective Measures of Affective Environmental Scenes, Paintings and Music

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Manuela M.; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne’s collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  20. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  1. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  2. Sustainable Urban Waters: Opportunities to Integrate Environmental Protection in Multi-objective Projects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: Nonpoint source pollution is an ongoing challenge for environmental agencies who seek to protect waters of the U.S. Urban stream and waterfront redevelopment projects present opportunities to achieve integrated environmental, economic, and social benefits in urban water...

  3. A software engineering perspective on environmental modeling framework design: The object modeling system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental modeling community has historically been concerned with the proliferation of models and the effort associated with collective model development tasks (e.g., code generation, data provisioning and transformation, etc.). Environmental modeling frameworks (EMFs) have been developed to...

  4. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between ADHD and affective problems in early childhood-A Swedish population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Mina; Taylor, Mark J; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-04-24

    Few twin studies have explored the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and affective problems, and no study has focused on preschool children. We used the classical twin design to explore the genetic and environmental overlap between ADHD symptoms and affective problems in preschool children, based on 879 five-year-old twin pairs born in Sweden 2004-2005. Questionnaire-based parent-ratings were used to measure ADHD symptoms and affective problems. A bivariate twin design was used to decompose variance in ADHD and affective problems into genetic and environmental components, and to test the degree to which these components overlapped across the two traits. Our results showed that there was a significant correlation of 0.34 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.29-0.38) between ADHD and affective problems. This correlation was mostly explained by additive genetic factors (64%, 95%CI 37-93%), and to a lesser extent by shared environmental factors (35%, 95%CI 10-59%). Nonshared environmental factors did not contribute to the correlation between ADHD and affective problems (0%, 95%CI -9 to 10%). These findings show that there is a significant association between ADHD and affective problems in preschool children that is mostly explained by genetic influences. This adds important knowledge about the etiology of both ADHD and affective problems by indicating that these phenotypes are linked from as early as preschool years. This also needs to be taken into consideration when diagnosing young children and clinicians should consider assessing both affective problems and ADHD if one is present. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Swedish small satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundahl, K.; von Scheele, F.

    2004-11-01

    In 1986 the first Swedish small satellite VIKING was launched on the Ariane 1 rocket together with the French remote sensing satellite SPOT-1. This paper describes the development of Swedish small satellites in an international framework. The satellites have delivered excellent scientific data to a low cost by using e.g. streamlined project organisations, competitive procurement programs and piggy-back launch opportunities. The first micro satellite Astrid-1 was launched in January 1995 and was followed by the launch of Astrid-2 in December 1998. The capable Odin small satellite was launched in February 2001. SSC was also contracted for ESA's SMART-1 probe destined to the Moon. SMART-1, launched in September 2003, is used for both research and as a technology demonstrator for future projects. Future proposed projects include micro and small satellites for climate research as the Atmosphere and Climate Explorer Plus (ACE+), the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange And climate Monitor (STEAM) and PRISMA, a technology demonstrator for formation flying, new propulsion system and commercial development methods.

  6. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main…

  7. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  8. The Psychometric Properties of the Swedish Version of the EB Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyström, Siv; Åhsberg, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the psychometric properties of the short version of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS) remain satisfactory when translated and transferred to the context of Swedish welfare services. Method: The Swedish version of EBPPAS was tested on a sample of community-based professionals in…

  9. From Formulation to Realisation: The Process of Swedish Reform in Advanced Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindell, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to consider the complexities of planning and implementation of a reform in the Swedish system of higher vocational education and training (VET). The study object of this article is the Swedish reform with advanced vocational education (AVE). The two main questions the study aims to address are: "What are the main…

  10. Swedish chemical regulation: an overview and analysis.

    PubMed

    Löfstedt, Ragnar E

    2003-04-01

    This article begins with a review of the regulation of chemicals in Sweden over the past 30 years, focusing particularly on the 1997 Government Environmental Quality Bill, which called for a toxic-free society by the year 2020. The second part of the article analyzes why Sweden has taken this route. The third and final section discusses Sweden's present role in formulating present EU chemical regulation, such as the recent EU Chemical White Paper, and hypothesizes future impacts of Swedish chemical regulations on the EU itself.

  11. Concussion among Swedish elite ice hockey players.

    PubMed Central

    Tegner, Y; Lorentzon, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of concussion in Swedish ice hockey and to establish a uniform grading and treatment model for concussions of different severity. METHODS: Frequency of concussion was investigated in two studies, one retrospective and one prospective. In the retrospective study, all Swedish elite ice hockey players (n = 265) were asked to answer a questionnaire on the number and treatment of previous concussions. Only concussions diagnosed by a doctor were recorded. The questionnaire was completed by 227 players (86%). In the prospective study, all injuries including concussions occurring during game and practice in the Swedish Elite League (n = 12 teams) were recorded during four years. The causes of injury, referees judgements, diagnosis, treatment, and time absent from ice hockey were registered on special cards. RESULTS: In the retrospective study, 51 out of 227 players (22%) in the Swedish Elite League reported at least one concussion. In the prospective study, 52 concussions were reported. The incidence of a concussion is at least one concussion every year/team or a yearly risk of about 5% for a player to sustain a concussion. Most concussions occurred during league play (81%). Body contact (checking or boarding) was the most common cause of concussions. The players were absent from full training and play on a mean of 6 d. CONCLUSIONS: As this injury is potentially dangerous it must be treated seriously according to a simple treatment model presented. In cases of repeated concussions during the same season, a longer period of time away from play is suggested. In players who have sustained several concussions over the years a thorough medical examination including EEG, CT/MRI, and neuropsychological tests should be performed. If any of these is pathological the player should be advised to give up ice hockey. PMID:8889123

  12. Radiocesium in muscle tissue of reindeer and pike from northern Sweden before and after the Chernobyl accident. A retrospective study on tissue samples from the Swedish Environmental Specimen Bank.

    PubMed

    Forberg, S; Odsjö, T; Olsson, M

    1992-04-30

    After the Chernobyl accident in April 1986, considerable deposition of radionuclides occurred regionally in eastern, central and northwestern Sweden. Locally, the fallout of radiocesium exceeded the remainder from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests by several magnitudes. Since the end of the 1960s samples of organs from various plant and animal species, annually collected at different localities, have been preserved in the Swedish Environmental Specimen Bank (ESB). In this work samples from the ESB have been used for retrospective studies of radioactive pollution. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in muscle tissues from reindeer, Rangifer tarandus, and pike, Esox lucius, preserved in the ESB, were measured. The samples were collected annually; the reindeer at three localities in northern Sweden and the pike at one of them. In material collected prior to the Chernobyl accident, the levels of Cs-137 were 57-180 Bq/kg in reindeer and 14-24 Bq/kg in pike, fresh weight basis. These levels relate to earlier nuclear bomb tests. A significant decrease was found in pike during the pre-Chernobyl period (1971-86). In post-Chernobyl samples the burden of Cs-137 varied from amounts equal to the former levels in the northernmost locality and up to 80 times higher for the maximum values in the southernmost locality. The highest value recorded was 18,425 Bq/kg in reindeer. The geographic variations in reindeer from Chernobyl fallout were in accordance with the pattern of deposition estimated by aircraft surveys performed in May 1986. The ratio between 'new' and 'old' radiocesium burdens in pike, caught in 1987, approached the corresponding ratio for reindeer grazing in the precipitation area of the lake; 33 and 19, respectively.

  13. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  14. Exploring emerging learning needs: a UK-wide consultation on environmental sustainability learning objectives for medical education.

    PubMed

    Walpole, Sarah C; Mortimer, Frances; Inman, Alice; Braithwaite, Isobel; Thompson, Trevor

    2015-12-24

    This study aimed to engage wide-ranging stakeholders and develop consensus learning objectives for undergraduate and postgraduate medical education. A UK-wide consultation garnered opinions of healthcare students, healthcare educators and other key stakeholders about environmental sustainability in medical education. The policy Delphi approach informed this study. Draft learning objectives were revised iteratively during three rounds of consultation: online questionnaire or telephone interview, face-to-face seminar and email consultation. Twelve draft learning objectives were developed based on review of relevant literature. In round one, 64 participants' median ratings of the learning objectives were 3.5 for relevance and 3.0 for feasibility on a Likert scale of one to four. Revisions were proposed, e.g. to highlight relevance to public health and professionalism. Thirty three participants attended round two. Conflicting opinions were explored. Added content areas included health benefits of sustainable behaviours. To enhance usability, restructuring provided three overarching learning objectives, each with subsidiary points. All participants from rounds one and two were contacted in round three, and no further edits were required. This is the first attempt to define consensus learning objectives for medical students about environmental sustainability. Allowing a wide range of stakeholders to comment on multiple iterations of the document stimulated their engagement with the issues raised and ownership of the resulting learning objectives.

  15. Biogeochemical regions of the Mediterranean Sea: An objective multidimensional and multivariate environmental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Guieu, Cécile; Benedetti, Fabio; Irisson, Jean-Olivier; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée; Gasparini, Stéphane; Koubbi, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    When dividing the ocean, the aim is generally to summarise a complex system into a representative number of units, each representing a specific environment, a biological community or a socio-economical specificity. Recently, several geographical partitions of the global ocean have been proposed using statistical approaches applied to remote sensing or observations gathered during oceanographic cruises. Such geographical frameworks defined at a macroscale appear hardly applicable to characterise the biogeochemical features of semi-enclosed seas that are driven by smaller-scale chemical and physical processes. Following the Longhurst's biogeochemical partitioning of the pelagic realm, this study investigates the environmental divisions of the Mediterranean Sea using a large set of environmental parameters. These parameters were informed in the horizontal and the vertical dimensions to provide a 3D spatial framework for environmental management (12 regions found for the epipelagic, 12 for the mesopelagic, 13 for the bathypelagic and 26 for the seafloor). We show that: (1) the contribution of the longitudinal environmental gradient to the biogeochemical partitions decreases with depth; (2) the partition of the surface layer cannot be extrapolated to other vertical layers as the partition is driven by a different set of environmental variables. This new partitioning of the Mediterranean Sea has strong implications for conservation as it highlights that management must account for the differences in zoning with depth at a regional scale.

  16. The Swedish duty hour enigma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this “the Swedish duty hour enigma.” This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? Methods A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm – an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. Results The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. Conclusions According to Swedish residents’ conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice. PMID:25559074

  17. The Swedish duty hour enigma.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Kristina; Frydén, Hanna; Kihlström, Lars; Nordquist, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish resident duty hour limit is regulated by Swedish and European legal frameworks. With a maximum average of 40 working hours per week, the Swedish duty hour regulation is one of the most restrictive in the world. At the same time, the effects of resident duty hour limits have been neither debated nor researched in the Swedish context. As a result, little is known about the Swedish conceptual framework for resident duty hours, their restriction, or their outcomes: we call this "the Swedish duty hour enigma." This situation poses a further question: How do Swedish residents themselves construct a conceptual framework for duty hour restrictions? A case study was conducted at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm--an urban, research-intensive hospital setting. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 34 residents currently in training in 6 specialties. The empirical data analysis relied on theoretical propositions and was conducted thematically using a pattern-matching technique. The interview guide was based on four main topics: the perceived effect of duty hour restrictions on (1) patient care, (2) resident education, (3) resident well-being, and (4) research. The residents did not perceive the volume of duty hours to be the main determinant of success or failure in the four contextual domains of patient care, resident education, resident well-being, and research. Instead, they emphasized resident well-being and a desire for flexibility. According to Swedish residents' conceptual framework on duty hours, the amount of time spent on duty is not a proxy for the quality of resident training. Instead, flexibility, organization, and scheduling of duty hours are considered to be the factors that have the greatest influence on resident well-being, quality of learning, and opportunities to attain the competence needed for independent practice.

  18. Fuzzy decision analysis for power, recreation, and environmental objectives on the Green River, CO and UT

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.J.; Gates, T.K.; Flug, M.

    1995-12-31

    A major challenge facing hydropower operators in today`s complex environment is making management decisions among conflicting objectives. To complicate the problem, many of these objectives are subjective by nature and, thus, are difficult to quantify. Fuzzy set theory creates a quantitative medium in which imprecise or ambiguous objectives can be characterized. Fuzzy membership functions for each objective or constraint can be combined to suggest the best solution. This methodology is applied to the dilemma which currently confronts reservoir operators at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah. The problem is how to balance hydropower objectives with needs of downstream recreationists, endangered fish, riparian vegetation and others. Construction of the membership functions from surveys of experts and estimation of the degree of variation within the functions are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented.

  19. Thermal terrain modeling of spatial objects, a tool for environmental and climatic change assessment.

    PubMed

    Miliaresis, George Ch; Tsatsaris, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the current research effort is to include biophysical multi-temporal data and more specifically land surface temperature (LST) in the terrain modeling process that traditionally was based only on digital elevation data processing. The terrain partition framework (spatial objects) is defined by the borderlines of prefecture authorities of Greece. Each object is represented by a set of attributes derived from the digital elevation data, and objects are organized into clusters on the basis of their terrain dependent representation. Finally, the terrain is segmented to regions on the basis of the multi-temporal LST data, each region presenting a different thermal signature. The thermal regions are used in the spatial objects parametric representation and a new index is devised (LST climatic index) expressing the biophysical suitability of spatial objects at moderate resolution scale.

  20. Voice handicap index in Swedish.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Ann-Christine; Dotevall, Hans

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a Swedish version of the voice handicap index questionnaire (Sw-VHI). A total of 57 adult, dysphonic patients and 15 healthy controls completed the Sw-VHI and rated the degree of vocal fatigue and hoarseness on visual analogue scales. A perceptual voice evaluation was also performed. Test-retest reliability was analyzed in 38 subjects without voice complaints. Sw-VHI distinguished between dysphonic subjects and controls (P<0.001). The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.84) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.75) were good. Only moderate or weak correlations were found between Sw-VHI and the subjective and perceptual voice ratings. The data indicate that a difference above 13 points for the total Sw-VHI score and above 6 points for the Sw-VHI subscales is significant for an individual when comparing two different occasions. In conclusion, the Sw-VHI appears to be a robust instrument for assessment of the psycho-social impact of a voice disorder. However, Sw-VHI seems to, at least partly, capture different aspects of voice function to the subjective voice ratings and the perceptual voice evaluation.

  1. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults.

    PubMed

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-07-14

    The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults. In total, 219 Dutch and 128 Belgian adults (mean age ± SD: 55.8 ± 15.4 years) were recruited between March and August 2014 as part of the European SPOTLIGHT project. Physical environmental neighbourhood factors, grouped into eight domains, i.e. walking, cycling, public transport, aesthetics, land use mix, grocery stores, food outlets and recreational facilities, were assessed using the SPOTLIGHT Virtual Audit Tool. Sedentary time was collected using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. General linear mixed models were conducted to examine associations between physical environmental neighbourhood factors and total sedentary time. Participants were sedentary, on average, for 542.9 min/day (SD: 84.3), or 9.1 h/day. None of the examined physical environmental neighbourhood factors were significantly related to total sedentary time. Our findings do not support associations of objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors with adults' objectively sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. More research on sedentary behaviours in settings such as the home and work setting is needed to examine the influence of more specific physical environmental factors on these context-specific sedentary behaviours.

  2. Physical environmental correlates of self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    De Greef, Karlijn; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the well-known beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on the long-term outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients, the majority of this patient group remains inactive. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the most important PA determinants in type 2 diabetes patients in order to develop efficacious interventions to increase PA participation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations of physical environmental factors with objectively assessed and self-reported PA in type 2 diabetes patients. A total of 133 type 2 diabetes patients participated in this cross-sectional study (response rate: 43.3%). All participants completed the long International PA Questionnaire and two validated questionnaires to measure physical environmental perceptions and psychosocial factors. They also wore an accelerometer and a pedometer to measure PA objectively. Selection criteria were age 35-80, BMI 25-35 kg m(-²), treated for type 2 diabetes and no PA limitations. Data were collected in 2007. Physical environmental factors contributed significantly to the explained variance of all objective and self-reported PA measures (explained variance from 4% to 18%) after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Home PA equipment, walkability, aesthetics and convenience of PA facilities were the most consistent environmental correlates. The contribution of physical environmental factors remained significant for most PA measures after taking into account the variance explained by psychosocial factors (explained variance from 4% to 10%), except for step counts and recreational walking. Physical environmental factors could be important correlates of PA in type 2 diabetes patients, even beyond the contribution of sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, but additional research is needed. Nevertheless, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors remain very important and when developing future interventions, all these multidimensional correlates should be kept in

  3. "State of the Art" for Measurement and Evaluation of Environmental Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the instruments presently available to measure cognitive and affective outcomes. Combination tests, measuring cognitive and affective outcomes, were also mentioned. A model is proposed as a framework for analyzing and critiquing current measurement devices in environmental education. (MA)

  4. Environmental Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in After-School Recreation Sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Welk, Greg J; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2011-09-01

    Active recreation sessions taking place within after-school programs (ASP) present an opportunity for attending children to attain part of the recommended 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This cross-sectional study's purpose was to assess relationships between microlevel ASP environmental characteristics and physical activity and sedentary behavior (SED). During 161 ASP active recreation sessions, 240 children from 7 schools wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers and were observed up to 6 times per year, over 3 years. To provide microlevel environmental data, trained observers recorded session times, location, duration, organization, equipment, and number of children and staff. Unadjusted bivariate correlations and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the influence of microlevel environmental variables on MVPA and SED, with regression models controlling for relevant covariates. Across all ASP active recreation sessions, children spent 39 ± 15% in MVPA and 16 ± 11% in SED. Session location, boy-to-girl ratio, and duration were significantly related to MVPA in the regression model. For SED, location and duration were significant influences in the model. Both location and duration appear to be modifiable correlates of group physical activity level, which may serve to inform intervention efforts to promote physical activity in ASP.

  5. Environmental correlates of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in after-school recreation sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Welk, Greg J; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2011-09-01

    Active recreation sessions taking place within after-school programs (ASP) present an opportunity for attending children to attain part of the recommended 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This cross-sectional study's purpose was to assess relationships between microlevel ASP environmental characteristics and physical activity and sedentary behavior (SED). During 161 ASP active recreation sessions, 240 children from 7 schools wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers and were observed up to 6 times per year, over 3 years. To provide microlevel environmental data, trained observers recorded session times, location, duration, organization, equipment, and number of children and staff. Unadjusted bivariate correlations and multivariable regression analyses were used to assess the influence of microlevel environmental variables on MVPA and SED, with regression models controlling for relevant covariates. Across all ASP active recreation sessions, children spent 39 ± 15% in MVPA and 16 ± 11% in SED. Session location, boy-to-girl ratio, and duration were significantly related to MVPA in the regression model. For SED, location and duration were significant influences in the model. Both location and duration appear to be modifiable correlates of group physical activity level, which may serve to inform intervention efforts to promote physical activity in ASP.

  6. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Veitch, Jenny; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thornton, Lukar; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-19

    Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18-46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking. To

  7. Environmental perceptions as mediators of the relationship between the objective built environment and walking among socio-economically disadvantaged women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods are at increased risk for physical inactivity and associated health outcomes and are difficult to reach through personally tailored interventions. Targeting the built environment may be an effective strategy in this population subgroup. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating role of environmental perceptions in the relationship between the objective environment and walking for transportation/recreation among women from socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods. Methods Baseline data of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality (READI) study were used. In total, 4139 women (18–46 years) completed a postal survey assessing physical environmental perceptions (aesthetics, neighbourhood physical activity environment, personal safety, neighbourhood social cohesion), physical activity, and socio-demographics. Objectively-assessed data on street connectivity and density of destinations were collected using a Geographic Information System database and based on the objective z-scores, an objective destinations/connectivity score was calculated. This index was positively scored, with higher scores representing a more favourable environment. Two-level mixed models regression analyses were conducted and the MacKinnon product-of-coefficients test was used to examine the mediating effects. Results The destinations/connectivity score was positively associated with transport-related walking. The perceived physical activity environment mediated 6.1% of this positive association. The destinations/connectivity score was negatively associated with leisure-time walking. Negative perceptions of aesthetics, personal safety and social cohesion of the neighbourhood jointly mediated 24.1% of this negative association. Conclusion For women living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhoods, environmental perceptions were important mediators of the relationship between the

  8. A multi-objective optimization approach for the selection of working fluids of geothermal facilities: Economic, environmental and social aspects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gomez, Juan; Peña-Lamas, Javier; Martín, Mariano; Ponce-Ortega, José María

    2017-12-01

    The selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles has traditionally been addressed from systematic heuristic methods, which perform a characterization and prior selection considering mainly one objective, thus avoiding a selection considering simultaneously the objectives related to sustainability and safety. The objective of this work is to propose a methodology for the optimal selection of the working fluid for Organic Rankine Cycles. The model is presented as a multi-objective approach, which simultaneously considers the economic, environmental and safety aspects. The economic objective function considers the profit obtained by selling the energy produced. Safety was evaluated in terms of individual risk for each of the components of the Organic Rankine Cycles and it was formulated as a function of the operating conditions and hazardous properties of each working fluid. The environmental function is based on carbon dioxide emissions, considering carbon dioxide mitigation, emission due to the use of cooling water as well emissions due material release. The methodology was applied to the case of geothermal facilities to select the optimal working fluid although it can be extended to waste heat recovery. The results show that the hydrocarbons represent better solutions, thus among a list of 24 working fluids, toluene is selected as the best fluid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Lewis, John F.; Gentry, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the ECLS System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) status from the start of assembly until the end of February 2003.

  10. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Lewis, John F.; Gentry, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system includes regenerative and non-regenerative technologies that provide the basic life support functions to support the crew, while maintaining a safe and habitable shirtsleeve environment. This paper provides a summary of the ECLS System On-Orbit Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) status from the start of assembly until the end of February 2003.

  11. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  12. Is the Swedish FRAX model appropriate for Swedish immigrants?

    PubMed

    Johansson, H; Odén, A; Lorentzon, M; McCloskey, E; Kanis, J A; Harvey, N C; Karlsson, M K; Mellström, D

    2015-11-01

    The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population born in Sweden. Thus, the use of a FRAX® model in immigrants overestimates the risk of fracture, and the use of country of origin-specific models may be more appropriate. Age-specific fracture and mortality rates vary between countries so that FRAX tools are country-specific. In the case of immigrants, it is not known whether the model for the original or the new country is most appropriate. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of hip fractures in foreign-born and Swedish-born individuals residing in Sweden. We studied the incidence of hip fracture in all men and women aged 50 years or more in Sweden between 1987 and 2002. The population comprised 2.8 million Swedish-born and 270,000 foreign-born individuals. Incident hip fractures occurred in 239,842 Swedish-born and 12,563 foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence rose with age for both groups and was higher for women than men amongst both Swedish-born and foreign-born individuals. The hip fracture incidence for the Swedish-born cohort was approximately twice that of immigrants. For example, at the age of 70 years, the annual hip fracture incidence (per 100,000) was 450 (95 % CI 446-454) for a Swedish-born woman and 239 (95 % CI 223-257) for a foreign-born woman at the time of immigration. The hip fracture incidence rose slowly with time from immigration (0.6 % per annum, 95 % CI 0.5-0.8 %) but remained significantly lower than for Swedish-born individuals even after 40 years of residence. The incidence of hip fracture in Sweden is substantially lower in immigrants than in the population native to Sweden. Although there was a small rise in age- and sex-specific incidence after immigration, the incidence remained markedly lower than that observed in Swedish-born individuals. Thus, the use of a FRAX model for Sweden will overestimate the risk of fracture for foreign-born individuals living

  13. The costs of meeting the environmental objectives for the Baltic Sea: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elofsson, Katarina

    2010-02-01

    The environmental targets of the recently agreed Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP) targets are likely associated with a considerable cost, which motivates a search for low-cost policies. The following review shows there is a substantial literature on cost-efficient nutrient reduction strategies, including suggestions regarding low-cost abatement, but actual policies at international and national scale tend to be considerably more expensive due to lack of instruments that ensure a cost-efficient allocation of abatement across countries and sectors. Economic research on the costs of reducing hazardous substances and oil spill damages in the Baltic Sea is not available, but lessons from the international literature suggest that resources could be used more efficiently if appropriate analysis is undertaken. Common to these pollution problems is the need to ensure that all countries in the region are provided with positive incentives to implement international agreements.

  14. Lessons learned from curriculum changes and setting curriculum objectives at the University of Pennsylvania's Earth and Environmental Science Department

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmochowski, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    Recent restructuring of the University of Pennsylvania’s curriculum, including a revised multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major and a proposed Environmental Science major has led to several changes, including a mandatory junior research seminar. Feedback from students indicates that a more structured curriculum has helped guide them through the multi-disciplinary Environmental Studies major. The addition of mandatory courses in Statistics, Geographical and Environmental Modeling, as well as Economics and Policy has ensured that students have important skills needed to succeed after graduation. We have compiled a curriculum objective matrix to clarify both the broad and focused objectives of our curriculum and how each course helps to fulfill these objectives. An important aspect of both majors is the Senior Thesis. The junior research seminar was recently revised to help students prepare for their thesis research. Topic selection, library research, data presentation, basic research methods, advisor identification, and funding options are discussed. Throughout the course, faculty from within the department lecture about their research and highlight opportunities for undergraduates. In one assignment, students are given a few types of datasets and asked to present the data and error analysis in various formats using different software (SPSS and Excel). The final paper was a research proposal outlining the student’s Senior Thesis. Based on both the university and instructor written course evaluations, students felt they benefited most from writing their senior thesis proposal; doing assignments on data analysis, library research and critical analysis; and the faculty research lectures. The lessons learned in restructuring this flexible major and providing a research seminar in the junior year may benefit other departments considering such changes.

  15. Swedish Delegation Visits NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 –Goddard Space Flight Center senior management and members of the Royal Swedish Academy walk towards Building 29 as part of the Swedish delegation’s tour of the center. Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth Read more: go.nasa.gov/2p1rP0h NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  17. Swedish Theatre in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Anne-Charlotte Hanes

    The Swedish ethnic theatre in the United States flourished and provided a vigorous cultural expression among Swedish immigrants for over five decades beginning in San Francisco in 1863. Swedes in Chicago alone produced between 9 and 24 plays per season from 1888 to 1915. All over the United States, Swedish settlements had their own Swedish…

  18. Meeting Indigenous peoples' objectives in environmental flow assessments: Case studies from an Australian multi-jurisdictional water sharing initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Sue; Pollino, Carmel; Maclean, Kirsten; Bark, Rosalind; Moggridge, Bradley

    2015-03-01

    The multi-dimensional relationships that Indigenous peoples have with water are only recently gaining recognition in water policy and management activities. Although Australian water policy stipulates that the native title interests of Indigenous peoples and their social, cultural and spiritual objectives be included in water plans, improved rates of Indigenous access to water have been slow to eventuate, particularly in those regions where the water resource is fully developed or allocated. Experimentation in techniques and approaches to both identify and determine Indigenous water requirements will be needed if environmental assessment processes and water sharing plans are to explicitly account for Indigenous water values. Drawing on two multidisciplinary case studies conducted in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin, we engage Indigenous communities to (i) understand their values and explore the application of methods to derive water requirements to meet those values; (ii) assess the impact of alternative water planning scenarios designed to address over-allocation to irrigation; and (iii) define additional volumes of water and potential works needed to meet identified Indigenous requirements. We provide a framework where Indigenous values can be identified and certain water needs quantified and advance a methodology to integrate Indigenous social, cultural and environmental objectives into environmental flow assessments.

  19. The Swedish Schools Inspectorate's View of Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindström, Lisbeth; Perdahl, Solange

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to shed some light on and give some examples of how the Swedish schools have interpreted their mission of educating young people and preparing them for the role of active citizens. More specifically, we are interested in how the "good" or "aspirational" school is presented in the reports published…

  20. Confronting Decision Cliffs: Diagnostic Assessment of Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms' Performance for Addressing Uncertain Environmental Thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, V. L.; Singh, R.; Reed, P. M.; Keller, K.

    2014-12-01

    As water resources problems typically involve several stakeholders with conflicting objectives, multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) are now key tools for understanding management tradeoffs. Given the growing complexity of water planning problems, it is important to establish if an algorithm can consistently perform well on a given class of problems. This knowledge allows the decision analyst to focus on eliciting and evaluating appropriate problem formulations. This study proposes a multi-objective adaptation of the classic environmental economics "Lake Problem" as a computationally simple but mathematically challenging MOEA benchmarking problem. The lake problem abstracts a fictional town on a lake which hopes to maximize its economic benefit without degrading the lake's water quality to a eutrophic (polluted) state through excessive phosphorus loading. The problem poses the challenge of maintaining economic activity while confronting the uncertainty of potentially crossing a nonlinear and potentially irreversible pollution threshold beyond which the lake is eutrophic. Objectives for optimization are maximizing economic benefit from lake pollution, maximizing water quality, maximizing the reliability of remaining below the environmental threshold, and minimizing the probability that the town will have to drastically change pollution policies in any given year. The multi-objective formulation incorporates uncertainty with a stochastic phosphorus inflow abstracting non-point source pollution. We performed comprehensive diagnostics using 6 algorithms: Borg, MOEAD, eMOEA, eNSGAII, GDE3, and NSGAII to ascertain their controllability, reliability, efficiency, and effectiveness. The lake problem abstracts elements of many current water resources and climate related management applications where there is the potential for crossing irreversible, nonlinear thresholds. We show that many modern MOEAs can fail on this test problem, indicating its suitability as a

  1. A Swedish national adoption study of criminality

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Lönn, S. Larsson; Morris, N. A.; Sundquist, J.; Långström, N.; Sundquist, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background To clarify the role of genetic and environmental factors in criminal behavior (CB), we examined all CB and violent and non-violent subtypes (VCB and NVCB, respectively) in a Swedish national sample of adoptees and their relatives. Method CB was defined by a conviction in the Swedish Crime Register with standard definitions for VCB and NVCB subtypes. We examined adoptees born 1950–1991 (n=18070) and their biological (n=79206) and adoptive (n=47311) relatives. Results The risk for all CB was significantly elevated in the adopted-away offspring of biological parents of which at least one had CB [odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4–1.6] and in the biological full and half-siblings of CB adoptees (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.6 and OR 1.3, 95% CI 1.2–1.3, respectively). A genetic risk index (including biological parental/sibling history of CB and alcohol abuse) and an environmental risk index (including adoptive parental and sibling CB and a history of adoptive parental divorce, death, and medical illness) both strongly predicted probability of CB. These genetic and environmental risk indices acted additively on adoptee risk for CB. Moderate specificity was seen in the transmission of genetic risk for VCB and NVCB between biological parents and siblings and adoptees. Conclusions CB is etiologically complex and influenced by a range of genetic risk factors including a specific liability to CB and a vulnerability to broader externalizing behaviors, and by features of the adoptive environment including parental CB, divorce and death. Genetic risk factors for VCB and NVCB may be at least partially distinct. PMID:24180693

  2. Measuring Professional Behaviour in Canadian Physical Therapy Students' Objective Structured Clinical Examinations: An Environmental Scan

    PubMed Central

    Ellerton, Cindy; Evans, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify professional behaviours measured in objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) by Canadian university physical therapy (PT) programs. Method: A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted to review current practice and determine which OSCE items Canadian PT programs are using to measure PT students' professional behaviours. Telephone interviews using semi-structured questions were conducted with individual instructors responsible for courses that included an OSCE as part of the assessment component. Results: Nine PT programmes agreed to take part in the study, and all reported conducting at least one OSCE. The number and characteristics of OSCEs varied both within and across programs. Participants identified 31 professional behaviour items for use in an OSCE; these items clustered into four categories: communication (n=14), respect (n=10), patient safety (n=4), and physical therapists' characteristics (n=3). Conclusions: All Canadian entry-level PT programmes surveyed assess professional behaviours in OSCE-type examinations; however, the content and style of assessment is variable. The local environment should be considered when determining what professional behaviours are appropriate to assess in the OSCE context in individual programmes. PMID:25931656

  3. Swedish Orienteers: A Survey Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottosson, Torgny

    1995-01-01

    A survey questionnaire was sent to 1,200 members of Swedish orienteering clubs. Some common beliefs about orienteers were verified. Respondents identifying themselves as active orienteers were often well educated and in the upper middle class, had a healthy lifestyle, and tended to participate as families. (Author/TD)

  4. Swedish Professionals and Gender Inequalities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Among 1,359 Swedish professionals surveyed, women had only 68% of the supervisory positions that men had, and only 77% of earnings. Although gender differences in human capital and structural resources partly explained the gaps, the major explanatory factor was occupational segregation. However, men's advantage persisted even when occupation and…

  5. Swedish Delegation Visits NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 – Goddard Center Director Chris Scolese greets His Majesty Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden outside the entrance to Building 28 at GSFC. The king’s visit came as part his participation in a large delegation that also included the Swedish Ambassador to the United States, both the chairman and president of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, as well as distinguished members of Sweden’s industrial, academia and professional organizations. For the arrival, approximately 60 children from the Goddard Child Development Center were on hand to greet the Swedish delegation. Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth Read more: go.nasa.gov/2p1rP0h NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  6. Cruise ship environmental hygiene and the risk of norovirus infection outbreaks: an objective assessment of 56 vessels over 3 years.

    PubMed

    Carling, Philip C; Bruno-Murtha, Lou Ann; Griffiths, Jeffrey K

    2009-11-01

    Norovirus infection outbreaks (NoVOs) occur frequently in closed populations, such as cruise ship passengers. Environmental contamination is believed to play an important role in NoVO propagation. Trained health care professionals covertly evaluated the thoroughness of disinfection cleaning (TDC) of 6 standardized objects (toilet seat, flush handle or button, toilet stall inner handhold, stall inner door handle, restroom inner door handle, and baby changing table surfaces) with high potential for fecal contamination in cruise ship public restrooms, by means of a previously validated novel targeting method. Fifty-six cruise ships (approximately 30% of 180 vessels operated by 9 large cruise lines) were evaluated from July 2005 through August 2008. Overall, 37% (range, 4%-100%; 95% confidence interval, 29.2%-45.4%) of 8344 objects in 273 randomly selected public restrooms were cleaned daily. The TDC did not differ by cruise line and did not correlate with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Vessel Sanitation Program inspection scores (r(2), .002; P = .75). More than half the vessels had overall TDC scores <30%, although several of these low-scoring ships had near-perfect CDC sanitation scores. The mean TDC of the 3 ships evaluated within 4 months before a NoVO (10.3%) was substantially less than the mean TDC of the 40 ships that did not experience NoVOs (40.4%) (P < .004). An objective evaluation of public restroom environmental hygiene on 56 cruise ships found that only 37% of selected toilet area objects were cleaned on a daily basis. Low TDC scores may predict subsequent NoVO-prone vessels. Enhanced public restroom cleaning may prevent or moderate NoVOs on cruise ships.

  7. "A Gigantic Pedagogical Leap": The Process of Shifts during Three Learning Study Projects in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljung-Djärf, Agneta; Wennås Brante, Eva; Holmqvist Olander, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Swedish early childhood education (ECE) offers a curriculum-based preschool for children aged one to five, and a preschool class for children aged six years. Activities in these programs have traditionally been based on play and having fun, avoiding structured activities with formal learning objectives. Due to indications that Swedish ECE has…

  8. A Case Study of Swedish Scholars' Experiences with and Perceptions of the Use of English in Academic Publishing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsson, Anna; Sheridan, Vera

    2012-01-01

    This empirical study surveyed academic staff at a Swedish university about their experiences and perceptions of the use of English in their academic fields. The objective was to examine how the influence of English in disciplinary domains might affect the viability of Swedish in the academic sphere and to investigate how it might disadvantage…

  9. Psychometric evaluation and normative data of the Swedish version of the 10-item perceived stress scale.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Maria; Nordin, Steven

    2013-12-01

    The perceived stress scale (PSS) has been translated to several languages and validated in many cultures. The longer 14-item version (PSS-14), has been translated to Swedish and validated for Swedish use. However, the Swedish version of the shorter 10-item version (PSS-10) has not been validated before. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the Swedish version of the PSS-10 with regard to reliability and validity, and to provide normative data. Data from 3,406 individuals who took part in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The respondents constitute a random sample, aged 18 to 79 years, and stratified for age and sex. They responded to the Swedish version of the PSS-10 as well as to the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the Shirom Melamed burnout questionnaire for assessment of construct validity. The results show that the PSS-10 provides approximately normally distributed data, has good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha 0.84), and has good construct validity with anxiety (r = 0.68), depression (r = 0.57), and mental/physical exhaustion (r = 0.71). The favorable psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the PSS-10 suggest use of the instrument for assessing perceived stress in Swedish and similar populations. © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  10. Conscientious refusal in healthcare: the Swedish solution.

    PubMed

    Munthe, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Swedish solution to the legal handling of professional conscientious refusal in healthcare is described. No legal right to conscientious refusal for any profession or class of professional tasks exists in Sweden, regardless of the religious or moral background of the objection. The background of this can be found in strong convictions about the importance of public service provision and related civic duties, and ideals about rule of law, equality and non-discrimination. Employee's requests to change work tasks are handled on a case-by-case basis within the frames of labour law, ensuring full voluntariness, and also employer's privilege regarding the organisation and direction of work, and duties of public institutions to provide services. Two complicating aspects of this solution related to the inclusion of 'alternative medical' service providers in a national health service, and professional insistence on conscientious refusal rights to accept legalised assisted dying are discussed. The latter is found to undermine the pragmatic reasons behind recent attempts by prolife groups to challenge the Swedish solution related to legal abortion in courts. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. The circumplex structure of affect: a Swedish version.

    PubMed

    Knez, I; Hygge, S

    2001-12-01

    The taxonomy of a circumplex model has been widely applied in the emotion domain and especially by researchers advocating a systematic arrangement of conscious emotional experience (see Fabrigar, Visser & Browne, 1997; Feldman Barett & Russell, 1999 for recent reviews). To rule out some of the lexical problems in the naming of affective states in the circumplex space, Larsen and Diener (1992) suggested a labeling system with forty-eight English adjectives representing eight affective states. The objective of the present study was to examine how well Swedish adjectives map onto a dimensional model of this kind, in doing so, to compose a Swedish measure for self-reported affect. The forty-eight Swedish adjectives translated from Larsen and Diener (1992) failed to capture a pure circumplex structure. However, when approximately two thirds of these adjectives were reanalyzed, a reasonable consistency with the circumplex model was reached. This suggested a composite Swedish measure for self-rated affect, with up to four adjectives representing each of the eight affective states in the circumplex space.

  12. Governance and implementation of sports safety practices by municipal offices in Swedish communities.

    PubMed

    Backe, S; Janson, S; Timpka, T

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether all-purpose health or safety promotion programmes and sports safety policies affect sports safety practices in local communities. Case study research methods were used to compare sports safety activities among offices in 73 Swedish municipalities; 28 with ongoing health or safety promotion programmes and 45 controls. The offices in municipalities with the WHO Healthy Cities (HC) or Safe Communities programmes were more likely to perform frequent inspections of sports facilities, and offices in the WHO HC programme were more likely to involve sports clubs in inspections. More than every second, property management office and environmental protection office conducted sports safety inspections compared with less than one in four planning offices and social welfare offices. It is concluded that all-purpose health and safety promotion programmes can reach out to have an effect on sports safety practices in local communities. These safety practices also reflect administrative work routines and managerial traditions.

  13. A Swedish Population-Based Multivariate Twin Study of Externalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiological and twin populations, prior interview studies have identified an externalizing spectrum of disorders. Could this be detected utilizing objective registry data? In 20,603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information from national medical, criminal and pharmacy records on drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Multivariate twin modeling was performed with the OpenMx package. A common pathway model with quantitative but not qualitative sex effects fit best with twin resemblance for the latent liability to externalizing syndromes due to both genetic and shared environmental factors. Heritability of the liability was higher in females (76 vs. 62 %) while shared environmental influences were considerably stronger in males (23 vs. 3 %). In both sexes, this latent liability was most strongly indexed by DA and least by CB. All three syndromes had specific genetic influences (especially CB and AUD in males, and CB in females) and specific shared environmental effects (especially DA and CB in males, and AUD in females). For DA, CB and AUD in men, and DA and AUD in women, at least 75 % of the genetic risk arose through the common factor. The best fit model assumed that genetic and environmental influences on these externalizing syndromes in males and females were the same. We identified, in registry data, a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. DA, CB and AUD share substantial genetic and modest to moderate shared environmental influences. The nature of the externalizing spectrum differed meaningfully between the sexes. PMID:26494460

  14. A Swedish Population-Based Multivariate Twin Study of Externalizing Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological and twin populations, prior interview studies have identified an externalizing spectrum of disorders. Could this be detected utilizing objective registry data? In 20,603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information from national medical, criminal and pharmacy records on drug abuse (DA), criminal behavior (CB) and alcohol use disorders (AUD). Multivariate twin modeling was performed with the OpenMx package. A common pathway model with quantitative but not qualitative sex effects fit best with twin resemblance for the latent liability to externalizing syndromes due to both genetic and shared environmental factors. Heritability of the liability was higher in females (76 vs. 62%) while shared environmental influences were considerably stronger in males (23 vs. 3%). In both sexes, this latent liability was most strongly indexed by DA and least by CB. All three syndromes had specific genetic influences (especially CB and AUD in males, and CB in females) and specific shared environmental effects (especially DA and CB in males, and AUD in females). For DA, CB and AUD in men, and DA and AUD in women, at least 75% of the genetic risk arose through the common factor. The best fit model assumed that genetic and environmental influences on these externalizing syndromes in males and females were the same. We identified, in registry data, a highly heritable externalizing spectrum. DA, CB and AUD share substantial genetic and modest to moderate shared environmental influences. The nature of the externalizing spectrum differed meaningfully between the sexes.

  15. Swedish Delegation Visits NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 - Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences listen to James Pontius, Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigator (GEDI) Project Manager and Bryan Blair, GEDI Deputy Principal Investigator talk about mission and science of GEDI and the collaborative work being done with Sweden. Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth Read more: go.nasa.gov/2p1rP0h NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  16. Swedish Delegation Visits NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 - Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences listen to Jim Jeletic, Deputy Project Manager of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) talk about telescope operations just outside the HST control center at Goddard. Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth Read more: go.nasa.gov/2p1rP0h NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  17. Swedish Delegation Visits NASA Goddard

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 - Members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences listen to Catherine Peddie, Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Deputy Project Manager use a full-scale model of WFIRST to describe the features of the observatory. Photo Credit: NASA/Goddard/Rebecca Roth Read more: go.nasa.gov/2p1rP0h NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  18. Achievement of Climate Planning Objectives among U.S. Member Cities of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI).

    PubMed

    Reams, Margaret A; Clinton, Kelsey W; Lam, Nina S N

    2012-12-01

    In an effort to address climate change, many cities have joined the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) whose members commit to work toward five specific program objectives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines the extent to which 257 member cities in the US have been successful in achieving these program milestones and identifies factors that may explain variation in the performance of member cities. Potential influences on milestone attainment include socioeconomic, political and ideological characteristics of residents, length of ICLEI membership, existence of other climate programs within the state, and local environmental pressures. Multiple regression results indicate that length of membership is the strongest predictor of milestone attainment, regardless of local socioeconomic conditions, ideological and political orientations of residents, or other climate-related initiatives within the state. This finding supports the general effectiveness of ICLEI's network organizational model and its outreach and education efforts. However, member cities facing more "climate stress", including higher levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) and greater automobile use among residents are making slower progress. The findings yield insight into the conditions under which cities engaged in climate planning are more likely to succeed in reducing local greenhouse gas emissions-relevant information for planners, community stakeholders and administrators of organizations like ICLEI.

  19. Achievement of Climate Planning Objectives among U.S. Member Cities of the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI)

    PubMed Central

    Clinton, Kelsey W.; Lam, Nina S. N.

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to address climate change, many cities have joined the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (ICLEI) whose members commit to work toward five specific program objectives designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study examines the extent to which 257 member cities in the US have been successful in achieving these program milestones and identifies factors that may explain variation in the performance of member cities. Potential influences on milestone attainment include socioeconomic, political and ideological characteristics of residents, length of ICLEI membership, existence of other climate programs within the state, and local environmental pressures. Multiple regression results indicate that length of membership is the strongest predictor of milestone attainment, regardless of local socioeconomic conditions, ideological and political orientations of residents, or other climate-related initiatives within the state. This finding supports the general effectiveness of ICLEI’s network organizational model and its outreach and education efforts. However, member cities facing more “climate stress”, including higher levels of hazardous air pollutants (HAP’s) and greater automobile use among residents are making slower progress. The findings yield insight into the conditions under which cities engaged in climate planning are more likely to succeed in reducing local greenhouse gas emissions-relevant information for planners, community stakeholders and administrators of organizations like ICLEI. PMID:27478682

  20. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  1. Linking Exposure Assessment Science With Policy Objectives for Environmental Justice and Breast Cancer Advocacy: The Northern California Household Exposure Study

    PubMed Central

    Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Zota, Ami; Brown, Phil; Pérez, Carla; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We compared an urban fence-line community (neighboring an oil refinery) and a nonindustrial community in an exposure study focusing on pollutants of interest with respect to breast cancer and environmental justice. Methods. We analyzed indoor and outdoor air from 40 homes in industrial Richmond, California, and 10 in rural Bolinas, California, for 153 compounds, including particulates and endocrine disruptors. Results. Eighty compounds were detected outdoors in Richmond and 60 in Bolinas; Richmond concentrations were generally higher. Richmond's vanadium and nickel levels indicated effects of heavy oil combustion from oil refining and shipping; these levels were among the state's highest. In nearly half of Richmond homes, PM2.5 exceeded California's annual ambient air quality standard. Paired outdoor–indoor measurements were significantly correlated for industry- and traffic-related PM2.5, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental carbon, metals, and sulfates (r = 0.54–0.92, P < .001). Conclusions. Indoor air quality is an important indicator of the cumulative impact of outdoor emissions in fence-line communities. Policies based on outdoor monitoring alone add to environmental injustice concerns in communities that host polluters. Community-based participatory exposure research can contribute to science and stimulate and inform action on the part of community residents and policymakers. PMID:19890164

  2. Perceived employability trajectories: A Swedish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Törnroos (née Kirves), Kaisa; Bernhard-Oettel, Claudia; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study identified perceived employability trajectories and their associations with sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms over time. Methods: The sample was part of the Swedish Longitudinal Survey on Health from 2008 to 2014 (n=4,583). Results: Two stable trajectories (high and low perceived employability over time) and three trajectories with changes (increasing, decreasing, and V-shaped perceived employability over time) were identified. Workers with stable low perceived employability reported more sleeping difficulties and depressive symptoms than those who perceived high or increasing employability. Conclusion: Perceived employability is a rather stable personal resource, which is associated with well-being over time. However, changes in perceived employability do not seem to be echoed in well-being, at least not as immediately as theoretically expected. PMID:28539535

  3. The Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register

    PubMed Central

    Robertsson, O.; Ranstam, J.; Sundberg, M.; W-Dahl, A.; Lidgren, L.

    2014-01-01

    We are entering a new era with governmental bodies taking an increasingly guiding role, gaining control of registries, demanding direct access with release of open public information for quality comparisons between hospitals. This review is written by physicians and scientists who have worked with the Swedish Knee Arthroplasty Register (SKAR) periodically since it began. It reviews the history of the register and describes the methods used and lessons learned. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:217–22. PMID:24986492

  4. Possibility to implement invasive species control in Swedish forests.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Maria; Strömberg, Caroline; Keskitalo, E Carina H

    2016-02-01

    Invasive alien species constitute an increasing risk to forestry, as indeed to natural systems in general. This study reviews the legislative framework governing invasive species in the EU and Sweden, drawing upon both a legal analysis and interviews with main national level agencies responsible for implementing this framework. The study concludes that EU and Sweden are limited in how well they can act on invasive species, in particular because of the weak interpretation of the precautionary principle in the World Trade Organisation and Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreements. In the Swedish case, this interpretation also conflicts with the stronger interpretation of the precautionary principle under the Swedish Environmental Code, which could in itself provide for stronger possibilities to act on invasive species.

  5. Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture.

    PubMed

    Rist, Lucy; Felton, Adam; Mårald, Erland; Samuelsson, Lars; Lundmark, Tomas; Rosvall, Ola

    2016-02-01

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden's current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership-characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  6. Environmental Defense Fund Oil and Gas Methane Studies: Principles for Collaborating with Industry Partners while Maintaining Scientific Objectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburg, S.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) launched a series of 16 research studies in 2012 to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. oil and gas (O&G) supply chain. In addition to EDF's funding from philanthropic individuals and foundations and in-kind contributions from universities, over forty O&G companies contributed money to the studies. For a subset of studies that required partner companies to provide site access to measure their equipment, five common principles were followed to assure that research was objective and scientifically rigorous. First, academic scientists were selected as principal investigators (PIs) to lead the studies. In line with EDF's policy of not accepting money from corporate partners, O&G companies provided funding directly to academic PIs. Technical work groups and steering committees consisting of EDF and O&G partner staff advised the PIs in the planning and implementation of research, but PIs had the final authority in scientific decisions including publication content. Second, scientific advisory panels of independent experts advised the PIs in the study design, data analysis, and interpretation. Third, studies employed multiple methodologies when possible, including top-down and bottom-up measurements. This helped overcome the limitations of individual approaches to decrease the uncertainty of emission estimates and minimize concerns with data being "cherry-picked". Fourth, studies were published in peer-reviewed journals to undergo an additional round of independent review. Fifth, transparency of data was paramount. Study data were released after publication, although operator and site names of individual data points were anonymized to ensure transparency and allow independent analysis. Following these principles allowed an environmental organization, O&G companies, and academic scientists to collaborate in scientific research while minimizing conflicts of interest. This approach can serve as a model for a scientifically rigorous

  7. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  8. Care of the Dying: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenberg, Loma; Fulton, Robert

    1977-01-01

    This article illustrates various aspects of terminal care, and shows that rules and norms for such care do not exist today. The authors advocate the formulation of an aim for humane treatment of dying patients, and its application in a manner appropriate to Swedish medical concepts and Swedish conditions. (Author)

  9. English and Swedish in CLIL Student Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Maria Lim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates Swedish students' ability to produce the discourse of the subject history, in a situation where they had to demonstrate historical knowledge in written explanations, and where both English and Swedish are involved. The students attend a content and language integrated learning (CLIL) programme at the upper secondary school…

  10. Maintenance of radiation protection at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transformation into environmentally safe system.

    PubMed

    Nechaev, S Yu

    2015-12-01

    Special aspects of radiation protection maintenance at a drawing board stage of the "Shelter" Object transforma tion into environmentally safe system are shaped in the article. Information is provided on the basis of analysis of design plans and specifications both with project paperwork from activities at the ShO in 2002 2015 on accordance to requirements of the Ukrainian health legislation in the field of radiation hygiene regulations. Specific features of radiation factors at the ShO were identified accounting their emergency origination. Relevancy of assessment of a range of activity types and technologies impact on radiation situation in the operation environment was reviewed and substantiated. General characteristics of radiation exposure and resulting doses in personnel under the activi ty execution are provided followed by the requirements to estimates of anticipated radiation doses. Features and peculiarities of application of the Ukrainian health legislation in a field of radiation hygienic regulations are reviewed in a view of meeting the requirements of NRBU 97, NRBU 97/D 2000, OSPU 2005, SPORO 85, SP AES 88 and other health legislative regulatory documents under conditions of work at the ShO. By the virtue of analysis of radi ation hygienic factors at the ShO the special aspects of choice of individual and collective radiological protection arrangements for personnel were identified, namely the individual protective gear and respiratory protection equip ment, shielding, decontamination, dust suppression, ventilation, sanitary pass control, sanitary barriers, scope and types of radiological control, setting the design levels of radiological environment parameters, criteria for the most safe options (technologies) of work execution.

  11. Pluralism in Practice--Experiences from Swedish Evaluation, School Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudsberg, Karin; Ohman, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In the international policy debate, environmental education and education for sustainable development seem to be moving away from a focus on behavioural modifications to more pluralistic approaches. This article illuminates a Swedish example of a strategic interplay between evaluation, development and research that relates to this shift, involving…

  12. Pluralism in Practice--Experiences from Swedish Evaluation, School Development and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudsberg, Karin; Ohman, Johan

    2010-01-01

    In the international policy debate, environmental education and education for sustainable development seem to be moving away from a focus on behavioural modifications to more pluralistic approaches. This article illuminates a Swedish example of a strategic interplay between evaluation, development and research that relates to this shift, involving…

  13. Predominant discourses in Swedish nursing.

    PubMed

    Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Pilhammar-Anderson, Ewa

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the predominant discourse in the field of Swedish nursing in 2000, 25 years after nursing was introduced as an academic discipline in Sweden. The method used was content analysis and deconstructive analysis of discourses. Laws, statutes, regulations, and examination requirements, including official reports, recruitment campaigns, and media coverage, were analyzed. The findings uncovered competing discourses striving to gain hegemony. In the public sector, official requirements competed against the media fixation on gender stereotypes and the realities of local recruitment campaigns. Media has a major role in disseminating prevailing conceptions and conventions pertaining to the nursing profession. As a result, decision makers, students, patients, and family members could get lower expectations of the professional competence of nursing practitioners than would otherwise have been the case in the absence of media exposure.

  14. An Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a battery-free…

  15. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  16. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  17. Suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel.

    PubMed

    Michel, Per-Olof; Lundin, Tom; Larsson, Gerry

    2007-03-01

    Increased suicide rates for military personnel suffering from post-traumatic stress disorders have been reported in various countries. Although it is known that some peacekeepers are exposed to potentially traumatic events and are thus at risk of suffering from post-traumatic stress reactions, only a few studies have examined suicide rates in this group. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the suicide rate among former Swedish peacekeeping personnel. We compared 39,768 former Swedish peacekeepers to the general population in the National General Population Registry and the Cause-of-Death Registry. A lower number of suicides was found among former Swedish peacekeepers than in the general population. In conclusion, Swedish personnel serving in international peace-keeping operations do not show a higher suicide rate than the general population. Unique problems associated with this research area are discussed.

  18. Cumulative health risk assessment of 17 perfluoroalkylated and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Borg, Daniel; Lund, Bert-Ove; Lindquist, Nils-Gunnar; Håkansson, Helen

    2013-09-01

    Humans are simultaneously exposed to a multitude of chemicals. Human health risk assessment of chemicals is, however, normally performed on single substances, which may underestimate the total risk, thus bringing a need for reliable methods to assess the risk of combined exposure to multiple chemicals. Per- and polyfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) is a large group of chemicals that has emerged as global environmental contaminants. In the Swedish population, 17 PFASs have been measured, of which the vast majority lacks human health risk assessment information. The objective of this study was to for the first time perform a cumulative health risk assessment of the 17 PFASs measured in the Swedish population, individually and in combination, using the Hazard Index (HI) approach. Swedish biomonitoring data (blood/serum concentrations of PFASs) were used and two study populations identified: 1) the general population exposed indirectly via the environment and 2) occupationally exposed professional ski waxers. Hazard data used were publicly available toxicity data for hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity as well as other more sensitive toxic effects. The results showed that PFASs concentrations were in the low ng/ml serum range in the general population, reaching high ng/ml and low μg/ml serum concentrations in the occupationally exposed. For those congeners lacking toxicity data with regard to hepatotoxicity and reproductive toxicity read-across extrapolations was performed. Other effects at lower dose levels were observed for some well-studied congeners. The risk characterization showed no concern for hepatotoxicity or reproductive toxicity in the general population except in a subpopulation eating PFOS-contaminated fish, illustrating that high local exposure may be of concern. For the occupationally exposed there was concern for hepatotoxicity by PFOA and all congeners in combination as well as for reproductive toxicity by all congeners in combination, thus a

  19. Applying and adapting the Swedish regulatory system for decommissioning to nuclear power reactors - The regulator's perspective.

    PubMed

    Amft, Martin; Leisvik, Mathias; Carroll, Simon

    2017-03-16

    Half of the original 13 Swedish nuclear power reactors will be shut down by 2020. The decommissioning of these reactors is a challenge for all parties involved, including the licensees, the waste management system, the financing system, and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM). This paper presents an overview of the Swedish regulations for decommissioning of nuclear facilities. It describes some of the experiences that SSM has gained from the application of these regulations. The focus of the present paper is on administrative aspects of decommissioning, such as SSM's guidelines, the definition of fundamental concepts in the regulatory framework, and a proposed revision of the licensing process according to the Environmental Act. These improvements will help to streamline the administration of the commercial nuclear power plant decommissioning projects that are anticipated to commence in Sweden in the near future.

  20. The Analysis Portal and the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research

    PubMed Central

    Käck, Martin; Karlsson, Björn; Kindvall, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background During the last years, more and more online portals were generated and are now available for ecologists to run advanced models with extensive data sets. Some examples are the Biodiversity Virtual e-Laboratory (BioVel) Portal (https://portal.biovel.eu) for ecological niche modelling and the Mobyle SNAP Workbench (https://snap.hpc.ncsu.edu) for evolutionary and population genetics analysis. Such portals have the main goal to facilitate the run of advanced models, through access to large-capacity computers or servers. In this study, we present the Analysis Portal (www.analysisportal.se), which is a part of the Swedish LifeWatch e-infrastructure for biodiversity research that combines a variety of Swedish web services to perform different kinds of dataprocessing. New information For the first time, the Swedish Analysis Portal for integrated analysis of species occurrence data is described in detail. It was launched in 2013 and today, over 60 Million Swedish species observation records can be assessed, visualized and analyzed via the portal. Datasets can be assembled using sophisticated filtering tools, and combined with environmental and climatic data from a wide range of providers. Different validation tools, for example the official Swedish taxon concept database Dyntaxa, ensure high data quality. Results can be downloaded in different formats as maps, tables, diagrams and reports. PMID:27099553

  1. Predictors of healthy behaviours in Swedish school children.

    PubMed

    Villard, Li C; Rydén, Lars; Ståhle, Agneta

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of predictors of adopting a healthy lifestyle in Swedish schoolchildren. A sample of 1409 Swedish schoolchildren (mean age 12.5 years) representative of different socio-economic and geographical living areas participated in a questionnaire-based survey on healthy habits and knowledge of healthy behaviour. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify intrapersonal, social and environmental predictors of healthy habits. A normal body mass index (intrapersonal determinant) was connected to refraining from tobacco (P<0.05). For children to perceive family (P<0.001), themselves (P<0.001), or someone else (P<0.01) as a source of inspiration (social determinant) to be physically active was related to a high physical activity level. Paternal (P=0.01) and maternal (P<0.001) attention to the use of tobacco (social determinant) was of importance for children to refrain from such habits. To live in a socio-economically wealthy area (environmental determinant) was of importance for healthy food choices (P<0.01) and physical activity (P<0.05). Children from rural (P<0.01) areas (environmental determinant) were more physically active than children from urban areas. Social aspects such as parental support for physical activity and refraining from tobacco were found to be important for healthy behaviours. Moreover, environmental factors such as socio-economic and geographical living area favourably influenced food choices and physical activity. Parental attitudes and economy are therefore important for physical activity, healthy food choices and refraining from tobacco in children. Consequently, future interventions need to address the psychological and environmental influences of the home environment through the active involvement of parents, even in school-based interventions.

  2. The Swedish national public health policy report 2010.

    PubMed

    Linell, Anita; Richardson, Matt X; Wamala, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    In 2003, the Swedish Parliament adopted a cross-sectorial national public health policy based on the social determinants of health, with an overarching aim--to create societal conditions that will ensure good health, on equal terms, for the entire population--and eleven objective domains. At that time the policy was globally unique, and serves as guidance for public health practice at the national, regional and local levels. The development of the public health policy and the determinants of health are presented regularly in various reports by the Swedish National Institute of Public Health. This supplement is a condensed version of the 174-page Public Health Policy Report 2010, the second produced since the national policy was adopted in 2003. In order to provide a holistic approach to analysing implemented measures and providing new recommendations within the eleven objective domains of the Swedish national public health policy, we have divided these in three strategic areas. These are: Good Living Conditions, Health-Promoting Living Environments and Living Habits, and Alcohol, Illicit Drugs, Doping, Tobacco and Gambling, each described in the respective introductions for Chapters 3-5. The production of the report was supported by a common analytical model that clarified the societal prerequisites for health in the eleven objective domains. These are factors that can be influenced by political actions in order to create a change. Economic analyses have also been developed to provide a priority basis for political decisions. Analyses of the development of public health determinants were based on data from the National Public Health Survey and data delivered from about 15 various national agencies. Measures that have been implemented between 2004 and 2009 are analysed in details, as the basis for new recommendations for future measures. The introduction describes Swedish public health policy in the new millennium and how it has developed, the role of the Swedish

  3. Swedish students' attitudes toward abortion.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M E; Olsson, H M

    1993-01-01

    The Swedish abortion legislation of 1975 gave women the right to make a decision about abortion before the end of the 18th week of pregnancy. The number of abortions is rising in Sweden as a chosen method of birth control. The attitudes of students toward abortion were studied in 1986-1987. A questionnaire containing items on how sex education is taught, the anatomy and physiology of reproduction, contraceptives, sexually transmitted diseases, and legal abortion was answered by 421 high school students. Results pertaining to the students' attitudes toward abortion are reported. Two thirds of the students believed that the decision about an abortion should be made by the man and woman together. Nearly all respondents believed that abortion should not be considered a method of birth control. These results may be considered a guide for interventions to prevent the need for abortion. One fourth of all pregnancies in Sweden terminate in abortion. The students in the present study thought of abortion as a solution. Authors studying samples with different cultural backgrounds have reported similar attitudes.

  4. Swedish health care in perspective.

    PubMed

    Anderson, O W

    1992-01-01

    The evolution and current problems of the Swedish health services are placed in an international comparative perspective with other industrially developed democratic states as to cost control, distribution of facilities and personnel, management of waiting lists for services, and differences in use of services. All of these countries are experiencing the same aforementioned problems differing mainly in degree. It is suggested that Sweden as well as other countries needs to reconceptualize the meaning of equality of access relative to the apparent emergence of private insurance as waiting lists grow for quality of life procedures such as lens and hip replacement. A concept of a basic service for everybody and so-called luxury service for those who wish to buy it needs to be faced in political debate. It is clear that government is unable to finance and supply the range of demand of a consumption good represented by a modern medicine. In so far as Sweden has been regarded as a model it appears that no country is a model anymore. The complexities of a modern health service has overwhelmed all countries and can be regarded as a sublime loss of innocence.

  5. Swedish Nursing Students' Perceptions of the Concept of Health: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Health is a central and important concept in nursing and nursing education, and has been theorised about in both positive and negative terms. The purpose of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of the concept of health. Design: A phenomenographic research approach was used to understand how nursing students…

  6. Swedish Nursing Students' Perceptions of the Concept of Health: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skär, Lisa; Söderberg, Siv

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Health is a central and important concept in nursing and nursing education, and has been theorised about in both positive and negative terms. The purpose of this study was to explore Swedish nursing students' perceptions of the concept of health. Design: A phenomenographic research approach was used to understand how nursing students…

  7. The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory III: Parent Reports on Language in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Mårten

    2017-01-01

    A revised form of MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory III (SCDI-III) was presented designed for Swedish speaking children aged 2 years 6 months-4 years 0 months with the objective to give a proxy measure of their language competence. The instrument contains a vocabulary checklist with 100 words, mainly predicates, from four areas;…

  8. Internationalizing Education: Summary of Reports from the Swedish Committee for Internationalizing University Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, Stockholm.

    The final report of the Swedish Committee for Internationalizing University Education, analyzing the motives and objectives for internationalization and proposing means for internationalization, is summarized in this document. Internationalization, as investigated by the committee, consists of lending global perspectives to curricula in higher…

  9. Simulated Thermal Spectro-polarimetric Signatures of Water and Dark-painted Objects in Various Environmental Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    solar radiation. With the exception of some thin cirrus cloud emissions (not included in this study), these forms of radiation are unpolarized. This...present the analysis for four environmental scenarios (clear sky and dry atmosphere, clear sky and humid atmosphere, altostratus clouds , and cumulus... clouds ); and for each scenario, present the angular dependence of the degree of linear polarization for various band-averages within the two infrared

  10. Migration and atopic disorder in Swedish conscripts.

    PubMed

    Hjern, A; Rasmussen, F; Johansson, M; Aberg, N

    1999-08-01

    We have studied asthma and allergic rhinitis prevalence in Swedish conscripts born 1973-1977 according to the military service conscription register in relation to the socio-economic status and country of birth of the conscripts and their parents, and age when granted residency in Sweden. There was an increase in prevalence of asthma and allergic rhinitis over time in all groups irrespective of country of birth or ethnic origin. Conscripts who themselves were born in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Mediterranean had a significantly lower risk for asthma and allergic rhinitis than Swedish-born conscripts. The risk of atopic disorder among the foreign-born conscripts increased with time of residency in Sweden. Conscripts with mothers from Latin America, Asia and Africa were identified as having the highest risk for atopic disorder among Swedish-born conscripts with high socio-economic status; the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for asthma was 2.6 (95% CI 1.7-4.0) and that for allergic rhinitis was 2.0 (1.5-2.6). The conscripts with mothers from the Mediterranean had the lowest risk for atopic disorders of the Swedish-born conscripts with low socio-economic status; the RR for asthma was 0.43 (0.34-0.56) and that for allergic rhinitis was 0.84 (0.76-0.93). This study demonstrates that factors related to migration and ethnicity are important determinants of atopic disorder among Swedish conscripts.

  11. Review of 103 Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries.

    PubMed

    Emilsson, L; Lindahl, B; Köster, M; Lambe, M; Ludvigsson, J F

    2015-01-01

    In the past two decades, an increasing number of nationwide, Swedish Healthcare Quality Registries (QRs) focusing on specific disorders have been initiated, mostly by physicians. Here, we describe the purpose, organization, variables, coverage and completeness of 103 Swedish QRs. From March to September 2013, we examined the 2012 applications of 103 QRs to the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and also studied the annual reports from the same QRs. After initial data abstraction, the coordinator of each QR was contacted at least twice between June and October 2013 and asked to confirm the accuracy of the data retrieved from the applications and reports. About 60% of the QRs covered ≥80% of their target population (completeness). Data recorded in Swedish QRs include aspects of disease management (diagnosis, clinical characteristics, treatment and lead times). In addition, some QRs retrieve data on self-reported quality of life (EQ5D, SF-36 and disease-specific measures), lifestyle (smoking) and general health status (World Health Organization performance status, body mass index and blood pressure). Detailed clinical data available in Swedish QRs complement information from government-administered registries and provide an important source not only for assessment and development of quality of care but also for research. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  12. Handling of unused prescription drugs--knowledge, behaviour and attitude among Swedish people.

    PubMed

    Persson, Matilda; Sabelström, Emma; Gunnarsson, Bo

    2009-07-01

    Unused prescription drugs can pose a security risk particularly for children or addicts; and they can pose an environmental risk if they are not disposed of properly through correct destruction. The general recommendation in Sweden is to return the unused medicines to a pharmacy. The Swedish Association of the Pharmaceutical Industry AB (LIF) has together with the Swedish retail chain Apoteket AB conducted surveys in 2001, 2004 and 2007 to investigate the level of knowledge in the general public on this issue. The result from the survey in 2007 shows, inter alia: 85% knew that correct disposal was to return unused medicines to a pharmacy and 43% had in fact returned their medicines to a pharmacy during the last 12 months. Of those who saved their medicines, 55% implied they would in the future return it to a pharmacy. 50% answered that they returned the unused medicines for environmental reasons and 42% answered that they worry about the environmental impact of medicines. Comparing the results from the earlier surveys it can be concluded that an increasing number of the Swedish population does return unused medicines to a pharmacy for correct disposal. Environmental concerns are getting more important than security concerns as a reason for returning unused medicines to a pharmacy and a growing fraction is worried about the environmental impact of pharmaceuticals.

  13. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    PubMed

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  14. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  15. Ambassadors of the Swedish Nation: National Images in the Teaching of the Swedish Lecturers in Germany 1918-1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Åkerlund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the teaching of Swedish language lecturers active in Germany during the first half of the twentieth century. It shows the centrality of literature and literary constructions and analyses images of Swedishness and the Swedish nation present in the teaching material of that time in relation to the national image present in…

  16. A multi-objective assessment of an air quality monitoring network using environmental, economic, and social indicators and GIS-based models.

    PubMed

    Pope, Ronald; Wu, Jianguo

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, air pollution is primarily measured by Air Quality Monitoring Networks (AQMN). These AQMNs have multiple objectives, including characterizing pollution patterns, protecting the public health, and determining compliance with air quality standards. In 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued a directive that air pollution agencies assess the performance of their AQMNs. Although various methods to design and assess AQMNs exist, here we demonstrate a geographic information system (GIS)-based approach that combines environmental, economic, and social indicators through the assessment of the ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) networks in Maricopa County, Arizona. The assessment was conducted in three phases: (1) to evaluate the performance of the existing networks, (2) to identify areas that would benefit from the addition of new monitoring stations, and (3) to recommend changes to the AQMN. A comprehensive set of indicators was created for evaluating differing aspects of the AQMNs' objectives, and weights were applied to emphasize important indicators. Indicators were also classified according to their sustainable development goal. Our results showed that O3 was well represented in the county with some redundancy in terms of the urban monitors. The addition of weights to the indicators only had a minimal effect on the results. For O3, urban monitors had greater social scores, while rural monitors had greater environmental scores. The results did not suggest a need for adding more O3 monitoring sites. For PM10, clustered urban monitors were redundant, and weights also had a minimal effect on the results. The clustered urban monitors had overall low scores; sites near point sources had high environmental scores. Several areas were identified as needing additional PM10 monitors. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a multi-indicator approach to assess AQMNs. Network managers and planners may use this method to assess the

  17. Objective sampling design in a highly heterogeneous landscape - characterizing environmental determinants of malaria vector distribution in French Guiana, in the Amazonian region.

    PubMed

    Roux, Emmanuel; Gaborit, Pascal; Romaña, Christine A; Girod, Romain; Dessay, Nadine; Dusfour, Isabelle

    2013-12-01

    Sampling design is a key issue when establishing species inventories and characterizing habitats within highly heterogeneous landscapes. Sampling efforts in such environments may be constrained and many field studies only rely on subjective and/or qualitative approaches to design collection strategy. The region of Cacao, in French Guiana, provides an excellent study site to understand the presence and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, their species dynamics and the transmission risk of malaria across various environments. We propose an objective methodology to define a stratified sampling design. Following thorough environmental characterization, a factorial analysis of mixed groups allows the data to be reduced and non-collinear principal components to be identified while balancing the influences of the different environmental factors. Such components defined new variables which could then be used in a robust k-means clustering procedure. Then, we identified five clusters that corresponded to our sampling strata and selected sampling sites in each stratum. We validated our method by comparing the species overlap of entomological collections from selected sites and the environmental similarities of the same sites. The Morisita index was significantly correlated (Pearson linear correlation) with environmental similarity based on i) the balanced environmental variable groups considered jointly (p = 0.001) and ii) land cover/use (p-value < 0.001). The Jaccard index was significantly correlated with land cover/use-based environmental similarity (p-value = 0.001). The results validate our sampling approach. Land cover/use maps (based on high spatial resolution satellite images) were shown to be particularly useful when studying the presence, density and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at local scales and in very heterogeneous landscapes.

  18. Objective sampling design in a highly heterogeneous landscape - characterizing environmental determinants of malaria vector distribution in French Guiana, in the Amazonian region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sampling design is a key issue when establishing species inventories and characterizing habitats within highly heterogeneous landscapes. Sampling efforts in such environments may be constrained and many field studies only rely on subjective and/or qualitative approaches to design collection strategy. The region of Cacao, in French Guiana, provides an excellent study site to understand the presence and abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes, their species dynamics and the transmission risk of malaria across various environments. We propose an objective methodology to define a stratified sampling design. Following thorough environmental characterization, a factorial analysis of mixed groups allows the data to be reduced and non-collinear principal components to be identified while balancing the influences of the different environmental factors. Such components defined new variables which could then be used in a robust k-means clustering procedure. Then, we identified five clusters that corresponded to our sampling strata and selected sampling sites in each stratum. Results We validated our method by comparing the species overlap of entomological collections from selected sites and the environmental similarities of the same sites. The Morisita index was significantly correlated (Pearson linear correlation) with environmental similarity based on i) the balanced environmental variable groups considered jointly (p = 0.001) and ii) land cover/use (p-value << 0.001). The Jaccard index was significantly correlated with land cover/use-based environmental similarity (p-value = 0.001). Conclusions The results validate our sampling approach. Land cover/use maps (based on high spatial resolution satellite images) were shown to be particularly useful when studying the presence, density and diversity of Anopheles mosquitoes at local scales and in very heterogeneous landscapes. PMID:24289184

  19. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  20. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  1. Validation and internal consistency of the Swedish version of the Valued Life Activities scale.

    PubMed

    Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Mikael; Valtersson, Eva; Katz, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to create a linguistically and culturally validated Swedish version of the Valued Life Activities scale. The aim was also to describe its content and concurrent validity and its internal consistency in persons with rheumatoid arthritis. The Valued Life Activities scale was translated to Swedish and culturally adapted. In order to describe the content validity, both the Swedish and original Valued Life Activities scale were linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. The concurrent validity and internal consistency were evaluated in 737 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. To establish concurrent validity, the scale was correlated to disease activity, activity limitations, and life satisfaction. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. The equivalence of meaning between the Swedish and the original Valued Life Activities scale was ensured by harmonization review. Content validity was high when linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Concurrent validity showed a strong correlation with the activity limitations (r = 0.87), moderate with life satisfaction (r = -0.61), and weak with disease activity (r = 0.38). Internal consistency was excellent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). The Swedish Valued Life Activities scale has been tested in a large and well-characterized sample and found to be a linguistically valid and culturally adapted self-reported measure of participation. Content validity of the Valued Life Activities scale was excellent, concurrent validity strong, and the internal consistency excellent. Since both individual preferences and International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health concepts of disability are taken into account, the Swedish Valued Life Activities scale appears to be a promising new scale addressing important aspects of participation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified

  3. Correlates of local safety-related concerns in a Swedish Community: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-07-08

    Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. We have identified environmental, socio-demographic, and personal

  4. Validation of Online Versions of Tinnitus Questionnaires Translated into Swedish

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Karolina; Edvall, Niklas K.; Idrizbegovic, Esma; Huhn, Robert; Cima, Rilana; Persson, Viktor; Leineweber, Constanze; Westerlund, Hugo; Langguth, Berthold; Schlee, Winfried; Canlon, Barbara; Cederroth, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Due to the lack of objective measures for assessing tinnitus, its clinical evaluation largely relies on the use of questionnaires and psychoacoustic tests. A global assessment of tinnitus burden would largely benefit from holistic approaches that not only incorporate measures of tinnitus but also take into account associated fears, emotional aspects (stress, anxiety, and depression), and quality of life. In Sweden, only a few instruments are available for assessing tinnitus, and the existing tools lack validation. Therefore, we translated a set of questionnaires into Swedish and evaluated their reliability and validity in a group of tinnitus subjects. Methods: We translated the English versions of the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI), the Fear of Tinnitus Questionnaire (FTQ), the Tinnitus Catastrophizing Scale (TCS), the Perceived Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-30), and the Tinnitus Sample Case History Questionnaire (TSCHQ) into Swedish. These translations were delivered via the internet with the already existing Swedish versions of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF). Psychometric properties were evaluated by means of internal consistency [Cronbach's alpha (α)] and test–retest reliability across a 9-week interval [Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC), Cohen's kappa] in order to establish construct as well as clinical validity using a sample of 260 subjects from a population-based cohort. Results: Internal consistency was acceptable for all questionnaires (α > 0.7) with the exception of the “social relationships” subscale of the WHOQoL-BREF. Test–retest reliability was generally acceptable (ICC > 0.70, Cohens kappa > 0.60) for the tinnitus-related questionnaires, except for the TFI “sense of control” subscale and 15 items of the TSCHQ. Spearmen rank correlations showed that

  5. High Prevalence of Self-Reported Depressive Mood during the Winter Season among Swedish Senior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastad, Cecilia; Ulfberg, Jan; Sjoden, Per-Olow

    2006-01-01

    Objective: There are few studies regarding the prevalence of seasonal variation in mood among children and adolescents. The main objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of self-reported depressive mood during the winter season among Swedish adolescents and to investigate gender differences. Another aim was to analyze the factor…

  6. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aijmer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  7. Are Boys Discriminated in Swedish High Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnerich, Bjorn Tyrefors; Hoglin, Erik; Johannesson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Girls typically have higher grades than boys in school and recent research suggests that part of this gender difference may be due to discrimination of boys in grading. We rigorously test this in a field experiment where a random sample of the same tests in the Swedish language is subject to blind and non-blind grading. The non-blind test score is…

  8. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  9. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  10. Swedish Research on Higher Education in Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjorklund, Eskil

    1991-01-01

    This newsletter reproduces a discussion between Eskil Bjorklund, former director of The Council for Studies of Higher Education in Sweden and his successor, Thorsten Nybom, concerning the Swedish Research on Higher Education Program. This program was established in 1968 to direct the organization of research on higher education and award research…

  11. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  12. Swedish Modal Particles in a Contrastive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aijmer, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents a study based on the analysis of contrastive Swedish-English data on modal particles. The article maintains that the meaning of modal particles requires an analysis of their pragmatic aspects such as the relation between the interlocutors. The analysis most accurately accounting for the multifunctionality of the particles is based on a…

  13. Mathematics and Didactic Contract in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delacour, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study and analyse how a teacher implements an outdoor realistic problem situation for children aged 4-5 in a Swedish preschool. By an "outdoor realistic problem situation", I mean a situation initiated by a teacher in which children come into contact with mathematical concepts and in which the outside…

  14. Measuring Syntactic Complexity in Spontaneous Spoken Swedish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Mikael; Frid, Johan; Horne, Merle

    2007-01-01

    Hesitation disfluencies after phonetically prominent stranded function words are thought to reflect the cognitive coding of complex structures. Speech fragments following the Swedish function word "att" "that" were analyzed syntactically, and divided into two groups: one with "att" in disfluent contexts, and the other with "att" in fluent…

  15. The Swedish Rocket Corps, 1833 - 1845

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rockets for pyrotechnic displays used in Sweden in the 19th century are examined in terms of their use in war situations. Work done by the Swedish chemist J. J. Berzelius, who analyzed and improved the propellants of such rockets, and the German engineer, Martin Westermaijer, who researched manufacturing techniques of these rockets is also included.

  16. Second Chances for Adults: The Swedish Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henricson, Sven-Eric

    The organization of higher education in Sweden, entrance requirements, and the system for selection of applicants for higher education are summarized, as is the Swedish system of economic study assistance. Numbers of students, terms of admission, and other data are presented concerning the different types of adult education in Sweden (Municipal…

  17. The Swedish Rocket Corps, 1833 - 1845

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, A. I.

    1977-01-01

    Rockets for pyrotechnic displays used in Sweden in the 19th century are examined in terms of their use in war situations. Work done by the Swedish chemist J. J. Berzelius, who analyzed and improved the propellants of such rockets, and the German engineer, Martin Westermaijer, who researched manufacturing techniques of these rockets is also included.

  18. Leisure, Government and Governance: A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindstrom, Lisbeth

    2011-01-01

    The leisure sector has witnessed a tremendous expansion since 1960. The purpose of this article is to analyse the decisions and goals of Swedish government policy during the period 1962 to 2005. The empirical analysis covers government Propositions and governmental investigations. The fields covered are sports, culture, exercise, tourism and…

  19. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers

    PubMed Central

    Jong, Mats; Westman, Anton; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22–44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting. PMID:26464887

  20. Experiences of Injuries and Injury Reporting among Swedish Skydivers.

    PubMed

    Jong, Mats; Westman, Anton; Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to illuminate the experience of injuries and the process of injury reporting within the Swedish skydiving culture. Data contained narrative interviews that were subsequently analyzed with content analysis. Seventeen respondents (22-44 years) were recruited at three skydiving drop zones in Sweden. In the results injury events related to the full phase of a skydive were described. Risk of injury is individually viewed as an integrated element of the recreational activity counterbalanced by its recreational value. The human factor of inadequate judgment such as miscalculation and distraction dominates the descriptions as causes of injuries. Organization and leadership act as facilitators or constrainers for reporting incidents and injuries. On the basis of this study it is interpreted that safety work and incident reporting in Swedish skydiving may be influenced more by local drop zone culture than the national association regulations. Formal and informal hierarchical structures among skydivers seem to decide how skydiving is practiced, rules are enforced, and injuries are reported. We suggest that initial training and continuing education need to be changed from the current top-down to a bottom-up perspective, where the individual skydiver learns to see the positive implications of safety work and injury reporting.

  1. Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Högberg, Torbjörn; Magnusson, Annabella; Lützén, Kim; Ewalds-Kvist, Béatrice

    2012-04-01

    Negative and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with mental illness must be dealt with to facilitate the sufferers' social acceptance. The present study aimed at survey Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness related to factors impacting these attitudes. New CAMI-S based on the questionnaire "Community Attitudes to Mental Illness in Sweden" ([CAMI] Taylor & Dear, 1981) was developed with nine behavioral-intention items and thus comprised a total of 29 items. Of 5000 Swedish people, 2391 agreed to complete the questionnaire. Principal component analysis rendered four factors reflecting attitudes towards the mentally ill: Intention to Interact, Fearful and Avoidant, Open-minded and Pro-Integration, as well as Community Mental Health Ideology. The factors were analyzed for trends in attitudes. By MANOVA, the experience of mental illness effects on mind-set towards the sufferers was assessed. By means of logistic regression, demographic factors contributing to positive attitudes towards persons with mental illness residing in the neighborhood were assessed. By New CAMI-S, the Swedish attitudes towards the mentally ill were surveyed and trends in agreement with living next to a person with mental illness were revealed in three out of four factors derived by principal component analysis. Aspects impacting the Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness and willingness to have him/her residing in the neighborhood comprised experience of mental illness, female gender, age (31-50 years), born in Scandinavia or outside Europe, only 9 years of compulsory school and accommodation in flat. The New CAMI-S came out as a useful tool to screen Swedish attitudes towards persons with mental illness. Most Swedes were prepared to live next to the mentally ill.

  2. Prevalence of footrot in Swedish slaughter lambs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Footrot is a world-wide contagious disease in sheep and goats. It is an infection of the epidermis of the interdigital skin, and the germinal layers of the horn tissue of the feet. The first case of footrot in Swedish sheep was diagnosed in 2004. Due to difficulties in distinguishing benign footrot from early cases of virulent footrot and because there is no possibility for virulence testing of strains of Dichelobacter nodosus in Sweden, the diagnosis is based of the presence or absence of clinical signs of footrot in sheep flocks. Ever since the first diagnosed case the Swedish Animal Health Service has worked intensively to stop the spread of infection and control the disease at flock level. However, to continue this work effectively it is important to have knowledge about the distribution of the disease both nationally and regionally. Therefore, the aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of footrot in Swedish lambs at abattoirs and to assess the geographical distribution of the disease. Methods A prevalence study on footrot in Swedish lambs was performed by visual examination of 2000 feet from 500 lambs submitted from six slaughter houses. Each foot was scored according to a 0 to 5 scoring system, where feet with score ≥2 were defined as having footrot. Moreover, samples from feet with footrot were examined for Dichelobacter nodosus by culture and PCR. Results The prevalence of footrot at the individual sheep level was 5.8%, and Dichelobacter nodosus was found by culture and PCR in 83% and 97% of the samples from feet with footrot, respectively. Some minor differences in geographical distribution of footrot were found in this study. Conclusions In a national context, the findings indicate that footrot is fairly common in Swedish slaughter lambs, and should be regarded seriously. PMID:21492433

  3. Use of imazapyr against Equisetum arvense on Swedish railway tracks.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet

    2004-06-01

    Since glyphosate has been used extensively for weed control in Swedish railway tracks, common horsetail (Equisetum arvense L), previously relatively rare, has become very common. Glyphosate, although effective against most other weeds found on railway tracks, gives poor control of E. arvense, so that heavy infestation with this weed is now common. Imazapyr (applied as a 250g AE litre(-1) SL, Arsenal) has controlled E. arvense, but is known to be very mobile. Adequate control of the weed requires application of > or = 4 litres ha(-1) of imazapyr SL but environmental factors preclude the use of > 2 litres ha(-1). A suitable strategy was found to be one application of imazapyr SL at 2 litres ha(-1) in each of two successive years but best weed control was obtained by supplementing imazapyr in the first year with glyphosate 360 g AE litre(-1) SL (RoundUp Bio) at 3 litres ha(-1).

  4. Natural organic matter properties in Swedish agricultural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Kyllmar, Katarina; Bergström, Lars; Köhler, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    We have analysed natural organic matter (NOM) properties in 18 agricultural streams in Sweden covering a broad range of environmental (climate, soil type), land use and water quality (nutrient and concentrations, pH, alkalinity) characteristics. Stream water samples collected every two weeks within an ongoing Swedish Monitoring Programme for Agriculture have been analysed for total/dissolved organic carbon, absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. A number of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopic parameters was calculated to help to distinguish between terrestrially-derived, refractory organic material and autochthonous, labile material indicative of biogeochemical transformations of terrestrial NOM and recent biological production. The study provides insights into organic matter properties and carbon budgets in agricultural streams and improves understanding of how agricultural catchments transform natural and anthropogenic fluxes of organic matter and nutrients to signals observed in receiving waters.

  5. Homogeneity in mitochondrial DNA control region sequences in Swedish subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Tillmar, Andreas O; Coble, Michael D; Wallerström, Thomas; Holmlund, Gunilla

    2010-03-01

    In order to promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) testing in Sweden we have typed 296 Swedish males, which will serve as a Swedish mtDNA frequency database. The tested males were taken from seven geographically different regions representing the contemporary Swedish population. The complete mtDNA control region was typed and the Swedish population was shown to have high haplotype diversity with a random match probability of 0.5%. Almost 47% of the tested samples belonged to haplogroup H and further haplogroup comparison with worldwide populations clustered the Swedish mtDNA data together with other European populations. AMOVA analysis of the seven Swedish subregions displayed no significant maternal substructure in Sweden (F (ST) = 0.002). Our conclusion from this study is that the typed Swedish individuals serve as good representatives for a Swedish forensic mtDNA database. Some caution should, however, be taken for individuals from the northernmost part of Sweden (provinces of Norrbotten and Lapland) due to specific demographic conditions. Furthermore, our analysis of a small sample set of a Swedish Saami population confirmed earlier findings that the Swedish Saami population is an outlier among European populations.

  6. Validation of the Swedish translation of eating assessment tool (S-EAT-10).

    PubMed

    Möller, Riitta; Safa, Stephanie; Östberg, Per

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion The Swedish Eating Assessment Tool (S-EAT-10) is a reliable and valid self-administered tool in assessment of dysphagia in adult Swedish patients with high internal consistency, reliability, and discriminative validity. The normative data show that a score of 3 or more is abnormal. S-EAT-10 is recommended to be used in preliminary diagnostics of dysphagia. Objective To translate and adapt the EAT-10 for use in the Swedish patient population, and to present norms and measures of discriminative validity and reliability of a Swedish version of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 (S-EAT-10). Methods Prospective consecutive clinical study. In total, 134 community-dwelling adult respondents/controls without dysphagia completed the S-EAT-10, as did 119 patients referred for fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. Patient vs control status was used as the criterion for discriminative validity assessment by logistic regression analysis. Results The mean S-EAT-10 score was 0.2 (range = 0-3) for controls and 18 (range = 0-38) for patients. Based on a cut-off score of ≥ 3 which was considered to be reflective of abnormalities, sensitivity was 98.5% and specificity 94.1%. Internal consistency reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88), as was test-re-test reliability (ICC = 0.90).

  7. Drug prescription patterns in patients with Addison's disease: a Swedish population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Björnsdottir, Sigridur; Sundström, Anders; Ludvigsson, Jonas F; Blomqvist, Paul; Kämpe, Olle; Bensing, Sophie

    2013-05-01

    There are no published data on drug prescription in patients with Addison's disease (AD). Our objective was to describe the drug prescription patterns in Swedish AD patients before and after diagnosis compared with population controls. We conducted a population-based cohort study in Sweden. Through the Swedish National Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, we identified 1305 patients with both a diagnosis of AD and on combination treatment with hydrocortisone/cortisone acetate and fludrocortisone. Direct evidence of the AD diagnosis from patient charts was not available. We identified 11 996 matched controls by the Register of Population. We determined the ratio of observed to expected number of patients treated with prescribed drugs. Overall, Swedish AD patients received more prescribed drugs than controls, and 59.3% of the AD patients had medications indicating concomitant autoimmune disease. Interestingly, both before and after the diagnosis of AD, patients used more gastrointestinal medications, antianemic preparations, lipid-modifying agents, antibiotics for systemic use, hypnotics and sedatives, and drugs for obstructive airway disease (all P values < .05). Notably, an increased prescription of several antihypertensive drugs and high-ceiling diuretics was observed after the diagnosis of AD. Gastrointestinal symptoms and anemia, especially in conjunction with autoimmune disorders, should alert the physician about the possibility of AD. The higher use of drugs for cardiovascular disorders after diagnosis in patients with AD raises concerns about the replacement therapy.

  8. Prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among Swedish women: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Brohede, Sabina; Wingren, Gun; Wijma, Barbro; Wijma, Klaas

    2015-04-01

    Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is characterized by a highly distressing and impairing preoccupation with nonexistent or slight defects in appearance. Patients with BDD present to both psychiatric and non-psychiatric physicians. A few studies have assessed BDD prevalence in representative samples of the general population and have demonstrated that this disorder is relatively common. Our primary objective was to assess the prevalence of BDD in the Swedish population because no data are currently available. In the current cross-sectional study, 2891 randomly selected Swedish women aged 18-60 years participated. The occurrence of BDD was assessed using the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire (BDDQ), which is a validated self-report measure derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-IV criteria for BDD. In addition, symptoms of depression and anxiety were measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The prevalence of BDD among Swedish women was 2.1%. The women with BDD had significantly more symptoms of depression and anxiety than the women without BDD. Depression (HADS depression score ≥ 8) and anxiety (HADS anxiety score ≥ 8) were reported by 42% and 72% of the women with BDD, respectively. The results of the present study indicate that BDD is relatively common among Swedish women (2.1%) and that it is associated with significant morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers

    PubMed Central

    Albin, M; Rylander, L; Mikoczy, Z; Lillienberg, L; Dahlman, H; Brisman, J; Toren, K; Meding, B; Kronholm, D; Nielsen, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk of asthma in hairdressers. Methods: The incidence of asthma was retrospectively estimated in a Swedish nationwide study including all female hairdressers certified from vocational schools from 1970 to 1995, and a stratified sample of women from the general population were referents. A postal questionnaire included questions on respiratory tract symptoms, atopy, smoking, working periods as a hairdresser, and number of specific hair treatments performed/week. Reported exposures were validated by occupational hygienists. Rate ratios of incidence (IRRs) of asthma were estimated by Poisson regression, adjusted for calendar year of observation, hay fever, smoking, and region of domicile. Results: The crude incidences of asthma/1000 person-years were: 3.9 during active years as a hairdresser, 2.8 among the hairdressers when not working in the profession, and 3.1 among the referents. The corresponding IRR for being an active hairdresser compared with the referents was 1.3 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0 to 1.6). Moderate effects on risk of asthma were found both from hairdressing work (IRR=1.6 (1.1 to 2.2) among never-smokers) and from smoking (IRR=1.6 (1.2 to 2.2) among referents). However, the combined effect from hairdressing work and smoking (IRR=1.5 (1.0 to 2.1)) was less than expected (p=0.02). No effect modification by respiratory atopy was found. The hairdressers most often performing hair bleaching treatments (IRR=1.5 (0.7 to 3.0)) or using hair spray (IRR=1.4 (0.8 to 2.4)) had, compared with the most infrequent users, a slightly, but not significantly higher incidence of asthma. Exposure to persulphates in hair bleach was estimated to be 0.04–0.15 mg/m3 during mixing of the powder. Reported average number of bleaching treatments agreed well with those performed according to a diary. Conclusions: Active hairdressing work was associated with a moderately increased incidence of asthma among lifelong non-smokers. The results

  10. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    PubMed

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  11. Designing for our future selves: the Swedish experience.

    PubMed

    Benktzon, M

    1993-02-01

    The social context of Sweden provides a good environment for research and development of products and technical aids for the disabled and elderly. However, the model used by Swedish ergonomists and designers in Ergonomi Design Gruppen emphasizes how the application of experience gained from designing such aids can lead to better products for everyone. Three main examples are given to demonstrate how ergonomics studies and prototype/model evaluation by the target users have led to new designs for familiar objects: eating implements, walking sticks and coffee pots. Addressing particular aspects of design for people with specific difficulties, and problems associated with the use of everyday items, has led to designs which are acceptable to a broader range of users.

  12. Swedish perspective. [Bulk power transactions and pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, S.

    1994-12-01

    In line with the worldwide trend in many developed countries, the power industry in Sweden is subject to a reformation in the direction of deregulation and increased competition. In late May 1994, the Swedish Parliament passed the new Electricity Act, which is to be instrumental from Jan. 1995. This paper discusses the new legislation, general tariff structures, national grid tariff structure, operational implications, and harmonizing rules.

  13. Four themes in recent Swedish bioethics debates.

    PubMed

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    A wide variety of bioethical themes have recently been debated and researched in Sweden, including genetic screening, HPV vaccination strategies, end-of-life care, injustices and priority setting in healthcare, dual-use research, and the never-ending story of scientific fraud. Also, there are some new events related to Swedish biobanking that might be of general interest. Here we will concentrate on four themes: end-of-life care, dual-use research, scientific fraud, and biobanking.

  14. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    PubMed

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (p<0.001). A majority of Swedish medical students (83%) wished to have more global health education added to the curriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  15. Swedish anthropometrics for product and workplace design.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Lars; Sperling, Lena; Gard, Gunvor; Ipsen, Staffan; Olivares Vergara, Cindy

    2009-07-01

    The present study describes the anthropometrics of the Swedish workforce, aged 18-65, and compares the measurements with data collected four decades earlier. This anthropometric information is based on measurements of a total of 367 subjects, 105 males and 262 females. Of the 367 subjects, 268 responded to advertisements (Study A) and 99 were randomly selected from a community register (Study B). Subjects were scanned in four positions. Manual measuring equipment was used for hands, feet, head and stature. As differences between significant measurements in Studies A and B were negligible, the data were merged. Anthropometric descriptive statistics of women and men are presented for 43 body dimensions. Participants represent the Swedish population fairly well when compared with national statistics of stature and weight. Comparing new anthropometric data with old shows that the breadth, depth, height, and length measurements of Swedes as well as weight have increased and that Swedish anthropometric homogeneity has decreased. The results indicate that there is a need to update ergonomic recommendations and adjust products and workplaces to the new information.

  16. Paradigms in Swedish as a Second Language--Curricula for Primary School and Secondary School in Swedish as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Ulrika

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes and compares the curricula of Swedish and Swedish as a second language for primary and secondary school. The school subject of Swedish as a second language is young, and its ideological foundation has not been debated to any large extent, in contrast to Swedish. This article analyzes the curricula of both subjects in terms of…

  17. Perinatal characteristics and risk of polio among Swedish twins.

    PubMed

    Perng, Wei; Cnattingius, Sven; Iliadou, Anastasia; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to adverse environmental conditions is related to increased adult mortality in regions where infections are highly prevalent, yet there is little evidence of the impact of perinatal conditions on the risk of severe infections throughout life. Using prospectively collected data from 21 604 like-sexed Swedish twins of known zygosity born in 1926-1958, we examined the risk of polio in relation to perinatal characteristics using cohort and nested co-twin case-control analyses. Polio incidence was determined through an interview in 1998, and linkage with the Swedish national inpatient and death registries. There were 133 cases of polio. In the cohort analysis, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were positively associated with polio risk. After adjustment for sex, birth year, gestational age at birth and within-twin pair correlations, twins of shortest length (<44 cm) had a 67% ([95% CI: 6%, 88%]; P=0.04) lower risk of polio compared with the reference group (47-49 cm). After additional adjustment for birth length, every 100-g increase in birthweight was related to a 34% increased risk of polio ([95% CI: -1%, 82%]; P=0.06), and every 10-mm increase in head circumference was related to a 17% greater risk of polio ([95% CI: 5%, 31%]; P=0.004). In co-twin control analyses among 226 disease-discordant twins, birth length, birthweight and head circumference were 0.3 cm (P=0.19), 84 g (P=0.07) and 3 mm (P=0.08) higher in cases than controls, respectively. Similar associations were observed among monozygotic (n=84) and dizygotic (n=142) twins. These findings suggest that early intrauterine growth restriction may be inversely related to the incidence of polio.

  18. Flowering time adaption in Swedish landrace pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Vanhala, Tytti; Normann, Kjersti R; Lundström, Maria; Weller, James L; Leino, Matti W; Hagenblad, Jenny

    2016-08-12

    Cultivated crops have repeatedly faced new climatic conditions while spreading from their site of origin. In Sweden, at the northernmost fringe of Europe, extreme conditions with temperature-limited growth seasons and long days require specific adaptation. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) has been cultivated in Sweden for millennia, allowing for adaptation to the local environmental conditions to develop. To study such adaptation, 15 Swedish pea landraces were chosen alongside nine European landraces, seven cultivars and three wild accessions. Number of days to flowering (DTF) and other traits were measured and the diversity of the flowering time genes HIGH RESPONSE TO PHOTOPERIOD (HR), LATE FLOWERING (LF) and STERILE NODES (SN) was assessed. Furthermore, the expression profiles of LF and SN were obtained. DTF was positively correlated with the length of growing season at the site of origin (GSO) of the Swedish landraces. Alleles at the HR locus were significantly associated with DTF with an average difference of 15.43 days between the two detected haplotypes. LF expression was found to have a significant effect on DTF when analysed on its own, but not when HR haplotype was added to the model. HR haplotype and GSO together explained the most of the detected variation in DTF (49.6 %). We show local adaptation of DTF, primarily in the northernmost accessions, and links between genetic diversity and diversity in DTF. The links between GSO and genetic diversity of the genes are less clear-cut and flowering time adaptation seems to have a complex genetic background.

  19. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    PubMed

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  20. Constraints on Development of Wind Energy in Poland due to Environmental Objectives. Is There Space in Poland for Wind Farm Siting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajto, Małgorzata; Cichocki, Zdzisław; Bidłasik, Małgorzata; Borzyszkowski, Jan; Kuśmierz, Agnieszka

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate spatial effects of adopting environmental criteria for wind farm siting, i.e., the criteria related to the settlement system and those with regards to landscape values. The set of criteria was elaborated on the basis of literature and experience-based knowledge. Some of the criteria selected are legally binding. The analyses were carried out with the use of GIS tools. Settlement areas with 1000 and 2000 m wide buffer zones, and the areas with the highest landscape values, were assumed as particularly sensitive receptors to wind farm impacts. The results show significant constraints on wind farm siting in Poland. Although the constraints are regionally diversified, they concern 93.9 % of the total country area (1000 m buffer zone) or 99.1 % (2000 m buffer zone). Presumably even greater constraints would be revealed by an additional detailed analysis at a local level. The constraints on wind farm siting in Poland cannot be decreased, because of both social attitudes and demand for appropriate environmental standards, which should be taken into account in spatial and energy policies at all decision making level.

  1. The Impact of the Swedish Massage on the Kinesthetic Differentiation in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Kamil; Furmanek, Mariusz Pawel; Knapik, Aleksandra; Bacik, Bogdan; Juras, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Swedish massage is one of the common treatments to provide optimal start and readiness of athletes. The ability of kinesthetic differentiation (KD) is crucial in sport performance. This skill allows to adapt demanded muscle forces to optimize the motor tasks, and it is responsible for the precision. In the literature, there is no evidence how Swedish massage influences the kinesthetic differentiation. Purpose: The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of Swedish massage on the kinesthetic differentiation and muscle strength of hand grip. Methods: Thirty participants took part in this investigation (17 women and 13 men). The assessment consisted of KD tests conducted on the dominant (DH) and nondominant hand (NDH) after 15 minutes of hand and forearm Swedish massage. The procedure consisted of 13 trials for each extremity. The first three were done for 100% of the participants’ capabilities (Fmax), the next five trials were done using 50% of maximum force (50% of Fmax), and in the last five trials, the participants tried to use only 50% of their previous force (1/2 of 50%). Finally, the absolute force production error (FPE) was calculated for 50% (FPE_50%) and 25% (FPE_25%). Results: The two-way repeated measure analysis of variance ANOVA did not reveal any statistically significant changes in maximal strength grip and KD between pre- and postmassage intervention in both DH and NDH hand. Correlations showed strong relationship between pre- and postmassage for maximum force (r = 0.92, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.94, p = .01 for NDH), and only for the FPE_50% (r = 0.67, p = .01 for DH, and r = 0.71, p = .01 for NDH). Conclusions: The results obtained indicated that the application of the Swedish massage did not affect the kinesthetic differentiation in this particular young adult group. PMID:25780470

  2. (Validity of environmental transfer models)

    SciTech Connect

    Blaylock, B.G.; Hoffman, F.O.; Gardner, R.H.

    1990-11-07

    BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) is an international cooperative study initiated in 1985 by the Swedish National Institute of Radiation Protection to test models designed to calculate the environmental transfer and bioaccumulation of radionuclides and other trace substances. The objective of the symposium and workshop was to synthesize results obtained during Phase 1 of BIOMOVS (the first five years of the study) and to suggest new directions that might be pursued during Phase 2 of BIOMOVS. The travelers were an instrumental part of the development of BIOMOVS. This symposium allowed the travelers to present a review of past efforts at model validation and a synthesis of current activities and to refine ideas concerning future development of models and data for assessing the fate, effect, and human risks of environmental contaminants. R. H. Gardner also visited the Free University, Amsterdam, and the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven to confer with scientists about current research in theoretical ecology and the use of models for estimating the transport and effect of environmental contaminants and to learn about the European efforts to map critical loads of acid deposition.

  3. The Swedish monitoring of surface waters: 50 years of adaptive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Fölster, Jens; Johnson, Richard K; Futter, Martyn N; Wilander, Anders

    2014-01-01

    For more than 50 years, scientific insights from surface water monitoring have supported Swedish evidence-based environmental management. Efforts to understand and control eutrophication in the 1960s led to construction of wastewater treatment plants with phosphorus retention, while acid rain research in the 1970s contributed to international legislation curbing emissions. By the 1990s, long-time series were being used to infer climate effects on surface water chemistry and biology. Monitoring data play a key role in implementing the EU Water Framework Directive and other legislation and have been used to show beneficial effects of agricultural management on Baltic Sea eutrophication. The Swedish experience demonstrates that well-designed and financially supported surface water monitoring can be used to understand and manage a range of stressors and societal concerns. Using scientifically sound adaptive monitoring principles to balance continuity and change has ensured long-time series and the capability to address new questions over time.

  4. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  5. Absence, Deviance and Unattainable Ideals--Discourses on Vegetarianism in the Swedish School Subject Home and Consumer Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five…

  6. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  7. Associations between Intelligence in Adolescence and Indicators of Health and Health Behaviors in Midlife in a Cohort of Swedish Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modig, Karin; Bergman, Lars R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate associations between intelligence and indicators of health status and health behaviors at age 43 in a cohort of Swedish women (n = 682). Intelligence was measured by standard IQ tests given at ages 10, 13, and 15. At the age of 43, 479 of the women were sampled for a medical examination in which 369…

  8. Absence, Deviance and Unattainable Ideals--Discourses on Vegetarianism in the Swedish School Subject Home and Consumer Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohm, Ingela; Lindblom, Cecilia; Åbacka, Gun; Bengs, Carita; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe Discourses on vegetarian food in the Swedish school subject Home and Consumer Studies. Design: The study involved the observation of naturally occurring classroom talk, with audio recording and in some cases video-taping. Setting: The study was conducted during Home and Consumer Studies lessons in five…

  9. Birth Weight and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms in Childhood and Early Adolescence: A Prospective Swedish Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Christina M.; Torrang, Anna; Tuvblad, Catherine; Cnattingius, Sven; Larsson, Jan-Olov; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether low birth weight increases the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in childhood and early adolescence. Method: In a population-based sample of 1,480 twin pairs born in the period 1985-1986 ascertained from the Swedish Twin Registry, birth weight was collected prospectively through the Medical…

  10. Patient-centredness as a quality domain in Swedish healthcare: results from the first national surveys in different Swedish healthcare settings

    PubMed Central

    Kandelaki, Ketevan; Marrone, Gaetano; Lundborg, Cecilia Stålsby; Schmidt, Ingrid; Björkman, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Patients’ perception of the quality and patient-centredness of healthcare has gained increasing interest in the last decade in Sweden, as in other countries. The purpose of the study was to evaluate to what extent patients perceived Swedish healthcare as patient-centred and to explore the satisfaction levels related to gender, education level and to having or not having Swedish as one's mother tongue. Design and settings This study has a cross-sectional design. Analyses were based on the first national patient surveys in Sweden, conducted between 2009 and 2010. The surveys included responses from 232 518 patients who had been in contact with primary, outpatient, inpatient, or emergency care units. Survey questions related to indicators of patient-centred care and sociodemographic variables were selected for the analysis. The patients’ level of satisfaction in the selected indicators was analysed and compared by sociodemographic and background factors. Multivariable logistic regression models were used for analysis. Results The patients expressed high levels of satisfaction in questions related to the ‘Respect’ indicator (81–96% satisfied) but lower levels in most of the other indicators of patient-centred care. Only 25–30% of the patients reported they had been told about possible warning signs of their condition or treatment and 58–66% said they had received enough information about their condition. Group differences were detected. The most satisfied patient groups were men, individuals with low levels of education and those with Swedish as their mother tongue. Conclusions According to these first national patient surveys, achieving patient-centred healthcare for all citizens is a challenge for Swedish healthcare authorities. Future analyses of national patient surveys should show whether national efforts to encourage acceptance of patient-centred approaches and strategies for equal care will give intended results. PMID:26747031

  11. Tobacco consumption in Swedish twins reared apart and reared together.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Thornton, L M; Pedersen, N L

    2000-09-01

    Prior studies of twins reared together suggest that regular tobacco use (RTU) is substantially heritable. However, strong social influences on RTU might have biased these results. We examine the self-report lifetime history of RTU in members of 778 male-male and female-female twin pairs, raised together and apart, born from 1890 to 1958 and ascertained through the population-based Swedish Twin Registry. In men, the pattern of twin resemblance for RTU suggested both genetic and rearing-environmental effects, which, in the best-fit biometrical model, accounted for 61% and 20% of the variance in liability to RTU, respectively. For women, overall results were hard to interpret, but became clearer when divided by birth cohort. In women born before 1925, rates of RTU were low and twin resemblance was environmental in origin. In later cohorts, rates of RTU in women increased substantially, as did heritability. For women born after 1940, heritability of RTU was similar to that seen in men (63%). Genetic factors play an important etiologic role in RTU. In women, the impact of genetic factors increased in more recent cohorts, suggesting that, as social restrictions on female tobacco use relaxed over time, heritable influences increased in importance.

  12. ICT Use among 13-Year-Old Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    Swedish children have grown up in a digital culture, but have internalized information and communication technology (ICT) in different ways and gained most of their knowledge by peer-based learning. The aim of this study is to give an empirical understanding of patterns of ICT use among Swedish children. The data are collected through a survey…

  13. ICT Use among 13-Year-Old Swedish Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Ulli

    2010-01-01

    Swedish children have grown up in a digital culture, but have internalized information and communication technology (ICT) in different ways and gained most of their knowledge by peer-based learning. The aim of this study is to give an empirical understanding of patterns of ICT use among Swedish children. The data are collected through a survey…

  14. Picking up the Threads. Languaging in a Swedish Mainstream Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskás, Tünde

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies monolingual teachers use to scaffold meaning and encourage and enhance verbal communication with emergent bilingual children in a Swedish mainstream preschool. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in a preschool group in which seven of twelve children spoke Swedish as their second, additional language.…

  15. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  16. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  17. Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hajime; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

  18. Mathematical Reasoning Requirements in Swedish Upper Secondary Level Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palm, Torulf; Boesen, Jesper; Lithner, Johan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the mathematical reasoning required to solve the tasks in the Swedish national tests and a random selection of Swedish teacher-made tests. The results show that only a small proportion of the tasks in the teacher-made tests require the students to produce new reasoning and to consider the intrinsic mathematical properties involved…

  19. Lingual Electromyography Related to Tongue Movements in Swedish Vowel Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hajime; And Others

    1979-01-01

    In order to investigate the articulatory dynamics of the tongue in the production of Swedish vowels, electromyographic (EMG) and X-ray microbeam studies were performed on a native Swedish subject. The EMG signals were used to obtain average indication of the muscle activity of the tongue as a function of time. (NCR)

  20. National Curriculum Assessment in England--A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses some of the issues she finds interesting from a Swedish perspective, and also makes some comparisons between the systems. The English and Swedish education and assessment systems have some fundamental differences, but also similarities. Some are becoming even more evident after learning about the…

  1. Imperatives for "Right" Educational Choices in Swedish Educational Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puaca, Goran

    2014-01-01

    The present article is based on a critical semiotic investigation of the Swedish Long-Term Survey on economic development. It aims to examine how recent Swedish policy trends bring specific economic, political and social processes together to form a system of meaning for both motivation and regulation over individuals' educational choices. What is…

  2. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  3. National Curriculum Assessment in England--A Swedish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikstrom, Christina

    2009-01-01

    In this commentary, the author discusses some of the issues she finds interesting from a Swedish perspective, and also makes some comparisons between the systems. The English and Swedish education and assessment systems have some fundamental differences, but also similarities. Some are becoming even more evident after learning about the…

  4. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  5. Preschool Education and Day Care for Swedish Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jeanne

    A comprehensive study of the types of care provided for Swedish children is presented. The point is made that the three major frameworks which support the Swedish philosophy of early childhood education are those of Arnold Gesell, Jean Piaget, and Erik H. Erikson. From all three sources, preschool teachers learn the concept of epigenesis, the…

  6. Parental Expectations of the Swedish Municipal School of Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliedahl, Jonathan; Georgii-Hemming, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This article draws on a study designed to analyse parental expectations of the Swedish municipal school of arts (hereafter MSA) (in Swedish: kommunal musik- och kulturskola). The study is based on in-depth interviews conducted and informed by grounded theory. Although parental expectations are scarcely uniform, the study reveals a hope that the…

  7. The Boston Naming Test in Swedish: Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallberg, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce a Swedish version of the Boston Naming Test and to offer normative data based on a sample of native Swedish-speaking healthy adults stratified concerning age, gender, and length of education. The subjects were assessed with other lexical tests and half of the group also performed tests of global…

  8. Swedish Immersion in the Early Years in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Siv; Mård-Miettinen, Karita; Savijärvi, Marjo

    2014-01-01

    Immersion education in Finland is a one-way (monolingual) early total Swedish programme for Finnish-speaking students. This immersion provision is offered at kindergarten level (ages 3-5), at preschool (age 6) and at primary levels (grades 1-9). Here, a brief synthesis of Finnish research studies on the early years in Swedish immersion is first…

  9. Problem Solving in Swedish Mathematics Textbooks for Upper Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehmer, Daniel; Ryve, Andreas; Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse how mathematical problem solving is represented in mathematical textbooks for Swedish upper secondary school. The analysis comprises dominating Swedish textbook series, and relates to uncovering (a) the quantity of tasks that are actually mathematical problems, (b) their location in the chapter, (c) their…

  10. Teachers' Pedagogical Mathematical Awareness in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björklund, Camilla; Barendregt, Wolmet

    2016-01-01

    Revised guidelines for Swedish early childhood education that emphasize mathematics content and competencies in more detail than before raise the question of the status of pedagogical mathematical awareness among Swedish early childhood teachers. The purpose of this study is to give an overview of teachers' current pedagogical mathematical…

  11. Swedish Chemists and Discovery of the Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Volker

    1996-10-01

    All of the elements not already known from antiquity were discovered in Europe and North America. So which country ranks number one on the discovery list? The question occurred to me while leafing through reference 1 in search of thermodynamic data on silicon. Never having seen such a tabulation, I wondered if it might prove useful in teaching. The question has a sports-related flavor that will appeal to many students. Personally, I picked England or Germany for #1. The actual result is surprising. The ranking considering only up to atomic number 103 is as follows: Note: Where two or more independent discoveries have been made, each country is credited. In the "others" category Austria and Denmark each has two discoveries. The remaining countries, with one each, are Finland, Italy, Mexico, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Spain. The high place for the USA is primarily due to the work done at Berkeley and Los Alamos on the transuranics. Without these discoveries, the US would have tied with Switzerland at three elements. Perhaps the most interesting aspect of this tabulation is that Swedish chemists have discovered the most elements. Four chemists alone account for twelve of the 20 discoveries: Baron Jöns Jakob Berzelius (1779-1848) is credited with four elements. His pupil, friend, and assistant, Carl Gustav Mosander (1797-1858) discovered three. P. T. Cleve also found three elements and Karl Wilhelm Scheele (1742-1786) discovered two. Biographical research on the Swedish chemists is a suitable assignment at the introductory level. Reasons for the predominance of Swedish chemists presents a challenging student research topic in the history of chemistry. Another interesting question at the introductory level is, transuranics aside, who discovered the most elements? At the more advanced level the question becomes, why? Literature Cited: 1. Emsley, J. The Elements; Clarendon: Oxford, 1989.

  12. Helicobacter pylori eradication in the Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Doorakkers, Eva; Lagergren, Jesper; Gajulapuri, Vijaya Krishna; Callens, Steven; Engstrand, Lars; Brusselaers, Nele

    Helicobacter pylori is associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer and its eradication aims to prevent these conditions. The recommended eradication regimen is triple therapy, consisting of a proton-pump inhibitor in combination with clarithromycin and amoxicillin or metronidazole for 7 days. Yet, other antibiotic regimens are sometimes prescribed. We aimed to assess the use of eradication therapy for H. pylori in the Swedish population during the last decade. This population-based study used data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. From July 2005 until December 2014, all regimens that can eradicate H. pylori were identified and evaluated according to patients' age and sex and calendar year of eradication. We identified 157,915 eradication episodes in 140,391 individuals (53.8% women, 42.6% older than 60 years), who correspond to 1.5% of the Swedish population. The absolute number and incidence of eradications decreased over the study period. Overall, 91.0% had one eradication and 0.1% had more than three. Of all eradications, 95.4% followed the recommended regimen, while 4.7% did not. The latter group was overrepresented among individuals aged ≥80 years (7.8%). Amoxicillin and clarithromycin were most frequently prescribed, while metronidazole was rarely used (0.01%). Other prescribed antibiotics were ciprofloxacin (2.4%), doxycycline (1.4%), nitrofurantoin (0.7%), norfloxacin (0.5%) and erythromycin (0.3%). During the last decade in Sweden H. pylori eradication has been frequently prescribed, but the incidence of eradication has slowly declined. Most eradications followed the recommended regimen, including those occurring after a previous eradication.

  13. Swedish prosody. Summary of a project.

    PubMed

    Gårding, E

    1982-01-01

    The paper summarizes project work on Swedish accents and intonation. One major goal was the development of a generative model for intonation. The input of the model is a text with markings for word and sentence prosody and dialect. The output is a realistic intonation contour. The model was first set up for statement intonation in isolated sentences from five prototype dialects. It was later applied to interrogative intonation, to transitional forms between the prototype dialects, to Greek and French intonation and to prosodic transfer in a foreign accent.

  14. Love and sex in the Swedish media.

    PubMed

    Boethius, C G

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes toward teenage sexuality are markedly different in Sweden and the US. The more accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality and the greater availability of family planning information and services may explain why Sweden has a lower adolescent pregnancy, abortion, and childbirth rate than the US. In contrast to the situation in the US, the Swedish mass media presents a realistic view of sexuality to the youth of the nation. It stresses the responsible use of contraception and the need to protect against sexually transmitted diseases in both its entertainment and educational shows. No commercials are aired on Swedish TV; therefore, Swedish youth are not exposed to the blatant and irresponsible image of sex frequently conveyed by commercials in the US. Moreover, in Sweden, parents accept the fact that their older teenagers will engage in sexual activity and help their children prepare for this activity. As a result, teenagers are reassured that their parents understand their feelings and emotions. These teenagers, in turn, are likely to accept their parents' advice about engaging in responsible sexual behavior. In contrast, in societies like the US, which are nonaccepting of adolescent sexual behavior, teenagers are likely to feel their parents and the larger society do not understand their feelings. These teenagers are likely to reject parental or societal advice on sexual matters. Sweden's accepting attitude toward adolescent sexuality is relatively recent. Prior to the 1960s, attitudes in Sweden were similar to those of present day American society. Eventually the government, the schools, and the parents recognized that they were creating a breach between the generations, and they gradually adopted a more realistic and accepting stance on sexual matters. By 1970, all Swedish children were receiving sex education in school. Television programing in sex education began in the 1960s. The broad distribution of printed sex education materials also began in

  15. Swedish Small Satellites Investigate the Aurora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marklund, Göran; André, Mats; Lundin, Rickard

    2004-04-01

    The Swedish small satellite program-which began in the mid-1980s-has been recognized internationally as cost-efficient and scientifically successful, and the results have contributed significantly to the progress in auroral research. The program comprises six research satellites to date, five of which were auroral or space plasma missions. Viking and Freja made substantial and sometimes pioneering contributions to the understanding of the aurora. The smaller satellites Astrid, Astrid-2, and Munin proved powerful both for testing new space technologies and instruments and for providing high-quality scientific data.

  16. Swedish public health policy: Impact on regional and local public health practice and priorities.

    PubMed

    Makenzius, Marlene; Wamala, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the Swedish National Public Health Policy to determine its impact on public health priorities and practice at regional and local levels between 2004 and 2013. We conducted a survey by questionnaire in February 2013 among Swedish county councils/regions (n=19/21), and municipalities (n=219/290). The National Public Health Policy facilitated systematic public health practice, particularly for planning, for high priority concerns, including conditions during childhood and adolescence, physical activity, and tobacco prevention. Respondents expressed need for a comprehensive monitoring system with comparable indicators nationwide and explicit measurable objectives. To ensure effective monitoring and follow-up, the measurable outcomes need direct relevance to decision making and high-priority public health issues addressing Sweden's "overarching public health goal" - to create societal conditions for good health on equal terms for the entire population.

  17. Biodiversity and sectoral responsibility in the development of Swedish Forestry Policy, 1988-1993.

    PubMed

    Bush, Terrence

    2010-01-01

    In 1993 the Swedish parliament deregulated national forestry policy and established an environmental goal in parallel with the previous, long-standing goal of high wood production. This paper shows how the change occurred in the context of major changes in Swedish environmental policy during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Within a short time, new environmental legislation and the introduction of legal protection for small forest and agricultural habitats of high ecological value reoriented national forestry policy, away from an overriding focus on wood production to an increased awareness of nature conservation and biodiversity preservation. Reflecting a major compromise with the state, forest owners have gained greater freedom to manage their land, but must also improve environmental conditions while achieving high wood production, a policy known as 'freedom under responsibility'. The paper explains how both the parliament and industry supported increased nature conservation and biodiversity to maintain forest health and support the forestry industry, by favouring responsible resource use and not simply protection from human influence.

  18. Centralised or decentralised sanitation in Swedish summerhouse areas in transition to permanent living?

    PubMed

    Kärrman, E; Erlandsson, A; Hellström, D; Björlenius, B; Tidåker, P

    2007-01-01

    The standard of wastewater management is high in Sweden. Around 90% of the population is connected to central wastewater treatment plants with high requirements of nutrients removal; however, still the problem with algae blooms in the Baltic Sea exists. The aim of the VeVa project was to develop a simple and user-friendly Excel-based model to support environmental decisions of how to select wastewater systems for housing areas where no central sewer system exists. The VeVa model deals with two types of environmental issues: substance flow analysis and energy analysis. Six system structures were studied for the transition area Lillängsdal in Värmdö municipality sorted in three categories: 1) on-site systems for single households; 2) local collective systems; 3) connection to central systems. All studied system structures, except for a Sand filter system, fulfilled the goals of reducing phosphorus and BOD7 according to Swedish guidelines for on-site systems in sensitive areas. All studied systems, except for the Sand filter system, have the potential to fulfil the Swedish National Environmental goal to recycle 60% phosphorus to productive land. The systems with central wastewater treatment plant and local wastewater treatment are the most energy efficient alternatives that also fulfil the requirements of discharges and environmental goals regarding phosphorus recycling.

  19. Making Early Modern Medicine: Reproducing Swedish Bitters.

    PubMed

    Ahnfelt, Nils-Otto; Fors, Hjalmar

    2016-05-01

    Historians of science and medicine have rarely applied themselves to reproducing the experiments and practices of medicine and pharmacy. This paper delineates our efforts to reproduce "Swedish Bitters," an early modern composite medicine in wide European use from the 1730s to the present. In its original formulation, it was made from seven medicinal simples: aloe, rhubarb, saffron, myrrh, gentian, zedoary and agarikon. These were mixed in alcohol together with some theriac, a composite medicine of classical origin. The paper delineates the compositional history of Swedish Bitters and the medical rationale underlying its composition. It also describes how we go about to reproduce the medicine in a laboratory using early modern pharmaceutical methods, and analyse it using contemporary methods of pharmaceutical chemistry. Our aim is twofold: first, to show how reproducing medicines may provide a path towards a deeper understanding of the role of sensual and practical knowledge in the wider context of early modern medical culture; and second, how it may yield interesting results from the point of view of contemporary pharmaceutical science.

  20. SEA monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure plans - Improvement opportunities identified in practical experience

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, K.; Balfors, B.; Folkeson, L.; Nilsson, M.

    2010-11-15

    Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) requires monitoring in order to identify unforeseen adverse effects and to enable appropriate remedial action to be taken. Guidelines on how to monitor significant environmental impacts have been developed but experience from practice is limited. This paper presents a study of environmental monitoring in Swedish regional transport infrastructure planning. The result shows that essentially no environmental monitoring is currently performed. Monitoring of the plans merely involves checking the implementation of projects and performing an economic account. At present, a new planning period has commenced for the regional transport infrastructure plans. To obtain an iterative SEA process for the new plan with integrated SEA monitoring, the following means are suggested: reinforcement of practitioners' incentives to plan and perform monitoring; integration of monitoring in the SEA process; pre-determined impact thresholds that prompt remedial action; and more efficient use of monitoring results.

  1. Risk of prostate cancer among Swedish-born and foreign-born men in Sweden, 1961-2004.

    PubMed

    Beiki, Omid; Ekbom, Anders; Allebeck, Peter; Moradi, Tahereh

    2009-04-15

    To elucidate the importance of environmental and genetic factors in prostate cancer etiology, we compared the risk of prostate cancer among foreign-born men to that of Swedish-born men in Sweden and to that in the country of origin. We estimated rate ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for age, calendar period of year and education using Poisson regression in a cohort of 3.8 million men aged 45 years and older between 1961 and 2004. During the 45 years of follow-up, 8,244 and 187,675 cases of prostate cancer occurred among foreign-born and Swedish-born men, respectively. Overall, foreign-born men had a significantly 40% decreased risk of prostate cancer compared to Swedish-born men (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.61-0.63). Men born in Middle Africa and in the Caribbean had an increased risk (RR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.95-3.78 and RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.71-2.19, respectively). The overall risk in both strata of duration of residence or age at immigration was lower among immigrants compared to Swedish-born men. After additional adjustment for birthplace and age at immigration, although the risk remained lower among immigrants compared to Swedish-born, but it was increased among immigrants who stayed 35 years and longer compared to those who stayed shorter (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.21-1.46). Both environmental and genetic factors seem to be involved in the etiology of prostate cancer. Duration of residence was an important factor affecting the risk among immigrants. Studies focusing on the etiology of prostate cancer specifically in African immigrants and their descendants and increasing preventive and diagnostic activities on old immigrants are recommended.

  2. Learning Specific Content in Technology Education: Learning Study as a Collaborative Method in Swedish Preschool Class Using Hands-On Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbrink, Nina; Bjurulf, Veronica; Blomberg, Ingela; Heidkamp, Anja; Hollsten, Ann-Christin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process of a learning study conducted in technology education in a Swedish preschool class. The learning study method used in this study is a collaborative method, where researchers and teachers work together as a team concerning teaching and learning about a specific learning object. The object of learning in this study…

  3. Learning Specific Content in Technology Education: Learning Study as a Collaborative Method in Swedish Preschool Class Using Hands-On Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbrink, Nina; Bjurulf, Veronica; Blomberg, Ingela; Heidkamp, Anja; Hollsten, Ann-Christin

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the process of a learning study conducted in technology education in a Swedish preschool class. The learning study method used in this study is a collaborative method, where researchers and teachers work together as a team concerning teaching and learning about a specific learning object. The object of learning in this study…

  4. The Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study (Swelogs): design and methods of the epidemiological (EP-) track

    PubMed Central

    Romild, Ulla; Volberg, Rachel; Abbott, Max

    2014-01-01

    Swelogs (Swedish Longitudinal Gambling Study) epidemiological (EP-) track is a prospective study with four waves of data-collection among Swedish citizens aged 16–84 years at baseline. The major objectives of this track are to provide general population estimates of the prevalence and incidence of problem and at-risk gambling and enable comparisons with the first Swedish national study on gambling and problem gambling (Swegs) conducted in 1997/1998. The overall study (Swelogs) comprises three tracks of data collection; one epidemiological, one in-depth and one follow-up. It is expected to provide information that will inform the development of evidence-based methods and strategies to prevent the development of gambling problems. This paper gives an overview of the design of the epidemiological track, especially of its two first waves. The baseline wave, performed between October 2008 and August 2009, included 8165 subjects, of whom 6021 were re-assessed one year later. A stratified random sampling procedure was applied. Computer-supported telephone interviews were used as the primary method. Postal questionnaires were used to follow-up those not reached by telephone. The response rate was 55% in the first wave and 74% in the second. The interview and questionnaire data are supplemented by register data. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24942902

  5. Transforming Ottawa Charter health promotion concepts into Swedish public health policy.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Bosse

    2007-01-01

    Swedish public health policy clearly illustrates how the concept of the Ottawa Charter for health promotion can be utilized at a national level. The impact has been more implicit than explicit. Public health has a long history in Sweden and much of the present and future is, and will be, linked to traditional values and structures. International input, however, has been essential to prompt new approaches and change. Health inequalities remain the major shortcoming. The Swedish system offers universal access to healthcare in a decentralized system. Still, primary healthcare, and the health services as a whole have not yet sufficiently embraced the idea of health promotion. Political attention to modern public health at the Prime Minister level was established in late 1980s. Since, continuous initiatives in terms of organization, infrastructure and funding have taken place. With regard to funding, a vast majority of the resources allocated to health promotion will be found outside the health sector. An interesting observation is that the Swedish public health policy with its 11 objective domains remains the same, also after a change of government. Future challenges include maintaining and developing an intersectoral mechanism for implementation, allocating more resources for intervention research to strengthen knowledge-based health promotion, and developing tools for coping better with the challenges of globalisation identified in the Bangkok Charter.

  6. Cross-cultural validity of the demand-control questionnaire: Swedish and Brazilian workers.

    PubMed

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Fritzell, Johan; Toivanen, Susanna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Demand-Control Questionnaire, comparing the original Swedish questionnaire with the Brazilian version. METHODS We compared data from 362 Swedish and 399 Brazilian health workers. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed to test structural validity, using the robust weighted least squares mean and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator. Construct validity, using hypotheses testing, was evaluated through the inspection of the mean score distribution of the scale dimensions according to sociodemographic and social support at work variables. RESULTS The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the instrument in three dimensions (for Swedish and Brazilians): psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best-fit model was achieved by including an error correlation between work fast and work intensely (psychological demands) and removing the item repetitive work (skill discretion). Hypotheses testing showed that workers with university degree had higher scores on skill discretion and decision authority and those with high levels of Social Support at Work had lower scores on psychological demands and higher scores on decision authority. CONCLUSIONS The results supported the equivalent dimensional structures across the two culturally different work contexts. Skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions and the item repetitive work should be removed.

  7. Cross-cultural validity of the demand-control questionnaire: Swedish and Brazilian workers

    PubMed Central

    Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo; Faerstein, Eduardo; Passos, Sonia Regina Lambert; Fritzell, Johan; Toivanen, Susanna; Westerlund, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the cross-cultural validity of the Demand-Control Questionnaire, comparing the original Swedish questionnaire with the Brazilian version. METHODS We compared data from 362 Swedish and 399 Brazilian health workers. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed to test structural validity, using the robust weighted least squares mean and variance-adjusted (WLSMV) estimator. Construct validity, using hypotheses testing, was evaluated through the inspection of the mean score distribution of the scale dimensions according to sociodemographic and social support at work variables. RESULTS The confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the instrument in three dimensions (for Swedish and Brazilians): psychological demands, skill discretion and decision authority. The best-fit model was achieved by including an error correlation between work fast and work intensely (psychological demands) and removing the item repetitive work (skill discretion). Hypotheses testing showed that workers with university degree had higher scores on skill discretion and decision authority and those with high levels of Social Support at Work had lower scores on psychological demands and higher scores on decision authority. CONCLUSIONS The results supported the equivalent dimensional structures across the two culturally different work contexts. Skill discretion and decision authority formed two distinct dimensions and the item repetitive work should be removed. PMID:25119944

  8. Efficacy and fate of glyphosate on Swedish railway embankments.

    PubMed

    Torstensson, Lennart; Börjesson, Elisabet; Stenström, John

    2005-09-01

    The herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine, as Spectra (240 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto Europe AB), RoundUp (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto) and RoundUp Bio (360 g AI litre(-1) SL; Monsanto), have been used for weed control on Swedish railway embankments since 1986. This article summarizes results from studies of the weed effect and behaviour of glyphosate for the period 1984-2003. Studies on a railway embankment with a range of application rates showed excellent weed control at 5 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio. The appearance of glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA [(aminomethyl)phosphonic acid] in the embankment, eg mobility and persistence, was also studied. Mobility was low in most cases, the main proportion of both glyphosate and AMPA being found in the upper 30-cm layer although minor amounts penetrated to lower depths. The 50% disappearance time of glyphosate was generally <5 months in railway embankments but cases with longer persistence were found. Transport to the groundwater was observed for glyphosate and AMPA in groundwater pipes along tracks. Downward transport appears to be dependent on the application rate, which should not exceed 3 litre ha(-1) of RoundUp Bio to avoid groundwater contamination. A lower rate of glyphosate mixed with a low rate of another herbicide may achieve acceptable weed control and be environmentally safer. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry

  9. Natural organic matter properties in Swedish agricultural streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieroza, Magdalena; Kyllmar, Katarina; Bergström, Lars; Köhler, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    The following paper shows natural organic matter (NOM) properties of stream water samples collected from 8 agricultural streams and 12 agricultural observational fields in Sweden. The catchments and observational fields cover a broad range of environmental (climate, soil type), land use and water quality (nutrient and concentrations, pH, alkalinity) characteristics. Stream water samples collected every two weeks within an ongoing Swedish Monitoring Programme for Agriculture have been analysed for total/dissolved organic carbon, absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy. A number of quantitative and qualitative spectroscopic parameters was calculated to help to distinguish between terrestrially-derived, refractory organic material and autochthonous, labile material indicative of biogeochemical transformations of terrestrial NOM and recent biological production. The study provides insights into organic matter properties and carbon budgets in agricultural streams and improves understanding of how agricultural catchments transform natural and anthropogenic fluxes of organic matter and nutrients. The insights from the grab sampling are supported by high-frequency turbidity, fulvic-like and tryptophan-like fluorescence measurements with in situ optical sensor.

  10. Survey of tuberculin testing in Swedish zoos.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Susanna; Bernodt, Karin; Holmström, Andrea; Röken, Bengt

    2002-12-01

    Tuberculin test results from 214 animals in three Swedish zoos, tested between the years 1993 and 2000, were compiled from a questionnaire sent out to zoo veterinarians. Comparative testing with bovine and avian tuberculin was used on various sites of injection. A total of five skin test reactors were found: three cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) in one zoo and two tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) in another zoo. Postmortem culture from one of the tapirs revealed growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and a stamping out policy was adopted in the herd. Tuberculosis in the primates was ruled out by further investigations. Zoo veterinarians should try to adopt a common scheme for the regular testing of zoo animals to improve the diagnostic ability and comparison of results between institutions.

  11. Gendered portraits of depression in Swedish newspapers.

    PubMed

    Bengs, Carita; Johansson, Eva; Danielsson, Ulla; Lehti, Arja; Hammarström, Anne

    2008-07-01

    Mass media are influential mediators of information, knowledge, and narratives of health and illness. In this article, we report on an examination of personal accounts of illness as presented in three Swedish newspapers, focusing on the gendered representation of laypersons' experiences of depression. A database search identified all articles mentioning depression during the year 2002. Twenty six articles focusing on personal experiences of depression were then subjected to a qualitative content analysis. We identified four themes: displaying a successful facade, experiencing a cracking facade, losing and regaining control, and explaining the illness. We found both similarities and differences with regard to gendered experiences. The mediated accounts of depression both upheld and challenged traditional gender stereotypes. The women's stories were more detailed, relational, emotionally oriented, and embodied. The portrayal of men was less emotional and expressive, and described a more dramatic onset of depression, reflecting hegemonic patterns of masculinity.

  12. Safety climate in Finnish- and Swedish-speaking companies.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Simo; Seppälä, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare assessments made by Finnish- and Swedish-speaking workers in Finland about the safety climate in their companies, because an earlier study showed that the accident frequency of Swedish-speaking workers was one third lower than that of Finnish-speaking workers. 148 Finnish-speaking and 138 Swedish-speaking workers from 14 small and medium-sized companies participated in this study. They filled out a Finnish safety climate questionnaire, the reliability of which was above the acceptable level. There were no differences between the language groups in the total variables of safety climate and safety action. Based on the differences in single items, we interpreted that Swedish-speaking workers stressed collective safety more, whereas Finnish-speaking workers put more emphasis on their personal responsibility for safety.

  13. Facing the future: The Swedish Air Force, 1990-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Bitzinger, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The report examines (1) the current and future state of the Swedish Air Force (SwAF) as it embarks on a major modernization program and (2) the implications that this has or may have both for Swedish defense and for Western security interests. It discusses overall Swedish security policy and defense doctrine and the role that the SwAF plays in Swedish neutrality; the current structure and missions of the SwAF operations, plans, and programs; and the likely impact that future SwAF force structure developments may have on regional security. The study should be of interest to individuals and organizations concerned with Nordic and northern European security issues, with the future of European air forces and aerospace programs, and with NATO planning in response to the evolving security environment in Europe.

  14. Swedish Research and Debate About Bilingualism. A Critical Review of the Swedish Research and Debate about Bilingualism and Bilingual Education in Sweden from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Christina Bratt

    Swedish research and opinion on bilingualism, language policy, and bilingual education in Sweden is reviewed. The Swedish debate on language planning and bilingual education revolves around two perspectives: structural-functional theory and conflict theory. Swedish research consists primarily of statistical and descriptive studies rather than…

  15. Lightning location system supervising Swedish power transmission network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melin, Stefan A.

    1991-01-01

    For electric utilities, the ability to prevent or minimize lightning damage on personnel and power systems is of great importance. Therefore, the Swedish State Power Board, has been using data since 1983 from a nationwide lightning location system (LLS) for accurately locating lightning ground strikes. Lightning data is distributed and presented on color graphic displays at regional power network control centers as well as at the national power system control center for optimal data use. The main objectives for use of LLS data are: supervising the power system for optimal and safe use of the transmission and generating capacity during periods of thunderstorms; warning service to maintenance and service crews at power line and substations to end operations hazardous when lightning; rapid positioning of emergency crews to locate network damage at areas of detected lightning; and post analysis of power outages and transmission faults in relation to lightning, using archived lightning data for determination of appropriate design and insulation levels of equipment. Staff have found LLS data useful and economically justified since the availability of power system has increased as well as level of personnel safety.

  16. Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja

    2011-02-01

    High red meat consumption has been associated with increased risk of some cancers and may also be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, epidemiological studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of stroke are very limited. Our objective was to examine the association between red meat consumption and stroke incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. We prospectively followed 34 670 women without cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% CI. During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, we ascertained 1680 incident cases of stroke, comprising 1310 cerebral infarction, 154 intracerebral hemorrhage, 79 subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 137 unspecified stroke. Total red meat and processed meat consumption was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cerebral infarction, but not of total stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The multivariable RR of cerebral infarction for the highest versus the lowest quintile of consumption were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.46) for red meat and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.49) for processed meat. Fresh (unprocessed) meat consumption was not associated with total stroke or with any stroke subtype. Findings from this study suggest that red and processed meat consumption may increase the risk of cerebral infarction in women.

  17. Swedish medical students' expectations of their future life

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Jenny; Johansson, Eva E.; Verdonk, Petra; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Hamberg, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate future life expectations among male and female medical students in their first and final year. Methods The study was cross-sectional and conducted at a Swedish medical school. Out of 600 invited students, 507 (85%) answered an open-ended question about their future life, 298 (59%) first-year students and 209 (41%) last-year students. Women constituted 60% of the respondents. A mixed model design was applied; qualitative content analysis was utilized to create statistically comparable themes and categories. Results Students’ written answers were coded, categorized and clustered into four themes: “Work”, “Family”, “Leisure” and “Quality of personal life”. Almost all students included aspects of work in their answers. Female students were more detailed than male ones in their family concerns. Almost a third of all students reflected on a future work-life balance, but considerations regarding quality of personal life and leisure were more common among last-year students. Conclusions Today’s medical students expect more of life than work, especially those standing on the doorstep of working life. They intend to balance work not only with a family but also with leisure activities. Our results reflect work attitudes that challenge the health care system for more adaptive working conditions. We suggest that discussions about work-life balance should be included in medical curricula.

  18. Social aetiology of violent deaths in Swedish children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Hjern, A; Bremberg, S

    2002-01-01

    Study objective: To describe the contribution of social conditions for the main causes of injury deaths in Swedish children and youth aged 5–25 years. Design: Cohort study. All children below 15 years of age that resided in Sweden 1985 were followed up during 1991–1995. Injury deaths were recorded from The National Cause of Death Register. Information on parental social determinants were collected from various national registers. Connections between the social determinants and an injury death outcome were analysed in multivariate Cox regression models. Main results: In total 1474 injury deaths were recorded during approximately 8 million person years. In a regression model, with control for sex, year of birth, and residency (urban/rural), the aetiological fraction for parental SES, maternal country of birth, family situation, parental risk factors, and all these factors combined were 13%, 6%, 1.4%, 1.3%, and 19%, respectively. Similar regression models were studied separately for each of the main causes of injury death. The parental social determinants explained 58% of all homicides, 47% of all motor traffic injuries, and 30% of all other traffic injuries while the suicide rate was not affected by these determinants. Parental socioeconomic status was the single most important parental determinant for all major causes of injury. Conclusions: There was a wide variation of the aetiological fractions of parental social determinants for different causes of injury death. This variation might be used to further investigate the social aetiology of injuries. PMID:12177086

  19. Genetic overlap between type 2 diabetes and depression in Swedish and Danish twin registries

    PubMed Central

    Kan, C; Pedersen, N L; Christensen, K; Bornstein, S R; Licinio, J; MacCabe, J H; Ismail, K; Rijsdijk, F

    2016-01-01

    A bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and depression has been consistently reported. Depression is associated with worse biomedical outcomes and increased mortality. The mechanisms underlying the association of T2DM with depression remain unclear. One possible question we can address is the extent to which the co-occurrence of diabetes and depression is due to correlated genetic and/or environmental risk factors. In this study, we performed structural equation model fitting to population-level data from the Swedish (n=68 606) and Danish (n=95 403) twin registries. The primary outcomes were clinical diagnosis of T2DM and depression using national hospital discharge registries. The phenotypic correlation between T2DM and depression is modest in both samples. In the Swedish sample, unique environmental effects explain a greater proportion of the covariance in males, whereas the association is primarily attributed to genetic effects in females. In the Danish sample, genetic effects account for the majority of the covariance in both males and females. Qualitative genetic sex differences are observed in both samples. We believe this is the first study to demonstrate significant genetic overlap between T2DM and depression. PMID:27021822

  20. Mastitis control in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, C; Emanuelson, U

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which preventive measures targeting mastitis are implemented in Swedish dairy herds with different housing and milking systems. Data were collected through a self-administered postal questionnaire sent to 898 dairy farmers, stratified by housing and milking system, in May 2011. The questionnaire contained general questions about the herd and the person responsible for the udder health of the cows, and specific questions about perceived udder health and the implementation of preventive measures. The response rate was 48%. The median herd size of participating herds was 80 cows, and the median herd average milk yield per cow was 9,586 kg of milk. External validity was assessed by comparing participating herds with nonresponders in respect to key performance indicators in the Swedish official milk recording system; no significant differences were found. When herds with combined systems had been removed, 400 herds with tiestalls and pipeline milking, freestalls and parlor milking, and freestalls with an automatic milking system remained. Differences between herd types were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test. The results showed that herd types differed in their rates of implementation of different preventive measures. Freestall herds with milking parlors implemented more preventive measures related to milking hygiene and milking routines than did tiestall herds. A milking order based on the udder health status of the cows was frequently implemented in tiestall herds, but not in most herds with an automatic milking system or most freestall herds with milking parlors. Irrespective of herd type, the proportion of herds in which cows were kept standing for at least 30 min after milking was low. A substantial proportion of herds ignored the udder health status of lactating cows when grouping them, and few herds grouped dry cows according to udder health status, although this occurred more frequently in

  1. Parasite control practices on Swedish horse farms.

    PubMed

    Lind, Eva Osterman; Rautalinko, Erik; Uggla, Arvid; Waller, Peter J; Morrison, David A; Höglund, Johan

    2007-09-26

    Virtually all horses are infected with helminth parasites. For some decades, the control of parasites of Swedish horses has been based on routine treatments with anthelmintics, often several times per year. Since anthelmintic resistance is becoming an increasing problem it is essential to develop more sustainable control strategies, which are adapted to different types of horse management. The aim of this study was to obtain information on practices used by Swedish horse owners for the control of endoparasites. A questionnaire with 26 questions about management practices and parasite control routines was posted to 627 randomly selected horse establishments covering most types of horse management in Sweden. The response rate was good in all categories of respondents (66-78%). A total of 444 questionnaires were used in the analyses. It was found that virtually all horses had access to grazing areas, usually permanent. Generally, pasture hygiene was infrequently practiced. Thirty-six percent of the respondents clipped or chain harrowed their pastures, whereas weekly removal of faeces from the grazing areas was performed by 6% of the respondents, and mixed or rotational grazing with other livestock by 10%. The number of anthelmintic treatments per year varied from 1-8 with an average of 3.2. Thirty-eight percent considered late autumn (Oct-Dec) to be the most important time for deworming. This finding, and an increased use of macrocyclic lactones in the autumn, suggests a concern about bot flies, Gasterophilus intestinalis. Only 1% of the respondents stated that faecal egg counts (FEC) were performed on a regular basis. The relatively high cost of FEC analyses compared to purchase of anthelmintics was thought to contribute to the preference of deworming without a previous FEC. From the study it was evident that all categories of horse owners took advice mainly from veterinarians. The results show that routines for endoparasite control can be improved in many horse

  2. A Swedish national twin study of criminal behavior and its violent, white-collar and property subtypes.

    PubMed

    Kendler, K S; Maes, H H; Lönn, S L; Morris, N A; Lichtenstein, P; Sundquist, J; Sundquist, K

    2015-08-01

    We sought to clarify the etiological contribution of genetic and environmental factors to total criminal behavior (CB) measured as criminal convictions in men and women, and to violent (VCB), white-collar (WCCB) and property criminal behavior (PCB) in men only. In 21 603 twin pairs from the Swedish Twin Registry, we obtained information on all criminal convictions from 1973 to 2011 from the Swedish Crime Register. Twin modeling was performed using the OpenMx package. For all criminal convictions, heritability was estimated at around 45% in both sexes, with the shared environment accounting for 18% of the variance in liability in females and 27% in males. The correlation of these risk factors across sexes was estimated at +0.63. In men, the magnitudes of genetic and environmental influence were similar in the three criminal conviction subtypes. However, for violent and white-collar convictions, nearly half and one-third of the genetic effects were respectively unique to that criminal subtype. About half of the familial environmental effects were unique to property convictions. The familial aggregation of officially recorded CB is substantial and results from both genetic and familial environmental factors. These factors are moderately correlated across the sexes suggesting that some genetic and environmental influences on criminal convictions are unique to men and to women. Violent criminal behavior and property crime are substantially influenced respectively by genetic and shared environmental risk factors unique to that criminal subtype.

  3. A national Swedish longitudinal twin-sibling study of criminal convictions from adolescence through early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Maes, Hermine H; Morris, Nancy A; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-06-01

    Prior twin and adoption studies have demonstrated the importance of both genetic and shared environmental factors in the etiology of criminal behavior (CB). However, despite substantial interest in life-course theories of CB, few genetically informative studies have examined CB in a developmental context. In 69,767 male-male twin pairs and full-sibling pairs with ≤ 2 years' difference in age, born 1958-1976 and ascertained from the Swedish Twin and Population Registries, we obtained information on all criminal convictions from 1973 to 2011 from the Swedish Crime Register. We fitted a Cholesky structural model, using the OpenMx package, to CB in these pairs over three age periods: 15-19, 20-24, and 25-29. The Cholesky model had two main genetic factors. The first began at ages 15-19 and declined in importance over development. The second started at ages 20-24 and was stable over time. Only one major shared environmental factor was seen, beginning at ages 15-19. Heritability for CB declined from ages 15-29, as did shared environmental effects, although at a slower rate. Genetic risk factors for CB in males are developmentally dynamic, demonstrating both innovation and attenuation. These results are consistent with theories of adolescent-limited and life-course persistent CB subtypes. Heritability for CB did not increase over time as might be predicted from active gene-environmental correlation. However, consistent with expectation, the proportion of variability explained by shared environmental effects declined slightly as individuals aged and moved away from their original homes and neighborhoods.

  4. Reflexology versus Swedish Massage to Reduce Physiologic Stress and Pain and Improve Mood in Nursing Home Residents with Cancer: A Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy A.; Lafferty, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate and compare the effects of reflexology and Swedish massage therapy on physiologic stress, pain, and mood in older cancer survivors residing in nursing homes. Methods. An experimental, repeated-measures, crossover design study of 18 nursing home residents aged 75 or over and diagnosed with solid tumor in the past 5 years and following completion of cancer treatments. The intervention tested was 20 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy to the lower extremities, versus 20 minute Reflexology, using highly specified protocols. Pre- and post-intervention levels of salivary cortisol, observed affect, and pain were compared in the Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology conditions. Results. Both Reflexology and Swedish Massage resulted in significant declines in salivary cortisol and pain and improvements in mood. Conclusions. Preliminary data suggest that studies of Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology are feasible in this population of cancer survivors typically excluded from trials. Both interventions were well tolerated and produced measurable improvements in outcomes. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of these CAM modalities in this patient population. PMID:22888364

  5. Reflexology versus Swedish Massage to Reduce Physiologic Stress and Pain and Improve Mood in Nursing Home Residents with Cancer: A Pilot Trial.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nancy A; Lafferty, Doreen

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate and compare the effects of reflexology and Swedish massage therapy on physiologic stress, pain, and mood in older cancer survivors residing in nursing homes. Methods. An experimental, repeated-measures, crossover design study of 18 nursing home residents aged 75 or over and diagnosed with solid tumor in the past 5 years and following completion of cancer treatments. The intervention tested was 20 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy to the lower extremities, versus 20 minute Reflexology, using highly specified protocols. Pre- and post-intervention levels of salivary cortisol, observed affect, and pain were compared in the Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology conditions. Results. Both Reflexology and Swedish Massage resulted in significant declines in salivary cortisol and pain and improvements in mood. Conclusions. Preliminary data suggest that studies of Swedish Massage Therapy and Reflexology are feasible in this population of cancer survivors typically excluded from trials. Both interventions were well tolerated and produced measurable improvements in outcomes. Further research is needed to explore the mechanisms underlying the potential benefits of these CAM modalities in this patient population.

  6. Attack rates of dengue fever in Swedish travellers.

    PubMed

    Rocklöv, Joacim; Lohr, Wolfgang; Hjertqvist, Marika; Wilder-Smith, Annelies

    2014-06-01

    Dengue is endemic in many countries visited by Swedish travellers. We aimed to determine the attack rate of dengue in Swedish travellers and analyse the trends over time and the geographical variation. We obtained the following data from the Swedish Institute for Communicable Disease Control for the y 1995-2010: number of Swedish residents with confirmed dengue, the country and year of infection. We also obtained registers on the Swedish annual air traveller arrivals to dengue endemic areas from the United Nations World Tourist Organization for the time period. We estimated attack rates with 95% confidence intervals (CI). In total, 925 Swedish travellers with confirmed dengue were reported. We found an increasing trend over time for most destinations. The majority of the dengue cases were acquired in Thailand (492 out of 925 travellers; 53%), with an attack rate of 13.6 (95% CI 12.7, 14.4) per 100,000 travellers. However, the 2 highest attack rates per 100,000 travellers were found for Sri Lanka (45.3, 95% CI 34.3, 56.4) and Bangladesh (42.6, 95% CI 23.8, 61.5). Information on attack rates in travellers is more helpful in guiding travel medicine practitioners than reports of absolute numbers, as the latter reflect travel preferences rather than the true risk. Although the majority of dengue infections in Swedish travellers were acquired in Thailand, the attack rates for dengue in travellers to Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were much higher. These data aid in refining information on the risk of dengue in travellers.

  7. Multiconjugate adaptive optics for the Swedish ELT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gontcharov, Alexander; Owner-Petersen, Mette

    2000-08-01

    The Swedish ELT is intended to be a 50 m telescope with multiconjugate adaptive optics integrated directly as a crucial part of the optical design. In this paper we discuss the effects of the distributed atmospheric turbulence with regard to the choice of optimal geometry of the telescope. Originally the basic system was foreseen to be a Gregorian with an adaptive secondary correcting adequately for nearby turbulences in both the infrared and visual regions, but if the performance degradation expected from changing the basic system to a Cassegrain keeping the adaptive secondary could be accepted, the constructional costs would be significantly reduced. In order to clarify this question, a simple analytical model describing the performance employing a single deformable mirror for adaptive correction has been developed and used for analysis. The quantitative results shown here relates to a wavelength of 2.2 micrometers and are based on the seven layer atmospheric model for the Cerro Pachon site, which is believed to be a good representative of most good astronomical sites. As a consequence of the analysis no performance degradation is expected from changing the core telescope to a Cassegrain (Ritchey- Chretien). The paper presents the layout and optical performance of the new design.

  8. The in vitro toxicology of Swedish snus

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Christopher R. E.; Ballantyne, Mark; Curvall, Margareta; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Three commercial brands of Swedish snus (SWS), an experimental SWS, and the 2S3 reference moist snuff were each tested in four in vitro toxicology assays. These assays were: Salmonella reverse mutation, mouse lymphoma, in vitro micronucleus, and cytotoxicity. Water extractions of each of the 5 products were tested using several different concentrations; the experimental SWS was also extracted using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Extraction procedures were verified by nicotine determinations. Results for SWS in the mutagenicity assays were broadly negative: there were occasional positive responses, but these were effectively at the highest concentration only (concentrations well above those suggested by regulatory guidelines), and were often associated with cytotoxicity. The 2S3 reference was unequivocally positive in one of the three conditions of the micronucleus assay (MNA), at the highest concentration only. Positive controls produced the expected responses in each assay. The SWS data are contrasted with data reported for combusted tobacco in the form of cigarettes, where strongly positive responses have been routinely reported for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. These negative findings in a laboratory setting concur with the large amount of epidemiological data from Sweden, data showing that SWS are associated with considerably lower carcinogenic potential when compared with cigarettes. PMID:22400986

  9. Lyssavirus-reactive antibodies in Swedish bats

    PubMed Central

    Hammarin, Anna-Lena; Berndtsson, Louise Treiberg; Falk, Kerstin; Nedinge, Marie; Olsson, Gert; Lundkvist, Åke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To study the presence of European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) infections in bat reservoirs in Sweden, active surveillance was performed during the summers from 2008 to 2013. Material and methods Bat specimens were collected at >20 bat colonies in the central, southeastern, and southern parts of Sweden. In total, blood and saliva of 452 bats were examined by a virus neutralization test and by reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs). Results and discussion EBLV neutralizing antibodies were detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii), all trapped in Skåne or Småland (south and southeast of Sweden). The result was not unexpected since EBLV has been shown to be present in many neighboring countries, for example, Denmark, Finland, Germany, and Norway. However, Sweden has been regarded free of rabies in terrestrial mammals since 1896. Although very rare, spillover of EBLV into other animals and humans have occurred, and the risk of EBLV infection to other species including humans should not be ignored. This is the first report of lyssavirus infection in Swedish bats. PMID:27974131

  10. Understanding the Relation between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa in a Swedish National Twin Sample

    PubMed Central

    Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura; Root, Tammy L.; Pisetsky, Emily M.; Lichtenstein, Paul; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Background We present a bivariate twin analysis of anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) to determine the extent to which shared genetic and environmental factors contribute to liability to these disorders. Method Focusing on females from the Swedish Twin study of Adults: Genes and Environment (STAGE) (N=7000), we calculated heritability estimates for narrow and broad AN and BN and estimated their genetic correlation. Results In the full model, the heritability estimate for narrow AN was (a2 = .57; 95% CI: .00, .81) and for narrow BN (a2 = .62; 95% CI: .08, .70) with the remaining variance accounted for by unique environmental factors. Shared environmental factors estimates were (c2 = .00; 95% CI: .00, .67) for AN and (c2 = .00; 95% CI: .00, .40) for BN. Moderate additive genetic (.46) and unique environmental (.42) correlations between AN and BN were observed. Heritability estimates for broad AN were lower (a2 = .29; 95% CI: .04, .43) than for narrow AN, but estimates for broad BN were similar to narrow BN. The genetic correlation for broad AN and BN was .79 and the unique environmental correlation was .44. Conclusions We highlight the contribution of additive genetic factors to both narrow and broad AN and BN and demonstrate a moderate overlap of both genetic and unique environmental factors that influence the two conditions. Common concurrent and sequential comorbidity of AN and BN can in part be accounted for by shared genetic and environmental influences on liability although independent factors also operative. PMID:19828139

  11. Labour-Market Orientation and Approaches to Studying--A Study of the First "Bologna Students" at a Swedish Regional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Anders; Sandberg, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated labour-market orientations of students at a Swedish University with a dual/diverse focus on vocational/academic objectives. The aim was to investigate whether and how levels of students' labour-market orientation vary with social background, change during the study period, and are related to approaches to studying and…

  12. Growth and pubertal development of F1 bulls from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu sires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of the study was to characterize body growth, testicular development and puberty between 8 and 14 mo of age in bulls (n = 120) produced by mating sires from Hereford, Angus, Norwegian Red, Swedish Red and White, Friesian, and Wagyu, to MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll, 1...

  13. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  14. Using materials research results in new regulations -- The Swedish approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, K.

    1995-12-31

    Swedish regulations are normally divided into two sections: the first part is the compulsory text and the second part explains very briefly the ideas behind the regulations and section consists of an interpretive text. This second part explains very briefly the ideas behind the regulations and gives advice as to how to apply the regulations, acceptable testing and analysis methods, and references to other standards and relevant documents. In the new regulations, which were approved by the Board of SKI in September 1994 and are effective from 1st January 1995, a number of innovations have been included concerning chemistry and environmental degradation of the primary pressure boundary in Light Water Reactors. With regard to chemistry SKI will no longer approve the various parameters in the technical specifications (such as conductivity and impurity concentrations) but will require that the utilities have a chemistry control program in place which ensures the integrity of the primary pressure boundary and does not expose it to environments (such as impurities and decontamination chemicals) for which it was not designed. SKI can at any time control that such a program exists and assess its compatibility with these goals, either during routine inspections or as part of special theme inspections. Crack growth rates have been specified for different materials stainless steels, and the nickel base alloy types 600 and 182. Different environments have also been specified: water chemistry within and outside plant specifications as well as normal and hydrogen water chemistry conditions. Stress corrosion cracking in pressurized water reactor systems is also treated separately in the regulations, but not discussed specifically here.

  15. The fate of imazapyr in a Swedish railway embankment.

    PubMed

    Börjesson, Elisabet; Torstensson, Lennart; Stenström, John

    2004-06-01

    The long-term fate of the herbicide imazapyr [2-(4-isopropyl-4-methyl-5-oxo-2-imidazolin-2-yl)nicotinic acid] applied to a Swedish railway embankment was studied. Imazapyr was applied at 750 and 1500 g ha(-1) by a spraying train used for full-scale herbicide treatment operations. Soil and groundwater were sampled twice a year for 8 years after application of the herbicide, and the dissipation of imazapyr was studied by HPLC analysis of the residues in soil and groundwater. A clean-up procedure including solid-phase extraction was performed prior to detection by HPLC. Recoveries of imazapyr from soil and water samples were 76-98% and 61-90%, respectively, and detection levels were 0.003 mg kg(-1) and 0.05 microg litre(-1), respectively. Sorption, desorption and microbial amount and activity were also measured at the two locations. The organic matter content correlated positively and the pH negatively to the adsorption of imazapyr on soil, and increasing organic matter contents decreased desorption. Apart from the 0-10-cm top layers of both sites, the microbial amount and activity were small. The main proportion of imazapyr was found in the upper 30 cm of the soil, and degraded with a half-life in the range 67-144 days. Small amounts were transported to lower soil layers and to the groundwater in proportion to the amounts applied. Traces of imazapyr were detected in the groundwater even 8years after application. It was concluded that environmental risks from the use of herbicides on railway embankments could be reduced by including adsorption layers in the embankment during their construction and by reducing the dose of the herbicide used.

  16. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Annika; Andrén, Marianne; Engström, Maria

    2014-04-18

    The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members' practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point.

  17. E-assessment of prior learning: a pilot study of interactive assessment of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The current paper presents a pilot study of interactive assessment using information and communication technology (ICT) to evaluate the knowledge, skills and abilities of staff with no formal education who are working in Swedish elderly care. Methods Theoretical and practical assessment methods were developed and used with simulated patients and computer-based tests to identify strengths and areas for personal development among staff with no formal education. Results Of the 157 staff with no formal education, 87 began the practical and/or theoretical assessments, and 63 completed both assessments. Several of the staff passed the practical assessments, except the morning hygiene assessment, where several failed. Other areas for staff development, i.e. where several failed (>50%), were the theoretical assessment of the learning objectives: Health, Oral care, Ergonomics, hygiene, esthetic, environmental, Rehabilitation, Assistive technology, Basic healthcare and Laws and organization. None of the staff passed all assessments. Number of years working in elderly care and staff age were not statistically significantly related to the total score of grades on the various learning objectives. Conclusion The interactive assessments were useful in assessing staff members’ practical and theoretical knowledge, skills, and abilities and in identifying areas in need of development. It is important that personnel who lack formal qualifications be clearly identified and given a chance to develop their competence through training, both theoretical and practical. The interactive e-assessment approach analyzed in the present pilot study could serve as a starting point. PMID:24742168

  18. A Swedish validation of the Berlin Numeracy Test.

    PubMed

    Lindskog, Marcus; Kerimi, Neda; Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Recent research has highlighted the importance of considering an individual's level of numeracy, that is their numerical abilities, in a vast variety of judgment and decision making tasks. To accurately evaluate the influence of numeracy requires good and valid measures of the construct. In the present study we validate a Swedish version of the Berlin Numeracy Test (Cokely, Galesic, Schulz, Ghazal & Garcia-Retamero, 2012). The validation was carried out on both a student sample and a sample representative of the Swedish population. The Swedish BNT showed sound psychometrical properties in both samples. Further, in both samples the BNT had satisfactory convergent and discriminant validity when correlating with other measures of numeracy, while not being significantly related to measures of personality. With respect to predictive validity the results indicated divergent patterns in the two samples. In the student sample, participants scoring highest on the BNT outperformed those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. In contrast, in the population sample participants scoring lowest on the BNT performed worse than those in the other three levels, which did not differ in performance. Taken together, however, the results suggest that the Swedish version of the BNT should be considered a valid measure of numeracy in both Swedish student and population representative samples.

  19. Resilience and Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders: A Swedish Twin Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Elizabeth C; Lönn, Sara L; Ji, Jianguang; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2017-01-01

    Resilience has been shown to be protective against alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but the magnitude and nature of the relationship between these 2 phenotypes are not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the strength of this relationship and the degree to which it results from common genetic or common environmental influences. Resilience was assessed on a 9-point scale during a personal interview in 1,653,721 Swedish men aged 17 to 25 years. AUD was identified based on Swedish medical, legal, and pharmacy registries. The magnitude of the relationship between resilience and AUD was examined using logistic regression. The extent to which the relationship arises from common genetic or common environmental factors was examined using a bivariate Cholesky decomposition model. The 5 single items that comprised the resilience assessment (social maturity, interest, psychological energy, home environment, and emotional control) all reduced risk for subsequent AUD, with social maturity showing the strongest effect. The linear effect by logistic regression showed that a 1-point increase on the resilience scale was associated with a 29% decrease in odds of AUD. The Cholesky decomposition model demonstrated that the resilience-AUD relationship was largely attributable to overlapping genetic and shared environmental factors (57 and 36%, respectively). Resilience is strongly associated with a reduction in risk for AUD. This relationship appears to be the result of overlapping genetic and shared environmental influences that impact resilience and risk of AUD, rather than a directly causal relationship. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  1. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  2. Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 - Members of Godd

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-03

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017 - Members of Goddard Space Flight Center senior management and members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences pose for a group photo in the atrium area of Building 28 at GSFC.

  3. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of a Single Session of Swedish Massage on Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Adrenal and Immune Function in Normal Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schettler, Pamela; Bresee, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Massage therapy is a multi–billion dollar industry in the United States with 8.7% of adults receiving at least one massage within the last year; yet, little is known about the physiologic effects of a single session of massage in healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of a single session of Swedish massage on neuroendocrine and immune function. It was hypothesized that Swedish Massage Therapy would increase oxytocin (OT) levels, which would lead to a decrease in hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) activity and enhanced immune function. Design The study design was a head-to-head, single-session comparison of Swedish Massage Therapy with a light touch control condition. Serial measurements were performed to determine OT, arginine-vasopressin (AVP), adrenal corticotropin hormone (ACTH), cortisol (CORT), circulating phenotypic lymphocytes markers, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production. Setting This research was conducted in an outpatient research unit in an academic medical center. Subjects Medically and psychiatrically healthy adults, 18–45 years old, participated in this study. Intervention The intervention tested was 45 minutes of Swedish Massage Therapy versus a light touch control condition, using highly specified and identical protocols. Outcome measures The standardized mean difference was calculated between Swedish Massage Therapy versus light touch on pre- to postintervention change in levels of OT, AVP, ACTH, CORT, lymphocyte markers, and cytokine levels. Results Compared to light touch, Swedish Massage Therapy caused a large effect size decrease in AVP, and a small effect size decrease in CORT, but these findings were not mediated by OT. Massage increased the number of circulating lymphocytes, CD 25+ lymphocytes, CD 56+ lymphocytes, CD4 + lymphocytes, and CD8+ lymphocytes (effect sizes from 0.14 to 0.43). Mitogen-stimulated levels of interleukin (IL)–1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10

  4. A Bivariate Genetic Analysis of Drug Abuse Ascertained Through Medical and Criminal Registries in Swedish Twins, Siblings and Half-Siblings.

    PubMed

    Maes, Hermine H; Neale, Michael C; Ohlsson, Henrik; Zahery, Mahsa; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Kendler, Kenneth S

    2016-11-01

    Using Swedish nationwide registry data, the authors investigated the correlation of genetic and environmental risk factors in the etiology of drug abuse as ascertained from medical and criminal registries by modeling twin and sibling data. Medical drug abuse was defined using public inpatient and outpatient records, while criminal drug abuse was ascertained through legal records. Twin, full and half sibling pairs were obtained from the national twin and genealogical registers. Information about sibling pair residence within the same household was obtained from Statistics Sweden. Standard bivariate genetic structural equation modeling was applied to the population-based data on drug abuse ascertained through medical and crime registries, using OpenMx. Analyses of all possible pairs of twins (MZ: N = 4482; DZ: N = 9838 pairs), full- (N = 1,278,086) and half-siblings (paternal: N = 7767; maternal N = 70,553) who grew up together suggested that factors explaining familial resemblance for drug abuse as defined through medical or criminal registries were mostly the same. Results showed substantial heritability and moderate contributions of shared environmental factors to drug abuse; both were higher in males versus females, and higher for drug abuse ascertained through criminal than medical records. Because of the low prevalence of both assessments of drug abuse, having access to population data was crucial to obtain stable estimates. Using objective registry data, the authors found that drug abuse-whether ascertained through medical versus criminal records-was highly heritable. Furthermore, shared environmental factors contributed significantly to the liability of drug abuse. Genetic and shared environmental risk factors for these two forms of drug abuse were highly correlated.

  5. Incidence of pyometra in Swedish insured cats.

    PubMed

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Ström Holst, Bodil; Möller, Lotta; Egenvall, Agneta

    2014-07-01

    Pyometra is a clinically relevant problem in intact female cats and dogs. The etiology is similar in both animal species, with the disease caused by bacterial infection of a progesterone-sensitized uterus. Here, we studied pyometra in cats with the aim to describe the incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age and breed. The data used were reimbursed claims for veterinary care insurance or life insurance claims or both in cats insured in a Swedish insurance database from 1999 to 2006. The mean incidence rate (IR) for pyometra was about 17 cats per 10,000 cat years at risk (CYAR). Cats with pyometra were diagnosed at a median age of 4 years and a significant breed effect was observed. The breed with the highest IR (433 cats per 10,000 CYAR) was the Sphynx, and other breeds with IR over 60 cats per 10,000 CYAR were Siberian cat, Ocicat, Korat, Siamese, Ragdoll, Maine coon, and Bengal. Pyometra was more commonly diagnosed with increasing age, with a marked increase in cats older than 7 years. The mean case fatality rate in all cats was 5.7%, which is slightly higher than corresponding reports in dogs of 3% to 4%. Geographical location (urban or rural) did not affect the risk of developing the disease. The present study provides information of incidence and probability of developing pyometra based on age, breed, and urban or rural geographical location. These data may be useful for designing cat breeding programs in high-risk breeds and for future studies of the genetic background of the disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased cancer risk among Swedish female alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Sigvardsson, S; Hardell, L; Przybeck, T R; Cloninger, R

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated site-specific cancer risks in alcoholic women. We identified 15,508 alcoholic women from the records of the Temperance Boards in Sweden and obtained a comparison group by selecting for each alcoholic woman one female individual matched for region and day of birth. We obtained incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. We found an increased relative risk (RR) for any cancer [RR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.8]; site-specific risks were increased for tongue (RR = 8.5; 95% CI = 2.0-37), mouth (RR = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-92), tonsil (RR = 11; 95% CI = 1.4-85), hypopharynx (RR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.1-71), larynx (RR = 7.0; 95% CI = 0.9-57), liver (RR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.8-12), pancreas (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6-4.6), lung (RR = 5.0; 95% CI = 3.3-7.5), breast (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), cervix uteri (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.8-5.4), and vulva, vagina, and unspecified female genital organs (RR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.3-12). We found a decreased risk for malignant melanoma of the skin (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-1.0). Since this was a register study, the results may be confounded by differences in smoking, dietary habits, and/or other factors in the cohort of alcoholic women and the comparison group.

  7. Genome scan on Swedish Alzheimer's disease families.

    PubMed

    Sillén, A; Forsell, C; Lilius, L; Axelman, K; Björk, B F; Onkamo, P; Kere, J; Winblad, B; Graff, C

    2006-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related disease, which affects approximately 40% of the population at an age above 90 years. The heritability is estimated to be greater than 60% and there are rare autosomal dominant forms indicating a significant genetic influence on the disease process. Despite the successes in the early 1990s when four genes were identified, which directly cause the disease (APP, PSEN1 and PSEN2) or greatly increase the risk of disease development (APOE), it has proved exceedingly difficult to identify additional genes involved in the pathogenesis. However, several linkage and association studies have repeatedly supported the presence of susceptibility genes on chromosomes (chrms) 9, 10 and 12. The study populations have, however, mostly been of great genetic heterogeneity, and this may have contributed to the meagre successes in identifying the disease associated genetic variants. In this study, we have performed a genome wide linkage study on 71 AD families from the relatively genetically homogeneous Swedish population where it is also possible to study the genetic ancestry in public databases. We have performed nonparametric linkage analyses in the total family material as well as stratified the families with respect to the presence or absence of APOE varepsilon4. Our results suggest that the families included in this study are tightly linked to the APOE region, but do not show evidence of linkage to the previously reported linkages on chrms 9, 10 and 12. Instead, we observed the next highest LOD score on chromosome 5q35 in the total material. Further, the data suggest that the major fraction of families linked to this region is APOE varepsilon4 positive.

  8. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  9. Work environment and production development in Swedish manufacturing industry.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Swedish manufacturing industry has previous held a leading position regarding the development of attractive industrial work environments, but increasing market competition has changed the possibilities to maintain the position. The purpose of this literature study is therefore to describe and analyze how Swedish manufacturing industry manages work environment and production development in the new millennium. The description and analysis is based on recently reported Swedish research and development. The gathered picture of how production systems generally are developed in Sweden strongly contrasts against the idealized theoretical and legal view of how production systems should be developed. Even if some of the researchers' and authorities' ambitions and demands may seem unrealistically high today, there still is a very large potential for improving the processes and tools for designing production systems and work environment.

  10. Rearing of Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami children.

    PubMed

    Larsson, E; Ogaard, B; Lindsten, R

    1993-12-01

    A total of 362 3-yr-old Swedish, Norwegian, and Norwegian Sami (Lapp) children were examined, and their parents were asked about their children's present and previous sucking habits and how long they had been breast-fed and bottle-fed. They were also asked what the children's age was when porridge or puréed food or food with a soft chewing resistance was introduced, and when more ordinary foods such as well-diced meat and potatoes were introduced. The study revealed that breast-feeding has increased greatly both in prevalence and in duration in Sweden during the last decades. Despite this, Swedish children were breast-fed for a significantly shorter time than Norwegian children. The longest breast-feeding times were noted for Sami children. Swedish children were bottle-fed two to three times longer than Norwegian children. Sucking habits were correlated to breast-feeding only for Sami children.

  11. Swedish Art Song: A Singer's Handbook to Diction and Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersey, Anna Christine

    2012-01-01

    This essay is a guide to Swedish lyric diction for American singers. An overview of the linguistic traits and basic grammar of the Swedish language prepares the reader for a detailed description of Swedish phonemes and their occurrence in the language. Differences in pronunciation conventions as they pertain to classical singing, particularly the…

  12. Reports on Swedish Projects Relevant to the Study of Impromptu Speech: Talsyntax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Bengt

    The project Talsyntax (Syntax of Spoken Swedish), part of a large-scale study of modern Swedish language usage, examined the general characteristics and peculiarities of spoken Swedish. Three important aspects of the study are data collection, methodological results, and empirical results. The data collection effort has produced an archive of…

  13. 4-Nonylphenol and bisphenol A in Swedish food and exposure in Swedish nursing women.

    PubMed

    Gyllenhammar, Irina; Glynn, Anders; Darnerud, Per Ola; Lignell, Sanna; van Delft, Rob; Aune, Marie

    2012-08-01

    4-Nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) are phenolic substances used in high volumes by the industry. Studies on cells and in experimental animals have shown that both these compounds can be classified as estrogenic hormone disrupters. Information about the exposure of humans to NP and BPA is still scarce, especially regarding levels in human blood. The first aim of this study was to investigate possible sources of NP and BPA exposure from food, by analyzing the levels of NP and BPA from a Swedish food market basket, based on the Swedish per capita food consumption. A second aim was to investigate blood serum levels of NP and BPA, as well as NP-ethoxylates, among young women in Sweden (n=100). Moreover, associations between food consumption and blood NP and BPA levels were studied. In food, NP was to some extent found at levels above limit of quantification (LOQ 20 ng/g fresh weight) in fruits, cereal products, vegetables, and potatoes. BPA levels above LOQ (2 ng/g fresh weight) were found in fish, meats, potatoes, and dairy products. The estimated mean intakes per capita were (medium bound) 27 μg NP/day and 3.9 μg BPA/day, showing that food is a source of BPA and NP in the general Swedish population. In blood serum, free NP above limit of detection (LOD 0.5 ng/g) was detected in 46% of the study participants while detectable levels of total NP (LOD 0.8 ng/g) were observed in 43%. The corresponding percentages for BPA were 25% and 22%, respectively. The results indicate that there is a continuous source of exposure to NP and BPA that is high enough for free NP and BPA to be detected in some consumers. Among the participants with quantifiable levels of free and total NP (n=38), 85% (median, range: 38-112%) of the NP was present as free NP. For BPA 76% (49-109%) was detected as free BPA (n=15). All women had levels of ethoxylates of NP below LOD (0.1-0.7 ng/g). A significantly higher total consumption of fruits and vegetables was reported in questionnaires by

  14. Psychosocial Working Conditions and Cognitive Complaints among Swedish Employees

    PubMed Central

    Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Theorell, Töres; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints involving problems with concentration, memory, decision-making and thinking are relatively common in the work force. The sensitivity of both subjective and objective cognitive functioning to common psychiatric conditions, stress levels and to cognitive load makes it plausible that psychosocial working conditions play a role in cognitive complaints. Thus, this study aimed to test the associations between psychosocial work factors and cognitive complaints in nationally representative samples of the Swedish work force. Cross-sectional (n = 9751) and prospective (n = 3644; two time points two years apart) sequential multiple regression analyses were run, adjusting for general confounders, depressive- and sleeping problems. Additional prospective analyses were run adjusting for baseline cognitive complaints. Cross-sectional results High quantitative demands, information and communication technology (ICT) demands, underqualification and conflicts were positively associated with cognitive complaints, while social support, good resources at work and overqualification were negatively associated with cognitive complaints in all models. Skill discretion and decision authority were weakly associated with cognitive complaints. Conflicts were more strongly associated with cognitive complaints in women than in men, after adjustment for general confounders. Prospective results Quantitative job demands, ICT demands and underqualification were positively associated with future cognitive complaints in all models, including when adjusted for baseline cognitive complaints. Decision authority was weakly positively associated with future cognitive complaints, only after adjustment for depressive- and sleeping problems respectively. Social support was negatively associated with future cognitive complaints after adjustment for general confounders and baseline cognitive complaints. Skill discretion and resources were negatively associated with future

  15. Culture Influences Action Understanding in Infancy: Prediction of Actions Performed With Chopsticks and Spoons in Chinese and Swedish Infants.

    PubMed

    Green, Dorota; Li, Qi; Lockman, Jeffrey J; Gredebäck, Gustaf

    2016-05-01

    The cultural specificity of action prediction was assessed in 8-month-old Chinese and Swedish infants. Infants were presented with an actor eating with a spoon or chopsticks. Predictive goal-directed gaze shifts were examined using eye tracking. The results demonstrate that Chinese infants only predict the goal of eating actions performed with chopsticks, whereas Swedish infants exclusively predict the goal of eating actions performed with a spoon. Infants in neither culture predicted the goal of object manipulation actions (e.g., picking up food) performed with a spoon or chopsticks. The results support the view that multiple processes (both visual/cultural learning and motor-based direct matching processes) facilitate goal prediction during observation of other peoples' actions early in infancy. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  16. The Swedish fracture register: 103,000 fractures registered.

    PubMed

    Wennergren, David; Ekholm, Carl; Sandelin, Anna; Möller, Michael

    2015-11-06

    Although fractures consume large social and financial resources, little is known about their actual numbers, treatment methods or outcomes. The scarcity of data calls for a high-quality, population-based register. No previous registers have prospectively collected data and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) on fractures of all types. The Swedish Fracture Register was recently created to fill this gap in knowledge. Its purpose is to provide information on fractures of all types, whether treated by surgery or otherwise. The aim of this article is to describe how the register was developed and its current use. The Swedish Fracture Register was developed during a 4-year period, 2007-2010. Data collection started in 2011. The register currently collects data on all extremity, pelvic and spine fractures in adults who have been diagnosed or treated at the affiliated departments. Data entry is fully web based, including date, cause of injury, classification and treatment. It is performed by the attending physician. Patients fill out PROMs - EQ-5D-3L and the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA) - relating to health status and level of functioning before the fracture and one year later. Surgeon-reported outcome measures are registered as reoperation rates. The Swedish Fracture Register is now functioning effectively and is used in clinical routine. From January 2011 to September 2015, more than 103,000 fractures have been entered at 26 Swedish orthopedic departments. The Swedish Fracture Register is already a well-functioning, population-based fracture register that covers fractures of all types, regardless of treatment, and collects both surgeon- and patient-reported outcome measures. In the future the Swedish Fracture Register will be able to present both results of fracture treatment and valuable epidemiological data.

  17. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  18. Nordic in Nature: Friluftsliv and Environmental Connectedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the question of whether a relationship exists between the Nordic cultural idea of friluftsliv and the psychological construct of environmental connectedness (EC). This quantitative study employed a correlational design with existing data from the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey. Results indicate that there…

  19. General Beliefs and Environmental Concern: Transatlantic Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofsson, Anna; Ohman, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to empirically test whether grouping people according to their general beliefs, combined with positional factors, can explain environmental concern, and whether there are country differences in this respect. The study is based on the United States, Canadian, Norwegian, and Swedish parts of The International Social Survey…

  20. Characterisation of excavated fine fraction and waste composition from a Swedish landfill.

    PubMed

    Jani, Yahya; Kaczala, Fabio; Marchand, Charlotte; Hogland, Marika; Kriipsalu, Mait; Hogland, William; Kihl, Anders

    2016-12-01

    The present research studies the characterisation and the physico-chemical properties of an excavated fine fraction (<10 mm) from a Swedish landfill, the Högbytorp. The results showed that the fine fraction represents 38% by mass of the total excavated wastes and it contains mainly soil-type materials and minerals. Higher concentrations of zinc, copper, barium and chromium were found with concentrations higher than the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for contaminated soil. The found moisture and organic contents of the fine fraction were 23.5% and 16.6%, respectively. The analysed calorific value (1.7 MJ kg(-1)), the potential of CH4 (4.74 m(3) t(-1) dry matter) and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) (5.6%) were low and offer low potential of energy. Sieving the fine fraction further showed that 80% was smaller than 2 mm. The fine represents a major fraction at any landfill (40%-70%), therefore, characterising the properties of this fraction is essential to find the potential of reusing/recycling or safely redisposing. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Vattenpaketet - a Swedish information package for increased awareness in water issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seibert, Jan; Paul, Susanne; Halldin, Sven; Darracq, Amélie

    2010-05-01

    Water issues often do not receive the same attention in school education as other environmental issues. Partly this may be due to a lack of suitable teaching material. Therefore, in 2008 a project has been initiated by the Swedish Hydrological Council (SHR) to compile an information kit, called ‘Vattenpaketet' (water package). The purpose of this information project is to create an information kit about water issues that can be used by teachers, study circle leaders and others in connection with activities on World Water Day on 22 March each year. The kit contains complete computer presentations, a booklet, working materials, and detailed teacher's instructions, and is freely available on a website http://www.vattendag.org/vattenpaketet/. The information material aims at combining local (i.e., Swedish) and global water issues as well as curiosity driven water experiments and more theoretical information. A preliminary version of the kit has already been used by many school teachers. Here we present this information kit and first experiences from its use in schools.

  2. Chocolate intake and incidence of heart failure: Findings from the Cohort of Swedish Men.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, Daniel A; Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Levitan, Emily B; Dorans, Kirsten S; Håkansson, Niclas; Wolk, Alicja; Mittleman, Murray A

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of chocolate consumption and heart failure (HF) in a large population of Swedish men. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 31,917 men 45-79 years old with no history of myocardial infarction, diabetes, or HF at baseline who were participants in the population-based Cohort of Swedish Men study. Chocolate consumption was assessed through a self-administrated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for HF hospitalization or mortality from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2011, using record linkage to the Swedish inpatient and cause-of-death registries. During 14 years of follow-up, 2,157 men were hospitalized (n=1,901) or died from incident HF (n=256). Compared with subjects who reported no chocolate intake, the multivariable-adjusted rate ratio of HF was 0.88 (95% CI 0.78-0.99) for those consuming 1-3 servings per month, 0.83 (95% CI 0.72-0.94) for those consuming 1-2 servings per week, 0.82 (95% CI 0.68-0.99) for those consuming 3-6 servings per week, and 1.10 (95% CI 0.84-1.45) for those consuming ≥1 serving per day (P for quadratic trend=.001). In this large prospective cohort study, there was a J-shaped relationship between chocolate consumption and HF incidence. Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of HF hospitalization or death, but the protective association was not observed among individuals consuming ≥1 serving per day. Journal Subject Codes: Etiology: Epidemiology, Heart failure: Congestive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV-positive migrants' encounters with the Swedish health care system.

    PubMed

    Mehdiyar, Manijeh; Andersson, Rune; Hjelm, Katarina; Povlsen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive migrants and their experiences in the Swedish health care system. It is necessary to increase our knowledge in this field to improve the quality of care and social support for this vulnerable group of patients. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of HIV-positive migrants and their encounters with the health care system in Sweden. Design This is a Grounded Theory study based on qualitative interviews with 14 HIV-positive migrants living in Sweden, aged 29-55 years. Results 'A hybrid of access and adversity' was identified as the core category of the study. Three additional categories were 'appreciation of free access to treatment', 'the impact of the Swedish Disease Act on everyday life', and 'encountering discrimination in the general health care system'. The main finding indicated that participants experienced frustration and discrimination because they were required to provide sexual partners with information about their HIV status, which is compulsory under the Swedish Disease Act. The study also showed that the bias or fear regarding HIV infection among general health care professionals outside of the infectious diseases clinics limited the access to the general health care system for HIV-positive migrants. Conclusions The HIV-positive migrants appreciated the free access to antiviral therapy, but wished to have more time for patient-physician communications. The participants of this study felt discrimination in health care settings outside of the infectious diseases clinics. There is a need to reduce the discrimination in general health care services and to optimize the social support system and social network of this vulnerable group.

  4. Health resources and health strategies among older Swedish-speaking Finns--a hermeneutic study.

    PubMed

    Kulla, Gunilla; Sarvimäki, Anneli; Fagerström, Lisbeth

    2006-03-01

    Research has shown that the Swedish-speaking Finns have better health than the Finnish-speaking majority. The aim of this paper was to explore the health resources and health strategies among home-dwelling Swedish-speaking Finns aged 75 or older. The objective was to develop health-promotive nursing care for this group. Data was collected through recorded semistructured conversations with 22 older persons. The conversations were transcribed and interpreted through a hermeneutic approach. The material was read through several times and compiled into 22 narratives with relevant quotations. The narratives were subsequently summarised into one core narrative under each major category, to present the health resources and health strategies. Six categories were found: the Positive, the Social, the Active, the Adaptable, the Stubborn and the Passive. Within the Positive category, morale played an important role as a health resource and health strategy. Within the Social category, social activities were regarded as both health resources and health strategies, whereas their absence was a health obstacle. Within the Active category, a wide range of physical activities played an important role. Within the Adaptable category, contentment was a health resource. Within the Stubborn category, stubbornness itself was a health resource, whereas strong belief was a health strategy. Within the Passive category, although health obstacles permeated the life context, contentment and caution were seen as health resources. The vision of the future varied from the confidence found in the Positive category to the uncertainty prevalent in the Passive category. The main health resources and strategies used by the elderly Swedish-speaking Finns were related to social and other activities as well as to personality. Transforming health obstacles into resources could be an important health-promotive nursing strategy.

  5. HIV-positive migrants’ encounters with the Swedish health care system

    PubMed Central

    Mehdiyar, Manijeh; Andersson, Rune; Hjelm, Katarina; Povlsen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive migrants and their experiences in the Swedish health care system. It is necessary to increase our knowledge in this field to improve the quality of care and social support for this vulnerable group of patients. Objective The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of HIV-positive migrants and their encounters with the health care system in Sweden. Design This is a Grounded Theory study based on qualitative interviews with 14 HIV-positive migrants living in Sweden, aged 29–55 years. Results ‘A hybrid of access and adversity’ was identified as the core category of the study. Three additional categories were ‘appreciation of free access to treatment’, ‘the impact of the Swedish Disease Act on everyday life’, and ‘encountering discrimination in the general health care system’. The main finding indicated that participants experienced frustration and discrimination because they were required to provide sexual partners with information about their HIV status, which is compulsory under the Swedish Disease Act. The study also showed that the bias or fear regarding HIV infection among general health care professionals outside of the infectious diseases clinics limited the access to the general health care system for HIV-positive migrants. Conclusions The HIV-positive migrants appreciated the free access to antiviral therapy, but wished to have more time for patient–physician communications. The participants of this study felt discrimination in health care settings outside of the infectious diseases clinics. There is a need to reduce the discrimination in general health care services and to optimize the social support system and social network of this vulnerable group. PMID:27900931

  6. Estimation of genetic diversity in Gute sheep: pedigree and microsatellite analyses of an ancient Swedish breed.

    PubMed

    Rochus, Christina M; Johansson, Anna M

    2017-01-01

    Breeds with small population size are in danger of an increased inbreeding rate and loss of genetic diversity, which puts them at risk for extinction. In Sweden there are a number of local breeds, native breeds which have adapted to specific areas in Sweden, for which efforts are being made to keep them pure and healthy over time. One example of such a breed is the Swedish Gute sheep. The objective of this study was to estimate inbreeding and genetic diversity of Swedish Gute sheep. Three datasets were analysed: pedigree information of the whole population, pedigree information for 100 animals of the population, and microsatellite genotypes for 94 of the 100 animals. The average inbreeding coefficient for lambs born during a six year time period (2007-2012) did not increase during that time period. The inbreeding calculated from the entire pedigree (0.038) and for a sample of the population (0.018) was very low. Sheep were more heterozygous at the microsatellite markers than expected (average multilocus heterozygosity and Ritland inbreeding estimates 1.01845 and -0.03931) and five of seven microsatellite markers were not in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium due to heterozygosity excess. The total effective population size estimated from the pedigree information was 155.4 and the average harmonic mean effective population size estimated from microsatellites was 88.3. Pedigree and microsatellite genotype estimations of inbreeding were consistent with a breeding program with the purpose of reducing inbreeding. Our results showed that current breeding programs of the Swedish Gute sheep are consistent with efforts of keeping this breed viable and these breeding programs are an example for other small local breeds in conserving breeds for the future.

  7. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  8. FiRe: Reproductive disorders in Baltic fish - a presentation of a new Swedish EPA research program

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, B.E.

    1994-12-31

    In 1974 a considerable increase in mortality of newly hatched fry of salmon (Salmo salar) was discovered at one of the Swedish hatcheries at the Baltic Sea coast. A series of symptoms was identified towards the end of the yolk sac resorption stage and was followed by a rapidly occurring and often high mortality shortly after the first symptoms were seen. The condition was given the name M74, where M depicts ``Miljoe``, i.e. ``Environment`` in Swedish and 74 stands for the first year of official registration, i.e. 1974. Since then the mortality in M74 has fluctuated considerably, but has increased n recent years. In 1992, M74 caused mortalities of up to 90% in newly hatched fry. In 1993 the situation was considered very serious and the number of surviving fry was insufficient to produce the stipulated number of compensation salmon for some Swedish rivers. The similarity with documented reproductive disturbances in salmonids in the Great Lakes is striking and also supports a possible connection to environmental pollution. However, hard data to support this theory are still lacking. With the present level of knowledge the research project is attempting to clarify the extent of fish reproduction disturbances in the Baltic Sea, the reasons and, if possible, to suggest how to mitigate the problem. Multinational research cooperation will be encouraged.

  9. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  10. X: a case study of a Swedish neo-Nzi and his reintegration into Swedish society.

    PubMed

    Stern, Jessica Eve

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a case study of a Swedish neo-Nazi and the reintegration program being provided to him. During an extensive interview that took place over two days, he told a researcher that he was interested in having a violent adventure, and that he was drawn to Nazi symbols and history more than their creed. In comparison with ordinary crime, terrorist crime is quite rare, and access to detailed case studies is rarer still, making the development of a prospective risk-assessment instrument extremely difficult. Researchers' "thick descriptions" of their encounters with terrorists can help us to develop putative risk factors which can then be tested against controls. The article concludes by arguing that just as there is no single pathway into or out of terrorism, there can be no single reintegration program. A series of thick descriptions is a first step toward understanding what leads individuals into and out of terrorism. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Agile Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  12. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  13. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  14. Cognitive Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting on obsessional play objects of infants, Hodgkin suggests that a proper understanding of these "transitional" or "cognitive" objects could lead to an educational model of a "learner" involving a number of human competencies, all developing synergistically. Contends that such a model may be truer to life than…

  15. A population-based Swedish Twin and Sibling Study of cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse in men

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H.; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. Methods We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male–male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. Results A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18–20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. Conclusions In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. PMID:25660314

  16. A population-based Swedish Twin and Sibling Study of cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse in men.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Ohlsson, Henrik; Maes, Hermine H; Sundquist, Kristina; Lichtenstein, Paul; Sundquist, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Prior studies, utilizing interview-based assessments, suggest that most of the genetic risk factors for drug abuse (DA) are non-specific with a minority acting specifically on risk for abuse of particular psychoactive substance classes. We seek to replicate these findings using objective national registry data. We examined abuse of cannabis, stimulants (including cocaine) and sedatives ascertained from national Swedish registers in male-male monozygotic (1720 pairs) and dizygotic twins (1219 pairs) combined with near-age full siblings (76,457 pairs) to provide sufficient power. Modeling was performed using Mx. A common pathway model fitted better than an independent pathway model. The latent liability to DA was highly heritable but also influenced by shared environment. Cannabis, stimulant and sedative abuse all loaded strongly on the common factor. Estimates for the total heritability for the three forms of substance abuse ranged from 64 to 70%. Between 75 and 90% of that genetic risk was non-specific, coming from the common factor with the remainder deriving from substance specific genetic risk factors. By contrast, all of the shared environmental effects, which accounted for 18-20% of the variance in liability, were non-specific. In accord with prior studies based on personal interviews, the large preponderance of genetic risk factors for abuse of specific classes of psychoactive substance are non-specific. These results suggest that genetic variation in the primary sites of action of the psychoactive drugs, which differ widely across most drug classes, play a minor role in human individual differences in risk for DA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - the case of a Swedish waste incineration tax.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Anna E; Finnveden, Göran

    2007-01-01

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatment. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  18. Life cycle assessment of a national policy proposal - The case of a Swedish waste incineration tax

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerklund, Anna E. Finnveden, Goeran

    2007-07-01

    At the core of EU and Swedish waste policy is the so-called waste hierarchy, according to which waste should first be prevented, but should otherwise be treated in the following order of prioritisation: reuse, recycling when environmentally motivated, energy recovery, and last landfilling. Some recent policy decisions in Sweden aim to influence waste management in the direction of the waste hierarchy. In 2001 a governmental commission assessed the economic and environmental impacts of introducing a weight-based tax on waste incineration, the purpose of which would be to encourage waste reduction and increase materials recycling and biological treatment. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the waste incineration tax proposal. It was done in the context of a larger research project concerning the development and testing of a framework for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). The aim of this paper is to assess the life cycle environmental impacts of the waste incineration tax proposal, and to investigate whether there are any possibilities of more optimal design of such a tax. The proposed design of the waste incineration tax results in increased recycling, but only in small environmental improvements. A more elaborate tax design is suggested, in which the tax level would partly be related to the fossil carbon content of the waste.

  19. Injury Profile in Swedish Elite Floorball

    PubMed Central

    Tranaeus, Ulrika; Götesson, Eva; Werner, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: Floorball is an indoor team sport with growing popularity worldwide characterized by rapid accelerations, decelerations, and cutting and pivoting movements. While injuries are common, there are few high-quality epidemiological investigations of floorball injuries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence and severity of injuries in male and female elite-level floorball players in Sweden. Hypothesis: The incidence of injuries has not decreased; female players are more vulnerable to injury than male players. Study Design: Prospective cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 3. Methods: Twelve floorball teams (6 male, 6 female) in the Swedish premiere leagues were followed for 1 year (preseason, game season, and the entire year). The team medical staff reported injury incidence, location, type (traumatic or overuse), and severity. Differences between male and female players were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The injury incidence was greater in female players during preseason (22.9 vs 7.4, P = 0.01), game season (39.5 vs 28.3, P = 0.002), as well as the whole year combined (33.9 vs 20.8, P = 0.02). The thigh was the most common injury location in male players and the ankle in female players. Overuse injuries were more common among men and were primarily back problems. Traumatic injuries were more common in women—mainly knee and ankle injuries. Most injuries were of mild severity. A greater number of anterior cruciate ligament injuries occurred in women (n = 11) than in men (n = 2). Conclusion: The injury incidence was significantly greater in female floorball players throughout the entire floorball year. Male players sustained mostly overuse injuries while female players suffered traumatic injuries. The majority of injuries in floorball were mild, irrespective of player sex. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of the incidence and severity of floorball injuries is an essential step in the sequence of injury prevention

  20. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Blomqvist, Susanne; Leonhardt, Åsa; Arirachakaran, Pratanporn; Carlen, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins) and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins). MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001) more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral infections and complaints

  1. Work-Related Sleep Disturbances and Sickness Absence in the Swedish Working Population, 1993–1999

    PubMed Central

    Westerlund, Hugo; Alexanderson, Kristina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Hanson, Linda Magnusson; Theorell, Töres; Kivimäki, Mika

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine secular trends in work-related sleep disturbances and their association with sickness absence in the Swedish working population. Design. Nationally representative cross-sectional samples of the Swedish working population aged 16–64 (the biennial Swedish Work Environment Survey) in 1993, 1995, and 1999 respectively. Questionnaire data on work-related sleep disturbances were linked to records of medically-certified sick-leave spells exceeding 14 days obtained from national registers. Setting: All Sweden. Participants: A total of 28,424 individuals aged 16–65 with complete data (5162/5173 women/men in 1993; 4635/4764 in 1995; and 4422/4268 in 1999). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The age-adjusted proportion of women with work-related sleep disturbances at least once a week increased from 12.3% in 1993 to 21.7% in 1999 (P < 0.001). The corresponding figures for men were 12.5% to 18.6% (P < 0.001). There was a strong cross-sectional association between work-related sleep disturbances and sickness absence in both genders and in each studied year. Using binary logistic regressions and adjusting for age, supervisory position, and geographical region, the odds ratios for sickness absence for those who reported work-related sleep disturbances every day, compared with those who answered “not at all/seldom last 3 months” varied between 3.22 (1.88–5.50) and 4.26 (2.56–7.19), with the strongest associations seen in 1999. Adjustment for health indicators, especially depressive symptoms, attenuated the relationship substantially. Conclusions: Self-reported sleep disturbances attributed to work-related causes were on the rise in Sweden and were associated with medically-certified sickness absence. Most of this association seems to be accounted for by depressive symptoms. Citation: Westerlund H; Alexanderson K; Åkerstedt T; Hanson LM; Theorell T; Kivimäki M. Work-related sleep disturbances and sickness absence in the swedish

  2. Herd-level risk factors associated with cow mortality in Swedish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Alvåsen, K; Jansson Mörk, M; Hallén Sandgren, C; Thomsen, P T; Emanuelson, U

    2012-08-01

    An increase in on-farm mortality (euthanasia and death) in dairy herds has been reported in several countries in the last decade. This does not only imply possible problems with animal welfare, but it also causes economic losses to the farmer. The objective of this study was to evaluate time trends in on-farm dairy cow mortality in Sweden and identify potential herd-level risk factors. Data were retrieved on all Swedish dairy herds enrolled in the milk recording scheme between 2002 and 2010. Herds with a herd size of <20 cows or a mortality rate (MR) of >40 dead or euthanized cows per 100 cow-years were excluded. Two different models were used: 1 multiple-year analysis, which included 6,898 herds during the period 2002 to 2010 and 1 single-year analysis including 4,252 herds for the year 2010, where other variables that were not present during the entire multiple year study were analyzed. The outcome variable was the number of euthanized and dead cows per year and season. A negative binomial regression model, adjusted for clustering within herd, was applied to both models. Fixed effects in the multiple-year analysis were breed, calving interval, herd size, milk yield, region, season, pasture period, and year. The fixed effects in the single-year analysis were breed, calving interval, conventional versus organic farming, herd size, housing system, milk yield, region, and season. The results demonstrated that MR gradually increased from 5.1 to 6.6 events per 100 cow-years during the study period. Swedish MR are consequently on par with, or even greater than, MR among dairy herds in other comparable countries. Higher mortality was associated with larger herd size, longer calving intervals, and herds that had Swedish Holstein as the predominant breed. Lower mortality was observed in herds with a higher herd average milk yield, during the fall and winter, and in organically managed herds. There were regional differences in mortality. An interaction between herd size and

  3. Lead poisoning as possible cause of deaths at the Swedish House at Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, winter 1872-3

    PubMed Central

    Kjær, Kjell G

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate cause of death in 17 sealers who died in the Swedish house in Kapp Thordsen, Spitsbergen, during the winter of 1872-3. Design Analysis of skeletal samples from one sealer’s grave. Setting Field trip to Spitsbergen to exhume skeletal remains. Subjects One of 17 sailors who died in 1872-3. Results No objective signs of scurvy were found. The concentration of lead in the bone samples was 102.05 µg/g. Conclusions The high concentrations of lead indicate that this man died from lead poisoning, probably from food tins. The absence of macroscopic signs of scurvy supports this theory. PMID:19965937

  4. Resisting Focalisation, Gaining Empathy: Swedish Teenagers Read Irish Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjällström, Eva; Kokkola, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Resisting the will to empathise with a focalised character is assumed to be difficult for young readers, yet empirical evidence on how they actually respond is limited. This paper combines recent insights gleaned from cognitive literary studies with a small-scale empirical study of thirty-five Swedish adolescents reading an Irish short story in…

  5. Parental Governmentality: Involving "Immigrant Parents" in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, calls for partnership between state institutions and local communities punctuate discussions of a number of areas of public policy. In this article, the discourse of partnership is analyzed in recent developments in Swedish educational policy, and particularly the involvement of "immigrant parents" as partners collaborating…

  6. Storing of Public Data for Research--The Swedish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapaport, Edmund; Samuelson, Per

    1991-01-01

    Discusses record keeping and the preservation of archival materials for research purposes in Sweden. Concerns of privacy and confidentiality are addressed, the Swedish principle of access to public materials is described, the use of archival material for statistical research is discussed, and methods for balancing privacy and record keeping are…

  7. Working with Gender Pedagogics at 14 Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandstrom, Margareta; Stier, Jonas; Sandberg, Anette

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, gender pedagogics has been on the political agenda the last decade. Consequently, gender matters have been given much attention in Swedish preschools, and specialized pedagogues have also been trained to counteract socially constructed gender distinctions. Therefore, we have explored the enactment of gender pedagogics. We asked 17…

  8. Social Status and Sociopolitical Ideology among Swedish Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidanius, Jim; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Among Swedish youth, (1) higher social status was associated with more conservative political party preferences and greater capitalist orientation, punitiveness, support of social inequality, and racism; (2) economic inequality and social conservatism emerged as discriminators of social class categories; and (3) Lipset's theory that working class…

  9. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports. Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter, 1982/1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungskar, Marianne, Ed.

    This is the 1982-83 version of an annual catalogue of abstracts of the research reports published by the institutes of psychology and education in universities and teacher training colleges in Sweden. The abstracts are in English. (Abstracts of both English and Swedish papers are included.) The reports are grouped into the following broad subjects…

  10. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports, 1981/1982. (Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungskar, Marianne, Ed.

    The 1981-1982 annual abstract publication on Swedish behavioral science research reports is presented. The collection of data was completed on May 15, 1982. The reports are grouped in categories according to Psychological Abstracts and EUDISED Thesaurus (multilingual thesaurus for information processing in the field of education). The ERIC…

  11. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports, 1980/81. (Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Library for Psychology and Education, Stockholm (Sweden).

    The 1980-81 annual abstract publication on Swedish behavioral science research reports is presented. The collection of data was completed on May 1, 1981. The more than 300 reports are grouped in categories according to Psychological Abstracts and EUDISED Thesaurus (multilingual thesaurus for information processing in the field of education). The…

  12. Classification of Swedish Learner Essays by CEFR Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volodina, Elena; Pilán, Ildikó; Alfter, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes initial efforts on creating a system for the automatic assessment of Swedish second language (L2) learner essays from two points of view: holistic evaluation of the reached level according to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR), and the lexical analysis of texts for receptive and productive vocabulary per CEFR…

  13. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  14. The Swedish Armed Forces Operational Challenges for Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    Language Workshop (Atelier 2010 sur le langage de gestion du champ de bataille pour les operations en coalition). RTO-MP-MSG-079 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT...NATO procedures Crises Response scenario (BOGALAND) including NATO- and EU-led operations HEADQUARTERS SWEDISH ARMED FORCES VIKING 11

  15. On the "Vulnerability" of Syntactic Domains in Swedish and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the L2 acquisition of clausal syntax in postpuberty learners of German and Swedish regarding V2, VP headedness, and verb particle constructions. The learner data are tested against L2 theories according to which lower structural projections (VP) are acquired before higher functional projections (IP, CP), VP syntax is…

  16. Preschool Staff's View of Emergent Literacy Approaches in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norling, Martina

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate preschool staff's view of emergent literacy approaches in Swedish preschools with the following research question: How do preschool staff describe and explain the approaches they use in the emergent literacy environment of preschool? Focus-group interviews were conducted with 52 participating preschool units.…

  17. Swedish Behavioural Science Research Reports, 1981/1982. (Beteendevetenskapliga Rapporter).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungskar, Marianne, Ed.

    The 1981-1982 annual abstract publication on Swedish behavioral science research reports is presented. The collection of data was completed on May 15, 1982. The reports are grouped in categories according to Psychological Abstracts and EUDISED Thesaurus (multilingual thesaurus for information processing in the field of education). The ERIC…

  18. Career Interruptions and Subsequent Earnings: A Reexamination Using Swedish Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, James W.; Edin, Per-Anders; Sundstrom, Marianne; Vroman, Susan B.

    1999-01-01

    Cross-sectional and panel estimations of Swedish data reveal that different types of career interruptions have different effects on wages, varying by gender. Therefore, human capital depreciation does not entirely account for the negative effect of career interruptions on subsequent wages. (SK)

  19. Swedish Schools and Gender Equality in the 1970s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    In Sweden, as in many countries before Sweden, boys' academic achievements are getting considerable attention as the big gender issue. The Swedish gender equality policy that was put on the agenda in the 1970s is now associated with extreme discussions. This study aims to explore how gender equality was discussed in the 1970s, in connection with…

  20. Mentally disordered criminal offenders in the Swedish criminal system.

    PubMed

    Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge

    2010-01-01

    Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system.

  1. Swedish Lower Secondary School Teachers' Perceptions and Experiences Regarding Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Limin; Kristoffersson, Margaretha

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates homework in Swedish lower secondary schools: teachers' perceptions and experiences about it and their understanding of its potentials and challenges for students' learning and development. Data collected through an online survey (N = 201) mixed standardized questions and open questions. Descriptive statistics and…

  2. LANDSAT language at our reach. First Swedish satellite. Civilization detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wayne, D. L.; Bravo, V.

    1981-01-01

    Information on the use of LANDSAT data by Argentina is presented. Details on a Swedish satellite to be completed in 1984 and to be called VIKING are reported. Attempts to contact other civilizations in space by the use of radiotelescopes are discussed.

  3. Effective Mathematics Teaching in Finnish and Swedish Teacher Education Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmi, Kirsti; Ryve, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This article explores effective mathematics teaching as constructed in Finnish and Swedish teacher educators' discourses. Based on interview data from teacher educators as well as data from feedback discussions between teacher educators and prospective teachers in Sweden and Finland, the analysis shows that several aspects of the recent…

  4. Architects of Their Own Future? Swedish Career Guidance Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Nilsson, Goran

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have researched career guidance and information policies, particularly at the regional and local level. This article analyses Sweden's national governance of career guidance in schools from 1950 to 2007, and governance at the local level in today's highly decentralised Swedish educational system. The analysis is based on national…

  5. Deployment and release mechanisms on the Swedish satellite, VIKING

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksson, S.

    1983-01-01

    Two mechanism types are presented, a rigid boom system and a 'hold and release' mechanism for spherical sensors. Both mechanisms have been designed, developed and tested by Saab-Space AB, Linkoping, Sweden for the VIKING project under a contract from the Swedish Space Corporation.

  6. Institutional Response to the Swedish Model of Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karl-Axel; Wahlen, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Swedish model of quality assurance of higher education by examining the response of institutions to 27 quality audits and 19 follow-up interviews. Discusses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up approaches to internal quality assurance and suggests that, with growing professionalization, more limited result-oriented audits…

  7. Swedish experiences in implementing national and international safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsson, A. ); Elborn, M. ); Grahn, P. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that international safeguards have been applied in Sweden since the early 70s. Experiences have been achieved from exclusive bilateral and trilateral control followed by NPT safeguards in 1975. The Swedish State System for accountancy and Control (SSAC) includes all regulations that follows from prevailing obligations regarding the peaceful uses of nuclear material. The system has been developed in cooperation between the national authority, the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) and the Swedish nuclear industry. The paper presents experiences from the practical implementation of the SSAC and the IAEA safeguards system, gained by the SKI and the nuclear industry, respectively. Joint approaches and solutions to some significant safeguards issues are presented. The cooperation between the nuclear industry and the authority in R and D activities, in particular with respect to the Swedish Support Program is highlighted, e.g. the use of nuclear facilities in development or training tasks. some of the difficulties encountered with the system are also touched upon.

  8. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  9. A Swedish Mutual Support Society of Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binde, Per

    2012-01-01

    Mutual support societies for problem gamblers have existed in Sweden for 20 years. They have helped more people with gambling problems than any other institution inside or outside the Swedish health care system. This paper outlines the background of these societies and describes the meetings of one of them. Data come from interviews with members…

  10. Institutional Response to the Swedish Model of Quality Assurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsson, Karl-Axel; Wahlen, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the Swedish model of quality assurance of higher education by examining the response of institutions to 27 quality audits and 19 follow-up interviews. Discusses the relationship between top-down and bottom-up approaches to internal quality assurance and suggests that, with growing professionalization, more limited result-oriented audits…

  11. Breaking bad habits by education - smoking dynamics among Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Kjellsson, Gustav; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Lyttkens, Carl Hampus

    2011-07-01

    In a dynamic Two-Part Model (2 PM), we find the effect of previous smoking on the participation decision to be decreasing with education among Swedish women, i.e. more educated are less state dependent. However, we do not find an analogous effect of education on the conditional intensity of consumption. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  13. Dental claims in the Swedish Patient Insurance Scheme.

    PubMed

    René, N; Owall, B; Cronström, R

    1991-06-01

    The Swedish Patient Insurance Scheme covers treatment injuries and guarantees the replacement of failed removable prostheses for 1 year and fixed prostheses for 2 years after fitting. In this paper, 573 dental cases are analysed for a 3-month period in 1986, during which crowns and bridges formed the vast majority of failed treatments that were reported.

  14. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  15. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  16. The Discovery of the Social Life of Swedish Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This article demonstrates the "discovery of the social life of schoolchildren" by showing how an interest for children's peer relations emerged in a Swedish educational and medial context. Drawing on historical and sociological childhood studies, the article analyses the concept of schoolchildren's social life in the 1950s, 1960s and…

  17. Implementing Test Enhanced Learning: Swedish Teacher Students' Perception of Quizzing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Schéle, Ingrid; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola

    2016-01-01

    Given previous findings on test enhanced learning, the present study examined the implementation of this practice in terms of quizzing, during the progress of a course. After completing the university course, 88 Swedish teacher students were asked to answer an adapted Retrieval Practice and Test Anxiety Survey. The results showed that students…

  18. Personal and Ethnic Identity in Swedish Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari; Lorente, Carolyn Cass; Mansoory, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes empirical evidence about identity development in Swedish adolescents and emerging adults and highlights cultural and contextual influences that may be specific to coming of age in Sweden. Broad trends in identity options are evident in the lives of many youth living in Sweden. Although research on identity and diversity is in…

  19. Swedish Preschool Leadership--Supportive of Music or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrlin, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This study uses observations and interviews to investigate how the leadership at three Swedish preschools in Sweden has impacted the didactic choices made. Two of these preschools use music as a tool for stimulating language and social development, while the third preschool serves as a comparison. The inspiration that the leadership has brought to…

  20. Swedish Educational Policy and Reforms--Intention versus Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odin, Bjorn

    1987-01-01

    Swedish school reform since the 1970s has involved a shift in policy and underlying values throughout the entire implementation process. Educational reform has broken into loosely connected fragments with relevant reform makers at all educational levels. Despite a newly decentralized process, observed changes are not really structural. Includes…

  1. Parental Governmentality: Involving "Immigrant Parents" in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlstedt, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    In Sweden, calls for partnership between state institutions and local communities punctuate discussions of a number of areas of public policy. In this article, the discourse of partnership is analyzed in recent developments in Swedish educational policy, and particularly the involvement of "immigrant parents" as partners collaborating…

  2. Narrative Skills in Swedish Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterskiold, Christina; Hansson, Kristina; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the development of narrative skills in Swedish children with language impairment between age 5 and age 10. Seventeen children with LI and two control groups of age peers with typical development participated in a picture elicited story telling task. Analyses included measures of story content, cohesion and grammar. Our…

  3. Arts Education in Swedish Teacher Training--What's at Stake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Monica; Ericsson, Claes

    2011-01-01

    Swedish teacher education has undergone several reforms in recent decades aimed at incorporating teacher education into the university setting and strengthening the teaching profession. In view of earlier research that has shown how arts education in schools is ruled by dominant knowledge ideologies, the purpose of the project is to critically…

  4. Students with Reading Difficulties/Dyslexia: A Longitudinal Swedish Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Eva Heimdahl; Fischbein, Siv; Roll-Pettersson, Lise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the longitudinal development of students having difficulties with reading and their decoding ability in Swedish compulsory school. Another aim was to relate this to the experiences of educational activities expressed by students and parents. The decoding ability was assessed by a word chain test given at…

  5. On the "Vulnerability" of Syntactic Domains in Swedish and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnacker, Ute

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the L2 acquisition of clausal syntax in postpuberty learners of German and Swedish regarding V2, VP headedness, and verb particle constructions. The learner data are tested against L2 theories according to which lower structural projections (VP) are acquired before higher functional projections (IP, CP), VP syntax is…

  6. Non-Native Speakers Learning Swedish Together in Virtual Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Hilkka; Tedremaa-Levorato, Kristiina

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview of a cooperation project launched three years ago, under which students who study Swedish at two universities across the Baltic Sea have a chance to complete a part of relevant courses in their study programmes together in an online course. The primary goals of joint studying are: to encourage students from…

  7. Resisting Focalisation, Gaining Empathy: Swedish Teenagers Read Irish Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjällström, Eva; Kokkola, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    Resisting the will to empathise with a focalised character is assumed to be difficult for young readers, yet empirical evidence on how they actually respond is limited. This paper combines recent insights gleaned from cognitive literary studies with a small-scale empirical study of thirty-five Swedish adolescents reading an Irish short story in…

  8. Health effects of environmental exposure to cadmium: objectives, design and organization of the cadmibel study: a cross-sectional morbidity study carried out in Belgium from 1985 to 1989

    PubMed Central

    Lauwerys, Robert; Amery, Antoon; Bernard, Alfred; Bruaux, Pierre; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, Françoise; De Plaen, Pierre; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Fagard, Robert; Lijnen, Paul; Nick, Laurence; Roels, Harry; Rondia, Désiré; Saint-Remy, Annie; Sartor, Francis; Staessen, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Cadmium is a cumulative environmental pollutant. For the general population mainly exposed by the oral route and through tobacco smoke inhalation, the kidney is the critical organ. Belgium is the principal producer of cadmium in Europe, and certain areas of the country are polluted by cadmium mainly because of past emissions from nonferrous industries. Preliminary studies carried out in one polluted area have suggested that environmental pollution might lead to an increased uptake of cadmium by the human body and possibly to health effects. Thus, a large-scale morbidity study has been initiated to assess the validity of this hypothesis. The present paper describes the protocol of this study. Its main objectives are to determine to what extent environmental exposure to cadmium resulting from industrial emissions may lead to accumulation of the metal in the human organism; to establish whether or not environmental exposure may induce renal changes and/or influence blood pressure; and to assess the acceptable internal dose of cadmium for the general population. The study design takes advantage of the fact that biological indicators of exposure, body burden, and early nephrotoxic effects of cadmium are available, which increase the likelihood of detecting a cause-effect relationship. PMID:2269233

  9. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  10. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Eva L.; Mathiassen, S. E.; Vingård, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99) and 2.68 (1.09–6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65) and 2.11 (1.08–4.12)). Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation. PMID:26558282

  11. A collective theory of happiness: words related to the word "happiness" in Swedish online newspapers.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Danilo; Sikström, Sverker

    2013-06-01

    It may be suggested that the representation of happiness in online media is collective in nature because it is a picture of happiness communicated by relatively few individuals to the masses. The present study is based on articles published in Swedish daily online newspapers in 2010; the data corpus comprises 1.5 million words. We investigated which words were most (un)common in articles containing the word "happiness" as compared with articles not containing this word. The results show that words related to people (by use of all relevant pronouns: you/me and us/them); important others (e.g., grandmother, mother); the Swedish royal wedding (e.g., Prince Daniel, Princess Victoria); and the FIFA World Cup (e.g., Zlatan, Argentina, Drogba) were highly recurrent in articles containing the word happiness. In contrast, words related to objects, such as money (e.g., millions, billions), bestselling gadgets (e.g., iPad, iPhone), and companies (e.g., Google, Windows), were predictive of contexts not recurrent with the word happiness. The results presented here are in accordance with findings in the happiness literature showing that relationships, not material things, are what make people happy. We suggest that our findings mirror a collective theory of happiness, that is, a shared picture or agreement, among members of a community, concerning what makes people happy. The fact that this representation is made public on such a large scale makes it collective in nature.

  12. Malpractice claims in Swedish telenursing: lessons learned from interviews with telenurses and managers.

    PubMed

    Röing, Marta; Holmström, Inger K

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with serious malpractice claims within Swedish Healthcare Direct, the national telephone helpline in Sweden. At least 33 claims of malpractice have been filed since the service was created in 2003. Although a low number, consequences have been tragic. Research in Swedish telenursing on contributing systemic and organizational factors and consequences of malpractice claims is sparse. The objective was to explore the direct experience of telenurses' and call center managers' involvement in actual malpractice claims-with focus on factors that may have contributed to the claims-and on the consequences of the claims. Six telenurses and five managers agreed to participate in open-ended interviews. A directed content analysis approach was chosen to analyze the transcribed interview texts. Stress, shiftwork, fatigue, multitasking, understaffing, and factors embedded in the system could have contributed to the malpractice claims. Safety management was treated locally, with no attempts at organizational reforms. The solitary nature of the telenursing task emphasizes the importance of an organization, which works toward providing an environment where telenurses can feel safe and supported. This may require, in turn, a change in both organizational and professional attitudes toward safety and risk of error. The greatest hinder may be healthcare providers themselves. If the difficulties in recruiting participants for this study are any indication, reaching out to healthcare providers who remain silent may be the greatest challenge.

  13. Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Swedish Chimney Sweeps, 1958–2006

    PubMed Central

    Jansson, Catarina; Hugosson, Marcus; Tinnerberg, Håkan; Gustavsson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cancer incidence in an expanded cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps. Methods. We added male chimney sweep trade union members (1981–2006) to an earlier cohort (employed 1918–1980) and linked them to nationwide registers of cancer, causes of deaths, and total population. The total cohort (n = 6320) was followed from 1958 through 2006. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) using the male Swedish population as reference. We estimated exposure as years of employment and analyzed for exposure–response associations by Poisson regression. Results. A total of 813 primary cancers were observed versus 626 expected (SIR = 1.30; 95% confidence interval = 1.21, 1.39). As in a previous follow-up, SIRs were significantly increased for cancer of the esophagus, liver, lung, bladder, and all hematopoietic cancer. New findings included significantly elevated SIRs for cancer of the colon, pleura, adenocarcinoma of the lung, and at unspecified sites. Total cancer and bladder cancer demonstrated positive exposure–response associations. Conclusions. Exposure to soot and asbestos are likely causes of the observed cancer excesses, with contributions from adverse lifestyle factors. Preventive actions to control work exposures and promote healthier lifestyles are an important priority. PMID:23327283

  14. Prevalence, age at onset, and risk factors of self-reported asthma among Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, L M; Irewall, T; Lindberg, Anne; Stenfors, Nikolai

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma and age at asthma onset between Swedish adolescent elite skiers and a reference group and to assess risk factors associated with asthma. Postal questionnaires were sent to 253 pupils at the Swedish National Elite Sport Schools for cross-country skiing, biathlon, and ski-orienteering ("skiers") and a random sample of 500 adolescents aged 16-20, matched for sport school municipalities ("reference"). The response rate was 96% among the skiers and 48% in the reference group. The proportion of participants with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma was higher among skiers than in the reference group (27 vs. 19%, p = 0.046). Female skiers reported a higher prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma compared to male skiers (34 vs. 20%, p = 0.021). The median age at asthma onset was higher among skiers (12.0 vs. 8.0 years; p < 0.001). Female sex, family history of asthma, nasal allergy, and being a skier were risk factors associated with self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. Swedish adolescent elite cross-country skiers have a higher asthma prevalence and later age at asthma onset compared to a reference population. Being an adolescent elite skier is an independent risk factor associated with asthma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Eco-SpaCE: an object-oriented, spatially explicit model to assess the risk of multiple environmental stressors on terrestrial vertebrate populations.

    PubMed

    Loos, Mark; Ragas, Ad M J; Plasmeijer, Rinus; Schipper, Aafke M; Hendriks, A Jan

    2010-08-15

    Wildlife organisms are exposed to a combination of chemical, biological and physical stressors. Information about the relative impact of each stressor can support management decisions, e.g., by the allocation of resources to counteract those stressors that cause most harm. The present paper introduces Eco-SpaCE; a novel receptor-oriented cumulative exposure model for wildlife species that includes relevant ecological processes such as spatial habitat variation, food web relations, predation, and life history. A case study is presented in which the predicted mortality due to cadmium contamination is compared with the predicted mortality due to flooding, starvation, and predation for three small mammal species (Wood mouse, Common vole, and European mole) and a predator (Little owl) living in a lowland floodplain along the river Rhine in The Netherlands. Results indicated that cadmium is the principal stressor for European mole and Little owl populations. Wood mouse and Common vole population densities were mainly influenced by flooding and food availability. Their estimated population sizes were consistent with numbers reported in literature. Predictions for cadmium accumulation and flooding stress were in agreement with field data. The large uncertainty around cadmium toxicity for wildlife leads to the conclusion that more species-specific ecotoxicological data is required for more realistic risk assessments. The predictions for starvation were subject to the limited quantitative information on biomass obtainable as food for vertebrates. It is concluded that the modelling approach employed in Eco-SpaCE, combining ecology with ecotoxicology, provides a viable option to explore the relative contribution of contamination to the overall stress in an ecosystem. This can help environmental managers to prioritize management options, and to reduce local risks.

  16. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard.

    PubMed

    Rutqvist, Lars E; Curvall, Margareta; Hassler, Thord; Ringberger, Tommy; Wahlberg, Inger

    2011-05-16

    Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC) so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe.The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs.This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control.

  17. Swedish snus and the GothiaTek® standard

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Some smokeless tobacco products, such as Swedish snus, are today considered to be associated with substantially fewer health hazards than cigarettes. This risk differential has contributed to the scientific debate about the possibilities of harm reduction within the tobacco area. Although current manufacturing methods for snus build on those that were introduced more than a century ago, the low levels of unwanted substances in modern Swedish snus are largely due to improvements in production techniques and selection of raw materials in combination with several programs for quality assurance and quality control. These measures have been successively introduced during the past 30-40 years. In the late 1990s they formed the basis for a voluntary quality standard for Swedish snus named GothiaTek®. In recent years the standard has been accepted by the members of the trade organization European Smokeless Tobacco Council (ESTOC) so it has now evolved into an industrial standard for all smokeless tobacco products in Europe. The initial impetus for the mentioned changes of the production was quality problems related to microbial activity and formation of ammonia and nitrite in the finished products. Other contributing factors were that snus came under the jurisdiction of the Swedish Food Act in 1971, and concerns that emerged in the 1960s and 1970s about health effects of tobacco, and the significance of agrochemical residues and other potential toxicants in food stuffs. This paper summarizes the historical development of the manufacture of Swedish snus, describes the chemical composition of modern snus, and gives the background and rationale for the GothiaTek® standard, including the selection of constituents for which the standard sets limits. The paper also discusses the potential future of this voluntary standard in relation to current discussions about tobacco harm reduction and regulatory science in tobacco control. PMID:21575206

  18. Effects of Swedish Massage on the Improvement of Mood Disorders in Women with Breast Cancer undergoing Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Darabpour, Sara; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Ghasemi, Erfan

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and the second leading cause of cancer deaths. The detection and treatment of this cancer may create mental pressure and lower mood levels, causing anxiety, depression, stress, and pain for the patients. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Swedish massage on mood disorders in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy at the cancer institute of the Imam Khomeini hospital at the Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Patients and Methods This study consisted of a clinical trial including 100 patients with breast cancer. The participants were chosen randomly, with their consent, by the use of polling, to be included in the intervention group (which received a Swedish massage three times a week, for 30 minutes, over five weeks) and control group (which received routine care). At the beginning of the intervention and after 5 weeks, the mood disorders of the patients, including anger, anxiety, depression, and any positive affect, were assessed using the affective control scale (ACS) questionnaire. Results Before the intervention, there was no significant difference in the average of the overall scale between the intervention and control groups in the subscales of anger, anxiety, depression, and positive affect (P = 0.469). The average of the overall scale in the Swedish massage group decreased from 3.52 ± 0.65 to 2.42 ± 0.76 when compared to the pre-intervention conditions, and to (P < 0.001) after the intervention. Moreover, the values for the control group were 3.41 ± 0.94 for the pre-intervention and 3.38 ± 0.9 after the intervention (P = 0.620). Conclusions When compared to the control group, the Swedish massage showed an improvement in the mood disorders of women with breast cancer. PMID:28191337

  19. The contribution of school meals to energy and nutrient intake of Swedish children in relation to dietary guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Osowski, Christine Persson; Lindroos, Anna Karin; Barbieri, Heléne Enghardt; Becker, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    Background In Sweden, school meals are served free of charge and Swedish law states that school meals must be nutritious. Nevertheless, data on children's energy and nutrient intake from school meals are scarce. Objective The aim was to describe the contribution of school meals to Swedish children's nutrient and energy intake during weekdays and compare this to the reference values based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), which have been adopted as the official Swedish recommendations. Design A cross-sectional food consumption survey was performed on 1,840 Swedish children attending Grade 2 (mean age 8.6) and Grade 5 (mean age 11.7). The children's nutrient and energy intake was compared to the reference values based on the NNR. Results The mean intake from school meals of energy, carbohydrates, dietary fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values and the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and sodium exceeded the reference values in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Additionally, the pupils in Grade 5 did not reach the reference values for folate, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and zinc (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Standardized for energy, dietary fiber, PUFA, and vitamins D and E did not reach the reference values, whereas the reference values for SFA and sodium were exceeded in both age groups (significant differences, all p≤0.001). Conclusions The study pointed to some central nutrients in need of improvement as regards school meals in Sweden, namely the quality of fat, dietary fiber, sodium, vitamin D, and iron. Some of these results may be attributed to the children not reporting eating the recommended number of calories, the children omitting some components of the meal, or underreporting, as a consequence of which the reference values for several nutrients were not met. PMID:26522664

  20. An HST Survey for 100-1000 au Companions around Young Stellar Objects in the Orion Molecular Clouds: Evidence for Environmentally Dependent Multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounkel, M.; Megeath, S. T.; Poteet, C. A.; Fischer, W. J.; Hartmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    We present a near-infrared survey for the visual multiples in the Orion molecular clouds region at separations between 100 and 1000 au. These data were acquired at 1.6 μm with the NICMOS and WFC3 cameras on the Hubble Space Telescope. Additional photometry was obtained for some of the sources at 2.05 μm with NICMOS and in the L‧ band with NSFCAM2 on NASA’s InfraRed Telescope Facility. Toward 129 protostars and 197 pre-main-sequence stars with disks observed with WFC3, we detect 21 and 28 candidate companions between the projected separations of 100-1000 au, of which less than 5 and 8, respectively, are chance line-of-sight coincidences. The resulting companion fraction (CF) after the correction for the line-of-sight contamination is {14.4}-1.3+1.1% for protostars and {12.5}-0.8+1.2% for the pre-main-sequence stars. These values are similar to those found for main-sequence stars, suggesting that there is little variation in the CF with evolution, although several observational biases may mask a decrease in the CF from protostars to the main-sequence stars. After segregating the sample into two populations based on the surrounding surface density of young stellar objects, we find that the CF in the high stellar density regions (ΣYSO > 45 pc-2) is approximately 50% higher than that found in the low stellar density regions (ΣYSO < 45 pc-2). We interpret this as evidence for the elevated formation of companions at 100-1000 au in the denser environments of Orion. We discuss possible reasons for this elevated formation.

  1. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH).

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Anna; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Leineweber, Constanze; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51-60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men.

  2. Do Predictors of Career Success Differ between Swedish Women and Men? Data from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH)

    PubMed Central

    Nyberg, Anna; Johansson, Gunn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to explore predictors of objective career success among Swedish women and men, focussing on gender differences. Data were drawn from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) with a total of 3670 female and 2773 male participants. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for job promotion and an above-average salary increase between 2008 and 2010 were obtained through binary logistic regression analyses. Individual and organisational factors measured in 2008 were used as predictors in analyses stratified by sex. Mutual adjustment was performed for these variables, as well as for labour market sector and staff category at baseline. In both sexes, younger age predicted both job promotion and an above-average salary increase. Job promotion was also in both sexes predicted by being part of decision-making processes, having conflicts with superiors, and being eager to advance. Furthermore, promotion was predicted by, among men, being educated to post-graduate level and having an open coping strategy and, among women, working >60 hours/week. An above-average salary increase was predicted in both sexes by having a university education. Postgraduate education, having children living at home, and being very motivated to advance predicted an above-average salary increase among women, as did working 51–60 hours/week and being part of decision-making processes in men. Gender differences were seen in several predictors. In conclusion, the results support previous findings of gender differences in predictors of career success. A high level of education, motivation to advance, and procedural justice appear to be more important predictors of career success among women, while open coping was a more important predictor among men. PMID:26501351

  3. Internationalizing the Universities: A Swedish Approach. Summary of a Preliminary Report from the Internationalization Committee of the Office of the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Chancellor of the Swedish Universities, Stockholm.

    In an effort to internationalize Swedish universities, a committee was established to examine the approach to achieve this goal in light of the present system of education. Chapter one concerns the Swedish educational system, emphasizing primary and secondary education, the universities and professional schools, education at the universities and…

  4. Incidence of hand eczema in female Swedish hairdressers

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Marie‐Louise; Albin, Maria; Brisman, Jonas; Diab, Kerstin Kronholm; Lillienberg, Linnéa; Mikoczy, Zoli; Nielsen, Jörn; Rylander, Lars; Torén, Kjell; Meding, Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the occurrence of hand eczema in hairdressers in Sweden. Methods The occurrence of hand eczema was estimated in a Swedish longitudinal retrospective cohort study including all female graduates from vocational schools for hairdressers from 1970 to 1995. A stratified sample from the general population acted as controls. A self‐administered questionnaire including questions on the occurrence of hand eczema, skin atopy, working periods and number of hair treatments performed per week was sent to the participants. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of hand eczema were estimated. Results The incidence rate of hand eczema in hairdressers was 23.8 cases/1000 person‐years, whereas in hairdressers who were aged <25 years it was 37.1/1000 person‐years. The corresponding IRR for hairdressers compared with controls was 2.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2 to 2.8), and that for younger hairdressers was 3.1 (95% CI 2.6 to 3.5). The mean age at onset of hand eczema was 21.6 years for hairdressers and 21.2 years for controls. The 1‐year prevalence of hand eczema was 18.0% for hairdressers and 12.1% for controls. A large number of hair treatments involving exposure to skin irritants and sensitisers were reported. The incidence rate of hand eczema was higher among individuals with a history of childhood eczema, both for hairdressers and for controls, giving an (age‐adjusted) IRR of 1.9 and 2.2, respectively. The attributable fraction of hand eczema from skin atopy was 9.6%. A synergistic effect of skin atopy and hairdressing was found on the occurrence of hand eczema. The relative excess risk due to interaction was 1.21 (95% CI 0.21 to 2.21; p = 0.01). Conclusion Hairdressers are highly exposed to skin‐damaging substances. The self‐reported incidence of hand eczema was substantially higher in female hairdressers than in controls from the general population and than that found previously in register‐based studies. For many individuals, onset

  5. Family nursing research for practice: the Swedish perspective.

    PubMed

    Saveman, Britt-Inger

    2010-02-01

    This article offers a synthesis of the significant developments and progress of family nursing in Sweden. A review was conducted to locate Swedish family nursing research produced over the past 10 years. CINAHL, Medline, and PubMed were the primary databases used to locate approximately 75 family nursing studies conducted in Sweden. The majority of the studies used descriptive methods with data collected from surveys and interviews involving nurses and family members either together or individually. Only a few of the studies examined family nursing interventions. This article also reports the results of a recent survey of Swedish nurses that examined how family nursing is used in practice. After 10 years of creating a strong foundation for family-focused nursing in Sweden, there is still a need for nurse researchers, educators, and administrators to collaborate in the implementation of family nursing to practice.

  6. Nurses Contribution to Swedish eHealth Strategy.

    PubMed

    Törnvall, Eva

    2012-01-01

    In 2005 the Swedish government identified the need of common development of information and communication technology in health and social care. The purpose of this paper is to describe nurses' contribution to the establishment of a national cooperation concerning eHealth development in health and social care. The Swedish strategy of eHealth have six actions areas eServices for accessibility and empowerment, Usable and accessible information (for staff), Knowledge management, innovation and learning, Creating a common technical infrastructure, Creating a common information structure and Bringing laws and regulations into line with extended use of ICT. Nurses are involved in all action areas and emphasize the empowerment and safety of the patient and account of ethical values. Patients' possibility to take part of the information and adding information in their own patient health record, nurses' education and safe IT support in medication are areas that need further development.

  7. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, K.; Holm, L.E.; Eklund, G. )

    1990-12-01

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation.

  8. The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E; Nordström, Jonas; Risén, Emma; Malmström, Maria E; Gröndahl, Fredrik

    2017-09-22

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  9. Beliefs and attitudes among Swedish workers regarding the risk of hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Eva B; Morata, Thais C; Nylén, Per; Krieg, Edward F; Johnson, Ann-Christin

    2004-01-01

    The beliefs and attitudes regarding the risk of hearing loss and their impact on hearing protector use were investigated among Swedish workers. A questionnaire, developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), was used. The study objective was to assess workers' attitudes towards using hearing protection devices (HPDs) and to enhance the ability of workers to protect themselves from occupational hearing loss. Ninety-five per cent of the respondents were aware that loud noise could damage their hearing, 90% considered that a hearing loss would be a serious problem, and 85% believed that HPDs could protect their hearing. However, lower percentages of workers always used the HPDs when they were noise-exposed. Fifty-five per cent of the workers indicated that they could not hear warning signals when using HPDs, and 45% of the workers indicated that they considered HPDs to be uncomfortable. These issues must be addressed to make HPD use more effective.

  10. A Swedish translation and validation of the Disgust Scale: a measure of disgust sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Fredrik; Hursti, Timo J

    2004-09-01

    The psychometric properties of a Swedish version of Haidt, McCauley and Rozin's (1994) Disgust Scale were studied. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original model with eight factors (food, animals, body products, sex, body envelope violations, death, hygiene, and magic) provided satisfactory fit to the data (N= 280), significantly better than to the alternative one-factor and five-factor models. As in the US version women scored significantly higher than men. Positive correlations with measures of food neophobia (r= 0.30, p < 0.0001) and nausea frequency (rs= 0.28, p < 0.001) indicate convergent validity. In a separate study (N= 30) a behavioral measure of the willingness to touch, hold, and taste disgusting food objects correlated negatively with the Disgust Scale (r=-0.46, p < 0.01), indicating criterion-related validity.

  11. A Swedish knee-cage for stabilizing short below-knee stumps.

    PubMed

    Isakov, E; Mizrahi, J; Susak, Z; Onna, I

    1992-08-01

    Stump length is an important factor in attaining successful prosthetic rehabilitation in below-knee (BK) amputees. Stability of the stump-prosthesis complex is impaired in the case of a stump shorter than 10 cm. Thus, fitting a prosthesis to a BK amputee with a stump which is very short often requires the use of different prosthetic techniques. In this work, the authors suggest the use of a Swedish knee-cage attached to a conventional patellar-tendon-bearing prosthesis as an alternative solution in the case of a short BK stump. Objective evaluation was performed by an analysis of gait and the foot-ground reaction forces. The results obtained indicate an improvement in all the measured parameters resulting from the modified stump-prosthesis complex.

  12. Sleep disturbances among Swedish soldiers after military service abroad.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Karolina; Saers, Johannes; Lindberg, Eva; Janson, Christer

    2016-01-01

    Aims Since 1956, more than 100,000 Swedish soldiers have served abroad on various international missions. The aim of this paper was to determine whether there was a connection between military service abroad and sleep disorders among Swedish soldiers. Methods The prevalence of sleep disturbances among 1,080 veterans from Kosovo and Afghanistan was compared with almost 27,000 Swedes from a general population sample, using propensity score matching and logistic regression. The sleep disturbances studied were habitual snoring, difficulty inducing sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakenings (EMA), and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Insomnia was defined as having at least one of DIS, DMS, or EMA. The covariates used in the matching and adjustments were age, gender, smoking habits, BMI, education, ever having had asthma, moist snuff, and exercise habits. Results The veterans had a significantly lower prevalence of insomnia (26.2% versus 30.4%) and EDS (22.7% versus 29.4%) compared with a matched group from the reference population, using propensity score matching. Analyses with logistic regression showed that belonging to the military population was related to a lower risk of having DMS (adjusted OR (95% CI) 0.77 (0.64-0.91)), insomnia (OR 0.82 (0.71-0.95)), and EDS (OR 0.74 (0.63-0.86)), whereas no significant difference was found for snoring, DIS, and EMA. Conclusion Swedish veterans have fewer problems with insomnia and daytime sleepiness than the general Swedish population. The explanation of our findings may be the selection processes involved in becoming a soldier and when sampling personnel for military assignments abroad.

  13. Swedish translation and linguistic validation of the multidimensional dyspnoea profile

    PubMed Central

    Ekström, Magnus; Sundh, Josefin

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnoea, the feeling of breathing discomfort, consists of multiple dimensions that can vary in intensity, including the level of unpleasantness, qualities or descriptors of the sensation, emotional responses, and impact on function. No validated instrument for multidimensional measurement of dyspnoea is available in Swedish. The Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP) was recently developed to measure the unpleasantness, sensory qualities, and emotional responses of dyspnoea across diseases and settings. We aimed to take forward a Swedish version of the MDP. Methods Translation and linguistic validation of the MDP was conducted in collaboration with a specialised company in the field (Mapi, Lyon, France). The structured process involved forward and backward translations by two independent certified translators, input from an in-country linguistic consultant, the developers, and three respiratory physicians. Understandability and acceptability were evaluated through in-depth interviews with five patients with dyspnoea in accordance with international guidelines. Results and Conclusion A Swedish version of the MDP was obtained and linguistically validated. The MDP includes 11 rated items: the immediate unpleasantness of the sensation, the presence and intensity of five sensory qualities, and the intensity of five emotional responses to dyspnoea. The time period of measurement is specified by the user. The MDP is copyrighted by the developers but can be used free of charge in the context of non-funded academic research. Conclusion The MDP is the first instrument for measuring multiple dimensions of dyspnoea available in Swedish and should be validated across diseases and settings. Multidimensional measurement is essential for improved assessment and management of dyspnoea in research and clinical care. PMID:27834177

  14. Impacts of foreign direct investment on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Svedin, Dick; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have found that foreign direct investment (FDI) can have positive impacts on productivity. However, while FDI has clearly positive impacts on technology transfers, its effects on resource use within firms is less clear and, in principle, efficiency losses might offset some of the productivity gains associated with improved technologies. In this paper, we study the impacts of FDI on efficiency in Swedish manufacturing. We find that foreign ownership has positive impacts on efficiency, supporting the earlier findings on productivity.

  15. Hearing status among commercial pilots in a Swedish airline company.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Torsten; Wieslander, Gunilla; Dammstrom, Bo-Goran; Norback, Dan

    2008-08-01

    The aim was to study hearing impairment in commercial pilots. A total of 634 male and 30 female pilots (N=664) in a Swedish airline company underwent repeated audiological tests during the period 1974-2005. The last test was used to study hearing impairment. The mean values for the hearing test at 3, 4, and 6 kHz were used for the ear with worse hearing impairment. Data was compared with a general adult Swedish population (n=603) not occupationally exposed to noise. Equivalent noise levels gate to gate (Leq) were measured in the cockpit of different aircraft. Leq was 75-81 dB (A), peak exposures were 105 dB (A) from the cabin call signal. Median values were similar as in the reference group at all ages. There was no association between years of employment, tobacco smoking, and hearing impairment, when adjusted for age and gender by multiple logistic regressions analysis. In conclusion, pilots are exposed to equivalent noise levels below the current Swedish occupational standard of 85 dB (A), with short peak exposures above the standard, and have normal age-matched hearing thresholds.

  16. Incentivizing deceased organ donation: a Swedish priority-setting perspective.

    PubMed

    Omar, Faisal; Tinghög, Gustav; Welin, Stellan

    2011-03-01

    The established deceased organ donation models in many countries, relying chiefly on altruism, have failed to motivate a sufficient number of donors. As a consequence organs that could save lives are routinely missed leading to a growing gap between demand and supply. The aim of this paper is twofold; firstly to develop a proposal for compensated deceased organ donation that could potentially address the organ shortage; secondly to examine the compatibility of the proposal with the ethical values of the Swedish healthcare system. The proposal for compensating deceased donation is grounded in behavioural agency theory and combines extrinsic, intrinsic and signalling incentives in order to increase prosocial behaviour. Furthermore the compatibility of our proposal with the values of the Swedish healthcare system is evaluated in reference to the principles of human dignity, needs and solidarity, and cost effectiveness. Extrinsic incentives in the form of a 5,000 compensation towards funeral expenses paid to the estate of the deceased or family is proposed. Intrinsic and signalling incentives are incorporated by allowing all or part of the compensation to be diverted as a donation to a reputable charity. The decision for organ donation must not be against the explicit will of the donor. We find that our proposal for compensated deceased donation is compatible with the values of the Swedish healthcare system, and therefore merits serious consideration. It is however important to acknowledge issues relating to coercion, commodification and loss of public trust and the ethical challenges that they might pose.

  17. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    PubMed

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  18. Intended validation in the Swedish program for spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cronhjort, B.; Sheng, G.

    1996-12-01

    In September 1992, for the third time, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) presented its triennial R&D program, as stipulated by the Swedish Act on Nuclear Activities with amendments, e.g. SFS 1995:875. The program, entitled Programme for Research, Development, Demonstration and Other Measures, was carefully reviewed by some forty various national organizations, and universities, as well as by national authorities. In December 1993, the Government decided amongst other things, to ask SKB to develop a validation strategy for models related to the safety assessment of the intended disposal system. Thus, SKB has supplemented its RD&D-Programme 92, and the program with supplement has been reviewed anew by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), and by the National Council for Nuclear Waste (KASAM). SKB has commented upon the reviews. The final Government decision became available on May 18, 1995. In making no comments on SKB`s offered strategy, the Government would seem to reflect tacit approval. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the intended validation strategy. The deliberations related to SKB`s developing the strategy were presented by the authors in a companion paper. In conclusion, the authors relate SKB`s intended strategy to some recent independent research on validation of general system models.

  19. Swedish hunters' safety behaviour and experience of firearm incidents.

    PubMed

    Junuzovic, Mensura; Midlöv, Patrik; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Eriksson, Anders

    2013-11-01

    Since any firearm injury is potentially lethal, it is of great interest to prevent firearm incidents. This study investigated such incidents during hunting and Swedish hunters' safety behaviour. A 48-item questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 1000 members of the Swedish Association for Hunting and Wildlife Management. The questions considered demographics, hunting experience/hunting habits/safety behaviour/attitudes and experience of careless weapon handling, hunters' weapons and safety behaviour relating to weapons, health status, firearm incidents and their preventability, and personal comments on the questionnaire. The response rate was almost 50%. The mean age of the responders was 54 years; 5% were females. Almost none (1%) reported hunting under the influence of alcohol. Young age and male sex were positively associated with risk behaviour, although the presence of multiple risk behaviours in the same responder was not common. A very high degree of compliance with Swedish laws regarding weapon storage was reported. One-quarter of the responders had witnessed a firearm incident caused by another hunter, which in most situations did not result in human injury or death. An unsafetied weapon was the most common reported "cause" of these incidents. Experience of a firearm incident was not uncommon and the majority of the responders considered the incident in question to be preventable. This study provides a picture of the possible risk behaviour among hunters and the results suggest that future prevention work should target safer weapon handling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Portrayals of lobotomy in American and Swedish media.

    PubMed

    Ogren, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Psychosurgery has a long history dating back to the 1880s when Gottlieb Burckhardt performed focal cerebral cortical excisions on the brains of six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. His operations were vividly contested by the medical community of the time. In 1936, when Walter J. Freeman and James W. Watts performed their initial prefrontal lobotomies in the United States, they were met with some professional opposition from superintendents, who would not provide them with patients for the operation. However, Freeman and Watts managed to cope well with the opponents. In newspapers and magazines, the curiosity for lobotomy was obvious. Freeman was instrumental in the way he promoted lobotomy, and he evoked the interest of the press and the journalists for this new surgical treatment on mental illness, something that he regarded as a medico-historical breakthrough. In this chapter, the portrayal of lobotomy in American and Swedish newspapers and magazines is explored and analyzed. How did journalists write about lobotomy for the public in the years spanning 1936 to 1959, a period in which the American and Swedish presses appeared inclined to describe the positive effects of lobotomy, while neglecting the negative and fatal consequences of the operation. There are not only similarities but also interesting differences between the Swedish and the American articles depicting lobotomy. The media can be a powerful factor in the construction of "facts," which can significantly affect decisions made by people about their health issues. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Work environment and safety climate in the Swedish merchant fleet.

    PubMed

    Forsell, Karl; Eriksson, Helena; Järvholm, Bengt; Lundh, Monica; Andersson, Eva; Nilsson, Ralph

    2017-02-01

    To get knowledge of the work environment for seafarers sailing under the Swedish flag, in terms of safety climate, ergonomical, chemical and psychosocial exposures, and the seafarers self-rated health and work ability. A Web-based questionnaire was sent to all seafarers with a personal e-mail address in the Swedish Maritime Registry (N = 5608). Comparisons were made mainly within the study population, using Student's t test, prevalence odds ratios and logistic regressions with 95% confidence intervals. The response rate was 35% (N = 1972; 10% women, 90% men), with 61% of the respondents working on deck, 31% in the engine room and 7% in the catering/service department (1% not classifiable). Strain on neck, arm or back and heavy lifting were associated with female gender (p = 0.0001) and younger age (below or above 30 years of age, p < 0.0001). Exposures to exhausts, oils and dust were commonly reported. Major work problems were noise, risk of an accident and vibrations from the hull of the ship. The safety climate was high in comparison with that in land-based occupations. One-fourth had experienced personal harassment or bullying during last year of service. Noise, risk of accidents, hand/arm and whole-body vibrations and psychosocial factors such as harassment were commonly reported work environment problems among seafarers within the Swedish merchant fleet.

  2. Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017. His Majesty Car

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-03

    Swedish Delegation Visits GSFC – May 3, 2017. His Majesty Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden. The king’s visit came as part his participation in a large delegation that also included the Swedish Ambassador to the United States; both the chairman and president of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences; as well as distinguished members of Sweden’s industrial, academia and professional organizations. Building 13 Network Integration Center.

  3. The Swedish version of the Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying scale: aspects of validity and factors influencing nurses' and nursing students' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Henoch, Ingela; Browall, Maria; Melin-Johansson, Christina; Danielson, Ella; Udo, Camilla; Johansson Sundler, Annelie; Björk, Maria; Ek, Kristina; Hammarlund, Kina; Bergh, Ingrid; Strang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying persons need to be explored. The Frommelt Attitude Toward Care of the Dying (FATCOD) scale has not previously been used in Swedish language. The objectives of this study were to compare FATCOD scores among Swedish nurses and nursing students with those from other languages, to explore the existence of 2 subscales, and to evaluate influences of experiences on attitudes toward care of dying patients. A descriptive, cross-sectional, and predictive design was used. The FATCOD scores of Swedish nurses from hospice, oncology, surgery clinics, and palliative home care and nursing students were compared with published scores from the United States, Israel, and Japan. Descriptive statistics, t tests, and factor and regression analyses were used. The sample consisted of 213 persons: 71 registered nurses, 42 enrolled nurses, and 100 nursing students. Swedish FATCOD mean scores did not differ from published means from the United States and Israel, but were significantly more positive than Japanese means. In line with Japanese studies, factor analyses yielded a 2-factor solution. Total FATCOD and subscales had low Cronbach α's. Hospice and palliative team nurses were more positive than oncology and surgery nurses to care for dying patients. Although our results suggest that the Swedish FATCOD may comprise 2 distinct scales, the total scale may be the most adequate and applicable for use in Sweden. Professional experience was associated with nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients. Care culture might influence nurses' attitudes toward caring for dying patients; the benefits of education need to be explored.

  4. Environmental protection Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. C. Holland

    1999-12-01

    This ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' is intended to ensure that the environmental program objectives of Department of Energy Order 5400.1 are achieved at SNL/California. This document states SNL/California's commitment to conduct its operations in an environmentally safe and responsible manner. The ``Environmental Protection Implementation Plan'' helps management and staff comply with applicable environmental responsibilities.

  5. Presentation of a Swedish study program concerning recruitment, selection and training of student air traffic controllers: The MRU project phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haglund, Rune

    1994-01-01

    The Director of the ANS Department has set up an objective for the efficiency of screening and training procedures for air traffic controller students which implies that all students admitted 'shall be considered to have the qualification for - and be given the means of - completing the training'. As a consequence, a study project has been established. It is run by the ANS Department with members from the Swedish CAA, in close cooperation with Uppsala University.

  6. The role of emigration and migration in Swedish industrialization.

    PubMed

    Karlstrom, U

    1982-10-01

    It is possible, within a general equilibrium framework, to reveal some of the important mechansims in the rather complicated interplay among the variables causing demoeconomic development. The model for this study is a computable general equilibrium model within the tradition of multisectoral growth models and is designed to fit Swedish prewar development and to enable counterfactual analysis. The model is reviewed briefly followed by comments on the database, estimation procedure and validation; displays of some comparative static experiments; and an evaluation of the capability of the model in replicating Swedish demoeconomic development between 1871-90 before examining the counterfactual simulations which address the role of external and internal migration in Swedish industrialization. There are at least 2 reasons for carrying out comparative static experiments: by undertaking parameter changes and exploring the equilibrium effect on the model, further insights will be realized concerning the behavior of the model and its validity; and some of the comparative static experiments are interesting from the point of view of policy analysis because they reveal the static, total effect on the economy of changes in some variables discussed by 19th century Swedish politicians. The experiments are organized into 2 groups: rural and population experiments. The base run simulation from 1871-90 indicates that the model captures the essential factors of the demoeconomic development of Sweden. The model's ability to replicate historical trends in some of the crucial variables permits use of the base simulation as a reference point when undertaking counterfactual simulations. The 1st simulation evaluates the effects of emigration on the Swedish economy; the remaining 2 simulations assess the importance of rural to urban migration. The model indicates that without emigration real rural wages would have been 1.8% lower in 1880 and 10.0% lower in 1890. Urban wages would have been

  7. Prevalence and risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus in Swedish cats.

    PubMed

    Sallander, Marie; Eliasson, Johanna; Hedhammar, Ake

    2012-10-31

    The prevalence and risk factors for the development of feline diabetes mellitus (FDM) in Swedish cats have not previously been reported. The objective of the present pilot study was to indicate prevalence and possible risk factors for FDM in Swedish cats. Twenty diabetic cats from the database at the University Animal Hospital in Uppsala participated in the study, and these were matched with 20 healthy controls on sex and age. A mail-and-telephone questionnaire focusing on diet, activity and obesity was used. The prevalence of FDM during the years 2000-2004 based on the results of the hospital records in the present study was 21 per 10,000 cats. The diabetic cats were on average 9 years old when the disease signs were discovered (median, min-max 2-15). Among FDM cases, it was more common to be male (n=17 males vs n=3 females; P≤0.05). Ten out of twenty owners to cases (50%) reported their cats to be obese at the time of the diagnosis (median 9 years, min-max 2-15), as compared to five out of twenty (25%) controls at the same age. The median BW at the time for diagnosis was 5.5 kg (min-max 2.0-9.0) for cases, and 5.0 kg (min-max 3.0-8.0 kg) for controls, respectively. Despite that both cases and controls had the same median age at the time of the study (13 years, min-max 3-18), a significantly higher number of controls were alive at that age (n=16 controls vs 8 cases; P≤0.05). A significantly higher proportion of cases that were obese at the time of the FDM diagnosis were dead at the time of the study compared to the proportion of controls that were obese at a similar age (P≤0.05).The diets given at the time for diagnosis for cases compared to diet of the controls at a similar time were mainly commercial foods, and controls consumed a higher proportion of dry foods compared to cases (medians 79 vs 44% of DM intake/d, respectively; P≤0.05). Cases were less active compared to the controls (2.3 and 3.2 h/d, respectively; P≤0.05). The results indicate that the

  8. Folate intake in a Swedish adult population: Food sources and predictive factors

    PubMed Central

    Monteagudo, Celia; Scander, Henrik; Nilsen, Bente; Yngve, Agneta

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Folate plays an important role in cell metabolism, but international studies show that intake is currently below recommendations, especially among women. The study objective was to identify folate food sources by food group, gender, and age group, and to identify factors influencing folate intake, based on food consumption data for Swedish adults in the 2010–11 Riksmaten study. Methods: The sample included a representative Swedish population aged 18–80 years (n = 1657; 56.3% female). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated from self-reported food records during 4 consecutive days. Food consumption was categorized into 26 food groups. Stepwise regression was used to analyze food groups as folate sources for participants. Factors predicting the highest folate intake (third tertile) were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results: Vegetables and pulses represented the most important folate source for all age groups and both genders, especially in women aged 45–64 years (49.7% of total folate intake). The next folate source in importance was dairy products for the youngest group (18–30 years), bread for men, and fruit and berries for women. The likelihood of being in the highest tertile of folate intake (odds ratio = 1.69, 95% confidence interval 1.354–2.104) was higher for men. Influencing factors for folate intake in the highest tertile were low body mass index and high educational level in the men, and high educational level, vegetarian diet, organic product consumption, non-smoking, and alcohol consumption within recommendations in the women. Conclusion: This study describes the folate intake per food group of Swedish adults according to the 2010–11 Riksmaten survey, identifying vegetables and pulses as the most important source. Data obtained on factors related to folate consumption may be useful for the development of specific nutrition education programs to increase the intake of this vitamin in high

  9. Objectivity and realms of explanation in academic journal articles concerning sex/gender: a comparison of Gender studies and the other social sciences.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, Therese; Madison, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Gender studies (GS) has been challenged on epistemological grounds. Here, we compare samples of peer-reviewed academic journal publications written by GS authors and authors from closely related disciplines in the social sciences. The material consisted of 2805 statements from 36 peer-reviewed journal articles, sampled from the Swedish Gender Studies List, which covers >12,000 publications. Each statement was coded as expressing a lack of any of three aspects of objectivity: Bias, Normativity, or Political activism, or as considering any of four realms of explanation for the behaviours or phenomena under study: Biology/genetics, Individual/group differences, Environment/culture, or Societal institutions. Statements in GS publications did to a greater extent express bias and normativity, but not political activism. They did also to a greater extent consider cultural, environmental, social, and societal realms of explanation, and to a lesser extent biological and individual differences explanations.

  10. Lung cancer and mesothelioma in the pleura and peritoneum among Swedish insulation workers

    PubMed Central

    Jarvholm, B.; Sanden, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the risk of cancer and death in Swedish insulation workers some years after their exposure to asbestos had stopped. One hypothesis was that the risk of lung cancer would tend to decrease some years after the exposure had ended. METHODS: In a cohort study the cancer morbidity and cause of death was investigated in 248 insulation workers and compared with the corresponding morbidity and mortality in the general population. Due to stringent regulations, exposure to asbestos of all types had almost ended in Sweden in the mid- 1970s. Through a questionnaire, surviving insulation workers were asked about their exposure to asbestos and their smoking habits. RESULTS: Between 1970 and 1994 there were 86 deaths compared with the 46.0 expected (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 1.9; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5 to 2.3), the increase was mainly due to an increased cancer mortality. The morbidity was increased for lung cancer (11 cases v 2.5 expected (SIR 4.4; 95% CI 2.2 to 7.9)), peritoneal mesothelioma (seven cases; no expected incidence could be calculated as the occurrence is too rare in the general population), cancer in pancreas (five cases v 0.7 expected (SIR 7.1; 95% CI 2.3 to 16.7)). No cases of pleural mesothelioma were found. The risk of lung cancer did not tend to approach that of the general population after the exposure to asbestos decreased. CONCLUSIONS: In the 1980s and the early 1990s, Swedish insulation workers still have a highly increased risk of diseases related to asbestos. The attributable risk for death and cancer was about 50%. The study also confirms the previous finding that mesothelioma in insulation workers seems to be situated in the peritoneum more often than in the pleura.   PMID:9924454

  11. The association between job strain and atrial fibrillation in Swedish men

    PubMed Central

    Torén, Kjell; Schiöler, Linus; Söderberg, Mia; Giang, Kok Wai; Rosengren, Annika

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether psychosocial stress defined as high strain based on the job demand–control model increases risk for atrial fibrillation. Methods The present study comprised 6035 men born between 1915 and 1925 and free from previous coronary heart disease, atrial fibrillation and stroke at baseline (1974–1977). Work-related psychosocial stress was measured using a job-exposure matrix for the job demand–control model based on occupation at baseline. The participants were followed from baseline examination until death, hospital discharge or 75 years of age, using the Swedish national register on cause of death and the Swedish hospital discharge register for any registration for atrial fibrillation, resulting in the identification of 436 cases. Data were analysed with Cox regression models with atrial fibrillation as the outcome using high strain as the explanatory variable adjusted for age, smoking, body mass index, hypertension, diabetes and socioeconomic status. Results There was an increased risk for atrial fibrillation in relation to high strain (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.003 to 1.75). When the four categories of the job-strain model were included and low strain was used as reference, the risk for high strain decreased (HR 1.23, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.82). Conclusions Exposure to occupational psychosocial stress defined as high strain may be associated with increased risk for atrial fibrillation. The observed increase in risk is small and residual confounding may also be present. PMID:25523937

  12. Suicidal expressions in young Swedish Sami, a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Omma, Lotta; Sandlund, Mikael; Jacobsson, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the experience of suicidal expressions (death wishes, life weariness, ideation, plans and attempts) in young Swedish Sami, their attitudes toward suicide (ATTS), and experience of suicidal expressions and completed suicide in significant others and to compare with Swedes in general. Methods A cross-sectional study comprising 516 Swedish Sami, 18–28 years of age together with an age and geographically matched reference group (n=218). Parts of the ATTS questionnaire have been used to cover different aspects of the suicidal complex. Data were analysed with regard to gender, occupation, counties and experience of negative societal treatment due to Sami background. Results Both young Sami and young Swedes reported suicidal ideation, life weariness, and death wishes in a high degree (30–50%), but it was more common among the Sami. Having had plans to commit suicide showed a significant gender difference only in the Sami. The prevalence of suicide attempts did not differ significantly between Sami and Swedes. Subgroups of the Sami reported a higher degree of suicidal behaviour, Sami women and reindeer herders reported a 3, 5-fold higher odds of suicide attempts and a 2-fold higher odds having had plans committing suicide. Sami living in Vasterbotten/Jamtland/Vasternorrland and Sami with experience of ethnicity related bad treatment 2-fold higher odds of suicidal plans compared to those living in other counties. Conclusion An increased occurrence of suicidal ideation/death wishes/life weariness in young Sami compared to young majority Swedes was found, but not an increased prevalence of suicide attempts and positive attitudes together with an increased awareness to handle suicide problems could be a contributing factor. Severe circumstances and experience of ethnicity-related bad treatment seems to contribute to increased levels of suicidal plans and attempts in subgroups of Sami. PMID:23346555

  13. Insufficient Sleep and Risk of Prostate Cancer in a Large Swedish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Markt, Sarah C.; Grotta, Alessandra; Nyren, Olof; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Stattin, Pär; Bellocco, Rino; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: There are some data to suggest that insufficient sleep, including short sleep duration and sleep disruption, may be associated with an increased risk of cancer. We investigated the association between sleep duration and sleep disruption and risk of prostate cancer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Sweden. Participants: A total of 14,041 men in the Swedish National March Cohort. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Habitual sleep duration and sleep disruption were self-reported in 1997. Prostate cancer diagnoses, including lethal (metastases at diagnosis or death from prostate cancer) and advanced (stage T4, N1, or M1 at diagnosis or death from prostate cancer), were determined from linkage to nationwide cancer registries through 2010. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential confounding variables. During 13 years of follow-up, we identified 785 cases of incident prostate cancer, including 118 lethal and 127 advanced cases. Four percent of men reported sleeping 5 h or less a night, and 2% reported sleeping 9 h or more per night. We found no association between sleep duration and risk of prostate cancer overall or for advanced/lethal disease. We also did not find an association between prostate cancer and sleep disruption, as defined by difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, sleep quality, and restorative power of sleep. Conclusions: In this large prospective study from Sweden, we found no association between habitual sleep duration or sleep disruption and risk of prostate cancer. Citation: Markt SC, Grotta A, Nyren O, Adami HO, Mucci LA, Valdimarsdottir UA, Stattin P, Bellocco R, Lagerros YT. Insufficient sleep and risk of prostate cancer in a large Swedish cohort. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1405–1410. PMID:26118562

  14. Acceptance of Swedish e-health services

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Mary-Louise; Loria, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate older people’s acceptance of e-health services, in order to identify determinants of, and barriers to, their intention to use e-health. Method: Based on one of the best-established models of technology acceptance, Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), in-depth exploratory interviews with twelve individuals over 45 years of age and of varying backgrounds are conducted. Results: This investigation could find support for the importance of usefulness and perceived ease of use of the e-health service offered as the main determinants of people’s intention to use the service. Additional factors critical to the acceptance of e-health are identified, such as the importance of the compatibility of the services with citizens’ needs and trust in the service provider. Most interviewees expressed positive attitudes towards using e-health and find these services useful, convenient, and easy to use. Conclusion: E-health services are perceived as a good complement to traditional health care service delivery, even among older people. These people, however, need to become aware of the e-health alternatives that are offered to them and the benefits they provide. PMID:21289860

  15. Victimization, polyvictimization, and health in Swedish adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Nikolas; Proczkowska-Björklund, Marie; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this article was to study the relationship between the different areas of victimization (eg, sexual victimization) and psychological symptoms, taking into account the full range of victimization domains. The final aim was to contribute further evidence regarding the bias that studies that focus on just one area of victimization may be introduced into our psychological knowledge. The sample included 5,960 second-year high school students in Sweden with a mean age of 17.3 years (range =16–20 years, standard deviation =0.652), of which 49.6% were females and 50.4% males. The Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire and the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children were used to assess victimization and psychological problems separately. The results show that a majority of adolescents have been victimized, females reported more total events and more sexual victimization and childhood maltreatment, and males were more often victims of conventional crime. The majority of victimization domains as well as the sheer number of events (polyvictimization [PV]) proved to be harmful to adolescent health, affecting females more than males. PV explained part of the health effect and had an impact on its own and in relation to each domain. This suggests the possibility that PV to a large degree explains trauma symptoms. In order to understand the psychological effects of trauma, clinicians and researchers should take into account the whole range of possible types of victimization. PMID:27616895

  16. International Education and Reflection: Transition of Swedish and American Nursing Students to Authenticity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepp, Margret; Zorn, CeCelia R.; Duffy, Patricia R.; Dickson, Rana J.

    2003-01-01

    A nursing course connected U.S. and Swedish sites via interactive videoconferencing and used reflective methods (journaling, drama, photo language) and off-air group discussion. Evaluation by five Swedish and seven U.S. students suggested how reflection moved students toward greater authenticity and professionalism in nursing practice. (Contains…

  17. Education, Labour Market and Human Capital Models: Swedish Experiences and Theoretical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohlman, Asa

    An empirical study concerning development of the Swedish educational system from a labor market point of view, and a theoretical study on human capital models are discussed. In "Education and Labour Market; The Swedish Experience 1900-1975," attention is directed to the following concerns: the official educational policy regarding…

  18. The Swedish Experiment with Localised Control of Time Schedules: Policy Problem Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnberg, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Swedish compulsory schools are the most autonomous in Europe regarding time allocation and time management. Still, the Swedish state decided to take this even further, when introducing an experiment that permits some compulsory schools to abandon the regulations of the national time schedule. The aim of this study is to explore and analyse the…

  19. Democracy Lessons in Market-Oriented Schools: The Case of Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Based on recent ethnographic research, this article explores young people's opportunities of formal and informal democracy learning and expressions of such learning in the highly market-influenced Swedish upper secondary education. With its ambitious democracy-fostering goals and far-reaching marketisation, Swedish education constitutes an…

  20. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  1. Gender and Technology in Free Play in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallström, Jonas; Elvstrand, Helene; Hellberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by…

  2. Further Education and Training in Swedish Working Life: A Discussion of Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    Written mainly for a non-Swedish audience, this document has a twofold purpose: (1) to examine how and to what extent the further education and training of the labor force is both presently and prospectively dealt with in collective bargaining agreements and other workplace negotiation processes in the Swedish labor market; and (2) to examine the…

  3. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  4. Prosody Intervention: A Single Subject Study of a Swedish Boy with Prosodic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Swedish has a complicated prosodic system, compared, for example, with English. A large proportion of Swedish children with language impairment (LI) have prosodic problems to some extent. There are few descriptions in the literature of prosody intervention, which means that clinicians must rely on their overall linguistic and therapeutic knowledge…

  5. Same Source, Different Outcomes: A Study of Swedish Influence on the Acquisition of English in Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odlin, Terence; Jarvis, Scott

    2004-01-01

    With a Finnish-speaking majority and a Swedish-speaking minority, Finland offers a striking contrast in the kinds of cross-linguistic influence that can occur in the acquisition of English in a multilingual setting. While much previous research has looked at the differences between Finnish and Swedish influences, our study compares Swedish…

  6. Developing an Open-Source Web-Based Exercise Generator for Swedish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volodina, Elena; Borin, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the ongoing international project "System architecture for ICALL" and the progress made by the Swedish partner. The Swedish team is developing a web-based exercise generator reusing available annotated corpora and lexical resources. Apart from the technical issues like implementation of the user interface and the…

  7. English Proficiency and Attitude Formation in a Merged Corporation with a Swedish-English Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobarg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between proficiency in English and language-related attitudes among Swedish professionals at the English-speaking AstraZeneca R&D site in Molndal, Sweden. AstraZeneca is the result of a merger between a Swedish and a British pharmaceutical company, and the aim of the study is to see to what extent their…

  8. Gender and Technology in Free Play in Swedish Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallström, Jonas; Elvstrand, Helene; Hellberg, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    In the new Swedish curriculum for the preschool (2010) technology education is emphasized as one of the most significant pedagogical areas to work with. The aim of this article is to investigate how girls and boys explore and learn technology as well as how their teachers frame this in free play in two Swedish preschools. The study is inspired by…

  9. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  10. Teachers' Access to and Use of ICT: An Indicator of Growing Inequity in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunman, Elin; Persson, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In light of how the knowledge society may give rise to new forms of inequity in schools, the purpose of this article is to examine the stratification of Swedish schoolteachers' access to and use of ICT. The empirical data consist of a nationwide survey conducted in 2010, involving 6000 Swedish teachers in all grades (except pre-school and…

  11. Prosody Intervention: A Single Subject Study of a Swedish Boy with Prosodic Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuelsson, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Swedish has a complicated prosodic system, compared, for example, with English. A large proportion of Swedish children with language impairment (LI) have prosodic problems to some extent. There are few descriptions in the literature of prosody intervention, which means that clinicians must rely on their overall linguistic and therapeutic knowledge…

  12. Further Education and Training in Swedish Working Life: A Discussion of Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuijnman, Albert

    Written mainly for a non-Swedish audience, this document has a twofold purpose: (1) to examine how and to what extent the further education and training of the labor force is both presently and prospectively dealt with in collective bargaining agreements and other workplace negotiation processes in the Swedish labor market; and (2) to examine the…

  13. The Swedish National Diabetes Register in clinical practice and evaluation in primary health care.

    PubMed

    Hallgren Elfgren, Ing-Marie; Grodzinsky, Ewa; Törnvall, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Aim The purpose of this project is to describe the use of the Swedish National Diabetes Register (NDR) in clinical practice in a Swedish county and to specifically monitor the diabetes care routines at two separate primary health-care centres (PHCC) with a special focus on older patients.

  14. Class-Size Effects on Adolescents' Mental Health and Well-Being in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…

  15. The Politics of Teacher Professionalism: Intraprofessional Boundary Work in Swedish Teacher Union Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilja, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Taking the latest reform of Swedish teacher education as a point of departure, the aim of this article is to analyse the way Swedish teacher unions construct a knowledge base for teaching as a strategy of professionalisation. The analysis shows that the unions construct such a knowledge base from opposing points of departure. Their professional…

  16. How Are Notions of Childcare Similar or Different among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Lee, Yu-Yuan; Franceschini, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the perceptions of childcare among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish early childhood teachers. Participants consisted of 78 American teachers, 156 Chinese teachers, 158 Japanese teachers, and 157 Swedish teachers. The results of quantitative analysis revealed that these…

  17. Children's Experiences of School: Narratives of Swedish Children with and without Learning Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allodi, Mara Westling

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed the contexts of texts written by Swedish school chidlren in order to gain a picture of their experiences of school and then related those experiences to the democratic goals of integration and practices of selection and segregation that are occurring in Swedish school systems. Findings for 185 childrens' texts show the importance of…

  18. A Critical Mapping of Practice-Based Research as Evidenced by Swedish Architectural Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchler, Daniela; Biggs, Michael A. R.; Stahl, Lars-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an investigation that was funded by the Swedish Institute into the role of creative practice in architectural research as evidenced in Swedish doctoral theses. The sample was mapped and analysed in terms of clusters of interest, approaches, cultures of knowledge and uses of creative practice. This allowed the identification…

  19. Democracy Lessons in Market-Oriented Schools: The Case of Swedish Upper Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Lisbeth; Olson, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Based on recent ethnographic research, this article explores young people's opportunities of formal and informal democracy learning and expressions of such learning in the highly market-influenced Swedish upper secondary education. With its ambitious democracy-fostering goals and far-reaching marketisation, Swedish education constitutes an…

  20. A Critical Mapping of Practice-Based Research as Evidenced by Swedish Architectural Theses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchler, Daniela; Biggs, Michael A. R.; Stahl, Lars-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an investigation that was funded by the Swedish Institute into the role of creative practice in architectural research as evidenced in Swedish doctoral theses. The sample was mapped and analysed in terms of clusters of interest, approaches, cultures of knowledge and uses of creative practice. This allowed the identification…

  1. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  2. Between Control and Resistance: Planning and Evaluation Texts in the Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofdahl, Annica; Perez Prieto, Hector

    2009-01-01

    This article contains results from a study based on locally produced planning and evaluation texts from 10 preschool settings in a Swedish middle-sized town. The texts were mainly from 1999 to 2005, a period during which Swedish preschools were implementing their first curriculum and were subject to several changes including decentralisation,…

  3. Secular Trends in Cognitive Test Performance: Swedish Conscript Data 1970-1993

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronnlund, Michael; Carlstedt, Berit; Blomstedt, Yulia; Nilsson, Lars-Goran; Weinehall, Lars

    2013-01-01

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four…

  4. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  5. How Are Notions of Childcare Similar or Different among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izumi-Taylor, Satomi; Lee, Yu-Yuan; Franceschini, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine similarities and differences in the perceptions of childcare among American, Chinese, Japanese and Swedish early childhood teachers. Participants consisted of 78 American teachers, 156 Chinese teachers, 158 Japanese teachers, and 157 Swedish teachers. The results of quantitative analysis revealed that these…

  6. Introducing National Tests in Swedish Primary Education: Implications for Test Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Swedish government has decided to introduce national tests in primary education. Swedish pupils in general have few tests and a recognised possible adverse effect of testing is test anxiety among pupils, which may have a negative impact on examination performance. However, there has been little research on effects of testing on…

  7. First Language Paradigms in Conflict: Hidden Dialogue in Swedish Curricula 1962-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellberg, Staffan

    2012-01-01

    Seven successive curricula for Swedish in the Swedish primary school are investigated using a linguistic method that traces its origin to the Russian literary theorist, Michail Bakhtin. The amount of dialogicity, viewed as the room given to different paradigms to argue against each other, is shown to decrease from the earlier curricula to the…

  8. "Why Do We Celebrate …?" Filling Traditions with Meaning in an Ethnically Diverse Swedish Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puskás, Tünde; Andersson, Anita

    2017-01-01

    The Swedish preschool is an important socializing agent because the great majority of children aged, from 1 to 5 years, are enrolled in an early childhood education program. This paper explores how preschool teachers and children, in an ethnically diverse preschool, negotiate the meaning of cultural traditions celebrated in Swedish preschools.…

  9. Individual and Flexible: Working Conditions in the Practice of Swedish Distance-Based Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindberg, J. Ola; Olofsson, Anders D.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the working conditions within Swedish ICT-supported distance-based teacher education. Data collected from teacher trainees are analyzed and discussed in relation to Swedish governmental policies concerning teacher education and distance education and theories emphasizing the importance of social aspects of education. The…

  10. The Changing Nature of Autonomy: Transformations of the Late Swedish Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wermke, Wieland; Forsberg, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses teacher autonomy in the case of the Swedish teaching profession since the 1980s. It is argued that deregulation, decentralization, and marketization reforms of the 1990s have indeed increased teacher autonomy, but in some respects also led to a increase of complexity in the Swedish school system. In order to handle this…

  11. The Rock Band Context as Discursive Governance in Music Education in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Monica; Ericsson, Claes

    2010-01-01

    In this article, based on the results of a larger research project funded by the Swedish Research Council (Ericsson and Lindgren 2010), the authors discuss and problematize the rock band context in music education in Swedish compulsory schools in relation to governance and knowledge formation. The empirical material on which the study is based…

  12. The Swedish Principal: Leadership Style, Decision-Making Style, and Motivation Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Per H.; Andersen, Jon Aarum

    2007-01-01

    The Swedish schools have been under pressure for change for several decades. How leaders behave can be of vital importance in times of change. The principal is responsible for both the educational program and for the school budget. Two hundred Swedish principals (male and female) responded to questionnaires concerning their leadership style,…

  13. Entrepreneurial Learning in Swedish Preschools: Possibilities for and Constraints on Children's Active Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insulander, Eva; Ehrlin, Anna; Sandberg, Anette

    2015-01-01

    The website of the Swedish National Agency for Education states that preschools are to promote entrepreneurial learning. Many Swedish preschools, therefore, have started to work consciously with entrepreneurial learning as a way of fostering pupils' creativity and ability to make their own decisions. This article investigates whether and how…

  14. Swedish or English? Migrants' Experiences of the Exchangeability of Language Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of transmigration emerging as a consequence of globalization are creating new and complex markets for communicative resources in which languages and language varieties are differently valued. In a Swedish context, where lingua franca English can facilitate communication but where monolingual norms prevail and Swedish is positioned as the…

  15. Class-Size Effects on Adolescents' Mental Health and Well-Being in Swedish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Persson, Mattias; Svensson, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether class size has an effect on the prevalence of mental health problems and well-being among adolescents in Swedish schools. We use cross-sectional data collected in year 2008 covering 2755 Swedish adolescents in ninth grade from 40 schools and 159 classes. We utilize different econometric approaches to address potential…

  16. English Proficiency and Attitude Formation in a Merged Corporation with a Swedish-English Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobarg, Mats

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between proficiency in English and language-related attitudes among Swedish professionals at the English-speaking AstraZeneca R&D site in Molndal, Sweden. AstraZeneca is the result of a merger between a Swedish and a British pharmaceutical company, and the aim of the study is to see to what extent their…

  17. Gender and Prestige in Swedish Academia: Exploring Senior Management in Universities and University Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights the multifaceted character of the Swedish higher education sector and investigates senior academic management positions from a gender perspective using theories about an academic prestige economy and academic capitalism. The focus is on an aspect often overseen in research on Swedish academia: the distinction between…

  18. Cultivating Swedishness? Examples of Imagined Kinship during the First Half of the 20th Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasson, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Different representations of "Swedishness," as expressions of altered kinds of imagined kinship in the Swedish educational system during the first half of the 20th century, are discussed. It is argued that even though the curriculum changed, from a more religious one focusing on fostering loyalty and moral commitment to "God, the…

  19. Expressing Communicative Intents in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia; Mizera, Luule; De Geer, Boel

    2004-01-01

    The present article focused on two types of communicative intent (directing behaviour vs. eliciting talk) expressed by mothers and teenagers during everyday family interactions in Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mono- and bicultural families. Three monocultural groups consisted of 17 Estonian, 19 Swedish, and 18 Finnish families living in their…

  20. The case of the Swedish-speaking Finns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Hákan; Herberts, Kjell

    1996-07-01

    It has often beeen stated that the Swedish-speaking population in Finland, compared to other linguistic minorities, has achieved a privileged position. Historically the Finnish nation-state was born and grew by the efforts of both language groups, and the constitution was influenced by this unity. The geopolitical situation has gained from the fact that the resources of the whole population have been taken into account in the development of the Finnish nation and state, located in a Northern Europe, where, for centuries, different political, cultural and religions forces have met. The fact that the Orthodox Church together with the predominant Lutheran Church became the state church is another example of the efforts of the young Finnish state to both integrate and mobilize the personal resources. Regarding the future it will be wise to support specific traditions, competencies and creative forces from the whole population. The education, rooted in a language and a specific culture can, in such a perspective, probably not be overevaluated. From the Swedish point of view it is therefore of the greatest importance to maintain fundamental guarantees for a Swedish-speaking education. Only far-going guarantees liberate creative resources for the future challenges nationally and above all internationally. Otherwise too much energy and interest will be needed to guard the specific and in itself justified interests. Today, when the economic prerequisites in a welfare state are not taken for granted it is by all means a wise policy to defend the approved strategy to at the same time integrate and mobilize the total resources from different groups in the society.