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Sample records for sweet sorghum baggages

  1. Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although heterosis is well established in grain and forage sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], reports of heterosis in sweet sorghum are limited to results from grain sorghum x sweet sorghum hybrids. Recent development of cytoplasmic male-sterile sweet sorghum lines allows creation of sweet sorg...

  2. Innovative production technology ethanol from sweet sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The paper considers the technological aspects of production of ethanol from nontraditional for Russian Federation crops - sweet sorghum. Presents the technological scheme of alcohol production and fuel pellets from sweet sorghum. Special attention is paid to assessing the efficiency of alcohol production from sweet sorghum. The described advantage of sugar content in stem juice of sweet sorghum compared with other raw materials. Allegedly, the use of the technology for producing alcohol from sweet sorghum allows to save resources.

  3. Storage characteristics of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Eiland, B.R.; Clayton, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Weight loss, percent extraction, and juice Brix were determined in stored sweet sorghum harvested as billets and stalks. Stalks lost less weight and maintained juice quality longer than billets. Storage requirements after harvest should determine the harvesting method.

  4. Biorefinery of sweet sorghum stem.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Tao; Zhong, Jing; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-01-01

    Sweet sorghum has been considered as a viable energy crop for alcohol fuel production. This review discloses a novel approach for the biorefining of sweet sorghum stem to produce multiple valuable products, such as ethanol, butanol and wood plastic composites. Sweet sorghum stem has a high concentration of soluble sugars in its juice, which can be fermented to produce ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In order to obtain high ethanol yield and fermentation rates, concentrated juice with an initial total sugar concentration of 300gL(-1) was fermented. The maximum ethanol concentration after 54h reached 140gL(-1) with a yield of 0.49g ethanol per g consumed sugar, which is 97% of the theoretical value. Sweet sorghum bagasse, obtained from juice squeezing, was pretreated by acetic acid to hydrolyze 80-90% of the contained hemicelluloses. Using this hydrolysate as raw material (total sugar 55gL(-1)), 19.21gL(-1) total solvent (butanol 9.34g, ethanol 2.5g, and acetone 7.36g) was produced by Clostridium acetobutylicum. The residual bagasse after pretreatment was extruded with PLA in a twin-screw extruder to produce a final product having a PLA: fiber ratio of 2:1, a tensile strength of 49.5M and a flexible strength of 65MPa. This product has potential use for applications where truly biodegradable materials are required. This strategy for sustainability is crucial for the industrialization of biofuels from sweet sorghum. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Stability and use of sweet sorghum bagasse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With sweet sorghum production and subsequent accumulation of bagasse on the rise, it is important to look for novel uses for its by-products. Bagasse, the solid fibrous product left after sweet sorghum stalks are crushed to remove juice, is partially reapplied to the field to enhance subsequent cro...

  6. Preservation of sweet sorghum biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Jasberg, B.K.; Montgomery, R.R.; Anderson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks (42% sugar, dry basis (d.b.)) and bagasse (10% sugar, d.b.) from a cane mill were stored to preserve sugar. Bagasse and stalks were stored outdoors in sealed containers (anaerobic conditions). Treatments included using carbon dioxide or sulfur dioxide atmospheres or surface spraying with propionic acid or aqueous ammonia. Stalks were also stored outdoors under aerobic conditions. Treatments included drying the stalks or spraying with propionic acid. After 200 days, propionic acid (anaerobic) and SO/sub 2/-treated stalks had 34% and 19% of the original sugar remaining, respectively. No other samples had more than 3% of the original sugar remaining. 28 references, 6 tables.

  7. Sweet sorghum processing for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Schmulevich, I.; Coble, C.G.; Egg, R.P.

    1983-12-01

    Several processing techniques for producing ethanol from sweet sorghum were investigated. Fermentating chopped stalks yielded more ethanol than shredded sorghum or juice. Leaf removal prior to fermentation resulted in higher yields per unit feedstock. Removal of solids after fermentation yielded slightly more ethanol than solids removal before fermentation.

  8. Starch in sweet sorghum and sugarcane: Problems, opportunities, and control

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both sweet sorghum and sugarcane crops are grasses and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars that also contain insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. In sweet sorghum processing, starch is a problem but can also be an opportunity if the fermentable sugars in s...

  9. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38 degrees C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  10. Evaluation of sweet sorghum germplasm for the southeast

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has become a favorable biofuel feedstock for ethanol production. Among the essential traits for successful production and use of sweet sorghum in Southeastern United States for renewable fuel are high biomass, high BRIX, lodging resistance, as well as res...

  11. Tapping the US sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] breeding programs is limiting the development of new varieties for biofuel production. Therefore, the identification of genetically diverse sweet sorghum germplasm in the U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) collection is...

  12. Design factors for milling sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, G.E.; Bryan, W.L.

    1983-06-01

    A conveyor/shredder/3-roll mill system was modified to process 30-cm billets of sweet sorghum and to develop basic design information. Percent juice extracted increased with throughput until the system plugged. Maximum operable rates for whole plants and stalks were respectively 19 and 25 kg/min, and about 48 percent of total crop sugar was recovered from either plants or stalks.

  13. Solid-phase fermentation of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Parrish, R.L.

    1982-12-01

    Solid-phase fermentations of chopped Wray sweet sorghum, (0.6 and 2.5 cm size) occurred in 7-liter fermentors at higher rates than juice fermentations and produced 80% ethanol yields, compared to 73% for juice. Heat loss from fermentors limited maximum temperatures to 38/sup 0/C. Low ethanol yields may have been caused by natural inhibitors or by thermal inhibition.

  14. Microbial Changes in Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Juices

    PubMed Central

    Daeschel, Mark A.; Mundt, J. Orvin; McCarty, Ivon E.

    1981-01-01

    Juice freshly expressed from Sorghum bicolor for making sweet sorghum syrup contained 108 microorganisms per ml. The dominant bacterium was Leuconostoc mesenteroides, followed by gram-negative rods. Lactobacilli, yeasts, and nonfecal coliform bacteria each comprised about 1% of the microbial population. Spoilage of juice, manifested by a sour odor, discoloration, and foaming, occurred between 5 and 12 h at ambient temperatures. Spoilage was correlated with a drop in pH from 4.9 to 4.5 L. mesenteroides was the dominant spoiling agent at 20°C, and Lactobacillus plantarum was the dominant spoiling agent at 32°C, as determined by pure culture studies. Juice may be stored for 14 days at 4°C if promptly refrigerated. PMID:16345838

  15. Impact of NPK treatments on sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L)) yields for biofuel feedstock in Piedmont Region of North Carolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alternative sources for biofuel production such as juice extracted from sweet sorghum are in high demand and proper nutrient management practices need to be established for growing sweet sorghum in order to maximize profits. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising alternative ener...

  16. Phenotypic evaluation of sweet sorghum lines for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The stem juice of sweet sorghum is rich in fermentable sugars and is a desirable primary material for alcoholic fermentation. Today, interest in growing sweet sorghum for fermentable sugars is increasing worldwide; thus there is strong demand for elite varieties and hybrids offering high sugar yiel...

  17. Evaluation of sweet sorghum for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Monroe, G.E.; Nichols, R.L.; Gascho, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Among 8 varieties of sweet sorghum grown in Tifton loamy sand, Keller, MN, 1500 and Ramada had similar yields of stalks, 41-44 t/ha, and fermentable sugars, 5.8-5.9 t/ha, that were significantly higher than for other varieties. For the 3 high-yielding varieties, a farm-scale 3-roll mill extracted 32% of stalk weight as juice that contained 43% of stalk sugar. Juice was fermented and ethanol distilled with 81% of theoretical yield. 8 refs.

  18. Preservation of potential fermentables in sweet sorghum by ensiling.

    PubMed

    Linden, J C; Henk, L L; Murphy, V G; Smith, D H; Gabrielsen, B C; Tengerdy, R P; Czako, L

    1987-11-01

    Pressed and wilted samples of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench var. Rio] were ensiled for periods up to 155 days. A kinetic study of the biochemical changes which occurred during ensiling showed that in wilted sorghum ensilage invert sugars and mannitol levels collectively were maintained at 65% of the original ferment able sugar content of the sorghum. The acidic environment produced by ensiling also served as a pretreatment that resulted in enhanced yields of reducing sugar when the sorghum was contacted with cellulolytic enzymes. The quantity of sugar obtained from enzymatic hydrolysis more than compensated for carbohydrate used by organisms during the ensiling process. Both Saccharomyces uvarum and Clostridium acetobutylicum were able to ferment a medium constituted from pressed sorghum juice and the solution resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum ensilage.

  19. Sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock: recent advances and available resources.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Supriya; Umakanth, A V; Tonapi, V A; Sharma, Rita; Sharma, Manoj K

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum is a promising target for biofuel production. It is a C4 crop with low input requirements and accumulates high levels of sugars in its stalks. However, large-scale planting on marginal lands would require improved varieties with optimized biofuel-related traits and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Considering this, many studies have been carried out to generate genetic and genomic resources for sweet sorghum. In this review, we discuss various attributes of sweet sorghum that make it an ideal candidate for biofuel feedstock, and provide an overview of genetic diversity, tools, and resources available for engineering and/or marker-assisting breeding of sweet sorghum. Finally, the progress made so far, in identification of genes/quantitative trait loci (QTLs) important for agronomic traits and ongoing molecular breeding efforts to generate improved varieties, has been discussed.

  20. Electrochemical evaluation of sweet sorghum fermentable sugar bioenergy feedstock

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Redox active constituents of sorghum, e.g., anthocyanin, flavonoids, and aconitic acid, putatively contribute to its pest resistance. Electrochemical reactivity of sweet sorghum stem juice was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) for five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three fema...

  1. Development of hybrid sweet sorghum for the Southeast USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  2. Yield components in hybrid versus inbred sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) should be an ideal biofuel crop for the southeastern United States, but the current cultivars are all pure lines, which makes seed production difficult. Hybrid seed can be easily produced on short-statured plants, but less is known about other advantages ...

  3. Preservation of chopped sweet sorghum using sulfur dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhoff, S.R.; Bender, D.A.; Okos, M.R.; Peart, R.M.

    1983-12-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is an attractive feedstock for fermentation but its sugars degrade quickly after harvest. The effects of SO/sub 2/ dosage and temperature on the storability of chopped Rio sweet sorghum was studied. Four SO/sub 2/ dosage levels (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0% w.b.) and five storage temperatures (-16, 2, 12, 22 and 32/sup 0/C) were investigated. The samples were stored in constant temperature incubators for three months. Fermentable sugars, sample pH and initial and final SO/sub 2/ levels were determined. All three non-zero levels of SO/sub 2/ adequately preserved the chopped sweet sorghum with no significant decrease in the total fermentable sugars.

  4. Characterization of Nitrogen use efficiency in sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Dweikat, Ismail; Clemente, Thomas

    2014-09-09

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has the potential to augment the increasing demand for alternative fuels and for the production of input efficient, environmentally friendly bioenergy crops. Nitrogen (N) and water availability are considered two of the major limiting factors in crop growth. Nitrogen fertilization accounts for about 40% of the total production cost in sorghum. In cereals, including sorghum, the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) from fertilizer is approximately 33% of the amount applied. There is therefore extensive concern in relation to the N that is not used by the plant, which is lost by leaching of nitrate, denitrification from the soil, and loss of ammonia to the atmosphere, all of which can have deleterious environmental effects. To improve the potential of sweet sorghum as a leading and cost effective bioenergy crop, the enhancement of NUE must be addressed. To this end, we have identified a sorghum line (SanChi San) that displays about 25% increase in NUE over other sorghum lines. As such, the overarching goal of this project is to employ three complementary strategies to enhance the ability of sweet sorghum to become an efficient nitrogen user. To achieve the project goal, we will pursue the following specific objectives: Objective 1: Phenotypic characterization of SanChi San/Ck60 RILs under low and moderate N-availability including biochemical profiles, vegetative growth and seed yield Objective 2: Conduct quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis and marker identification for nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in a grain sorghum RIL population. Objective 3: Identify novel candidate genes for NUE using proteomic and gene expression profiling comparisons of high- and low-NUE RILs. Candidate genes will be brought into the pipeline for transgenic manipulation of NUE This project will apply the latest genomics resources to discover genes controlling NUE, one of the most complex and economically important traits in cereal crops. As a result of the

  5. Impact of added nutrients in sweet sorghum syrup fermentation to produce ethanol

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This work demonstrated that sweet sorghum syrup was efficiently converted to ethanol by yeast. Fermentation broth with sweet sorghum syrup performed better (at least faster) than with only pure sugars due to the pH-buffering effect of sweet sorghum syrup solutions. Sugar solutions containing up to 2...

  6. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  7. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.; Sheehan, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of chopped sweet sorghum particles to ethanol was studied in static flasks using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of various process parameters, such as temperature, yeast cell concentration, and moisture content, on the rate and extent of ethanol fermentation was investigated. Optimal values of these parameters were found to be 35 degrees C, 7 x 10/sup 8/ cells/g raw sorghum, and 70% moisture level, respectively. 25 references.

  8. Sweet Sorghum Alternative Fuel and Feed Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Slack, Donald C.; Kaltenbach, C. Colin

    2013-07-30

    The University of Arizona undertook a “pilot” project to grow sweet sorghum on a field scale (rather than a plot scale), produce juice from the sweet sorghum, deliver the juice to a bio-refinery and process it to fuel-grade ethanol. We also evaluated the bagasse for suitability as a livestock feed and as a fuel. In addition to these objectives we evaluated methods of juice preservation, ligno-cellulosic conversion of the bagasse to fermentable sugars and alternative methods of juice extraction.

  9. Variation in Biomass Composition Components among Forage, Biomass, Sorghum-Sudangrass, and Sweet Sorghum Types

    SciTech Connect

    Stefaniak, T. R.; Dahlberg, J. A.; Bean, B. W.; Dighe, N.; Wolfrum, E. J.; Rooney, W. L.

    2012-07-01

    Alternative biomass sources must be developed if the United States is to meet the goal in the U.S. Energy Security Act of 2007 to derive 30% of its petroleum from renewable sources, and several different biomass crops are currently in development. Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is one such crop that will be an important feedstock source for biofuel production. As composition influences productivity, there exists a need to understand the range in composition observed within the crop. The goal of this research was to assess the range in dietary fiber composition observed within different types of biomass sorghums. A total of 152 sorghum samples were divided into the four end-use types of sorghum: biomass, forage, sorghum-sudangrass, and sweet. These samples were analyzed chemically using dietary fiber analysis performed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using published protocols. Significant variation among the groups was detected for glucan and ash. Positive and highly significant correlations were detected between structural carbohydrates in the biomass and sweet sorghums while many of these correlations were negative or not significant in the forage and sorghum-sudangrass types. In addition, a wide range of variation was present within each group indicating that there is potential to manipulate the composition of the crop.

  10. Simulating the growth and development of sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, D.A.

    1983-06-01

    An existing dynamic grain sorghum growth model was modified to predict the growth and development of sweet sorghum. Modifications were made to the leaf area/stalk length, leaf extinction and dry matter partitioning modules. The model predicted dates of half-bloom and physiological maturity for sweet sorghum with good accuracy. Total dry matter was consistently underpredicted, suggesting the need for further model refinements (e.g. potential net photosynthesis calculation). Dry matter partitioning was calibrated with one set of field data and was checked with another data set. The dry matter partitioning modifications checked out well for the two data sets; however, more research is required to expand the confidence of the empirical partitioning procedure. Another area of future research should be the partitioning of dry matter into fermentable and nonfermentable portions. One potential use of a dynamic sweet sorghum model would be to schedule commercial harvesting systems. Other production interactions could also be investigated to assess the implications of integrating sorghum into established cropping systems. Economic assessments could also be made by entering the yield coefficients from the crop model into a linear programming framework. Eventually, validated crop growth models could be transferred from the research arena to agricultural producers, allowing them to improve their management decisions.

  11. Investigation of the stabilization and preservation of sweet sorghum juices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum juice is extremely vulnerable to microbial spoilage during storage because of its high water activity and rich sugar medium, and this represents a major technical challenge. The effects of clarification (80ºC; limed to pH 6.5;5 ppm polyanionic flocculant) and UV-C irradiation were inve...

  12. Path analysis of agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, G M R; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Teixeira, D H L; Bruzi, A T; Durães, N N L; Fagundes, T G

    2015-12-09

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol production due to its succulent stalks that contain directly fermentable sugars. Since many traits need to be considered in the selection process to breed superior cultivars for ethanol production, then correlations between the traits might be of use to help the breeder define optimal improvement strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the principal agro-industrial traits in sweet sorghum, and to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of primary and secondary traits on ethanol production per hectare. In total, 45 sweet sorghum genotypes (lineage/hybrids) were evaluated in an experiment designed in an alpha lattice 5 x 9. The data were analyzed using a mixed model approach. A detailed study of simple correlations was accomplished using path analysis. The experimental precision was high, with an accuracy above 76%. The various genotypes showed genetic variation for all agronomic and industrial traits, except stalk diameter. Some agro-industrial traits showed significant simple correlations with ethanol production, but according to the path analysis, some of these traits did not show a significant direct or indirect effect on ethanol production. The results highlighted the primary and secondary traits with practical relevance to sweet sorghum breeding, since they showed director indirect effects on ethanol production.

  13. Effect of Harvesting Stage on Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Genotypes in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Owuoche, James O.; Oyoo, Maurice E.; Cheruiyot, Erick; Mulianga, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Harvesting stage of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cane is an important aspect in the content of sugar for production of industrial alcohol. Four sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated for harvesting stage in a randomized complete block design. In order to determine sorghum harvest growth stage for bioethanol production, sorghum canes were harvested at intervals of seven days after anthesis. The genotypes were evaluated at different stages of development for maximum production of bioethanol from flowering to physiological maturity. The canes were crushed and juice fermented to produce ethanol. Measurements of chlorophyll were taken at various stages as well as panicles from the harvested canes. Dried kernels at 14% moisture content were also weighed at various stages. Chlorophyll, grain weight, absolute ethanol volume, juice volume, cane yield, and brix showed significant (p = 0.05) differences for genotypes as well as the stages of harvesting. Results from this study showed that harvesting sweet sorghum at stages IV and V (104 to 117 days after planting) would be appropriate for production of kernels and ethanol. EUSS10 has the highest ethanol potential (1062.78 l ha−1) due to excellent juice volume (22976.9 l ha−1) and EUSS11 (985.26 l ha−1) due to its high brix (16.21). PMID:28255577

  14. Efficient extraction method to collect sugar from sweet sorghum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is a domesticated grass containing a sugar-rich juice that can be readily utilized for ethanol production. Most of the sugar is stored inside the cells of the stalk tissue and can be difficult to release, a necessary step before conventional fermentation. While this crop holds much promise as an arid land sugar source for biofuel production, a number of challenges must be overcome. One lies in the inherent labile nature of the sugars in the stalks leading to a short usable storage time. Also, collection of sugars from the sweet sorghum stalks is usually accomplished by mechanical squeezing, but generally does not collect all of the available sugars. Results In this paper, we present two methods that address these challenges for utilization of sweet sorghum for biofuel production. The first method demonstrates a means to store sweet sorghum stalks in the field under semi-arid conditions. The second provides an efficient water extraction method that can collect as much of the available sugar as feasible. Operating parameters investigated include temperature, stalk size, and solid–liquid ratio that impact both the rate of sugar release and the maximal amount recovered with a goal of low water use. The most desirable conditions include 30°C, 0.6 ratio of solid to liquid (w/w), which collects 90 % of the available sugar. Variations in extraction methods did not alter the efficiency of the eventual ethanol fermentation. Conclusions The water extraction method has the potential to be used for sugar extraction from both fresh sweet sorghum stalks and dried ones. When combined with current sugar extraction methods, the overall ethanol production efficiency would increase compared to current field practices. PMID:23305036

  15. Tolerance of sweet sorghum to Meloidogyne incognita and crop effect on nematode population density

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a sugar-producing crop that can be used for biofuel and plastics production, and the crop could be incorporated into annual cropping systems in the southern US. The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on sweet sorghum yield and sugar content has not been reported. Beca...

  16. Tapping the US historic sweet sorghum collection to identify biofuel germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has gained an important role as a viable alternative to fossil fuels and a more profitable option than maize and sugarcane. Nevertheless, the actual narrow genetic base in sweet sorghum breeding programs is limiting the development of new biofuel varietie...

  17. Heterosis and combining ability of F1 hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sugar-based biofuel crop that is well-suited to tropical environments. Most sweet sorghum cultivars are open-pollinated, but hybrids could offer yield and seed production advantages. Fifteen hybrids were generated among five female and three male pa...

  18. General and specific combining ability of F1-hybrid sweet sorghum in Thailand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a promising biofuel crop that accumulates fermentable sugar in the stalk and can be directly fermented as bioethanol. Currently, most of sweet sorghum cultivars are pure lines. However, developing high-yielding hybrids has many advantages. To date there...

  19. Evaluation of public sweet sorghum A-lines for use in hybrid production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A fundamental need for commercialization of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] as a bioenergy crop is an adequate seed supply, which will require development of hybrid varieties using dwarf seed-parent lines. A set of 6 public sweet sorghum A-lines (Dwarf Kansas Sourless, KS9, N36, N38, N39...

  20. The new large-scale sweet sorghum industry in the USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has been widely recognized as a promising sugar feedstock crop for the large-scale manufacture of food-grade and non food-grade bioproducts in the USA. Heckemeyer Mill, located in Sikeston, Missouri, has built and equipped the largest, commercial-scale sweet sorghum ...

  1. Problems, control, and opportunity of starch in the large scale processing of sugarcane and sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Both sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) crops are members of the grass (Poaceae) family, and consist of stalks rich in soluble sugars. The extracted juice from both of these crops contains insoluble starch, with much greater quantities occurring in sweet sorghum. ...

  2. Estimation methods and parameter assessment for ethanol yields from total soluble solids of sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Estimation methods and evaluation of ethanol yield from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) based on agronomic production traits and juice characteristics is important for developing parents and inbred lines of sweet sorghum that can be used by the bio-ethanol industry. The objectives of th...

  3. Identification of alkaline stress-responsive genes of CBL family in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunxia; Bian, Mingdi; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Yang, Zhenming

    2011-11-01

    Calcineurin B-like proteins play important roles in the calcium perception and signal transduction of abiotic stress. In this study, the bioinformatic analysis of molecular characteristics of Sorghum bicolor calcineurin B-like protein (SbCBL) revealed that sequences of SbCBL are highly conserved, and most SbCBLs have three typical EF-hands structures. Among the SbCBL proteins, four of which, SbCBL01, 04, 05, 08, have a conserved N-myristoylation domain. Stress-responsive and phytohormone-responsive cis-elements were found in the promoter regions of SbCBL genes. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR) analysis showed that SbCBL genes have different tissue-specific expression patterns under normal growth conditions in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Interestingly, when treated with sodium carbonate, SbCBL genes also show various sodium carbonate stress responsive patterns in sweet sorghum seedlings. These results suggest that SbCBLs may participate in regulating sodium carbonate stress-specific cellular adaptation responses and influencing growth and developmental patterns in sweet sorghum.

  4. Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum and Sorghum x Sudangrass Hybrids as Feedstocks for Ethanol Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is much interest in the conversion of sugar from sugarcane and related grasses to ethanol. Field studies were conducted at the USDA-ARS Sugarcane Research Laboratory in southeast Louisiana to evaluate the ethanol yield potential of five sweet sorghums (Dale, M 81-E, Rio, Theis, and Topper) an...

  5. Genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sweet and grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is globally produced as a source of food, feed, fiber and fuel. Grain and sweet sorghums differ in a number of important traits, including stem sugar and juice accumulation, plant height as well as grain and biomass production. The first whole genome sequence of a grain sorghum is available, but additional genome sequences are required to study genome-wide and intraspecific variation for dissecting the genetic basis of these important traits and for tailor-designed breeding of this important C4 crop. Results We resequenced two sweet and one grain sorghum inbred lines, and identified a set of nearly 1,500 genes differentiating sweet and grain sorghum. These genes fall into ten major metabolic pathways involved in sugar and starch metabolisms, lignin and coumarin biosynthesis, nucleic acid metabolism, stress responses and DNA damage repair. In addition, we uncovered 1,057,018 SNPs, 99,948 indels of 1 to 10 bp in length and 16,487 presence/absence variations as well as 17,111 copy number variations. The majority of the large-effect SNPs, indels and presence/absence variations resided in the genes containing leucine rich repeats, PPR repeats and disease resistance R genes possessing diverse biological functions or under diversifying selection, but were absent in genes that are essential for life. Conclusions This is a first report of the identification of genome-wide patterns of genetic variation in sorghum. High-density SNP and indel markers reported here will be a valuable resource for future gene-phenotype studies and the molecular breeding of this important crop and related species. PMID:22104744

  6. Selection of a yeast strain for sweet sorghum fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bowling, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Seven natural and eight commercial yeast strains were tested for fermenting the high sugar content of sweet sorghum juice with a high yield of alcohol and a high pecentage utilization of the sugar within a ten day period. The sorghum juice pH was adjusted to range between 4 and 5. A comparison was made with and without an added nitrogen source. Fermentation temperatures were maintained at 27/sup 0/C. The American Type Culture Collection number 918, a Saccharomyces species fermented the sorghum juice at the 26 and 18 to 20 balling (brix). No yeast strain was found to ferment the 30 balling juice within a ten day period at 90% utilization.

  7. Development of sweet sorghum as an energy crop. Volume III. Integration concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Scantland, D.A.; Riddle, W.E.; McClure, T.A.; Woodford, P.G.; Honton, E.J.; Lipinsky, E.S.

    1980-12-12

    For the past 3 years, Battelle's Columbus Division and several co-investigators have conducted interregional investigations related to biomass and sugar production for conversion to alcohol and other fuels. These investigations have emphasized primarily the production of sweet sorghum and sugarcane due to their ability to produce high biomass and readily fermentable sugars' yields which allow a highly favorable energy balance when converted to ethanol. The primary goal of the 1979 research program was to determine the agronomic and economic feasibility of developing sweet sorghum, sweet sorghum hybrids, and sugarcane as energy-producing crops in selected geographic regions of the United States. The objectives of the research include the following: (1) to conduct a prefeasibility analysis of the potential for integrating sugarcane and sugar beet production/processing with sweet sorghum; and (2) to formulate an analytical approach to estimate the economic impact of growing sweet sorghum as an energy crop upon the US agricultural system. This volume is comprised of two separate investigations pertaining to potential integration of sweet sorghum into US agriculture. The first investigation entitled, Economic Potential for Integrating Alcohol Fuels Production from Sweet Sorghum with Other Carbohydrate Crops conducted independently, looks at integration of sweet sorghum from a microeconomic viewpoint, i.e., what would be the effects of combining sweet sorghum with other sugar crops to produce alcohol in terms of plant investment and operating costs.

  8. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60/sup 0/C and 85/sup 0/C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  9. Counter-current extraction of sweet sorghum sugar for fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Toledo, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    A small counter-current extractor in the form of a heated inclined screw was tested to remove residual sugar from the bagasse after sweet sorghum was passed through one roller mill. Roller milling alone recovered only 45% of total sugar. Combined efficiency of milling and extraction was 95%. Combined pressed juice (17% sugar) and extract (10% sugar) produces a 12.5% solids juice for fermentation.

  10. Effects of cooking on sweet sorghum juice fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, B.; Ogden, R.; Walker, C.

    1982-12-01

    Full scale ethanol plant and laboratory fermentation on sweet sorghum juice show not cooking prior to fermentation results in poor sugar to alcohol conversion. Sugar conversion was much higher when heating for microbial control to 60 degrees C and 85 degrees C with no significant difference between the two. Changes in sugar content of the juice through the season had no effect on fermentation efficiency.

  11. Sweet sorghum: an alcohol crop for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.R.; Arthur, M.F.

    1980-12-01

    Assuming that alcohol can be produced from sweet sorghum, growers need such incentives as high potential alcohol yield per acre, lower fertilizer and water inputs, more-efficient feedstock, high biomass yield, potential as a cash crop, and favorable economic considerations in relation to other crops. Problems with juice preservation, harvesting equipment, transportation to processing plants, and treatment of by-products must be overcome before such use for large-scale production is likely. 4 tables. (DCK)

  12. Biomass production from sugarcane and sweet sorghum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gascho, G.J.; Shih, S.F.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a field study on growing sugarcane and sweet sorghum in the Lake Okeechobee area of Florida are reported. Two experiments were conducted on row-spacing of sugarcane and one on row-spacing of sorghum. There were no surprises in the data obtained in this year's sugarcane experiments. High biomass, sugar and fiber were produced both on sand and muck soils in south Florida. Yields were, as in previous years, higher for the narrow row spacing where solar radiation was better than in plant cane. Likewise it is greater for a second ratoon than for a first ratoon. Sweet sorghum produced well but not as well as last year due to a planting data which was 1 to 2 months late and to the wider spacings used to facilitate the trial of sugarcane harvesting equipment. Moisture is much more critical for sorghum than for cane. One experiment on muck suffered due to wet conditions. A second experiment on sand was lost due to lack of moisture.

  13. Evaluation of whorl damage by fall armyworm (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) on field and greenhouse grown sweet sorghum plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] is an economically important pest of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench]. However, resistance to fall armyworm in sweet sorghum has not been extensively studied. A collection of primarily sweet sorghum accessions were evaluated in t...

  14. Cultivar and maturity effects on the quality attributes and ethanol potential of sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum is a promising feedstock crop for the manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts. Its large starch content may be an opportune source of untapped fermentable sugars to add economical value to sweet sorghum juices and processing by-products. In this study, four commercial cultivars, Dale, ...

  15. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a feedstock by multiple harvests for sustainable bioenergy production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum has become an important feedstock for bioethanol production. Total sugar yield and multiple harvests can directly affect ethanol production cost. Little is known about stem traits and multiple harvests that contribute to sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Stem traits were evaluated from 25 ...

  16. Post-harvest changes in sweet sorghum I: brix and sugars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This experiment was done to measure the deterioration of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) after harvest. Three varieties of sorghum were grown in Louisiana and harvested at 90, 115, and 140 days after planting (DAP). Whole stalks were cut from the field at soil level, stripped, and topped...

  17. The economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linton, Joseph Andrew

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in Mississippi. An enterprise budgeting system is used along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate farmers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the farmer, along with breakeven costs for the producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs for the refined ethanol, is used to estimate the amounts that farmers and ethanol producers would be willing to accept (WTA) and willing to pay (WTP), respectively, for sweet sorghum biomass. These WTA and WTP estimates are analyzed by varying key factors in the biomass and ethanol production processes. Deterministic and stochastic models are used to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding negative per-acre profits in both counties.

  18. Novel storage technologies for raw and clarified syrup biomass feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Attention is currently focused on developing sustainable supply chains of sugar feedstocks for new, flexible biorefineries. Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) include stabiliz...

  19. The sorghum SWEET gene family: stem sucrose accumulation as revealed through transcriptome profiling.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi; Kasuga, Shigemitsu; Kawahigashi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    SWEET is a newly identified family of sugar transporters. Although SWEET transporters have been characterized by using Arabidopsis and rice, very little knowledge of sucrose accumulation in the stem region is available, as these model plants accumulate little sucrose in their stems. To elucidate the expression of key SWEET genes involved in sucrose accumulation of sorghum, we performed transcriptome profiling by RNA-seq, categorization using phylogenetic trees, analysis of chromosomal synteny, and comparison of amino acid sequences between SIL-05 (a sweet sorghum) and BTx623 (a grain sorghum). We identified 23 SWEET genes in the sorghum genome. In the leaf, SbSWEET8-1 was highly expressed and was grouped in the same clade as AtSWEET11 and AtSWEET12 that play a role in the efflux of photosynthesized sucrose. The key genes in sucrose synthesis (SPS3) and that in another step of sugar transport (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) were also highly expressed, suggesting that sucrose is newly synthesized and actively exported from the leaf. In the stem, SbSWEET4-3 was uniquely highly expressed. SbSWEET4-1, SbSWEET4-2, and SbSWEET4-3 were categorized into the same clade, but their tissue specificities were different, suggesting that SbSWEET4-3 is a sugar transporter with specific roles in the stem. We found a putative SWEET4-3 ortholog in the corresponding region of the maize chromosome, but not the rice chromosome, suggesting that SbSWEET4-3 was copied after the branching of sorghum and maize from rice. In the panicle from the heading through to 36 days afterward, SbSWEET2-1 and SbSWEET7-1 were expressed and grouped in the same clade as rice OsSWEET11/Xa13 that is essential for seed development. SbSWEET9-3 was highly expressed in the panicle only just after heading and was grouped into the same clade as AtSWEET8/RPG1 that is essential for pollen viability. Five of 23 SWEET genes had SNPs that caused nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions between SIL-05 and BTx623. We determined the key

  20. The influence of carbon ion irradiation on sweet sorghum seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, X. C.; Li, W. J.; Liu, Q. F.; He, J. Y.; Yu, L. X.; Zhou, L. B.; Qu, Y.; Xie, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different doses of 100 MeV/u carbon ions on sweet sorghum seeds in order to improve crop yields and their sugar content. After irradiation, seeds were germinated and grown to 30 days, and others were sown in the field. At the end of harvesting season all planted seeds were picked separately and M2 generations obtained. The differences among the treatments were examined using the RAPD procedure. In the study done by using 38 primers; according to the amplification results, the differences among the various doses treatment were shown.

  1. Bioprocessing of sweet sorghum with in situ-produced enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Tengerdy, R.P.; Szakacs, G.; Sipocz, J.

    1996-12-31

    Enzyme-assisted ensiling (ENLAC), using in situ-produced enzymes from Gliocladium sp. TUB-F-498, preserved 80% of the sugar content of sweet sorghum, and facilitated its extraction by countercurrent diffusion. The in situ enzyme was produced on the extracted sweet sorghum pulp by an 8-d solid substrate fermentation (SSF) with a yield of 4.6 cellulose and 400 IU/g dry wt xylanase. Two percent of the fermented substrate had cellulose and xylanase levels equivalent or superior to levels found in the commercial enzymes Celluclast and Viscozyme Novo at the 0.025% application level in ENLAC. The in situ-production of enzymes on recyclable substrates may reduce bioprocessing costs significantly. In this ENLAC process, the cost of the in situ enzymes is estimated to be about $0.12/metric ton (MT) substrate, compared to $9.5/metric ton for the commercial enzymes, a cost reduction of nearly 80-fold. 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Dried Sweet Sorghum Stalks as Raw Material for Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The potential of utilizing dried sweet sorghum stalks as raw material for anaerobic digestion has been evaluated. Two different treatments were tested, a mild thermal and an enzymatic, alone or in combination. Thermal pretreatment was found to decrease the methane yields, whereas one-step enzymatic treatment resulted in a significant increase of 15.1% comparing to the untreated sweet sorghum. Subsequently, in order to increase the total methane production, the combined effect of enzyme load and I/S on methane yields from sweet sorghum was evaluated by employing response surface methodology. The obtained model showed that the maximum methane yield that could be achieved is 296 mL CH4/g VS at I/S ratio of 0.35 with the addition of 11.12 FPU/g sweet sorghum. PMID:25210715

  3. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems.

    PubMed

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed.

  4. Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (SbTSTs) putatively control sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems

    PubMed Central

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Julius, Benjamin T; Dweikat, Ismail; Braun, David M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbohydrates are differentially partitioned in sweet versus grain sorghums. While the latter preferentially accumulate starch in the grain, the former primarily store large amounts of sucrose in the stem. Previous work determined that neither sucrose metabolizing enzymes nor changes in Sucrose transporter (SUT) gene expression accounted for the carbohydrate partitioning differences. Recently, 2 additional classes of sucrose transport proteins, Tonoplast Sugar Transporters (TSTs) and SWEETs, were identified; thus, we examined whether their expression tracked sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems. We determined 2 TSTs were differentially expressed in sweet vs. grain sorghum stems, likely underlying the massive difference in sucrose accumulation. A model illustrating potential roles for different classes of sugar transport proteins in sorghum sugar partitioning is discussed. PMID:26619184

  5. Sweet sorghum cropping systems for on-farm ethanol or lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, I.C.; Buxton, D.R.; Hunter, E.L.

    1993-12-31

    Thirteen cropping systems using biomass crops in monoculture, double cropping, and intercropping were conducted with four rates of N for five years at two sites. Total above ground biomass was harvested and removed. Alfalfa and sweet sorghum removed the greatest amounts of K and had the lowest soil test K values after 5 years. Switchgrass removed the least K; about one-half as much as sweet sorghum. Reed canarygrass required the greatest rates of N and monocropped sweet sorghum the least (70 kg ha{sup {minus}1}). Sweet sorghum yielded up to 26 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} and contained 11 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of cellulosic fibers and 7 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} of soluble sugars. Methods of fermenting sugars and fibers are discussed.

  6. Chemical analysis of fermentable sugars and secondary products in 23 sweet sorghum cultivars

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, is a heat- and drought-tolerant crop that has a promise to supplement corn (Zea mays L.) for biofuel production from fermentable sugars (for sweet varieties) and lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative relationships are lacking to predict the accumulation of prim...

  7. Genetic diversity of sweet sorghum germplasm in Mexico using AFLP and SSR markers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the diversity and genetic relationships between lines and varieties of the sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) germplasm bank of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research, Mexico, using AFLP and SSR markers. The molecular markers ...

  8. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens Fusarium thapsinum and Macrophomina phaseolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots, diseases that pose serious constraints for yield and quality of juice a...

  9. Response of sweet sorghum lines to stalk pathogens fusarium thapsinum and macrophomina phaseolina

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] has potential for bioenergy. It is adapted to a variety of U.S. locations and the extracted juice can be directly fermented into ethanol. However, little research on fungal stalk rots has been reported, even though these diseases pose serious constraints f...

  10. Pilot plant clarification of sweet sorghum juice and evaporation of raw and clarified juices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the fundamental processing areas identified by industry for the commercial, large-scale manufacture of liquid biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) is the clarification of juice to make it suitable for concentration into syrup for long-term storage, year-round...

  11. Heterosis and combining ability for yield components in hybrid sweet sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol....

  12. Evaluation of hybrid sweet sorghum as a biofuel crop for the southeast USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has potential as a multi-purpose biofuel crop in the Southeast USA. The sugars from the juice can be easily fermented into ethanol or used to produce other chemicals, while the bagasse could be burned in boilers for energy or used for cellulosic ethanol. The grain a...

  13. Grain and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) serves as a novel source of bioactive compounds for human health.

    PubMed

    Vanamala, Jairam K P; Massey, Aaron R; Pinnamaneni, Srinivas Rao; Reddivari, Lavanya; Reardon, Kenneth F

    2017-06-29

    Grain sorghum is an important staple food crop grown globally while sweet sorghum is increasingly considered as a promising biofuel feedstock. Biofuels are the major economic products from the processing of large quantities of biomass, which is currently being utilized to make value-added products in the biorefinery approach. To date, these value-added products are typically commodity chemicals and waste materials used in agriculture. However, there are opportunities to generate high-value bioactive compounds from sorghum grain and biomass. Chronic diseases, such as cancers, are the top causes for morbidity and mortality in developed nations and are promoted by inflammation and oxidative stress. Globally, colorectal cancer results in approximately one-half million deaths annually. It is estimated that as much as 80% of colorectal cancer cases can be attributed to environmental and dietary factors. The sorghum grain and ligno-cellulosic biomass generated for biofuel production has been reported to be high in bioactive compounds, including phenolic acids and flavonoids, with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This review focuses on the bioactive compounds of grain and sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), for their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-colon cancer, and immune modulator functions. The review summarizes previous efforts to identify and quantify bioactive compounds in sorghum and documents their anti-cancer biological activities. Finally, this review discusses bioactive compound extraction methodologies and technologies as well as considerations for incorporating these technologies into current biorefining practices.

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of sweet sorghum accessions for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Michele Jorge; Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Fillipe; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Noda, Roberto Willians; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Parrella, Rafael Augusto da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines. The objectives of this study were: to perform phenotypic and molecular characterization of 100 sweet sorghum accessions from the germplasm bank of the Embrapa Maize and Sorghum breeding program; to examine the relationship between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices; and to infer about the population structure in the sweet sorghum accessions. Morphological and agro-industrial traits related to sugar and biomass production were used for phenotypic characterization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for molecular diversity analysis. Both phenotypic and molecular characterizations revealed the existence of considerable genetic diversity among the 100 sweet sorghum accessions. The correlation between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices was low (0.35), which is in agreement with the inconsistencies observed between the clusters formed by the phenotypic and the molecular diversity analyses. Furthermore, the clusters obtained by the molecular diversity analysis were more consistent with the genealogy and the historic background of the sweet sorghum accessions than the clusters obtained through the phenotypic diversity analysis. The low correlation observed between the molecular and the phenotypic diversity matrices highlights the

  15. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of sweet sorghum accessions for bioenergy production

    PubMed Central

    Pastina, Maria Marta; de Souza, Vander Fillipe; Schaffert, Robert Eugene; Carneiro, Pedro Crescêncio Souza; Noda, Roberto Willians; Carneiro, José Eustáquio de Souza; Damasceno, Cynthia Maria Borges; Parrella, Rafael Augusto da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is a type of cultivated sorghum characterized by the accumulation of high levels of sugar in the stems and high biomass accumulation, making this crop an important feedstock for bioenergy production. Sweet sorghum breeding programs that focus on bioenergy have two main goals: to improve quantity and quality of sugars in the juicy stem and to increase fresh biomass productivity. Genetic diversity studies are very important for the success of a breeding program, especially in the early stages, where understanding the genetic relationship between accessions is essential to identify superior parents for the development of improved breeding lines. The objectives of this study were: to perform phenotypic and molecular characterization of 100 sweet sorghum accessions from the germplasm bank of the Embrapa Maize and Sorghum breeding program; to examine the relationship between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices; and to infer about the population structure in the sweet sorghum accessions. Morphological and agro-industrial traits related to sugar and biomass production were used for phenotypic characterization, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used for molecular diversity analysis. Both phenotypic and molecular characterizations revealed the existence of considerable genetic diversity among the 100 sweet sorghum accessions. The correlation between the phenotypic and the molecular diversity matrices was low (0.35), which is in agreement with the inconsistencies observed between the clusters formed by the phenotypic and the molecular diversity analyses. Furthermore, the clusters obtained by the molecular diversity analysis were more consistent with the genealogy and the historic background of the sweet sorghum accessions than the clusters obtained through the phenotypic diversity analysis. The low correlation observed between the molecular and the phenotypic diversity matrices highlights the

  16. Continuous conversion of sweet sorghum juice to ethanol using immobilized yeast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mohite, U.; SivaRaman, H.

    1984-01-01

    While extensive work has been reported on sugarcane and sugarcane molasses for ethanol production, relatively few reports are available on ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice. With the advent of immobilized cell technology, an attempt has been made to utilize this technology for the production of ethanol from sweet sorghum juice. The species was Sorghum bicolar (Moench). The maximum productivity obtained at 30/sup 0/C with Saccharomyces uvarum cells immobilized in gelatin was 168 g/L h at an ethanol concentration of 2.4 g (w/v) using sweet sorghum juice having 11.5% fermentable sugars. The calculated value for full conversion was 86 g/L at an ethanol concentration of 5.5 g (w/v). The low concentration of total sugars in the juice, however, would make ethanol recovery expensive unless a uniformly high concentration of 16% or more of total sugars can be obtained.

  17. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    DOE PAGES

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; ...

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively,more » for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.« less

  18. Analyzing and Comparing Biomass Feedstock Supply Systems in China: Corn Stover and Sweet Sorghum Case Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Lantian; Cafferty, Kara; Roni, Mohammad; Jacobson, Jacob; Xie, Guanghui; Ovard, Leslie; Wright, Christopher

    2015-06-11

    This paper analyzes the rural Chinese biomass supply system and models supply chain operations according to U.S. concepts of logistical unit operations: harvest and collection, storage, transportation, preprocessing, and handling and queuing. In this paper, we quantify the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum in China under different scenarios. We analyze three scenarios of corn stover logistics from northeast China and three scenarios of sweet sorghum stalks logistics from Inner Mongolia in China. The case study estimates that the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk to be $52.95/dry metric ton and $52.64/dry metric ton, respectively, for the current labor-based biomass logistics system. However, if the feedstock logistics operation is mechanized, the cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk decreases to $36.01/dry metric ton and $35.76/dry metric ton, respectively. The study also includes a sensitivity analysis to identify the cost factors that cause logistics cost variation. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that labor price has the most influence on the logistics cost of corn stover and sweet sorghum stalk, with a variation of $6 to $12/dry metric ton.

  19. Effect of water quality on yield of sugar beet and sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Sharif, M E

    2005-07-01

    To study the effects of quality of water on soil and plant, an experiment was conducted at Rudashat Drainage and Reclamation Experiment Station in 1999. Four irrigation water salinities (2, 5, 8 and 11 ds m(-1)) and two sugar crops (sugar beet and sweet sorghum) were used in this experiment. The results showed that under the same water quality, sweet sorghum used 2700 cubic meter per hectare less water than sugar beet. As the quality of irrigation water decreased, the soil salinity and exchangeable sodium percent increased which caused yield reduction for both plants. Sugar beet by accumulating Na and Cl in its leaves tolerated salinity but its usage as a forage crop caused some limitations, whereas sweet sorghum by not accumulating Na and Cl escape salinity and it can be used as a forage crop without any limitation.

  20. Stem sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum - activity and expression of sucrose metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Hilal Ahmad; Paranjpe, Sharayu; Bhargava, Sujata

    2012-04-15

    Sugar metabolism was studied in sweet sorghum (SSV74) that is known to store sugars in the mature internodes and which is reported to give grain yields twice that of a grain sorghum variety (SPV1616). Comparison of sugar accumulation in these two varieties was carried out at three stages of growth and in the upper and lower internodes. In spite of large differences in the level of sugar accumulation, osmolarity of the sap did not vary as significantly in the two varieties. Significant contribution of variety, stage and internode position was seen for the variation observed in sugar content. Though the activities of sugar metabolizing enzymes namely sucrose synthase (in the synthesis and cleavage directions), sucrose phosphate synthase and invertase (cytoplasmic and vacuolar) also varied in a stage- and internode-specific manner in the two varieties, these enzymes did not contribute significantly to the variation observed in sugar content. Transcriptional expression of one sucrose synthase (SUC1), two sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS2 and SPS3) and a vacuolar invertase (INV3) gene were lower in sweet sorghum as compared to grain sorghum. Sweet sorghum also showed lower expression of two sucrose transporters (SUT1 and SUT4), which correlated to higher sugar accumulation in this variety. Differential expression of the sugar metabolizing enzymes and sucrose transporters in sweet and grain sorghum suggest a role for signaling molecules and transcription factors in regulating sugar accumulation observed in the mature internodes of sweet sorghum, which needs to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Reducing sugar production of sweet sorghum bagasse kraft pulp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solihat, Nissa Nurfajrin; Fajriutami, Triyani; Adi, Deddy Triyono Nugroho; Fatriasari, Widya; Hermiati, Euis

    2017-01-01

    Kraft pulping of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) has been used for effective delignification method for cellulose production. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance pulp kraft of SSB for reducing sugar production. The study intended to investigate the effect of active alkali and sulfidity loading variation of SSB pulp kraft on reducing sugar yield per biomass. The SSB pulp was prepared after pulping using three variations of active alkali (17, 19, and 22%) and sulfidity loading (20, 22, and 24%) at 170°C for 4 h with liquor to wood ratio of 10. A total of 9 pulps were obtained from these pretreatments. Delignification pretreatment has been succesfully removed lignin and hemicellulose more than 90% and 50%, respectively. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity loading has significantly increased lignin removal caused by disruption of the cell wall structure for releasing lignin into black liquor in the cellulose extraction. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pulp was carried out with cellulase loading of 40 FPU per g substrate in the shaking incubator at 50°C and 150 rpm for 78 h. For each 24 h, the reducing sugar yield (DNS assay) has been observed. Even though the lignin and hemicellulose loss occurred along with higher active alkali loading, this condition tends to decrease its yield. The reducing sugar concentration varied between 7-8 g/L. Increasing active alkali and sulfidity was significantly decreased the reducing sugar per biomass. Pulp delignified by 17% active alkali and 20% sulfidity has demonstrated the maximum reducing sugar yield per biomass of 45.57% resulted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis. These results indicated that kraft pulping was success to degrade more lignin and hemicellulose content to facilitate the enzyme for breaking down the cellulose into its sugar monomer. A high loss of lignin and hemicellulose are not single factor to improve digestibility of SSB. This sugar has potential for yeast fermented into bioethanol.

  2. New commercially viable processing technologies for the production of sugar feedstocks from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L Moench) has been widely recognized as a promising sugar feedstock crop because it: (i) is among the plants giving the highest yields of carbohydrates per hectare; (ii) is easily cultivated from seed; (iii) has low input requirements and wide geographic suitability; a...

  3. Impact of potential fermentation inhibitors present in sweet sorghum sugar solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, the fermentation of the sweet sorghum sugars sucrose, glucose, and fructose to ethanol was studied in the presence of acetic, lactic and aconitic acid, which are present in the juice or produced by microorganisms during prolonged storage of harvested materials or juice. An industrial s...

  4. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-scale producers of food-grade swee...

  5. Detecting adulterated commercial sweet sorghum syrups with ion chromatography oligosaccharide fingerprint profiles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some commercial sweet sorghum syrups can be fraudulently or accidently adulterated with inexpensive sugar syrups, particularly high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or corn syrup, and sold at a relatively low market price or even mis-branded. This undermines the economic stability of the current small-sc...

  6. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  7. 3-Amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sasaki, Kengo; Uematsu, Kouji; Tsuge, Yota; Teramura, Hiroshi; Okai, Naoko; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Katsuyama, Yohei; Sugai, Yoshinori; Ohnishi, Yasuo; Hirano, Ko; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-12-01

    The production of the bioplastic precursor 3-amino-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-AHBA) from sweet sorghum juice, which contains amino acids and the fermentable sugars sucrose, glucose and fructose, was assessed to address the limitations of producing bio-based chemicals from renewable feedstocks. Recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain KT01 expressing griH and griI derived from Streptomyces griseus produced 3,4-AHBA from the sweet sorghum juice of cultivar SIL-05 at a final concentration (1.0 g l(-1)) that was 5-fold higher than that from pure sucrose. Fractionation of sweet sorghum juice by nanofiltration (NF) membrane separation (molecular weight cut-off 150) revealed that the NF-concentrated fraction, which contained the highest concentrations of amino acids, increased 3,4-AHBA production, whereas the NF-filtrated fraction inhibited 3,4-AHBA biosynthesis. Amino acid supplementation experiments revealed that leucine specifically enhanced 3,4-AHBA production by strain KT01. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet sorghum juice is a potentially suitable feedstock for 3,4-AHBA production by recombinant C. glutamicum.

  8. Improvement of juice expression after separation of sweet sorghum pith from rind leaf

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzel, T.; Cundiff, J.F.; Vaughan, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    Sweet sorghum stalks were chopped, the pitch separated from the rind-leaf, and the pitch portion only was fed through a screw press for juice expression. Maximum juice yield was achieved with 75% of the fresh weight in the pitch fraction. The screw press capacity decreased as fiber content of the material increased.

  9. Characterization of some useful traits in sweet sorghum for bioenergy production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiple yearly harvests can increase crop productivity but the crop may encounter different environmental challenges (such as early-spring cold or late-fall frost) depending on cultivation zones. Sweet sorghum as a feedstock may be planted early to get a double harvest or be rotated with sugarcane ...

  10. Radiation-induced grafting of sweet sorghum stalk for copper(II) removal from aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Hu, Jun; Wang, Jianlong

    2013-11-15

    The influence of main components (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) of the sweet sorghum stalk on radiation-induced grafting reaction and adsorption of copper from aqueous solution was investigated. Sweet sorghum stalk was grafted with acrylic acid induced by γ-irradiation. The results showed that the grafted stalk contained 1.6 mmol/g carboxyl groups, and its maximal adsorption capacity was 13.32 mg/g. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin of the raw materials were confirmed to involve in grafting reaction through comparing the grafting yield and the structure of the grafted materials. Both the structure and the composition of the sweet sorghum stalk had influence on the grafting reaction and adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacity of the grafted sweet sorghum stalk increased about five times, and the adsorption isotherm of the grafted materials conformed to the Langmuir model. The main mechanism for copper adsorption involved in ion exchange. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Sweet sorghum biorefinery for production of fuel ethanol and value-added co-products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An integrated process has been developed for a sweet-sorghum biorefinery in which all carbohydrate components of the feedstock were used for production of fuel ethanol and industrial chemicals. In the first step, the juice was extracted from the stalks. The resulted straw (bagasse) then was pretreat...

  12. Structural and physicochemical characteristics of starch from sugar cane and sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fernanda Viginotti; Polesi, Luís Fernando; Aguiar, Cláudio Lima; Sarmento, Silene Bruder Silveira

    2014-10-13

    The starch present in sugar cane and sorghum juice has been considered a problem to the sugar industry. The objective of this work was to study the structural and physicochemical characteristics of the starch present in sugar cane and sweet sorghum. Sugar cane and sweet sorghum starches presented small granules (maximum 5.9 and 7.9 μm), A-type diffraction pattern, high degree of relative crystallinity (44.4 and 42.0%), and low amylose content (17.5 and 16.4%), respectively. Sugar cane starch presented more uniformity in granule shape and size, more homogeneity in amylose chain length, higher number of long lateral chains of amylopectin, and higher susceptibility to enzymatic digestion. Besides being in higher amount in the juice, sweet sorghum starch presented lower values for thermal properties of gelatinization, as well as higher swelling factor, which can cause more problems during processing. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the variety and maturity influence on these properties.

  13. Photosynthetic response of sweet sorghum to drought and re-watering at different growth stages.

    PubMed

    Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter; Monti, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 drought resistant species with a huge potential for bioenergy. Accentuated reductions in water availability for crop production and altered rainfall distribution patterns, however, will have direct impact on its physiological attributes, metabolic functions and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of drought and re-watering on the photosynthetic efficiency of sweet sorghum. Durable or short transient drought stress periods were imposed at early and late growth stages and compared with well-watered plants. In spite of very similar drought levels at early and late growth stages (Ψsoil  = -1.6 and -1.7 MPa), the decrements in maximum quantum yield (ϕPo ) and performance index (PI) were about twice at late than at early growth stages. All the PI components, that is, density of active reaction centers (RCs), excitation energy trapping and conversion of excitation energy into electron flow followed a similar decreasing pattern. Upon re-watering and regardless the duration and growth stage of the drought period, all the photosynthetic functions, and particularly those of photosystem II (PSII), fully recovered. Such effective self-regulating functional activity by PSII photochemistry likely contributes to both high drought resistance and photosynthetic recovery capacity of sweet sorghum. At vegetative growth stages, the down regulation of the photochemistry seems to be the main photoprotective/regulative mechanisms, while at late growth stages, the accumulation of compatible solutes likely has a more preponderant role. The observed sugar concentration increments likely contributed to prevent permanent photo-oxidative destruction of the PSII RCs of mature droughted sweet sorghum plants. © 2012 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  14. Process for preparing and using sweet sorghum in a fuel product

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnerman, R.W.; Farone, W.A.

    1986-09-23

    This patent describes a method of storing sweet sorghum preparatory to pelletizing it for use as a combustible fuel product comprising: removing a majority of sugar-containing fluid from the sorghum to leave a residue of ligno-cellulosic bagasse; piling the bagasse on a hard surface; compressing the piled bagasse to form a compacted mass, whereby the compressing frees air trapped within the bagasse to inhibit microbial and fungal oxidative degradation thereof; and storing the compacted mass preparatory to pelletizing the same.

  15. Development of a sweet sorghum juice clarification method in the manufacture of industrial feedstocks for value-added products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in interest of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) for small, medium, and large-scale manufacture of renewable, biobased fuels and chemicals. New fermentation organisms hold tremendous potential for the production of biobased fuels, chemical...

  16. Effects of irrigation water qualities on biomass and sugar contents of sugar beet and sweet sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Sharif, M E

    2007-04-01

    An experiment involving four qualities of irrigation water two sugar beet and three sweet sorghum cultivars was conducted in a split plot design with four replications at Rudasht Drainage and Reclamation Experiment Station in 1999. The results showed salinity of water has an adverse effect on sugar beet and sweet sorghum biomass. Sweet sorghum cultivar SSV108 had the lowest biomass under all qualities of irrigation water Sweet sorghum cultivar Rio had the maximum biomass with water qualities of 2, 5, and 8 dS m(-1). Sugar beet cultivar 7233 had the maximum biomass with 11 dS m(-1). The effect of irrigation water quality was not significant for sugar characteristics such as brix, pol and purity. However, responses of cultivars on the above parameters were significant and sugar beet cultivars had higher brix, pol and purity and lower invert sugar and starch than sweet sorghum cultivars. In conclusion, sweet sorghum cultivars are not recommended to be irrigated with saline water of more than 8 dS m(-1) for sugar production. Under such condition, they may be suitable to be grown for forage purposes.

  17. Sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems occurs by apoplasmic phloem unloading and does not involve differential Sucrose transporter expression.

    PubMed

    Bihmidine, Saadia; Baker, R Frank; Hoffner, Cassandra; Braun, David M

    2015-07-30

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) cultivars store non-structural carbohydrates predominantly as either starch in seeds (grain sorghums) or sugars in stems (sweet sorghums). Previous research determined that sucrose accumulation in sweet sorghum stems was not correlated with the activities of enzymes functioning in sucrose metabolism, and that an apoplasmic transport step may be involved in stem sucrose accumulation. However, the sucrose unloading pathway from stem phloem to storage parenchyma cells remains unelucidated. Sucrose transporters (SUTs) transport sucrose across membranes, and have been proposed to function in sucrose partitioning differences between sweet and grain sorghums. The purpose of this study was to characterize the key differences in carbohydrate accumulation between a sweet and a grain sorghum, to define the path sucrose may follow for accumulation in sorghum stems, and to determine the roles played by sorghum SUTs in stem sucrose accumulation. Dye tracer studies to determine the sucrose transport route revealed that, for both the sweet sorghum cultivar Wray and grain sorghum cultivar Macia, the phloem in the stem veins was symplasmically isolated from surrounding cells, suggesting sucrose was apoplasmically unloaded. Once in the phloem apoplasm, a soluble tracer diffused from the vein to stem parenchyma cell walls, indicating the lignified mestome sheath encompassing the vein did not prevent apoplasmic flux outside of the vein. To characterize carbohydrate partitioning differences between Wray and Macia, we compared the growth, stem juice volume, solute contents, SbSUTs gene expression, and additional traits. Contrary to previous findings, we detected no significant differences in SbSUTs gene expression within stem tissues. Phloem sieve tubes within sweet and grain sorghum stems are symplasmically isolated from surrounding cells; hence, unloading from the phloem likely occurs apoplasmically, thereby defining the location of the previously

  18. Solid-phase fermentation and juice expression systems for sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, W.L.; Monroe, G.E.; Caussariel, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    Two systems to recover fermented juice from variety M 81E sweet sorghum stalks that contained about 11% fermentable sugar were compared. (a) Stalks with leaves and tops removed were chopped and inoculated with 0.2% yeast in a forage harvester, stored under anaerobic conditions for 75 hours in insulated fermentors and pressed in a screw press to recover fermented juice (5-6% ethanol). (b) Mechanically harvested sweet sorghum billets (30 cm length) without leaves or seed heads were shredded and milled in a 3-roll mill; and bagasse was inoculated with 0.2% yeast, fermented for 100 h and pressed to recover fermented juice (4 to 5% ethanol). Potential ethanol yields were 75% of theoretical for the forage harvest system and 78% for the shredder mill system, based on 95% of theoretical ethanol yield from juice expressed during milling and no loss of ethanol during fermentation, handling and pressing in the screw press. 20 references.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of gold glyconanoparticles functionalized with sugars of sweet Sorghum syrup.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C Ganesh; Mamidyala, Suman Kumar; Sreedhar, Bojja; Reddy, Belum V S

    2011-01-01

    Gold glyconanoparticles were synthesized by a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly method by using sweet Sorghum syrup for application in biomedicine and biotechnology. The nanostructures of the prepared gold nanoparticles were confirmed by using UV-visible absorbance, TEM, SAED, FTIR, EDAX, XRD, and photoluminescence analyses. The formation of gold nanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures and kinetics of the reaction were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM studies. TEM analysis revealed that the obtained nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and spherical in shape with an average particle size of 7 nm. The size of the nanoparticles was influenced by the concentration of Sorghum syrup. The presence of elemental gold was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Based on the FTIR analysis, it was observed that the sugars present in the Sorghum syrup possibly acts as capping agents. The zeta potential analysis revealed that the glyconanoparticles were negatively charged with a potential of -25 mV. The XRD and SAED patterns also suggest that the nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and these particles were found to exhibit visible photoluminescence. Fructose and glucose present in sweet Sorghum syrup were demonstrated as responsible sugars for the reduction of gold ions, and sucrose stabilized the formed nanoparticles. The proposed mechanism for the formation and stabilization of gold glyconanoparticles is based on the phenomenon of "macromolecular crowding." This is the first report on the use of sweet Sorghum syrup for the green synthesis of gold glyconanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  20. Varieties of sweet sorghum Super-1 and Super-2 and its equipment for bioethanol in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pabendon, M. B.; Efendi, R.; Santoso, S. B.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The demands for alternative sources of energy are currently growing because people now are more aware of the many negative impacts fossil fuel gives to the environment. Plant based renewable energy provides potential sources of energy with advantages of cleaner fuel effect and capability of integration with food crop production. Sorghum have been considered to be a highly potential source of food, feed and fuel, especially sweet stalk sorghum that posses both functions as source of food from its grain and fuel made from its stalk juice. Sorghum varieties are well known to have excellent adaptability in marginal areas, especially drought prone areas where other food crops are unable to thrive. The current paper aimed to share ongoing research on many functional uses of sweet stalk sorghum varieties released at Indonesian Cereals Research Institute (ICERI). Among many varieties that had been released were two sweet stalk sorghum varieties SUPER-1 and SUPER-2 released in 2013 that stands out in biomass yield and bioethanol production. Based on various researches conducted at different location and planting season, yield potential of biomass ranged at 30 - 40 t/ha with higher yield occurred during dry season. Stalk juice sugar content in brix were found to be higher in dry season ranged at 13.6 % to 18.4 %, and the amount of juice stalk was obtained at about 30-50 % from total biomass yield. Furthermore, bioethanol production from stalk juice after fermentation was at the range of 8 to 10 % from total stalk juice volume. Modification of processing equipment of bioethanol have also been carried out and was able to increased the concentration of ethanol being distilled from 85% -92% to 90% -95%. Another result obtained was able to decreased fermentation time from 14-21 days to 6-10 days. Furthermore, the yield of ethanol from juice was also from an average of 4.95% to 6.75%.

  1. Repeated ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice concentrated by membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Sasaki, Daisuke; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-06-01

    Sequential batch fermentation from sweet sorghum juice concentrated by membrane separation (ultrafiltration permeation and nanofiltration concentration) to increase sugar contents, was investigated. Ethanol production at 5th batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 attained 113.7±3.1 g L(-1) (89.1±2.2% of the theoretical ethanol yield) from 270.0±22.6 g L(-1) sugars, corresponding to 98.7% of ethanol titer attained at the 1st batch fermentation. This titer was comparable to ethanol production of 115.8±0.6 g L(-1) (87.1±2.7% of the theoretical ethanol yield) obtained at 5th batch fermentation with 3 g L(-1) yeast extract and 6 g L(-1) polypeptone. Increase of cell density in the concentrated sweet sorghum juice was observed during sequential batch fermentation, as indicated by increased OD600. Utilization of sweet sorghum juice as the sole source, membrane separation, and S. cerevisiae was a cost-effective process for high ethanol production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks by advanced solid state fermentation (ASSF) technology].

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Wang, Li; Li, Shizhong; Wang, Erqiang; Zhang, Lei; Li, Tiancheng

    2010-07-01

    A robust strain of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC1949 was screened and identified, and advanced solid state fermentation (ASSF) technology for fuel ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks was thus developed. The fermentation time was shortened to less than 30 h, and ethanol yield was 92% of its theoretical maximum. And in the meantime, the cost-effective storage was established for sweet sorghum stalks, with less than 5% sugar loss after 200 days of storage, making the plant operation could extend up to 200 days without feedstock shortage. With the fermentation kinetics and heat-mass transfer models, modeling of the ASSF process was investigated, and the rotating drum bioreactor was designed. Furthermore, the ASSF technology was successfully applied in the pilot plant in which the rotating drum bioreactor was scaled up to 127 m3, and ethanol yield of 91% was achieved. At the end, techno-economic analysis (TEA) conducted by ASPEN indicated that ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks by the ASSF is economically competitive.

  3. Comparison of the protein nutritional value of food blends based on sorghum, bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes.

    PubMed

    Nnam, N M

    2001-01-01

    The protein quality of four blends based on sprouted sorghum, bambara groundnuts and fermented sweet potatoes had been evaluated by rat feeding experiments; casein served as a reference protein. The test proteins were incorporated to make up 1.6% total nitrogen. There was an inverse relationship between % nitrogen disgestibility and the proportion of sorghum protein in the blend; being highest (89.7%) in the diets based on sorghum:bambara groundnut:sweet potatoes with protein ratios of 52:46:2. This blend proved to be optimum when the biological value (93.6%) and the net protein utilization (84%) were used as protein indices. The findings imply that foods with good protein quality could be formulated from a blend of sorghum-bambara groundnut and sweet potatoes, provided appropriate processing and blending are taken into consideration.

  4. Identification of differentially expressed microRNA in the stems and leaves during sugar accumulation in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huilin; Cong, Ling; Zhu, Zhenxing; Wang, Chunyu; Zou, Jianqiu; Tao, Chengguang; Shi, Zhensheng; Lu, Xiaochun

    2015-10-25

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in plant development, growth and stress response. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important source of bioenergy due to the high sugar content in its stems. However, it is not clear how the miRNA is involved in sugar accumulation in sorghum stems. In order to identify the miRNAs in the stems and the leaves of sweet sorghum, we extracted RNAs of the stems and leaves of sweet sorghum (Rio) and grain sorghum (BTx623) at the heading and dough stages for high-throughput sequencing. A total of 179279048 reads were obtained from Illumina-based sequencing. Further analysis identified nine known miRNAs and twelve novel miRNAs that showed significantly and specifically differentially expressed in the stems of sweet sorghum. The target genes of the differentially expressed novel miRNAs include the transcription factor, glucosyltransferase, protein kinase, cytochrome P450, transporters etc. GO enrichment analysis showed that the predicted targets of these differentially expressed miRNAs participated in diverse physiological and metabolic processes. We performed RT-qRCR analysis on these miRNAs across eight different libraries to validate the miRNAs. Finally, we screened stem-specifically expressed novel miRNA and a leaf-specifically expressed novel miRNA in sweet sorghum comparing with grain sorghum. Our results provide a basis for further investigation of the potential role of these individual miRNAs in sugar accumulation.

  5. Genetic variation and expression diversity between grain and sweet sorghum lines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biological scientists have long sought after understanding how genes and their structural/functional changes contribute to morphological diversity. Though both grain (BT×623) and sweet (Keller) sorghum lines originated from the same species Sorghum bicolor L., they exhibit obvious phenotypic variations. However, the genome re-sequencing data revealed that they exhibited limited functional diversity in their encoding genes in a genome-wide level. The result raises the question how the obvious morphological variations between grain and sweet sorghum occurred in a relatively short evolutionary or domesticated period. Results We implemented an integrative approach by using computational and experimental analyses to provide a detail insight into phenotypic, genetic variation and expression diversity between BT×623 and Keller lines. We have investigated genome-wide expression divergence between BT×623 and Keller under normal and sucrose treatment. Through the data analysis, we detected more than 3,000 differentially expressed genes between these two varieties. Such expression divergence was partially contributed by differential cis-regulatory elements or DNA methylation, which was genetically determined by functionally divergent genes between these two varieties. Both tandem and segmental duplication played important roles in the genome evolution and expression divergence. Conclusion Substantial differences in gene expression patterns between these two varieties have been observed. Such an expression divergence is genetically determined by the divergence in genome level. PMID:23324212

  6. Adaptability and stability of genotypes of sweet sorghum by GGEBiplot and Toler methods.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, U J; Nunes, J A R; da C Parrella, R A; Souza, E D; da Silva, A R; Emygdio, B M; Machado, J R A; Tardin, F D

    2015-09-22

    Sweet sorghum has considerable potential for ethanol and energy production. The crop is adaptable and can be grown under a wide range of cultivation conditions in marginal areas; however, studies of phenotypic stability are lacking under tropical conditions. Various methods can be used to assess the stability of the crop. Some of these methods generate the same basic information, whereas others provide additional information on genotype x environment (G x E) interactions and/or a description of the genotypes and environments. In this study, we evaluated the complementarity of two methods, GGEBiplot and Toler, with the aim of achieving more detailed information on G x E interactions and their implications for selection of sweet sorghum genotypes. We used data from 25 sorghum genotypes grown in different environments and evaluated the following traits: flowering (FLOW), green mass yield (GMY), total soluble solids (TSS), and tons of Brix per hectare (TBH). Significant G x E interactions were found for all traits. The most stable genotypes identified with the GGEBiplot method were CMSXS643 for FLOW, CMSXS644 and CMSXS647 for GMY, CMSXS646 and CMSXS637 for TSS, and BRS511 and CMSXSS647 for TBH. Especially for TBH, the genotype BRS511 was classified as doubly desirable by the Toler method; however, unlike the result of the GGEBiplot method, the genotype CMSXS647 was also found to be doubly undesirable. The two analytical methods were complementary and enabled a more reliable identification of adapted and stable genotypes.

  7. Use of inexpensive vegetable oils to ensure the long-term stability of sweet sorghum syrups for the manufacture of bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fundamental processing needs identified by industry for the large-scale manufacture of biofuels and bioproducts from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench), include the long-term storage of 65 Brix syrups for year-round supply, efficient transport, and acceptable end-product yields. Sweet sorghu...

  8. Production, transportation and milling costs of sweet sorghum as a feedstock for centralized bioethanol production in the upper Midwest.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Albert S; Anex, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Sweet sorghum has been identified as a possible ethanol feedstock because of its biomass yield and high concentration of readily fermentable sugars. It has found limited use, however, because of poor post-harvest storage characteristics and short harvest window in cooler climates. Previous research (Bennett, A.S., Anex, R.P., 2008. Farm-gate production costs of sweet sorghum as a bioethanol feedstock. Transactions of the ASABE 51(2), 603-613) indicates that fermentable carbohydrates (FC) can be produced at less expense from sweet sorghum than from corn grain. Previous research, however, did not include costs associated with off-farm transportation, storage, or capital costs associated with milling and energy recovery equipment that are required to provide FC suitable for biological conversion. This study includes these additional costs and reevaluates sweet sorghum as a biocommodity feedstock. A total of eight harvest-transport-processing options are modeled, including 4-row self-propelled and 2-row tractor-pulled forage harvesters, two different modes of in-field transport, fresh processing, on-farm ensilage and at-plant ensilage. Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis are used to account for system variability and compare scenarios. Transportation costs are found to be significant ranging from $33 to $71 Mg (-1) FC, with highest costs associated with at-plant ensilage scenarios. Economies of scale benefit larger milling equipment and boiler systems reducing FC costs by more than 50% when increasing annual plant capacity from 37.9 to 379 million liters. Ensiled storage of high moisture sweet sorghum in bunkers can lead to significant losses of FC (>20%) and result in systems with net FC costs well above those of corn-derived FC. Despite relatively high transport costs, seasonal, fresh processed sweet sorghum is found to produce FC at costs competitive with corn grain derived FC.

  9. Solid-state fermentation of sweet sorghum to ethanol in a rotary-drum fermentor

    SciTech Connect

    Kargi, F.; Curme, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sugar compounds present in chopped solid-sweet sorghum particles were fermented to ethanol in a rotary-drum fermentor (RDF) using an ethanol tolerant yeast strain. The influence of rotational speed of the RDF on the rate of ethanol fermentation was investigated and compared with static-flask experiments. The rate of ethanol formation decreased with increasing rotational speed. The maximum rate and extent of ethanol formation were ca. 3.1 g EtOH/L h (based on expressed juice volume) and ca. 9.6 g EtOH/100 g mash, respectively, at 1 rpm rotational speed.

  10. Stability and genetic control of morphological, biomass and biofuel traits under temperate maritime and continental conditions in sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour).

    PubMed

    Mocoeur, Anne; Zhang, Yu-Miao; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Shen, Xin; Zhang, Li-Min; Rasmussen, Søren K; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2015-09-01

    Eight morphological, biomass and biofuel traits were found with high broad-sense heritability and 18 significant QTLs discovered including one locus controlling the stem juice trait for sorghum grown in Denmark and China. Sweet sorghum with tall plant, fast maturation and high stem Brix content can be bred as a biofuel crop for Northern Europe. Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour), a native tropical C4 crop, has attracted interest as a bioenergy crop in northern countries due to its juice-rich stem and high biomass production. Little is known about the traits important for its adaptation to high altitude climatic conditions and their genetic controls. Recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between a sweet and a grain kaoliang sorghum were used in five field trials in Denmark and in China to identify the stability and genetic controls of morphological, biomass and biofuel traits during three consecutive summers with short duration, cool temperatures and long days. Eight out of 15 traits were found with high broad-sense heritability. Strong positive correlations between plant height and biomass traits were observed, while Brix and juice content were under different genetic controls. Using newly developed PAV (presence and absence variant) markers, 53 QTLs were detected, of which 18 were common for both countries, including a locus controlling stem juice (LOD score = 20.5, r (2) = 37.5 %). In Denmark, the heading stage correlated significantly with biomass and morphology traits, and two significant maturity QTLs detected on chromosomes SBI01 and SBI02 co-localised with QTLs previously associated with early-stage chilling tolerance, suggesting that accelerating maturation might be a means of coping with low-temperature stress. Our results suggest that selection for tall and fast maturating sorghum plants combined with high Brix content represents a high potential for breeding bioenergy crop for Northern Europe.

  11. Association among agro-industrial traits and simultaneous selection in sweet sorghum.

    PubMed

    Leite, P S S; Fagundes, T G; Nunes, J A R; Parrella, R A C; Durães, N N L; Bruzi, A T

    2017-01-23

    Sweet sorghum has emerged as an alternative crop for ethanol yield. The breeding of this crop is performed to obtain cultivars with high ethanol yield, which necessarily requires associating favorable phenotypes for multiple traits. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate the association between agro-industrial traits related to ethanol yield and identify the promising genotypes considering multiple traits in sweet sorghum. For this purpose, we evaluated 45 genotypes using a 9 x 5 alpha-lattice experimental design with three replications. The traits measured were flowering time, plant height, tons of stalk per hectare, total soluble solids, tons of brix per hectare, juice extraction, total recoverable sugars, and ethanol yield. Analyses were performed after the recovery of inter-block information. The interrelation of the traits was described by genotype-by-trait biplot. For simultaneous selection, the Modified Mulamba and Mock index was used. For almost all of the agro-industrial traits, except for juice extraction, selective accuracy was above 70%. There were significant differences among genotypes for all the traits. The genotype-by-trait biplot evidenced a positive association between most of the traits related to ethanol yield, except for juice extraction, indicating the possibility of indirect selection to obtain more productive genotypes. Some genotypes proved to be promising based on the selection index, as they accumulated phenotypes favorable for the traits of interest.

  12. Statistical analysis of NaOH pretreatment effects on sweet sorghum bagasse characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Ary Mauliva Hada; Wahyuni, Eka Tri; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of sweet sorghum bagasse characteristics before and after NaOH pretreatments by statistical analysis. These characteristics include the percentages of lignocellulosic materials and the degree of crystallinity. We use the chi-square method to get the values of fitted parameters, and then deploy student's t-test to check whether they are significantly different from zero at 99.73% confidence level (C.L.). We obtain, in the cases of hemicellulose and lignin, that their percentages after pretreatment decrease statistically. On the other hand, crystallinity does not possess similar behavior as the data proves that all fitted parameters in this case might be consistent with zero. Our statistical result is then cross examined with the observations from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, showing pretty good agreement. This result may indicate that the 10% NaOH pretreatment might not be sufficient in changing the crystallinity index of the sweet sorghum bagasse.

  13. Evaluation of sweet sorghum as a potential ethanol crop in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, David Scott

    2011-08-01

    Petroleum prices have made alternative fuel crops a viable option for ethanol production. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor] is a non-food crop that may produce large quantities of ethanol with minimal inputs. Eleven cultivars were planted in 2008 and 2009 as a half-season crop. Four-row plots 6.9 m by 0.5 m, were monitored bimonthly for °Brix, height, and sugar accumulation. Yield and extractable sap were taken at the end of season. Stalk yield was greatest for the cultivar Sugar Top (4945 kg ha-1) and lowest for Simon (1054 kg ha-1). Dale ranked highest ethanol output (807 L ha-1) while Simon (123 L ha-1) is the lowest. All cultivars peak Brix accumulation occurs in early October. Individual sugar concentrations indicated sucrose is the predominant sugar with glucose and fructose levels dependent on cultivar. Supplemental ethanol in fermented wort was the best preservative tested to halt degradation of sorghum wort.

  14. Optimization pretreatment condition of sweet sorghum bagasse for production of second generation bioethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudiyani, Yanni; Waluyo, Joko; Triwahyuni, Eka; Burhani, Dian; Muryanto, Primandaru, Prasetyo; Riandy, Andika Putra; Sumardi, Novia

    2017-01-01

    The bagasse residue of Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) consist of cellulose 39.48%; hemicellulose 16.56% and lignin 24.77% that can be converted to ethanol. Pretreatment is of great importance to ethanol yield. In this study, pretreatment process was conducted in a 5-liter reactor using NaOH 10% at various temperature 110, 130, 150°C and reaction time 10, 20, 30 minutes and optimizing severity parameter (log R0 between 1.3 - 2.9). The statistical analysis using two way anova showed that third variations of temperature give different effects significant on lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose content at 95% the confidence level. The optimum pretreatment of bagasse sorghum were obtained with Log R0 value between 2.4-2.9. High severity value in pretreatment condition reduce lignin almost 84-86%, maximum reducing lignin content was 86% obtained at temperature 150°C for 20 minutes reaction time and cellulose increased almost two times the initial content.

  15. Justification of the choice of units for mains-noah soil cultivation of sweet sorghum and their effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashapov, N. F.; Nafikov, M. M.; Gazetdinov, M. X.; Nafikova, M. M.; Nigmatzyanov, A. R.

    2016-06-01

    The article is devoted to problems of improving the efficiency of tillage crops. Presents an approach that focuses on the application of resource-saving technologies. To investigate the relationship between the financial welfare of the management and selection of units for primary processing of the soil. Conducted economic evaluation and identified the energy efficiency of main processing of the soil under sweet sorghum.

  16. Increasing alcohol yield by selected yeast fermentation of sweet sorghum. I. Evaluation of yeast strains for ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    de Mancilha, I.M.; Pearson, A.M.; Waller, J.; Hogaboam, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures for inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.

  17. A novel cost-effective technology to convert sucrose and homocelluloses in sweet sorghum stalks into ethanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihong; Li, Shizhong; Han, Bing; Yu, Menghui; Li, Guangming; Jiang, Yan

    2013-11-29

    Sweet sorghum is regarded as a very promising energy crop for ethanol production because it not only supplies grain and sugar, but also offers lignocellulosic resource. Cost-competitive ethanol production requires bioconversion of all carbohydrates in stalks including of both sucrose and lignocellulose hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. However, it is still a main challenge to reduce ethanol production cost and improve feasibility of industrial application. An integration of the different operations within the whole process is a potential solution. An integrated process combined advanced solid-state fermentation technology (ASSF) and alkaline pretreatment was presented in this work. Soluble sugars in sweet sorghum stalks were firstly converted into ethanol by ASSF using crushed stalks directly. Then, the operation combining ethanol distillation and alkaline pretreatment was performed in one distillation-reactor simultaneously. The corresponding investigation indicated that the addition of alkali did not affect the ethanol recovery. The effect of three alkalis, NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 on pretreatment were investigated. The results indicated the delignification of lignocellulose by NaOH and KOH was more significant than that by Ca(OH)2, and the highest removal of xylan was caused by NaOH. Moreover, an optimized alkali loading of 10% (w/w DM) NaOH was determined. Under this favorable pretreatment condition, enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum bagasse following pretreatment was investigated. 92.0% of glucan and 53.3% of xylan conversion were obtained at enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g glucan. The fermentation of hydrolyzed slurry was performed using an engineered stain, Zymomonas mobilis TSH-01. A mass balance of the overall process was calculated, and 91.9 kg was achieved from one tonne of fresh sweet sorghum stalk. A low energy-consumption integrated technology for ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks was presented in this work. Energy consumption for raw

  18. A novel cost-effective technology to convert sucrose and homocelluloses in sweet sorghum stalks into ethanol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sweet sorghum is regarded as a very promising energy crop for ethanol production because it not only supplies grain and sugar, but also offers lignocellulosic resource. Cost-competitive ethanol production requires bioconversion of all carbohydrates in stalks including of both sucrose and lignocellulose hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. However, it is still a main challenge to reduce ethanol production cost and improve feasibility of industrial application. An integration of the different operations within the whole process is a potential solution. Results An integrated process combined advanced solid-state fermentation technology (ASSF) and alkaline pretreatment was presented in this work. Soluble sugars in sweet sorghum stalks were firstly converted into ethanol by ASSF using crushed stalks directly. Then, the operation combining ethanol distillation and alkaline pretreatment was performed in one distillation-reactor simultaneously. The corresponding investigation indicated that the addition of alkali did not affect the ethanol recovery. The effect of three alkalis, NaOH, KOH and Ca(OH)2 on pretreatment were investigated. The results indicated the delignification of lignocellulose by NaOH and KOH was more significant than that by Ca(OH)2, and the highest removal of xylan was caused by NaOH. Moreover, an optimized alkali loading of 10% (w/w DM) NaOH was determined. Under this favorable pretreatment condition, enzymatic hydrolysis of sweet sorghum bagasse following pretreatment was investigated. 92.0% of glucan and 53.3% of xylan conversion were obtained at enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g glucan. The fermentation of hydrolyzed slurry was performed using an engineered stain, Zymomonas mobilis TSH-01. A mass balance of the overall process was calculated, and 91.9 kg was achieved from one tonne of fresh sweet sorghum stalk. Conclusions A low energy-consumption integrated technology for ethanol production from sweet sorghum stalks was presented in this work

  19. Morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated the potential of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Feng, Juanjuan; Li, Jihong; Li, Yinxin; Li, Shizhong

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a worldwide environmental problem, and remediation of Cd pollution is of great significance for food production as well as human health. Here, the responses of sweet sorghum cv. 'M-81E' to cadmium stress were studied for its potential as an energy plant in restoring soils contaminated by cadmium. In hydroponic experiments, the biomass of 'M-81E' showed no obvious change under 10 μM cadmium treatment. Cadmium concentration was the highest in roots of seedlings as well as mature plants, but in agricultural practice, the valuable and harvested parts of sweet sorghum are shoots, so promoting the translocation of cadmium to shoots is of great importance in order to improve its phytoremediation capacity. Further histochemical assays with dithizone staining revealed that cadmium was mainly concentrated in the stele of roots and scattered in intercellular space of caulicles. Moreover, the correlation analysis showed that Cd had a negative relationship with iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn) in caulicles and leaves and a positive relationship with Fe in roots. These results implied that cadmium might compete with Fe, Zn, and Mn for the transport binding sites and further prevent their translocation to shoots. In addition, transmission electron microscopic observations showed that under 100 μM cadmium treatment, the structure of chloroplast was impaired and the cell wall of vascular bundle cells in leaves and xylem and phloem cells in roots turned thicker compared to control. In summary, morphophysiological characteristic analysis demonstrated sweet sorghum can absorb cadmium and the growth is not negatively affected by mild level cadmium stress; thus, it is a promising material for the phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils considering its economic benefit. This study also points out potential strategies to improve the phytoremediation capacity of sweet sorghum through genetic modification of transporters and cell wall

  20. Environmental sustainability of bioethanol produced from sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Pan, Xinxing; Xia, Xunfeng; Xi, Beidou; Wang, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental impacts of a bioethanol production system that uses sweet sorghum stem on saline-alkali land as feedstock. The system comprises a plant cultivation unit, a feedstock transport unit, and a bioethanol conversion unit, with 1000L of bioethanol as a functional unit. The net energy ratio is 3.84, and the net energy gain is 17.21MJ/L. Agrochemical production consumes 76.58% of the life cycle fossil energy. The category with the most significant impact on the environment is eutrophication, followed by acidification, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, human toxicity, and global warming. Allocation method, waste recycling approach, and soil salinity significantly influence the results. Using vinasse to produce pellet fuel for steam generation significantly improves energy efficiency and decreases negative environmental impacts. Promoting reasonable management practices to alleviate saline stress and increasing agrochemical utilization efficiency can further improve environmental sustainability.

  1. Biobutanol from sweet sorghum bagasse hydrolysate by a hybrid pervaporation process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Jia; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Pei-yong; Tan, Tian-wei

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the pervaporation membrane was used not only for the detoxification of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) hydrolysate, but also for butanol separation from its fermentation broth. As a result of detoxification, about 94.5% furfural was reduced by the pervaporation method, and 138.25 g/L furfural was obtained in the permeate side. 87.5% phenolic compounds were degradated by further laccase detoxification. As for fermentation part, 12.3±0.1 g/L butanol, 6.1±0.05 g/L acetone and 2.5±0.07 g/L ethanol were obtained. And after 2h of pervaporation separation, 201.9 g/L butanol, 76.2g/L acetone and traces of ethanol were obtained in the permeate. The hybrid pervaporation process shows promising for the industrial production of biofuel butanol and biochemical furfural.

  2. Fermentation of liquefacted hydrothermally pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse to ethanol at high-solids content.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The ability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be utilized as feedstock for ethanol production at high initial dry matter concentration was investigated. In order to achieve high enzymatic hydrolysis yield, a hydrothermal pretreatment prior to liquefaction and saccharification was applied. Response surface methodology had been employed in order to optimize the pretreatment step, taking into account the yield of cellulose hydrolysis. Liquefaction of the pretreated bagasse was performed at a specially designed liquefaction chamber at 50 °C for either 12 or 24h using an enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g · DM and 18% DM. Fermentation of liquefacted bagasse was not affected by liquefaction duration and leaded to an ethanol production of 41.43 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.88 g/Lh. The addition of extra enzymes at the start up of SSF enhanced both ethanol concentration and volumetric productivity by 16% and 17% after 12 and 24h saccharification, respectively.

  3. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e.g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community. PMID:24456189

  4. A Sorghum bicolor expression atlas reveals dynamic genotype-specific expression profiles for vegetative tissues of grain, sweet and bioenergy sorghums

    SciTech Connect

    Shakoor, N; Nair, R; Crasta, O; Morris, G; Feltus, A; Kresovich, S

    2014-01-23

    Background: Effective improvement in sorghum crop development necessitates a genomics-based approach to identify functional genes and QTLs. Sequenced in 2009, a comprehensive annotation of the sorghum genome and the development of functional genomics resources is key to enable the discovery and deployment of regulatory and metabolic genes and gene networks for crop improvement. Results: This study utilizes the first commercially available whole-transcriptome sorghum microarray (Sorgh-WTa520972F) to identify tissue and genotype-specific expression patterns for all identified Sorghum bicolor exons and UTRs. The genechip contains 1,026,373 probes covering 149,182 exons (27,577 genes) across the Sorghum bicolor nuclear, chloroplast, and mitochondrial genomes. Specific probesets were also included for putative non-coding RNAs that may play a role in gene regulation (e. g., microRNAs), and confirmed functional small RNAs in related species (maize and sugarcane) were also included in our array design. We generated expression data for 78 samples with a combination of four different tissue types (shoot, root, leaf and stem), two dissected stem tissues (pith and rind) and six diverse genotypes, which included 6 public sorghum lines (R159, Atlas, Fremont, PI152611, AR2400 and PI455230) representing grain, sweet, forage, and high biomass ideotypes. Conclusions: Here we present a summary of the microarray dataset, including analysis of tissue-specific gene expression profiles and associated expression profiles of relevant metabolic pathways. With an aim to enable identification and functional characterization of genes in sorghum, this expression atlas presents a new and valuable resource to the research community.

  5. Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Shen, Yixin; You, Minghong; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Jiajun; Li, Daxue; Bai, Shiqie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P < 0.05) concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and butyric acid in silage. In the GP+LAB group, adding GP increased (P < 0.05) concentrations of lactic acid, WSC and crude protein, decreased (P < 0.05) final pH value, NH3 -N ratio and butyric acid concentration in silage. Polyphenol level was reduced (P < 0.05) after silage fermentation. During aerobic exposure, the fungi count, pH value and silage temperature increased (P < 0.05), the levels of lactic acid, acetic acid and polyphenols (quercetin 3-O-glucoside and quercetin 3-O-glucuronid) decreased (P < 0.05) in silage. GP+LAB treated silage had a lag phase for aerobic spoilage. When the fermentation products, microbial counts, chemical and polyphenol composition were considered, the use of 10% GP+LAB at ensiling could provide a valuable source for improved fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of Extrusion Pretreatment Parameters on Sweet Sorghum Bagasse Enzymatic Hydrolysis and Its Subsequent Conversion into Bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O.

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw). PMID:25866776

  7. Effects of extrusion pretreatment parameters on sweet sorghum bagasse enzymatic hydrolysis and its subsequent conversion into bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Olea, Erick; Pérez-Carrillo, Esther; Montoya-Chiw, Manuel; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse first extruded at different conditions and then treated with cell wall degrading enzymes and fermented with I. orientalis was determined. The twin extruder parameters tested were barrel temperature, screws speed, and feedstock moisture content using surface response methodology. The best extrusion conditions were 100°C, 200 rpm, and 30% conditioning moisture content. This nonchemical and continuous pretreatment did not generate inhibitory compounds. The extruded feedstocks were saccharified varying the biocatalysis time and solids loading. The best conditions were 20% solids loading and 72 h of enzymatic treatment. These particular conditions converted 70% of the total fibrous carbohydrates into total fermentable C5 and C6 sugars. The extruded enzymatically hydrolyzed sweet sorghum bagasse was fermented with the strain I. orientalis at 12% solids obtaining a yield of 198.1 mL of ethanol per kilogram of bagasse (dw).

  8. Sorghums as energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinsky, E. S.; Kresovich, S.

    1980-01-01

    The botanical, physiological, and agronomic characteristics of sorghum are described. Integration concepts to improve sorghum prospects are discussed as follows: multiple sweet sorghum crops each year, integration with sugarcane, integration with sugar beets, integration with starch crops, sweet stemmed grain sorghum, and integration with lignocellulosic crops. (MHR)

  9. Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Feng, Shengqiu; Wu, Leiming; Li, Ying; Fan, Chunfen; Zhang, Rui; Zou, Weihua; Tu, Yuanyuan; Jing, Hai-Chun; Li, Shizhong; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-09-01

    Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum.

  10. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice using very high gravity technology: effects of carbon and nitrogen supplementations.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Nuanpeng, Sunan; Srinophakun, Penjit; Klanrit, Preekamol; Laopaiboon, Pattana

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP01 was investigated under very high gravity (VHG) fermentation and various carbon adjuncts and nitrogen sources. When sucrose was used as an adjunct, the sweet sorghum juice containing total sugar of 280 g l(-1), 3 g yeast extract l(-1) and 5 g peptone l(-1) gave the maximum ethanol production efficiency with concentration, productivity and yield of 120.68+/-0.54 g l(-1), 2.01+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.51+/-0.00 g g(-1), respectively. When sugarcane molasses was used as an adjunct, the juice under the same conditions gave the maximum ethanol concentration, productivity and yield with the values of 109.34+/-0.78 g l(-1), 1.52+/-0.01 g l(-1) h(-1) and 0.45+/-0.01 g g(-1), respectively. In addition, ammonium sulphate was not suitable for use as a nitrogen supplement in the sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production since it caused the reduction in ethanol concentration and yield for approximately 14% when compared to those of the unsupplemented juices.

  11. Chemical Analysis of Fermentable Sugars and Secondary Products in 23 Sweet Sorghum Cultivars.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Knoll, Joseph E; Anderson, William F; Harris-Shultz, Karen R

    2017-09-06

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a heat- and drought-tolerant crop that has promise to supplement corn (Zea mays L.) for biofuel production from fermentable sugars (for sweet cultivars) and lignocellulosic biomass. Quantitative relationships are lacking to predict the accumulation of primary (stem sugars) and secondary (organic acids, phenolics, and inorganic species) products that could either expand (as the value-added product) or limit (as the fermentation inhibitor) the market value of a cultivar. Five male (Atlas, Chinese, Dale, Isidomba, N98) and three female (N109B, N110B, and N111B) inbred lines and their hybrids (23 cultivars total) were planted on a Tifton loamy sand in April, May, and June of 2015 in a triplicate split-plot design and were harvested at the hard-dough maturity stage. Stalk juices were analyzed for sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and organic acid (citrate, oxalate, and cis- and trans-aconitic acid) concentrations, Brix, pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN), and by fluorescence excitation emission spectrophotometry with parallel factor analysis (EEM/PARAFAC). Later plantings consistently (p < 0.05) (1) increased sucrose, total sugar, and trans-aconitic acid concentrations, Brix, and TOC and (2) decreased EC. Sucrose, total sugar, pH, EC, and Brix showed significant cultivar × planting date interactions. Observed linear relationships (Pearson's) could be used to deploy simple and inexpensive electrode (EC) and fluorescence-based field methods to predict the primary products from secondary products, and vise versa.

  12. Increased ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice concentrated by a membrane separation process.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Sasaki, Daisuke; Teramura, Hiroshi; Wakai, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Sazuka, Takashi; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this investigation was to attain high ethanol concentration by concentrating sweet sorghum juice using a two-step membrane separation process. Ultrafiltration permeation of the juice was used to remove residues, followed by nanofiltration concentration to increase the sugar concentration. The concentrated juice containing 180.0 g L(-1) sucrose, 59.3 g L(-1) glucose and 49.3 g L(-1) fructose supplemented with nitrogen sources (10 and 20 g L(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) was fermented by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 to produce 133.5 g L(-1) of ethanol (87.6% of theoretical yield) after 48 h fermentation. Importantly, the addition of lower concentrations of exogenous nitrogen sources (3 and 6 g L(-1) of yeast extract and polypeptone, respectively) or no exogenous nitrogen sources resulted in the production of 131.4 and 132.8 g L(-1) of ethanol (84.8% and 86.0% of theoretical yield), respectively, after 48 h fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Improvement of a continuous ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum stem juice using a cell recycling system.

    PubMed

    Thani, Arthit; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2017-06-10

    The process variables (aeration rate and recycle ratio) of a continuous ethanol fermentation with a cell recycling system (CRS) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 from sweet sorghum stem juice were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The relationship between intracellular composition and fermentation efficiency was also investigated. RSM results revealed that the optimum aeration rate and recycle ratio were 0.25vvm and 0.625, respectively. The validation experiment under the optimum conditions indicated high precision and reliability of the experiment, achieving an actual ethanol concentration (PE) of 99.28g/l, which was very close to the predicted value (98.01g/l), and a very high ethanol productivity (QP) of 7.94g/lh. The intracellular composition of the yeast cells (i.e., unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), total fatty acids (TFAs), ergosterol and trehalose) was positively related to the fermentation efficiency and yeast adaptive response under ethanol stress. A higher ratio of UFAs/TFAs and ergosterol strongly promoted yeast viability and ethanol fermentation. Additionally, high trehalose content was observed when the yeast was subjected to stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Fungal pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse with supplements: improvement in lignin degradation, selectivity and enzymatic saccharification.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vartika; Jana, Asim K; Jana, Mithu Maiti; Gupta, Antriksh

    2017-06-01

    Sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) from food processing and agricultural industry has attracted the attention for uses in production of biofuel, enzymes and other products. The alteration in lignocellulolytic enzymes by use of supplements in fungal pretreatment of SSB to achieve higher lignin degradation, selectivity value and enzymatic hydrolysis to fermentable sugar was studied. Fungal strain Coriolus versicolor was selected for pretreatment due to high ligninolytic and low cellulolytic enzyme production resulting in high lignin degradation and selectivity value. SSB was pretreated with supplements of veratryl alcohol, syringic acid, catechol, gallic acid, vanillin, guaiacol, CuSO4 and MnSO4. The best results were obtained with CuSO4, gallic acid and syringic acid supplements. CuSO4 increased the activities of laccase (4.9-fold) and polyphenol oxidase (1.9-fold); gallic acid increased laccase (3.5-fold) and manganese peroxidase (2.5-fold); and syringic acid increased laccase (5.6-fold), lignin peroxidase (13-fold) and arylalcohol oxidase (2.8-fold) resulting in enhanced lignin degradations and selectivity values than the control. Reduced cellulolytic enzyme activities resulted in high cellulose recovery. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SSB yielded higher sugar due to degradation of lignin and reduced the crystallinity of cellulose. The study showed that supplements could be used to improve the pretreatment process. The results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric/differential thermogravimetric analysis of SSB.

  15. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.

  16. A Novel Wild-Type Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain TSH1 in Scaling-Up of Solid-State Fermentation of Ethanol from Sweet Sorghum Stalks

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Quanzhou; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY). These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol. PMID:24736641

  17. A novel wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain TSH1 in scaling-up of solid-state fermentation of ethanol from sweet sorghum stalks.

    PubMed

    Du, Ran; Yan, Jianbin; Feng, Quanzhou; Li, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Sandra; Li, Shizhong

    2014-01-01

    The rising demand for bioethanol, the most common alternative to petroleum-derived fuel used worldwide, has encouraged a feedstock shift to non-food crops to reduce the competition for resources between food and energy production. Sweet sorghum has become one of the most promising non-food energy crops because of its high output and strong adaptive ability. However, the means by which sweet sorghum stalks can be cost-effectively utilized for ethanol fermentation in large-scale industrial production and commercialization remains unclear. In this study, we identified a novel Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, TSH1, from the soil in which sweet sorghum stalks were stored. This strain exhibited excellent ethanol fermentative capacity and ability to withstand stressful solid-state fermentation conditions. Furthermore, we gradually scaled up from a 500-mL flask to a 127-m3 rotary-drum fermenter and eventually constructed a 550-m3 rotary-drum fermentation system to establish an efficient industrial fermentation platform based on TSH1. The batch fermentations were completed in less than 20 hours, with up to 96 tons of crushed sweet sorghum stalks in the 550-m3 fermenter reaching 88% of relative theoretical ethanol yield (RTEY). These results collectively demonstrate that ethanol solid-state fermentation technology can be a highly efficient and low-cost solution for utilizing sweet sorghum, providing a feasible and economical means of developing non-food bioethanol.

  18. Nitrogen Requirements for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum (Sorhum bicolor L.) has high water use efficiency, and is therefore widely cultivated in the Southern High Plains (SHP). Interest in sorghums for biofuel feedstock has increased recently as ethanol demand expands. Unlike grain sorghum, little data are available on N fertilizer requirements f...

  19. QTL for fibre-related traits in grain × sweet sorghum as a tool for the enhancement of sorghum as a biomass crop.

    PubMed

    Shiringani, Amukelani L; Friedt, Wolfgang

    2011-10-01

    Compared to maize and temperate grasses, sorghum has received less attention in terms of improving cell wall components. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) with main effects, epistatic and pleiotropic effects along with QTL × environment (QE) interactions controlling fibre-related traits in sorghum. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose, hemicellulose, fresh leaf mass, stripped stalk mass, dry stalk mass, fresh biomass and dry biomass were analysed from a population of 188 grain × sweet sorghum recombinant inbred lines. A genetic map consisting of 157 DNA markers was constructed, and QTL were detected using composite interval mapping (CIM). CIM detected more than 5 additive QTL per trait explaining 7.1-24.7% of the phenotypic variation. Abundant co-localization of these QTL was observed across all chromosomes, and the highest cluster was identified on chromosome 6. Searching for candidate genes using the confidence interval of our QTL clusters reveals that these clusters might comprise a set of genes that are tightly linked. Some QTL showed multiple effects; however, the allele for each trait was favouring the parent with the increasing effect. QE interactions were observed for QTL showing multiple effects. Additive × additive interaction was observed for 7 out of 10 traits, indicating the importance of epistatic analysis. However, the phenotypic variation explained by digenic interactions was lower compared to the individual QTL. Our results indicate that various genetic components contribute to fibre-related traits and should be considered during the enhancement of sorghum for lignocellulosic biomass.

  20. The effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on growth parameters and carbohydrate contents of sweet sorghum cultivars.

    PubMed

    Almodares, Abass; Taheri, Reza; Chung, Ill Min; Fathi, Majid

    2008-11-01

    Sweet sorghum is tolerant to high temperature and drought and can be considered as an alternative crop to sugar beet and maize in Iran. In this study, the effects of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers on growth parameters including stem height, stem diameter, stem fresh weight, total fresh weight; carbohydrate contents including total sugar, brix value, sucrose content and purify; and juice extract of two sweet sorghum cultivars were determined. Three rates of N-fertilizer (0, 90, 180 kg urea ha(-1)) and two rates of K fertilizer (0 and 50 kg potassium sulfate ha(-1)) assigned as main plots and two sweet sorghum cultivars (Rio and Keller) as subplots. Growth parameters at soft dough and physiological maturity stages and carbohydrate contents at physiological maturity stage were determined. Results showed that application of 180 kg urea ha(-1) as compared to control at physiological maturity significantly (p < 0.01) increased stem height (12.65%), stem fresh weight (24.57%), total fresh weight (78.22%), total sugar (39.25%), sucrose content (9%) and juice extract (34.96%). Application of 50 kg potassium sulfate ha(-1) increased (p < 0.05) stem fresh weight (24.33%), total fresh weight (25.44%), total sugar (10.50%), and juice extract (9%) at physiological maturity. The highest growth parameters, carbohydrate contents and juice extract were obtained with the application of 180 kg urea ha(-1) and 50 kg potassium sulfate ha(-1) using cultivar (cv) Keller. The best results were taken with the application of both fertilizers.

  1. Impact of sweet sorghum cuticular waxes (SSCW) on acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum ABE1201.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Chang, Zhen; Wang, Chengyu; Ren, Wenqiang; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2013-12-01

    The effect of cuticular waxes of sweet sorghum stem on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was investigated. About 22.9% of butanol and 25.4% of ABE were decreased with fermentation period extended when SSCW was added. The inhibition of SSCW militate against both acidogenesis and solventogenesis phase, which were inconsistent with the inhibition of lignocellulose hydrolysate. Further studies on the composition of SSCW were performed. Regulations of inhibition with different carbon chain length of main compositions of SSCW on ABE fermentation were also investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse through process optimization using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Lavudi, Saida; Oberoi, Harinder Singh; Mangamoori, Lakshmi Narasu

    2017-08-01

    In this study, comparative evaluation of acid- and alkali pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was carried out for sugar production after enzymatic hydrolysis. Results indicated that enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated SSB resulted in higher production of glucose, xylose and arabinose, compared to the other alkali concentrations and also acid-pretreated biomass. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was, therefore, used to optimize parameters, such as alkali concentration, temperature and time of pretreatment prior to enzymatic hydrolysis to maximize the production of sugars. The independent variables used during RSM included alkali concentration (1.5-4%), pretreatment temperature (125-140 °C) and pretreatment time (10-30 min) were investigated. Process optimization resulted in glucose and xylose concentration of 57.24 and 10.14 g/L, respectively. Subsequently, second stage optimization was conducted using RSM for optimizing parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis, which included substrate concentration (10-15%), incubation time (24-60 h), incubation temperature (40-60 °C) and Celluclast concentration (10-20 IU/g-dwt). Substrate concentration 15%, (w/v) temperature of 60 °C, Celluclast concentration of 20 IU/g-dwt and incubation time of 58 h led to a glucose concentration of 68.58 g/l. Finally, simultaneous saccharification fermentation (SSF) as well as separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) was evaluated using Pichia kudriavzevii HOP-1 for production of ethanol. Significant difference in ethanol concentration was not found using either SSF or SHF; however, ethanol productivity was higher in case of SSF, compared to SHF. This study has established a platform for conducting scale-up studies using the optimized process parameters.

  3. Role of nematodes, nematicides, and crop rotation on the productivity and quality of potato, sweet potato, peanut, and grain sorghum.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A W; Dowler, C C; Glaze, N C; Handoo, Z A

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower from fenamiphos-treated plots than untreated plots. The total yield of potato in the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences increased from 1983 to 1985 in plots infested with M. hapla or M. arenaria and M. incognita in combination and decreased in 1986 to 1987 when root-knot nematode populations shifted to M. incognita. The total yields of sweet potato in the PO-SP-PE-GS sequence were similar in 1983 and 1985, and declined each year in the PO-SP sequence as a consequence of M. incognita population density increase in the soil. Yield of peanut from soil infested with M. hapla increased 82% in fenamiphos-treated plots compared to untreated plots. Fenamiphos treatment increased yield of grain sorghum from 5% to 45% over untreated controls. The declining yields of potato and sweet potato observed with both the PO-SP and PO-SP-PE-GS sequences indicate that these crop systems should not be used longer than 3 years in soil infested with M. incognita, M. arenaria, or M. hapla. Under these conditions, these two cropping systems promote a population shift in favor of M. incognita, which is more damaging to potato and sweet potato than M. arenaria and M. hapla.

  4. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a β-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wu Liang; You, Jiang Feng; Bian, Ming Di; Qin, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Ryan, Peter R; Yang, Zhen Ming

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al sensitive), were selected to study shorter term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower β-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of 12 genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a β-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full-length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total β-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth.

  5. Acetone-butanol-ethanol from sweet sorghum juice by an immobilized fermentation-gas stripping integration process.

    PubMed

    Cai, Di; Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Qin, Peiyong; Miao, Qi; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Ping; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In this study, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) was used as the substrate in a simplified ABE fermentation-gas stripping integration process without nutrients supplementation. The sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) after squeezing the fermentable juice was used as the immobilized carrier. The results indicated that the productivity of ABE fermentation process was improved by gas stripping integration. A total 24g/L of ABE solvents was obtained from 59.6g/L of initial sugar after 80h of fermentation with gas stripping. Then, long-term of fed-batch fermentation with continuous gas stripping was further performed. 112.9g/L of butanol, 44.1g/L of acetone, 9.5g/L of ethanol (total 166.5g/L of ABE) was produced in overall 312h of fermentation. At the same time, concentrated ABE product was obtained in the condensate of gas stripping. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of main factors on bioethanol fermentation from stalk juice of sweet sorghum by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CICC 1308).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ronghou; Shen, Fei

    2008-03-01

    In order to attain a higher ethanol yield and faster ethanol fermentation rate, orthogonal experiments of ethanol fermentation with immobilized yeast from stalk juice of sweet sorghum were carried out in the shaking flasks to investigate the effect of main factors, namely, fermentation temperature, agitation rate, particles stuffing rate and pH on ethanol yield and CO(2) weight loss rate. The range analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were applied for the results of orthogonal experiments. Results showed that the optimal condition for bioethanol fermentation should be A(4)B(3)C(3)D(4), namely, fermentation temperature, agitation rate, particles stuffing rate and pH were 37 degrees C, 200rpm, 25% and 5.0, respectively. The verification experiments were carried out in shaking flasks and 5L bioreactor at the corresponding parameters. The results of verification experiments in the shaking flasks showed that ethanol yield and CO(2) weight loss rate were 98.07% and 1.020gh(-1), respectively. The results of ethanol fermentation in the 5L bioreactor showed that ethanol yield and fermentation time were 93.24% and 11h, respectively. As a result, it could be concluded that the determined optimal condition A(4)B(3)C(3)D(4) was suitable and reasonable for the ethanol fermentation by immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The conclusion in the research would be beneficial for application of ethanol fermentation by immobilized S. cerevisiae from stalk juice of sweet sorghum.

  7. Biological features of an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ions irradiation and its genetic polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xicun; Li, Wenjian

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that heavy ions irradiation is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET) and relative biological effectiveness (RBE). These characters are believed to increase mutation frequency and mutation spectrum of plants or mammalian cells irradiated by heavy ions. Here we describe an early-maturity mutant of sweet sorghum induced by carbon ion irradiation. The growth period of this mutant was shortened by about 20 days compared to the wild type. The proline content of the mutant was increased by 11.05% while the malondialdehyde content was significantly lower than that of wild type. In addition, the RAPD analysis indicated that the percentage of polymorphism between the mutant KFJT-1 and the control KFJT-CK reached 5.26%. The gain of early-maturity might solve the problem in the northwest region of China where seeds of sweet sorghum cannot be mature because of early frost. The early-maturity mutant may be important for future space cultivation.

  8. Energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem based on life cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingxin; Chen, Yahui; Xia, Xunfeng; Li, Jun; Liu, Jianguo

    2014-07-01

    Life cycle analysis method was used to evaluate the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem in China. The scope covers three units, including plant cultivation, feedstock transport, and bioethanol conversion. Results show that the net energy ratio was 1.56 and the net energy gain was 8.37 MJ/L. Human toxicity was identified as the most significant negative environmental impact, followed by eutrophication and acidification. Steam generation in the bioethanol conversion unit contributed 82.28% and 48.26% to total human toxicity and acidification potential, respectively. Fertilizers loss from farmland represented 67.23% of total eutrophication potential. The results were significantly affected by the inventory allocation methods, vinasse reusing approaches, and feedstock yields. Reusing vinasse as fuel for steam generation and better cultivation practice to control fertilizer loss could significantly contribute to enhance the energy efficiency and environmental performance of bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellulosic butanol biofuel production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB): Impact of hot water pretreatment and solid loadings on fermentation employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel butanol fermentation process was developed in which sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) was pretreated using liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatment technique followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and butanol (acetone butanol ethanol; ABE) fermentation. A pretreatment temperature of 200 deg C resulted in the...

  10. Comparison of stem damage and carbohydrate composition in the stem juice between sugarcane and sweet sorghum harvested before and after late fall frost

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A late fall frost may significantly affect sugar crops’ stem sugar composition, yield and juice quality for biofuel and bioproduct manufacture. Research on the effects of late fall frost in sugarcane is well documented, but information is lacking for sweet sorghum. Three and six commercial cultivars...

  11. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots

    PubMed Central

    Cheruiyot, Erick Kimutai; Othira, Jacktone Odongo; Njuguna, Virginia Wanjiku; Macharia, Joseph Kinyoro; Owuoche, James; Oyier, Moses; Kange, Alex Machio

    2016-01-01

    The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield. PMID:27777968

  12. Adaptability and Stability Study of Selected Sweet Sorghum Genotypes for Ethanol Production under Different Environments Using AMMI Analysis and GGE Biplots.

    PubMed

    Rono, Justice Kipkorir; Cheruiyot, Erick Kimutai; Othira, Jacktone Odongo; Njuguna, Virginia Wanjiku; Macharia, Joseph Kinyoro; Owuoche, James; Oyier, Moses; Kange, Alex Machio

    2016-01-01

    The genotype and environment interaction influences the selection criteria of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) genotypes. Eight sweet sorghum genotypes were evaluated at five different locations in two growing seasons of 2014. The aim was to determine the interaction between genotype and environment on cane, juice, and ethanol yield and to identify best genotypes for bioethanol production in Kenya. The experiments were conducted in a randomized complete block design replicated three times. Sorghum canes were harvested at hard dough stage of grain development and passed through rollers to obtain juice that was then fermented to obtain ethanol. Cane, juice, and ethanol yield was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI) and genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot. The combined analysis of variance of cane and juice yield of sorghum genotypes showed that sweet sorghum genotypes were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by environments (E), genotypes (G) and genotype by environment interaction (GEI). GGE biplot showed high yielding genotypes EUSS10, ACFC003/12, SS14, and EUSS11 for cane yield; EUSS10, EUSS11, and SS14 for juice yield; and EUSS10, SS04, SS14, and ACFC003/12 for ethanol yield. Genotype SS14 showed high general adaptability for cane, juice, and ethanol yield.

  13. Lipid production by Cryptococcus curvatus on hydrolysates derived from corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse following dilute acid pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yanna; Jarosz, Kimberly; Wardlow, Ashley T; Zhang, Ji; Cui, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Corn fiber and sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) are both pre-processed lignocellulosic materials that can be used to produce liquid biofuels. Pretreatment using dilute sulfuric acid at a severity factor of 1.06 and 1.02 released 83.2 and 86.5 % of theoretically available sugars out of corn fiber and SSB, respectively. The resulting hydrolysates derived from pretreatment of SSB at SF of 1.02 supported growth of Cryptococcus curvatus well. In 6 days, the dry cell density reached 10.8 g/l with a lipid content of 40 % (w/w). Hydrolysates from corn fiber, however, did not lead to any significant cell growth even with addition of nutrients. In addition to consuming glucose, xylose, and arabinose, C. curvatus also utilized formic acid, acetic acid, 4-hydroxymethylfurfural, and levulinic acid for growth. Thus, C. curvatus appeared to be an excellent yeast strain for producing lipids from hydrolysates developed from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

  14. Improvement of l-lactic acid productivity from sweet sorghum juice by repeated batch fermentation coupled with membrane separation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Meng, Hongyu; Cai, Di; Wang, Bin; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-07-01

    In order to efficiently produce l-lactic acid from non-food feedstocks, sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), which is rich of fermentable sugars, was directly used for l-lactic acid fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus LA-04-1. A membrane integrated repeated batch fermentation (MIRB) was developed for productivity improvement. High-cell-density fermentation was achieved with a final cell density (OD620) of 42.3, and the CCR effect was overcomed. When SSJ (6.77gL(-1) glucose, 4.51gL(-1) fructose and 50.46gL(-1) sucrose) was used as carbon source in MIRB process, l-lactic acid productivity was increased significantly from 1.45gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 1) to 17.55gL(-1)h(-1) (batch 6). This process introduces an effective way to produce l-lactic acid from SSJ.

  15. Refining sweet sorghum to ethanol and sugar: economic trade-offs in the context of North China.

    PubMed

    Gnansounou, E; Dauriat, A; Wyman, C E

    2005-06-01

    Reducing the use of non-renewable fossil energy reserves together with improving the environment are two important reasons that drive interest in the use of bioethanol as an automotive fuel. Conversion of sugar and starch to ethanol has been proven at an industrial scale in Brazil and the United States, respectively, and this alcohol has been able to compete with conventional gasoline due to various incentives. In this paper, we examined making ethanol from the sugar extracted from the juice of sweet sorghum and/or from the hemicellulose and cellulose in the residual sorghum bagasse versus selling the sugar from the juice or burning the bagasse to make electricity in four scenarios in the context of North China. In general terms, the production of ethanol from the hemicellulose and cellulose in bagasse was more favorable than burning it to make power, but the relative merits of making ethanol or sugar from the juice was very sensitive to the price of sugar in China. This result was confirmed by both process economics and analysis of opportunity costs. Thus, a flexible plant capable of making both sugar and fuel-ethanol from the juice is recommended. Overall, ethanol production from sorghum bagasse appears very favorable, but other agricultural residues such as corn stover and rice hulls would likely provide a more attractive feedstock for making ethanol in the medium and long term due to their extensive availability in North China and their independence from other markets. Furthermore, the process for residue conversion was based on particular design assumptions, and other technologies could enhance competitiveness while considerations such as perceived risk could impede applications.

  16. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  17. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  18. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  19. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.61 Baggage arriving in baggage car... cars....

  20. Efficient butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation cultures grown on sweet sorghum juice by pervaporation using silicalite-1 membrane.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Miho; Negishi, Hideyuki; Sakaki, Keiji; Ikegami, Toru; Chohnan, Shigeru; Nitta, Youji; Kurusu, Yasurou; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    We investigated butanol recovery by pervaporation separation, using a silicalite-1 membrane, from batch cultures of butanol-producing Clostridium beijerinckii SBP2 grown on sweet sorghum juice as a fermentation medium. The pervaporation system yielded 73% (w/v) butanol from intact feed cultures containing 1% (w/v) butanol, and had a butanol permeation flux of 11 g m(-2) h(-1). Upon neutralization and activated charcoal treatment of the feed cultures, butanol yield and total flux increased to 82% (w/v) and 40 g m(-2) h(-1), respectively. This system is applicable to refining processes for practical biobutanol production from a promising energy crop, sweet sorghum.

  1. Changes in photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll-a fluorescence attributes of sweet-forage and grain sorghum cultivars under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Sayyad-Amin, Parvaneh; Jahansooz, Mohammad-Reza; Borzouei, Azam; Ajili, Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Water shortage leads to a low quality of water, especially saline water in most parts of agricultural regions. This experiment was designed to determine the effects of saline irrigation on sorghum as a moderately salt-tolerant crop. To study salinity effects on photosynthetic pigment attributes including the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence, an experiment was performed in a climate-controlled greenhouse at two vegetative and reproductive stages. The experimental design was factorial based on a completely randomized design with five NaCl concentrations (control, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM), two grain and sweet-forage sorghum cultivars (Kimia and Pegah, respectively) and four replications. According to the experimental data, there were no significant differences between two grain and sweet-forage cultivars. Except for 100 and 150 mM NaCl, salinity significantly decreased the chlorophyll index and pigment contents of the leaf, while it increased the chlorophyll-a fluorescence characteristics. Although salinity reduced photosynthetic pigments and the crop yield, either grain or sweet-forage cultivars could significantly control the effect of salinity between 100 and 150 mM NaCl at both developmental stages, showing the possibility of using saline water in sorghum cultivation up to 150 mM NaCl.

  2. Fermentation of sweet sorghum derived sugars to butyric acid at high titer and productivity by a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum at 50°C.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Ou, Mark S; Nieves, Ismael; Erickson, John E; Vermerris, Wilfred; Ingram, L O; Shanmugam, K T

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a moderate thermophile Clostridium thermobutyricum is shown to ferment the sugars in sweet sorghum juice treated with invertase and supplemented with tryptone (10 g L(-1)) and yeast extract (10 g L(-1)) at 50°C to 44 g L(-1) butyrate at a calculated highest volumetric productivity of 1.45 g L(-1)h(-1) (molar butyrate yield of 0.85 based on sugars fermented). This volumetric productivity is among the highest reported for batch fermentations. Sugars from acid and enzyme-treated sweet sorghum bagasse were also fermented to butyrate by this organism with a molar yield of 0.81 (based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose). By combining the results from juice and bagasse, the calculated yield of butyric acid is approximately 90 kg per tonne of fresh sweet sorghum stalk. This study demonstrates that C. thermobutyricum can be an effective microbial biocatalyst for production of bio-based butyrate from renewable feedstocks at 50°C.

  3. Effect of roughage to concentrate ratio of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biclor L. Moench) bagasse-based complete diet on nutrient utilization and microbial N supply in lambs.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Sudhakar, Khaja; Reddy, Vangur Ravinder; Monika, Thamatam; Pavani, Mitta; Reddy, Marrivada Sudhakara; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2012-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of roughage to the concentrate ratio of complete diets containing sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), an agro-industrial by product, as sole roughage source on nutrient utilization in ram lambs. Twenty-four Nellore × Deccani cross ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt. 10.62 ± 0.03 kg) were randomly allotted into four groups fed with CR-I (60R:40C), CR-II (50R:50C), CR-III (40R:60C), and CR-IV (30R:70C) complete diets. The roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the dry matter intake (in grams/day or grams/kilogram weight(0.75)). The crude protein (P < 0.01) and ether extract (P < 0.05) digestibility of ration CR-IV was higher than CR-I and CR-II rations, whereas, the digestibility of nitrogen-free extract and fiber fractions was similar among all the rations. Experimental diets were different (P < 0.01) in digestible crude protein (DCP) content, in which the CR-I ration contained lower DCP value whereas CR-IV ration contained higher DCP value. The total digestible nutrients (TDN) and metabolizable energy (ME) values were comparable among all the experimental rations. The daily DCP intake (in grams/day) was lower (P < 0.05) in lambs fed with CR-I ration compared to CR-III and CR-IV rations and it was comparable with CR-II ration. The TDN intake (in grams/day), digestible energy, and ME intakes (in megajoules/day) were similar among the lambs fed experimental rations with different SSB to concentrate ratios. The average daily DCP intake of lambs fed with CR-II, CR-III, and CR-IV rations met the requirements whereas, the daily TDN and ME intake was met by all the lambs. The lambs on all the diets were in positive nitrogen retention. The nitrogen balance expressed as grams/day was higher (P < 0.05) in lambs fed with CR-III and CR-IV ration than those fed with CR-I ration. The daily calcium and phosphorus intake and balance were comparable on all the experimental rations. The total purine derivatives (in

  4. Optimization of sugar release from sweet sorghum bagasse following solvation of cellulose and enzymatic hydrolysis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Yesuf, Jemil N; Liang, Yanna

    2014-01-01

    To release sugars effectively from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB), a cellulose solvent and organic solvent-based lignocellulose fractionation pretreatment approach was studied using response surface methodology (RSM). Based on RSM's central composite design, a batch experimental matrix was set up to determine the effects of reaction time (20-60 min) and temperature (40-60 °C) on delignification, total reducing sugar yield, glucan digestibility, and overall glucose yields following a pretreatment-hydrolysis process. The optimum pretreatment conditions of 50 °C and 40 min led to 51.4% delignification, 86% overall glucose yield, and 61% overall xylose yield. An effort has also been made to obtain predictive models to illustrate the correlation between independent and dependent variables using RSM. The significance of the correlations and adequacy of these models were statistically tested for the selected objective functions. The optimum pretreatment condition predicted by the model was 49.1 °C and 39.2 min which matched the experimental data well. Results from this study can be applied to large scale biorefineries using sugars released from SSB for producing various biofuels.

  5. Fertilizer induced nitrous oxide emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Watanabe, Takeshi; Uchino, Hiroshi; Sahrawat, Kanwar L; Wani, Suhas P; Ito, Osamu

    2012-11-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions from Vertisols and Alfisols during sweet sorghum cultivation in the Indian semi-arid tropics were determined using a closed chamber technique during the rainy season (June-October) of 2010. The study included two treatments, nitrogen (N) at a rate of 90 kg/ha and a control without N fertilizer application. The N(2)O emissions strongly coincided with N fertilization and rainfall events. The cumulative N(2)O-N emission from Alfisols was 1.81 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.15 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. Similarly, the N(2)O-N emission from Vertisols was 0.70 N(2)O-N kg/ha for 90 N treatment and 0.09 N(2)O-N kg/ha for the 0 N treatment. The mean N(2)O-N emission factor for fertilizer induced emissions from the Alfisols was 0.90% as compared to 0.32% for Vertisols. Our results suggest that the N(2)O emissions are dependent on the soil properties. Therefore, the monitoring of N(2)O emissions from different agro-ecological regions, having different soil types, rainfall characteristics, cropping systems and crop management practices are necessary to develop comprehensive and accurate green house gas inventories.

  6. Sucrose purification and repeated ethanol production from sugars remaining in sweet sorghum juice subjected to a membrane separation process.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kengo; Tsuge, Yota; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Yasukawa, Masahiro; Sasaki, Daisuke; Sazuka, Takashi; Kamio, Eiji; Ogino, Chiaki; Matsuyama, Hideto; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-08-01

    The juice from sweet sorghum cultivar SIL-05 (harvested at physiological maturity) was extracted, and the component sucrose and reducing sugars (such as glucose and fructose) were subjected to a membrane separation process to purify the sucrose for subsequent sugar refining and to obtain a feedstock for repeated bioethanol production. Nanofiltration (NF) of an ultrafiltration (UF) permeate using an NTR-7450 membrane (Nitto Denko Corporation, Osaka, Japan) concentrated the juice and produced a sucrose-rich fraction (143.2 g L(-1) sucrose, 8.5 g L(-1) glucose, and 4.5 g L(-1) fructose). In addition, the above NF permeate was concentrated using an ESNA3 NF membrane to provide concentrated permeated sugars (227.9 g L(-1)) and capture various amino acids in the juice, enabling subsequent ethanol fermentation without the addition of an exogenous nitrogen source. Sequential batch fermentation using the ESNA3 membrane concentrate provided an ethanol titer and theoretical ethanol yield of 102.5-109.5 g L(-1) and 84.4-89.6%, respectively, throughout the five-cycle batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741. Our results demonstrate that a membrane process using UF and two types of NF membranes has the potential to allow sucrose purification and repeated bioethanol production.

  7. Enhancement in multiple lignolytic enzymes production for optimized lignin degradation and selectivity in fungal pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vartika; Jana, Asim K; Jana, Mithu Maiti; Gupta, Antriksh

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the increase in multiple lignolytic enzyme productions through the use of supplements in combination in pretreatment of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) by Coriolus versicolor such that enzymes act synergistically to maximize the lignin degradation and selectivity. Enzyme activities were enhanced by metallic salts and phenolic compound supplements in SSF. Supplement of syringic acid increased the activities of LiP, AAO and laccase; gallic acid increased MnP; CuSO4 increased laccase and PPO to improve the lignin degradations and selectivity individually, higher than control. Combination of supplements optimized by RSM increased the production of laccase, LiP, MnP, PPO and AAO by 17.2, 45.5, 3.5, 2.4 and 3.6 folds respectively for synergistic action leading to highest lignin degradation (2.3 folds) and selectivity (7.1 folds). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SSB yielded ∼2.43 times fermentable sugar. This technique could be widely applied for pretreatment and enzyme productions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of Trichoderma reesei RT-P1 crude enzyme powder for ethanol fermentation of sweet sorghum fresh stalks.

    PubMed

    Siwarasak, Pongsri; Pajantagate, Pradatrat; Prasertlertrat, Kanoktip

    2012-03-01

    Use of Trichoderma reesei RT-P1 crude enzyme powder and of this powder with 10%v/v Saccharomyces cerevisiae for ethanol fermentation of sweet sorghum fresh stalks were investigated. The optimal conditions were determined by orthogonal experiment method. With T. reesei crude enzyme powder, the optimal condition for the Keller cultivar was at 25 g with 4 g enzyme loading and for the Cowley cultivar at 30 g with 5 g enzyme loading, both with 8 days fermentation at pH 5 and 30°C. At the optimal conditions above, ethanol concentration, productivity and yield of the Cowley cultivar (35.00 g/L, 0.18 g/Lh and 0.38 g ethanol/g substrate, respectively) were higher than those of the Keller cultivar (20.46 g/L, 0.11 g/Lh and 0.28 g ethanol/g substrate). The addition of 10%v/v S. cerevisiae to fermentation at the optimal conditions showed no significant variations in ethanol concentration, productivity and yield for both cultivars.

  9. The response of sweet sorghum cultivars to salt stress and accumulation of Na+, Cl- and K+ ions in relation to salinity.

    PubMed

    Almodares, A; Hadi, M R; Kholdebarin, B; Samedani, B; Kharazian, Z Akhavan

    2014-07-01

    Tolerance to high salinity concentrations in sorghum seems to be related to the genotype ability to avoid accumulation of harmful levels of Na+ and Cl- and to maintain adequate levels of K+ especially in shoot. In this study, the effect of salt stress (0, -0.4, -0.8, -1.2, -1.6 and -2 Mpa) on seed germination, seedling growth and Na+, K+, and Cl- concentrations of 18 sweet sorghum cultivars were evaluated. The results showed that Roce, Sumac and IS6973 cultivars had better tolerance to salt stress than other cultivars at germination stage. However, SSV84 had the highest germination percentage up to -1.6 MPa and at seedling growth stage it had the highest biomass than other cultivars. Therefore, it seems that among sweet sorghum cultivars, SSV84 was the most salt tolerant cultivar and it is suggested to be planted in salinity affected agricultural lands. In addition, IS6973 showed the highest seed germination and moderate seedling growth stage and was classified as moderate salt tolerant cultivar. Na+ and Cl- concentrations increased in shoots and roots especially in salt sensitive cultivars. Also, K+ concentration increased in salt tolerant cultivars while decreased in salt sensitive ones. Since K+/Na+ ratio concentration increased in salt tolerant cultivars and decreased in salt sensitive ones, it seems that this ratio among other parameters is a better indicatorfor selection of salt tolerant cultivars.

  10. 19 CFR 123.61 - Baggage arriving in baggage car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage arriving in baggage car. 123.61 Section... car. An inward foreign manifest on Customs Form 7533 shall be used for all baggage arriving in baggage cars....

  11. Comparative transcriptome combined with morpho-physiological analyses revealed key factors for differential cadmium accumulation in two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Juanjuan; Jia, Weitao; Lv, Sulian; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Miao, Fangfang; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jinhui; Li, Jihong; Li, Dongsheng; Zhu, Cheng; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2017-07-13

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil contaminant threatening human health. As an ideal energy plant, sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) has great potential in phytoremediation of Cd-polluted soils, although the molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, key factors responsible for differential Cd accumulation between two contrasting sweet sorghum genotypes (high-Cd accumulation one H18, and low-Cd accumulation one L69) were investigated. H18 exhibited a much higher ability of Cd uptake and translocation than L69. Furthermore, Cd uptake through symplasmic pathway and Cd concentrations in xylem sap were both higher in H18 than those in L69. Root anatomy observation found the endodermal apoplasmic barriers were much stronger in L69, which may restrict the Cd loading into xylem. The molecular mechanisms underlying these morpho-physiological traits were further dissected by comparative transcriptome analysis. Many genes involved in cell wall modification and heavy metal transport were found to be Cd-responsive DEGs and/or DEGs between these two genotypes. KEGG pathway analysis found phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway was over-represented, indicating this pathway may play important roles in differential Cd accumulation between two genotypes. Based on these results, a schematic representation of main processes involved in differential Cd uptake and translocation in H18 and L69 is proposed, which suggests that higher Cd accumulation in H18 depends on a multilevel coordination of efficient Cd uptake and transport, including efficient root uptake and xylem loading, less root cell wall binding, and weaker endodermal apoplasmic barriers. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Fungal Pretreatment of Sweet Sorghum Bagasse with Combined CuSO4-Gallic Acid Supplement for Improvement in Lignin Degradation, Selectivity, and Enzymatic Saccharification.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vartika; Jana, Asim K

    2017-02-28

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum sp.) has high biomass yield. Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) to fermentable sugar could be useful for manufacture of biofuel or other fermentation products. Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass to degrade lignin before enzymatic hydrolysis is a key step. Fungal pretreatment of SSB with combined CuSO4-gallic acid supplements in solid-state fermentation (SSF) to achieve higher lignin degradation, selectivity value (SV), and enzymatic hydrolysis to sugar was studied. Coriolus versicolor was selected due to high activities of ligninolytic enzymes laccase, lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and arylalcohol oxidase (AAO) and low activities of cellulolytic enzymes CMCase, FPase, and β-glucosidase with high lignin degradation and SV in 20 days. CuSO4/gallic acid increased the activities of ligninolytic enzymes resulting in enhanced lignin degradations and SVs. Cumulative/synergistic effect of combined supplements further increased the activities of laccase, LiP, MnP, PPO, and AAO by 7.6, 14.6, 2.67, 2.06, and 2.15-folds, respectively (than control), resulting in highest lignin degradation 31.1 ± 1.4% w/w (1.56-fold) and SV 2.33 (3.58-fold). Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SSB yielded higher (~2.2 times) fermentable sugar. The study showed combined supplements can improve fungal pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass. XRD, SEM, FTIR, and TGA/DTG of SSB confirmed the results.

  13. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice in repeated-batch fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilized on corncob.

    PubMed

    Laopaiboon, Lakkana; Laopaiboon, Pattana

    2012-02-01

    Ethanol fermentation from sweet sorghum juice containing 240 g/l of total sugar by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5048 and S. cerevisiae NP 01 immobilized on low-cost support materials, corncob pieces, was investigated. In batch fermentation, S. cerevisiae TISTR 5048 immobilized on 6 × 6 × 6 mm(3) corncobs gave higher ethanol production than those immobilized on 12 × 12 × 12 mm(3) corncobs in terms of ethanol concentration (P), yield (Y ( p/s )) and productivity (Q ( p )) with the values of 102.39 ± 1.11 g/l, 0.48 ± 0.01 and 2.13 ± 0.02 g/l h, respectively. In repeated-batch fermentation, the yeasts immobilized on the 6 × 6 × 6 mm(3) corncobs could be used at least eight successive cycles with the average P, Y ( p/s ) and Q ( p ) of 97.19 ± 5.02 g/l, 0.48 ± 0.02 and 2.02 ± 0.11 g/l h, respectively. Under the same immobilization and repeated-batch fermentation conditions, P (90.75 ± 3.05 g/l) and Q ( p ) (1.89 ± 0.06 g/l h) obtained from S. cerevisiae NP 01 were significantly lower than those from S. cerevisiae TISTR 5048 (P < 0.05), while Y ( p/s ) from both strains were not different. S. cerevisiae TISTR 5048 immobilized on the corncobs also gave significantly higher P, Y ( p/s ) and Q ( p ) than those immobilized on calcium alginate beads (P < 0.05).

  14. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. Results TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. Conclusions SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS

  15. A novel solid state fermentation coupled with gas stripping enhancing the sweet sorghum stalk conversion performance for bioethanol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong-Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Dai, Shu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol production from biomass is becoming a hot topic internationally. Traditional static solid state fermentation (TS-SSF) for bioethanol production is similar to the traditional method of intermittent operation. The main problems of its large-scale intensive production are the low efficiency of mass and heat transfer and the high ethanol inhibition effect. In order to achieve continuous production and high conversion efficiency, gas stripping solid state fermentation (GS-SSF) for bioethanol production from sweet sorghum stalk (SSS) was systematically investigated in the present study. TS-SSF and GS-SSF were conducted and evaluated based on different SSS particle thicknesses under identical conditions. The ethanol yield reached 22.7 g/100 g dry SSS during GS-SSF, which was obviously higher than that during TS-SSF. The optimal initial gas stripping time, gas stripping temperature, fermentation time, and particle thickness of GS-SSF were 10 h, 35°C, 28 h, and 0.15 cm, respectively, and the corresponding ethanol stripping efficiency was 77.5%. The ethanol yield apparently increased by 30% with the particle thickness decreasing from 0.4 cm to 0.05 cm during GS-SSF. Meanwhile, the ethanol yield increased by 6% to 10% during GS-SSF compared with that during TS-SSF under the same particle thickness. The results revealed that gas stripping removed the ethanol inhibition effect and improved the mass and heat transfer efficiency, and hence strongly enhanced the solid state fermentation (SSF) performance of SSS. GS-SSF also eliminated the need for separate reactors and further simplified the bioethanol production process from SSS. As a result, a continuous conversion process of SSS and online separation of bioethanol were achieved by GS-SSF. SSF coupled with gas stripping meet the requirements of high yield and efficient industrial bioethanol production. It should be a novel bioconversion process for bioethanol production from SSS biomass.

  16. Comparison of two-stage acid-alkali and alkali-acid pretreatments on enzymatic saccharification ability of the sweet sorghum fiber and their physicochemical characterizations.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Cai, Di; Zhang, Changwei; Li, Shufeng; Qin, Peiyong; Chen, Changjing; Wang, Yong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Two-stage acid/alkali pretreatment was used to enhance the saccharification efficiency of sweet sorghum fiber. The physicochemical characterizations of the pretreated fibers were evaluated by SEM, FTIR and XRD. The acid and alkali sequence in the two-stage pretreatment process was compared, and their dosage was optimized. The results indicated that the two-stage pretreatment showed better saccharification performance when compared with conventional single stage pretreatment. And compared with the acid-alkali sequence, the alkali-acid sequence achieved higher glucose yield (0.23g·g(-1)) under the optimized conditions, which was 1.64 and 1.21 times higher than that of the single stage and the acid-alkali pretreatments, respectively. Overall, the two-stage pretreatment process is a promising approach to achieve high fermentable glucose conversion rate of cellulosic material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 49 CFR 374.307 - Baggage service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bus, all baggage checked at a baggage checking counter at least 30 minutes but not more than 1 hour... checking service is provided at the side of the bus, passengers checking baggage at the baggage checking... travel on the same schedule. Such baggage must then be placed on the next available bus to its...

  18. 49 CFR 374.307 - Baggage service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... bus, all baggage checked at a baggage checking counter at least 30 minutes but not more than 1 hour... checking service is provided at the side of the bus, passengers checking baggage at the baggage checking... travel on the same schedule. Such baggage must then be placed on the next available bus to its...

  19. Kinetic models for batch ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice under normal and high gravity fermentations: Logistic and modified Gompertz models.

    PubMed

    Phukoetphim, Niphaphat; Salakkam, Apilak; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

    2017-02-10

    The aim of this study was to model batch ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), under normal gravity (NG, 160g/L of total sugar) and high gravity (HG, 240g/L of total sugar) conditions with and without nutrient supplementation (9g/L of yeast extract), by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01. Growth and ethanol production increased with increasing initial sugar concentration, and the addition of yeast extract enhanced both cell growth and ethanol production. From the results, either logistic or a modified Gompertz equation could be used to describe yeast growth, depending on information required. Furthermore, the modified Gompertz model was suitable for modeling ethanol production. Both the models fitted the data very well with coefficients of determination exceeding 0.98. The results clearly showed that these models can be employed in the development of ethanol production processes using SSJ under both NG and HG conditions. The models were also shown to be applicable to other ethanol fermentation systems employing pure and mixed sugars as carbon sources.

  20. The optimization of l-lactic acid production from sweet sorghum juice by mixed fermentation of Bacillus coagulans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus under unsterile conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Chen, Changjing; Cai, Di; Wang, Zheng; Qin, Peiyong; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-10-01

    The cost reduction of raw material and sterilization could increase the economic feasibility of l-lactic acid fermentation, and the development of an cost-effective and efficient process is highly desired. To improve the efficiency of open fermentation by Lactobacillus rhamnosus based on sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) and to overcome sucrose utilization deficiency of Bacillus coagulans, a mixed fermentation was developed. Besides, the optimization of pH, sugar concentration and fermentation medium were also studied. Under the condition of mixed fermentation and controlled pH, a higher yield of 96.3% was achieved, compared to that (68.8%) in sole Lactobacillus rhamnosus fermentation. With an optimized sugar concentration and a stepwise-controlled pH, the l-lactic acid titer, yield and productivity reached 121gL(-1), 94.6% and 2.18gL(-1)h(-1), respectively. Furthermore, corn steep powder (CSP) as a cheap source of nitrogen and salts was proved to be an efficient supplement to SSJ in this process.

  1. ADM1-based modeling of methane production from acidified sweet sorghum extract in a two stage process.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N; Skiadas, Ioannis V; Lyberatos, Gerasimos

    2012-02-01

    The present study focused on the application of the Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 on the methane production from acidified sorghum extract generated from a hydrogen producing bioreactor in a two-stage anaerobic process. The kinetic parameters for hydrogen and volatile fatty acids consumption were estimated through fitting of the model equations to the data obtained from batch experiments. The simulation of the continuous reactor performance at all HRTs tested (20, 15, and 10d) was very satisfactory. Specifically, the largest deviation of the theoretical predictions against the experimental data was 12% for the methane production rate at the HRT of 20d while the deviation values for the 15 and 10d HRT were 1.9% and 1.1%, respectively. The model predictions regarding pH, methane percentage in the gas phase and COD removal were in very good agreement with the experimental data with a deviation less than 5% for all steady states. Therefore, the ADM1 is a valuable tool for process design in the case of a two-stage anaerobic process as well.

  2. Gene expression profiles of the thermotolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KKU-VN8 during high-temperature ethanol fermentation using sweet sorghum juice.

    PubMed

    Techaparin, Atiya; Thanonkeo, Pornthap; Klanrit, Preekamol

    2017-07-18

    To investigate gene expression profiles of the thermotolerant yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain KKU-VN8, a potential high-ethanol producer, in response to various stresses during high-temperature ethanol fermentation using sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) under optimal conditions. The maximal ethanol concentration obtained by S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 using SSJ at 40 °C was 66.6 g/l, with a productivity of 1.39 g/l/h and a theoretical ethanol yield of 81%. Quantitative RT-PCR assays were performed to investigate the gene expression profiles of S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8. Differential expression of genes encoding heat-shock proteins (HSP82, HSP104, SSA4), genes involved in trehalose metabolism (TPS1, TPS2, NTH1) and genes involved the glycolytic pathway (ADH1, ADH2, CDC19) at various time points during fermentation was observed. The expression levels of HSP82, HSP104, SSA4, ADH1 and CDC19 were significantly higher than those of the controls (10.2-, 4-, 8-, 8.9- and 5.9-fold higher, respectively). In contrast, the expression levels of TPS1, TPS2, NTH1 and ADH2 were approx. 2-fold less than those of the controls. The highly expressed genes encoding heat-shock proteins, HSP82 and SSA4, potentially play an important role in helping S. cerevisiae KKU-VN8 cope with various stresses that occur during high-temperature fermentation, leading to higher ethanol production efficiency.

  3. Effect of protein and energy levels in sweet sorghum bagasse leaf residue-based diets on the performance of growing Deccani lambs.

    PubMed

    Yerradoddi, Ramana Reddy; Khan, Arif Ali; Mallampalli, Saibutcha Rao; Devulapalli, Ravi; Kodukula, Prasad; Blümmel, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Sweet sorghum bagasse with leaf residue (SSBLR) based complete diets with high or low protein and high- or low-energy levels were evaluated in a 60-day growth trial using growing sheep. Twenty-eight Deccani ram lambs were divided into four groups (16.0 ± 0.59 kg) of seven each and fed low-protein high-/low-energy and high-protein high-/low-energy diets ad lib. Average daily gain (g; P < 0.05) and feed efficiency (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in lambs fed high energy than those with low-energy diets, and cost per kg gain ($) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in low protein than high-protein diets. Dry matter intake (DMI) (g/day) was not significantly affected either by protein or energy level in the diet, but dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), protein, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibilities were higher significantly (P < 0.01) in high protein/energy diets than low protein/energy diets. Crude protein (CP) intake (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed high protein than low-protein diets. However, N balance (g/day) was significantly (P < 0.001) higher in lambs fed low protein than high-protein diets. It is concluded that feeding of SSBLR-based diet with low protein (CP 12.9 %) and high energy (9.4 MJ metabolizable energy (ME)/kg DM) was recommended for better performance, nitrogen retention, and returns from growing Deccani ram lambs.

  4. Growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing ram lambs fed sweet sorghum bagasse-based complete rations varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Nagireddy Nalini; Reddy, Yerradoddi Ramana; Blummel, Michel; Nagalakshmi, Devanaboyina; Monika, Thamatam; Reddy, Belum Venkata Subba; Reddy, Chintalapani Ravinder

    2013-02-01

    Different roughage-to-concentrate ratios of sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) (a by-product of the biofuel industry)-based complete diets were assessed. Twenty four growing Nellore × Deccani ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body wt., 10.62 ± 0.25 kg) were randomly allotted to four complete rations (CR) varying in roughage-to-concentrate ratios viz. 60:40 (CR-I), 50:50 (CR-II), 40:60 (CR-III) and 30:70(CR-IV) for a period of 180 days. The feed intake was comparable among the lambs fed different experimental complete diets. Average daily weight gain (in grams) was 77.31 ± 4.90, 81.76 ± 5.16, 85.83 ± 2.83 and 86.30 ± 3.25, and feed conversion ratio (in kilograms of feed per kilogram gain) averaged 11.42 ± 0.68, 10.57 ± 0.64, 10.17 ± 0.37 and 9.96 ± 0.38 in ram lambs fed CR-I, CR-II, CR-III and CR-IV rations, respectively. Statistically, differences in daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio among the lambs fed four experimental rations were not significant (P > 0.05). The cost per kilogram gain was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in ram lambs fed CR-IV and CR-III rations compared to CR-I ration, and it was comparable between CR-I and CR-II rations. Dressing percentage averaged 44.90 ± 0.15, 42.57 ± 0.72, 43.67 ± 0.16 and 44.42 ± 0.76 for the respective diets. No significant difference and trend was observed in preslaughter weight, empty body weight, carcass weights, dressing percentage, wholesale cuts and edible and non-edible portions of experimental animals. Similarly, no significant variation could be seen in bone and meat yield (in per cent) and their ratios in various wholesale cuts among the dietary treatments. The roughage-to-concentrate ratio did not affect the chemical composition of meat; however, the fat content of meat was linearly increased with increase in the proportion of concentrate in the diets. The results of the experiment indicated that SSB can be included at 60 % level in the complete diet for economical mutton production from

  5. 78 FR 14913 - Domestic Baggage Liability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 254 RIN 2105-AE21 Domestic Baggage Liability AGENCY: Office of the... existing regulations, this final rule raises the minimum limit on domestic baggage liability applicable to... applicable to domestic air service. Section 254.6 of this rule requires the Department to review every...

  6. 49 CFR 374.307 - Baggage service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Baggage service. 374.307 Section 374.307 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY... carrier shall make available at each ticket window and baggage counter a single form suitable both...

  7. 49 CFR 374.405 - Baggage excess value declaration procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Baggage excess value declaration procedures. 374... REGULATIONS PASSENGER CARRIER REGULATIONS Notice of and Procedures for Baggage Excess Value Declaration § 374.405 Baggage excess value declaration procedures. All motor common carriers of passengers and baggage...

  8. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit,...

  9. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit,...

  10. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit,...

  11. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit,...

  12. 19 CFR 122.102 - Inspection of baggage in transit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inspection of baggage in transit. 122.102 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Accompanied Baggage in Transit § 122.102 Inspection of baggage in transit. (a) General baggage in transit may be inspected upon arrival, while in transit, and...

  13. Use of whole crop sorghums as a raw material in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Honda, Mariko; Takabatake, Koji; Sotome, Itaru; Takai, Tomoyuki; Maehara, Tomoko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Gau, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of using two kinds of sorghum as raw materials in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes was investigated. Enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum was not as high as in brown mid-rib (bmr) mutated sorghum, but the amount of ethanol production was higher. Ethanol production from bmr mutated sorghum significantly increased when saccharification enzymes were added to the culture.

  14. Sorghum TILLING

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to its excellent tolerance to drought/high temperature stresses and low soil fertility, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) has emerged as a promising bioenergy crop due to its excellent tolerance to drought/heat stresses. Completion of the sorghum genome sequence has opened new avenues for sor...

  15. Solid state production of ethanol from sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Henk, L.L.; Linden, J.C.

    1995-12-01

    Ethanol, produced from renewable resources, such as corn, sugar cane and sweet sorghum, is used as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline. For biofuels to become economical, means of lowering production costs must be found. Our research focuses on using a modified method of ensiling to produce ethanol from sorghum. Formic acid, +/- cellulase, and yeast were applied to fresh field-chopped sorghum and then packed tightly into five-gallon plastic silos. Counter-current extraction methods were used as a means of biofuel separation. Sorghum receiving 5 IU/grain dry weight cellulase produced 37.7 liters of ethanol per metric ton on a wet weight basis. Sorghum not receiving cellulose additives produced 23.4 liters of ethanol per metric ton. An ethanol plant of intermediate size (565,272 liters of anhydrous ethanol/year) can operate using sorghum grown on less than 1400 acres.

  16. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  17. Low back load in airport baggage handlers.

    PubMed

    Koblauch, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    Low back pain (LBP) constitutes a major economic problem in many countries. The causes of LBP are still largely unknown and several risk factors have been suggested including heavy lifting, which causes high compression forces of the tissues in the low back. Micro-fractures in the endplates of the vertebrae caused by compression forces have been suggested as a source of unspecific pain. Although airport baggage handlers exhibit a high prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints the amount of biomechanical research within this and similar areas is limited. The aims of this thesis were to perform a general description of the lumbar loading in baggage handlers (Paper I), to develop a generically useful tool to examine specific lumbar compression in a valid manner (Paper II & III), and to investigate the spinal loading in common work tasks for baggage handlers. (Paper III). We recorded electromyography during baggage handling in the baggage hall, by a conveyor, and inside the aircraft baggage compartment. Electromyography was analyzed using amplitude probability distribution functions (APDF) on both tasks and full day recordings and root mean square (RMS) values on tasks. Furthermore, we estimated L4/L5 compression and moment along with shoulder flexor moment with a Watbak model based on more specific subtasks. In addition, we built an inverse dynamics-based musculoskeletal computer model using the AnyBody Modeling System (AMS). Motion capture recorded the movements in 3D during a stooped and a kneeling lifting task simulating airport baggage handler work. Marker trajectories were used to drive the model. The AMS-models computed estimated compression forces, shear forces and the moments around the L4/L5 joint. The compression forces were used for comparison with the vertebral compression tolerances reported in the literature. The RMS muscle activity was high in all tasks. The average peak RMS muscle activity was up to 120% EMGmax in the erector spinae during the baggage

  18. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  19. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  20. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  1. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  2. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  3. 3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF SOUTH BAGGAGE PASSAGE LOOKING EAST, SHOWING ROOF OF WOOD, GLASS, AND STEEL (TARRED ON EXTERIOR, PAINTED ON INTERIOR) - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, South Baggage Passage & Canopy, 1101 Liberty Avenue, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTH; RAMP AND WEST FRONT MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING (MBE) IN RELATION TO TERMINAL BUILDING (Dobson) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Mail, Baggage, & Express Building, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  6. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  7. Review of Sorghum Production Practices: Applications for Bioenergy

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Webb, Erin; Downing, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Sorghum has great potential as an annual energy crop. While primarily grown for its grain, sorghum can also be grown for animal feed and sugar. Sorghum is morphologically diverse, with grain sorghum being of relatively short stature and grown for grain, while forage and sweet sorghums are tall and grown primarily for their biomass. Under water-limited conditions sorghum is reliably more productive than corn. While a relatively minor crop in the United States (about 2% of planted cropland), sorghum is important in Africa and parts of Asia. While sorghum is a relatively efficient user of water, it biomass potential is limited by available moisture. The following exhaustive literature review of sorghum production practices was developed by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to document the current state of knowledge regarding sorghum production and, based on this, suggest areas of research needed to develop sorghum as a commercial bioenergy feedstock. This work began as part of the China Biofuels Project sponsored by the DOE Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Program to communicate technical information regarding bioenergy feedstocks to government and industry partners in China, but will be utilized in a variety of programs in which evaluation of sorghum for bioenergy is needed. This report can also be used as a basis for data (yield, water use, etc.) for US and international bioenergy feedstock supply modeling efforts.

  8. The hydraulic conductivity of chopped sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, M.H.; Reddell, D.L.; Sweeten, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity of water through chopped sweet sorghum at various packing densities and soaking times was measured using permeameters. Hydraulic conductivity decreased by two orders of magnitude as packing density increased from 400 to 897 kg/m/sup 3/. Soaking time had less effect on hydraulic conductivity, and the effect depended on packing density.

  9. Torrefaction of sorghum biomass to improve fuel properties.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yang; Singh, Hari; Singh, Bharat; Mani, Sudhagar

    2017-05-01

    Torrefaction of energy sorghum and sweet sorghum bagasse was investigated at three different temperatures (250, 275 & 300°C) for 30min to determine product yields and its compositions. The torrefied solid yield ranged from 43% to 65% for sweet sorghum bagasse and 51-70% for energy sorghum. The energy density of both torrefied sorghums increased between 1.6 and 1.4 folds. Besides water, the acetic acid, with a maximum yield of 101.90gL(-1) was the dominant compound in the aqueous fraction of liquid products. The aqueous fraction from sweet sorghum bagasse contained furfural and furan carboxyl aldehydes, while ketones and alcohols were dominant from energy sorghum as other key compounds. Phenolic type chemicals and furan derivatives were the major compounds in the oil fraction of the liquid product, accounted up to 58wt%. The condensable liquid products can be further upgraded into high-value platform chemicals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Automatic airline baggage counting using 3D image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Deyu; Gao, Qingji; Luo, Qijun

    2017-06-01

    The baggage number needs to be checked automatically during baggage self-check-in. A fast airline baggage counting method is proposed in this paper using image segmentation based on height map which is projected by scanned baggage 3D point cloud. There is height drop in actual edge of baggage so that it can be detected by the edge detection operator. And then closed edge chains are formed from edge lines that is linked by morphological processing. Finally, the number of connected regions segmented by closed chains is taken as the baggage number. Multi-bag experiment that is performed on the condition of different placement modes proves the validity of the method.

  11. 50 CFR 14.15 - Personal baggage and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Personal baggage and household effects. 14... Designated Ports § 14.15 Personal baggage and household effects. (a) Any person may import into or export..., or crusted hide or skin; game trophy; or to wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17,...

  12. 50 CFR 14.15 - Personal baggage and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Personal baggage and household effects. 14... Designated Ports § 14.15 Personal baggage and household effects. (a) Any person may import into or export..., or crusted hide or skin; game trophy; or to wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17,...

  13. 50 CFR 14.15 - Personal baggage and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal baggage and household effects. 14... Designated Ports § 14.15 Personal baggage and household effects. (a) Any person may import into or export..., or crusted hide or skin; game trophy; or to wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17,...

  14. 50 CFR 14.15 - Personal baggage and household effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Personal baggage and household effects. 14... Designated Ports § 14.15 Personal baggage and household effects. (a) Any person may import into or export..., or crusted hide or skin; game trophy; or to wildlife requiring a permit pursuant to part 16, 17,...

  15. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44... Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within, and Overflying the United States § 122.44 Crew baggage declaration. If an aircraft enters the U.S...

  16. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (c) and (d). (c) No certificate holder may allow an airplane to take off or land unless each article... holder may allow the boarding of carry-on baggage on an airplane unless each passenger's baggage has been... program in its operations specifications. In addition, no passenger may board an airplane if his/her carry...

  17. 14 CFR 121.589 - Carry-on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (c) and (d). (c) No certificate holder may allow an airplane to take off or land unless each article... holder may allow the boarding of carry-on baggage on an airplane unless each passenger's baggage has been... program in its operations specifications. In addition, no passenger may board an airplane if his/her carry...

  18. 19 CFR 123.62 - Baggage in possession of traveler.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in possession of traveler. 123.62 Section 123.62 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... traveler. For baggage arriving in the actual possession of a traveler, his declaration shall be accepted in...

  19. Biofuels from Sorghum: Plant-based Sesquiterpene Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Chromatin will engineer sweet sorghum—a plant that naturally produces large quantities of sugar and requires little water—to accumulate the fuel precursor farnesene, a molecule that can be blended into diesel fuel. Chromatin’s proprietary technology enables the introduction of a completely novel biosynthetic process into the plant to produce farnesene, enabling sorghum to accumulate up to 20% of its weight as fuel. Chromatin will also introduce a trait to improve biomass yields in sorghum. The farnesene will accumulate in the sorghum plants—similar to the way in which it currently stores sugar—and can be extracted and converted into a type of diesel fuel using low-cost, conventional methods. Sorghum can be easily grown and harvested in many climates with low input of water or fertilizer, and is already planted on an agricultural scale. The technology will be demonstrated in a model plant, guayule, before being used in sorghum.

  20. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers are authorized...

  1. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers are authorized...

  2. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers are authorized...

  3. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers are authorized...

  4. 19 CFR 18.14 - Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Shipment of Baggage in Bond § 18.14 Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries. The baggage of any person...

  5. 19 CFR 18.14 - Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Shipment of Baggage in Bond § 18.14 Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries. The baggage of any person...

  6. 19 CFR 18.14 - Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Shipment of Baggage in Bond § 18.14 Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries. The baggage of any person...

  7. 19 CFR 18.14 - Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Shipment of Baggage in Bond § 18.14 Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries. The baggage of any person...

  8. 19 CFR 18.14 - Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRANSPORTATION IN BOND AND MERCHANDISE IN TRANSIT Shipment of Baggage in Bond § 18.14 Shipment of baggage in transit to foreign countries. The baggage of any person...

  9. 19 CFR 123.63 - Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. 123...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.63 Examination of baggage from Canada or Mexico. (a) Opening vehicle or compartment to examine baggage. Customs officers...

  10. Understanding Genetic Diversity of Sorghum Using Quantitative Traits

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Sweta; Kumaravadivel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum is the important cereal crop around the world and hence understanding and utilizing the genetic variation in sorghum accessions are essential for improving the crop. A good understanding of genetic variability among the accessions will enable precision breeding. So profiling the genetic diversity of sorghum is imminent. In the present investigation, forty sorghum accessions consisting of sweet sorghum, grain sorghum, forage sorghum, mutant lines, maintainer lines, and restorer lines were screened for genetic diversity using quantitative traits. Observations were recorded on 14 quantitative traits, out of which 9 diverse traits contributing to maximum variability were selected for genetic diversity analysis. The principle component analysis revealed that the panicle width, stem girth, and leaf breadth contributed maximum towards divergence. By using hierarchical cluster analysis, the 40 accessions were grouped under 6 clusters. Cluster I contained maximum number of accessions and cluster VI contained the minimum. The maximum intercluster distance was observed between cluster VI and cluster IV. Cluster III had the highest mean value for hundred-seed weight and yield. Hence the selection of parents must be based on the wider intercluster distance and superior mean performance for yield and yield components. Thus in the present investigation quantitative data were able to reveal the existence of a wide genetic diversity among the sorghum accessions used providing scope for further genetic improvement. PMID:27382499

  11. 10. VIEW TO EAST; MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW TO EAST; MAIL, BAGGAGE AND EXPRESS BUILDING IS VISIBLE BEYOND TRACKS (Asano) - Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal, Tracks & Shed, 800 North Alameda Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Baggage Room as seen from outside end of Train Shed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Baggage Room as seen from outside end of Train Shed. - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  13. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  14. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  15. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  16. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  17. 31 CFR 538.511 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Sudan are authorized to import into the United States... Sudan are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to...

  18. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to travel...

  19. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to travel...

  20. 31 CFR 560.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the United States directly or indirectly from Iran are authorized to import into the United States... Iran are authorized to export from the United States accompanied baggage normally incident to travel...

  1. Sweet Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2001-11-01

    Readers wanting to nibble some sweet stuff can find a sizable collection of Journal articles via an online search with "sugar" in the title field. The papers cover topics varying from structure and nomenclature, demonstrations, and experiments for laboratories at all levels, to the history and technology of commercial sugar production. A separate search using the title word "sweet" locates additional articles covering all types of sweeteners and models relating sweetness to chemical structure.

  2. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  3. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  4. Sweet Conclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Britt M.; Wooldridge, Barbara Ross; Camp, Kerri M.

    2012-01-01

    Jen Harrington is the owner and pastry chef of Sweet Conclusion, a bakery in Tampa, Florida. Most of Harrington's business comes from baking wedding cakes, but she has been attempting to attract customers to her retail bakery, where she sells cupcakes, pies, ice cream, and coffee. Nearly four years she opened Sweet Conclusion, the retail part of…

  5. Sweet Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Shuk-kwan S.; Lo, Jane-Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article features Sweet play math, a "math by the month" activity that involves decorating and making sugar cubes. Teachers may want to substitute straws, paper squares, alphabet blocks, or such commercially made manipulatives as Unifix[R] cubes for the real sweets. Given no allergy concerns, teachers and students alike would enjoy some sweet…

  6. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  7. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29–2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  8. Expression profiling of sucrose metabolizing genes in Saccharum, Sorghum and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ramalashmi, K; Prathima, P T; Mohanraj, K; Nair, N V

    2014-10-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (SuSy; EC 2.4.1.13) and soluble acid invertase (SAI; EC 3.2.1.26) are key enzymes that regulate sucrose fluxes in sink tissues for sucrose accumulation in sugarcane and sorghum. In this study, the expression profiling of sucrose-related genes, i.e. SPS, SuSy and SAI in two sets of hybrids viz., one from a Sorghum × Saccharum cross and the other from a Saccharum × Sorghum cross, high- and low-sucrose varieties, sweet and grain sorghum lines was carried out using semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at monthly intervals. The results indicated differential expression of the three genes in high- and low-sucrose forms. Expression of SPS and SuSy genes was high in high-sucrose varieties, Saccharum × Sorghum hybrids and sweet sorghum and lower in low-sucrose varieties, Sorghum × Saccharum hybrids and grain sorghum. SAI showed a lower expression in high-sucrose varieties, Saccharum × Sorghum hybrids and sweet sorghum and higher expression in low-sucrose varieties, Sorghum × Saccharum hybrids and the grain sorghum. This study describes the positive association of SPS and SuSy and negative association of SAI on sucrose accumulation. This is the first report of differential expression profiling of SPS, SuSy and SAI in intergeneric hybrids involving sugarcane and sorghum, which opens the possibility for production of novel hybrids with improved sucrose content and with early maturity.

  9. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the following...

  10. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the following...

  11. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  13. 14 CFR 25.858 - Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire... Construction Fire Protection § 25.858 Cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection systems. If certification with cargo or baggage compartment smoke or fire detection provisions is requested, the...

  14. 19 CFR 162.6 - Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. 162.6...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.6 Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. All persons, baggage, and merchandise arriving...

  15. 19 CFR 162.6 - Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. 162.6...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.6 Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. All persons, baggage, and merchandise arriving...

  16. 19 CFR 148.22 - Examination of air travelers' baggage in foreign territory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination of air travelers' baggage in foreign territory. 148.22 Section 148.22 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Baggage and Collection of Duties and Taxes § 148.22 Examination of air travelers' baggage in foreign...

  17. 19 CFR 162.6 - Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. 162.6...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search § 162.6 Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. All persons, baggage, and merchandise arriving in...

  18. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section..., STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests § 330.212 Movement of plant pests by baggage... United States, by baggage, shall show the permit authorizing the movement to the inspector upon arrival...

  19. 49 CFR 374.403 - Notice of passenger's ability to declare excess value on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of passenger's ability to declare excess value on baggage. 374.403 Section 374.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... baggage should be forwarded. Free luggage tags are available at all ticket windows and baggage...

  20. 49 CFR 374.403 - Notice of passenger's ability to declare excess value on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of passenger's ability to declare excess value on baggage. 374.403 Section 374.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... baggage should be forwarded. Free luggage tags are available at all ticket windows and baggage...

  1. Epidemiological and biomechanical evaluation of airline baggage handling.

    PubMed

    Tafazzol, Alireza; Aref, Samin; Mardani, Majid; Haddad, Omid; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are prevalent among airline baggage handlers due to manual materials handling. In this study, the Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire (NMQ), the revised National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, and the University of Michigan 3D Static Strength Prediction Program™ (3DSSPP) were used to analyze MSDs among baggage handlers. The NMQ was filled out by 209 baggage handlers and 46 arbitrarily selected baggage handlers were evaluated using the NIOSH method and 3DSSPP. The obtained results showed that the most common MSDs occurred in the lower back region. The next risky regions included knees, neck, and upper back, respectively. The NIOSH results confirmed that the subjects lifted loads heavier than the permitted limit and their lifting postures were inappropriate. The results of the 3DSSPP also indicated that compression forces exceeded the NIOSH limit in these awkward postures. Relying on this study, holding compulsory ergonomic lifting training courses could be proposed for workers and regulations adjusting an upper limit for maximum baggage weight must be also enacted in order to improve occupational health and prevent the prevalence of increasing MSDs.

  2. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage in transit through the United States... MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a) Procedure. Baggage in transit from point to point in Canada or Mexico through the United...

  3. Effects of saline-alkaline stress on seed germination and seedling growth of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyun; Lu, Zhaohua; He, Lei

    2014-08-01

    In order to study the adaptation ability of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in the Yellow River Delta, the sweet sorghum variety Mart was used in this study to determine the roles of different saline-alkaline ratio stress treatment during seed germination to seedling stage. The results showed that Na+ concentration had a significant impact on the seed germination, seedling growth, and plant survival of sweet sorghum. Increasing Na+ concentration led to a decline in germination rate, final germination percentage, survival percentage, plant height, and dry weight per plant, a prolonged mean time of germination, as well as loss of improvement effect of low-Na+ concentration. The interaction effect of Na+ concentration and pH on the mean time of germination and germination rate was not significant (p<0.05). However, under the condition of low-Na+ concentration (100 mM), high pH reduced the mean time of germination and increased the germination rate, without decline in final germination percentage and survival percentage. Therefore, at least in the duration of seed germination to the harvest period in the research, the sweet sorghum was resistant to the pH stress (≥9.04) when the Na+ concentration was below 100 mM. When suffered from the saline-alkaline stress, the seedling of sweet sorghum was characterized by ecological adaptive features, such as decreased stem ratio and chlorophyll b content in leaves and increased root ratio and chlorophyll a content, in order to maintain the uptakes of water and nutrient, and carbon assimilation. When the stress intensified, the lipid oxidation products, e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), increased in sweet sorghum seedlings. However, the increasing of soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), and gatalase (CAT)) was only founded in neutral low-Na+ concentration treatment (A1), which indicated that high-salt concentration and pH all elicited harmful effects

  4. Soil Organic Carbon Response to Cover Crop and Nitrogen Fertilization under Bioenergy Sorghum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sainju, U. M.; Singh, H. P.; Singh, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Removal of aboveground biomass for bioenergy/feedstock in bioenergy cropping systems may reduce soil C storage. Cover crop and N fertilization may provide additional crop residue C and sustain soil C storage compared with no cover crop and N fertilization. We evaluated the effect of four winter cover crops (control or no cover crop, cereal rye, hairy vetch, and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture) and two N fertilization rates (0 and 90 kg N ha-1) on soil organic C (SOC) at 0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm depths under forage and sweet sorghums from 2010 to 2013 in Fort Valley, GA. Cover crop biomass yield and C content were greater with vetch/rye mixture than vetch or rye alone and the control, regardless of sorghum species. Soil organic C was greater with vetch/rye than rye at 0-5 and 15-30 cm in 2011 and 2013 and greater with vetch than rye at 5-15 cm in 2011 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC was greater with cover crops than the control at 0-5 cm, but greater with vetch and the control than vetch/rye at 15-30 cm. The SOC increased at the rates of 0.30 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 0-5 cm for rye and the control to 1.44 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 at 15-30 cm for vetch/rye and the control from 2010 to 2013 under forage sorghum. Under sweet sorghum, SOC also increased linearly at all depths from 2010 to 2013, regardless of cover crops. Nitrogen fertilization had little effect on SOC. Cover crops increased soil C storage compared with no cover crop due to greater crop residue C returned to the soil under forage and sweet sorghum and hairy vetch/cereal rye mixture had greater C storage than other cover crops under forage sorghum.

  5. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1, the selection of

  6. 14 CFR 29.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 29.855 Section 29.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...) They cannot be damaged by the movement of cargo in the compartment; and (2) Their breakage or failure...

  7. 14 CFR 27.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.855 Section 27.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... by the movement of cargo in the compartment; and (2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire...

  8. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo or baggage compartments. 25.855 Section 25.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... movement of cargo in the compartment, and (2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire hazard. (f...

  9. 14 CFR 27.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.855 Section 27.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... by the movement of cargo in the compartment; and (2) Their breakage or failure will not create a fire...

  10. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for...

  11. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  12. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  13. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  14. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  15. 14 CFR 234.6 - Baggage-handling statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Baggage-handling statistics. 234.6 Section 234.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... statistics. Each reporting carrier shall report monthly to the Department on a domestic system...

  16. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  17. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  18. 14 CFR 121.314 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and baggage compartments. For each transport category airplane type certificated after January 1, 1958... sidewall liner panels which are constructed of: (1) Glass fiber reinforced resin; (2) Materials which meet... number of each airplane listed in the operations specifications issued to the certificate holder...

  19. 14 CFR 25.855 - Cargo or baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... attached to) the airplane structure. (c) Ceiling and sidewall liner panels of Class C compartments must.... (d) All other materials used in the construction of the cargo or baggage compartment must meet...

  20. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... inspector, including inspectors on trains or ferries, who examines the baggage of any person arriving in the United States may examine and pass, without limitation as to value, the following articles in such... arriving in the United States may examine, determine the dutiable value of, collect duty on, and pass...

  1. 14 CFR 91.523 - Carry-on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... severe enough to induce the ultimate inertia forces specified in § 25.561(b)(3) of this chapter, or the... limit sideward motion of under-seat baggage and be designed to withstand crash impacts severe enough to induce sideward forces specified in § 25.561(b)(3) of this chapter....

  2. 14 CFR 91.523 - Carry-on baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... severe enough to induce the ultimate inertia forces specified in § 25.561(b)(3) of this chapter, or the... limit sideward motion of under-seat baggage and be designed to withstand crash impacts severe enough to induce sideward forces specified in § 25.561(b)(3) of this chapter....

  3. Three-dimensional imaging of hold baggage for airport security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolokytha, S.; Speller, R.; Robson, S.

    2014-06-01

    This study describes a cost-effective check-in baggage screening system, based on "on-belt tomosynthesis" (ObT) and close-range photogrammetry, that is designed to address the limitations of the most common system used, conventional projection radiography. The latter's limitations can lead to loss of information and an increase in baggage handling time, as baggage is manually searched or screened with more advanced systems. This project proposes a system that overcomes such limitations creating a cost-effective automated pseudo-3D imaging system, by combining x-ray and optical imaging to form digital tomograms. Tomographic reconstruction requires a knowledge of the change in geometry between multiple x-ray views of a common object. This is uniquely achieved using a close range photogrammetric system based on a small network of web-cameras. This paper presents the recent developments of the ObT system and describes recent findings of the photogrammetric system implementation. Based on these positive results, future work on the advancement of the ObT system as a cost-effective pseudo-3D imaging of hold baggage for airport security is proposed.

  4. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  5. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  6. 19 CFR 122.44 - Crew baggage declaration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crew baggage declaration. 122.44 Section 122.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements...

  7. 14 CFR 27.855 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartments. 27.855 Section 27.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection §...

  8. 31 CFR 545.507 - Accompanied baggage authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accompanied baggage authorized. 545.507 Section 545.507 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... that are necessary for personal use incident to travel, that are not intended for any other person...

  9. Yield Response to Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Injury in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    Vanweelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2015-10-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an invasive stem borer of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.), and poses a threat against the production of dedicated bioenergy feedstocks in the U.S. Gulf Coast region. A 2-yr field study was conducted in Jefferson County, TX, to evaluate yield losses associated with E. loftini feeding on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane and sorghum under natural and artificially established E. loftini infestations. Bioenergy sugarcane (energycane) 'L 79-1002' and 'Ho 02-113' and sweet sorghum 'M81E' exhibited reduced E. loftini injury; however, these cultivars, along with high-biomass sorghum cultivar 'ES 5140', sustained greater losses in fresh stalk weight. Negative impacts to sucrose concentration from E. loftini injury were greatest in energycane, high-biomass sorghum, and sweet sorghum cultivars. Even under heavy E. loftini infestations, L 79-1002, Ho 02-113, and 'ES 5200' were estimated to produce more ethanol than all other cultivars under suppressed infestations. ES 5200, Ho 02-113, and L 79-1002 hold the greatest potential as dedicated bioenergy crops for production of ethanol in the Gulf Coast region; however, E. loftini management practices will need to be continued to mitigate yield losses.

  10. Sorghum and Maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum and maize are closely related cereal grains grown throughout the world. Sorghum, a drought tolerant crop grown in semi-arid regions, is a basic food staple in many parts of the developing world, while primarily an animal feed in western countries. Maize, a major worldwide crop, is used for...

  11. Copenhagen Airport Cohort: air pollution, manual baggage handling and health.

    PubMed

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Brauer, Charlotte; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Loft, Steffen; Simonsen, Erik B; Koblauch, Henrik; Bern, Stine Hvid; Alkjær, Tine; Hertel, Ole; Becker, Thomas; Larsen, Karin Helweg; Bonde, Jens Peter; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2017-05-06

    Copenhagen Airport Cohort 1990-2012 presents a unique data source for studies of health effects of occupational exposure to air pollution (ultrafine particles) and manual baggage handling among airport employees. We describe the extent of information in the cohort and in the follow-up based on data linkage to the comprehensive Danish nationwide health registers. In the cohort, all information is linked to the personal identification number that also is used in Denmark Statistics demographic and socioeconomic databases and in the nationwide health registers. The cohort covers 69 175 men in unskilled positions. The exposed cohort includes men in unskilled jobs employed at Copenhagen Airport in the period 1990-2012 either as baggage handlers or in other outdoor work. The reference cohort includes men in unskilled jobs working in the greater Copenhagen area. The cohort includes environmental Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in Copenhagen Airport, information on job function/task for each calendar year of employment between 1990 and 2012, exposure to air pollution at residence, average weight of baggage lifted per day and lifestyle. By linkage to registers, we retrieved socioeconomic and demographic data and data on healthcare contacts, drug subscriptions, incident cancer and mortality. The size of the cohort and the completeness of the register-based follow-up allow a more accurate assessment of the possible health risks of occupational exposure to ultrafine particles and manual baggage handling at airports than in previous studies. We plan to follow the cohort for the incidence of ischaemic heart diseases, cerebrovascular disease, lung and bladder cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and further for associations between heavy manual baggage handling and musculoskeletal disorders. number 2012-41-0199. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeffrey A.; Wolfrum, Edward J.

    2010-09-28

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.300 - When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage (UAB) shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.300 When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.300 - When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage (UAB) shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS, PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT, (PBP&E) AND BAGGAGE ALLOWANCE Baggage Allowance § 302-7.300 When may I be authorized...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.300 - When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage (UAB) shipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROPERTY 7-TRANSPORTATION AND TEMPORARY STORAGE OF HOUSEHOLD GOODS AND PROFESSIONAL BOOKS, PAPERS, AND EQUIPMENT (PBP&E) Baggage Allowance § 302-7.300 When may I be authorized an unaccompanied air baggage...

  16. Airport baggage handling--where do human factors fit in the challenges that airports put on a baggage system?

    PubMed

    Lenior, O N M

    2012-01-01

    The challenges put on large baggage systems by airports can be summarized as: handling a high number of bags in a short period of time, in a limited space, with all sorts of disruptions, whilst complying with stringent regulation upon security, sustainability and health and safety. The aim of this company case study is to show in the different project phases--as indicated in the system ergonomic approach--how the human factors specialist can play a major part in tackling these challenges. By describing different projects in terms of scope, organization, human factors topics covered, phases and lessons learned, the importance of Human-Computer Interaction, automation as well as manual handling and work organization in baggage is addressed.

  17. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico... PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States. (a...

  18. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico... PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States. (a...

  19. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico... PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States. (a...

  20. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico... PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States. (a...

  1. 19 CFR 123.65 - Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico... MEXICO Baggage § 123.65 Domestic baggage transiting Canada or Mexico between ports in the United States... transported from one port in the United States to another through Canada or through Mexico in accord with...

  2. 19 CFR 148.73 - Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense. 148.73 Section 148.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... operated by or for the Department of Defense shall execute written baggage declarations. (b) Exemptions...

  3. 19 CFR 148.73 - Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense. 148.73 Section 148.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... operated by or for the Department of Defense shall execute written baggage declarations. (b) Exemptions...

  4. 19 CFR 148.73 - Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense. 148.73 Section 148.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... operated by or for the Department of Defense shall execute written baggage declarations. (b) Exemptions...

  5. 19 CFR 148.73 - Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense. 148.73 Section 148.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... operated by or for the Department of Defense shall execute written baggage declarations. (b) Exemptions...

  6. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport? 303-70.301 Section 303-70.301 Public Contracts and Property... on the baggage we may transport? Yes. You may only transport government property and the...

  7. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport? 303-70.301 Section 303-70.301 Public Contracts and Property... on the baggage we may transport? Yes. You may only transport government property and the...

  8. 19 CFR 148.73 - Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of Defense. 148.73 Section 148.73 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Employees of the United States, and Evacuees § 148.73 Baggage on carriers operated by the Department of...

  9. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    PubMed

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa.

  10. Lactic acid fermentation of crude sorghum extract

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, W.A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Anthony, W.B.

    1980-04-01

    Crude extract from sweet sorghum supplemented with vetch juice was utilized as the carbohydrate source for fermentative production of lactic acid. Fermentation of media containing 7% (w/v) total sugar was completed in 60-80 hours by Lactobacillus plantarum, product yield averaging 85%. Maximum acid production rates were dependent on pH, initial substrate distribution, and concentration, the rates varying from 2 to 5 g/liter per hour. Under limited medium supplementation the lactic acid yield was lowered to 67%. The fermented ammoniated product contained over eight times as much equivalent crude protein (N x 6.25) as the original medium. Unstructured kinetic models were developed for cell growth, lactic acid formation, and substrate consumption in batch fermentation. With the provision of experimentally determined kinetic parameters, the proposed models accurately described the fermentation process. 15 references.

  11. Towards an automated checked baggage inspection system augmented with robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeDonato, Matthew P.; Dimitrov, Velin; Padır, Taskin

    2014-05-01

    We present a novel system for enhancing the efficiency and accuracy of checked baggage screening process at airports. The system requirements address the identification and retrieval of objects of interest that are prohibited in a checked luggage. The automated testbed is comprised of a Baxter research robot designed by Rethink Robotics for luggage and object manipulation, and a down-looking overhead RGB-D sensor for inspection and detection. We discuss an overview of current system implementations, areas of opportunity for improvements, robot system integration challenges, details of the proposed software architecture and experimental results from a case study for identifying various kinds of lighters in checked bags.

  12. Three FLOWERING LOCUS T-like genes function as potential florigens and mediate photoperiod response in sorghum.

    PubMed

    Wolabu, Tezera W; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Lifang; Kalve, Shweta; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Muszynski, Michael G; Tadege, Million

    2016-05-01

    Sorghum is a typical short-day (SD) plant and its use in grain or biomass production in temperate regions depends on its flowering time control, but the underlying molecular mechanism of floral transition in sorghum is poorly understood. Here we characterized sorghum FLOWERING LOCUS T (SbFT) genes to establish a molecular road map for mechanistic understanding. Out of 19 PEBP genes, SbFT1, SbFT8 and SbFT10 were identified as potential candidates for encoding florigens using multiple approaches. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that SbFT1 clusters with the rice Hd3a subclade, while SbFT8 and SbFT10 cluster with the maize ZCN8 subclade. These three genes are expressed in the leaf at the floral transition initiation stage, expressed early in grain sorghum genotypes but late in sweet and forage sorghum genotypes, induced by SD treatment in photoperiod-sensitive genotypes, cooperatively repressed by the classical sorghum maturity loci, interact with sorghum 14-3-3 proteins and activate flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, suggesting florigenic potential in sorghum. SD induction of these three genes in sensitive genotypes is fully reversed by 1 wk of long-day treatment, and yet, some aspects of the SD treatment may still make a small contribution to flowering in long days, indicating a complex photoperiod response mediated by SbFT genes.

  13. SORGHUM BIOMASS/FEEDSTOCK GENOMICS RESEARCH FOR BIOENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    Rooney, William L.; Mullet, John E.; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Steven; Ware, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The specific objectives of this project were to: (1) annotate genes, pathways and regulatory networks identified in the sorghum genome sequence that are important for biomass generation, and (2) identify, map and clarify the function of trait loci that modulate accumulation and quality of biomass in sorghum. Approach: Objective 1: Genes encoding proteins involved in biochemical pathways important for biomass generation and plant composition related to biofuel production (i.e., starch, lignin, sugar, cellulose and hemicellulose) were identified and projected onto biochemical pathways using the database MetaCyc (SorgCyc). The pathway projections provide a baseline of information on sorghum genes involved in biochemical pathways thus aiding our downstream analysis of QTL and traits. In addition, the information on sorghum biochemical pathways in Gramene can be readily compared to information on other cereals and other organisms via Gramene’s comparative mapping tools. This information helped identify gaps in the current knowledge of sorghum biochemistry and identified pathways and genes that may be useful to deploy in sorghum for biomass/bioenergy generation. Objective 2: Grain, biomass, and carbohydrate yields were measured in germplasm and a population consisting of 175 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) (F5:6) from the cross of BTx623 (a high yielding early flowering grain sorghum) × Rio (a high biomass sweet sorghum). Plant growth parameters were analyzed to obtain a baseline for downstream meta-analysis including plant height, flowering time and tillering, traits that likely modulate carbohydrate partitioning in various tissues and total biomass. Traits that affect grain yield, biomass (i.e. the tissue harvest index and distribution of grain, stem, and leaf weight), the composition of structural and non-structural carbohydrates, and the overall energy gain of the plant were evaluated. A genetic map of this population was created and QTL analysis will

  14. A harvesting and handling system for sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Monroe, G.E.; Sumner, H.R.

    1983-12-01

    Total and net energies used harvesting 30-cm billets at 8 t/h were 1 and 0.3 kW x h/t, respectively. Harvested crop had 4% leaves, a 70% mass fraction of billets 30-40 cm long, and a 49/sup 0/ angle of repose. A self-unloading forage wagon with beaters and controls metered billets at 1.5 t/h to feed a juice-expression mill.

  15. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Han, Yucui; Lv, Peng; Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield.

  16. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield. PMID:25984727

  17. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  18. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  19. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  20. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.28 Sorghum....

  1. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    J Felderhoff, Terry; M McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-07-07

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar 'Bk7', a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing 'Bk7' with the susceptible inbred 'Early Hegari-Sart'. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from 'Bk7'. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between 'Bk7' and sweet sorghum 'Mer81-4' narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. Copyright © 2016 Felderhoff et al.

  2. Using Genotyping by Sequencing to Map Two Novel Anthracnose Resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    J. Felderhoff, Terry; M. McIntyre, Lauren; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-01-01

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. Genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases. PMID:27194807

  3. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    DOE PAGES

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; ...

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance locimore » present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.« less

  4. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Betts, Natalie S.; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A.; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J.; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production. PMID:27232754

  5. Prospecting for Energy-Rich Renewable Raw Materials: Sorghum Stem Case Study.

    PubMed

    Byrt, Caitlin S; Betts, Natalie S; Tan, Hwei-Ting; Lim, Wai Li; Ermawar, Riksfardini A; Nguyen, Hai Yen; Shirley, Neil J; Lahnstein, Jelle; Corbin, Kendall; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Knauf, Vic; Burton, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum vegetative tissues are becoming increasingly important for biofuel production. The composition of sorghum stem tissues is influenced by genotype, environment and photoperiod sensitivity, and varies widely between varieties and also between different stem tissues (outer rind vs inner pith). Here, the amount of cellulose, (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, arabinose and xylose in the stems of twelve diverse sorghum varieties, including four photoperiod-sensitive varieties, was measured. At maturity, most photoperiod-insensitive lines had 1% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in stem pith tissue whilst photoperiod-sensitive varieties remained in a vegetative stage and accumulated up to 6% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan in the same tissue. Three sorghum lines were chosen for further study: a cultivated grain variety (Sorghum bicolor BTx623), a sweet variety (S. bicolor Rio) and a photoperiod-sensitive wild line (S. bicolor ssp. verticilliflorum Arun). The Arun line accumulated 5.5% w/w (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan and had higher SbCslF6 and SbCslH3 transcript levels in pith tissues than did photoperiod-insensitive varieties Rio and BTx623 (<1% w/w pith (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan). To assess the digestibility of the three varieties, stem tissue was treated with either hydrolytic enzymes or dilute acid and the release of fermentable glucose was determined. Despite having the highest lignin content, Arun yielded significantly more glucose than the other varieties, and theoretical calculation of ethanol yields was 10 344 L ha-1 from this sorghum stem tissue. These data indicate that sorghum stem (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan content may have a significant effect on digestibility and bioethanol yields. This information opens new avenues of research to generate sorghum lines optimised for biofuel production.

  6. High-throughput genomics in sorghum: from whole-genome resequencing to a SNP screening array.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Wubishet A; Wieckhorst, Silke; Friedt, Wolfgang; Snowdon, Rod J

    2013-12-01

    With its small, diploid and completely sequenced genome, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is highly amenable to genomics-based breeding approaches. Here, we describe the development and testing of a robust single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array platform that enables polymorphism screening for genome-wide and trait-linked polymorphisms in genetically diverse S. bicolor populations. Whole-genome sequences with 6× to 12× coverage from five genetically diverse S. bicolor genotypes, including three sweet sorghums and two grain sorghums, were aligned to the sorghum reference genome. From over 1 million high-quality SNPs, we selected 2124 Infinium Type II SNPs that were informative in all six source genomes, gave an optimal Assay Design Tool (ADT) score, had allele frequencies of 50% in the six genotypes and were evenly spaced throughout the S. bicolor genome. Furthermore, by phenotype-based pool sequencing, we selected an additional 876 SNPs with a phenotypic association to early-stage chilling tolerance, a key trait for European sorghum breeding. The 3000 attempted bead types were used to populate half of a dual-species Illumina iSelect SNP array. The array was tested using 564 Sorghum spp. genotypes, including offspring from four unrelated recombinant inbred line (RIL) and F2 populations and a genetic diversity collection. A high call rate of over 80% enabled validation of 2620 robust and polymorphic sorghum SNPs, underlining the efficiency of the array development scheme for whole-genome SNP selection and screening, with diverse applications including genetic mapping, genome-wide association studies and genomic selection. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Human Sweet Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R; McDaniel, Amanda H

    2006-01-01

    Humans love the taste of sugar and the word "sweet" is used to describe not only this basic taste quality but also something that is desirable or pleasurable, e.g., la dolce vita. Although sugar or sweetened foods are generally among the most preferred choices, not everyone likes sugar, especially at high concentrations. The focus of my group's research is to understand why some people have a sweet tooth and others do not. We have used genetic and molecular techniques in humans, rats, mice, cats and primates to understand the origins of sweet taste perception. Our studies demonstrate that there are two sweet receptor genes (TAS1R2 and TAS1R3), and alleles of one of the two genes predict the avidity with which some mammals drink sweet solutions. We also find a relationship between sweet and bitter perception. Children who are genetically more sensitive to bitter compounds report that very sweet solutions are more pleasant and they prefer sweet carbonated beverages more than milk, relative to less bitter-sensitive peers. Overall, people differ in their ability to perceive the basic tastes, and particular constellations of genes and experience may drive some people, but not others, toward a caries-inducing sweet diet. Future studies will be designed to understand how a genetic preference for sweet food and drink might contribute to the development of dental caries. PMID:16934118

  8. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Ricky J.; Byrt, Caitlin S.; Patrick, John W.; Grof, Christopher P. L.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences. PMID:23805151

  9. Are sucrose transporter expression profiles linked with patterns of biomass partitioning in Sorghum phenotypes?

    PubMed

    Milne, Ricky J; Byrt, Caitlin S; Patrick, John W; Grof, Christopher P L

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a genetically diverse C4 monocotyledonous species, encompassing varieties capable of producing high grain yields as well as sweet types which accumulate soluble sugars (predominantly sucrose) within their stems to high concentrations. Sucrose produced in leaves (sources) enters the phloem and is transported to regions of growth and storage (sinks). It is likely that sucrose transporter (SUT) proteins play pivotal roles in phloem loading and the delivery of sucrose to growth and storage sinks in all Sorghum ecotypes. Six SUTs are present in the published Sorghum genome, based on the BTx623 grain cultivar. Homologues of these SUTs were cloned and sequenced from the sweet cultivar Rio, and compared with the publically available genome information. SbSUT5 possessed nine amino acid sequence differences between the two varieties. Two of the remaining five SUTs exhibited single variations in their amino acid sequences (SbSUT1 and SbSUT2) whilst the rest shared identical sequences. Complementation of a mutant Saccharomyces yeast strain (SEY6210), unable to grow upon sucrose as the sole carbon source, demonstrated that the Sorghum SUTs were capable of transporting sucrose. SbSUT1, SbSUT4, and SbSUT6 were highly expressed in mature leaf tissues and hence may contribute to phloem loading. In contrast, SbSUT2 and SbSUT5 were expressed most strongly in sinks consistent with a possible role of facilitating sucrose import into stem storage pools and developing inflorescences.

  10. Biogasification of sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Biljetina, R.; Srivastava, V.J.; Isaacson, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has been operating a 1200-gallon, anaerobic solids-concentrating digester at the Walt Disney World Resort Complex in Lake Buena Vista, Florida. This digester development work is part of a larger effort sponsored by the Gas Research Institute to provide an effective community waste treatment and energy recovery concept for smaller communities. As a result, an economically attractive, water hyacinth-based wastewater treatment system was developed that includes the digestion of water hyacinth and sludge to methane. A further extension of the community waste treatment concept is to include agricultural wastes in the energy recovery scheme. Therefore, during 1986 a test program was initiated to obtain data on the digestion of sorghum in the solids concentrating digester. Performance data was collected at both mesophilic and thermophilic operating conditions at total organic loading rates of 0.25 and 0.5 pounds per cubic foot of digester volume per day, respectively. Excellent methane yields were obtained during twelve months of stable and uninterrupted operation. This paper summarizes the performance data obtained on sorghum in this digester. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. 41 CFR 303-70.401 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we must transport from an official TDY location?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... limitations on the baggage we must transport from an official TDY location? 303-70.401 Section 303-70.401... DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES AND FAMILY MEMBERS Transportation of Employee's Baggage and Privately Owned... baggage we must transport from an official TDY location? Yes. You must only transport Government...

  12. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a...

  13. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a...

  14. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a...

  15. 19 CFR 123.64 - Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... between ports in Canada or in Mexico. 123.64 Section 123.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CBP RELATIONS WITH CANADA AND MEXICO Baggage § 123.64 Baggage in transit through the United States between ports in Canada or in Mexico. (a...

  16. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  17. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and Finance... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  18. 31 CFR 537.511 - Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... products of Burma as accompanied baggage or household effects, provided that such products are not intended... and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and consular officials. 537.511 Section 537.511 Money and... Policy § 537.511 Importation of accompanied baggage and household effects of U.S. diplomatic and...

  19. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... limited to approximately $9.07 per pound for checked baggage and $400 per passenger for unchecked baggage... provides a higher limitation of liability for death or personal injury than that set forth in the Warsaw... with the posting requirements of this paragraph and of § 221.105(b): Advice to Passengers...

  20. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... limited to approximately $9.07 per pound for checked baggage and $400 per passenger for unchecked baggage... provides a higher limitation of liability for death or personal injury than that set forth in the Warsaw... with the posting requirements of this paragraph and of § 221.105(b): Advice to Passengers...

  1. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... limited to approximately $9.07 per pound for checked baggage and $400 per passenger for unchecked baggage... provides a higher limitation of liability for death or personal injury than that set forth in the Warsaw... with the posting requirements of this paragraph and of § 221.105(b): Advice to Passengers...

  2. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... limited to approximately $9.07 per pound for checked baggage and $400 per passenger for unchecked baggage... provides a higher limitation of liability for death or personal injury than that set forth in the Warsaw... with the posting requirements of this paragraph and of § 221.105(b): Advice to Passengers...

  3. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.

  4. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S; Breitzman, Matthew W; Silva, Renato R; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.

  5. Stover composition in maize and sorghum reveals remarkable genetic variation and plasticity for carbohydrate accumulation

    DOE PAGES

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; ...

    2016-06-08

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for nonstructural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed inmore » internodes of maize (11-24%) and sorghum (7-36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8-19%) and sorghum (9-27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9-21%) and sorghum (16-27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15-18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. In conclusion, availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops.« less

  6. Stover Composition in Maize and Sorghum Reveals Remarkable Genetic Variation and Plasticity for Carbohydrate Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, Rajandeep S.; Breitzman, Matthew W.; Silva, Renato R.; Santoro, Nicholas; Rooney, William L.; de Leon, Natalia; Kaeppler, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Carbohydrates stored in vegetative organs, particularly stems, of grasses are a very important source of energy. We examined carbohydrate accumulation in adult sorghum and maize hybrids with distinct phenology and different end uses (grain, silage, sucrose or sweetness in stalk juice, and biomass). Remarkable variation was observed for non-structural carbohydrates and structural polysaccharides during three key developmental stages both between and within hybrids developed for distinct end use in both species. At the onset of the reproductive phase (average 65 days after planting, DAP), a wide range for accumulation of non-structural carbohydrates (free glucose and sucrose combined), was observed in internodes of maize (11–24%) and sorghum (7–36%) indicating substantial variation for transient storage of excess photosynthate during periods of low grain or vegetative sink strength. Remobilization of these reserves for supporting grain fill or vegetative growth was evident from lower amounts in maize (8–19%) and sorghum (9–27%) near the end of the reproductive period (average 95 DAP). At physiological maturity of grain hybrids (average 120 DAP), amounts of these carbohydrates were generally unchanged in maize (9–21%) and sorghum (16–27%) suggesting a loss of photosynthetic assimilation due to weakening sink demand. Nonetheless, high amounts of non-structural carbohydrates at maturity even in grain maize and sorghum (15–18%) highlight the potential for developing dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. For both species, the amounts of structural polysaccharides in the cell wall, measured as monomeric components (glucose and pentose), decreased during grain fill but remained unchanged thereafter with maize biomass possessing slightly higher amounts than sorghum. Availability of carbohydrates in maize and sorghum highlights the potential for developing energy-rich dedicated biofuel or dual-purpose (grain/stover) crops. PMID:27375668

  7. Sweet clover poisoning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet clover poisoning occurs when spoiled sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis and M. alva) hay or silage that contain dicumarol are consumed by livestock. This updated chapter is a succinct review of the clinical disease and pathologic lesions of poisoning. It also reviews current strategies and ...

  8. A review of automated image understanding within 3D baggage computed tomography security screening.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Andre; Breckon, Toby P

    2015-01-01

    Baggage inspection is the principal safeguard against the transportation of prohibited and potentially dangerous materials at airport security checkpoints. Although traditionally performed by 2D X-ray based scanning, increasingly stringent security regulations have led to a growing demand for more advanced imaging technologies. The role of X-ray Computed Tomography is thus rapidly expanding beyond the traditional materials-based detection of explosives. The development of computer vision and image processing techniques for the automated understanding of 3D baggage-CT imagery is however, complicated by poor image resolutions, image clutter and high levels of noise and artefacts. We discuss the recent and most pertinent advancements and identify topics for future research within the challenging domain of automated image understanding for baggage security screening CT.

  9. Research update: Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the yield of photoperiod-sensitive forage sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass against non-photoperiod-sensitive sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, or corn silage. Forages were planted on two dates at two locations (Marshfield and Hancock, WI). Results suggested some ...

  10. A cost-benefit analysis of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Sheldon H; Karnani, Tamana; Kobza, John E; Ritchie, Lynsey

    2006-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 have resulted in dramatic changes in aviation security. As of early 2003, an estimated 1,100 explosive detection systems (EDS) and 6,000 explosive trace detection machines (ETD) have been deployed to ensure 100% checked baggage screening at all commercial airports throughout the United States. The prohibitive costs associated with deploying and operating such devices is a serious issue for the Transportation Security Administration. This article evaluates the cost effectiveness of the explosive detection technologies currently deployed to screen checked baggage as well as new technologies that could be used in the future. Both single-device and two-device systems are considered. In particular, the expected annual direct cost of using these devices for 100% checked baggage screening under various scenarios is obtained and the tradeoffs between using single- and two-device strategies are studied. The expected number of successful threats under the different checked baggage screening scenarios with 100% checked baggage screening is also obtained. Lastly, a risk-based screening strategy proposed in the literature is analyzed. The results reported suggest that for the existing security setup, with current device costs and probability parameters, single-device systems are less costly and have fewer expected number of successful threats than two-device systems due to the way the second device affects the alarm or clear decision. The risk-based approach is found to have the potential to significantly improve security. The cost model introduced provides an effective tool for the execution of cost-benefit analyses of alternative device configurations for aviation-checked baggage security screening.

  11. Genome-Wide Identification of Sorghum bicolor Laccases Reveals Potential Targets for Lignin Modification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhui; Feng, Juanjuan; Jia, Weitao; Fan, Pengxiang; Bao, Hexigeduleng; Li, Shizhong; Li, Yinxin

    2017-01-01

    Laccase is a key enzyme in plant lignin biosynthesis as it catalyzes the final step of monolignols polymerization. Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is considered as an ideal feedstock for ethanol production, but lignin greatly limits the production efficiency. No comprehensive analysis on laccase has ever been conducted in S. bicolor, although it appears as the most promising target for engineering lignocellulosic feedstock. The aim of our work is to systematically characterize S. bicolor laccase gene family and to identify the lignin-specific candidates. A total of twenty-seven laccase candidates (SbLAC1-SbLAC27) were identified in S. bicolor. All SbLACs comprised the equivalent L1-L4 signature sequences and three typical Cu-oxidase domains, but exhibited diverse intron-exon patterns and relatively low sequence identity. They were divided into six groups by phylogenetic clustering, revealing potential distinct functions, while SbLAC5 was considered as the closest lignin-specific candidate. qRT-PCR analysis deciphered that SbLAC genes were expressed preferentially in roots and young internodes of sweet sorghum, and SbLAC5 showed high expression, adding the evidence that SbLAC5 was bona fide involved in lignin biosynthesis. Besides, high abundance of SbLAC6 transcripts was detected, correlating it a potential role in lignin biosynthesis. Diverse cis regulatory elements were recognized in SbLACs promoters, indicating putative interaction with transcription factors. Seven SbLACs were found to be potential targets of sbi-miRNAs. Moreover, putative phosphorylation sites in SbLAC sequences were identified. Our research adds to the knowledge for lignin profile modification in sweet sorghum. PMID:28529519

  12. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat... weight of soluble solids derived solely from such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or...) The optional ingredients that may be used in sorghum sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Chemical preservatives...

  13. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 168.160 Sorghum sirup. (a) Sorghum sirup is the liquid food derived by concentration and heat... weight of soluble solids derived solely from such juice. The concentration may be adjusted with or...) The optional ingredients that may be used in sorghum sirup are: (1) Salt. (2) Chemical preservatives...

  14. Sorghum allelopathy – from ecosystem to molecule

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference have also been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse loca...

  15. 7 CFR 1221.28 - Sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sorghum. 1221.28 Section 1221.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research,...

  16. Agrobacterium-mediated sorghum transformation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Z Y; Cai, T; Tagliani, L; Miller, M; Wang, N; Pang, H; Rudert, M; Schroeder, S; Hondred, D; Seltzer, J; Pierce, D

    2000-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens was used to genetically transform sorghum. Immature embryos of a public (P898012) and a commercial line (PHI391) of sorghum were used as the target explants. The Agrobacterium strain used was LBA4404 carrying a 'Super-binary' vector with a bar gene as a selectable marker for herbicide resistance in the plant cells. A series of parameter tests was used to establish a baseline for conditions to be used in stable transformation experiments. A number of different transformation conditions were tested and a total of 131 stably transformed events were produced from 6175 embryos in these two sorghum lines. Statistical analysis showed that the source of the embryos had a very significant impact on transformation efficiency, with field-grown embryos producing a higher transformation frequency than greenhouse-grown embryos. Southern blot analysis of DNA from leaf tissues of T0 plants confirmed the integration of the T-DNA into the sorghum genome. Mendelian segregation in the T1 generation was confirmed by herbicide resistance screening. This is the first report of successful use of Agrobacterium for production of stably transformed sorghum plants. The Agrobacterium method we used yields a higher frequency of stable transformation that other methods reported previously.

  17. Mechanisms for Sweetness123

    PubMed Central

    Fernstrom, John D.; Munger, Steven D.; Sclafani, Anthony; de Araujo, Ivan E.; Roberts, Ashley; Molinary, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    A remarkable amount of information has emerged in the past decade regarding sweet taste physiology. This article reviews these data, with a particular focus on the elucidation of the sweet taste receptor, its location and actions in taste transduction in the mouth, its nontaste functions in the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., in enteroendocrine cells), and the brain circuitry involved in the sensory processing of sweet taste. Complications in the use of rodents to model human sweet taste perception and responses are also considered. In addition, information relating to low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) is discussed in the context of these issues. Particular consideration is given to the known effects of LCS on enteroendocrine cell function. PMID:22573784

  18. Using genotyping by sequencing to map two novel anthracnose resistance Loci in Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Felderhoff, Terry J.; McIntyre, Lauren M.; Saballos, Ana; Vermerris, Wilfred

    2016-05-18

    Colletotrichum sublineola is an aggressive fungal pathogen that causes anthracnose in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. The obvious symptoms of anthracnose are leaf blight and stem rot. Sorghum, the fifth most widely grown cereal crop in the world, can be highly susceptible to the disease, most notably in hot and humid environments. In the southeastern United States the acreage of sorghum has been increasing steadily in recent years, spurred by growing interest in producing biofuels, bio-based products, and animal feed. Resistance to anthracnose is, therefore, of paramount importance for successful sorghum production in this region. To identify anthracnose resistance loci present in the highly resistant cultivar ‘Bk7’, a biparental mapping population of F3:4 and F4:5 sorghum lines was generated by crossing ‘Bk7’ with the susceptible inbred ‘Early Hegari-Sart’. Lines were phenotyped in three environments and in two different years following natural infection. The population was genotyped by sequencing. Following a stringent custom filtering protocol, totals of 5186 and 2759 informative SNP markers were identified in the two populations. Segregation data and association analysis identified resistance loci on chromosomes 7 and 9, with the resistance alleles derived from ‘Bk7’. Both loci contain multiple classes of defense-related genes based on sequence similarity and gene ontologies. In addition, genetic analysis following an independent selection experiment of lines derived from a cross between ‘Bk7’ and sweet sorghum ‘Mer81-4’ narrowed the resistance locus on chromosome 9 substantially, validating this QTL. As observed in other species, sorghum appears to have regions of clustered resistance genes. Further characterization of these regions will facilitate the development of novel germplasm with resistance to anthracnose and other diseases.

  19. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms: is heavy lifting in awkward positions associated with the risk of pain?

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Koblauch, Henrik; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Alkjær, Tine; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload. Methods We established a group of baggage handlers employed at Copenhagen Airport during the period 1983–2012 (n=3092) and a reference group of men in other unskilled occupations with less heavy work (n=2478). Data regarding work history, lifestyle and musculoskeletal symptoms were collected using a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 70.1% among baggage handlers and 68.8% among the reference group). Results The ORs of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months in the neck/upper back, lower back, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips and knees were significantly higher in baggage handlers than in the reference group. These differences were explained by significant linear effects of baggage handler seniority for six anatomical regions. Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking and leisure-time physical activity did not change these results. The findings were stable over age strata and among present and former baggage handlers. Conclusions The risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in six anatomical regions increased with increasing seniority as a baggage handler. This is consistent with the assumption that cumulated heavy lifting may cause chronic or long-lasting musculoskeletal symptoms. However, we cannot exclude that other factors related to baggage handler seniority may explain some of the associations. PMID:24293209

  20. Baggage handler seniority and musculoskeletal symptoms: is heavy lifting in awkward positions associated with the risk of pain?

    PubMed

    Bern, Stine Hvid; Brauer, Charlotte; Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Koblauch, Henrik; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Alkjær, Tine; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mikkelsen, Sigurd

    2013-11-29

    Heavy lifting is associated with musculoskeletal disorders but it is unclear whether it is related to acute reversible effects or to chronic effects from cumulated exposure. The aim of this study was to examine whether musculoskeletal symptoms in Danish airport baggage handlers were associated with their seniority as baggage handler, indicating chronic effects from cumulated workload. We established a group of baggage handlers employed at Copenhagen Airport during the period 1983-2012 (n=3092) and a reference group of men in other unskilled occupations with less heavy work (n=2478). Data regarding work history, lifestyle and musculoskeletal symptoms were collected using a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 70.1% among baggage handlers and 68.8% among the reference group). The ORs of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms during the last 12 months in the neck/upper back, lower back, shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips and knees were significantly higher in baggage handlers than in the reference group. These differences were explained by significant linear effects of baggage handler seniority for six anatomical regions. Adjustment for age, body mass index, smoking and leisure-time physical activity did not change these results. The findings were stable over age strata and among present and former baggage handlers. The risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in six anatomical regions increased with increasing seniority as a baggage handler. This is consistent with the assumption that cumulated heavy lifting may cause chronic or long-lasting musculoskeletal symptoms. However, we cannot exclude that other factors related to baggage handler seniority may explain some of the associations.

  1. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers.

    PubMed

    Belloir, Christine; Neiers, Fabrice; Briand, Loïc

    2017-07-01

    The current review summarizes and discusses current knowledge on sweeteners and sweetness enhancers. The perception of sweet taste is mediated by the type 1 taste receptor 2 (T1R2)/type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1R3) receptor, which is expressed in the oral cavity, where it provides input on the caloric and macronutrient contents of ingested food. This receptor recognizes all the compounds (natural or artificial) perceived as sweet by people. Sweeteners are highly chemically diverse including natural sugars, sugar alcohols, natural and synthetic sweeteners, and sweet-tasting proteins. This single receptor is also the target for developing novel sweet enhancers. Importantly, the expression of a functional T1R2/T1R3 receptor is described in numerous extraoral tissues. In this review, the physiological impact of sweeteners is discussed. Sweeteners and sweetness enhancers are perceived through the T1R2/T1R3 taste receptor present both in mouth and numerous extraoral tissues. The accumulated knowledge on sugar substitutes raises the issue of potential health effects.

  2. Psychosocial Work Factors and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study among Swedish Flight Baggage Handlers

    PubMed Central

    Bergsten, Eva L.; Mathiassen, S. E.; Vingård, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Flight baggage handlers sort and load luggage to airplanes. This study aimed at investigating associations between psychosocial exposures and low back and shoulder musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among Swedish flight baggage handlers. Methods. A questionnaire addressing MSDs (Standardized Nordic Questionnaire) and psychosocial factors (Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, COPSOQ) was answered by 525 baggage handlers in six Swedish airports. Results. Low back (LBP) and shoulder pain (SP) were reported by 70% and 60%, respectively. Pain was reported to interfere with work (PIW) by 30% (low back) and 18% (shoulders), and intense pain (PINT) occurred in 34% and 28% of the population. Quality of leadership was the most dissatisfying psychosocial factor, while the most positive was social community at work. Low ratings in the combined domain Work organization and job content were significantly associated with PIW in both low back and shoulders (Adjusted Hazard Ratios 3.65 (95% CI 1.67–7.99) and 2.68 (1.09–6.61)) while lower ratings in the domain Interpersonal relations and leadership were associated with PIW LBP (HR 2.18 (1.06–4.49)) and PINT LBP and SP (HRs 1.95 (1.05–3.65) and 2.11 (1.08–4.12)). Conclusion. Severity of pain among flight baggage handlers was associated with psychosocial factors at work, suggesting that they may be a relevant target for intervention in this occupation. PMID:26558282

  3. 19 CFR 148.5 - Regular entry of articles in baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PERSONAL DECLARATIONS AND EXEMPTIONS General Provisions § 148.5... § 148.6 for unaccompanied shipments of effects subject to personal exemptions shall be entered in the... baggage, the value of articles entitled to free entry under subheadings 9804.00.10, or 9804.00.45...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-10 Inspection of baggage... for movement by aircraft from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-10 Inspection of baggage... for movement by aircraft from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-10 Inspection of baggage... for movement by aircraft from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  7. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-10 Inspection of baggage... for movement by aircraft from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  8. 7 CFR 318.13-10 - Inspection of baggage, other personal effects, and cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE STATE OF HAWAII AND TERRITORIES QUARANTINE NOTICES Regulated Articles From Hawaii and the Territories § 318.13-10 Inspection of baggage... for movement by aircraft from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana...

  9. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  10. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  11. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  12. 7 CFR 330.212 - Movement of plant pests by baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Movement of plant pests by baggage. 330.212 Section 330.212 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS;...

  13. 41 CFR 303-70.301 - Are there any limitations on the baggage we may transport?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES Transportation of Immediate Family Members, Baggage, and Household Goods § 303-70.301 Are there any...

  14. 49 CFR 1546.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1546.203 Section 1546.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1544.203 Section 1544.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1544.203 Section 1544.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT...

  17. 49 CFR 1544.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1544.203 Section 1544.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT...

  18. 49 CFR 1546.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1546.203 Section 1546.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN...

  19. 49 CFR 1544.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1544.203 Section 1544.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT...

  20. 49 CFR 1546.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1546.203 Section 1546.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1544.203 Section 1544.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT...

  2. 49 CFR 1546.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1546.203 Section 1546.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN...

  3. 49 CFR 1546.203 - Acceptance and screening of checked baggage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of checked baggage. 1546.203 Section 1546.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN...

  4. Airline Baggage as a Pathway for Alien Insect Species Invading the United States

    Treesearch

    Andrew M. Liebhold; Timothy T. Work; Deborah G. McCullough; Joseph F. Cavey; Joseph F. Cavey

    2006-01-01

    Invasions by non-indigenous species are a problem of increasing magnitude and threaten the stability of the world's ecosystems and economies. Despite the enormity of this problem, relatively little is known about the importance of various invasion pathways. Using historical records of interceptions of alien insects in air passenger baggage by USDA inspectors, we...

  5. 19 CFR 162.6 - Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. 162.6 Section 162.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search...

  6. 19 CFR 162.6 - Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Search of persons, baggage, and merchandise. 162.6 Section 162.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Inspection, Examination, and Search...

  7. Sorghum for human food--a review.

    PubMed

    Anglani, C

    1998-01-01

    A brief review of literature on sorghum for human foods and on the relationship among some kernel characteristics and food quality is presented. The chief foods prepared with sorghum, such as tortilla, porridge, couscous and baked goods are described. Tortillas, prepared with 75% of whole sorghum and 25% of yellow maize, are better than those prepared with whole sorghum alone. A porridge formulation with a 30:40:30 mix of sorghum, maize and cassava respectively, has been shown to be the most acceptable combination. The cooked porridge Aceda has lower protein digestibility and higher biological value than the uncooked porridge Aceda. Sorghum is not considered breadmaking flour but the addition of 30% sorghum flour to wheat flour of 72% extraction rate produces a bread, evaluated as good to excellent.

  8. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  9. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  10. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  11. 7 CFR 1221.24 - Qualified sorghum producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualified sorghum producer organization. 1221.24... SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.24 Qualified sorghum producer organization. Qualified sorghum producer organization means...

  12. Characterization of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. ) Moench) for biomass utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Monk, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Increased utilization of novel biomass sources for energy conversion schemes has become a significant portion of energy related research and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is often considered a viable potential resource. Plant breeding efforts to improve sorghum are limited in part by a poor definition of quality traits and their inheritance. To address these concerns, six diverse sorghums were compared and then combined to produce a full F/sub 1/ diallel with reciprocal crosses and genetic analysis. Fourteen agronomic, composition or quality traits were measured using chemical, biological and microscopic techniques. The six parental genotypes were grown at College Station and Weslaco, Texas in 1982 and 1983 while the diallel was grown at College Station in 1983. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, correlation and the Jinks-Hayman methods of diallel analysis. A significant genotype x environment interaction occurred for Brix % and yield per plant, but height and maturity did not display a significant effect. Through the diallel analysis, it was determined that additive genetic variance was a significant factor for total sugars, cell wall %, IVDMD, hemicellulose and starch. However, partial dominance was indicated for several traits as well. Reciprocal effects were not a major factor for the traits evaluated. The results together indicate that a breeding program should continue to develop improved male and female lines for use in hybrids.

  13. Transcriptome profiling of developmental leaf senescence in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Yuan; Hu, Wei-Juan; Luo, Hong; Xia, Yan; Zhao, Yi; Wang, Li-Dong; Zhang, Li-Min; Luo, Jing-Chu; Jing, Hai-Chun

    2016-11-01

    This piece of the submission is being sent via mail. Leaf senescence is essential for the nutrient economy of crops and is executed by so-called senescence-associated genes (SAGs). Here we explored the monocot C4 model crop Sorghum bicolor for a holistic picture of SAG profiles by RNA-seq. Leaf samples were collected at four stages during developmental senescence, and in total, 3396 SAGs were identified, predominantly enriched in GO categories of metabolic processes and catalytic activities. These genes were enriched in 13 KEGG pathways, wherein flavonoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and phenylalanine metabolism were overrepresented. Seven regions on Chromosomes 1, 4, 5 and 7 contained SAG 'hotspots' of duplicated genes or members of cupin superfamily involved in manganese ion binding and nutrient reservoir activity. Forty-eight expression clusters were identified, and the candidate orthologues of the known important senescence transcription factors such as ORE1, EIN3 and WRKY53 showed "SAG" expression patterns, implicating their possible roles in regulating sorghum leaf senescence. Comparison of developmental senescence with salt- and dark- induced senescence allowed for the identification of 507 common SAGs, 1996 developmental specific SAGs as well as 176 potential markers for monitoring senescence in sorghum. Taken together, these data provide valuable resources for comparative genomics analyses of leaf senescence and potential targets for the manipulation of genetic improvement of Sorghum bicolor.

  14. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    PubMed

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2017-07-10

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L(*) a(*) b(*) colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. High concentrations of dried sorghum stalks as a biomass feedstock for single cell oil production by Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    PubMed

    Matsakas, Leonidas; Bonturi, Nemailla; Miranda, Everson Alves; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Environmental crisis and concerns for energy security have made the research for renewable fuels that will substitute the usage of fossil fuels an important priority. Biodiesel is a potential substitute for petroleum, but its feasibility is hindered by the utilization of edible vegetable oil as raw material, which is responsible for a large fraction of the production cost and fosters the food versus fuel competition. Microbial oils are an interesting alternative as they do not compete with food production, and low cost renewable materials could serve as raw materials during cultivation of microorganisms. Sweet sorghum is an excellent candidate as substrate for microbial oil production, as it possesses high photosynthetic activity yielding high amounts of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates, and does not require high fertilization and irrigation rates. Initially the ability of sweet sorghum to fully support yeast growth, both as a carbon and nitrogen source was evaluated. It was found that addition of an external nitrogen source had a negative impact on single cell oil (SCO) production yields, which has a positive effect on the process economics. Subsequently the effect of the presence of a distinct saccharification step on SCO was examined. The presence of an enzymatic saccharification step prior to SCO production improved the production of SCO, especially in high solid concentrations. Removal of solids was also investigated and its positive effect on SCO production was also demonstrated. When juice from 20% w/w enzymatically liquefied sweet sorghum was used as the raw material, SCO production was 13.77 g/L. To the best of our knowledge this is one of the highest SCO titers reported in the literature when renewable raw materials were utilized. The use of sweet sorghum at high solid concentrations as a feedstock for the efficient production of SCO by Rhodosporidium toruloides was demonstrated. Moreover, addition of enzymes not only led to liquefaction of sweet

  16. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ(2)s), dominance variance (σ(2)d

  17. Inheritance of Resistance to Sorghum Shoot Fly, Atherigona soccata in Sorghum, Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Riyazaddin; Are, Ashok Kumar; Munghate, Rajendra Sudhakar; Bhavanasi, Ramaiah; Polavarapu, Kavi Kishor B.; Sharma, Hari Chand

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum production is affected by a wide array of biotic constraints, of which sorghum shoot fly, Atherigona soccata is the most important pest, which severely damages the sorghum crop during the seedling stage. Host plant resistance is one of the major components to control sorghum shoot fly, A. soccata. To understand the nature of gene action for inheritance of shoot fly resistance, we evaluated 10 parents, 45 F1's and their reciprocals in replicated trials during the rainy and postrainy seasons. The genotypes ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited resistance to shoot fly damage across seasons. Crosses between susceptible parents were preferred for egg laying by the shoot fly females, resulting in a susceptible reaction. ICSV 700, ICSV 25019, PS 35805, IS 2123, IS 2146, and IS 18551 exhibited significant and negative general combining ability (gca) effects for oviposition, deadheart incidence, and overall resistance score. The plant morphological traits associated with expression of resistance/susceptibility to shoot fly damage such as leaf glossiness, plant vigor, and leafsheath pigmentation also showed significant gca effects by these genotypes, suggesting the potential for use as a selection criterion to breed for resistance to shoot fly, A. soccata. ICSV 700, Phule Anuradha, IS 2146 and IS 18551 with significant positive gca effects for trichome density can also be utilized in improving sorghums for shoot fly resistance. The parents involved in hybrids with negative specific combining ability (sca) effects for shoot fly resistance traits can be used in developing sorghum hybrids with adaptation to postrainy season. The significant reciprocal effects of combining abilities for oviposition, leaf glossy score and trichome density suggested the influence of cytoplasmic factors in inheritance of shoot fly resistance. Higher values of variance due to specific combining ability (σ2s), dominance variance (σ2d), and

  18. Outbreak of sorghum/sugarcane aphid on sorghum: First detections, distribution, and notes on management

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An outbreak of an invasive aphid was discovered damaging grain sorghum in Texas and neighboring states in 2013. It may be a new variant of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, that has a high preference for sorghum, or a very closely related species (M. sorghi). We designate it sorghum/sugarcane ...

  19. Morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable nuclear male sterile mutant of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    All commercial sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) hybrids are produced using A1 cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) lines. However, this homogenous cytoplasm could predispose sorghum to devastating diseases. Furthermore, it is expensive to develop and maintain the CMS-based breeding system, because it...

  20. Identification of differentially expressed genes in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) brown midrib mutants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), with a high biomass yield and excellent tolerance to drought and low nutrition, has been recommended as one of the most competitive bioenergy crops. Brown midrib (bmr) mutant sorghum with reduced lignin content showed a high potential for the improvement of bioethanol ...

  1. Evaluation of four sorghum varieties in the utilization of sorghum flour tortillas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gluten-free flour tortillas were made with five different sorghum flours to evaluate flour quality. Four sorghum varieties were used along with a commercial sorghum flour. The four varieties were: Fontanelle-625 (F-625), Fontanelle-1000 (F-1000), ATx631xRTx2907(NE#20), and 5040C. The tortilla wei...

  2. Developing new markers and QTL mapping for greenbug resistance in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenbug is a major damaging insect to sorghum production in the United States. Among various virulent greenbug biotypes, biotype I is the most predominant and severe for sorghum. To combat with the damaging pest, greenbug resistant sources were obtained from screening sorghum germplasm collection...

  3. BAXSTER: an image quality tester for x-ray baggage screening systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Piet; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; Valeton, J. Mathieu; de Ruiter, C. Jaap

    2003-09-01

    TNO Human Factors in the Netherlands developed a prototype apparatus for testing the image quality of X-ray Baggage Screening Systems: BAXSTER. BAXSTER stands for BAggage X-ray Screening TesteR. The test has a variety of applications, e.g. support by the choice of optimal screening systems for airport security, comparison of competing X-ray systems, delivery tests and routine tests. Advantages over existing tests are (1) a strong relationship with real object recognition, (2) accurate and objective test results, and (3) ease of use: performing a test is almost as easy as doing an eye test at the optometrist. BAXSTER is based on the patented TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination) test method, which is well-suited for standardization, and development of the test apparatus was funded by the US FAA/TSA (Transportation Security Administration). The apparatus consists of two parts. The first part is a set of test charts containing triangular test patterns of various metals of different sizes and thicknesses. These charts are placed in a frame that is scanned by the X-ray system like a regular baggage item. The operator has to judge the orientation of these patterns on the X-ray image. The second part is a laptop with peripherals and software that controls and analyses the test. The result of a test is a set of performance indicators (relating to detection, resolution, penetration, wire detection and wire penetration) for the entire system, including the display, the operator and the effect of environmental conditions. No (electronic) connection with the X-ray system is required. The effectiveness of automatic object detection and material discrimination through dual-energy X-ray analysis cannot be tested with BAXSTER. In conclusion: with BAXSTER the image quality of X-ray Baggage Screening Systems can be tested easily and objectively.

  4. Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Wang, Zhichao; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-10-02

    The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement. Multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways show diverse well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and GHG emissions due to differences in energy use and fertilizer use intensity associated with sorghum growth and differences in the ethanol conversion processes. All sorghum-based ethanol pathways can achieve significant fossil energy savings. Relative to GHG emissions from conventional gasoline, grain sorghum-based ethanol can reduce WTW GHG emissions by 35% or 23%, respectively, when wet or dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the co-product and fossil natural gas (FNG) is consumed as the process fuel. The reduction increased to 56% or 55%, respectively, for wet or dried DGS co-production when renewable natural gas (RNG) from anaerobic digestion of animal waste is used as the process fuel. These results do not include land-use change (LUC) GHG emissions, which we take as negligible. If LUC GHG emissions for grain sorghum ethanol as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are included (26 g CO2e/MJ), these reductions when wet DGS is co-produced decrease to 7% or 29% when FNG or RNG is used as the process fuel. Sweet sorghum-based ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 71% or 72% without or with use of co-produced vinasse as farm fertilizer, respectively, in ethanol plants using only sugar juice to produce ethanol. If both sugar and cellulosic bagasse were used in the future for ethanol production, an ethanol plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) system that supplies all process energy can achieve a GHG emission reduction of 70% or 72%, respectively, without or with vinasse

  5. Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement. Results Multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways show diverse well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and GHG emissions due to differences in energy use and fertilizer use intensity associated with sorghum growth and differences in the ethanol conversion processes. All sorghum-based ethanol pathways can achieve significant fossil energy savings. Relative to GHG emissions from conventional gasoline, grain sorghum-based ethanol can reduce WTW GHG emissions by 35% or 23%, respectively, when wet or dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the co-product and fossil natural gas (FNG) is consumed as the process fuel. The reduction increased to 56% or 55%, respectively, for wet or dried DGS co-production when renewable natural gas (RNG) from anaerobic digestion of animal waste is used as the process fuel. These results do not include land-use change (LUC) GHG emissions, which we take as negligible. If LUC GHG emissions for grain sorghum ethanol as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are included (26 g CO2e/MJ), these reductions when wet DGS is co-produced decrease to 7% or 29% when FNG or RNG is used as the process fuel. Sweet sorghum-based ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 71% or 72% without or with use of co-produced vinasse as farm fertilizer, respectively, in ethanol plants using only sugar juice to produce ethanol. If both sugar and cellulosic bagasse were used in the future for ethanol production, an ethanol plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) system that supplies all process energy can achieve a GHG emission reduction of 70% or 72%, respectively, without or

  6. Observation, simulation and optimization of the movement of passengers with baggage in railway station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhi Ming; Lv, Wei; Jiang, Li-Xue; Xu, Qing-Feng; Song, Wei-Guo

    2015-03-01

    To propose method that can optimize the movement efficiency of passengers in the railway station and then guarantee the personal security under emergency case, we did experimental and modeling research on the movement behavior and characteristics of the passengers in a railway station. Observation experiments were conducted to analyze the process of passengers catching trains and leaving the station, through which, the phenomena of lane changing and dislocation were found in a straight channel, and seven categories of baggage were also identified in the crowd. Analysis shows that personal speed would rise as the increasing size of the baggage. A modified lattice gas model focus on the passengers carrying baggage was further built to study passengers movement characteristics. Using this model, the effect of pause probability of passengers and the effect of channel width on movement efficiency were analyzed, according to which, a management strategy to promote the flow rate of crowd in railway station was proposed. This study may be useful to study on evacuation of the railway station, control of the passengers and formulate pre-proposal on emergency evacuation.

  7. A sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with altered carbon isotope ratio.

    PubMed

    Rizal, Govinda; Karki, Shanta; Thakur, Vivek; Wanchana, Samart; Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; Dionora, Jacque; Sheehy, John E; Furbank, Robert; von Caemmerer, Susanne; Quick, William Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent efforts to engineer C4 photosynthetic traits into C3 plants such as rice demand an understanding of the genetic elements that enable C4 plants to outperform C3 plants. As a part of the C4 Rice Consortium's efforts to identify genes needed to support C4 photosynthesis, EMS mutagenized sorghum populations were generated and screened to identify genes that cause a loss of C4 function. Stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) of leaf dry matter has been used to distinguishspecies with C3 and C4 photosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the identification of a sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) mutant with a low δ13C characteristic. A mutant (named Mut33) with a pale phenotype and stunted growth was identified from an EMS treated sorghum M2 population. The stable carbon isotope analysis of the mutants showed a decrease of 13C uptake capacity. The noise of random mutation was reduced by crossing the mutant and its wildtype (WT). The back-cross (BC1F1) progenies were like the WT parent in terms of 13C values and plant phenotypes. All the BC1F2 plants with low δ13C died before they produced their 6th leaf. Gas exchange measurements of the low δ13C sorghum mutants showed a higher CO2 compensation point (25.24 μmol CO2.mol-1air) and the maximum rate of photosynthesis was less than 5μmol.m-2.s-1. To identify the genetic determinant of this trait, four DNA pools were isolated; two each from normal and low δ13C BC1F2 mutant plants. These were sequenced using an Illumina platform. Comparison of allele frequency of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the pools with contrasting phenotype showed that a locus in Chromosome 10 between 57,941,104 and 59,985,708 bps had an allele frequency of 1. There were 211 mutations and 37 genes in the locus, out of which mutations in 9 genes showed non-synonymous changes. This finding is expected to contribute to future research on the identification of the causal factor differentiating C4 from C3 species that can be used in the

  8. Sorghum allelopathy--from ecosystem to molecule.

    PubMed

    Weston, Leslie A; Alsaadawi, Ibrahim S; Baerson, Scott R

    2013-02-01

    Sorghum allelopathy has been reported in a series of field experiments following sorghum establishment. In recent years, sorghum phytotoxicity and allelopathic interference also have been well-described in greenhouse and laboratory settings. Observations of allelopathy have occurred in diverse locations and with various sorghum plant parts. Phytotoxicity has been reported when sorghum was incorporated into the soil as a green manure, when residues remained on the soil surface in reduced tillage settings, or when sorghum was cultivated as a crop in managed fields. Allelochemicals present in sorghum tissues have varied with plant part, age, and cultivar evaluated. A diverse group of sorghum allelochemicals, including numerous phenolics, a cyanogenic glycoside (dhurrin), and a hydrophobic p-benzoquinone (sorgoleone) have been isolated and identified in recent years from sorghum shoots, roots, and root exudates, as our capacity to analyze and identify complex secondary products in trace quantities in the plant and in the soil rhizosphere has improved. These allelochemicals, particularly sorgoleone, have been widely investigated in terms of their mode(s) of action, specific activity and selectivity, release into the rhizosphere, and uptake and translocation into sensitive indicator species. Both genetics and environment have been shown to influence sorgoleone production and expression of genes involved in sorgoleone biosynthesis. In the soil rhizosphere, sorgoleone is released continuously by living root hairs where it accumulates in significant concentrations around its roots. Further experimentation designed to study the regulation of sorgoleone production by living sorghum root hairs may result in increased capacity to utilize sorghum cover crops more effectively for suppression of germinating weed seedlings, in a manner similar to that of soil-applied preemergent herbicides like trifluralin.

  9. Genetics of sweet taste preferences†

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-01-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a significant portion of variation in sweetener preferences depends on genes that are not involved in peripheral taste processing. These genes are likely involved in central mechanisms of sweet taste processing, reward and/or motivation. Genetic variation in sweet taste not only influences food choice and intake, but is also associated with proclivity to drink alcohol. Both peripheral and central mechanisms of sweet taste underlie correlation between sweet-liking and alcohol consumption in animal models and humans. All these data illustrate complex genetics of sweet taste preferences and its impact on human nutrition and health. Identification of genes responsible for within- and between-species variation in sweet taste can provide tools to better control food acceptance in humans and other animals. PMID:21743773

  10. Genetics of sweet taste preferences.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Floriano, Wely B; Inoue, Masashi; Li, Xia; Lin, Cailu; Murovets, Vladimir O; Reed, Danielle R; Zolotarev, Vasily A; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2011-07-01

    Sweet taste is a powerful factor influencing food acceptance. There is considerable variation in sweet taste perception and preferences within and among species. Although learning and homeostatic mechanisms contribute to this variation in sweet taste, much of it is genetically determined. Recent studies have shown that variation in the T1R genes contributes to within- and between-species differences in sweet taste. In addition, our ongoing studies using the mouse model demonstrate that a significant portion of variation in sweetener preferences depends on genes that are not involved in peripheral taste processing. These genes are likely involved in central mechanisms of sweet taste processing, reward and/or motivation. Genetic variation in sweet taste not only influences food choice and intake, but is also associated with proclivity to drink alcohol. Both peripheral and central mechanisms of sweet taste underlie correlation between sweet-liking and alcohol consumption in animal models and humans. All these data illustrate complex genetics of sweet taste preferences and its impact on human nutrition and health. Identification of genes responsible for within- and between-species variation in sweet taste can provide tools to better control food acceptance in humans and other animals.

  11. Genetic dissection of bioenergy traits in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is an attractive biomass crop for ethanol production because of its low water and fertilizer requirements, tolerance to heat and drought, and high biomass yield. Because of the species’ great genetic diversity (Murray et al. 2009), and the fact that sorghum is a diploid, seed-propagated crop...

  12. Structure and chemistry of the sorghum grain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is grown around the world and often under harsh and variable environmental conditions. Combined with the high degree of genetic diversity present in sorghum, this can result in substantial variability in grain composition and grain quality. While similar to other cereal grains such as maize ...

  13. Water and radiation use efficiencies in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Increasing water and radiation use efficiencies (WUE and RUE, respectively) are critical to enhance crop production. Exploring genetic variability in WUE and RUE is necessary to improve these traits. The objectives of this research were to evaluate eight sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotyp...

  14. Sorting of fungal-damaged white sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A high-speed, color image-based sorting machine was modified to separate white sorghum with symptoms of fungal damage. Most of the sorghum tested was typically white, but over 27% of the bulk contained grains with fungal damage of various degrees, from severe to very slight. Grains with slight fun...

  15. Modification of sorghum proteins for enhanced functionality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is the third most widely produced crop in the United States (U.S.) and fifth in the world during fiscal year 2006/07(USDA-FAS, 2007). The use of sorghum in foods faces functional and nutritional constraints due, mainly, to the rigidity of the protein bodies. The disruption and modificatio...

  16. Sugarcane aphid spatial distribution in grain sorghum fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is an important summer grain crop in the United States. In 2014, the U.S. produced 432 million bushels of sorghum valued at $1.67 billion on more than 6 million acres. The sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), was discovered in damaging numbers in grain sorghum, Sorghum bicolor ...

  17. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  18. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  19. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  20. 7 CFR 810.1401 - Definition of sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definition of sorghum. 810.1401 Section 810.1401... GRAIN United States Standards for Sorghum Terms Defined § 810.1401 Definition of sorghum. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of sorghum...

  1. Influence of Cofermentation by Amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis Strains on the Fermentation Process and Rheology of Sorghum Porridge

    PubMed Central

    Byaruhanga, Yusuf B.; Muyanja, Charles M. B. K.; Aijuka, Matthew; Schüller, Reidar B.; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    Amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) can potentially replace malt in reducing the viscosity of starchy porridges. However, the drawback of using ALAB is their low and delayed amylolytic activity. This necessitates searching for efficient ALAB and strategies to improve their amylolytic activity. Two ALAB, Lactobacillus plantarum MNC 21 and Lactococcus lactis MNC 24, isolated from Obushera, were used to ferment starches in MRS broth: sorghum, millet, sweet potato, and commercial soluble starch. The amylolytic activity of MNC 21 was comparable to that of the ALAB collection strain Lb. plantarum A6, while that of MNC 24 was extremely low. MNC 21, MNC 24, and their coculture were compared to A6 and sorghum malt for ability to ferment and reduce the viscosity of sorghum porridge (11.6% dry matter). ALAB and the coculture lowered the pH from 6.2 to <4.5 within 12 h, while malt as a carrier of wild starter took about 20 h. Coculturing increased lactic acid yield by 46% and 76.8% compared to the yields of MNC 21 and MNC 24 monocultures, respectively. The coculture accumulated significantly larger (P < 0.05) amounts of maltose and diacetyl than the monocultures. Sorghum malt control and the coculture hydrolyzed more starch in sorghum porridge than the monocultures. The coculture initiated changes in the rheological parameters storage modulus (G′), loss modulus (G″), phase angle (δ), and complex viscosity (η*) earlier than its constituent monocultures. The shear viscosity of sorghum porridge was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) from 1950 cP to 110 cP (malt), 281 cP (coculture), 382 cP (MNC 21), 713 cP (MNC 24), and 722 cP (A6). Coculturing strong ALAB with weak ALAB or non-ALAB can be exploited for preparation of nutrient-dense weaning foods and increasing lactic acid yield from starchy materials. PMID:22610432

  2. Influence of cofermentation by amylolytic Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis strains on the fermentation process and rheology of sorghum porridge.

    PubMed

    Mukisa, Ivan M; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Muyanja, Charles M B K; Aijuka, Matthew; Schüller, Reidar B; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Langsrud, Thor; Narvhus, Judith A

    2012-08-01

    Amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) can potentially replace malt in reducing the viscosity of starchy porridges. However, the drawback of using ALAB is their low and delayed amylolytic activity. This necessitates searching for efficient ALAB and strategies to improve their amylolytic activity. Two ALAB, Lactobacillus plantarum MNC 21 and Lactococcus lactis MNC 24, isolated from Obushera, were used to ferment starches in MRS broth: sorghum, millet, sweet potato, and commercial soluble starch. The amylolytic activity of MNC 21 was comparable to that of the ALAB collection strain Lb. plantarum A6, while that of MNC 24 was extremely low. MNC 21, MNC 24, and their coculture were compared to A6 and sorghum malt for ability to ferment and reduce the viscosity of sorghum porridge (11.6% dry matter). ALAB and the coculture lowered the pH from 6.2 to <4.5 within 12 h, while malt as a carrier of wild starter took about 20 h. Coculturing increased lactic acid yield by 46% and 76.8% compared to the yields of MNC 21 and MNC 24 monocultures, respectively. The coculture accumulated significantly larger (P < 0.05) amounts of maltose and diacetyl than the monocultures. Sorghum malt control and the coculture hydrolyzed more starch in sorghum porridge than the monocultures. The coculture initiated changes in the rheological parameters storage modulus (G'), loss modulus (G″), phase angle (δ), and complex viscosity (η*) earlier than its constituent monocultures. The shear viscosity of sorghum porridge was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) from 1950 cP to 110 cP (malt), 281 cP (coculture), 382 cP (MNC 21), 713 cP (MNC 24), and 722 cP (A6). Coculturing strong ALAB with weak ALAB or non-ALAB can be exploited for preparation of nutrient-dense weaning foods and increasing lactic acid yield from starchy materials.

  3. Turnover of dhurrin in green sorghum seedlings. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Adewusi, S.R.A. )

    1990-11-01

    The turnover of dhurrin in green seedlings of Sorghum bicolor (Linn) Moench var Redland x Greenleaf, Sudan 70 has been investigated using glyphosate and pulse-labeling studies with {sup 14}C-tyrosine and ({sup 14}C)shikimic acid. The rate of dhurrin breakdown was 4.8 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 1.4 nanomoles per hour in the root. The rate of dhurrin accumulation in the shoot of 4- to 5-day-old seedlings was high but decreased with age until at the peak period of dhurrin accumulation, the rates of dhurrin synthesis and breakdown were equal. Using a first order equation (an approximation) the rate of dhurrin synthesis (which equals accumulation plus breakdown rates) was 17.4 nanomoles per hour in the shoot and 4.1 nanomoles per hour in the root. In both tissues, the breakdown rate was between 27 and 34% of their synthetic capacity within the experimental period. Dhurrin synthesis in green sorghum seedlings occurred in both the light and dark photoperiods but was faster in the dark period. The result is discussed in relation to the possible metabolic roles of the turnover.

  4. Oviposition Preference and Survival of the Mexican Rice Borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Bioenergy and Conventional Sugarcane and Sorghum.

    PubMed

    VanWeelden, M T; Wilson, B E; Beuzelin, J M; Reagan, T E; Way, M O

    2017-08-01

    Oviposition preference and host suitability of the Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), on bioenergy and conventional cultivars of sugarcane, Saccharum spp., and sorghum, Sorghum spp., were examined in a series of greenhouse experiments. Two energycane cultivars, two sugarcane cultivars, two high-biomass sorghum cultivars, and one sweet sorghum cultivar were assessed at two phenological stages (immature and mature). Mature plants possessed greater availability of dry leaf material compared with immature plants, and all E. loftini eggs were observed exclusively on dry leaves. Oviposition did not vary among host combinations (cultivar by phenological stage); however, eggs per plant and eggs per oviposition event were numerically greater on mature plants than immature plants. In a no-choice experiment, survival from egg to adult did not vary among host combinations, with <2.0% of E. loftini larvae surviving to adulthood. Failed establishment by neonates on plants was 13.4- to 53.9-fold greater than successful establishment across all host combinations. Results from this study suggest that plant physical characteristics continue to play an important role in host selection, but further evaluations will be needed to quantify other characteristics which influence host suitability. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    PubMed

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  6. SorghumFDB: sorghum functional genomics database with multidimensional network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Tian; You, Qi; Zhang, Liwei; Yi, Xin; Yan, Hengyu; Xu, Wenying; Su, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) has excellent agronomic traits and biological properties, such as heat and drought-tolerance. It is a C4 grass and potential bioenergy-producing plant, which makes it an important crop worldwide. With the sorghum genome sequence released, it is essential to establish a sorghum functional genomics data mining platform. We collected genomic data and some functional annotations to construct a sorghum functional genomics database (SorghumFDB). SorghumFDB integrated knowledge of sorghum gene family classifications (transcription regulators/factors, carbohydrate-active enzymes, protein kinases, ubiquitins, cytochrome P450, monolignol biosynthesis related enzymes, R-genes and organelle-genes), detailed gene annotations, miRNA and target gene information, orthologous pairs in the model plants Arabidopsis, rice and maize, gene loci conversions and a genome browser. We further constructed a dynamic network of multidimensional biological relationships, comprised of the co-expression data, protein–protein interactions and miRNA-target pairs. We took effective measures to combine the network, gene set enrichment and motif analyses to determine the key regulators that participate in related metabolic pathways, such as the lignin pathway, which is a major biological process in bioenergy-producing plants. Database URL: http://structuralbiology.cau.edu.cn/sorghum/index.html. PMID:27352859

  7. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): Nutrients, bioactive compounds, and potential impact on human health.

    PubMed

    de Morais Cardoso, Leandro; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-01-22

    Sorghum is the fifth most produced cereal in the world and is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds for the human diet. We summarize the recent findings concerning the nutrients and bioactive compounds of sorghum and its potential impact on human health, analyzing the limitations and positive points of the studies and proposing directions for future research. Sorghum is basically composed of starch, which is more slowly digested than that of other cereals, has low digestibility proteins and unsaturated lipids, and is a source of some minerals and vitamins. Furthermore, most sorghum varieties are rich in phenolic compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. The results obtained in vitro and in animals have shown that phenolics compounds and fat soluble compounds (polycosanols) isolated from sorghum benefit the gut microbiota and parameters related to obesity, oxidative stress, inflammation, diabetes, dyslipidemia, cancer, and hypertension. The effects of whole sorghum and its fractions on human health need to be evaluated. In conclusion, sorghum is a source of nutrients and bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins, tannins, and polycosanols, which beneficially modulate, in vitro and in animals, parameters related to noncommunicable diseases. Studies should be conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing on protein and starch digestibility of sorghum as well as on the profile and bioavailability of its bioactive compounds, especially 3-deoxyanthocyanidins and tannins. Furthermore, the benefits resulting from the interaction of bioactive compounds in sorghum and human microbiota should be studied.

  8. Image reconstruction for view-limited x-ray CT in baggage scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandava, Sagar; Coccarelli, David; Greenberg, Joel A.; Gehm, Michael E.; Ashok, Amit; Bilgin, Ali

    2017-05-01

    X-ray CT based baggage scanners are widely used in security applications. Recently, there has been increased interest in view-limited systems which can improve the scanning throughput while maintaining the threat detection performance. However as very few view angles are acquired in these systems, the image reconstruction problem is challenging. Standard reconstruction algorithms such as the filtered backprojection create strong artifacts when working with view-limited data. In this work, we study the performance of a variety of reconstruction algorithms for both single and multi-energy view-limited systems.

  9. Sweetness, satiation, and satiety.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, France; Drewnowski, Adam; Anderson, G Harvey; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Martin, Corby K

    2012-06-01

    Satiation and satiety are central concepts in the understanding of appetite control and both have to do with the inhibition of eating. Satiation occurs during an eating episode and brings it to an end. Satiety starts after the end of eating and prevents further eating before the return of hunger. Enhancing satiation and satiety derived from foodstuffs was perceived as a means to facilitate weight control. Many studies have examined the various sensory, cognitive, postingestive, and postabsorptive factors that can potentially contribute to the inhibition of eating. In such studies, careful attention to study design is crucial for correct interpretation of the results. Although sweetness is a potent sensory stimulus of intake, sweet-tasting products produce satiation and satiety as a result of their volume as well as their nutrient and energy content. The particular case of energy intake from fluids has generated much research and it is still debated whether energy from fluids is as satiating as energy ingested from solid foods. This review discusses the satiating power of foods and drinks containing nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners. The brain mechanisms of food reward (in terms of "liking" and "wanting") are also addressed. Finally, we highlight the importance of reward homeostasis, which can help prevent eating in the absence of hunger, for the control of intake.

  10. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... without added water. It may contain one or more of the optional ingredients provided for in paragraph (b... name of the food is “Sorghum sirup” or “Sorghum”. Alternatively, the word “sirup” may be spelled...

  11. Energy balance comparison of sorghum and sunflower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachidi, F.; Kirkham, M. B.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Stone, L. R.

    1993-03-01

    An understanding of the energy exchange processes at the surface of the earth is necessary for studies of global climate change. If the climate becomes drier, as is predicted for northern mid-latitudes, it is important to know how major agricultural crops will play a role in the budget of heat and moisture. Thus, the energy balance components of sorghum [ Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.] and sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.), two drought-resistant crops grown in the areas where summertime drying is forecasted, were compared. Soil water content and evapotranspiration ( ET) rates also were determined. Net radiation was measured with net radiometers. Soil heat flux was analyzed with heat flux plates and thermocouples. The Bowen ratio method was used to determine sensible and latent heat fluxes. Sunflower had a higher evapotranspiration rate and depleted more water from the soil than sorghum. Soil heat flux into the soil during the daytime was greater for sorghum than sunflower, which was probably the result of the more erect leaves of sorghum. Nocturnal net radiation loss from the sorghum crop was greater than that from the sunflower crop, perhaps because more heat was stored in the soil under the sorghum crop. But daytime net radiation values were similar for the two crops. The data indicated that models of climate change must differentiate nighttime net radiation of agricultural crops. Sensible heat flux was not always less (or greater) for sorghum compared to sunflower. Sunflower had greater daytime values for latent heat flux, reflecting its greater depletion of water from the soil. Evapotranspiration rates determined by the energy balance method agreed relatively well with those found by the water balance method. For example, on 8 July (43 days after planting), the ET rates found by the energy-balance and water-balance methods were 4.6 vs. 5.5 mm/day for sunflower, respectively; for sorghum, these values were 4.0 vs. 3.5 mm/day, respectively. If the climate does

  12. On determining specifications and selections of alternative technologies for airport checked-baggage security screening.

    PubMed

    Feng, Qianmei

    2007-10-01

    Federal law mandates that every checked bag at all commercial airports be screened by explosive detection systems (EDS), explosive trace detection systems (ETD), or alternative technologies. These technologies serve as critical components of airport security systems that strive to reduce security risks at both national and global levels. To improve the operational efficiency and airport security, emerging image-based technologies have been developed, such as dual-energy X-ray (DX), backscatter X-ray (BX), and multiview tomography (MVT). These technologies differ widely in purchasing cost, maintenance cost, operating cost, processing rate, and accuracy. Based on a mathematical framework that takes into account all these factors, this article investigates two critical issues for operating screening devices: setting specifications for continuous security responses by different technologies; and selecting technology or combination of technologies for efficient 100% baggage screening. For continuous security responses, specifications or thresholds are used for classifying threat items from nonthreat items. By investigating the setting of specifications on system security responses, this article assesses the risk and cost effectiveness of various technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. The findings provide the best selection of image-based technologies for both single-device and two-device systems. Our study suggests that two-device systems outperform single-device systems in terms of both cost effectiveness and accuracy. The model can be readily extended to evaluate risk and cost effectiveness of multiple-device systems for airport checked-baggage security screening.

  13. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  14. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  15. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  16. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  17. 14 CFR 382.131 - Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... mobility aids and other assistive devices? 382.131 Section 382.131 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN AIR TRAVEL Stowage of Wheelchairs, Other Mobility Aids, and Other Assistive Devices § 382.131 Do baggage liability limits apply to mobility aids and other assistive devices?...

  18. 41 CFR 303-70.300 - Must we pay transportation costs to return the deceased employee's baggage?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System PAYMENT OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES 70-AGENCY REQUIREMENTS FOR PAYMENT OF EXPENSES CONNECTED WITH THE DEATH OF CERTAIN EMPLOYEES Transportation of Immediate Family Members, Baggage, and Household Goods §...

  19. 14 CFR 221.106 - Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of limited liability for baggage; alternative consolidated notice of liability limitations. 221.106 Section 221.106 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE..., station, and position in the United States which is in the charge of a person employed exclusively by it...

  20. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench) seedling growth in marginal soils.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has b...

  1. Association analysis of photoperiodic flowering genes in West and Central African sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Photoperiod-sensitive flowering is a key adaptive trait for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) in West and Central Africa. In this study we performed an association analysis to investigate the effect of polymorphisms within the genes putatively related to variation in flowering time on photoperiod sensitive ...

  2. Characterization of sorghum grain and evaluation of sorghum flour in a Chinese egg noodle system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is a gluten free grain that has potential to be used as an alternative to wheat flour for the Celiac Sprue market. There are thousands of sorghum lines that have not been characterized for grain, flour or end product quality. The objective of the research was to gain an understanding among g...

  3. Modulation of kernel storage proteins in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) ranks fifth among the cereals world-wide with respect to its importance for food and feed applications. The grain is approximately 13% protein, of which the kafirins comprise over 80% of the protein component of the grain endosperm. The kafirins are cate...

  4. Forage and bioenergy feedstock production from hybrid forage sorghum and sorghum x sudangrass hybrids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the bioenergy industry expands, producers choosing to shift current forage crop production to dedicated biomass crops will find it advantageous to grow low risk multi-purpose crops that maximize management options. Hybrid forage sorghums (HFS) and sorghum by sudangrass hybrids (SSG) are capable...

  5. Yield and nutritive value of photoperiod-sensitive sorghum and sorghum-sudangrass in central Wisconsin

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate the yield and nutrient composition of photoperiod sensitive (PS) and non-PS forage sorghum, sorghum-sudangrass, and sudangrass compared to corn planted on 2 dates and harvested using single or multiple-cut harvest strategies at 2 research stations (Marshfield and Ha...

  6. Dhurrin content relates to sorghum [sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] seedling growth in marginal soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dhurrin content in leaves of mature sorghum plant is a quantitative measure of the level of pre-and postflowering drought tolerance (Burke et al., 2013). Postflowering drought tolerance in sorghum is linked to the staygreen (delayed senescence) trait (Howarth, 2000; Rosenow et al., 1977) which has ...

  7. 76 FR 314 - Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Program: Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Opportunity to Participate in the Sorghum Promotion... Promotion, Research, and Information Order (Order), as authorized under the Commodity Promotion,...

  8. Intense Sweetness Surpasses Cocaine Reward

    PubMed Central

    Cantin, Lauriane; Ahmed, Serge H.

    2007-01-01

    Background Refined sugars (e.g., sucrose, fructose) were absent in the diet of most people until very recently in human history. Today overconsumption of diets rich in sugars contributes together with other factors to drive the current obesity epidemic. Overconsumption of sugar-dense foods or beverages is initially motivated by the pleasure of sweet taste and is often compared to drug addiction. Though there are many biological commonalities between sweetened diets and drugs of abuse, the addictive potential of the former relative to the latter is currently unknown. Methodology/Principal findings Here we report that when rats were allowed to choose mutually-exclusively between water sweetened with saccharin–an intense calorie-free sweetener–and intravenous cocaine–a highly addictive and harmful substance–the large majority of animals (94%) preferred the sweet taste of saccharin. The preference for saccharin was not attributable to its unnatural ability to induce sweetness without calories because the same preference was also observed with sucrose, a natural sugar. Finally, the preference for saccharin was not surmountable by increasing doses of cocaine and was observed despite either cocaine intoxication, sensitization or intake escalation–the latter being a hallmark of drug addiction. Conclusions Our findings clearly demonstrate that intense sweetness can surpass cocaine reward, even in drug-sensitized and -addicted individuals. We speculate that the addictive potential of intense sweetness results from an inborn hypersensitivity to sweet tastants. In most mammals, including rats and humans, sweet receptors evolved in ancestral environments poor in sugars and are thus not adapted to high concentrations of sweet tastants. The supranormal stimulation of these receptors by sugar-rich diets, such as those now widely available in modern societies, would generate a supranormal reward signal in the brain, with the potential to override self-control mechanisms

  9. Fermentation and enzyme treatments for sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Schons, Patrícia Fernanda; Battestin, Vania; Macedo, Gabriela Alves

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Moench) is the fifth most produced cereal worldwide. However, some varieties of this cereal contain antinutritional factors, such as tannins and phytate that may form stable complexes with proteins and minerals which decreases digestibility and nutritional value. The present study sought to diminish antinutritional tannins and phytate present in sorghum grains. Three different treatments were studied for that purpose, using enzymes tannase (945 U/Kg sorghum), phytase (2640 U/Kg sorghum) and Paecilomyces variotii (1.6 X 107 spores/mL); A) Tannase, phytase and Paecilomyces variotii, during 5 and 10 days; B) An innovative blend made of tanase and phytase for 5 days followed by a Pv increase for 5 more days; C) a third treatment where the reversed order of B was used starting with Pv for 5 days and then the blend of tannase and phytase for 5 more days. The results have shown that on average the three treatments were able to reduce total phenols and both hydrolysable and condensed tannins by 40.6, 38.92 and 58.00 %, respectively. Phytase increased the amount of available inorganic phosphorous, on the average by 78.3 %. The most promising results concerning tannins and phytate decreases were obtained by the enzymes combination of tannase and phytase. The three treatments have shown effective on diminishing tannin and phytate contents in sorghum flour which leads us to affirm that the proposed treatments can be used to increase the nutritive value of sorghum grains destined for either animal feeds or human nutrition. PMID:24031807

  10. Grain sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage-2014

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thirty seven grain sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect and bird damage in 2014 in Tifton, and a total of 10 insect pests were observed. While sorghum midge and bird damage was relatively low, sorghum webworm and aphid damage was high. Those insects in order of importance are: sug...

  11. Sorghum protein structure and chemistry: Implications for nutrition and functionality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum is the 5th most widely grown cereal crop in the world and has desirable agronomic traits such as drought resistance and heat tolerance. Sorghum is a major food source in developing nations and is widely used as feed grain in Western countries. There is increasing interest in sorghum food pr...

  12. Do more seeds per panicle improve grain sorghum yield

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed number rather than seed mass is largely considered to be the most important yield component of grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]. An experimental sorghum hybrid with enhanced seed number (tri-seed) was grown at the Soil-Plant-Environment Research (SPER) facility, USDA-ARS, Bushland, ...

  13. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows: 1...

  14. Potentials and Prospects of Sorghum Allelopathy in Agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The promising allelopathic potential of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench)] opens a fruitful area of research to exploit this phenomenon in weed control and regulation of nutrient cycle. The data suggests that sorghum allelopathy can be exploited in different cropping practices such as cover crop,...

  15. Lignin modification to improve sorghum for cellulosic and thermal bioenergy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Modifying lignin content and composition are major targets for bioenergy feedstock improvement for both cellulosic and thermal bioenergy conversion. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is currently being developed as a dedicated bio-energy feedstock. Our goals are to improve sorghum biomass for both biochemic...

  16. Presence of Fusarium graminearum in air associated with sorghum fields

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum can be included in crop rotations with wheat. However, there are no known reports on the effects of sorghum grown in rotation with wheat on the epidemiology of head scab caused by Fusarium graminearum. Conidia in air samples within two sorghum fields were collected by passive spore trapping ...

  17. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  18. 7 CFR 407.15 - Group risk plan for sorghum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for sorghum. 407.15 Section 407.15..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.15 Group risk plan for sorghum. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Sorghum for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. Genetic architecture of kernel composition in global sorghum germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important cereal crop for dryland areas in the United States and for small-holder farmers in Africa. Natural variation of sorghum grain composition (protein, fat, and starch) between accessions can be used for crop improvement, but the genetic controls are...

  20. Sequential sampling for panicle caterpillars (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum panicle worm is an economically important insect pest complex of sorghum throughout the Great Plains of the United States, particularly in Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas. The sorghum panicle worm complex consists of larvae of two highly polyphagous lepidopteran species: the corn earworm, Heli...

  1. Registration of two allelic erect leaf mutants of sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two allelic sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] erect leaf (erl) mutants were isolated from an Annotated Individually-pedigreed Mutagenized Sorghum (AIMS) mutant library developed at the Plant Stress and Germplasm Development Unit, at Lubbock, Texas. The two mutants, erl1-1 and erl1-2, were isol...

  2. Tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.): diversity and stability to the heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Pinheiro, Soraia Silva; da Silva, Letícia Linhares; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; de Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Tardin, Flávio Dessaune; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2015-04-01

    The content and stability (retention) to dry heat in a conventional oven (DHCO) and extrusion of tocochromanols and carotenoids in sorghum genotypes were evaluated. One hundred sorghum genotypes showed high variability in tocochromanol content (280.7-2962.4 μg/100g in wet basis) and 23% of the genotypes were classified as source of vitamin E. The total carotenoid varied from 2.12 to 85.46 μg/100g in one hundred sorghum genotypes. According to the genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols, the 100 genotypes were grouped into 7 groups. The retention of the total tocochromanols and α-tocopherol equivalent decreased after extrusion (69.1-84.8% and 52.4-85.0%, respectively) but increased after DHCO (106.8-114.7% and 109.9-115.8%, respectively). Sorghum carotenoids were sensitive to extrusion (30.7-37.1%) and DHCO (58.6-79.2%). In conclusion, the tocochromanols profile in sorghum varied widely and the genotypes presented high genetic variability for carotenoids and tocochromanols. Sorghum was a source of tocochromanols, which increased after DHCO and decreased after extrusion. The carotenoid content in sorghum decreased after DHCO and extrusion.

  3. Sorghum Genome Sequencing by Methylation Filtration

    PubMed Central

    Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rohlfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W. Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis. PMID:15660154

  4. Phylogeographic Evidence of Crop Neodiversity in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    de Alencar Figueiredo, L. F.; Calatayud, C.; Dupuits, C.; Billot, C.; Rami, J.-F.; Brunel, D.; Perrier, X.; Courtois, B.; Deu, M.; Glaszmann, J.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Sorghum has shown the adaptability necessary to sustain its improvement during time and geographical extension despite a genetic foundation constricted by domestication bottlenecks. Initially domesticated in the northeastern part of sub-Saharan Africa several millenia ago, sorghum quickly spread throughout Africa, and to Asia. We performed phylogeographic analysis of sequence diversity for six candidate genes for grain quality (Shrunken2, Brittle2, Soluble starch synthaseI, Waxy, Amylose extender1, and Opaque2) in a representative sample of sorghum cultivars. Haplotypes along 1-kb segments appeared little affected by recombination. Sequence similarity enabled clustering of closely related alleles and discrimination of two or three distantly related groups depending on the gene. This scheme indicated that sorghum domestication involved structured founder populations, while confirming a specific status for the guinea margaritiferum subrace. Allele rooted genealogy revealed derivation relationships by mutation or, less frequently, by recombination. Comparison of germplasm compartments revealed contrasts between genes. Sh2, Bt2, and SssI displayed a loss of diversity outside the area of origin of sorghum, whereas O2 and, to some extent, Wx and Ae1 displayed novel variation, derived from postdomestication mutations. These are likely to have been conserved under the effect of human selection, thus releasing valuable neodiversity whose extent will influence germplasm management strategies. PMID:18558653

  5. Sorghum genome sequencing by methylation filtration.

    PubMed

    Bedell, Joseph A; Budiman, Muhammad A; Nunberg, Andrew; Citek, Robert W; Robbins, Dan; Jones, Joshua; Flick, Elizabeth; Rholfing, Theresa; Fries, Jason; Bradford, Kourtney; McMenamy, Jennifer; Smith, Michael; Holeman, Heather; Roe, Bruce A; Wiley, Graham; Korf, Ian F; Rabinowicz, Pablo D; Lakey, Nathan; McCombie, W Richard; Jeddeloh, Jeffrey A; Martienssen, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Sorghum bicolor is a close relative of maize and is a staple crop in Africa and much of the developing world because of its superior tolerance of arid growth conditions. We have generated sequence from the hypomethylated portion of the sorghum genome by applying methylation filtration (MF) technology. The evidence suggests that 96% of the genes have been sequence tagged, with an average coverage of 65% across their length. Remarkably, this level of gene discovery was accomplished after generating a raw coverage of less than 300 megabases of the 735-megabase genome. MF preferentially captures exons and introns, promoters, microRNAs, and simple sequence repeats, and minimizes interspersed repeats, thus providing a robust view of the functional parts of the genome. The sorghum MF sequence set is beneficial to research on sorghum and is also a powerful resource for comparative genomics among the grasses and across the entire plant kingdom. Thousands of hypothetical gene predictions in rice and Arabidopsis are supported by the sorghum dataset, and genomic similarities highlight evolutionarily conserved regions that will lead to a better understanding of rice and Arabidopsis.

  6. Uptake, translocation, and metabolism of oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and their influence on metolachlor metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Yenne, S.P.; Hatzios, K.K.; Meredith, S.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The uptake, translocation, and metabolism of the oxime ether safeners oxabetrinil and CGA-133205 in grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench, var. Funk G-522-DR) were investigated. Following application of ({sup 14}C)oxabetrinil and ({sup 14}C)CGA-133205 to imbibed seeds, it appears that the safeners are conferring protection to grain sorghum by increasing the rate of metolachlor metabolism.

  7. Airport trial of a system for the mass screening of baggage or cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Gordon; Sleeman, Richard; Davidson, William R.; Stott, William R.

    1994-10-01

    An eight month trial of a system capable of checking every bag from a particular flight for the presence of narcotics has been carried out at a major UK airport. The British Aerospace CONDOR tandem mass-spectrometer system, fitted with a real-time sampler, was used to check in-coming baggage for a range of illegal drugs. Because of the rapid sampling and analysis capability of this instrument, it was possible to check every bag from a flight without delay to the passengers. During the trial a very large number of bags, from flights from various parts of the world, were sampled. A number of detections were made, which resulted in a number of seizures and the apprehension of a number of smugglers.

  8. Case for an Improved Effective-Atomic-Number for the Electronic Baggage Scanning Program

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J A; Martz, H E; Kallman, J S

    2011-04-05

    Z{sub eff}, a parameter representing an 'effective atomic number' for a material, plays an important role in the Electronic Baggage Scanning Program (EBSP) to detect threats in dual-energy computed tomography (CT) baggage-scanning systems. We believe that Z{sub eff}, as defined and used on this program, does not provide the accurate representation of a material's x-ray absorption properties that is needed by the EBSP. We present the case for a new method that defines an effective atomic number for compounds and mixtures, which we refer to as Z{sub e}. Unlike Z{sub eff}, Z{sub e} is tied by definition to the x-ray absorption properties of each specific material. Use of this alternative will provide a more accurate scale for calibrating Micro-CT and EDS systems against standard reference materials and will provide a more accurate physical characterization of the x-ray properties of materials evaluated on those systems. This document: (1) Describes the current usage of the Z{sub eff} parameter; (2) Details problems entailed in the use of the Z{sub eff} parameter; (3) Proposes a well-defined alternative - Z{sub e}; (4) Proposes and demonstrates an algorithm for optimally associating Z{sub e} with any specified compound or mixture; (5) Discusses issues that can impact the usefulness of an effective-Z model; and (6) Recommends that, in order that the chosen effective-Z parameter not materially impact the accuracy of data produced by the EBSP program, the use of Z{sub eff} be replaced by Z{sub e}.

  9. Chromosome Identification and Nomenclature of Sorghum bicolor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Soon; Klein, Patricia E.; Klein, Robert R.; Price, H. James; Mullet, John E.; Stelly, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Linkage group identities and homologies were determined for metaphase chromosomes of Sorghum bicolor (2n = 20) by FISH of landed BACs. Relative lengths of chromosomes in FISH-karyotyped metaphase spreads of the elite inbred BTx623 were used to estimate the molecular size of each chromosome and to establish a size-based nomenclature for sorghum chromosomes (SBI-01–SBI-10) and linkage groups (LG-01 to LG-10). Lengths of arms were determined to orient linkage groups relative to a standard karyotypic layout (short arms at top). The size-based nomenclature for BTx623 represents a reasonable choice as the standard for a unified chromosome nomenclature for use by the sorghum research community. PMID:15489512

  10. Sweetness and Food Preference123

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Mennella, Julie A.; Johnson, Susan L.; Bellisle, France

    2012-01-01

    Human desire for sweet taste spans all ages, races, and cultures. Throughout evolution, sweetness has had a role in human nutrition, helping to orient feeding behavior toward foods providing both energy and essential nutrients. Infants and young children in particular base many of their food choices on familiarity and sweet taste. The low cost and ready availability of energy-containing sweeteners in the food supply has led to concerns that the rising consumption of added sugars is the driving force behind the obesity epidemic. Low-calorie sweeteners are one option for maintaining sweet taste while reducing the energy content of children’s diets. However, their use has led to further concerns that dissociating sweetness from energy may disrupt the balance between taste response, appetite, and consumption patterns, especially during development. Further studies, preferably based on longitudinal cohorts, are needed to clarify the developmental trajectory of taste responses to low-calorie sweeteners and their potential impact on the diet quality of children and youth. PMID:22573785

  11. Diurnal oscillation of SBE expression in sorghum endosperm

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chuanxin; Mutisya, J.; Rosenquist, S.; Baguma, Y.; Jansson, C.

    2009-01-15

    Spatial and temporal expression patterns of the sorghum SBEI, SBEIIA and SBEIIB genes, encoding, respectively, starch branching enzyme (SBE) I, IIA and IIB, in the developing endosperm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) were studied. Full-length genomic and cDNA clones for sorghum was cloned and the SBEIIA cDNA was used together with gene-specific probes for sorghum SBEIIB and SBEI. In contrast to sorghum SBEIIB, which was expressed primarily in endosperm and embryo, SBEIIA was expressed also in vegetative tissues. All three genes shared a similar temporal expression profile during endosperm development, with a maximum activity at 15-24 days after pollination. This is different from barley and maize where SBEI gene activity showed a significantly later onset compared to that of SBEIIA and SBEIIB. Expression of the three SBE genes in the sorghum endosperm exhibited a diurnal rhythm during a 24-h cycle.

  12. Alcoholic fermentation of sorghum without cooking

    SciTech Connect

    Thammarutwasik, P.; Koba, Y.; Ueda, S.

    1986-07-01

    Sorgum was used as raw material for alcoholic fermentation without cooking. Two varieties of sorghum grown in Thailand, KU 439 and KU 257, contained 80.0 and 75.8% of total sugar. Optimum amount of sorghum for alcoholic fermentation should be between 30 and 35% (w/v) in the fermentation broth. In these conditions 13.0 and 12.6% (v/v) of alcohol could be obtained in 84 and 91.9% yield based on the theoretical value of the starch content from KU 439 and KU 257, respectively.

  13. Ethylene Control of Anthocyanin Synthesis in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Craker, L. E.; Standley, L. A.; Starbuck, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    Light-induced anthocyanin synthesis in Sorghum vulgare L. seedlings was both promoted and inhibited by ethylene treatment. The rate of anthocyanin formation in sorghum tissue was dependent upon the time of ethylene treatment in relation to light exposure and the stage of the anthocyanin synthesis process. Those plants receiving ethylene treatment during the early lag phase of anthocyanin synthesis had higher anthocyanin content at 24 hours than control plants receiving no ethylene treatment. Plants receiving ethylene treatment after the lag phase had lower anthocyanin content at 24 hours than control plants receiving no ethylene treatment. PMID:16657796

  14. Expression Pattern of the Alpha-Kafirin Promoter Coupled with a Signal Peptide from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Norazlina; Sant, Rajnesh; Bokan, Milovan; Steadman, Kathryn J.; Godwin, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory sequences with endosperm specificity are essential for foreign gene expression in the desired tissue for both grain quality improvement and molecular pharming. In this study, promoters of seed storage α-kafirin genes coupled with signal sequence (ss) were isolated from Sorghum bicolor L. Moench genomic DNA by PCR. The α-kafirin promoter (α-kaf) contains endosperm specificity-determining motifs, prolamin-box, the O2-box 1, CATC, and TATA boxes required for α-kafirin gene expression in sorghum seeds. The constructs pMB-Ubi-gfp and pMB-kaf-gfp were microprojectile bombarded into various sorghum and sweet corn explants. GFP expression was detected on all explants using the Ubi promoter but only in seeds for the α-kaf promoter. This shows that the α-kaf promoter isolated was functional and demonstrated seed-specific GFP expression. The constructs pMB-Ubi-ss-gfp and pMB-kaf-ss-gfp were also bombarded into the same explants. Detection of GFP expression showed that the signal peptide (SP)::GFP fusion can assemble and fold properly, preserving the fluorescent properties of GFP. PMID:22315514

  15. Spatial arrangement, population density and legume species effect of yield of forage sorghum-legume intercropping

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a stress tolerant forage crop grown extensively in the Southern High Plains. However, sorghum forage quality is lower than that of corn. Intercropping sorghum with legumes can improve quality and productivity of forage. However, tall statured sorghum limits the resources...

  16. A web-based decision support system for managing panicle caterpillars in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum headworms are economically important insect pests of sorghum throughout the United States and are often ranked 1st or 2nd in importance among the myriad of insects that feed on sorghum, depending on the geographic location where the sorghum is grown. Sorghum producers, crop consultants, and...

  17. Sorghum malt and traditional beer (dolo) quality assessment in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Pale, Siébou; Taonda, Sibiri Jean-Baptiste; Bougouma, Boniface; Mason, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum malt and dolo quality evaluation criteria and parameters affecting quality were surveyed in six cities in Burkina Faso through questionnaires addressed to malt processors, dolo processors, retailers, and consumers. The major quality criteria for malt quality assessment were perceived to be taste and presence/absence of roots in the malt. Taste, alcohol content, and wort sufficiently cooked were perceived as major criteria for the dolo quality assessment. The major parameters affecting malt quality were perceived to be malt production period, proportions of grain and the amount of water entering malting, presence of pesticide residues in the malting grains, and age of grain. Processing method, yeast source, proportions of the components (crushed grain, water, mucilage, yeast) entering dolo production, malt quality, wort temperature at time of inoculation, amount of energy available for cooking, wort and sediment boiling time, quality of mucilage, malt with non-sweet taste, presence/absence of roots in the malt, and ease of filtering crushed malt were perceived as major parameters affecting the dolo quality. These results will be used in the improvement of the dolo supply chain in Burkina Faso by providing more reliable information for training programs for efficient dolo brewing processes, development of best cropping practices to improve grain quality, and providing better selection criteria for sorghum breeding programs.

  18. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2012-07-01

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 °C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively.

  19. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  20. Sweetness intensity in low-carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Odake, S

    2001-05-01

    The carbonation perception and sweetness perception were investigated under the presence of low level of carbondioxide less than 1.0 gas volume. Carbonation perception decreased linearly as carbonation level decreased. Sweetness perception showed inconsistency by means of evaluation methods: Triangle difference test led the result showing carbonation became a hindrance for sweetness perception. However, the measurement for the sweetness degree expressed by panellists in four categories 'not sweet', 'perhaps sweet', 'probably sweet' and 'definitely sweet', and the measurement for the points of subjective equality revealed that carbonation had no influence on sweetness perception. Commercially produced beverages whose irritation stimuli were stronger showed almost the same sweetness intensities (= perceived concentration of sucrose/actual concentration of sucrose) at approximately 0.7 regardless of various flavours. A weaker stimulus beverage, without strong flavour, showed higher sweetness intensity at 0.9. Some weaker stimuli beverages, which contained strong lemon flavour and soluble fibre, showed less sweetness intensities of 0.62-0.68 than the high-stimuli products.

  1. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R.; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E.

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants. PMID:28052078

  2. Physicochemical differences between sorghum starch and sorghum flour modified by heat-moisture treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingjie; Han, Zhongjie; Wang, Li; Xiong, Liu

    2014-02-15

    Sorghum starch and sorghum flour were modified by heat-moisture treatment (HMT) at two different moisture contents, 20% and 25%. The result showed that solubility and swelling power of modified samples decreased. In addition, the pasting viscosities of most modified samples were lower than that of native samples. The onset, peak and conclusion temperatures of gelatinization, and the enthalpy of samples modified by HMT increased. The crystallinity of the modified samples was higher than that of control samples. HMT had a far greater effect on the solubility, swelling power, setback viscosity, through viscosity, enthalpy and crystallinity of sorghum flour than of sorghum starch. On the granules surface there were more holes for the HMT starches than for HMT flours. The microstructure of HMT sorghum starch gel had a more orderly and smaller holey structure. The sorghum flour gel had originally a crackled structure, but after the HMT treatment, it had many ordered and small holes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Aflatoxins, ochratoxins and zearalenone in sorghum and sorghum products in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elbashir, Abdalla A; Ali, Salah Eldeen A

    2014-01-01

    This survey examined 60 samples of sorghum and 30 samples of sorghum products from three states (Khartoum, Kordofan and Gadarif) of Sudan for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2), ochratoxin A and B (OTA, OTB) and zearalenone (ZEN), using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were in the range 0.01-0.6 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-2.0 µg kg(-1), respectively. The frequency of contaminated samples with AFB1 from Khartoum, Gadarif and Kordofan state was 38.1%, 22.2% and 23.8%, respectively. Only two samples of sorghum from Khartoum state were contaminated with OTA (3.3%). Concentrations of OTA and OTB were low and may not cause problems. No sample of sorghum or sorghum products was contaminated with ZEN. Some sorghum samples contained AFB1 concentrations above the European Union regulatory limits. The highest contaminated samples were found in Khartoum state.

  4. Morphological Characterization of a New and Easily Recognizable Nuclear Male Sterile Mutant of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor).

    PubMed

    Xin, Zhanguo; Huang, Jian; Smith, Ashley R; Chen, Junping; Burke, John; Sattler, Scott E; Zhao, Dazhong

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is one of the most important grain crops in the world. The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait, which is caused by mutations on the nuclear gene, is valuable for hybrid breeding and genetic studies. Several NMS mutants have been reported previously, but none of them were well characterized. Here, we present our detailed morphological characterization of a new and easily recognizable NMS sorghum mutant male sterile 8 (ms8) isolated from an elite inbred BTx623 mutagenized by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS). Our results show that the ms8 mutant phenotype was caused by a mutation on a single recessive nuclear gene that is different from all available NMS loci reported in sorghum. In fertile sorghum plants, yellow anthers appeared first during anthesis, while in the ms8 mutant, white hairy stigma emerged first and only small white anthers were observed, making ms8 plants easily recognizable when flowering. The ovary development and seed production after manual pollination are normal in the ms8 mutant, indicating it is female fertile and male sterile only. We found that ms8 anthers did not produce pollen grains. Further analysis revealed that ms8 anthers were defective in tapetum development, which led to the arrest of pollen formation. As a stable male sterile mutant across different environments, greenhouses, and fields in different locations, the ms8 mutant could be a useful breeding tool. Moreover, ms8 might be an important for elucidating male gametophyte development in sorghum and other plants.

  5. Working alone or in the presence of others: exploring social facilitation in baggage X-ray security screening tasks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rui-feng; Wu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether the mere presence of a human audience would evoke a social facilitation effect in baggage X-ray security screening tasks. A 2 (target presence: present vs. absent) ×  2 (task complexity: simple vs. complex) ×  2 (social presence: alone vs. human audience) within-subject experiment simulating a real baggage screening task was conducted. This experiment included 20 male participants. The participants' search performance in this task was recorded. The results showed that the presence of a human audience speeded up responses in simple tasks and slowed down responses in complex tasks. However, the social facilitation effect produced by the presence of a human audience had no effect on response accuracy. These findings suggested that the complexity of screening tasks should be considered when designing work organisation modes for security screening tasks. Practitioner summary: This study investigated whether the presence of a human audience could evoke a social facilitation effect in baggage X-ray security screening tasks. An experimental simulation was conducted. The results showed that the presence of a human audience facilitated the search performance of simple tasks and inhibited the performance of complex tasks.

  6. SNP-tagged mutant library in sorghum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As the filth largest grain crop in the world, sorghum is well adapted to high temperature, drought, and low fertilizer input conditions. It can also be used as a fodder and bioenergy crop. Given the trend of global warming, depletion of refresh water resources, reduction in arable land due to soil d...

  7. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be declared on the label as... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  8. Future for sorghum regarding its water use

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the planet's Earth appearance from space, water is a minor component of the plant's mass and the considerably less is present as fresh water available for crop production. Sorghum is ideally suited for grain and silage production in water limited areas because of its ability to yield higher ...

  9. 21 CFR 168.160 - Sorghum sirup.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sorghum sirup. 168.160 Section 168.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION SWEETENERS AND TABLE SIRUPS Requirements for Specific Standardized Sweeteners and Table...

  10. Light-induced Ethylene Production in Sorghum

    PubMed Central

    Craker, L. E.; Abeles, F. B.; Shropshire, W.

    1973-01-01

    Ethylene production was induced in sections of dark-grown Sorghum vulgare L. seedlings by treatment with light in the blue and far red regions of the light spectrum. The action spectrum closely resembled the previously reported spectra for high irradiance response; thus, light-induced ethylene production is probably a high irradiance response with phytochrome as the initial photoreceptor. PMID:16658470

  11. Management of Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane aphids are becoming a more prevalent pest in sorghum in the United States, especially in the south and are making their way north. There are many management practices that can be used on sugarcane aphids, the most important being scouting and maintaining populations. The most common mistake once a pest has been found is to immediately…

  12. Brown midrib sorghum silage for midlactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Grant, R J; Haddad, S G; Moore, K J; Pedersen, J F

    1995-09-01

    Brown midrib sorghum silage was compared with alfalfa, corn, and normal sorghum silages for its effect on performance, ruminal metabolism, and digestive kinetics of Holstein dairy cows in midlactation. Twelve cows averaging 90 +/- 5 DIM were assigned to one of four diets in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 4-wk periods. Additionally, 3 ruminally fistulated cows (95 +/- 20 DIM) were assigned to the same diets in a 3 x 4 Youden square for measurement of ruminal characteristics. Diets were fed as isonitrogenous TMR that contained 65% silage (DM basis). The DMI was greater for the corn and brown midrib sorghum (4% of BW/d) than for the alfalfa and normal sorghum diets (3.4% of BW/d). The brown midrib sorghum supported FCM production that was similar to that of cows on corn and alfalfa diets (25.8 kg/d), but cows fed normal sorghum produced less milk and fewer milk components. Source of silage had no effect on eating time, but rumination was least for the alfalfa diet. Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were similar for all diets. Total VFA concentrations were greatest for the corn and brown midrib sorghum diets. The brown midrib sorghum had greater in situ extent of ruminal NDF digestion than did the normal sorghum, which agreed with in vitro data. The brown midrib sorghum used in this experiment supported FCM production similar to the corn and alfalfa silages commonly fed to dairy cows in midlactation.

  13. Neuro-Sweet Disease Causing Orbital Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Taravati, Parisa

    2015-02-01

    Neuro-Sweet disease is a rare condition causing encephalitis or meningitis in addition to the erythematous skin plaques of Sweet syndrome. Neuro-Sweet disease has been associated with several ocular manifestations, including ocular movement disorders, episcleritis, conjunctivitis, uveitis, and optic disc oedema. The author reports a patient with orbital inflammation, cranial neuropathies, and a skin rash in the setting of myelodysplastic syndrome. Biopsy of her skin lesion confirmed the diagnosis of neuro-Sweet disease. To the author's knowledge, this is the first reported case of neuro-Sweet disease causing orbital inflammation. Her ocular inflammation resolved with the use of systemic corticosteroid treatment.

  14. Critical regions for the sweetness of brazzein.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zheyuan; Danilova, Vicktoria; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M; Aceti, David J; Markley, John L; Hellekant, Göran

    2003-06-05

    Brazzein is a small, heat-stable, intensely sweet protein consisting of 54 amino acid residues. Based on the wild-type brazzein, 25 brazzein mutants have been produced to identify critical regions important for sweetness. To assess their sweetness, psychophysical experiments were carried out with 14 human subjects. First, the results suggest that residues 29-33 and 39-43, plus residue 36 between these stretches, as well as the C-terminus are involved in the sweetness of brazzein. Second, charge plays an important role in the interaction between brazzein and the sweet taste receptor.

  15. Characterization of fluorescent pseudomonas spp. associated with roots and soil of two sorghum genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sorghum, useful for bioenergy feedstock, animal feed, and food, requires economical methods for disease prevention and control. Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from sorghum roots and adherent soil to identify isolates that inhibited sorghum fungal pathogens. Pseudomonads were collected fr...

  16. Sweet Sunrise’ strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sweet Sunrise’ is a new June-bearing (short-day) strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duchesne ex Rozier) cultivar from the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR, released in cooperation with the Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station an...

  17. AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14 regulate gibberellin-mediated physiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yuri; Oikawa, Takaya; Chiba, Yasutaka; Ishimaru, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Takafumi; Sano, Naoto; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Kamiya, Yuji; Ueda, Minoru; Seo, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane transport of plant hormones is required for plant growth and development. Despite reports of a number of proteins that can transport the plant hormone gibberellin (GA), the mechanistic basis for GA transport and the identities of the transporters involved remain incomplete. Here, we provide evidence that Arabidopsis SWEET proteins, AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14, which are members of a family that had previously been linked to sugar transport, are able to mediate cellular GA uptake when expressed in yeast and oocytes. A double sweet13 sweet14 mutant has a defect in anther dehiscence and this phenotype can be reversed by exogenous GA treatment. In addition, sweet13 sweet14 exhibits altered long distant transport of exogenously applied GA and altered responses to GA during germination and seedling stages. These results suggest that AtSWEET13 and AtSWEET14 may be involved in modulating GA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:27782132

  18. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C I; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H

    2017-07-14

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual's sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20-40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake.

  19. Is Sweet Taste Perception Associated with Sweet Food Liking and Intake?

    PubMed Central

    Jayasinghe, Shakeela N.; Kruger, Rozanne; Walsh, Daniel C. I.; Cao, Guojiao; Rivers, Stacey; Richter, Marilize; Breier, Bernhard H.

    2017-01-01

    A range of psychophysical taste measurements are used to characterize an individual’s sweet taste perception and to assess links between taste perception and dietary intake. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between four different psychophysical measurements of sweet taste perception, and to explore which measures of sweet taste perception relate to sweet food intake. Forty-four women aged 20–40 years were recruited for the study. Four measures of sweet taste perception (detection and recognition thresholds, and sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking of suprathreshold concentrations) were assessed using glucose as the tastant. Dietary measurements included a four-day weighed food record, a sweet food-food frequency questionnaire and a sweet beverage liking questionnaire. Glucose detection and recognition thresholds showed no correlation with suprathreshold taste measurements or any dietary intake measurement. Importantly, sweet taste intensity correlated negatively with total energy and carbohydrate (starch, total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes, frequency of sweet food intake and sweet beverage liking. Furthermore, sweet hedonic liking correlated positively with total energy and carbohydrate (total sugar, fructose, glucose) intakes. The present study shows a clear link between sweet taste intensity and hedonic liking with sweet food liking, and total energy, carbohydrate and sugar intake. PMID:28708085

  20. Molecular Breeding of Sorghum bicolor, A Novel Energy Crop.

    PubMed

    Ordonio, Reynante; Ito, Yusuke; Morinaka, Yoichi; Sazuka, Takashi; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Currently, molecular breeding is regarded as an important tool for the improvement of many crop species. However, in sorghum, recently heralded as an important bioenergy crop, progress in this field has been relatively slow and limited. In this review, we present existing efforts targeted at genetic characterization of sorghum mutants. We also comprehensively review the different attempts made toward the isolation of genes involved in agronomically important traits, including the dissection of some sorghum quantitative trait loci (QTLs). We also explore the current status of the use of transgenic techniques in sorghum, which should be crucial for advancing sorghum molecular breeding. Through this report, we provide a useful benchmark to help assess how much more sorghum genomics and molecular breeding could be improved.