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Sample records for swiss cheese model

  1. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  2. ``Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bona, C.; Stela, J.

    1987-11-01

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein-de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ``Swiss cheese'' models.

  3. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-11-15

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale ({approx}50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  4. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  5. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleury, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  6. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ < 0.24° ( ℓ > 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  7. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  8. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  9. Martian "Swiss Cheese"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as "dry ice." On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice. No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the "swiss cheese" and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6°S, 74.4°W at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02367

  10. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  11. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  16. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    SciTech Connect

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  17. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  18. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  19. Effectiveness of the surgical safety checklist in correcting errors: a literature review applying Reason's Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Collins, Susan J; Newhouse, Robin; Porter, Jody; Talsma, AkkeNeel

    2014-07-01

    Approximately 2,700 patients are harmed by wrong-site surgery each year. The World Health Organization created the surgical safety checklist to reduce the incidence of wrong-site surgery. A project team conducted a narrative review of the literature to determine the effectiveness of the surgical safety checklist in correcting and preventing errors in the OR. Team members used Swiss cheese model of error by Reason to analyze the findings. Analysis of results indicated the effectiveness of the surgical checklist in reducing the incidence of wrong-site surgeries and other medical errors; however, checklists alone will not prevent all errors. Successful implementation requires perioperative stakeholders to understand the nature of errors, recognize the complex dynamic between systems and individuals, and create a just culture that encourages a shared vision of patient safety. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.

    2005-04-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  1. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  2. A Sublimation Model for the Martian Polar Swiss-Cheese Features. Observational and Modeling Studies of the South Polar Residual Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrne, Shane; Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    In their pioneering work Leighton and Murray argued that the Mars atmosphere, which is 95 percent CO2 today, is controlled by vapor equilibrium with a much larger polar reservoir of solid CO2. Here we argue that the polar reservoir is small and cannot function as a long-term buffer to the more massive atmosphere. Our work is based on modeling the circular depressions (Swiss-cheese features) in the south polar cap. We argue that a solid CO2 layer approximately 8 meters thick is being etched away to reveal water ice underneath. Preliminary results from the THEMIS (Thermal Emission Imaging System) instrument seem to confirm our model.

  3. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  4. Rapid profiling of Swiss cheese by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Eliardi, A; Drake, M A; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Harper, W J

    2009-08-01

    The acceptability of cheese depends largely on the flavor formed during ripening. The flavor profiles of cheeses are complex and region- or manufacturer-specific which have made it challenging to understand the chemistry of flavor development and its correlation with sensory properties. Infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technology for the rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analysis of foods, providing information related to its composition and conformation of food components from the spectra. Our objectives were to establish infrared spectral profiles to discriminate Swiss cheeses produced by different manufacturers in the United States and to develop predictive models for determination of sensory attributes based on infrared spectra. Fifteen samples from 3 Swiss cheese manufacturers were received and analyzed using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The spectra were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to build a classification model. The cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. The relationship between the descriptive sensory scores and ATR-IR spectra was assessed using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. SIMCA discriminated the Swiss cheeses based on manufacturer and production region. PLSR analysis generated prediction models with correlation coefficients of validation (rVal) between 0.69 and 0.96 with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranging from 0.04 to 0.29. Implementation of rapid infrared analysis by the Swiss cheese industry would help to streamline quality assurance.

  5. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  6. Structural Quality Control of Swiss-Type Cheese with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2007-03-01

    A study on structural quality control of Swiss-type cheese with ultrasound is presented. We used a longitudinal mode pulse-echo setup using 1-2MHz ultrasonic frequencies to detect cheese-eyes and ripening induced cracks. Results show that the ultrasonic method posses good potential to monitor the cheese structure during the ripening process. Preliminary results indicate that maturation stage could be monitored with ultrasonic velocity measurements. Further studies to verify the method's on-line potential to detect low-structural-quality cheeses are planned.

  7. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  8. Systems thinking, the Swiss Cheese Model and accident analysis: a comparative systemic analysis of the Grayrigg train derailment using the ATSB, AcciMap and STAMP models.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Peter; Waterson, Patrick

    2014-07-01

    The Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) is the most popular accident causation model and is widely used throughout various industries. A debate exists in the research literature over whether the SCM remains a viable tool for accident analysis. Critics of the model suggest that it provides a sequential, oversimplified view of accidents. Conversely, proponents suggest that it embodies the concepts of systems theory, as per the contemporary systemic analysis techniques. The aim of this paper was to consider whether the SCM can provide a systems thinking approach and remain a viable option for accident analysis. To achieve this, the train derailment at Grayrigg was analysed with an SCM-based model (the ATSB accident investigation model) and two systemic accident analysis methods (AcciMap and STAMP). The analysis outputs and usage of the techniques were compared. The findings of the study showed that each model applied the systems thinking approach. However, the ATSB model and AcciMap graphically presented their findings in a more succinct manner, whereas STAMP more clearly embodied the concepts of systems theory. The study suggests that, whilst the selection of an analysis method is subject to trade-offs that practitioners and researchers must make, the SCM remains a viable model for accident analysis.

  9. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  10. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  11. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Swiss Cheese Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.

    2004-12-01

    The morphology of the Martian South Permanent Residual Cap is dominated by enigmatic quasi-circular landforms commonly referred to as "Swiss cheese" terrain. These large Swiss cheese depressions, which typically have widths of more than 100 m and extend down to the base of the layer, are expanding at rates of a few meters per Martian year due to CO2 sublimation. We present high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images detailing extensive "pits," by which we mean small cavities generally less than 10 m in diameter that do not penetrate completely through the Swiss cheese terrain. This pitting is only observed upon the thickest (~10 m) Swiss cheese mesas ("Unit A" as classified by Thomas et al. 2004), and moreover only occurs within 50 meters of the edges of these deposits. We argue that the pits are collapse features caused by the release of CO2 gas from a pressurized layer several meters below the mesa top. As the walls of the mesa retreat due to radiation imbalance, the pressurized layer is exposed, and CO2 vents out laterally, weakening the layer and causing the collapse. We can think of no other process that communicates laterally over distances of 50 meters in one Martian year, which is the time scale over which the pits form. For a layer 6 meters thick, the hydrostatic head is ~200 mbar, which provides an upper bound to the gas pressure in the sealed lower layer. However, for that maximum pressure to be attained, the CO2 in the lower layer must be approximately 30 K warmer than CO2 on the surface. Such a temperature differential is difficult to maintain, though, given that 6 meters is also the thermal skin depth for CO2 over 1 Martian year. We are exploring a number of mechanisms that might continually or cyclically warm this layer and enable rapid venting when the seal is broken. The persistence of polygonal cracks on the mesa tops could be further evidence of subsurface thermal variations.

  12. Simulations to Improve Structural Defect Detection and Classification in Swiss-Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Haapalainen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic 2D simulations to facilitate defect detection and classification for structural quality control of Swiss-cheese are presented. Three economically relevant structure types were modeled with different geometry parameters and the back-scattered ultrasonic field from the structure boundary was simulated to obtain reference data for waveform analysis. Simulated waveform characteristics were evaluated and compared to the experimental ones. Two parameters were introduced to classify different defects by exploiting the frequency spectrum of the signals. Signal waveform and correlation analysis, based on the simulation results, improved defect detection probability.

  13. Viability of the Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 probiotic strain in Swiss- and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products.

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grażyna; Aljewicz, Marek; Nalepa, Beata

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products (milk fat is substituted by stearin fraction of palm fat) during manufacture, ripening, and storage. The use of the probiotic L. rhamnosus HN001 in Dutch-type cheese and cheese-like products significantly (P = 0.1) changed their chemical composition (protein and fat content) and an insignificant increase (approximately 1.6% in cheese-like products and approximately 0.3% in cheese) in yield. L. rhamnosus HN001 did not affect the rate of changes in the pH of ripened cheese and cheese-like products. A minor increase in probiotic counts was observed in initial stages of production and were partially removed with whey. Ripened cheese and cheese-like products were characterized by high survival rates of probiotic bacteria which exceeded 8 log CFU/g after ripening. An insignificant reduction in the number of viable probiotic cells was noted during storage of Swiss-type and Dutch-type cheese, whereas a significant increase in probiotic cell counts was observed in cheese-like products during storage. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured with adjunct Lactobacillus strains using a low cooking temperature.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Harper, W J; Drake, M A; Courtney, P D

    2008-08-01

    The effect of nonstarter Lactobacillus adjunct cultures on the microbial, chemical, and sensory characteristics of Swiss cheese manufactured using the "kosher make procedure" was investigated. The kosher make procedure, which uses a lower cooking temperature than traditional Swiss cheese making, is used by many American cheese manufacturers to allow for kosher-certified whey. Cheeses were manufactured using a commercial starter culture combination and 1 of 3 non-starter Lactobacillus strains previously isolated from Swiss cheeses, Lactobacillus casei A26, L. casei B21, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus H2, as an adjunct. Control cheeses lacked the adjunct culture. Cheeses were analyzed during ripening for microbial and chemical composition. Adjunct strain L. casei A26, which utilized citrate most readily in laboratory medium, dominated the Lactobacillus population within 30 d, faster than the other adjunct cultures. There were no significant differences in Propionibacterium counts, Streptococcus thermophilus counts, protein, fat, moisture, salt, and pH among the cheeses. Free amino acid concentration ranged from 5 to 7 mmol/100 g of cheese at 90 d of ripening and was adjunct strain dependent. Lactic, acetic, and propionic acid concentrations were not significantly different among the cheeses after a 90-d ripening period; however differences in propionic acid concentrations were apparent at 60 d, with the cheeses made with L. casei adjuncts containing less propionic acid. Citric acid was depleted by the end of warm room ripening in cheeses manufactured with adjunct L. casei strains, but not with adjunct L. rhamnosus. Cheeses made with L. casei A26 were most similar to the control cheeses in diacetyl and butyric/isobutyric acid abundance as evaluated by electronic nose during the first 3 mo of ripening. The 4 cheese types differed in their descriptive sensory profiles at 8 mo of age, indicating an adjunct strain-dependent effect on particular flavor attributes. Adjunct

  15. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... days old. (2) If pasteurized dairy ingredients are used, the phenol equivalent value of 0.25 gram of... treated with hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-producing and... cheese. (v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate,...

  16. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... cheese. (v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is not more... benzoyl peroxide used. If milk is bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the curd in such...

  17. Some Mars South Polar Swiss CheeseTerrain has Warm Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, T. N.; Cushing, G.; Pathare, A. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Much of the surface of the Mars south polar residual cap (SPRC) consists of quasi-circular depressions with steep walls that have been named "Swiss Cheese" terrain. High-resolution Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images have shown that the "Swiss Cheese" mesas, consisting of CO2 ice, are retreating on the order of 1-4 meters per martian year. Many of these "Swiss Cheese" mesas are surrounded by dark moats that appear warm in mid summer Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) IR images. These warm moats are thought to be the exposed substrate of the underlying water ice rich polar layered deposits. In addition to the thermal signatures from the warm moats, THEMIS also detects a thermal signature from the walls of some of these mesas. By combining THEMIS IR and VIS imaging, we are able to spectrally deconvolve warm and cold temperatures at a higher spatial resolution than the nominal THEMIS resolution of 100m/pix. We take into account that each THEMIS band has a slightly offset footprint from the other bands and assume that the thermal signature is coming from the darkest regions identified by the THEMIS VIS image. Preliminary analysis of one of these warm walled mesas suggests the wall consists of a low thermal inertia dust lag, which would have significant implications for the volatile content and evolution of the SPRC.

  18. Effect of mesophilic lactobacilli and enterococci adjunct cultures on the final characteristics of a microfiltered milk Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Yvette; Buchin, Solange; Duboz, Gabriel; Pochet, Sylvie; Beuvier, Eric

    2009-04-01

    The effect of four associations of adjunct cultures composed of mesophilic lactobacilli and enterococci, either solely or combined, on the microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of Swiss-type cheese made using microfiltered cows' milk and supplemented with propionibacteria was studied. The global pattern of growth was similar to that generally observed in raw milk cheese and interactions between microflora were highlighted during ripening. Enterococci, which negatively affected the survival of streptococci starters, seemed to play a limited role in the formation of volatile compounds, probably due to their low levels throughout ripening. On the contrary, mesophilic lactobacilli, which affected the evolution of propionibacteria, enterococci and L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis starter counts, modified free amino acid content, production of volatile compounds and organoleptic properties of mature cheese. This population appeared to be of major importance in the formation of cheese flavor as it was positively related to numerous potential flavor compounds such as alcohols and their corresponding esters, acetaldehyde and 4-methyl-4-heptanone. The original mesophilic lactobacilli present in milk could play an important role in the sensorial diversity of raw milk Swiss-type cheeses such as Comte.

  19. Standardization of milk using cold ultrafiltration retentates for the manufacture of Swiss cheese: effect of altering coagulation conditions on yield and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Martinelli, C; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2011-06-01

    Fortification of cheesemilk with membrane retentates is often practiced by cheesemakers to increase yield. However, the higher casein (CN) content can alter coagulation characteristics, which may affect cheese yield and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of using ultrafiltration (UF) retentates that were processed at low temperatures on the properties of Swiss cheese. Because of the faster clotting observed with fortified milks, we also investigated the effects of altering the coagulation conditions by reducing the renneting temperature (from 32.2 to 28.3°C) and allowing a longer renneting time before cutting (i.e., giving an extra 5min). Milks with elevated total solids (TS; ∼13.4%) were made by blending whole milk retentates (26.5% TS, 7.7% CN, 11.5% fat) obtained by cold (<7°C) UF with part skim milk (11.4% TS, 2.5% CN, 2.6% fat) to obtain milk with CN:fat ratio of approximately 0.87. Control cheeses were made from part-skim milk (11.5% TS, 2.5% CN, 2.8% fat). Three types of UF fortified cheeses were manufactured by altering the renneting temperature and renneting time: high renneting temperature=32.2°C (UFHT), low renneting temperature=28.3°C (UFLT), and a low renneting temperature (28.3°C) plus longer cutting time (+5min compared to UFLT; UFLTL). Cutting times, as selected by a Wisconsin licensed cheesemaker, were approximately 21, 31, 35, and 32min for UFHT, UFLT, UFLTL, and control milks, respectively. Storage moduli of gels at cutting were lower for the UFHT and UFLT samples compared with UFLTL or control. Yield stress values of gels from the UF-fortified milks were higher than those of control milks, and decreasing the renneting temperature reduced the yield stress values. Increasing the cutting time for the gels made from the UF-fortified milks resulted in an increase in yield stress values. Yield strain values were significantly lower in gels made from control or UFLTL milks compared with gels made from UFHT or UFLT

  20. A high-throughput cheese manufacturing model for effective cheese starter culture screening.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, H; Kruijswijk, Z; Molenaar, D; Kleerebezem, M; van Hylckama Vlieg, J E T

    2009-12-01

    Cheese making is a process in which enzymatic coagulation of milk is followed by protein separation, carbohydrate removal, and an extended bacterial fermentation. The number of variables in this complex process that influence cheese quality is so large that the developments of new manufacturing protocols are cumbersome. To reduce screening costs, several models have been developed to miniaturize the cheese manufacturing process. However, these models are not able to accommodate the throughputs required for systematic screening programs. Here, we describe a protocol that allows the parallel manufacturing of approximately 600 cheeses in individual cheese vats each with individual process specifications. Protocols for the production of miniaturized Gouda- and Cheddar-type cheeses have been developed. Starting with as little as 1.7 mL of milk, miniature cheeses of about 170 mg can be produced and they closely resemble conventionally produced cheese in terms of acidification profiles, moisture and salt contents, proteolysis, flavor profiles, and microstructure. Flavor profiling of miniature cheeses manufactured with and without mixed-strain adjunct starter cultures allowed the distinguishing of the different cheeses. Moreover, single-strain adjunct starter cultures engineered to overexpress important flavor-related enzymes revealed effects similar to those described in industrial cheese. Benchmarking against industrial cheese produced from the same raw materials established a good correlation between their proteolytic degradation products and their flavor profiles. These miniature cheeses, referred to as microcheeses, open new possibilities to study many aspects of cheese production, which will not only accelerate product development but also allow a more systematic approach to investigate the complex biochemistry and microbiology of cheese making.

  1. Characteristics of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from Swiss raw milk cheese within a 3-year monitoring program.

    PubMed

    Zweifel, C; Giezendanner, N; Corti, S; Krause, G; Beutin, L; Danuser, J; Stephan, R

    2010-01-01

    Food is an important vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). To assess the potential public health impact of STEC in Swiss raw milk cheese produced from cow's, goat's, and ewe's milk, 1,422 samples from semihard or hard cheese and 80 samples from soft cheese were examined for STEC, and isolated strains were further characterized. By PCR, STEC was detected after enrichment in 5.7% of the 1,502 raw milk cheese samples collected at the producer level. STEC-positive samples comprised 76 semihard, 8 soft, and 1 hard cheese. By colony hybridization, 29 STEC strains were isolated from 24 semihard and 5 soft cheeses. Thirteen of the 24 strains typeable with O antisera belonged to the serogroups O2, O22, and O91. More than half (58.6%) of the 29 strains belonged to O:H serotypes previously isolated from humans, and STEC O22:H8, O91:H10, O91:H21, and O174:H21 have also been identified as agents of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Typing of Shiga toxin genes showed that stx(1) was only found in 2 strains, whereas 27 strains carried genes encoding for the Stx(2) group, mainly stx(2) and stx(2vh-a/b). Production of Stx(2) and Stx(2vh-a/b) subtypes might be an indicator for a severe outcome in patients. Nine strains harbored hlyA (enterohemorrhagic E. coli hemolysin), whereas none tested positive for eae (intimin). Consequently, semihard and hard raw milk cheese may be a potential source of STEC, and a notable proportion of the isolated non-O157 STEC strains belonged to serotypes or harbored Shiga toxin gene variants associated with human infections.

  2. Soft SUSY breaking parameters and RG running of squark and slepton masses in large volume Swiss Cheese compactifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2010-03-01

    We consider type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss Cheese Calabi-Yau WCP[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the “big” divisor ΣB (as opposed to the “small” divisor usually done in the literature thus far) as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. After reviewing our proposal of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology pertaining to obtaining a 10 GeV gravitino in the inflationary era and a TeV gravitino in the present era, and summarizing our results of [1] (Misra and Shukla, 2010) on soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses, we discuss the one-loop RG running of the squark and slepton masses in mSUGRA-like models (using the running of the gaugino masses) to the EW scale in the large volume limit. Phenomenological constraints and some of the calculated soft SUSY parameters identify the D7-brane Wilson line moduli as the first two generations/families of squarks and sleptons and the D3-brane (restricted to the big divisor) position moduli as the two Higgses for MSSM-like models at TeV scale. We also discuss how the obtained open-string/matter moduli make it easier to impose FCNC constraints, as well as RG flow of off-diagonal squark mass(-squared) matrix elements.

  3. Organophosphate-Induced Changes in the PKA Regulatory Function of Swiss Cheese/NTE Lead to Behavioral Deficits and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Kretzschmar, Doris

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN) is a Wallerian-type axonopathy that occurs weeks after exposure to certain organophosphates (OPs). OPs have been shown to bind to Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE), thereby inhibiting its enzymatic activity. However, only OPs that also induce the so-called aging reaction cause OPIDN. This reaction results in the release and possible transfer of a side group from the bound OP to NTE and it has been suggested that this induces an unknown toxic function of NTE. To further investigate the mechanisms of aging OPs, we used Drosophila, which expresses a functionally conserved orthologue of NTE named Swiss Cheese (SWS). Treating flies with the organophosporous compound tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP) resulted in behavioral deficits and neurodegeneration two weeks after exposure, symptoms similar to the delayed effects observed in other models. In addition, we found that primary neurons showed signs of axonal degeneration within an hour after treatment. Surprisingly, increasing the levels of SWS, and thereby its enzymatic activity after exposure, did not ameliorate these phenotypes. In contrast, reducing SWS levels protected from TOCP-induced degeneration and behavioral deficits but did not affect the axonopathy observed in cell culture. Besides its enzymatic activity as a phospholipase, SWS also acts as regulatory PKA subunit, binding and inhibiting the C3 catalytic subunit. Measuring PKA activity in TOCP treated flies revealed a significant decrease that was also confirmed in treated rat hippocampal neurons. Flies expressing additional PKA-C3 were protected from the behavioral and degenerative phenotypes caused by TOCP exposure whereas primary neurons were not. In addition, knocking-down PKA-C3 caused similar behavioral and degenerative phenotypes as TOCP treatment. We therefore propose a model in which OP-modified SWS cannot release PKA-C3 and that the resulting loss of PKA-C3 activity plays a crucial role in developing

  4. Pattern formation and dewetting in thin films of liquids showing complete macroscale wetting: from "pancakes"to "swiss cheese".

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Verma, Ruhi

    2004-11-09

    Based on the complete 3D numerical solutions of the nonlinear thin film equation, we address the problems of surface instability, dynamics, morphological diversity and evolution in unstable thin films of the liquids that display complete macroscale wetting. The twin constraints of complete macroscale wettability and nanoscale instability produce a variety of microscopic morphological phases approximating sharp crystal surfaces with flat tops resembling a mesa or a micro "pancake" or a slice of Swiss cheese. While the maximum thickness of flat regions is found to be independent of the initial film thickness, the precise lateral morphology of microdomains formed depends on the film thickness. As the film thickness is increased, the initial pathway of evolution changes from the formation of small spherical droplets, to long mesas (parapets) and islands, to circular holes, all of which eventually resolve by ripening into a collection of round pancakes at equilibrium. However, beyond a certain transition thickness, a novel metastable honeycombed morphology, resembling a membrane or a slice of Swiss cheese, is uncovered, which is produced by an abrupt "freezing" of the evolution during hole growth. In contrast, the spinodal dewetting in thin films of partially wettable systems always engenders spherical droplets at equilibrium. The equilibrium dewetted area from simulations, as well as from simple mass balance, is shown to decline linearly with the initial film thickness.

  5. Genetic parameters of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield (CY) is an important technological trait in the dairy industry, and the objective of this study was to estimate the genetic parameters of cheese yield in a dairy cattle population using an individual model-cheese production procedure. A total of 1,167 Brown Swiss cows belonging to 85 herds were sampled once (a maximum of 15 cows were sampled per herd on a single test day, 1 or 2 herds per week). From each cow, 1,500 mL of milk was processed according to the following steps: milk sampling and heating, culture addition, rennet addition, gelation-time recording, curd cutting, whey draining and sampling, wheel formation, pressing, salting in brine, weighing, and cheese sampling. The compositions of individual milk, whey, and curd samples were determined. Three measures of percentage cheese yield (%CY) were calculated: %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER), which represented the ratios between the weight of fresh curd, the total solids of the curd, and the water content of the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. In addition, 3 measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d) were defined, considering the daily milk yield. Three measures of nutrient recovery (REC) were computed: REC(FAT), REC(PROTEIN), and REC(SOLIDS), which represented the ratio between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding nutrient in the milk. Energy recovery, REC(ENERGY), represented the energy content of the cheese versus that in the milk. For statistical analysis, a Bayesian animal model was implemented via Gibbs sampling. The effects of parity (1 to ≥4), days in milk (6 classes), and laboratory vat (15 vats) were assigned flat priors; those of herd-test-date, animal, and residual were given Gaussian prior distributions. Intra-herd heritability estimates of %CY(CURD), %CY(SOLIDS), and %CY(WATER) ranged from 0.224 to 0.267; these were larger than the estimates obtained for milk yield (0.182) and milk fat

  6. Compromised Lactobacillus helveticus starter activity in the presence of facultative heterofermentative Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 results in atypical eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, Daniel J; McSweeney, Paul L H; Cotter, Paul D; Giblin, Linda; Sheehan, Jeremiah J

    2016-04-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are commonly implicated in undesirable gas formation in several varieties, including Cheddar, Dutch-, and Swiss-type cheeses, primarily due to their ability to ferment a wide variety of substrates. This effect can be magnified due to factors that detrimentally affect the composition or activity of starter bacteria, resulting in the presence of greater than normal amounts of fermentable carbohydrates and citrate. The objective of this study was to determine the potential for a facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (Lactobacillus casei DPC6987) isolated from a cheese plant environment to promote gas defects in the event of compromised starter activity. A Swiss-type cheese was manufactured, at pilot scale and in triplicate, containing a typical starter culture (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus) together with propionic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus helveticus populations were omitted in certain vats to mimic starter failure. Lactobacillus casei DPC6987 was added to each experimental vat at 4 log cfu/g. Cheese compositional analysis and X-ray computed tomography revealed that the failure of starter bacteria, in this case L. helveticus, coupled with the presence of a faculatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus (L. casei) led to excessive eye formation during ripening. The availability of excess amounts of lactose, galactose, and citrate during the initial ripening stages likely provided the heterofermentative L. casei with sufficient substrates for gas formation. The accrual of these fermentable substrates was notable in cheeses lacking the L. helveticus starter population. The results of this study are commercially relevant, as they demonstrate the importance of viability of starter populations and the control of specific nonstarter lactic acid bacteria to ensure appropriate eye formation in Swiss-type cheese.

  7. Genetic parameters of cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery or whey loss traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Albera, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Ferragina, A; Bittante, G

    2015-07-01

    Cheese yield is the most important technological parameter in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to infer (co)variance components for cheese yields (CY) and nutrient recoveries in curd (REC) predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of samples collected during milk recording on Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental dairy cows. A total of 311,354 FTIR spectra representing the test-day records of 29,208 dairy cows (Holstein, Brown Swiss, and Simmental) from 654 herds, collected over a 3-yr period, were available for the study. The traits of interest for each cow consisted of 3 cheese yield traits (%CY: fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 curd nutrient recovery traits (REC: fat, protein, total solids, and the energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits (daily fresh curd, total solids, and the water of the curd per cow). Calibration equations (freely available upon request to the corresponding author) were used to predict individual test-day observations for these traits. The (co)variance components were estimated for the CY, REC, milk production, and milk composition traits via a set of 4-trait analyses within each breed. All analyses were performed using REML and linear animal models. The heritabilities of the %CY were always higher for Holstein and Brown Swiss cows (0.22 to 0.33) compared with Simmental cows (0.14 to 0.18). In general, the fresh cheese yield (%CYCURD) showed genetic variation and heritability estimates that were slightly higher than those of its components, %CYSOLIDS and %CYWATER. The parameter RECPROTEIN was the most heritable trait in all the 3 breeds, with values ranging from 0.32 to 0.41. Our estimation of the genetic relationships of the CY and REC with milk production and composition revealed that the current selection strategies used in dairy cattle are expected

  8. Factors affecting variation of different measures of cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery from an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; De Marchi, M; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    procedure was used to process individual milk samples obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds of the province of Trento (Italy). The assessed traits exhibited almost normal distributions, with the exception of REC(FAT). The average values (± SD) were as follows: %CY(CURD)=14.97±1.86, %CY(SOLIDS)=7.18±0.92, %CY(WATER)=7.77±1.27, dCY(CURD)=3.63±1.17, dCY(SOLIDS)=1.74±0.57, dCY(WATER)=1.88±0.63, REC(FAT)=89.79±3.55, REC(PROTEIN)=78.08±2.43, REC(SOLIDS)=51.88±3.52, and REC(ENERGY)=67.19±3.29. All traits were highly influenced by herd-test-date and days in milk of the cow, moderately influenced by parity, and weakly influenced by the utilized vat. Both %CY(CURD) and dCY(CURD) depended not only on the fat and protein (casein) contents of the milk, but also on their proportions retained in the curd; the water trapped in curd presented an higher variability than that of %CY(SOLIDS). All REC traits were variable and affected by days in milk and parity of the cows. The described model cheese-making procedure and the results obtained provided new insight into the phenotypic variation of cheese yield and recovery traits at the individual level.

  9. Luminosity distance in ``Swiss cheese'' cosmology with randomized voids. II. Magnification probability distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Kumar, Naresh; Wasserman, Ira; Vanderveld, R. Ali

    2012-01-01

    We study the fluctuations in luminosity distances due to gravitational lensing by large scale (≳35Mpc) structures, specifically voids and sheets. We use a simplified “Swiss cheese” model consisting of a ΛCDM Friedman-Robertson-Walker background in which a number of randomly distributed nonoverlapping spherical regions are replaced by mass-compensating comoving voids, each with a uniform density interior and a thin shell of matter on the surface. We compute the distribution of magnitude shifts using a variant of the method of Holz and Wald , which includes the effect of lensing shear. The standard deviation of this distribution is ˜0.027 magnitudes and the mean is ˜0.003 magnitudes for voids of radius 35 Mpc, sources at redshift zs=1.0, with the voids chosen so that 90% of the mass is on the shell today. The standard deviation varies from 0.005 to 0.06 magnitudes as we vary the void size, source redshift, and fraction of mass on the shells today. If the shell walls are given a finite thickness of ˜1Mpc, the standard deviation is reduced to ˜0.013 magnitudes. This standard deviation due to voids is a factor ˜3 smaller than that due to galaxy scale structures. We summarize our results in terms of a fitting formula that is accurate to ˜20%, and also build a simplified analytic model that reproduces our results to within ˜30%. Our model also allows us to explore the domain of validity of weak-lensing theory for voids. We find that for 35 Mpc voids, corrections to the dispersion due to lens-lens coupling are of order ˜4%, and corrections due to shear are ˜3%. Finally, we estimate the bias due to source-lens clustering in our model to be negligible.

  10. The effect of different composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts on the consistency of processed cheese spreads manufactured from Swiss-type cheese with different degrees of maturity.

    PubMed

    Salek, R N; Černíková, M; Maděrová, S; Lapčík, L; Buňka, F

    2016-05-01

    The scope of this work was to investigate the dependence of selected textural (texture profile analysis, TPA) and viscoelastic properties of processed cheese on the composition of ternary mixtures of emulsifying salts [disodium hydrogenphosphate, DSP; tetrasodium diphosphate, TSPP; sodium salt of polyphosphate (with mean length n ≈ 20), P20; and trisodium citrate, TSC] during a 60-d storage period (6±2°C). The processed cheese samples [40% wt/wt dry matter (DM) content, 50% wt/wt fat in DM content] were manufactured using Swiss-type cheese (as the main raw material) with 4 different maturity degrees (4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of ripening). Moreover, the pH of the samples was adjusted (the target values within the range of 5.60-5.80), corresponding to the standard pH values of spreadable processed cheese. With respect to the individual application of emulsifying salts (regardless of the maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese applied), the samples prepared with P20 were the hardest, followed by those prepared with TSPP, TSC, and DSP. Furthermore, a specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) led to a significant increase in the hardness of the samples. On the whole, the hardness of all processed cheese samples increased with the prolonging storage period, whereas their hardness significantly dropped with the rising ripening stage of the raw material utilized. In all of the cases, the trends of hardness development remained analogous, and only the absolute values differed significantly. Moreover, the findings of TPA were in accordance with those of the rheological analysis. In particular, the specific ratio of DSP:TSPP (1:1) resulted in the highest gel strength and interaction factor values, followed by P20, TSPP, TSC, and DSP (used individually), reporting the same trend which was demonstrated by TPA. The monitored values of the gel strength and interaction factor decreased with the increasing maturity degree of the Swiss-type cheese used. The intensity of the rigidity of the

  11. Outbreak of staphylococcal food poisoning among children and staff at a Swiss boarding school due to soft cheese made from raw milk.

    PubMed

    Johler, Sophia; Weder, Delphine; Bridy, Claude; Huguenin, Marie-Claude; Robert, Luce; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Stephan, Roger

    2015-05-01

    On October 1, 2014, children and staff members at a Swiss boarding school consumed Tomme, a soft cheese produced from raw cow milk. Within the following 7h, all 14 persons who ingested the cheese fell ill, including 10 children and 4 staff members. Symptoms included abdominal pain and violent vomiting, followed by severe diarrhea and fever. We aim to present this food poisoning outbreak and characterize the causative agent. The duration of the incubation period was dependent of the age of the patient: 2.5h in children under 10 yr of age, 3.5h in older children and teenagers, and 7h in adults. The soft cheese exhibited low levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) A (>6ng of SEA/g of cheese) and high levels of staphylococcal enterotoxin D (>200ng of SED/g of cheese). Counts of 10(7) cfu of coagulase-positive staphylococci per gram of cheese were detected, with 3 different Staphylococcus aureus strains being present at levels >10(6) cfu/g. The 3 strains were characterized using spa typing and a DNA microarray. An enterotoxin-producing strain exhibiting sea and sed was identified as the source of the outbreak. The strain was assigned to spa type tbl 3555 and clonal complex 8, and it exhibited genetic criteria consistent with the characteristics of a genotype B strain. This genotype comprises bovine Staph. aureus strains exclusively associated with very high within-herd prevalence of mastitis and has been described as a major contaminant in Swiss raw milk cheese. It is therefore highly likely that the raw milk used for Tomme production was heavily contaminated with Staph. aureus and that levels further increased due to growth of the organism and physical concentration effects during the cheese-making process. Only a few staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks involving raw milk products have been described. Still, in view of this outbreak and the possible occurrence of other foodborne pathogens in bovine milk, consumption of raw milk and soft cheese produced from raw

  12. Luminosity distance in Swiss-cheese cosmology with randomized voids and galaxy halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, Éanna É.; Kumar, Naresh; Wasserman, Ira

    2013-08-01

    We study the fluctuations in luminosity distance due to gravitational lensing produced both by galaxy halos and large-scale voids. Voids are represented via a “Swiss-cheese” model consisting of a ΛCDM Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background from which a number of randomly distributed, spherical regions of comoving radius 35 Mpc are removed. A fraction of the removed mass is then placed on the shells of the spheres, in the form of randomly located halos. The halos are assumed to be nonevolving and are modeled with Navarro-Frenk-White profiles of a fixed mass. The remaining mass is placed in the interior of the spheres, either smoothly distributed or as randomly located halos. We compute the distribution of magnitude shifts using a variant of the method of Holz and Wald [Phys. Rev. D 58, 063501 (1998)], which includes the effect of lensing shear. In the two models we consider, the standard deviation of this distribution is 0.065 and 0.072 magnitudes and the mean is -0.0010 and -0.0013 magnitudes, for voids of radius 35 Mpc and the sources at redshift 1.5, with the voids chosen so that 90% of the mass is on the shell today. The standard deviation due to voids and halos is a factor ˜3 larger than that due to 35 Mpc voids alone with a 1 Mpc shell thickness, which we studied in our previous work. We also study the effect of the existence of evacuated voids, by comparing to a model where all the halos are randomly distributed in the interior of the sphere with none on its surface. This does not significantly change the variance but does significantly change the demagnification tail. To a good approximation, the variance of the distribution depends only on the mean column density of halos (halo mass divided by its projected area), the concentration parameter of the halos, and the fraction of the mass density that is in the form of halos (as opposed to smoothly distributed); it is independent of how the halos are distributed in space. We derive an approximate analytic

  13. Delayed Induction of Human NTE (PNPLA6) Rescues Neurodegeneration and Mobility Defects of Drosophila swiss cheese (sws) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Rainier, Shirley; Fink, John K.; Wessells, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Human PNPLA6 gene encodes Neuropathy Target Esterase protein (NTE). PNPLA6 gene mutations cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG39 HSP), Gordon-Holmes syndrome, Boucher-Neuhäuser syndromes, Laurence-Moon syndrome, and Oliver-McFarlane syndrome. Mutations in the Drosophila NTE homolog swiss cheese (sws) cause early-onset, progressive behavioral defects and neurodegeneration characterized by vacuole formation. We investigated sws5 flies and show for the first time that this allele causes progressive vacuolar formation in the brain and progressive deterioration of negative geotaxis speed and endurance. We demonstrate that inducible, neuron-specific expression of full-length human wildtype NTE reduces vacuole formation and substantially rescues mobility. Indeed, neuron-specific expression of wildtype human NTE is capable of rescuing mobility defects after 10 days of adult life at 29°C, when significant degeneration has already occurred, and significantly extends longevity of mutants at 25°C. These results raise the exciting possibility that late induction of NTE function may reduce or ameliorate neurodegeneration in humans even after symptoms begin. In addition, these results highlight the utility of negative geotaxis endurance as a new assay for longitudinal tracking of degenerative phenotypes in Drosophila. PMID:26671664

  14. SWISS-MODEL: an automated protein homology-modeling server

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Torsten; Kopp, Jürgen; Guex, Nicolas; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2003-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org) is a server for automated comparative modeling of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. It pioneered the field of automated modeling starting in 1993 and is the most widely-used free web-based automated modeling facility today. In 2002 the server computed 120 000 user requests for 3D protein models. SWISS-MODEL provides several levels of user interaction through its World Wide Web interface: in the ‘first approach mode’ only an amino acid sequence of a protein is submitted to build a 3D model. Template selection, alignment and model building are done completely automated by the server. In the ‘alignment mode’, the modeling process is based on a user-defined target-template alignment. Complex modeling tasks can be handled with the ‘project mode’ using DeepView (Swiss-PdbViewer), an integrated sequence-to-structure workbench. All models are sent back via email with a detailed modeling report. WhatCheck analyses and ANOLEA evaluations are provided optionally. The reliability of SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated in the EVA-CM project. The SWISS-MODEL server is under constant development to improve the successful implementation of expert knowledge into an easy-to-use server. PMID:12824332

  15. The "Swiss-cheese Doppler-guided laser tonsillectomy": a new safe cribriform approach to intracapsular tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, B; Iannitti, T; Fistetto, G; Rottigni, V

    2013-05-01

    Outpatient laser ablation of palatine tonsils is a very interesting procedure that has been recently introduced as a routine in head and neck surgery departments. The aim of this study was to describe a new strategy using a Doppler-guided fibre optic neodymium-yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser to remove up to 80 % of tonsillar tissue, as assessed in the long-term postoperative clinical evaluation of the volume of the tonsils at the follow-up, and leaving the capsule in place, thus avoiding any haemorrhagic complication and minimize pain. A total of 20 patients (men, n=13; women, n=7), aged between 6 and 63, were recruited for the procedure. They were affected by chronic hypertrophic tonsillitis with a recurrent fever and other symptoms that were related to oral inflammation. Among the 20 patients, no serious adverse events, including haemorrhage-related complications, were observed. Treatment was well tolerated, even in patients displaying an overall low pain threshold. No dropout or uncompleted procedure occurred in the present study. Minor complications included sore throat, moderate oedema, mild acute pharynx inflammation, slight peritonsillar exudate and local burning. The postoperative pain, measured by Scott-Huskisson visual analogue scale, was between 5 and 40 mm and was easily counteracted by means of external ice packages and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, according to the individual patient's need. During the 12-36-month follow-up patients showed improved symptoms (n=7) and complete recovery (n=13). A relapse episode was observed in two patients. This study supports fibre optic laser neodymium-YAG tonsil surgery, named "cribriform intracapsular tonsillectomy" or "Swiss-cheese laser tonsillectomy", as an effective alternative to the traditional cold knife approach or electrosurgery. This approach could become the gold standard for tonsil surgery in the third millennium for safety reasons, acceptable cost-benefit ratio, the precise targeting of

  16. Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC334 in a cheese model system: A biochemical approach

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth of Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334, in a cheese-ripening model system based upon a medium prepared from ripening Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) was evaluated. Lactobacillus paracasei ATCC 334 grows in CCE made from cheese ripened for 2 (2mCCE), 6 (6mCCE), and 8 (8mCCE) mo, to final cell densit...

  17. Swiss Cheese, a protein involved in progressive neurodegeneration acts as a non-canonical regulatory subunit for PKA-C3

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Alexandre Bettencourt; Wentzell, Jill; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2008-01-01

    The Drosophila Swiss Cheese (SWS) protein and its vertebrate orthologue Neuropathy Target Esterase (NTE) are required for neuronal survival and glial integrity. In humans, NTE is the target of organophosphorous compounds which cause a paralyzing axonal degeneration and recently mutations in NTE have been shown to cause a Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia called NTE-related Motor-Neuron Disorder. SWS and NTE are concentrated in the endoplasmic reticulum and both have been shown to have an esterase function against an artificial substrate. However, the functional mechanisms and the pathways in which SWS/NTE are involved in are still widely unknown. Here we show that SWS interacts specifically with the C3 catalytic subunit of cAMP activated protein kinase (PKA-C3) which together with orthologues in mouse (Pkare) and human (PrKX) forms a novel class of catalytic subunits of unknown function. This interaction requires a domain of SWS which shows homology to regulatory subunits of PKA and, like conventional regulatory subunits, the binding of SWS to the PKA-C3 inhibits is function. Consistent with this result, expression of additional PKA-C3 induces degeneration and enhances the neurodegenerative phenotype in sws mutants. We also show that the complex formation with the membrane-bound SWS tethers PKA-C3 to membranes. We therefore propose a model in which SWS acts as a non-canonical subunit for PKA-C3, whereby the complex formation regulates the localization and kinase activity of PKA-C3, and that disruption of this regulation can induce neurodegeneration. PMID:18945896

  18. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  19. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Fox, Mark

    2010-12-14

    To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Randomised controlled crossover study. 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium (13)Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Cumulative percentage dose of (13)C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of (13)C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, -0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference -0.40, -0.01 to -0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696.

  20. Valuation of milk composition and genotype in cheddar cheese production using an optimization model of cheese and whey production.

    PubMed

    Johnson, H A; Parvin, L; Garnett, I; DePeters, E J; Medrano, J F; Fadel, J G

    2007-02-01

    A mass balance optimization model was developed to determine the value of the kappa-casein genotype and milk composition in Cheddar cheese and whey production. Inputs were milk, nonfat dry milk, cream, condensed skim milk, and starter and salt. The products produced were Cheddar cheese, fat-reduced whey, cream, whey cream, casein fines, demineralized whey, 34% dried whey protein, 80% dried whey protein, lactose powder, and cow feed. The costs and prices used were based on market data from March 2004 and affected the results. Inputs were separated into components consisting of whey protein, ash, casein, fat, water, and lactose and were then distributed to products through specific constraints and retention equations. A unique 2-step optimization procedure was developed to ensure that the final composition of fat-reduced whey was correct. The model was evaluated for milk compositions ranging from 1.62 to 3.59% casein, 0.41 to 1.14% whey protein, 1.89 to 5.97% fat, and 4.06 to 5.64% lactose. The kappa casein genotype was represented by different retentions of milk components in Cheddar cheese and ranged from 0.715 to 0.7411 kg of casein in cheese/kg of casein in milk and from 0.7795 to 0.9210 kg of fat in cheese/kg of fat in milk. Milk composition had a greater effect on Cheddar cheese production and profit than did genotype. Cheese production was significantly different and ranged from 9,846 kg with a high-casein milk composition to 6,834 kg with a high-fat milk composition per 100,000 kg of milk. Profit (per 100,000 kg of milk) was significantly different, ranging from $70,586 for a high-fat milk composition to $16,490 for a low-fat milk composition. However, cheese production was not significantly different, and profit was significant only for the lowest profit ($40,602) with the kappa-casein genotype. Results from this model analysis showed that the optimization model is useful for determining costs and prices for cheese plant inputs and products, and that it can

  1. Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model queso fresco cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing cheese varieties in the U. S., making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Of these varieties, Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from a number of varieties of Mexican Queso...

  2. A Swiss cheese error detection method for real-time EPID-based quality assurance and error prevention.

    PubMed

    Passarge, Michelle; Fix, Michael K; Manser, Peter; Stampanoni, Marco F M; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2017-04-01

    To develop a robust and efficient process that detects relevant dose errors (dose errors of ≥5%) in external beam radiation therapy and directly indicates the origin of the error. The process is illustrated in the context of electronic portal imaging device (EPID)-based angle-resolved volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) quality assurance (QA), particularly as would be implemented in a real-time monitoring program. A Swiss cheese error detection (SCED) method was created as a paradigm for a cine EPID-based during-treatment QA. For VMAT, the method compares a treatment plan-based reference set of EPID images with images acquired over each 2° gantry angle interval. The process utilizes a sequence of independent consecutively executed error detection tests: an aperture check that verifies in-field radiation delivery and ensures no out-of-field radiation; output normalization checks at two different stages; global image alignment check to examine if rotation, scaling, and translation are within tolerances; pixel intensity check containing the standard gamma evaluation (3%, 3 mm) and pixel intensity deviation checks including and excluding high dose gradient regions. Tolerances for each check were determined. To test the SCED method, 12 different types of errors were selected to modify the original plan. A series of angle-resolved predicted EPID images were artificially generated for each test case, resulting in a sequence of precalculated frames for each modified treatment plan. The SCED method was applied multiple times for each test case to assess the ability to detect introduced plan variations. To compare the performance of the SCED process with that of a standard gamma analysis, both error detection methods were applied to the generated test cases with realistic noise variations. Averaged over ten test runs, 95.1% of all plan variations that resulted in relevant patient dose errors were detected within 2° and 100% within 14° (<4% of patient dose delivery

  3. Characterization and Application of Antilisterial Enterocins on Model Fresh Cheese.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Susana C; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Silva, Célia C G

    2017-08-01

    Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from an artisanal cheese were selected based on enterocin production against Listeria monocytogenes. The strains formed biofilms and presented high hydrophobic character and good autoaggregation and coaggregation capacity with L. monocytogenes. Strains L3A21M3 and L3B1K3 presented high survival under gastrointestinal conditions, were able to adhere to human intestinal cells (Caco-2 and HT-29), and blocked the adhesion and invasion of L. monocytogenes. The antilisterial activity of enterocins was not affected by pH (2 to 12), heating (100°C), and chemical and surfactant agents. However, strains L3A21M3 and L3A21M8 produced thermolabile enterocins, which were also sensible to extreme pH values. Enterocins exhibited a bacteriostatic mode of action against L. monocytogenes, and maximum production was observed during the stationary phase. Common enterocin structural genes were not detected by PCR amplification with specific primers, although an exhaustive screening was not performed. The enterocin produced by the L3B1K3 strain was purified and applied to model cheeses contaminated with L. monocytogenes. This enterocin reduced survival of L. monocytogenes on fresh cheeses in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose tested (2,048 arbitrary units per g of cheese) was effective in reducing the pathogen counts to undetectable values throughout storage (6 to 72 h). These results suggest that these strains have great potential to be used as biopreservatives in the food industry and also as probiotics, with the potential to prevent L. monocytogenes gastrointestinal infection.

  4. Towards large volume big divisor D3/D7 " μ-split supersymmetry" and Ricci-flat Swiss-cheese metrics, and dimension-six neutrino mass operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuria, Mansi; Misra, Aalok

    2012-02-01

    We show that it is possible to realize a " μ-split SUSY" scenario (Cheng and Cheng, 2005) [1] in the context of large volume limit of type IIB compactifications on Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau orientifolds in the presence of a mobile space-time filling D3-brane and a (stack of) D7-brane(s) wrapping the "big" divisor. For this, we investigate the possibility of getting one Higgs to be light while other to be heavy in addition to a heavy higgsino mass parameter. Further, we examine the existence of long lived gluino that manifests one of the major consequences of μ-split SUSY scenario, by computing its decay width as well as lifetime corresponding to the three-body decays of the gluino into either a quark, a squark and a neutralino or a quark, squark and goldstino, as well as two-body decays of the gluino into either a neutralino and a gluon or a goldstino and a gluon. Guided by the geometric Kähler potential for Σ obtained in Misra and Shukla (2010) [2] based on GLSM techniques, and the Donaldson's algorithm (Barun et al., 2008) [3] for obtaining numerically a Ricci-flat metric, we give details of our calculation in Misra and Shukla (2011) [4] pertaining to our proposed metric for the full Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau (the geometric Kähler potential being needed to be included in the full moduli space Kähler potential in the presence of the mobile space-time filling D3-brane), but for simplicity of calculation, close to the big divisor, which is Ricci-flat in the large volume limit. Also, as an application of the one-loop RG flow solution for the higgsino mass parameter, we show that the contribution to the neutrino masses at the EW scale from dimension-six operators arising from the Kähler potential, is suppressed relative to the Weinberg-type dimension-five operators.

  5. First mass spectrometry metabolic fingerprinting of bacterial metabolism in a model cheese.

    PubMed

    Le Boucher, C; Courant, F; Jeanson, S; Chereau, S; Maillard, M-B; Royer, A-L; Thierry, A; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Le Bizec, B; Lortal, S

    2013-11-15

    Metabolic fingerprinting is an untargeted approach which has not yet been undertaken to investigate cheese. This study is a proof of concept, concerning the ability of mass spectrometry (MS) metabolic fingerprinting to investigate modifications induced by bacterial metabolism in cheese over time. An ultrafiltrated milk concentrate was used to manufacture model cheeses inoculated with Lactococcus lactis LD61. Metabolic fingerprints were acquired after 0, 8 and 48h from two different fractions of the metabolome: the water-soluble fraction using liquid chromatography-high resolution-MS and a volatile fraction using gas chromatography-MS. Metabolic fingerprints differed significantly over time. Forty-five metabolites were identified, including well-known cheese metabolites, such as 12 amino acids and 25 volatile metabolites, and less studied ones, such as four vitamins, uric acid, creatine and l-carnitine. These results showed the relevance of cheese MS fingerprinting to generate new findings and to detect even slight differences between two conditions.

  6. [Quantification of the probability of milk contamination by Listeria monocytogenes during manufacture of hard cheese].

    PubMed

    Schaffner, E; Mühlemann, M; Spahr, U; Schällibaum, M

    2003-10-01

    The present work is concerned with the probability of contamination by Listeria monocytogenes in the artisanal manufacture of Swiss Emmental hard cheese made from raw milk. The simulation model follows the evolution of the contaminant flora from raw milk at the farm to milk mixing, storage at the cheese factory and to the cheese manufacturing process. The simulations are based on models of predictive microbiology, namely the exponential growth model of bacteria including the lag-time, a cardinal growth model and a Log-linear model of thermal deactivation of bacteria. The results of the actual simulation indicate that the contamination of milk at the farm is a rare event (P=0.0036), but the mixing of milk at the cheese factory leads to a higher probability of contamination of cheese milk (P=0.07). Elevated bacterial concentrations are mainly due to cases of mastitis involving Listeria monocytogenes. The decline in bacterial counts during cheese manufacture depends on the curing temperature (52-54 degrees C) and varies between 1.5 and 3.2 Log cfu/ml. Freshly manufactured Emmental-cheese made from contaminated raw milk is expected to have only 4.6 cfu of heat injured Listeria monocytogenes /kg cheese mass in the press. Depending on listeria evolution, from the press to the product consumption, consumer exposure has been evaluated and might result in 1 to 10 Listeria monocytogenes per portion of cheese. The bacterial presence could be due to recontamination during packaging, distribution and cheese preparation by the consumer. Based on the presented data and estimations, it is concluded that the consumption of traditionally/artisanal manufactured Swiss Emmental hard cheese presents an extremely low, but existent risk, especially for people with a deficient or diminished immune system.

  7. Applicability of bacterial growth models in spreadable processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Dorota; Kaczmarek, Anna; Stangierski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Food spoilage is a process in which the quality parameters decrease and products are no longer edible. This is a cumulative effect of bacteria growth and their metabolite production, which is a factor limiting shelf life. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether microbiological growth models for total viable count (TVC) and Clostridium strain bacteria are reliable tools for prediction of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese. Investigations were conducted for two types of bacteria: TVC and Clostridium in following temperature: 8°C, 20°C and 30°C. A total number of aerobic bacteria was determined based on standard PN-EN ISO 4833:2004 and Clostridium was detected by using microbiological procedure for sulphite-reducing anaerobic spore-bacteria with a selective nourishment. During the analysis nonlinear regression and Baranyi and Roberts primary model were used. For temperatures 20°C and 30°C, Baranyi and Roberts model, for total viable count showed determination coefficient of 70%. The models prepared for Clostridium, in these temperatures, showed much lower R2, respectively 25% and 30%. At the abovementioned temperatures also the expiration of product shelf life was much shorter and amounted 70 days at 20°C and 7 days at 30°C. For both types of bacteria incubated at 8°C the numbers of bacteria decrease until the expiration of product shelf life. Models used in the analyses, Baranyi and Roberts and nonlinear regression, poorly matched the experimental data, hence they are not reliable tools. Nevertheless, they gave information about dynamic of microbiological changes in spreadable processed cheese.

  8. The SWISS-MODEL Repository-new features and functionality.

    PubMed

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A P; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-04

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. The SWISS-MODEL Repository—new features and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. PMID:27899672

  10. Modelling the Maillard reaction during the cooking of a model cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Emmanuel; Meyer, Xuân-Mi; Machado-Maturana, Elizabeth; Berdagué, Jean-Louis; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-10-01

    During processing and storage of industrial processed cheese, odorous compounds are formed. Some of them are potentially unwanted for the flavour of the product. To reduce the appearance of these compounds, a methodological approach was employed. It consists of: (i) the identification of the key compounds or precursors responsible for the off-flavour observed, (ii) the monitoring of these markers during the heat treatments applied to the cheese medium, (iii) the establishment of an observable reaction scheme adapted from a literature survey to the compounds identified in the heated cheese medium (iv) the multi-responses stoichiokinetic modelling of these reaction markers. Systematic two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used for the semi-quantitation of trace compounds. Precursors were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental data obtained were fitted to the model with 14 elementary linked reactions forming a multi-response observable reaction scheme.

  11. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Flavor production among 12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strains may have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production. PMID:22950022

  12. Debaryomyces hansenii strains differ in their production of flavor compounds in a cheese-surface model.

    PubMed

    Gori, Klaus; Sørensen, Louise Marie; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Jespersen, Lene; Arneborg, Nils

    2012-06-01

    Flavor production among 12 strains of Debaryomyces hansenii when grown on a simple cheese model mimicking a cheese surface was investigated by dynamic headspace sampling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The present study confirmed that D. hansenii possess the ability to produce important cheese flavor compounds, primarily branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols, and thus important for the final cheese flavor. Quantification of representative aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) and alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol) showed that the investigated D. hansenii strains varied significantly with respect to production of these flavor compounds. Contrary to the alcohols (2-Methyl-1-propanol, 3-Methyl-1-butanol, and 3-Methyl-3-buten-1-ol), the aldehydes (2-Methylpropanal, 3-Methylbutanal) were produced by the D. hansenii strains in concentrations higher than their sensory threshold values, and thus seemed more important than alcohols for cheese flavor. These results show that D. hansenii strains may have potential to be applied as cultures for increasing the nutty/malty flavor of cheese due to their production of aldehydes. However, due to large strain variations, production of flavor compounds has to be taken into consideration for selection of D. hansenii strains as starter cultures for cheese production.

  13. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of smear- or mold-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Schvartzman, M Sol; Gonzalez-Barron, Ursula; Butler, Francis; Jordan, Kieran

    2014-01-01

    Surface-ripened cheeses are matured by means of manual or mechanical technologies posing a risk of cross-contamination, if any cheeses are contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes. In predictive microbiology, primary models are used to describe microbial responses, such as growth rate over time and secondary models explain how those responses change with environmental factors. In this way, primary models were used to assess the growth rate of L. monocytogenes during ripening of the cheeses and the secondary models to test how much the growth rate was affected by either the pH and/or the water activity (aw) of the cheeses. The two models combined can be used to predict outcomes. The purpose of these experiments was to test three primary (the modified Gompertz equation, the Baranyi and Roberts model, and the Logistic model) and three secondary (the Cardinal model, the Ratowski model, and the Presser model) mathematical models in order to define which combination of models would best predict the growth of L. monocytogenes on the surface of artificially contaminated surface-ripened cheeses. Growth on the surface of the cheese was assessed and modeled. The primary models were firstly fitted to the data and the effects of pH and aw on the growth rate (μmax) were incorporated and assessed one by one with the secondary models. The Logistic primary model by itself did not show a better fit of the data among the other primary models tested, but the inclusion of the Cardinal secondary model improved the final fit. The aw was not related to the growth of Listeria. This study suggests that surface-ripened cheese should be separately regulated within EU microbiological food legislation and results expressed as counts per surface area rather than per gram.

  14. Fate of Lactococcus lactis starter cultures during late ripening in cheese models.

    PubMed

    Ruggirello, Marianna; Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola

    2016-10-01

    The presence of Lactococcus lactis, commonly employed as starter culture, was, recently, highlighted and investigated during late cheese ripening. Thus, the main goal of the present study was to assess the persistence and viability of this microorganism throughout manufacturing and ripening of model cheeses. Eight commercial starters, constituted of L. lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, were inoculated in pasteurized milk in order to manufacture miniature cheeses, ripened for six months. Samples were analysed at different steps (milk after inoculum, curd after cutting, curd after pressing and draining, cheese immediately after salting and cheese at 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days of ripening) and submitted to both culture-dependent (traditional plating on M17) and -independent analysis (reverse transcription-quantitative PCR). On the basis of direct RNA analysis, L. lactis populations were detected in all miniature cheeses up to the sixth month of ripening, confirming the presence of viable cells during the whole ripening process, including late stages. Noteworthy, L. lactis was detected by RT-qPCR in cheese samples also when traditional plating failed to indicate its presence. This discrepancy could be explain with the fact that lactococci, during ripening process, enter in a stressed physiological state (viable not culturable, VNC), which might cause their inability to grow on synthetic medium despite their viability in cheese matrix. Preliminary results obtained by "resuscitation" assays corroborated this hypothesis and 2.5% glucose enrichment was effective to recover L. lactis cells in VNC state. The capability of L. lactis to persist in late ripening, and the presence of VNC cells which are known to shift their catabolism to peptides and amino acids consumption, suggests a possible technological role of this microorganism in cheese ripening with a possible impact on flavour formation.

  15. Modeling the growth of Listeria monocytogenes in mold-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lobacz, Adriana; Kowalik, Jaroslaw; Tarczynska, Anna

    2013-06-01

    This study presents possible applications of predictive microbiology to model the safety of mold-ripened cheeses with respect to bacteria of the species Listeria monocytogenes during (1) the ripening of Camembert cheese, (2) cold storage of Camembert cheese at temperatures ranging from 3 to 15°C, and (3) cold storage of blue cheese at temperatures ranging from 3 to 15°C. The primary models used in this study, such as the Baranyi model and modified Gompertz function, were fitted to growth curves. The Baranyi model yielded the most accurate goodness of fit and the growth rates generated by this model were used for secondary modeling (Ratkowsky simple square root and polynomial models). The polynomial model more accurately predicted the influence of temperature on the growth rate, reaching the adjusted coefficients of multiple determination 0.97 and 0.92 for Camembert and blue cheese, respectively. The observed growth rates of L. monocytogenes in mold-ripened cheeses were compared with simulations run with the Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP 7.0, USDA, Wyndmoor, PA) and ComBase Predictor (Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK). However, the latter predictions proved to be consistently overestimated and contained a significant error level. In addition, a validation process using independent data generated in dairy products from the ComBase database (www.combase.cc) was performed. In conclusion, it was found that L. monocytogenes grows much faster in Camembert than in blue cheese. Both the Baranyi and Gompertz models described this phenomenon accurately, although the Baranyi model contained a smaller error. Secondary modeling and further validation of the generated models highlighted the issue of usability and applicability of predictive models in the food processing industry by elaborating models targeted at a specific product or a group of similar products.

  16. Modelling of sensory and instrumental texture parameters in processed cheese by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, Carmen; Downey, Gerard; O'Callaghan, Donal; Howard, Vincent; Delahunty, Conor; Sheehan, Elizabeth; Everard, Colm; O'Donnell, Colm P

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the application of near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy to the measurement of texture (sensory and instrumental) in experimental processed cheese samples. Spectra (750 to 2498 nm) of cheeses were recorded after 2 and 4 weeks storage at 4 degrees C. Trained assessors evaluated 9 sensory properties, a texture profile analyser (TPA) was used to record 5 instrumental parameters and cheese 'meltability' was measured by computer vision. Predictive models for sensory and instrumental texture parameters were developed using partial least squares regression on raw or pre-treated spectral data. Sensory attributes and instrumental texture measurements were modelled with sufficient accuracy to recommend the use of NIR reflectance spectroscopy for routine quality assessment of processed cheese.

  17. Short communication: Assessing antihypertensive activity in native and model Queso Fresco cheeses.

    PubMed

    Paul, M; Van Hekken, D L

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic-style cheeses are one of the fastest growing varieties in the United States, making up approximately 2% of the total cheese production in this country. Queso Fresco is one of most popular Hispanic-style cheeses. Protein extracts from several varieties of Mexican Queso Fresco and model Queso Fresco were analyzed for potential antihypertensive activity. Many Quesos Frescos obtained from Mexico are made from raw milk and therefore the native microflora is included in the cheese-making process. Model Queso Fresco samples were made from pasteurized milk and did not utilize starter cultures. Water-soluble protein extracts from 6 Mexican Quesos Frescos and 12 model cheeses were obtained and assayed for their ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, implying potential as foods that can help to lower blood pressure. All model cheeses displayed antihypertensive activity, but mainly after 8 wk of aging when they were no longer consumable, whereas the Mexican samples did display some angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory action after minimal aging.

  18. Glial expression of Swiss cheese (SWS), the Drosophila orthologue of neuropathy target esterase (NTE), is required for neuronal ensheathment and function

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Sudeshna; Rieche, Franziska; Eckl, Nina; Duch, Carsten; Kretzschmar, Doris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mutations in Drosophila Swiss cheese (SWS) or its vertebrate orthologue neuropathy target esterase (NTE), respectively, cause progressive neuronal degeneration in Drosophila and mice and a complex syndrome in humans that includes mental retardation, spastic paraplegia and blindness. SWS and NTE are widely expressed in neurons but can also be found in glia; however, their function in glia has, until now, remained unknown. We have used a knockdown approach to specifically address SWS function in glia and to probe for resulting neuronal dysfunctions. This revealed that loss of SWS in pseudocartridge glia causes the formation of multi-layered glial whorls in the lamina cortex, the first optic neuropil. This phenotype was rescued by the expression of SWS or NTE, suggesting that the glial function is conserved in the vertebrate protein. SWS was also found to be required for the glial wrapping of neurons by ensheathing glia, and its loss in glia caused axonal damage. We also detected severe locomotion deficits in glial sws-knockdown flies, which occurred as early as 2 days after eclosion and increased further with age. Utilizing the giant fibre system to test for underlying functional neuronal defects showed that the response latency to a stimulus was unchanged in knockdown flies compared to controls, but the reliability with which the neurons responded to increasing frequencies was reduced. This shows that the loss of SWS in glia impairs neuronal function, strongly suggesting that the loss of glial SWS plays an important role in the phenotypes observed in the sws mutant. It is therefore likely that changes in glia also contribute to the pathology observed in humans that carry mutations in NTE. PMID:26634819

  19. Proteolysis in model Portuguese cheeses: Effects of rennet and starter culture.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cláudia I; Gomes, Eliza O; Gomes, Ana M P; Malcata, F Xavier

    2008-06-01

    To shed further light onto the mechanisms of proteolysis that prevail throughout ripening of Portuguese cheeses, model cheeses were manufactured from bovine milk, following as much as possible traditional manufacture practices - using either animal or plant rennet. The individual role upon proteolysis of two (wild) strains of lactic acid bacteria - viz. Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus brevis, which are normally found to high viable numbers in said cheeses, was also considered, either as single or mixed cultures. Our experimental results confirmed the influence of rennet on the proteolysis extent, but not on proteolysis depth. On the other hand, the aforementioned strains clearly improved release of medium- and small-sized peptides, and contributed as well to the free amino acid pool in cheese. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling and predicting growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Rios, Veronica; Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Gkogka, Elissavet; Rosshaug, Per Sand; Dalgaard, Paw

    2016-01-04

    Mathematical models were developed and evaluated for growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in chilled milk and in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic acid and sorbic acid. A simplified cardinal parameter growth rate model was developed based on growth in broth. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameter μref25°C-broth of 1.031/h was calibrated by fitting the model to a total of 35 growth rates from cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing. This resulted in a μref25°C-cottage cheese value of 0.621/h. Predictions from both growth rate models were evaluated by comparison with literature and experimental data. Growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in heat-treated milk (n=33) resulted in a bias factor (Bf) of 1.08 and an accuracy factor (Af) of 1.32 (μref25°C-broth), whereas growth in cottage cheese with cultured cream dressing and in non-heated milk (n=26) resulted in Bf of 1.08 and Af of 1.43 (μref25°C-cottage cheese). Lag phase models were developed by using relative lag times and data from both the present study and from literature. The acceptable simulation zone method showed the developed models to successfully predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads in milk and cottage cheese at both constant and dynamic temperature storage conditions. The developed models can be used to predict growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads and shelf life of chilled cottage cheese and milk at constant and dynamic storage temperatures. The applied methodology and the developed models seem likely to be applicable for shelf life assessment of other types of products where psychrotolerant pseudomonads are important for spoilage.

  1. Optimal growth of Lactobacillus casei in a Cheddar cheese ripening model system requires exogenous fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Tan, W S; Budinich, M F; Ward, R; Broadbent, J R; Steele, J L

    2012-04-01

    Flavor development in ripening Cheddar cheese depends on complex microbial and biochemical processes that are difficult to study in natural cheese. Thus, our group has developed Cheddar cheese extract (CCE) as a model system to study these processes. In previous work, we found that CCE supported growth of Lactobacillus casei, one of the most prominent nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) species found in ripening Cheddar cheese, to a final cell density of 10(8) cfu/mL at 37°C. However, when similar growth experiments were performed at 8°C in CCE derived from 4-mo-old cheese (4mCCE), the final cell densities obtained were only about 10(6) cfu/mL, which is at the lower end of the range of the NSLAB population expected in ripening Cheddar cheese. Here, we report that addition of Tween 80 to CCE resulted in a significant increase in the final cell density of L. casei during growth at 8°C and produced concomitant changes in cytoplasmic membrane fatty acid (CMFA) composition. Although the effect was not as dramatic, addition of milk fat or a monoacylglycerol (MAG) mixture based on the MAG profile of milk fat to 4mCCE also led to an increased final cell density of L. casei in CCE at 8°C and changes in CMFA composition. These observations suggest that optimal growth of L. casei in CCE at low temperature requires supplementation with a source of fatty acids (FA). We hypothesize that L. casei incorporates environmental FA into its CMFA, thereby reducing its energy requirement for growth. The exogenous FA may then be modified or supplemented with FA from de novo synthesis to arrive at a CMFA composition that yields the functionality (i.e., viscosity) required for growth in specific conditions. Additional studies utilizing the CCE model to investigate microbial contributions to cheese ripening should be conducted in CCE supplemented with 1% milk fat.

  2. A model to assess lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidase activities in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Gatti, M; De Dea Lindner, J; Gardini, F; Mucchetti, G; Bevacqua, D; Fornasari, M E; Neviani, E

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate in which phases of ripening of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese lactic acid bacteria aminopeptidases present in cheese extract could be involved in release of free amino acids and to better understand the behavior of these enzymes in physical-chemical conditions that are far from their optimum. In particular, we evaluated 6 different substrates to reproduce broad-specificity aminopeptidase N, broad-specificity aminopeptidase C, glutamyl aminopeptidase A, peptidase with high specificity for leucine and alanine, proline iminopeptidase, and X-prolyl dipeptidyl aminopeptidase activities releasing different N-terminal amino acids. The effects of pH, NaCl concentration, and temperature on the enzyme activities of amino acid beta-naphthylamide (betaNA)-substrates were determined by modulating the variables in 19 different runs of an experimental design, which allowed the building of mathematical models able to assess the effect on aminopeptidases activities over a range of values, obtained with bibliographic data, covering different environmental conditions in different zones of the cheese wheel at different aging times. The aminopeptidases tested in this work were present in cell-free Parmigiano Reggiano cheese extract after a 17-mo ripening and were active when tested in model system. The modeling approach shows that to highlight the individual and interactive effects of chemical-physical variables on enzyme activities, it is helpful to determine the true potential of an amino-peptidase in cheese. Our results evidenced that the 6 different lactic acid bacteria peptidases participate in cheese proteolysis and are induced or inhibited by the cheese production parameters that, in turn, depend on the cheese dimension. Generally, temperature and pH exerted the more relevant effects on the enzymatic activities, and in many cases, a relevant interactive effect of these variables was observed. Increasing salt concentration slowed down broad

  3. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... moisture content of pasteurized process limburger cheese is not more than 51 percent. (ii) The fat content... cheese used, but in no case is less than 47 percent; except that the fat content of the solids of pasteurized process swiss cheese is not less than 43 percent, and the fat content of the solids of...

  4. Short communication: A new minicurd model system for hard cooked cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vélez, M A; Perotti, M C; Rebechi, S R; Hynes, E R

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to propose and validate a new minicurd model of young hard cheese. Curd particles and whey obtained from conventional cheese making of Reggianito Argentino were separated and frozen. Then, both fractions were thawed and the mixture of whey and curds was reconstituted, from which minicurds were made on the laboratory scale. Repeatability and the effect of freezing on minicurd composition were investigated by assessing pH, protein and moisture contents, sodium chloride content, and total thermophilic lactic flora counts. Good repeatability was achieved, and no significant differences were found between minicurds made from fresh compared with frozen materials. Composition of the minicurd was appropriate for modeling Reggianito Argentino cheese.

  5. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  6. Understanding aroma release from model cheeses by a statistical multiblock approach on oral processing.

    PubMed

    Feron, Gilles; Ayed, Charfedinne; Qannari, El Mostafa; Courcoux, Philippe; Laboure, Hélène; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    For human beings, the mouth is the first organ to perceive food and the different signalling events associated to food breakdown. These events are very complex and as such, their description necessitates combining different data sets. This study proposed an integrated approach to understand the relative contribution of main food oral processing events involved in aroma release during cheese consumption. In vivo aroma release was monitored on forty eight subjects who were asked to eat four different model cheeses varying in fat content and firmness and flavoured with ethyl propanoate and nonan-2-one. A multiblock partial least square regression was performed to explain aroma release from the different physiological data sets (masticatory behaviour, bolus rheology, saliva composition and flux, mouth coating and bolus moistening). This statistical approach was relevant to point out that aroma release was mostly explained by masticatory behaviour whatever the cheese and the aroma, with a specific influence of mean amplitude on aroma release after swallowing. Aroma release from the firmer cheeses was explained mainly by bolus rheology. The persistence of hydrophobic compounds in the breath was mainly explained by bolus spreadability, in close relation with bolus moistening. Resting saliva poorly contributed to the analysis whereas the composition of stimulated saliva was negatively correlated with aroma release and mostly for soft cheeses, when significant.

  7. Nonstarter Lactobacillus strains as adjunct cultures for cheese making: in vitro characterization and performance in two model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Briggiler-Marcó, M; Capra, M L; Quiberoni, A; Vinderola, G; Reinheimer, J A; Hynes, E

    2007-10-01

    Nonstarter lactic acid bacteria are the main uncontrolled factor in today's industrial cheese making and may be the cause of quality inconsistencies and defects in cheeses. In this context, adjunct cultures of selected lactobacilli from nonstarter lactic acid bacteria origin appear as the best alternative to indirectly control cheese biota. The objective of the present work was to study the technological properties of Lactobacillus strains isolated from cheese by in vitro and in situ assays. Milk acidification kinetics and proteolytic and acidifying activities were assessed, and peptide mapping of trichloroacetic acid 8% soluble fraction of milk cultures was performed by liquid chromatography. In addition, the tolerance to salts (NaCl and KCl) and the phage-resistance were investigated. Four strains were selected for testing as adjunct cultures in cheese making experiments at pilot plant scale. In in vitro assays, most strains acidified milk slowly and showed weak to moderate proteolytic activity. Fast strains decreased milk pH to 4.5 in 8 h, and continued acidification to 3.5 in 12 h or more. This group consisted mostly of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains. Approximately one-third of the slow strains, which comprised mainly Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus curvatus, were capable to grow when milk was supplemented with glucose and casein hydrolysate. Peptide maps were similar to those of lactic acid bacteria considered to have a moderate proteolytic activity. Most strains showed salt tolerance and resistance to specific phages. The Lactobacillus strains selected as adjunct cultures for cheese making experiments reached 10(8) cfu/g in soft cheeses at 7 d of ripening, whereas they reached 10(9) cfu/g in semihard cheeses after 15 d of ripening. In both cheese varieties, the adjunct culture population remained at high counts during all ripening, in some cases overcoming or equaling primary starter. Overall

  8. Modeling the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Soft Blue-White Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Detmer, Ann; Ingmer, Hanne; Larsen, Marianne Halberg

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a predictive model simulating growth over time of the pathogenic bacterium Listeria monocytogenes in a soft blue-white cheese. The physicochemical properties in a matrix such as cheese are essential controlling factors influencing the growth of L. monocytogenes. We developed a predictive tertiary model of the bacterial growth of L. monocytogenes as a function of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. We measured the variations over time of the physicochemical properties in the cheese. Our predictive model was developed based on broth data produced in previous studies. New growth data sets were produced to independently calibrate and validate the developed model. A characteristic of this tertiary model is that it handles dynamic growth conditions described in time series of temperature, pH, NaCl, and lactic acid. Supplying the model with realistic production and retail conditions showed that the number of L. monocytogenes cells increases 3 to 3.5 log within the shelf life of the cheese. PMID:22983971

  9. Combining Individual-Based Modeling and Food Microenvironment Descriptions To Predict the Growth of Listeria monocytogenes on Smear Soft Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, Rachel; Hezard, Bernard; Lintz, Adrienne; Stahl, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    An individual-based modeling (IBM) approach was developed to describe the behavior of a few Listeria monocytogenes cells contaminating smear soft cheese surface. The IBM approach consisted of assessing the stochastic individual behaviors of cells on cheese surfaces and knowing the characteristics of their surrounding microenvironments. We used a microelectrode for pH measurements and micro-osmolality to assess the water activity of cheese microsamples. These measurements revealed a high variability of microscale pH compared to that of macroscale pH. A model describing the increase in pH from approximately 5.0 to more than 7.0 during ripening was developed. The spatial variability of the cheese surface characterized by an increasing pH with radius and higher pH on crests compared to that of hollows on cheese rind was also modeled. The microscale water activity ranged from approximately 0.96 to 0.98 and was stable during ripening. The spatial variability on cheese surfaces was low compared to between-cheese variability. Models describing the microscale variability of cheese characteristics were combined with the IBM approach to simulate the stochastic growth of L. monocytogenes on cheese, and these simulations were compared to bacterial counts obtained from irradiated cheeses artificially contaminated at different ripening stages. The simulated variability of L. monocytogenes counts with the IBM/microenvironmental approach was consistent with the observed one. Contrasting situations corresponding to no growth or highly contaminated foods could be deduced from these models. Moreover, the IBM approach was more effective than the traditional population/macroenvironmental approach to describe the actual bacterial behavior variability. PMID:23872572

  10. Combining individual-based modeling and food microenvironment descriptions to predict the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on smear soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, Rachel; Hezard, Bernard; Lintz, Adrienne; Stahl, Valérie; Augustin, Jean-Christophe

    2013-10-01

    An individual-based modeling (IBM) approach was developed to describe the behavior of a few Listeria monocytogenes cells contaminating smear soft cheese surface. The IBM approach consisted of assessing the stochastic individual behaviors of cells on cheese surfaces and knowing the characteristics of their surrounding microenvironments. We used a microelectrode for pH measurements and micro-osmolality to assess the water activity of cheese microsamples. These measurements revealed a high variability of microscale pH compared to that of macroscale pH. A model describing the increase in pH from approximately 5.0 to more than 7.0 during ripening was developed. The spatial variability of the cheese surface characterized by an increasing pH with radius and higher pH on crests compared to that of hollows on cheese rind was also modeled. The microscale water activity ranged from approximately 0.96 to 0.98 and was stable during ripening. The spatial variability on cheese surfaces was low compared to between-cheese variability. Models describing the microscale variability of cheese characteristics were combined with the IBM approach to simulate the stochastic growth of L. monocytogenes on cheese, and these simulations were compared to bacterial counts obtained from irradiated cheeses artificially contaminated at different ripening stages. The simulated variability of L. monocytogenes counts with the IBM/microenvironmental approach was consistent with the observed one. Contrasting situations corresponding to no growth or highly contaminated foods could be deduced from these models. Moreover, the IBM approach was more effective than the traditional population/macroenvironmental approach to describe the actual bacterial behavior variability.

  11. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one

  12. Transport phenomena in a model cheese: the influence of the charge and shape of solutes on diffusion.

    PubMed

    Silva, J V C; Peixoto, P D S; Lortal, S; Floury, J

    2013-10-01

    During cheese ripening, microorganisms grow as immobilized colonies, metabolizing substrates present in the matrix and generating products from enzymatic reactions. Local factors that limit the rates of diffusion, either within the general cheese matrix or near the colonies, may influence the metabolic activity of the bacteria during ripening, affecting the final quality of the cheese. The objective of this study was to determine the diffusion coefficients of solutes as a function of their different physicochemical characteristics (size, charge, and shape) in an ultrafiltrate (UF) model cheese (based on ultrafiltered milk) to enable better understanding of the ripening mechanisms. Diffusion coefficients of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans (4 kDa to 2 MDa) and FITC-labeled dairy proteins (α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, and BSA) were measured using the technique of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). This study showed that macromolecules up to 2 MDa and proteins could diffuse through the UF model cheese. The larger FITC-dextrans were not more hindered by the structure of the UF model cheese compared with the smaller ones. Any decrease in the diffusion coefficients of solutes was related only to their hydrodynamic radii. The FITC-dextran diffusion data were fitted to an obstruction model, resulting in a constant obstruction factor (k ~0.42). Diffusion in the model cheese was sensitive to the physicochemical characteristics of the solute. The FITC-dairy proteins studied (rigid and negatively charged molecules) were hindered to a greater degree than the FITC-dextrans (flexible and charge-neutral molecules) in the UF model cheese. The existence of steric and electrostatic interactions between the protein matrix of the UF model cheese and the FITC-dairy proteins could explain the decrease in diffusion compared with FITC-dextrans.

  13. Modeling of Camembert-type cheese mass loss in a ripening chamber: main biological and physical phenomena.

    PubMed

    Hélias, A; Mirade, P-S; Corrieu, G

    2007-11-01

    A model of the mass loss of Camembert-type cheese was established with data obtained from 2 experimental ripening trials carried out in 2 pilot ripening chambers. During these experiments, a cheese was continuously weighed and the relative humidity, temperature, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations in the ripening chamber were recorded online. The aim was to establish a simple but accurate model that would predict cheese mass changes according to available online measurements. The main hypotheses were that 1) the cheese water activity was constant during ripening, 2) the respiratory activity of the microflora played a major role by inducing heat production, combined with important water evaporation, 3) the temperature gradient existing inside the cheese was negligible, and the limiting phenomenon was the convective transfer. The water activity and the specific heat of the cheeses were assessed by offline measurements. The others parameters in the model were obtained from the literature. This dynamic model was built with 2 state variables: the cheese mass and the surface temperature of the cheese. In this way, only the heat transfer coefficient had to be fitted, and it was strongly determined by the airflow characteristics close to the cheeses. Model efficiency was illustrated by comparing the estimated and measured mass and the mass loss rate for the 2 studied runs; the relative errors were less than 1.9 and 3.2% for the mass loss and the mass loss rate, respectively. The dynamic effects of special events, such as room defrosting or changes in chamber relative humidity, were well described by the model, especially in terms of kinetics (mass loss rates).

  14. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  15. Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius Thermophilic Esterase EST2's Activity in Milk and Cheese Models

    PubMed Central

    Mandrich, Luigi; Manco, Giuseppe; Rossi, Mosè; Floris, Esther; Jansen-van den Bosch, Tanja; Smit, Gerrit; Wouters, Jeroen A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the behavior of thermophilic esterase EST2 from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius in milk and cheese models. The pure enzyme was used to compare the EST2 hydrolytic activity to the activity of endogenous esterase EstA from Lactococcus lactis. The results indicate that EST2 exhibits 30-fold-higher esterase activity than EstA. As EstA has thioesterase activity, EST2 was assayed for this activity under the optimal conditions determined for EstA (namely, 30°C and pH 7.5). Although it is a thermophilic enzyme, EST2 exhibited eightfold-higher thioesterase activity than EstA with S-methyl thiobutanoate. The abilities of EST2 and EstA to synthesize short-chain fatty acid esters were compared. Two methods were developed to do this. In the first method a spectrophotometric assay was used to monitor the synthesis of esters by the pure enzymes using p-nitrophenol as the alcohol substrate. The synthetic activities were also evaluated under conditions that mimicked those present in milk and/or cheese. The second method involved evaluation of the synthetic abilities of the enzymes when they were directly added to a model cheese matrix. Substantial ester synthesis by EST2 was observed under both conditions. Finally, esterase and thioesterase activities were evaluated in milk using the purified EST2 enzyme and in the model cheese matrix using a strain of L. lactis NZ9000 harboring the EST2 gene and thus overproducing EST2. Both the esterase and thioesterase activities measured in milk and in the cheese matrix were much greater than the activities of the controls. PMID:16672457

  16. Lactobacillus casei strains isolated from cheese reduce biogenic amine accumulation in an experimental model.

    PubMed

    Herrero-Fresno, Ana; Martínez, Noelia; Sánchez-Llana, Esther; Díaz, María; Fernández, María; Martin, Maria Cruz; Ladero, Victor; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2012-07-02

    Tyramine and histamine are the biogenic amines (BAs) most commonly found in cheese, in which they appear as a result of the microbial enzymatic decarboxylation of tyrosine and histidine respectively. Given their toxic effects, their presence in high concentrations in foods should be avoided. In this work, samples of three cheeses (Zamorano, Cabrales and Emmental) with long ripening periods, and that often have high BA concentrations, were screened for the presence of BA-degrading lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Seventeen isolates were found that were able to degrade tyramine and histamine in broth culture. All 17 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing as belonging to Lactobacillus casei. They were typed by plasmid S1-PFGE and genomic macrorestriction-PFGE analysis. Two strains (L. casei 4a and 5b) associated with high degradation rates for both BAs were selected to test how this ability might affect histamine and tyramine accumulation in a Cabrales-like mini-cheese manufacturing model. The quantification of BAs and the monitoring of the strains' growth over ripening were undertaken by RP-HPLC and qPCR respectively. Both strains were found to reduce histamine and tyramine accumulation. These two strains might be suitable for use as adjunct cultures for reducing the presence of BAs in cheese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth, survival, and peptidolytic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 in a hard-cheese model.

    PubMed

    Bergamini, C V; Peralta, G H; Milesi, M M; Hynes, E R

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we studied the growth, survival, and peptidolytic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum I91 in a hard-cheese model consisting of a sterile extract of Reggianito cheese. To assess the influence of the primary starter and initial proteolysis level on these parameters, we prepared the extracts with cheeses that were produced using 2 different starter strains of Lactobacillus helveticus 138 or 209 (Lh138 or Lh209) at 3 ripening times: 3, 90, and 180 d. The experimental extracts were inoculated with Lb. plantarum I91; the control extracts were not inoculated and the blank extracts were heat-treated to inactivate enzymes and were not inoculated. All extracts were incubated at 34°C for 21 d, and then the pH, microbiological counts, and proteolysis profiles were determined. The basal proteolysis profiles in the extracts of young cheeses made with either strain tested were similar, but many differences between the proteolysis profiles of the extracts of the Lh138 and Lh209 cheeses were found when riper cheeses were used. The pH values in the blank and control extracts did not change, and no microbial growth was detected. In contrast, the pH value in experimental extracts decreased, and this decrease was more pronounced in extracts obtained from either of the young cheeses and from the Lh209 cheese at any stage of ripening. Lactobacillus plantarum I91 grew up to 8 log during the first days of incubation in all of the extracts, but then the number of viable cells decreased, the extent of which depended on the starter strain and the age of the cheese used for the extract. The decrease in the counts of Lb. plantarum I91 was observed mainly in the extracts in which the pH had diminished the most. In addition, the extracts that best supported the viability of Lb. plantarum I91 during incubation had the highest free amino acids content. The effect of Lb. plantarum I91 on the proteolysis profile of the extracts was marginal. Significant changes in the content of free

  18. Comparison between genetic parameters of cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits measured from individual model cheese-making methods or predicted from unprocessed bovine milk samples using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A

    2014-10-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry. The aim of this study was to infer the genetic parameters of some cheese yield-related traits predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis and compare the results with those obtained using an individual model cheese-producing procedure. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were produced using 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows, and individual measurements were taken for 10 traits: 3 cheese yield traits (fresh curd, curd total solids, and curd water as a percent of the weight of the processed milk), 4 milk nutrient recovery traits (fat, protein, total solids, and energy of the curd as a percent of the same nutrient in the processed milk), and 3 daily cheese production traits per cow (fresh curd, total solids, and water weight of the curd). Each unprocessed milk sample was analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 (Foss, Hillerød, Denmark) over the spectral range, from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). The FTIR spectrum-based prediction models for the previously mentioned traits were developed using modified partial least-square regression. Cross-validation of the whole data set yielded coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation of 0.65 to 0.95 for all traits, except for the recovery of fat (0.41). A 3-fold external validation was also used, in which the available data were partitioned into 2 subsets: a training set (one-third of the herds) and a testing set (two-thirds). The training set was used to develop calibration equations, whereas the testing subsets were used for external validation of the calibration equations and to estimate the heritabilities and genetic correlations of the measured and FTIR-predicted phenotypes. The coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation results obtained from the training sets were very similar to those obtained from the whole

  19. A nonlinear programming optimization model to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture.

    PubMed

    Papadatos, A; Berger, A M; Pratt, J E; Barbano, D M

    2002-11-01

    A nonlinear programming optimization model was developed to maximize net revenue in cheese manufacture and is described in this paper. The model identifies the optimal mix of milk resources together with the types of cheeses and co-products that maximize net revenue. It works in Excel while it takes the data specified by the user from a user-friendly interface created in Access. The user can specify any number of resources, cheese types, and co-products. To demonstrate the capabilities of the model, we determined the impact of variation in milk price and composition in the period 1998 to 2000 on the optimal mix of resources and optimal type of co-product for Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella. It was also desired to determine the impact of variation in protein content of nonfat dry milk (NDM) on net revenue, and examine the effect of reconstitution of NDM with water versus milk on net revenue. The optimal mix of resources and the net revenue markedly varied as milk resource prices and composition varied. The net revenue for Mozzarella was much higher than for Cheddar when the price of cream was high. Cheese plants that did not optimize the use of resources in response to variations in prices and composition missed a significant profit opportunity. Whey powder was more profitable than 34% whey protein concentrate and lactose in most months. The use of high-protein NDM led to an appreciable increase in net revenue. When the value of the nonfat portion of raw milk was high, reconstitution of NDM with water rather than milk markedly raised net revenue.

  20. From undefined red smear cheese consortia to minimal model communities both exhibiting similar anti-listerial activity on a cheese-like matrix.

    PubMed

    Imran, M; Desmasures, N; Vernoux, J-P

    2010-12-01

    Starting from one undefined cheese smear consortium exhibiting anti-listerial activity (signal) at 15 °C, 50 yeasts and 39 bacteria were identified by partial rDNA sequencing. Construction of microbial communities was done either by addition or by erosion approach with the aim to obtain minimal communities having similar signal to that of the initial smear. The signal of these microbial communities was monitored in cheese microcosm for 14 days under ripening conditions. In the addition scheme, strains having significant signals were mixed step by step. Five-member communities, obtained by addition of a Gram negative bacterium to two yeasts and two Gram positive bacteria, enhanced the signal dramatically contrary to six-member communities including two Gram negative bacteria. In the erosion approach, a progressive reduction of 89 initial strains was performed. While intermediate communities (89, 44 and 22 members) exhibited a lower signal than initial smear consortium, eleven- and six-member communities gave a signal almost as efficient. It was noteworthy that the final minimal model communities obtained by erosion and addition approaches both had anti-listerial activity while consisting of different strains. In conclusion, some minimal model communities can have higher anti-listerial effectiveness than individual strains or the initial 89 micro-organisms from smear. Thus, microbial interactions are involved in the production and modulation of anti-listerial signals in cheese surface communities.

  1. Modelling the competitive growth between Listeria monocytogenes and biofilm microflora of smear cheese wooden shelves.

    PubMed

    Guillier, L; Stahl, V; Hezard, B; Notz, E; Briandet, R

    2008-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the observed inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by the natural biofilm microflora (BM) on wooden shelves used in the ripening of a soft and smear cheese. For this, BM was harvested and we conducted a series of experiments in which two strains of L. monocytogenes were co-cultured with BM on glass fiber filters deposited on model cheeses. Compared to monoculture, L. monocytogenes growth rate in co-culture was not reduced but the growth of the pathogen stopped as soon as BM entered the stationary phase. This reduction in maximum population density can be explained by nutrient consumption and exhaustion by BM as no production of inhibitors by BM has been detected. This mechanism of pathogen inhibition has been previously described as the "Jameson effect".

  2. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p < 0.05) with the CH reduction and PI improvement. OBRI was reduced mainly in the "stracchino group". The model shows that some cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  3. A mathematical model of ethanol fermentation from cheese whey. I: Model development and parameter estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chen-Jen; Bajpai, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    The cybernetic approach to modeling of microbial kinetics in a mixed-substrate environment has been used in this work for the fermentative production of ethanol from cheese whey. In this system, the cells grow on multiple substrates and generate metabolic energy during product formation. This article deals with the development of a mathematical model in which the concept of cell maintenance was modified in light of the specific nature of product formation. Continuous culture data for anaerobic production of ethanol by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS 397 on glucose and lactose were used to estimate the kinetic parameters for subsequent use in predicting the behavior of microbial growth and product formation in new situations. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Artisanal cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Artisanal cheese, which is handmade in small batches, differs from mass-produced cheese because of the milk and procedures used. Artisanal cheese is made from the milk of pasture-fed cows, sheep, or goats instead of conventionally-fed cows, and is affected by plants eaten, stage of lactation, and s...

  5. Determining a Student's Optimal Learning Zone in Light of the Swiss Cheese Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morley, Patricia; Zmood, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Participation in society is increasingly dependent on educational achievement. Accordingly, society as a whole is committing more resources to education to prevent the adverse outcome of students moving through the school system only to emerge without the knowledge and skills that they might be expected to attain. In this paper, we explore the…

  6. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  7. Cheese Microbial Risk Assessments — A Review

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    Cheese is generally considered a safe and nutritious food, but foodborne illnesses linked to cheese consumption have occurred in many countries. Several microbial risk assessments related to Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli infections, causing cheese-related foodborne illnesses, have been conducted. Although the assessments of microbial risk in soft and low moisture cheeses such as semi-hard and hard cheeses have been accomplished, it has been more focused on the correlations between pathogenic bacteria and soft cheese, because cheese-associated foodborne illnesses have been attributed to the consumption of soft cheeses. As a part of this microbial risk assessment, predictive models have been developed to describe the relationship between several factors (pH, Aw, starter culture, and time) and the fates of foodborne pathogens in cheese. Predictions from these studies have been used for microbial risk assessment as a part of exposure assessment. These microbial risk assessments have identified that risk increased in cheese with high moisture content, especially for raw milk cheese, but the risk can be reduced by preharvest and postharvest preventions. For accurate quantitative microbial risk assessment, more data including interventions such as curd cooking conditions (temperature and time) and ripening period should be available for predictive models developed with cheese, cheese consumption amounts and cheese intake frequency data as well as more dose-response models. PMID:26950859

  8. Microstructure and textural and viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese with different dry matter and fat in dry matter content.

    PubMed

    Černíková, Michaela; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos; Řiháčková, Lada; Buňka, František

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the effect of a different dry matter (DM) contents (35 and 45% wt/wt) and fat in DM contents (40 and 50% wt/wt) on the textural and viscoelastic properties and microstructure of model processed cheeses made from real ingredients regularly used in the dairy industry. A constant DM content and constant fat in DM content were kept throughout the whole study. Apart from the basic chemical parameters, textural and viscoelastic properties of the model samples were measured and scanning electron microscopy was carried out. With increasing DM content, the rigidity of the products increased and the size of the fat globules in the model samples of the processed cheeses decreased. With increasing fat in DM content, the rigidity of the processed cheeses decreased and the size of the fat globules increased.

  9. Kinetic modeling of lactic acid production from batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Tango, M.S.A.; Ghaly, A.E.

    1999-12-01

    A kinetic model for the production of lactic acid through batch submerged fermentation of cheese whey using Lactobacillus helveticus was developed. The model accounts for the effect of substrate limitation, substrate inhibition, lactic acid inhibition, maintenance energy and cell death on the cell growth, substrate utilization, and lactic acid production during the fermentation process. The model was evaluated using experimental data from Tango and Ghaly (1999). The predicted results obtained from the model compared well with experimental (R{sup 2} = 0.92--0.98). The model was also used to investigate the effect of the initial substrate concentration on the lag period, fermentation time, specific growth rate, and cell productivity during batch fermentation. The maximum specific growth rate ({micro}{sub m}), the saturation constant (K{sub S}), the substrate inhibition constant (K{sub IS}), and the lactic acid inhibition constant (K{sub IP}) were found to be 0.25h{sup {minus}1}, 0.9 g/L, 250.0 g/L, and 60.0 g/L, respectively. High initial lactose concentration in cheese whey reduced both the specific growth rate and substrate utilization rate due to the substrate inhibition phenomenon. The maximum lactic acid production occurred at about 100 g/L initial lactose concentration after 40 h of fermentation. The maximum lactic acid concentration above which Lactobacillus helveticus did not grow was found to be 80.0 g/L.

  10. Growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp. during ripening in a cheese model medium.

    PubMed

    Deetae, Pawinee; Spinnler, Henry-Eric; Bonnarme, Pascal; Helinck, Sandra

    2009-02-01

    The growth and aroma contribution of Microbacterium foliorum, Proteus vulgaris and Psychrobacter sp., some common but rarely mentioned cheese bacteria, were investigated in a cheese model deacidified by Debaryomyces hansenii during the ripening process. Our results show that these bacteria had distinct growth and cheese flavour production patterns during the ripening process. P. vulgaris had the greatest capacity to produce not only the widest variety but also the highest quantities of volatile compounds with low olfactive thresholds, e.g. volatile sulphur compounds and branched-chain alcohols. Such compounds produced by P. vulgaris increased after 21 days of ripening and reached a maximum at 41 days. The three bacteria studied exhibited various degrees of caseinolytic, aminopeptidase and deaminase activities. Moreover, P. vulgaris had a greater capacity for hydrolysing casein and higher deaminase activity. Our results show that P. vulgaris, a Gram-negative bacterium naturally present on the surface of ripened cheeses, could produce high concentrations of flavour compounds from amino acid degradation during the ripening process. Its flavouring role in cheese cannot be neglected. Moreover, it could be a useful organism for producing natural flavours as dairy ingredients.

  11. A growth kinetic model of Kluyveromyces marxianus cultures on cheese whey as substrate.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Luís G S; Luvizetto, Débora J; Ferreira, Luciane S; Rech, Rosane; Ayub, Marco A Z; Secchi, Argimiro R

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a multi-route, non-structured kinetic model for determination of microbial growth and substrate consumption in an experimental batch bioreactor in which beta-galactosidase is produced by Kluyveromyces marxianus growing on cheese whey. The main metabolic routes for lactose, and oxygen consumption, cell growth, and ethanol production are derived based on experimental data. When these individual rates are combined into a single growth rate, by rewriting the model equations, the model re-interpretation has a complexity similar to that of the usual variations of the Monod kinetic model, available in the literature. Furthermore, the proposed model is in good agreement with the experimental data for different growth temperatures, being acceptable for dynamic simulations, processes optimization, and implementations of model-based control technologies.

  12. Effect of buttermilk made from creams with different heat treatment histories on properties of rennet gels and model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2008-03-01

    Although many studies have reported negative effects on cheese properties resulting from the use of buttermilk in cheese milk, the cause of these effects has not been determined. In this study, buttermilk was manufactured from raw cream and pasteurized cream, as well as from a cream derived from pasteurized whole milk. Skim milks with the same heat treatments were also manufactured to be used as controls. Compositional analysis of the buttermilks revealed a pH 4.6-insoluble protein content approximately 10% lower than that of the skim milk counterparts. Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteins remained soluble at pH 4.6 in raw cream buttermilk; however, when heat was applied to cream or whole milk before butter making, MFGM proteins precipitated with the caseins. Rennet gel characterization showed that MFGM material in the buttermilks decreased the firmness and increased the set-to-cut time of rennet gels, but this effect was amplified when pasteurized cream buttermilk was added to cheese milk. The microstructure of gels was studied, and it was observed that gel appearance was very different when pasteurized cream buttermilk was used, as opposed to raw cream buttermilk. Model cheeses manufactured with buttermilks tended to have a higher moisture content than cheeses made with skim milks, explaining the higher yields obtained with buttermilk. Superior retention of MFGM particles was observed in model cheeses made from pasteurized cream buttermilk compared with raw cream buttermilk. The results from this study show that pasteurization of cream and of whole milk modifies the surface of MFGM particles, and this may explain why buttermilk has poor coagulation properties and therefore yields rennet gels with texture defects.

  13. Is the swiss health care system a model for the United States?

    PubMed

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have argued that it is similar to Switzerland's Federal Law on Health Insurance (LAMal), which currently governs Swiss health care, and have either praised or condemned the ACA on the basis of this alleged similarity. I challenge these observers on the grounds that they overlook critical problems with the Swiss model, such as its inequities in access, and critical differences between it and the ACA, such as the roots in, and continuing commitment to, social insurance of the Swiss model. Indeed, the daunting challenge of attempting to impose the tightly regulated model of operation of the Swiss model on mega-corporations like UnitedHealth, WellPoint, or Aetna is likely to trigger no less ferocious resistance than a fully public, single-payer system would. I also conclude that the ACA might unravel in ways unintended or even opposed by its designers and supporters, as employers, confronted with ever-rising costs, retreat from sponsoring insurance, and workers react in outrage as they confront the unaffordable underinsurance mandated by the ACA. A new political and ideological landscape may then ensue that finally ushers in a truly national health program.

  14. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Eklöw, Annelie; Dalgaard, Paw

    2014-10-01

    Four mathematical models were developed and validated for simultaneous growth of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures and Listeria monocytogenes, during chilled storage of cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing. The mathematical models include the effect of temperature, pH, NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acid and the interaction between these environmental factors. Growth models were developed by combining new and existing cardinal parameter values. Subsequently, the reference growth rate parameters (μref at 25°C) were fitted to a total of 52 growth rates from cottage cheese to improve model performance. The inhibiting effect of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from added cultures on growth of L. monocytogenes was efficiently modelled using the Jameson approach. The new models appropriately predicted the maximum population density of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese. The developed models were successfully validated by using 25 growth rates for L. monocytogenes, 17 growth rates for lactic acid bacteria and a total of 26 growth curves for simultaneous growth of L. monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. These data were used in combination with bias- and accuracy factors and with the concept of acceptable simulation zone. Evaluation of predicted growth rates of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese with fresh- or cultured cream dressing resulted in bias-factors (Bf) of 1.07-1.10 with corresponding accuracy factor (Af) values of 1.11 to 1.22. Lactic acid bacteria from added starter culture were on average predicted to grow 16% faster than observed (Bf of 1.16 and Af of 1.32) and growth of the diacetyl producing aroma culture was on average predicted 9% slower than observed (Bf of 0.91 and Af of 1.17). The acceptable simulation zone method showed the new models to successfully predict maximum population density of L. monocytogenes when growing together with lactic acid bacteria in cottage cheese. 11 of 13 simulations of L

  15. Fluorometric determination of histamine in cheese.

    PubMed

    Chambers, T L; Staruszkiewicz, W F

    1978-09-01

    Thirty-one samples of cheese obtained from retail outlets were analyzed for histamine, using an official AOAC fluorometric method. The types of cheese analyzed and the ranges of histamine found were: colby, 0.3--2.8; camembert, 0.4--4.2; cheddar, 1.2--5.8; gouda, 1.3--2.4; provolone, 2.0--23.5; roquefort, 1.0--16.8; mozzarella 1.6--5.0; and swiss, 0.4--250 mg histamine/100 g. Ten of the 12 samples of swiss cheese contained less than 16 mg histamine/100 g. The remaining 2 samples which contained 116 and 250 mg histamine/100 g were judged organoleptically to be of poor quality. An investigation of one processing facility showed that the production of histamine in swiss cheese may have been a result of a hydrogen peroxide/low temperature treatment of the milk supply. Recovery of histamine added to methanol extracts of cheese ranged from 93 to 105%. Histamine content was confirmed by high pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the methanol extracts.

  16. Evaluation of APHA and AOAC methods for phosphatase in cheese.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G K; Cox, S

    1988-01-01

    Varieties of market cheese were analyzed for alkaline phosphatase by the modified rapid colorimetric method of the American Public Health Association (APHA) and the official AOAC method, 16.304-16.306. In the APHA method, 5 g cheese (pH less than 7.0) is macerated with 2 mL 1:1 carbonate buffer, or 2 mL water (for cheese with pH greater than 7.0). Addition of 0.1 mL magnesium acetate (1 mg magnesium) to test portions of cheese extracts yielded reproducible and quantitative recovery of added phosphatase. In the AOAC method, macerating 0.5 g cheese with 1 mL borate buffer before adding milk phosphatase improved recovery among cheeses. Addition of magnesium ion increased phosphatase activity in some cheeses. Phosphatases in blue mold-ripened and Swiss cheeses were inactivated by heat faster than was milk phosphatase, yet milk phosphatase added to various soft cheeses was completely inactivated at 60 degrees C for 10 min. The lability of phosphatase was due to the heat-denaturing effect of NaCl present in finished cheeses. Some Mexican style soft cheeses contained both heat-labile and heat-stable phosphatases. These data suggest that the phosphatase test to differentiate milk and microbial phosphatases on the basis of repasteurization and analysis of cheese is no longer valid.

  17. Reduced growth of Listeria monocytogenes in two model cheese microcosms is not associated with individual microbial strains.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Bré, Jean-Michel; Guéguen, Marielle; Vernoux, Jean-Paul; Desmasures, Nathalie

    2013-02-01

    Two model antilisterial microbial communities consisting of two yeasts, two Gram positive and two Gram negative bacteria, and originating from Livarot cheese smear were previously designed. They were used in the present study to analyse the impact of microbial population dynamics on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cheese microcosm. Specific culture media and PCR primers were developed for simultaneous culture-dependent and real-time PCR quantification of strains belonging to Marinomonas sp., Paenibacillus sp., Staphylococcus equorum, Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Pseudomonas putida, Serratia liquefaciens, Candida natalensis, and Geotrichum candidum, in cheese microcosms. All strains were enumerated after 3, 5, 8 and 14 days at 15 °C. They established well at high counts in all cheese microcosms. Growth dynamics for all strains in presence of L. monocytogenes WSLC 1685 were compared to those of microbial communities obtained by omitting in turn one of the six members of the initial community. The growth of the microbial strains was neither markedly disturbed by Listeria presence nor by the removal of each strain in turn. Furthermore, these communities had a significant reducing effect on growth of L. monocytogenes independently of pH, as confirmed by mathematical modelling. A barrier effect was observed, that could be explained by specific competition for nutrients.

  18. Study of the influence of yeast inoculum concentration (Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis) on blue cheese aroma development using microbiological models.

    PubMed

    Price, Elliott J; Linforth, Robert S T; Dodd, Christine E R; Phillips, Carol A; Hewson, Louise; Hort, Joanne; Gkatzionis, Konstantinos

    2014-02-15

    Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis occur as part of Stilton cheese microflora yet are not controlled during production. This study investigated the influence of their inoculum concentration on aroma production. Models of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis, with Penicillium roqueforti, were analysed using instrumental and sensory analysis. Different concentrations of Y. lipolytica produced important changes in the aroma profiles of microbiological models, analysed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME GC-MS). Sensory analysis with discrimination tests showed differences were detectable via human perception but did not concern the similarity to blue cheese odour. Increasing the inoculum concentration of K. lactis resulted in decreased variation between replicates. Partial least squares (PLS) regression on Flash profile data showed models inoculated with low concentrations of K. lactis exhibited blue cheese-related attributes, associated with increased ketone production. Results suggest that controlling the amount of Y. lipolytica and K. lactis during production offers potential to manipulate blue cheese aroma development.

  19. Stochastic modelling of Listeria monocytogenes single cell growth in cottage cheese with mesophilic lactic acid bacteria from aroma producing cultures.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Nina Bjerre; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Dalgaard, Paw

    2015-07-02

    A stochastic model was developed for simultaneous growth of low numbers of Listeria monocytogenes and populations of lactic acid bacteria from the aroma producing cultures applied in cottage cheese. During more than two years, different batches of cottage cheese with aroma culture were analysed for pH, lactic acid concentration and initial concentration of lactic acid bacteria. These data and bootstrap sampling were used to represent product variability in the stochastic model. Lag time data were estimated from observed growth data (lactic acid bacteria) and from literature on L. monocytogenes single cells. These lag time data were expressed as relative lag times and included in growth models. A stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic growth model including the effect of five environmental factors and inter-bacterial interaction [Østergaard, N.B, Eklöw, A and Dalgaard, P. 2014. Modelling the effect of lactic acid bacteria from starter- and aroma culture on growth of Listeria monocytogenes in cottage cheese. International Journal of Food Microbiology. 188, 15-25]. Growth of L. monocytogenes single cells, using lag time distributions corresponding to three different stress levels, was simulated. The simulated growth was subsequently compared to growth of low concentrations (0.4-1.0 CFU/g) of L. monocytogenes in cottage cheese, exposed to similar stresses, and in general a good agreement was observed. In addition, growth simulations were performed using population relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes as reported in literature. Comparably good predictions were obtained as for the simulations performed using lag time data for individual cells of L. monocytogenes. Therefore, when lag time data for individual cells are not available, it was suggested that relative lag time distributions for L. monocytogenes can be used as a qualified default assumption when simulating growth of low concentrations of L. monocytogenes.

  20. Effects of Proteus vulgaris growth on the establishment of a cheese microbial community and on the production of volatile aroma compounds in a model cheese.

    PubMed

    Deetae, P; Mounier, J; Bonnarme, P; Spinnler, H E; Irlinger, F; Helinck, S

    2009-10-01

    To investigate the impact of Proteus vulgaris growth on a multispecies ecosystem and on volatile aroma compound production during cheese ripening. The microbial community dynamics and the production of volatile aroma compounds of a nine-species cheese ecosystem were compared with or without the presence of P. vulgaris in the initial inoculum. Proteus vulgaris was able to colonize the cheese surface and it was one of the dominant species, representing 37% of total isolates at the end of ripening with counts of 9.2 log(10) CFU g(-1). In the presence of P. vulgaris, counts of Arthrobacter arilaitensis, Brevibacterium aurantiacum and Hafnia alvei significantly decreased. Proteus vulgaris influenced the production of total volatile aroma compounds with branched-chain aldehydes and their corresponding alcohols being most abundant. Proteus vulgaris was able to successfully implant itself in a complex cheese ecosystem and significantly contributed to the organoleptic properties of cheese during ripening. This bacterium also interacted negatively with other bacteria in the ecosystem studied. This is the first time that the impact of a Gram-negative bacterium on cheese microbial ecology and functionality has been described.

  1. Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes

    PubMed Central

    Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Decontardi, Simone; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro and model the effect of temperature (T) and water activity (aw) conditions on growth and toxin production by some toxigenic fungi signaled in cheese. Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium camemberti, P. citrinum, P. crustosum, P. nalgiovense, P. nordicum, P. roqueforti, P. verrucosum were considered they were grown under different T (0–40 °C) and aw (0.78–0.99) regimes. The highest relative growth occurred around 25 °C; all the fungi were very susceptible to aw and 0.99 was optimal for almost all species (except for A. versicolor, awopt = 0.96). The highest toxin production occurred between 15 and 25 °C and 0.96–0.99 aw. Therefore, during grana cheese ripening, managed between 15 and 22 °C, ochratoxin A (OTA), penitrem A (PA), roquefortine-C (ROQ-C) and mycophenolic acid (MPA) are apparently at the highest production risk. Bete and logistic function described fungal growth under different T and aw regimes well, respectively. Bete function described also STC, PA, ROQ-C and OTA production as well as function of T. These models would be very useful as starting point to develop a mechanistic model to predict fungal growth and toxin production during cheese ripening and to help advising the most proper setting of environmental factors to minimize the contamination risk. PMID:28029129

  2. Explaining regional variations in health care utilization between Swiss cantons using panel econometric models.

    PubMed

    Camenzind, Paul A

    2012-03-13

    In spite of a detailed and nation-wide legislation frame, there exist large cantonal disparities in consumed quantities of health care services in Switzerland. In this study, the most important factors of influence causing these regional disparities are determined. The findings can also be productive for discussing the containment of health care consumption in other countries. Based on the literature, relevant factors that cause geographic disparities of quantities and costs in western health care systems are identified. Using a selected set of these factors, individual panel econometric models are calculated to explain the variation of the utilization in each of the six largest health care service groups (general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, medication, and nursing homes) in Swiss mandatory health insurance (MHI). The main data source is 'Datenpool santésuisse', a database of Swiss health insurers. For all six health care service groups, significant factors influencing the utilization frequency over time and across cantons are found. A greater supply of service providers tends to have strong interrelations with per capita consumption of MHI services. On the demand side, older populations and higher population densities represent the clearest driving factors. Strategies to contain consumption and costs in health care should include several elements. In the federalist Swiss system, the structure of regional health care supply seems to generate significant effects. However, the extent of driving factors on the demand side (e.g., social deprivation) or financing instruments (e.g., high deductibles) should also be considered.

  3. Breed of cow and herd productivity affect milk nutrient recovery in curd, and cheese yield, efficiency and daily production.

    PubMed

    Stocco, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Gasparotto, V; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2017-07-17

    Little is known about cheese-making efficiency at the individual cow level, so our objective was to study the effects of herd productivity, individual herd within productivity class and breed of cow within herd by producing, then analyzing, 508 model cheeses from the milk of 508 cows of six different breeds reared in 41 multi-breed herds classified into two productivity classes (high v. low). For each cow we obtained six milk composition traits; four milk nutrient (fat, protein, solids and energy) recovery traits (REC) in curd; three actual % cheese yield traits (%CY); two theoretical %CYs (fresh cheese and cheese solids) calculated from milk composition; two overall cheese-making efficiencies (% ratio of actual to theoretical %CYs); daily milk yield (dMY); and three actual daily cheese yield traits (dCY). The aforementioned phenotypes were analyzed using a mixed model which included the fixed effects of herd productivity, parity, days in milk (DIM) and breed; the random effects were the water bath, vat, herd and residual. Cows reared in high-productivity herds yielded more milk with higher nutrient contents and more cheese per day, had greater theoretical %CY, and lower cheese-making efficiency than low-productivity herds, but there were no differences between them in terms of REC traits. Individual herd within productivity class was an intermediate source of total variation in REC, %CY and efficiency traits (10.0% to 17.2%), and a major source of variation in milk yield and dCY traits (43.1% to 46.3%). Parity of cows was an important source of variation for productivity traits, whereas DIM affected almost all traits. Breed within herd greatly affected all traits. Holsteins produced more milk, but Brown Swiss cows produced milk with higher actual and theoretical %CYs and cheese-making efficiency, so that the two large-framed breeds had the same dCY. Compared with the two large-framed breeds, the small Jersey cows produced much less milk, but with greater actual

  4. Estimation of Swiss methane emissions by near surface observations and inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Stephan; Brian, Oney; Leuenberger, Markus; Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Steinbacher, Martin; Meinhardt, Frank; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. It is released from both natural and anthropogenic processes and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since preindustrial times. Current CH4 emission estimates are associated with comparatively large uncertainties both globally and regionally. For example, the Swiss national greenhouse gas inventory assigns an uncertainty of 18% to the country total anthropogenic CH4 emissions as compared to only 3% for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In Switzerland, CH4 is thought to be mainly released by agricultural activities (ruminants and manure management >80%), while natural emissions from wetlands and wild animals represent a minor source (~3 %). The country total and especially the spatial distribution of CH4 emission within Switzerland strongly differs between the national and different European scale inventories. To validate the 'bottom-up' Swiss CH4 emission estimate and to reduce its uncertainty both in total and spatially, 'top-down' methods combining atmospheric CH4 observations and regional scale transport simulations can be used. Here, we analyse continuous, near surface observations of CH4 concentrations as collected within the newly established CarboCountCH measurement network (http://www.carbocount.ch). The network consists of 4 sites situated on the Swiss Plateau, comprising a tall tower site (217 m), two elevated (mountaintop) sites and a small tower site (32 m) in flat terrain. In addition, continuous CH4 observations from the nearby high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (Alps) and the mountaintop site Schauinsland (Germany) were used. Two inversion frameworks were applied to the CH4 observations in combination with source sensitivities (footprints) calculated with the regional scale version of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. One inversion system was based on a Bayesian framework, while the other utilized an extended Kalman filter approach. The transport

  5. The nonlinear effect of somatic cell count on milk composition, coagulation properties, curd firmness modeling, cheese yield, and curd nutrient recovery.

    PubMed

    Bobbo, T; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) in milk and several milk technological traits at the individual cow level. In particular, we determined the effects of very low to very high SCC on traits related to (1) milk yield and composition; (2) coagulation properties, including the traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the new curd firming model parameters; and (3) cheese yield and recovery of milk nutrients in the curd (or loss in the whey). Milk samples from 1,271 Brown Swiss cows from 85 herds were used. Nine coagulation traits were measured: 3 traditional MCP [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd firming rate (k20, min), and curd firmness after 30 min (a30, mm)] and 6 new curd firming and syneresis traits [potential asymptotic curd firmness at infinite time (CFP, mm), curd firming instant rate constant (kCF, % × min(-1)), syneresis instant rate constant (kSR, % × min(-1)), rennet coagulation time estimated using the equation (RCTeq, min), maximum curd firmness achieved within 45 min (CFmax, mm), and time at achievement of CFmax (tmax, min)]. The observed cheese-making traits included 3 cheese yield traits (%CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, which represented the weights of curd, total solids, and water, respectively, as a percentage of the weight of the processed milk) and 4 nutrient recoveries in the curd (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, which each represented the percentage ratio between the nutrient in the curd and milk). Data were analyzed using a linear mixed model with the fixed effects of days in milk, parity, and somatic cell score (SCS), and the random effect of herd-date. Somatic cell score had strong influences on casein number and lactose, and also affected pH; these were traits characterized by a quadratic pattern of the data. The results also showed a negative linear relationship between SCS and milk yield. Somatic cell score influenced almost all of the tested

  6. Biogenic amine production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris strains in the model system of Dutch-type cheese.

    PubMed

    Flasarová, Radka; Pachlová, Vendula; Buňková, Leona; Menšíková, Anna; Georgová, Nikola; Dráb, Vladimír; Buňka, František

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the biogenic amine production of two starter strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strains from the Culture Collection of Dairy Microorganisms - CCDM 824 and CCDM 946) with decarboxylase positive activity in a model system of Dutch-type cheese during a 90-day ripening period at 10°C. During ripening, biogenic amine and free amino acid content, microbiological characteristics and proximate chemical properties were observed. By the end of the ripening period, the putrescine content in both samples with the addition of the biogenic amine producing strain almost evened out and the concentration of putrescine was >800mg/kg. The amount of tyramine in the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 824 approached the limit of 400mg/kg by the end of ripening. In the cheeses with the addition of the strain of CCDM 946 it even exceeded 500mg/kg. In the control samples, the amount of biogenic amines was insignificant.

  7. The use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy to predict cheese yield and nutrient recovery or whey loss traits from unprocessed bovine milk samples.

    PubMed

    Ferragina, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    Cheese yield is an important technological trait in the dairy industry in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis of fresh unprocessed milk samples for predicting cheese yield and nutrient recovery traits. A total of 1,264 model cheeses were obtained from 1,500-mL milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows. Individual measurements of 7 new cheese yield-related traits were obtained from the laboratory cheese-making procedure, including the fresh cheese yield, total solid cheese yield, and the water retained in curd, all as a percentage of the processed milk, and nutrient recovery (fat, protein, total solids, and energy) in the curd as a percentage of the same nutrient contained in the milk. All individual milk samples were analyzed using a MilkoScan FT6000 over the spectral range from 5,000 to 900 wavenumber × cm(-1). Two spectral acquisitions were carried out for each sample and the results were averaged before data analysis. Different chemometric models were fitted and compared with the aim of improving the accuracy of the calibration equations for predicting these traits. The most accurate predictions were obtained for total solid cheese yield and fresh cheese yield, which exhibited coefficients of determination between the predicted and measured values in cross-validation (1-VR) of 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. A less favorable result was obtained for water retained in curd (1-VR=0.65). Promising results were obtained for recovered protein (1-VR=0.81), total solids (1-VR=0.86), and energy (1-VR=0.76), whereas recovered fat exhibited a low accuracy (1-VR=0.41). As FTIR spectroscopy is a rapid, cheap, high-throughput technique that is already used to collect standard milk recording data, these FTIR calibrations for cheese yield and nutrient recovery highlight additional potential applications of the technique in the dairy industry, especially for monitoring cheese

  8. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  9. Comparative inhibitory effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and mesophilic starter co-culture in cheese-mimicking models.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Souza, Geanny Targino; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Maganani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effects of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil (TVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic bacteria frequently associated with fresh or low-ripened cheeses (e.g., Brazilian coalho cheese), and on a starter co-culture comprising Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris, which are commonly used for the production of different cheeses. To measure these effects, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and assessed bacterial cell viability over time in (coalho) cheese-based broth and in a semi-solid (coalho) cheese model at 10 °C. The MIC for TVEO was 2.5 μL/mL against S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, while the MIC was 1.25 μL/mL against the starter co-culture. The TVEO (5 and 2.5 μL/mL) sharply reduced the viable counts of all assayed bacteria in cheese broth over 24 h; although, at 5 μL/mL, TVEO more severely affected the viability of the starter co-culture compared with pathogenic bacteria. The addition of 1.25 μL/g of TVEO in the semi-solid cheese model did not reduce the viable counts of all assayed bacteria. At 2.5 μL/g, TVEO slightly decreased the viable counts of S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and Lactococcus spp. in the semi-solid cheese model over 72 h. The final counts of Lactococcus spp. in a semi-solid cheese model containing 2.5 μL/mL TVEO were lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the doses of TVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in fermented dairy products, especially in low-ripened cheeses, should be cautiously considered for potential negative effects on the growth and survival of starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oropharyngeal aspiration of bleomycin: An alternative experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis developed in Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Swarna; Sunkoju, Manoj; Reddy, Shiva Shankar; Swamy, Veerabhadra; Godugu, Chandraiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive and predominantly lethal form of several interstitial lung diseases with limited current therapeutics; it is, therefore, essential to develop a simple, homogeneous, and noninvasive disease model to investigate possible anti-fibrotic approaches. The present study is designed to develop oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF as a simple and alternative to intratracheal (IT) administration of BLM in Swiss mice strain. Materials and Methods: Mice were divided into two groups, BLM-treated and normal control. BLM via OPA (2 IU/kg) was used to induce PF. Water for injection was used as a vehicle in control animals. Body weights were measured once in a week, and the study was continued for 21 days. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected and subjected to lymphocytes count, estimation of albumin and protein levels. Lung tissues were collected, and various biochemical assays (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline) and molecular techniques including ELISA and Western blot were performed to investigate the effect of OPA-BLM. Further, histopathology and Masson's trichrome staining techniques were performed in lung sections. Results: OPA administration of BLM in Swiss mice significantly induced PF, evident from lung index and morphology. Several oxidative stress parameters and hydroxyproline assay revealed the significant (P < 0.05) induction of PF. Further results obtained from histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining, ELISA, and Western blot confirmed the significant induction of PF via OPA-BLM. Conclusion: BLM administration by OPA route in Swiss mice can be used as a simple, homogeneous, and noninvasive model of inducing PF and to investigate the effect of various anti-fibrotic agents as an alternative to IT-BLM. PMID:28066100

  11. Predicting and Modelling the Growth of Potentially Pathogenic Bacteria in Coalho Cheese.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Valdenice Gomes; de Oliveira Arruda, Maria Digian; Dantas Duarte, Francisca Nayara; de Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Costa Lima, Maiara; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Schaffner, Donald W; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2017-07-01

    Coalho is a semihard medium- to high-moisture cheese produced in various states in the northeastern region of Brazil. This study was conducted to predict the growth kinetics (maximum growth rate, Grmax) of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus using the ComBase predictor with various combinations of temperature, pH, and water activity (aw) in commercial Coalho cheese samples. The growth of two antibiotic-resistant derivative strains of L. monocytogenes (parental strains ATCC 19115 and ATCC 7644) and S. aureus (parental strains ATCC 13565 and ATCC 19095) was measured in commercial Coalho cheese samples during 14 days of storage as a function of the initial contamination level (3 and 5 log CFU/g) and storage temperature (7.5 and 12°C). The highest Grmax values predicted by ComBase under the various conditions of temperature, pH, and aw were for L. monocytogenes (0.006 to 0.065 log CFU/g/h) and S. aureus (0.003 to 0.048 log CFU/g/h). The Grmax values predicted by ComBase for E. coli and Salmonella were 0.007 to 0.026 and 0.008 to 0.041 log CFU/g/h, respectively. An experimental challenge in Coalho cheese revealed that the populations of all tested antibiotic-resistant derivative strains of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus increased (>0.5 log CFU/g) by day 14 of storage at 7.5 or 12°C. L. monocytogenes and S. aureus had higher Grmax values in cheese samples stored at 12°C than those stored at 7.5°C. The ComBase growth predictions under the temperature, pH, and aw conditions in commercial Coalho cheese samples were generally fail-safe for predicting the growth of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus in the actual product. These results indicate that Coalho cheese has pH and aw characteristics that allow the growth of E. coli, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and S. aureus. These cheeses are typically stored at temperatures that do not prevent the growth of these bacteria.

  12. Response of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus to the thermal stress occurring in model manufactures of Grana Padano cheese.

    PubMed

    Ercolini, D; Fusco, V; Blaiotta, G; Sarghini, F; Coppola, S

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of temperature in the technology of production of Grana cheese against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus. According to the technology of production, the cheese curds are cooked at 55 degrees C and then cooled at room temperature (25 degrees C). A curd-cooling model was developed to estimate the temperature variation across the curd during cooling, and the thermal stress was applied to the pathogens according to the model in model-scale productions of Grana cheese artificially contaminated with approximately 10(4) cfu/mL of the selected pathogens. According to the numerical results, the initial temperature inside the cheese is kept at almost the initial value (above 50 degrees C) for at least 4 h during cooling, whereas the crust of the curd cools rapidly to 30 degrees C in the first hour. The best case was that of the core of the cheese where the high temperature was able to efficiently eliminate the contaminating pathogens. Moreover, the worst case was where the external ring of the curd in which a more rapid cooling allowed bacterial survival. Therefore, the thermal stress in the technology of production of Grana cheese can be only partially effective in the control of the selected pathogens. However, the whole technology of production includes other hurdles that can affect the survival of the pathogens and that need to be taken into account as a whole to evaluate the safety of Grana Padano cheese.

  13. High Hats, Swiss Cheese, and Fluorescent Lighting?

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2002-08-30

    For DOE, PNNL is conducting a competitive procurement to promote market introduction of new residential recessed downlights (also known as ''recessed cans'' or ''high hats'') that are airtight, rated for insulated ceilings, and hard-wired for CFLs. This paper discusses the potential energy savings of new high-efficiency downlights, and the results of product testing to date. Recessed downlights are the most popular residential lighting fixtures in the United States, with 21.7 million fixtures sold in 2000. An estimated 350 million are currently installed in American homes. Recessed cans are relatively inexpensive, and provide an unobtrusive, directed source of light for kitchens, hallways, and living rooms. Recessed cans are energy-intensive in three ways. First, virtually all recessed cans currently installed in the residential sector use incandescent light sources, typically reflector-type lamps drawing 65-150 watts. Second, heat from incandescent lamps adds to air-conditioning loads. Third, most installed recessed cans are not airtight, so they allow conditioned air to escape from the living area into unconditioned spaces such as attics. Addressing both lighting energy use and air leakage in recessed cans has proven challenging. Lighting energy efficiency is greatly improved by using CFLs. Air leakage can be addressed by making fixtures airtight. But when CFLs are used in an airtight recessed can, heat generated by the lamp and ballast is trapped within the fixture. Excessive heat causes reduced light output and shorter lifespan of the CFL. The procurement was designed to overcome these technical challenges and make new products available in the marketplace.

  14. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSE<0.3), in total 39 cropping systems were selected. Each system was evaluated under soil and climate conditions representative of Therwil, Frick, Reckenholz and Changins sites with four replications. Soil inputs were sampled from normal probability distributions defined by available site-specific data using the Latin hypercube sampling method. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation and the annual net global warming potential (GWP) was calculated using IPCC (2014). For statistical analyses, the systems were grouped into the following categories: (a) farming system: organic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage

  15. A model describing Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption during a smear soft cheese deacidification and ripening.

    PubMed

    Riahi, M H; Trelea, I C; Picque, D; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2007-05-01

    A mechanistic model for Debaryomyces hansenii growth and substrate consumption, lactose conversion into lactate by lactic acid bacteria, as well as lactose and lactate transfer from the core toward the rind was established. The model described the first step (14 d) of the ripening of a smear soft cheese and included the effects of temperature and relative humidity of the ripening chamber on the kinetic parameters. Experimental data were collected from experiments carried out in an aseptic pilot scale ripening chamber under 9 different combinations of temperature (8, 12, and 16 degrees C) and relative humidity (85, 93, and 99%) according to a complete experimental design. The model considered the cheese as a system with 2 compartments (rind and core) and included 5 state evolution equations and 16 parameters. The model succeeded in predicting D. hansenii growth and lactose and lactate concentrations during the first step of ripening (curd deacidification) in core and rind. The nonlinear data-fitting method allowed the determination of tight confidence intervals for the model parameters. The residual standard error (RSE) between model predictions and experimental data was close to the experimental standard deviation between repeated experiments.

  16. Cheese Classification, Characterization, and Categorization: A Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Almena-Aliste, Montserrat; Mietton, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Cheese is one of the most fascinating, complex, and diverse foods enjoyed today. Three elements constitute the cheese ecosystem: ripening agents, consisting of enzymes and microorganisms; the composition of the fresh cheese; and the environmental conditions during aging. These factors determine and define not only the sensory quality of the final cheese product but also the vast diversity of cheeses produced worldwide. How we define and categorize cheese is a complicated matter. There are various approaches to cheese classification, and a global approach for classification and characterization is needed. We review current cheese classification schemes and the limitations inherent in each of the schemes described. While some classification schemes are based on microbiological criteria, others rely on descriptions of the technologies used for cheese production. The goal of this review is to present an overview of comprehensive and practical integrative classification models in order to better describe cheese diversity and the fundamental differences within cheeses, as well as to connect fundamental technological, microbiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics to contribute to an overall characterization of the main families of cheese, including the expanding world of American artisanal cheeses.

  17. Manufacture and Incorporation of Liposome-Entrapped Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid into Model Miniature Gouda-Type Cheese and Subsequent Effect on Starter Viability, pH, and Moisture Content.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, Lisa N; Kilcawley, Kieran N; Sheehan, Jeremiah J; McSweeney, Paul L H

    2016-10-25

    Liposome-encapsulated ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was incorporated into a model miniature Gouda-type cheese (20 g) in order to assess its effect on rennet gelation, starter viability, pH, and moisture content. EDTA was encapsulated within 2 different food-grade proliposome preparations, Pro-Lipo Duo and Pro-Lipo C (50% and 40% unsaturated soybean phospholipids and 50% and 60% aqueous medium, respectively), using the following high-shear technologies: Ultra-Turrax (5000 rpm), 2-stage homogenization (345 bar), or microfluidization (690 bar). Liposome size distribution was affected by the high-shear technology employed with the proportion of large vesicles (>100 nm) decreasing in the order microfluidization < 2-stage homogenization < Ultra-Turrax. All EDTA-containing liposomes were stable during 28 d refrigerated storage, with no significant (P ≤ 0.05) change in size distribution or EDTA entrapment efficiency (%EE). Liposome composition affected the entrapment of EDTA, with Pro-Lipo C having a significantly greater %EE than Pro-Lipo Duo, 63% and 54%, respectively. For this reason, Pro-Lipo C EDTA liposomes, with and without EDTA, were incorporated into model miniature Gouda-type cheese. Addition of liposome-encapsulated EDTA to milk during cheese making did not impact pH or rennet gel formation. No differences in composition or pH were evident in liposome-treated cheeses. The results of this study show that the incorporation of liposome-encapsulated EDTA into milk during cheese manufacture did not affect milk fermentation, moisture content, or pH, suggesting that this approach may be suitable for studying the effects of calcium equilibrium on the texture of brine-salted cheeses. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Lactococcus lactis Colonies Modulates the Production of Major Metabolites during the Ripening of a Model Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Le Boucher, Clémentine; Gagnaire, Valérie; Briard-Bion, Valérie; Jardin, Julien; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Dervilly-Pinel, Gaud; Le Bizec, Bruno; Lortal, Sylvie; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In cheese, lactic acid bacteria are immobilized at the coagulation step and grow as colonies. The spatial distribution of bacterial colonies is characterized by the size and number of colonies for a given bacterial population within cheese. Our objective was to demonstrate that different spatial distributions, which lead to differences in the exchange surface between the colonies and the cheese matrix, can influence the ripening process. The strategy was to generate cheeses with the same growth and acidification of a Lactococcus lactis strain with two different spatial distributions, big and small colonies, to monitor the production of the major ripening metabolites, including sugars, organic acids, peptides, free amino acids, and volatile metabolites, over 1 month of ripening. The monitored metabolites were qualitatively the same for both cheeses, but many of them were more abundant in the small-colony cheeses than in the big-colony cheeses over 1 month of ripening. Therefore, the results obtained showed that two different spatial distributions of L. lactis modulated the ripening time course by generating moderate but significant differences in the rates of production or consumption for many of the metabolites commonly monitored throughout ripening. The present work further explores the immobilization of bacteria as colonies within cheese and highlights the consequences of this immobilization on cheese ripening. PMID:26497453

  19. Diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in model cheese depends on their physicochemical properties: a time-lapse microscopy study

    PubMed Central

    Floury, Juliane; El Mourdi, Ilham; Silva, Juliana V. C.; Lortal, Sylvie; Thierry, Anne; Jeanson, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    During cheese processing and ripening, bacteria develop as colonies. Substrates and metabolites must then diffuse either from or into the colonies. Exploring how the inner cells of the colony access the substrates or get rid of the products leads to study the diffusion of solutes inside bacterial colonies immobilized in cheese. Diffusion limitations of substrates within the bacterial colony could lead to starvation for the cells in the center of the colony. This study aimed at better understands ripening at the colony level, by investigating how diffusion phenomena inside colonies vary depending on both the physicochemical properties of the solutes and Lactococcus lactis strain. Dextrans (4, 70, and 155 kDa) and milk proteins (BSA, lactoferrin and αS1-casein) of different sizes and physicochemical properties were chosen as model of diffusing solutes, and two L. lactis strains presenting different surface properties were immobilized as colonies in a model cheese. Diffusion of solutes inside and around colonies was experimentally followed by time-lapse confocal microscopy. Dextran solutes diffused inside both lactococci colonies with a non-significantly different effective diffusion coefficient, which depended mainly on size of the solute. However, whereas flexible and neutral hydrophilic polymers such as dextran can diffuse inside colonies whatever its size, none of the three proteins investigated in this study could penetrate inside lactococci colonies. Therefore, the diffusion behavior of macromolecules through bacterial colonies immobilized in a model cheese did not only depends on the size of the diffusing solutes, but also and mainly on their physicochemical properties. Milk caseins are probably first hydrolyzed by the cell wall proteases of L. lactis and/or other proteases present in the cheese, and then the generated peptides diffuse inside colonies to be further metabolized into smaller peptides and amino acids by all the cells located inside the colonies

  20. The science of cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book describes the science of cheese in everyday language. The first chapters cover milk, mammals, and principles of cheesemaking and aging, along with lactose intolerance and raw milk cheese. Succeeding chapters deal with a category of cheese along with a class of compounds associated with it...

  1. Latin American cheeses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  2. 3D model of the Bernese Part of the Swiss Molasse Basin: visualization of uncertainties in a 3D model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mock, Samuel; Allenbach, Robin; Reynolds, Lance; Wehrens, Philip; Kurmann-Matzenauer, Eva; Kuhn, Pascal; Michael, Salomè; Di Tommaso, Gennaro; Herwegh, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The Swiss Molasse Basin comprises the western and central part of the North Alpine Foreland Basin. In recent years it has come under closer scrutiny due to its promising geopotentials such as geothermal energy and CO2 sequestration. In order to adress these topics good knowledge of the subsurface is a key prerequisite. For that matter, geological 3D models serve as valuable tools. In collaboration with the Swiss Geological Survey (swisstopo) and as part of the project GeoMol CH, a geological 3D model of the Swiss Molasse Basin in the Canton of Bern has been built. The model covers an area of 1810 km2and reaches depth of up to 6.7 km. It comprises 10 major Cenozoic and Mesozoic units and numerous faults. The 3D model is mainly based on 2D seismic data complemented by information from few deep wells. Additionally, data from geological maps and profiles were used for refinement at shallow depths. In total, 1163 km of reflection seismic data, along 77 seismic lines, have been interpreted by different authors with respect to stratigraphy and structures. Both, horizons and faults, have been interpreted in 2D and modelled in 3D using IHS's Kingdom Suite and Midland Valley's MOVE software packages, respectively. Given the variable degree of subsurface information available, each 3D model is subject of uncertainty. With the primary input data coming from interpretation of reflection seismic data, a variety of uncertainties comes into play. Some of them are difficult to address (e.g. author's style of interpretation) while others can be quantified (e.g. mis-tie correction, well-tie). An important source of uncertainties is the quality of seismic data; this affects the traceability and lateral continuation of seismic reflectors. By defining quality classes we can semi-quantify this source of uncertainty. In order to visualize the quality and density of the input data in a meaningful way, we introduce quality-weighted data density maps. In combination with the geological 3D

  3. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    PubMed

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio.

  4. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. 58.714 Section 58.714 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used for...

  5. Freezing of lakes on the Swiss Plateau 1865-2100: combining long-term observations with modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huss, Matthias; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Keller, Felix; Funk, Martin; Hoelzle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The frequency of lake freeze-up on the Swiss plateau is a sensitive indicator of changes in central European winter climate. Whereas smaller and more shallow lakes are reported to completely freeze in more than 50% of the winters, large and deep lakes like Bodensee and Zurichsee only froze one to very few times during the 20th century. The ice cover lasted between some days and up to three months. The periodic freezing of lakes on the Swiss plateau exerts considerable public attraction and is, in some cases, even an economic factor. In this study, we rely on an exceptional data set presented by Hendricks-Franssen and Scherrer (2008) providing complete series of freeze-up events for a dozen lakes on the Swiss plateau since 1901 based on direct observations. A new physically-based 1-D model for the energy balance and the thermodynamics of lake ice is presented and validated against the long-term observations. The model is driven with measured meteorological data as well as with results of 10 regional climate models. We apply the model to compute continuous series of freeze-up events between 1865 and 2100 for 14 Swiss lakes. In addition, the model calculates the time evolution of the ice thickness and the corresponding bearing capacity. We discuss the potential of the model for simulating lake freeze-up events over the last century in connection with the direct observations and simplified approaches for estimating lake ice formation. Changes in freezing frequency are analysed over a period of more than 200 years extending from the beginning of the instrumental record into the future. Until 2050, freezing is still possible even for medium-sized lakes in extreme winters. Towards the end of the 21st century, however, lakes on the Swiss plateau are unlikely to freeze during winter with the exception of rare events on small lakes. For an additional study site located at higher elevation in the Alps the model predicts annual freezing until 2100 but with strongly reduced

  6. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  7. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  8. 7 CFR 58.714 - Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Specifications for Dairy Plants Approved for USDA Inspection and Grading Service 1 Quality Specifications for Raw Material § 58.714 Cream cheese, Neufchatel cheese. These cheeses when mixed with other foods, or used...

  9. Estimates of phenotypic and genetic parameters for birth weight of Brown Swiss calves in Turkey using an animal model.

    PubMed

    Sahin, A; Ulutas, Z; Yilmaz Adkinson, A; Adkinson, R W

    2012-06-01

    A study was conducted to assess the influence of genetic and environmental factors on Brown Swiss calf birth weight, and to estimate variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values. Data were collected on 1,761 Brown Swiss calves born from 1990 to 2005 in the Konuklar State Farm in Turkey. Mean birth weight for all calves was 39.3 ± 0.09 kg. Least squares mean birth weights for male and female Brown Swiss calves were 40.3 ± 0.02 and 39.0 ± 0.02 kg, respectively. Variance components, genetic parameters, and breeding values for birth weight in Brown Swiss calves were estimated by restricted error maximum likelihood (REML)-best linear unbiased prediction(BLUP) procedures using an MTDFREML (multiple trait derivative free restricted maximum likelihood) program employing an animal model. Direct heritability (h(d)(2)), maternal heritability (h(m)(2)), total heritability (h(T)(2)), r(am) and c(am) estimates were 0.12, 0.09, 0.23, -0.58, and -0.06, respectively. The estimated maternal permanent environmental variance expressed as a proportion of the phenotypic variance (c(2)) was 0.05. Breeding values were estimated for the trait and used to evaluate genetic trends across the time period investigated. The genetic trend linear regression was not different from zero. No genetic trend for birth weight was expected, since there had been no direct selection pressure on the trait. Absence of a trend confirms that there was no change due to selection pressure on correlated traits. Genetic and environmental parameter estimates were similar to literature values indicating that effective selection methods used in more developed improvement programs would be effective in Turkey as well.

  10. Dental age assessment on panoramic radiographs in a Swiss population: a validation study of two prediction models.

    PubMed

    Birchler, Flavia A; Kiliaridis, Stavros; Combescure, Christophe; Vazquez, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Dental age assessment methods are widely used for age estimation. This study aimed to analyse the accuracy of a meta-analysis method to estimate dental age in Swiss individuals and to detect potential limitations of the method. Precision of repeated tooth staging using Demirjian's classification on maxillary and mandibular teeth was also assessed. Panoramic radiographs of 50 Swiss white healthy children were analysed. Developing teeth on the left maxilla and mandible and all third permanent molars were staged following Demirjian's classification. Dental age was calculated for each subject, using a random effects model and a fixed effect model, and compared with chronological age. The mean error of the dental age ranged between -3 and +1 months for both the calculation models. Dental age calculated with the fixed effect model overestimated the age of the subjects (average + 0.10 y, ranging from -1.95 y to +2.16 y) compared with their chronological age, whereas the random effects model underestimated the age (average -0.32 y, ranging from -2.24 y to +1.61 y). Demirjian's method allowed a precise repeated staging of maxillary and mandibular developing teeth. For both calculation models, dental age correlated well, on average, with chronological age of Swiss subjects younger than 12 years. The random effects model showed a better accuracy for these subjects than the fixed effect model. However, both models underestimated the chronological age in subjects older than 12 years.

  11. Sponge implant in Swiss mice as a model for studying loxoscelism.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Núbia Braga; Campos, Paula Peixoto; de Jesus Oviedo Socarrás, Teresa; Pimenta, Thaiane Salgado; Parreiras, Patrícia Martins; Silva, Soraia Silvéria; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Moro, Luciana

    2012-06-01

    Envenomation by Loxosceles spider bite leads to a set of signs and symptoms, called loxoscelism, which in most cases manifests through the dermonecrotic frame. The development of a smaller size animal model, of easy handling and maintenance, and lower cost is needed to study the loxoscelism pathogenesis. The inflammatory effects of the Loxosceles similis crude venom was evaluated considering neutrophil and macrophage activation, vasodilatation, hyperhaemia, edema and hemorrhage and TNF-α and VEGF production using the murine sponge implant model. Thirty two male Swiss mice (6-8 weeks old) were implanted subcutaneously with polyether-polyurethane sponge discs. Fourteen days post implantation, animals were separated into two groups: (1) control group--16 mice received 30 μL of saline intra-implant; (2) treated group-sixteen mice injected with 0.5 μg/30 μL of L. similis crude venom intra-implant. The animals were euthanized with xylazine/ketamine after 1 and 4 h post- injection. Microscopically, implants of the treated groups presented an acute inflammation characterized by: neutrophilic infiltrate, edema, vasodilatation hyperhaemia, and severe hemorrhage. Some vessels presented ruptured walls. Under morphometric analysis, vessel area was bigger in the treated groups compared with the control ones. The biochemical parameters, hemoglobin content, inflammatory enzyme activities (myeloperoxidase and n-acethyl-β-D glucosaminidase) and levels of the cytokines, TNF-α and VEGF, were also significantly higher in the venom-treated groups. The effects of Loxosceles venom in the granulation tissue of the implant in mice were similar to those observed in cutaneous loxoscelism in other species (human and rabbits). Consequently, the murine sponge implant model provides a new method to investigate cellular/molecular mechanisms associated with cutaneous loxoscelism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic fingerprinting of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector for practical sensory prediction modeling.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Hiroshi; Bamba, Takeshi; Naito, Hiroshige; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-11-01

    Metabolic fingerprinting using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC/FID) was used to generate a practical metabolomics-based tool for quality evaluation of natural cheese. Hydrophilic low molecular weight components, relating to sensory characteristics, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, were extracted and derivatized prior to the analysis. Data on 12 cheeses, six Cheddar cheeses and six Gouda cheeses, were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Prediction models for two sensory attributes relating to maturation, "Rich flavor" and "Sour flavor", were constructed with 4199 data points from GC/FID, and excellent predictability was validated. Chromatograms from GC/FID and gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) were comparable when the same column was used. Although GC/FID alone cannot identify peaks, the mutually complementary relationship between GC/FID and GC/MS does allow peak identification. Compounds contributing significantly to the sensory predictive models included lactose, succinic acid, L-lactic acid, and aspartic acid for "Rich flavor", and lactose, L-lactic acid, and succinic acid for "Sour flavor". Since similar model precision was obtained using GC/FID and GC/TOF-MS, metabolic fingerprinting using GC/FID, which is a relatively inexpensive instrument compared with GC/MS, is easy to maintain and operate, and is a valid alternative when metabolomics (especially using GC/MS) is to be used in a practical setting as a novel quality evaluation tool for manufacturing processes or final products. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Mexican chihuahua cheese: sensory profiles of young cheese.

    PubMed

    Van Hekken, D L; Drake, M A; Corral, F J Molina; Prieto, V M Guerrero; Gardea, A A

    2006-10-01

    Sensory profiles of fresh semihard Chihuahua cheese produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua were developed to characterize the flavors and textures of this traditionally made Hispanic-style cheese. Multiple allotments of Chihuahua cheese, 9 brands made with raw milk (RM) and 5 brands made with pasteurized milk (PM), were obtained within 3 d of manufacture from 12 different cheese plants throughout Chihuahua, México. Cheeses were shipped overnight to Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania, and flavor analyses were conducted within 14 to 18 d after manufacture. Four brands (2 RM and 2 PM cheeses) were then selected and multiple allotments were shipped at 3 distinct seasons over a 1-yr period for evaluation of flavor and texture. Microbial analysis was conducted prior to testing to ensure product safety. Descriptive analyses of cheese flavors and textures were conducted with panelists trained to use a universal or product-specific Spectrum intensity scale, respectively. Sensory profiles of cheeses varied among the different manufacturers. The most prominent flavor attributes were salty, sour, diacetyl, cooked, whey, bitter, and milk-fat. The RM cheeses had more intense sour, bitter, and prickle scores than the PM cheeses. Many cheese texture attributes were similar, but RM cheeses were perceived as softer than PM cheeses. As the demand for Hispanic-style cheeses increases, defining and understanding the sensory attributes of traditionally made Mexican cheeses provides guidance to cheese manufacturers as new ways are explored to improve the production and shelf life of the cheeses.

  14. Comparing different methods to model scenarios of future glacier change for the entire Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linsbauer, A.; Paul, F.; Haeberli, W.

    2012-04-01

    There is general agreement that observed climate change already has strong impacts on the cryosphere. The rapid shrinkage of glaciers during the past two decades as observed in many mountain ranges globally and in particular in the Alps, are impressive confirmations of a changed climate. With the expected future temperature increase glacier shrinkage will likely further accelerate and their role as an important water resource more and more diminish. To determine the future contribution of glaciers to run-off with hydrological models, the change in glacier area and/or volume must be considered. As these models operate at regional scales, simplified approaches to model the future development of all glaciers in a mountain range need to be applied. In this study we have compared different simplified approaches to model the area and volume evolution of all glaciers in the Swiss Alps over the 21st century according to given climate change scenarios. One approach is based on an upward shift of the ELA (by 150 m per degree temperature increase) and the assumption that the glacier extent will shrink until the smaller accumulation area covers again 60% of the total glacier area. A second approach is based on observed elevation changes between 1985 and 2000 as derived from DEM differencing for all glaciers in Switzerland. With a related elevation-dependent parameterization of glacier thickness change and a modelled glacier thickness distribution, the 15-year trends in observed thickness loss are extrapolated into the future with glacier area loss taking place when thickness becomes zero. The models show an overall glacier area reduction between 60-80% until 2100 with some ice remaining at the highest elevations. However, compared to the ongoing temperature increase and considering that several reinforcement feedbacks (albedo lowering, lake formation) are not accounted for, the real area loss might even be stronger. Uncertainties in the modelled glacier thickness have only a

  15. Genome-wide association study for cheese yield and curd nutrient recovery in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Biffani, S; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Nicolazzi, E L; Rosa, G J M; Gianola, D; Rossoni, A; Santus, E; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-02-01

    Cheese production and consumption are increasing in many countries worldwide. As a result, interest has increased in strategies for genetic selection of individuals for technological traits of milk related to cheese yield (CY) in dairy cattle breeding. However, little is known about the genetic background of a cow's ability to produce cheese. Recently, a relatively large panel (1,264 cows) of different measures of individual cow CY and milk nutrient and energy recoveries in the cheese (REC) became available. Genetic analyses showed considerable variation for CY and for aptitude to retain high proportions of fat, protein, and water in the coagulum. For the dairy industry, these characteristics are of major economic importance. Nevertheless, use of this knowledge in dairy breeding is hampered by high costs, intense labor requirement, and lack of appropriate technology. However, in the era of genomics, new possibilities are available for animal breeding and genetic improvement. For example, identification of genomic regions involved in cow CY might provide potential for marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to perform genome-wide association studies on different CY and REC measures. Milk and DNA samples from 1,152 Italian Brown Swiss cows were used. Three CY traits expressing the weight (wt) of fresh curd (%CYCURD), curd solids (%CYSOLIDS), and curd moisture (%CYWATER) as a percentage of weight of milk processed, and 4 REC (RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY, calculated as the % ratio between the nutrient in curd and the corresponding nutrient in processed milk) were analyzed. Animals were genotyped with the Illumina BovineSNP50 Bead Chip v.2. Single marker regressions were fitted using the GenABEL R package (genome-wide association using mixed model and regression-genomic control). In total, 103 significant associations (88 single nucleotide polymorphisms) were identified in 10 chromosomes (2, 6, 9, 11, 12, 14, 18, 19, 27, 28). For

  16. Metabolomics-based component profiling of hard and semi-hard natural cheeses with gas chromatography/time-of-flight-mass spectrometry, and its application to sensory predictive modeling.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Hiroshi; Naito, Hiroshige; Iwatsuki, Keiji; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2012-06-01

    Gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS) was used to analyze hydrophilic low molecular weight components, including amino acids, fatty acids, amines, organic acids, and saccharides, in cheese, and the sensometric application for practical metabolomic studies in the food industry is described. Derivatization of target analytes was conducted prior to the GC/TOF-MS analysis. Data on 13 cheeses, six Cheddar cheeses, six Gouda cheeses and one Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese, were analyzed by multivariate analysis. The uniqueness of the Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese metabolome was revealed. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed no grouping of the Cheddar cheeses and Gouda cheeses according to production method or country of origin. The PCA loading plot confirms that many amino acids contribute positively to PC1, suggesting that PC1 is closely related to degradation of proteins, and that lactic acid contributed positively to PC2, whereas glycerol contributed negatively to PC2, suggesting that factors regarding degradation of carbohydrates and fats were expressed in PC2. Partial least squares (PLS) regression models were constructed to predict the relationship between the metabolite profile and two sensory attributes, "Rich flavor" and "Sour flavor", which were related to maturation. The compounds that play an important role in constructing each sensory prediction model were identified as 12 amino acids and lactose for "Rich flavor", and 4-aminobutyric acid, ornithine, succinic acid, lactic acid, proline and lactose for "Sour flavor". The present study revealed that metabolomics-based component profiling, focusing on hydrophilic low molecular weight components, was able to predict the sensory characteristics related to ripening. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Dynamic modelling of the long term behaviour of cadmium, lead and mercury in Swiss forest soils using CHUM-AM.

    PubMed

    Rieder, Stephan R; Tipping, Edward; Zimmermann, Stefan; Graf-Pannatier, Elisabeth; Waldner, Peter; Meili, Markus; Frey, Beat

    2014-01-15

    The applicability of the dynamic soil model CHUM-AM was tested to simulate concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in five Swiss forest soils. Soil cores of up to 50 cm depth were sampled and separated into two defined soil layers. Soil leachates were collected below the litter by zero-tension lysimeters and at 15 and 50 cm soil depths by tension lysimeters over two years. The concentrations of Cd, Pb and Hg in the solid phase and soil solution were measured by ICP-MS (Cd, Pb) or CV-AFS (Hg). Measured metal concentrations were compared with modelled concentrations using CHUM-AM. Additionally we ran the model with three different deposition scenarios (current deposition; maximum acceptable deposition according to the Swiss ordinance on Air Pollution Control; critical loads according to CLRTAP) to predict metal concentrations in the soils for the next 1000 years. Assuming current loads concentrations of Cd and Pb showed varying trends (increasing/decreasing) between the soils. Soils rich in organic carbon or with a high pH value showed increasing trends in Cd and Pb concentrations whereas the concentrations in the other soils decreased. In contrast Hg concentrations are predicted to further increase in all soils. Critical limits for Pb and Hg will partly be exceeded by current loads or by the critical loads proposed by the CLRTAP but the critical limits for Cd will rarely be reached within the next 1000 years. In contrast, maximal acceptable deposition will partly lead to concentrations above the critical limits for Pb in soils within the next 400 years, whereas the acceptable deposition of Cd will not lead to concentrations above the proposed critical limits. In conclusion the CHUM-AM model is able to accurately simulate heavy metal (Cd, Pb and Hg) concentrations in Swiss forest soils of various soil properties.

  18. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  19. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cottage cheese. 133.128 Section 133.128 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.128 Cottage cheese. (a) Cottage cheese is the soft uncured cheese prepared by mixing cottage...

  20. Model cheese aroma perception is explained not only by in vivo aroma release but also by salivary composition and oral processing parameters.

    PubMed

    Guichard, E; Repoux, M; Qannari, E M; Laboure, H; Feron, G

    2017-02-22

    The aim of the present paper was to determine, from four model cheeses differing in fat content and firmness and consumed by fourteen well characterised subjects, the respective impacts of in vivo aroma release, bolus rheology, chewing activity, mouth coating and salivary composition on dynamic aroma perception. The originality of the approach is that it considers all the parameters together and is able to evaluate their relative contribution using multi-block partial least square (MB-PLS) regression. The fruity aroma perception of the more hydrophilic compound (ethyl propanoate) was related to its dynamic release parameters before swallowing whereas the blue cheese aroma perception of the more hydrophobic compound (nonan-2-one) was related to its dynamic release parameters after swallowing and was highly impacted by mouth coating. Moreover the MB-PLS approach made it possible to evidence the combined effects of saliva composition and cross-modal interactions to understand why in some cases dynamic aroma perception could not be explained by dynamic in vivo aroma release data. Subjects with a low sodium content in saliva perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent with saltiness as less intense and salt- congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which was explained by their higher sensitivity to salt. Subjects with high lipolysis activity perceived fruity aroma which is not congruent to fat as less intense and fat-congruent (blue cheese) aroma as more intense, which should be explained by the link between lipolysis activity and fat sensitivity. These results could be considered for the reformulation of foods towards specific populations taking into account nutritional recommendations.

  1. Towards a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils for the Swiss greenhouse gas reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, K.; Leifeld, J.; Bretscher, D.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss inventory submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports on changes in soil organic carbon stocks under different land-uses and land-use changes. The approach currently employed for cropland and grassland soils combines Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods and is considered overly simplistic. As the UNFCC encourages countries to develop Tier 3 methods for national greenhouse gas reporting, we aim to build up a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. We conducted a literature research on currently employed higher-tier methods using process-based models in four countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the USA. The applied models stem from two major groups differing in complexity - those belonging to the group of general ecosystem models that include a plant-growth submodel, e.g. Century, and those that simulate soil organic matter turnover but not plant-growth, e.g. ICBM. For the latter group, carbon inputs to the soil from plant residues and roots have to be determined separately. We will present some aspects of the development of a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. Criteria for model evaluation are, among others, modeled land-use classes and land-use changes, spatial and temporal resolution, and coverage of relevant processes. For model parameterization and model evaluation at the field scale, data from several long-term agricultural experiments and monitoring sites in Switzerland is available. A subsequent regional application of a model requires the preparation of regional input data for the whole country - among others spatio-temporal meteorological data, agricultural and soil data. Following the evaluation of possible models and of available data, preference for application in the Swiss inventory will be given to simpler model structures, i.e. models without a plant-growth module. Thus, we compared different allometric relations

  2. 21 CFR 133.128 - Cottage cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related... intended effect. The creaming mixture shall be pasteurized; however, heat labile ingredients, such as...

  3. Effect of temperature, pH, and water activity on Mucor spp. growth on synthetic medium, cheese analog and cheese.

    PubMed

    Morin-Sardin, Stéphanie; Rigalma, Karim; Coroller, Louis; Jany, Jean-Luc; Coton, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The Mucor genus includes a large number of ubiquitous fungal species. In the dairy environment, some of them play a technological role providing typical organoleptic qualities to some cheeses while others can cause spoilage. In this study, we compared the effect of relevant abiotic factors for cheese production on the growth of six strains representative of dairy technological and contaminant species as well as of a non cheese related strain (plant endophyte). Growth kinetics were determined for each strain in function of temperature, water activity and pH on synthetic Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA), and secondary models were fitted to calculate the corresponding specific cardinal values. Using these values and growth kinetics acquired at 15 °C on cheese agar medium (CA) along with three different cheese types, optimal growth rates (μopt) were estimated and consequently used to establish a predictive model. Contrarily to contaminant strains, technological strains showed higher μopt on cheese matrices than on PDA. Interestingly, lag times of the endophyte strain were strongly extended on cheese related matrices. This study offers a relevant predictive model of growth that may be used for better cheese production control but also raises the question of adaptation of some Mucor strains to the cheese.

  4. Functional petit-suisse cheese: measure of the prebiotic effect.

    PubMed

    Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Saad, Susana M I; Gibson, Glenn R; Vulevic, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Prebiotics and probiotics are increasingly being used to produce potentially synbiotic foods, particularly through dairy products as vehicles. It is well known that both ingredients may offer benefits to improve the host health. This research aimed to evaluate the prebiotic potential of novel petit-suisse cheeses using an in vitro fermentation model. Five petit-suisse cheese formulations combining candidate prebiotics (inulin, oligofructose, honey) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis) were tested in vitro using sterile, stirred, batch culture fermentations with human faecal slurry. Measurement of prebiotic effect (MPE) values were generated comparing bacterial changes through determination of maximum growth rates of groups, rate of substrate assimilation and production of lactate and short chain fatty acids. Fastest fermentation and high lactic acid production, promoting increased growth rates of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, were achieved with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese (made using starter+probiotics). Addition of probiotic strains to control cheese (made using just a starter culture) also resulted in high lactic acid production. Highest MPE values were obtained with addition of prebiotics to a probiotic cheese, followed by addition of prebiotics and/or probiotics to a control cheese. Under the in vitro conditions used, cheese made with the combination of different prebiotics and probiotics resulted in the most promising functional petit-suisse cheese. The study allowed comparison of potentially functional petit-suisse cheeses and screening of preferred synbiotic potential for future market use.

  5. Proteolysis in Mozzarella cheeses manufactured by different industrial processes.

    PubMed

    Costabel, L; Pauletti, M S; Hynes, E

    2007-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of stretching temperature, fat content, and time of brining on proteolysis during ripening of Mozzarella cheeses. Seventeen cheese-making experiments (batches) were carried out on an industrial scale on successive days, following the standard procedure with some modifications. Fat content of cheese milk, temperature at the stretching step, and time of brining varied from one batch to another as required by the experimental design, outlined by a surface response model. Proteolysis was assessed during ripening of samples, which was prolonged for at least 3 mo, by means of electrophoresis, nitrogen fractions, and soluble peptide mapping. The amount of soluble nitrogen at pH 4.6 was not significantly different in cheeses obtained by diverse procedures, but it increased during ripening of all samples. This result was coincident with the breakdown of alpha(s1)- and beta-caseins evidenced by electrophoresis, which reached similar extents at late stages of ripening, regardless of the cheese-making process. Multivariate analysis on soluble peptide profiles obtained by liquid chromatography also detected sample grouping according to ripening time, but did not evidence any separation caused by the cheese-making technology. We concluded that the changes in the cheese-making process assayed in this work were insufficient to produce significant differences in proteolysis of the cheeses. Ripening time had more influence on proteolysis of Mozzarella cheeses than any other assayed variable.

  6. Modeling of Ice Flow and Internal Layers Along a Flow Line Through Swiss Camp in West Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, W. L.; Zwally, H. Jay; Abdalati, W.; Luo, S.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    An anisotropic ice flow line model is applied to a flow line through Swiss Camp (69.57 N, 49.28 W) in West Greenland to estimate the dates of internal layers detected by Radio-Echo Sounding measurements. The effect of an anisotropic ice fabric on ice flow is incorporated into the steady state flow line model. The stress-strain rate relationship for anisotropic ice is characterized by an enhancement factor based on the laboratory observations of ice deformation under combined compression and shear stresses. By using present-day data of accumulation rate, surface temperature, surface elevation and ice thickness along the flow line as model inputs, a very close agreement is found between the isochrones generated from the model and the observed internal layers with confirmed dates. The results indicate that this part of Greenland ice sheet is primarily in steady state.

  7. Towards an Ecosystem Approach to Cheese Microbiology.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Benjamin E; Dutton, Rachel J

    2013-10-01

    Cheese is an ideal environment to serve as a model for the behavior of microbes in complex communities and at the same time allow detailed genetic analysis. Linking organisms, and their genes, to their role in the environment becomes possible in the case of cheese since cheese microbial communities have been "in culture" for thousands of years, with the knowledge of how to grow these organisms passed down by generations of cheesemakers. Recent reviews have described several emerging approaches to link molecular systems biology to ecosystem-scale processes, known as ecosystems biology. These approaches integrate massive datasets now available through high-throughput sequencing technologies with measurements of ecosystem properties. High-throughput datasets uncover the "parts list" (e.g., the species and all the genes within each species) of an ecosystem as well as the molecular basis of interactions within this parts list. Novel computational frameworks make it possible to link species and their interactions to ecosystem properties. Applying these approaches across multiple temporal and spatial scales makes it possible to understand how changes in the parts lists over space and time lead to changes in ecosystems processes. By manipulating the species present within model systems, we can test hypotheses related to the role of microbes in ecosystem function. Due to the tractability of cheese microbial communities, we have the opportunity to use an ecosystems biology approach from the scale of individual microbial cells within a cheese to replicated cheese microbial communities across continents. Using cheese as a model microbial ecosystem can provide a way to answer important questions concerning the form, function, and evolution of microbial communities.

  8. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated cheeses. 133.146 Section 133.146 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.146 Grated cheeses. (a) Description. Grated cheeses is the class of foods prepared by...

  9. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  10. 21 CFR 133.150 - Hard cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hard cheeses. 133.150 Section 133.150 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.150 Hard cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of identity are...

  11. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  12. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese. 133.118 Section 133.118 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.118 Colby cheese. (a) Colby cheese is the food prepared from milk and other ingredients...

  13. 21 CFR 133.142 - Gouda cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gouda cheese. 133.142 Section 133.142 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.142 Gouda cheese. Gouda cheese conforms to the definition and standard of identity and...

  14. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and... CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  15. A new 3-D thin-skinned rock glacier model based on helicopter GPR results from the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merz, Kaspar; Green, Alan G.; Buchli, Thomas; Springman, Sarah M.; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2015-06-01

    Mountainous locations and steep rugged surfaces covered by boulders and other loose debris are the main reasons why rock glaciers are among the most challenging geological features to investigate using ground-based geophysical methods. Consequently, geophysical surveys of rock glaciers have only ever involved recording data along sparse lines. To address this issue, we acquired quasi-3-D ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data across a rock glacier in the Swiss Alps using a helicopter-mounted system. Our interpretation of the derived GPR images constrained by borehole information results in a novel "thin-skinned" rock glacier model that explains a concentration of deformation across a principal shear zone (décollement) and faults across which rock glacier lobes are juxtaposed. The new model may be applicable to many rock glaciers worldwide. We suggest that the helicopter GPR method may be useful for 3-D surveying numerous other difficult-to-access mountainous terrains.

  16. Torsion gelometry of cheese.

    PubMed

    Tunick, M H; Van Hekken, D L

    2002-11-01

    Torsion gelometry, a fundamental rheological test in which specimens are twisted until they fracture, was applied to several different cheese varieties to determine its suitability for measuring their textural properties. Fresh and aged Brick, Cheddar, Colby, Gouda, Havarti, Mozzarella, and Romano cheeses were subjected to torsion analysis, and the results were compared with those from small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) tests and texture profile analysis (TPA). Strong relationships (correlation coefficients > 0.8) were found between torsion shear stress and TPA hardness, and between torsion shear strain and TPA cohesiveness. SAOS, which measures rheological properties of intact samples, did not correlate well with torsion or TPA. A map showing trends during aging toward brittle, mushy, rubbery, and tough texture was drawn using the torsion data. The findings show that torsion gelometry provides fundamental rheological data on cheese at the fracture point. The information can be used to compare textural qualities of cheese samples as they are being cut.

  17. Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be

  18. Chemometric analysis of Ragusano cheese flavor.

    PubMed

    Carpino, S; Acree, T E; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Siebert, K J

    2002-02-27

    Ragusano cheeses were produced in duplicate from milk collected from pasture-fed and total mixed ration (TMR)-fed cattle at four time intervals. The cheeses were subjected to chemical analysis, conventional sensory testing, and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO). Data from each type of analysis were examined by principal component and factor analysis and by pattern recognition (SIMCA) to see if sufficient information for classification into pasture-fed and TMR-fed groups was contained therein. The results clearly indicate that there are significant differences in sensory panel and chemical analysis results between the two cheeses. The data were also examined to see if models of sensory responses as a function of analytical or GCO results or both could be constructed with the modeling technique partial least-squares regression (PLS). Strong PLS models of some sensory responses (green and toasted odor; salt, pungent, bitter, and butyric sensations; and smooth consistency) were obtained.

  19. Automatic milking systems in the Protected Designation of Origin Montasio cheese production chain: effects on milk and cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Innocente, N; Biasutti, M

    2013-02-01

    Montasio cheese is a typical Italian semi-hard, semi-cooked cheese produced in northeastern Italy from unpasteurized (raw or thermised) cow milk. The Protected Designation of Origin label regulations for Montasio cheese require that local milk be used from twice-daily milking. The number of farms milking with automatic milking systems (AMS) has increased rapidly in the last few years in the Montasio production area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a variation in milking frequency, associated with the adoption of an automatic milking system, on milk quality and on the specific characteristics of Montasio cheese. Fourteen farms were chosen, all located in the Montasio production area, with an average herd size of 60 (Simmental, Holstein-Friesian, and Brown Swiss breeds). In 7 experimental farms, the cows were milked 3 times per day with an AMS, whereas in the other 7 control farms, cows were milked twice daily in conventional milking parlors (CMP). The study showed that the main components, the hygienic quality, and the cheese-making features of milk were not affected by the milking system adopted. In fact, the control and experimental milks did not reveal a statistically significant difference in fat, protein, and lactose contents; in the casein index; or in the HPLC profiles of casein and whey protein fractions. Milk from farms that used an AMS always showed somatic cell counts and total bacterial counts below the legal limits imposed by European Union regulations for raw milk. Finally, bulk milk clotting characteristics (clotting time, curd firmness, and time to curd firmness of 20mm) did not differ between milk from AMS and milk from CMP. Montasio cheese was made from milk collected from the 2 groups of farms milking either with AMS or with CMP. Three different cheese-making trials were performed during the year at different times. As expected, considering the results of the milk analysis, the moisture, fat, and protein contents of the

  20. Microbial interactions in cheese: implications for cheese quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Irlinger, Françoise; Mounier, Jérôme

    2009-04-01

    The cheese microbiota, whose community structure evolves through a succession of different microbial groups, plays a central role in cheese-making. The subtleties of cheese character, as well as cheese shelf-life and safety, are largely determined by the composition and evolution of this microbiota. Adjunct and surface-ripening cultures marketed today for smear cheeses are inadequate for adequately mimicking the real diversity encountered in cheese microbiota. The interactions between bacteria and fungi within these communities determine their structure and function. Yeasts play a key role in the establishment of ripening bacteria. The understanding of these interactions offers to enhance cheese flavour formation and to control and/or prevent the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in cheese.

  1. Establishment of a Swiss Webster Mouse Model of Pneumonic Plague To Meet Essential Data Elements under the Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Winston; Detrisac, Carol; Hu, Shu-Chieh; Rajendran, Narayanan; Gingras, Bruce; Holland, Louis; Price, Jessica; Bolanowski, Mark; House, Robert V.

    2012-01-01

    A recombinant vaccine (rF1V) is being developed for protection against pneumonic plague. This study was performed to address essential data elements to establish a well-characterized Swiss Webster mouse model for licensing the rF1V vaccine using the FDA's Animal Rule. These elements include the documentation of challenge material characteristics, aerosol exposure parameters, details of the onset and severity of clinical signs, pathophysiological response to disease, and relevance to human disease. Prior to animal exposures, an evaluation of the aerosol system was performed to determine and understand the variability of the aerosol exposure system. Standardized procedures for the preparation of Yersinia pestis challenge material also were developed. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was estimated to be 1,966 CFU using Probit analysis. Following the LD50 determination, pathology was evaluated by exposing mice to a target LD99 (42,890 CFU). Mice were euthanized at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 h postexposure. At each time point, samples were collected for clinical pathology, detection of bacteria in blood and tissues, and pathology evaluations. A general increase in incidence and severity of microscopic findings was observed in the lung, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver from 36 to 72 h postchallenge. Similarly, the incidence and severity of pneumonia increased throughout the study; however, some mice died in the absence of pneumonia, suggesting that disease progression does not require the development of pneumonia. Disease pathology in the Swiss Webster mouse is similar to that observed in humans, demonstrating the utility of this pneumonic plague model that can be used by researchers investigating plague countermeasures. PMID:22336286

  2. The effect of milling on proteins in model Queso Fresco cheeses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the manufacturing factors important in traditional raw milk Queso Fresco (QF) made in Mexico is the milling of the fresh curd. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of milling procedures on protein composition in a model Queso Fresco, made according to U. S. quality standards from pas...

  3. Activation energy measurements of cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Temperature sweeps of cheeses using small amplitude oscillatory shear tests produced values for activation energy of flow (Ea) between 30 and 44 deg C. Soft goat cheese and Queso Fresco, which are high-moisture cheeses and do not flow when heated, exhibited Ea values between 30 and 60 kJ/mol. The ...

  4. Shreddability of pizza Mozzarella cheese predicted using physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2014-07-01

    This study used rheological techniques such as uniaxial compression, wire cutting, and dynamic oscillatory shear to probe the physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheeses. Predictive models were built using compositional and textural descriptors to predict cheese shreddability. Experimental cheeses were made using milk with (0.25% wt/wt) or without denatured whey protein and renneted at pH 6.5 or 6.4. The cheeses were aged for 8, 22, or 36 d and then tested at 4, 13, or 22°C for textural attributes using 11 descriptors. Adding denatured whey protein and reducing the milk renneting pH strongly affected cheese mechanical properties, but these effects were usually dependent on testing temperature. Cheeses were generally weaker as they aged. None of the compositional or rheological descriptors taken alone could predict the shredding behavior of the cheeses. Using the stepwise method, an objective selection of a few (<4) relevant descriptors made it possible to predict the production of fines (R(2)=0.82), the percentage of long shreds (R(2)=0.67), and to a lesser degree, the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade (R(2)=0.45). The principal component analysis markedly contrasted the adhesion of cheese to the shredding blade with other shredding properties such as the production of fines or long shreds. The predictive models and principal component analysis can help manufacturers select relevant descriptors for the development of cheese with optimal mechanical behavior under shredding conditions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov., isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, David; Rau, Jörg; Eugster, Marcel R; Haug, Martina C; Lawson, Paul A; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-02-01

    A study was performed on three isolates (LU2006-1(T), LU2006-2 and LU2006-3), which were sampled independently from cheese in western Switzerland in 2006, as well as a fourth isolate (A11-3426), which was detected in 2011, using a polyphasic approach. The isolates could all be assigned to the genus Listeria but not to any known species. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic data were compatible with the genus Listeria and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed that the closest relationships were with members of this genus. However, DNA-DNA hybridization demonstrated that the isolates did not belong to any currently described species. Cell-wall-binding domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage endolysins were able to attach to the isolates, confirming their tight relatedness to the genus Listeria. Although PCR targeting the central portion of the flagellin gene flaA was positive, motility was not observed. The four isolates could not be discriminated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This suggests that they represent a single species, which seems to be adapted to the environment in a cheese-ripening cellar as it was re-isolated from the same type of Swiss cheese after more than 5 years. Conjugation experiments demonstrated that the isolates harbour a transferable resistance to clindamycin. The isolates did not exhibit haemolysis or show any indication of human pathogenicity or virulence. The four isolates are affiliated with the genus Listeria but can be differentiated from all described members of the genus Listeria and therefore they merit being classified as representatives of a novel species, for which we propose the name Listeria fleischmannii sp. nov.; the type strain is LU2006-1(T) ( = DSM 24998(T)  = LMG 26584(T)).

  6. The influence of fat and monoacylglycerols on growth of spore-forming bacteria in processed cheese.

    PubMed

    Hauerlandová, Iva; Lorencová, Eva; Buňka, František; Navrátil, Jan; Janečková, Kristýna; Buňková, Leona

    2014-07-16

    Highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Survival of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Clostridium butyricum and C. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. In processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at concentration of 0.15% w/w prevented the growth and multiplication of both Bacillus species throughout the storage period. The two species of Clostridium were less affected by monoacylglycerols in processed cheese samples and only partial inhibition was observed. The effect of milk fat content on microbial survival in processed cheese was also evaluated. The growth of Bacillus sp. was affected by the fat level of processed cheese while population levels of Clostridium sp. did not differ in processed cheese samples with 30, 40 and 50% fat in dry matter.

  7. Proof of concept of using chromogenic arrays as a tool to identify blue cheese varieties.

    PubMed

    Zaragozá, Patricia; Ros-Lis, José V; Vivancos, José-Luis; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    A new chromogenic array for the identification and classification of blue cheeses has been developed. It is based on the response of a chromogenic array composed of five sensing materials prepared by the incorporation of pH indicators to MCM-41 and alumina. Four blue cheeses were tested: Roquefort, Blue Stilton, blue cheese with leaves and blue cheese spread. The colour modulations of the chromogenic array were processed by the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The statistical PCA analysis showed different responses to each cheese. PLS-DA models were developed by incorporating the data measured at diverse times, and this approach allowed us to obtain a perfect classification of all five cheeses in 5.5h. The results suggest that chromogenic arrays and optoelectronic noses can be a suitable approach to develop simple systems to classify blue cheeses and of potential use for the detection of food fraud.

  8. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  9. 40 CFR 405.50 - Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. 405.50 Section 405.50 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Cottage Cheese and Cultured Cream Cheese Subcategory § 405.50 Applicability; description of the cottage cheese and cultured cream cheese subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  10. [Determination of aflatoxins in cheeses].

    PubMed

    Bartos, J; Matyás, Z

    1979-03-01

    To investigate cheeses for the presence of aflatoxins we chose the very sensitive method of Tuinstra and Bronsgeest (1975) used for the determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk. The method was slightly modified and the presence of aflatoxins was determined in 54 samples of different cheeses. Aflatoxin M1 was found out in 24% of the investigated samples. Most of positive samples were found among the soft cheeses (53.8 3/4), then in processed cheeses (13.6%) and in hard cheeses (12.5%). Aflatoxin M1 was not found in the group of mouldy cheeses and Olomouc cake cheeses, which were investigated in a smaller range. Positive findings did not exceed concentrations of 10 ng per kg, i.e. they did not even reach the value of permissible concentration as proposed in the Czech Socialist Republic for foods (5 microgram per kg).

  11. Potential of Lactobacillus curvatus LFC1 to produce slits in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Porcellato, D; Johnson, M E; Houck, K; Skeie, S B; Mills, D A; Kalanetra, K M; Steele, J L

    2015-08-01

    Defects in Cheddar cheese resulting from undesired gas production are a sporadic problem that results in significant financial losses in the cheese industry. In this study, we evaluate the potential of a facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli, Lactobacillus curvatus LFC1, to produce slits, a gas related defect in Cheddar cheese. The addition of Lb. curvatus LFC1 to cheese milk at log 3 CFU/ml resulted in the development of small slits during the first month of ripening. Chemical analyses indicated that the LFC1 containing cheeses had less galactose and higher levels of lactate and acetate than the control cheeses. The composition the cheese microbiota was examined through a combination of two culture independent approaches, 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis; the results indicated that no known gas producers were present and that high levels of LFC1 was the only significant difference between the cheese microbiotas. A ripening cheese model system was utilized to examine the metabolism of LFC1 under conditions similar to those present in cheeses that exhibited the slit defect. The combined cheese and model system results indicate that when Lb. curvatus LFC1 was added to the cheese milk at log 3 CFU/ml it metabolized galactose to lactate, acetate, and CO2. For production of sufficient CO2 to result in the formation of slits there needs to be sufficient galactose and Lb. curvatus LFC1 present in the cheese matrix. To our knowledge, facultatively heterofermentative lactobacilli have not previously been demonstrated to result in gas-related cheese defects.

  12. Collaborated death: an exploration of the Swiss model of assisted suicide for its potential to enhance oversight and demedicalize the dying process.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Stephen J

    2009-01-01

    Death, like many social problems, has become medicalized. In response to this medicalization, physician-assisted suicide (PAS) has emerged as one alternative among many at the end of life. And although the practice is currently legal in the states of Oregon and Washington, opponents still argue that PAS is unethical, is inconsistent with a physician's role, and cannot be effectively regulated. In comparison, Switzerland, like Oregon, permits PAS, but unlike Oregon, non-physicians and private organizations play a significant role in assisted death. Could the Swiss model be the answer? The following essay explores the Swiss model of assisted suicide for its potential to enhance the regulation of PAS, reduce physician involvement, and perhaps demedicalize the way we die.

  13. The Lactose and Galactose Content of Cheese Suitable for Galactosaemia: New Analysis.

    PubMed

    Portnoi, P A; MacDonald, A

    2016-01-01

    The UK Medical Advisory Panel of the Galactosaemia Support Group report the lactose and galactose content of 5 brands of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and Emmi Emmental fondue mix from 32 cheese samples. The Medical Advisory Panel define suitable cheese in galactosaemia to have a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g. A total of 32 samples (5 types of mature Cheddar cheese, Comte and "Emmi Swiss Fondue", an emmental fondue mix) were analysed by high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) technology used to perform lactose and galactose analysis. Cheddar cheese types: Valley Spire West Country, Parkham, Lye Cross Vintage, Lye Cross Mature, Tesco West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature and Sainsbury's TTD West Country Farmhouse Extra Mature had a lactose and galactose content consistently below 10 mg/100 g (range <0.05 to 12.65 mg). All Comte samples had a lactose content below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) with galactose content from <0.05 to 1.86 mg/100 g; all samples of Emmi Swiss Fondue had lactose below the lower limit of detection (<0.05 mg) and galactose between 2.19 and 3.04 mg/100 g. All of these cheese types were suitable for inclusion in a low galactose diet for galactosaemia. It is possible that the galactose content of cheese may change over time depending on its processing, fermentation time and packaging techniques.

  14. Lipids in cheese

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lipids are present in cheese at levels above 20 percent and are analyzed by several techniques. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy are used to examine the microstructure, gas chromatography is employed to look at fatty acid composition, and differential scanning cal...

  15. GIS-based models for glacier lake outburst hazards: evaluation and application for recent events in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Kaeaeb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Krummenacher, B.

    2003-04-01

    Debris flows triggered by glacier-lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. This contribution presents a modelling approach which attempts to satisfy the requirements of a continuously updated information basis and a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from gla cier lakes are presented and applied for two outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps, the more recent one being a debris flow in 2001 with severe damages in the village of Täsch. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM). Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple-flow and a single-flow approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability (-related) values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris-flow runout distance is calculated on the base of empirical data on overall trajectory slope. The results show that the multiple-flow approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow approach, however, is more robust against DEM artefacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. Influence of DEM scale and quality is investigated using three differently generated DEMs (conventional map-based, and photogrammetry- and satellite data-derived). The results show that a 25m-gridded high-quality DEM is reasonable for first-order assessments in the densly developed Alps. ASTER satellite-derived DEMs yield a minor quality but have a promising potential for applications of the models in remote high

  16. Occurrence and fate modeling of MTBE and BTEX compounds in a Swiss Lake used as drinking water supply.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Torsten C; Haderlein, Stefan B; Pfister, Rolf; Forster, Richard

    2004-03-01

    Emissions of fuel components from boating use on multiple-use lakes and reservoirs are of high concern with regard to the drinking water supply from such water bodies. We report results of a detailed study on the occurrence, sources and fate of aromatic hydrocarbons and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a typical holomictic lake, Lake Zurich, that supplies drinking water for the largest Swiss city. Emphasis of the investigation was on the fuel oxygenate MTBE, which was found in concentrations up to 1.4 microg/L in the epilimnion and up to 0.05microg/L in the hypolimnion of the lake. The concentration difference was due to the stratification of the lake during the boating season with very limited water exchange across the thermocline. MTBE and BTEX nearly completely volatilized before vertical lake mixing occurred in winter. Spatial and temporal variations of MTBE concentrations in the lake were observed and successfully predicted using two complementary box models (MASAS Light and Aquasim). The drinking water supply from holomictic lakes is not at risk for the scenarios studied if water is extracted from well below the thermocline. Since emissions of unburned gasoline into such water bodies are caused predominantly by boating activities, restrictions of highly emitting two-stroke engines could substantially reduce the MTBE and BTEX load of the epilimnion during the boating season.

  17. Erythropoietin and interleukin-1beta modulate nitrite production in a Swiss 3T3 cell model of rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Baig, S; Patel, Y; Coussons, P; Grant, R

    2002-11-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO), a haemopoietic growth factor and a primary regulator of erythropoiesis, is widely used to treat anaemia in various chronic complications of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Fibroblast-like cells, found in the pannus tissue of joints, are thought to contribute to the inflammatory pathology of RA. Thus for the current study we investigated the effects of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) on NO metabolism, using an interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta)-stimulated Swiss 3T3 fibroblast monolayer as a model for fibroblast activity in RA. The results show that, over 3 days, both alone and in combination with the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta (10 ng/ml), rHuEPO (25 micro-units/ml) induced significant production of nitrite in cell culture supernatants. This is an indicator of NO production by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a well-documented mediator of metalloproteinase-mediated tissue remodelling in RA. It therefore appears that, through modulation of NOS-dependent NO production, rHuEPO may influence remodelling of connective tissue in RA, independently of its established erythropoietic role.

  18. Growth reduction of Listeria spp. caused by undefined industrial red smear cheese cultures and bacteriocin-producing Brevibacterium lines as evaluated in situ on soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Eppert, I; Valdés-Stauber, N; Götz, H; Busse, M; Scherer, S

    1997-12-01

    The undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheese which are used for the ripening of commercial red smear cheeses have a strong impact on the growth of Listeria spp. In some cases, these microbial consortia inhibit Listeria almost completely. From such undefined industrial cheese-ripening floras, linocin M18-producing (lin+) (N. Valdés-Stauber and S. Scherer, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:3809-3814, 1994) and -nonproducing Brevibacterium linens strains were isolated and used as single-strain starter cultures on model red smear cheeses to evaluate their potential inhibitory effects on Listeria strains in situ. On cheeses ripened with lin+ strains, a growth reduction of L. ivanovii and L. monocytogenes of 1 to 2 log units was observed compared to cheeses ripened with lin strains. Linocin M18 activity was detected in cheeses ripened with lin+ strains but was not found in those ripened with lin strains. We suggest that production of linocin M18 contributes to the growth reduction of Listeria observed on model red smear cheeses but is unsufficient to explain the almost complete inhibition of Listeria caused by some undefined microbial floras derived from the surface of ripe cheeses.

  19. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b... enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes of...

  20. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b... enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin. (3) Other optional... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes of...

  1. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight of the solids and the maximum moisture content is 41 percent by weight, as determined by the... days old. (2) If pasteurized dairy ingredients are used, the phenol equivalent value of 0.25 gram of... anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid. (iii) Enzymes of...

  2. Inferring genetic parameters on latent variables underlying milk yield and quality, protein composition, curd firmness and cheese-making traits in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Dadousis, C; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2017-07-17

    We studied the genetics of cheese-related latent variables (factors; Fs) for application in dairy cattle breeding. In total, 26 traits, recorded in 1264 Brown Swiss cows, were analyzed through multivariate factor analysis (MFA). Traits analyzed were descriptors of milk quality and yield (including protein fractions) and measures of coagulation, curd firmness (CF), cheese yields (%CY) and nutrient recoveries in the curd (REC). A total of 10 Fs (mutual orthogonal with a varimax rotation) were obtained. To assess the practical use of the Fs into breeding, we inferred their genetic parameters using single and bivariate animal models under a Bayesian framework. Heritability estimates (intra-herd) varied between 0.11 and 0.72 (F3: Yield and F7: κ-β-CN, respectively). The Fs underlined basic characteristics of the cheese-making process, milk components and udder health, while retaining 74% of the original variability. The first two Fs were indicators of the CY percentage (F1: %CY) and the CF process (F2: CF t ), and presented similar heritability estimates: 0.268 and 0.295, respectively. The third factor was associated with the yield of milk and solids (F3: Yield) characterized by a low heritability (0.108) and the fourth with the cheese nitrogen (N) (F4: Cheese N) that conversely appeared to be characterized by a high heritability (0.618). Three Fs were associated with the proportion of the basic milk caseins on total milk protein (F5: as1-β-CN, F7: κ-β-CN, F8: as2-CN), also highly heritable (0.565, 0.723 and 0.397, respectively) and 1 factor with the phosphorylated form of the as1-CN (F9: as1-CN-Ph; 0.318). Moreover, 1 factor was linked to the whey protein α-LA (F10: α-LA; 0.147). An indicator factor of a cow's udder health (F6: Udder health) was also obtained and showed a moderate heritability (0.204). Although the Fs were phenotypically uncorrelated, considerable additive genetic correlations existed among them, with highest values observed between F10:

  3. Invited review: Artisanal Mexican cheeses.

    PubMed

    González-Córdova, Aarón F; Yescas, Carlos; Ortiz-Estrada, Ángel Martín; De la Rosa-Alcaraz, María de Los Ángeles; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this review is to present an overview of some of the most commonly consumed artisanal Mexican cheeses, as well as those cheeses that show potential for a protected designation of origin. A description is given for each of these cheeses, including information on their distinguishing characteristics that makes some of them potential candidates for achieving a protected designation of origin status. This distinction could help to expand their frontiers and allow them to become better known and appreciated in other parts of the world. Due to the scarcity of scientific studies concerning artisanal Mexican cheeses, which would ultimately aid in the standardization of manufacturing processes and in the establishment of regulations related to their production, more than 40 varieties of artisanal cheese are in danger of disappearing. To preserve these cheeses, it is necessary to address this challenge by working jointly with government, artisanal cheesemaking organizations, industry, academics, and commercial partners on the implementation of strategies to protect and preserve their artisanal means of production. With sufficient information, official Mexican regulations could be established that would encompass and regulate the manufacture of Mexican artisanal cheeses. Finally, as many Mexican artisanal cheeses are produced from raw milk, more scientific studies are required to show the role of the lactic acid bacteria and their antagonistic effect on pathogenic microorganisms during aging following cheese making. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

    PubMed

    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Detachment folds versus thrust-folds: numerical modelling and applications to the Swiss Jura Mountains and the Canadian Foothills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humair, Florian; Bauville, Arthur; Epard, Jean-Luc; Schmalholz, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The Jura Mountains and the Foothills of the Canadian Rockies fold-and-thrust belts are classical examples of thin-skinned belts where folds develop over weak detachment horizons. They offer the possibility to observe and measure strain in folds. In these two belts, a large spectrum of fold geometries is expressed, from symmetric box-fold or pop-up structures to asymmetric thrust-related folds. In this study, we focus on the quantification and prediction of the brittle strain distribution in folds as a function of the fold geometry. Fold geometry is considered as a continuum between two end-member structural styles: symmetric detachment folds and asymmetric foreland-vergent thrust-folds. We performed two-dimensional numerical simulations of visco-plastic detachment folding. The models are used (1) to systematically examine the influence of different initial parameters on the resulting geometry and style of folding and (2) to quantify the local strain pattern through time. The different parameters tested are the following: presence and size of initial geometrical perturbation at the detachment-sediment interface, rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous), additional detachment layer within the series and overbunden thickness. Results of single detachment layer models show that the asymmetry of folds is primarily controlled by the height of the initial geometrical perturbation, regardless to the rheology of the detachment (frictional vs. viscous). Additional detachment interlayer within the series decreases the brittle strain within the stiff layers and favours more rounded anticlines geometry. The models were then adapted to the Swiss Jura and the Canadian Foothills settings. Compared to field observations and cross-sections of existing fault-related anticlines, the proposed simulations agree with the first order geometry and the development of associated localized zones of brittle deformation.

  6. Prediction of process cheese instrumental texture and melting characteristics using dielectric spectroscopy and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Amamcharla, J K; Metzger, L E

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the potentiality of dielectric spectroscopy as a tool to predict the functional properties of process cheese. Dielectric properties of process cheese were collected over the frequency range 0.2 to 3.2GHz at 25°C. Dielectric spectra of process cheese were collected using a high-temperature, open-ended dielectric probe connected to a vector network analyzer. The present study was conducted using 2 sets of commercial process cheese formulations and a set of specially formulated process cheese. For the all the process cheese samples analyzed, a decrease in dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor was observed as the incident frequency increased. Partial least square regression (PLSR) and multilayer perceptron neural network models were developed using the dielectric spectra of process cheese to predict the hardness (gf), melting point (°C), and modified Schreiber melt diameter (mm) of process cheese. The prediction models were validated using the full cross-validation method. The ratio of prediction error to deviation was greater than 2 for melt diameter and hardness, indicating a good practical utility of the PLSR prediction models. The predictability of multilayer perceptron neural network was less than the PLSR models and could be due to the small number of training samples in the data sets. Dielectric spectroscopy coupled with PLSR could be a useful tool for the nondestructive measurement of functional properties of process cheese.

  7. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Cow's milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as...) Mozzarella cheese, scamorza cheese is the food prepared from dairy ingredients and other ingredients... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients are pasteurized. (2) The phenol equivalent value of...

  8. 21 CFR 133.155 - Mozzarella cheese and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Dairy ingredients. Cow's milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as...) Mozzarella cheese, scamorza cheese is the food prepared from dairy ingredients and other ingredients... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients are pasteurized. (2) The phenol equivalent value of...

  9. A spatial model for predicting effects of climate change on swiss needle cast disease severity in Pacific Northwest forests

    Treesearch

    Jeffrey K. Stone; Leonard B. Coop; Daniel K. Manter

    2010-01-01

    Swiss needle cast disease of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) is caused by the ascomycete fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Symptoms of the disease are foliage chlorosis and premature needle abscission due to occlusion of stomata by the ascocarps of the pathogen, resulting in impaired needle gas exchange. Severe defoliation...

  10. Stress field sensitivity analysis within Mesozoic successions in the Swiss Alpine foreland using 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Karsten; Hergert, Tobias; Heidbach, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The in situ stress conditions are of key importance for the evaluation of radioactive waste repositories. In stage two of the Swiss site selection program, the three siting areas of high-level radioactive waste are located in the Alpine foreland in northern Switzerland. The sedimentary succession overlays the basement, consisting of variscan crystalline rocks as well as partly preserved Permo-Carboniferous deposits in graben structures. The Mesozoic sequence represents nearly the complete era and is covered by Cenozoic Molasse deposits as well as Quaternary sediments, mainly in the valleys. The target horizon (designated host rock) is an >100 m thick argillaceous Jurassic deposit (Opalinus Clay). To enlighten the impact of site-specific features on the state of stress within the sedimentary succession, 3-D-geomechanical-numerical models with elasto-plastic rock properties are set up for three potential siting areas. The lateral extent of the models ranges between 12 and 20 km, the vertical extent is up to a depth of 2.5 or 5 km below sea level. The sedimentary sequence plus the basement are separated into 10 to 14 rock mechanical units. The Mesozoic succession is intersected by regional fault zones; two or three of them are present in each model. The numerical problem is solved with the finite element method with a resolution of 100-150 m laterally and 10-30 m vertically. An initial stress state is established for all models taking into account the depth-dependent overconsolidation ratio in Opalinus Clay in northern Switzerland. The influence of topography, rock properties, friction on the faults as well as the impact of tectonic shortening on the state of stress is investigated. The tectonic stress is implemented with lateral displacement boundary conditions, calibrated on stress data that are compiled in Northern Switzerland. The model results indicate that the stress perturbation by the topography is significant to depths greater than the relief contrast. The

  11. Assessing the yield, microstructure, and texture properties of miniature Chihuahua-type cheese manufactured with a phospholipase A1 and exopolysaccharide-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Trancoso-Reyes, N; Gutiérrez-Méndez, N; Sepulveda, D R; Hernández-Ochoa, L R

    2014-02-01

    Chihuahua cheese or Mennonite cheese is one of the most popular and consumed cheeses in Mexico and by the Hispanic community in the United States. According to local producers the yield of Chihuahua cheese ranges from 9 to 9.5 kg of cheese from 100 kg of milk. Cheese yield is a crucial determinant of profitability in cheese-manufacturing plants; therefore, different methods have been developed to increase it. In this work, a miniature Chihuahua-type cheese model was used to assess the effect of a phospholipase A1 (PL-A1) and exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bacteria (separately and in combination) on the yield, microstructure, and texture of cheese. Four different cheeses were manufactured: cheese made with PL-A1, cheese made with EPS-producing bacteria, cheese with both PL-A1 and EPS-producing bacteria, and a cheese control without PL-A1 or EPS-producing bacteria. The compositional analysis of cheese was carried out using methods of AOAC International (Washington, DC). The actual yield and moisture-adjusted yield were calculated for all cheese treatments. Texture profile analyses of cheeses were performed using a texture analyzer. Micrographs were obtained by electron scanning microscopy. Fifty panelists carried out sensorial analysis using ranking tests. Incorporation of EPS-producing bacteria in the manufacture of cheese increased the moisture content and water activity. In contrast, the addition of PL-A1 did not increase fat retention or cheese yield. The use of EPS alone improved the cheese yield by increasing water and fat retention, but also caused a negative effect on the texture and flavor of Chihuahua cheese. The use of EPS-producing bacteria in combination with PL-A1 improved the cheese yield and increased the moisture and fat content. The cheeses with the best flavor and texture were those manufactured with PL-A1 and the cheeses manufactured with the combination of PL-A1 and EPS-producing culture.

  12. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1–5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6–11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making—P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13–15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  13. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-05

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Prediction of residential radon exposure of the whole Swiss population: comparison of model-based predictions with measurement-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Hauri, D D; Huss, A; Zimmermann, F; Kuehni, C E; Röösli, M

    2013-10-01

    Radon plays an important role for human exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation. The aim of this article is to compare two approaches to estimate mean radon exposure in the Swiss population: model-based predictions at individual level and measurement-based predictions based on measurements aggregated at municipality level. A nationwide model was used to predict radon levels in each household and for each individual based on the corresponding tectonic unit, building age, building type, soil texture, degree of urbanization, and floor. Measurement-based predictions were carried out within a health impact assessment on residential radon and lung cancer. Mean measured radon levels were corrected for the average floor distribution and weighted with population size of each municipality. Model-based predictions yielded a mean radon exposure of the Swiss population of 84.1 Bq/m(3) . Measurement-based predictions yielded an average exposure of 78 Bq/m(3) . This study demonstrates that the model- and the measurement-based predictions provided similar results. The advantage of the measurement-based approach is its simplicity, which is sufficient for assessing exposure distribution in a population. The model-based approach allows predicting radon levels at specific sites, which is needed in an epidemiological study, and the results do not depend on how the measurement sites have been selected.

  15. Outgrowth inhibition of Clostridium beijerinckii spores by a bacteriocin-producing lactic culture in ovine milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Garde, Sonia; Avila, Marta; Arias, Ramón; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel

    2011-10-17

    In the manufacture of model cheeses, ovine milk was deliberately contaminated with spores of Clostridium beijerinckii INIA 63, a wild isolate from Manchego cheese with late blowing defect, and inoculated with nisin- and lacticin 481-producing Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 as starter, to test its potential to prevent the late blowing defect, or with L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2, a spontaneous mutant not producing bacteriocins. Cheeses made individually with the lactococcal strains, without clostridial spores, served as controls. Cheese made with clostridial spores and L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415-2 showed late blowing defect after 120days of ripening. Spoilt cheese also showed lower concentrations of lactic acid, and higher levels of acetic, propionic and butyric acids, and of other volatile compounds such as 2-propanol and 1-butanol, than control cheese. In addition, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer did not show any late blowing symptoms, despite its spore counts similar to those of blown cheese, pointing to outgrowth inhibition of C. beijerinckii spores by bacteriocins. Besides, cheese made with the bacteriocin producer showed similar concentrations of lactic acid and volatile compounds than control cheese. Inclusion of L. lactis subsp. lactis INIA 415 in starter cultures seems a feasible method to prevent late blowing defect in cheese without altering its sensory characteristics.

  16. Characterization of alkylmethoxypyrazines contributing to earthy/bell pepper flavor in farmstead cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Miracle, R E; Sanders, T H; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Farmstead Cheddar cheeses with natural bandage wrappings have a distinctive flavor profile that is appealing to many consumers. An earthy/bell pepper (EBP) flavor has been previously recognized in some of these cheeses. This study characterized the alkylmethoxypyrazine compounds causing EBP flavor in Farmstead Cheddar cheeses. Eight cheeses were divided into inner, outer, rind, and wrapper sections, and tested for descriptive sensory and instrumental analyses. To assess reproducibility of EBP flavor, cheeses from the same facilities were purchased and tested after 6 and 12 mo. EBP flavor was detected in four out of 8 Farmstead Cheddar cheeses by a trained sensory panel. 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine were identified as the main sources of EBP flavor in these cheeses by GC/O and GC/MS. In general, those alkylmethoxypyrazines were prevalent in the wrapper (106 to 730 ppb) and rind (39 to 444 ppb) sections of the cheeses. They were either not detected in inner and outer sections of the cheeses or were present at low concentrations. These results suggest that 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine are formed near the surface of the cheeses and migrate into the cheese during ripening. Threshold values in water and whole milk were 1 and 16 ppt for 2-sec-butyl-3-methoxypyrazine, and 0.4 and 2.3 ppt for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, respectively. Sensory analysis of mild Cheddar cheese model systems confirmed that direct addition of those individual alkylmethoxypyrazines (0.4 to 20 ppb) resulted in EBP flavor.

  17. Probiotic Crescenza cheese containing Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus acidophilus manufactured with high-pressure homogenized milk.

    PubMed

    Burns, P; Patrignani, F; Serrazanetti, D; Vinderola, G C; Reinheimer, J A; Lanciotti, R; Guerzoni, M E

    2008-02-01

    High-pressure homogenization (HPH) is one of the most promising alternatives to traditional thermal treatment of food preservation and diversification. Its effectiveness on the deactivation of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms in model systems and real food is well documented. To evaluate the potential of milk treated by HPH for the production of Crescenza cheese with commercial probiotic lactobacilli added, 4 types of cheeses were made: HPH (from HPH-treated milk), P (from pasteurized milk), HPH-P (HPH-treated milk plus probiotics), and P-P (pasteurized milk plus probiotics) cheeses. A strain of Streptococcus thermophilus was used as starter culture for cheese production. Compositional, microbiological, physicochemical, and organoleptic analyses were carried out at 1, 5, 8, and 12 d of refrigerated storage (4 degrees C). According to results obtained, no significant differences among the 4 cheese types were observed for gross composition (protein, fat, moisture) and pH. Differently, the HPH treatment of milk increased the cheese yield about 1% and positively affected the viability during the refrigerated storage of the probiotic bacteria. In fact, after 12 d of storage, the Lactobacillus paracasei A13 cell loads were 8 log cfu/ g, whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus H5 exhibited, in P-P cheese, a cell load decrease of about 1 log cfu/g with respect to the HPH-P cheese. The hyperbaric treatment had a significant positive effect on free fatty acids release and cheese proteolysis. Also, probiotic cultures affected proteolytic and lipolytic cheese patterns. No significant differences were found for the sensory descriptors salty and creamy among HPH and P cheeses as well as for acid, piquant, sweet, milky, salty, creamy, and overall acceptance among HPH, HPH-P, and P-P Crescenza cheeses.

  18. Consumer preferences for mild cheddar cheese flavors.

    PubMed

    Drake, S L; Gerard, P D; Drake, M A

    2008-11-01

    Flavor is an important factor in consumer selection of cheeses. Mild Cheddar cheese is the classification used to describe Cheddar cheese that is not aged extensively and has a "mild" flavor. However, there is no legal definition or age limit for Cheddar cheese to be labeled mild, medium, or sharp, nor are the flavor profiles or flavor expectations of these cheeses specifically defined. The objectives of this study were to document the distinct flavor profiles among commercially labeled mild Cheddar cheeses, and to characterize if consumer preferences existed for specific mild Cheddar cheese flavors or flavor profiles. Flavor descriptive sensory profiles of a representative array of commercial Cheddar cheeses labeled as mild (n= 22) were determined using a trained sensory panel and an established cheese flavor sensory language. Nine representative Cheddar cheeses were selected for consumer testing. Consumers (n= 215) assessed the cheeses for overall liking and other consumer liking attributes. Internal preference mapping, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis were conducted. Mild Cheddar cheeses were diverse in flavor with many displaying flavors typically associated with more age. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified. The key drivers of liking for mild Cheddar cheese were: color, cooked/milky, whey and brothy flavors, and sour taste. Consumers have distinct flavor and color preferences for mild Cheddar cheese. These results can help manufacturers understand consumer preferences for mild Cheddar cheese.

  19. Spatial Distribution of the Metabolically Active Microbiota within Italian PDO Ewes' Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    De Pasquale, Ilaria; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Buchin, Solange; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Italian PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) Fiore Sardo (FS), Pecorino Siciliano (PS) and Pecorino Toscano (PT) ewes’ milk cheeses were chosen as hard cheese model systems to investigate the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota and the related effects on proteolysis and synthesis of volatile components (VOC). Cheese slices were divided in nine sub-blocks, each one separately subjected to analysis and compared to whole cheese slice (control). Gradients for moisture, and concentrations of salt, fat and protein distinguished sub-blocks, while the cell density of the main microbial groups did not differ. Secondary proteolysis differed between sub-blocks of each cheese, especially when the number and area of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptide peaks were assessed. The concentration of free amino acids (FAA) agreed with these data. As determined through Purge and Trap (PT) coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (PT-GC/MS), and regardless of the cheese variety, the profile with the lowest level of VOC was restricted to the region identified by the letter E defined as core. As shown through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA targeting RNA, the spatial distribution of the metabolically active microbiota agreed with the VOC distribution. Differences were highlighted between core and the rest of the cheese. Top and bottom under rind sub-blocks of all three cheeses harbored the widest biodiversity. The cheese sub-block analysis revealed the presence of a microbiota statistically correlated with secondary proteolysis events and/or synthesis of VOC. PMID:27073835

  20. Predictive cross-validation for the choice of linear mixed-effects models with application to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    Model choice in linear mixed-effects models for longitudinal data is a challenging task. Apart from the selection of covariates, also the choice of the random effects and the residual correlation structure should be possible. Application of classical model choice criteria such as Akaike information criterion (AIC) or Bayesian information criterion is not obvious, and many versions do exist. In this article, a predictive cross-validation approach to model choice is proposed based on the logarithmic and the continuous ranked probability score. In contrast to full cross-validation, the model has to be fitted only once, which enables fast computations, even for large data sets. Relationships to the recently proposed conditional AIC are discussed. The methodology is applied to search for the best model to predict the course of CD4+ counts using data obtained from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

  1. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    AK, Afzal Khan; Shivaramegowda, Rekha M

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the adverse effects produced by the present conventional medicines for anxiety disorders, research for newer drugs is still desirable. From the literature it is evident that NMDA receptors play a key role in animal models of anxiety. Aim The present study is done to evaluate the antianxiety effect of memantine in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. Animals were divided into four groups. Twelve mice were randomly allotted in each group. Animals in the first group received normal saline as a control 10ml/kg, lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to second group, memantine 3mg/kg as a test drug was given to the third group and memantine 3mg/kg + lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to the fourth group. All the drugs were given for 7 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route. Results Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test. On the 1st day, memantine treated group did not show statistical significant anxiolytic effect in both the behavioural paradigms when compared to control group. On the 8th day, the animals showed significant decrease p<0.001 in step down latency period in shock free zone (185.4±3.87 Vs 278.3±5.49), significant increase p<0.001 in step down errors (6.8±0.78 Vs 1.4±0.19) and significant increase p<0.001 in total time spent in shock zone (32.1±2.22 Vs 5.6±0.6). In open field test, on 8th day the animals treated with memantine when compared to control group, showed significant increase p<0.001 in number of squares crossed (112.7± 2.69 Vs 83.2±2.96), time spent in central square (11.5±1.26 Vs 3.4±0.65), no. of rearings (32.4±2.61 Vs 17±1.81) and significant decrease p<0.001 in freezing time (15.2±1.12 Vs 20.2±2.29). Memantine showed synergistic antianxiety effect when combined with lorazepam. Conclusion Memantine showed significant anxiolytic effect in open field and passive avoidance response tests which are

  2. Regional-scale controls on the spatial activity of rockfalls (Turtmann Valley, Swiss Alps) - A multivariate modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Meyer, Hanna; Otto, Jan-Christoph; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2017-06-01

    In mountain geosystems, rockfalls are among the most effective sediment transfer processes, reflected in the regional-scale distribution of talus slopes. However, the understanding of the key controlling factors seems to decrease with increasing spatial scale, due to emergent and complex system behavior and not least to recent methodological shortcomings in rockfall modeling research. In this study, we aim (i) to develop a new approach to identify major regional-scale rockfall controls and (ii) to quantify the relative importance of these controls. Using a talus slope inventory in the Turtmann Valley (Swiss Alps), we applied for the first time the decision-tree based random forest algorithm (RF) in combination with a principal component logistic regression (PCLR) to evaluate the spatial distribution of rockfall activity. This study presents new insights into the discussion on whether periglacial rockfall events are controlled more by topo-climatic, cryospheric, paraglacial or/and rock mechanical properties. Both models explain the spatial rockfall pattern very well, given the high areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves of > 0.83. Highest accuracy was obtained by the RF, correctly predicting 88% of the rockfall source areas. The RF appears to have a great potential in geomorphic research involving multicollinear data. The regional permafrost distribution, coupled to the bedrock curvature and valley topography, was detected to be the primary rockfall control. Rockfall source areas cluster within a low-radiation elevation belt (2900-3300 m a.s.l,) consistent with a permafrost probability of > 90%. The second most important factor is the time since deglaciation, reflected by the high abundance of rockfalls along recently deglaciated (< 100 years), north-facing slopes. However, our findings also indicate a strong rock mechanical control on the paraglacial rockfall activity, declining either exponentially or linearly since deglaciation. The study

  3. Regional modelling of nitrate leaching from Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calitri, Francesca; Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Zaccone, Claudio; Spiess, Ernst; Herrera, Juan; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Organic cropping systems have been promoted as a sustainable alternative to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. Relatively little is known about the potential to reduce NO3-N leaching through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Moreover, the potential to mitigate NO3-N leaching and thus the N pollution under future climate change through organic farming remain unknown and highly uncertain. Here, we compared regional NO3-N leaching from organic and conventional cropping systems in Switzerland using a terrestrial biogeochemical process-based model DayCent. The objectives of this study are 1) to calibrate and evaluate the model for NO3-N leaching measured under various management practices from three experiments at two sites in Switzerland; 2) to estimate regional NO3-N leaching patterns and their spatial uncertainty in conventional and organic cropping systems (with and without cover crops) for future climate change scenario A1B; 3) to explore the sensitivity of NO3-N leaching to changes in soil and climate variables; and 4) to assess the nitrogen use efficiency for conventional and organic cropping systems with and without cover crops under climate change. The data for model calibration/evaluation were derived from field experiments conducted in Liebefeld (canton Bern) and Eschikon (canton Zürich). These experiments evaluated effects of various cover crops and N fertilizer inputs on NO3-N leaching. The preliminary results suggest that the model was able to explain 50 to 83% of the inter-annual variability in the measured soil drainage (RMSE from 12.32 to 16.89 cm y-1). The annual NO3-N leaching was also simulated satisfactory (RMSE = 3.94 to 6.38 g N m-2 y-1), although the model had difficulty to reproduce the inter-annual variability in the NO3-N leaching losses correctly (R2 = 0.11 to 0.35). Future climate datasets (2010-2099) from the 10 regional climate models (RCM) were used in the simulations. Regional NO3-N leaching

  4. Functional genomics provides insights into the role of Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS in cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Ojala, Teija; Laine, Pia K S; Ahlroos, Terhi; Tanskanen, Jarna; Pitkänen, Saara; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Kankainen, Matti; Tynkkynen, Soile; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri

    2017-01-16

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is essential for the development of the characteristic eyes and flavor of Swiss-type cheeses. These bacteria grow actively and produce large quantities of flavor compounds during cheese ripening at warm temperatures but also appear to contribute to the aroma development during the subsequent cold storage of cheese. Here, we advance our understanding of the role of P. freudenreichii in cheese ripening by presenting the 2.68-Mbp annotated genome sequence of P. freudenreichii ssp. shermanii JS and determining its global transcriptional profiles during industrial cheese-making using transcriptome sequencing. The annotation of the genome identified a total of 2377 protein-coding genes and revealed the presence of enzymes and pathways for formation of several flavor compounds. Based on transcriptome profiling, the expression of 348 protein-coding genes was altered between the warm and cold room ripening of cheese. Several propionate, acetate, and diacetyl/acetoin production related genes had higher expression levels in the warm room, whereas a general slowing down of the metabolism and an activation of mobile genetic elements was seen in the cold room. A few ripening-related and amino acid catabolism involved genes were induced or remained active in cold room, indicating that strain JS contributes to the aroma development also during cold room ripening. In addition, we performed a comparative genomic analysis of strain JS and 29 other Propionibacterium strains of 10 different species, including an isolate of both P. freudenreichii subspecies freudenreichii and shermanii. Ortholog grouping of the predicted protein sequences revealed that close to 86% of the ortholog groups of strain JS, including a variety of ripening-related ortholog groups, were conserved across the P. freudenreichii isolates. Taken together, this study contributes to the understanding of the genomic basis of P. freudenreichii

  5. Biobutanol from cheese whey.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Manuel; Cerdán, María Esperanza; González-Siso, María Isabel

    2015-03-05

    At present, due to environmental and economic concerns, it is urgent to evolve efficient, clean and secure systems for the production of advanced biofuels from sustainable cheap sources. Biobutanol has proved better characteristics than the more widely used bioethanol, however the main disadvantage of biobutanol is that it is produced in low yield and titer by ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, this process being not competitive from the economic point of view. In this review we summarize the natural metabolic pathways for biobutanol production by Clostridia and yeasts, together with the metabolic engineering efforts performed up to date with the aim of either enhancing the yield of the natural producer Clostridia or transferring the butanol production ability to other hosts with better attributes for industrial use and facilities for genetic manipulation. Molasses and starch-based feedstocks are main sources for biobutanol production at industrial scale hitherto. We also review herewith (and for the first time up to our knowledge) the research performed for the use of whey, the subproduct of cheese making, as another sustainable source for biobutanol production. This represents a promising alternative that still needs further research. The use of an abundant waste material like cheese whey, that would otherwise be considered an environmental pollutant, for biobutanol production, makes economy of the process more profitable.

  6. Calculation and visualisation of future glacier extent in the Swiss Alps by means of hypsographic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, F.; Maisch, M.; Rothenbühler, C.; Hoelzle, M.; Haeberli, W.

    2007-02-01

    The observed rapid glacier wastage in the European Alps during the past 20 years already has strong impacts on the natural environment (rock fall, lake formation) as well as on human activities (tourism, hydro-power production, etc.) and poses several new challenges also for glacier monitoring. With a further increase of global mean temperature in the future, it is likely that Alpine glaciers and the high-mountain environment as an entire system will further develop into a state of imbalance. Hence, the assessment of future glacier geometries is a valuable prerequisite for various impact studies. In order to calculate and visualize in a consistent manner future glacier extent for a large number of individual glaciers (> 100) according to a given climate change scenario, we have developed an automated and simple but robust approach that is based on an empirical relationship between glacier size and the steady-state accumulation area ratio (AAR 0) in the Alps. The model requires digital glacier outlines and a digital elevation model (DEM) only and calculates new glacier geometries from a given shift of the steady-state equilibrium line altitude (ELA 0) by means of hypsographic modelling. We have calculated changes in number, area and volume for 3062 individual glacier units in Switzerland and applied six step changes in ELA 0 (from + 100 to + 600 m) combined with four different values of the AAR 0 (0.5, 0.6, 0.67, 0.75). For an AAR 0 of 0.6 and an ELA 0 rise of 200 m (400 m) we calculate a total area loss of - 54% (- 80%) and a corresponding volume loss of - 50% (- 78%) compared to the 1973 glacier extent. In combination with a geocoded satellite image, the future glacier outlines are also used for automated rendering of perspective visualisations. This is a very attractive tool for communicating research results to the general public. Our study is illustrated for a test site in the Upper Engadine (Switzerland), where landscape changes above timberline play an

  7. Analysis of spreadable cheese by Raman spectroscopy and chemometric tools.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Kamila de Sá; Callegaro, Layce de Souza; Stephani, Rodrigo; Almeida, Mariana Ramos; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2016-03-01

    In this work, FT-Raman spectroscopy was explored to evaluate spreadable cheese samples. A partial least squares discriminant analysis was employed to identify the spreadable cheese samples containing starch. To build the models, two types of samples were used: commercial samples and samples manufactured in local industries. The method of supervised classification PLS-DA was employed to classify the samples as adulterated or without starch. Multivariate regression was performed using the partial least squares method to quantify the starch in the spreadable cheese. The limit of detection obtained for the model was 0.34% (w/w) and the limit of quantification was 1.14% (w/w). The reliability of the models was evaluated by determining the confidence interval, which was calculated using the bootstrap re-sampling technique. The results show that the classification models can be used to complement classical analysis and as screening methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  9. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  10. 21 CFR 133.148 - Hard grating cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hard grating cheeses. 133.148 Section 133.148 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.148 Hard grating cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of...

  11. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  12. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  13. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  14. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  15. 21 CFR 133.104 - Asiago old cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago old cheese. 133.104 Section 133.104 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.104 Asiago old cheese. Asiago old cheese conforms to the definition and standard of...

  16. 21 CFR 133.182 - Soft ripened cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Soft ripened cheeses. 133.182 Section 133.182 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.182 Soft ripened cheeses. (a) The cheeses for which definitions and standards of...

  17. 21 CFR 133.167 - Pasteurized blended cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized blended cheese. 133.167 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.167 Pasteurized blended cheese. Pasteurized blended cheese conforms to...

  18. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to the...

  19. 21 CFR 133.191 - Part-skim spiced cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim spiced cheeses. 133.191 Section 133.191... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.191 Part-skim spiced cheeses. Part-skim spiced cheeses conform to the...

  20. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the food...

  1. Influence of compression parameters on mechanical behavior of mozzarella cheese.

    PubMed

    Fogaça, Davi Novaes Ladeia; da Silva, William Soares; Rodrigues, Luciano Brito

    2017-10-01

    Studies on the interaction between direction and degree of compression in the Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of cheeses are limited. For this reason the present study aimed to evaluate the mechanical properties of Mozzarella cheese by TPA at different compression degrees (65, 75, and 85%) and directions (axes X, Y, and Z). Data obtained were compared in order to identify possible interaction between both factors. Compression direction did not affect any mechanical variable, or rather, the cheese had an isotropic behavior for TPA. Compression degree had a significant influence (p < 0.05) on TPA responses, excepting for chewiness TPA (N), which remained constant. Data from texture profile were adjusted to models to explain the mechanical behavior according to the compression degree used in the test. The isotropic behavior observed may be result of differences in production method of Mozzarella cheese especially on stretching of cheese mass. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) is a technique largely used to assess the mechanical properties of food, particularly cheese. The precise choice of the instrumental test configuration is essential for achieving results that represent the material analyzed. The method of manufacturing is another factor that may directly influence the mechanical properties of food. This can be seen, for instance, in stretched curd cheese, such as Mozzarella. Knowledge on such mechanical properties is highly relevant for food industries due to the mechanical resistance in piling, pressing, manufacture of packages, and food transport, or to melting features presented by the food at high temperatures in preparation of several foods, such as pizzas, snacks, sandwiches, and appetizers. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Release of angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitor peptides during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of Parmigiano Reggiano PDO cheese and their absorption through an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, L; Catalani, E; Morera, P; Cattaneo, S; Stuknytė, M; Bernabucci, U; De Noni, I; Nardone, A

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of 8 bovine casein-derived peptides (VPP, IPP, RYLGY, RYLG, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, LHLPLP, and HLPLP) reported as angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACE-I) was investigated in the 3-kDa ultrafiltered water-soluble extract (WSE) of Parmigiano Reggiano (PR) cheese samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry via an electrospray ionization source. Only VPP, IPP, LHLPLP, and HLPLP were revealed in the WSE, and their total amount was in the range of 8.46 to 21.55 mg/kg of cheese. Following in vitro static gastrointestinal digestion, the same ACE-I peptides along with the newly formed AYFYPEL and AYFYPE were found in the 3 kDa WSE of PR digestates. Digestates presented high amounts (1,880-3,053 mg/kg) of LHLPLP, whereas the remaining peptides accounted for 69.24 to 82.82 mg/kg. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values decreased from 7.92 ± 2.08 in undigested cheese to 3.20 ± 1.69 after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The 3-kDa WSE of digested cheeses were used to study the transport of the 8 ACE-I peptides across the monolayers of the Caco-2 cell culture grown on a semipermeable membrane of the transwells. After 1h of incubation, 649.20 ± 148.85 mg/kg of LHLPLP remained in the apical compartment, whereas VPP, IPP, AYFYPEL, AYFYPE, and HLPLP accounted in total for less than 36.78 mg/kg. On average, 0.6% of LHLPLP initially present in the digestates added to the apical compartment were transported intact to the basolateral chamber after the same incubation time. Higher transport rate (2.9%) was ascertained for the peptide HLPLP. No other intact ACE-I peptides were revealed in the basolateral compartment. For the first time, these results demonstrated that the ACE-I peptides HLPLP and LHLPLP present in the in vitro digestates of PR cheese are partially absorbed through an in vitro model of human intestinal epithelium.

  3. Hygienic quality of ewes' milk cheeses manufactured with artisan-produced lamb rennet pastes.

    PubMed

    Gil, Pilar F; Conde, Socorro; Albisu, Marta; Pérez-Elortondo, Francisco J; Etayo, Iñaki; Virto, Mailo; de Renobales, Mertxe

    2007-08-01

    The use of artisan-produced lamb rennet pastes, but not any of the other commercial animal rennets, imparts a characteristic flavour to the cheese, so most Mediterranean ewes' milk cheeses are coagulated with this kind of rennet paste. In contrast to the advantages of using lamb or kid rennet pastes from the sensory point of view, questions are still raised as to their hygienic quality. The goal was to examine the microbiological and enzymic quality of lamb rennet pastes prepared by cheese manufacturers for their own use, and evaluate the hygienic quality of raw sheeps' milk cheeses made with them, using Idiazabal cheese as a model. Lamb rennet pastes prepared by artisan cheese makers from the Basque region of Spain (27), and Italy (8) were evaluated. For cheese making experiments 5 different lamb rennet pastes were selected among the 27 samples from the Basque Country region of Spain. Microbiological analyses were carried out on samples from rennet pastes, rennet extracts, milks and cheeses during ripening. Enzymic activities studied in rennet paste were: total coagulating strength and lipase. Analysis of variance and Student's t-tests was performed. The results show that the artisan-produced rennet pastes contain high levels of a variety of microorganisms. After 60 ripening days, which is the minimum ripening period required for Idiazabal cheese prior to its commercialization, no Eschericia coli, Clostridium, Salmonella spp. or Listeria monocytogenes were detected, and levels for the rest of the microorganisms were below the limits of the European legislative standards for cheese manufactured with raw milk. We can conclude that the use of artisan-produced lamb rennet pastes of questionable hygienic quality for the manufacture of raw milk hard cheeses yields products of good hygienic quality.

  4. Variation of milk coagulation properties, cheese yield, and nutrients recovery in curd of cows of different breeds before, during and after transhumance to highland summer pastures.

    PubMed

    Zendri, Francesco; Ramanzin, Maurizio; Cipolat-Gotet, Claudio; Sturaro, Enrico

    2017-02-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating the effect of summer transhumance to mountain pastures of dairy cows of different breeds on cheese-making ability of milk. Data were from 649 dairy cows of specialized (Holstein Friesian and Brown Swiss) dual purpose (Simmental) and local (mostly Rendena and Alpine Grey) breeds. The Fourier-Transform Infra-Red Spectra (FTIRS) of their milk samples were collected before and after transhumance in 109 permanent dairy farms, and during transhumance in 14 summer farms (with multi-breeds herds) of the Trento Province, north-eastern Italy. A variety of 18 traits describing milk coagulation, curd firming, cheese yield and nutrients recovery in curd/loss in whey were predicted on the basis of FTIRS collected at the individual cow level. Moving the cows to summer farms improved curd firming traits but reduced cheese yields because of an increase of water and fat lost in the whey. During summer grazing, most of cheese-making traits improved, often non-linearly. The milk from summer farms supplementing cows with more concentrates showed better curd firming and cheese yield, because of lower fat lost in the whey. The breed of cows affected almost all the traits with a worst cheese-making ability for milk samples of Holsteins through all the trial, and interacted with concentrate supplementation because increasing compound feed tended to improve cheese-making traits for all breed, with the exception of local breeds for coagulation time and of Brown Swiss for curd firming time. In general, summer transhumance caused a favourable effect on cheese-making aptitude of milk, even though with some difference according to parity, initial days in milk, breed and concentrate supplementation of cows.

  5. Biotechnological methods to accelerate cheddar cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Azarnia, Sorayya; Robert, Normand; Lee, Byong

    2006-01-01

    Cheese is one of the dairy products that can result from the enzymatic coagulation of milk. The basic steps of the transformation of milk into cheese are coagulation, draining, and ripening. Ripening is the complex process required for the development of a cheese's flavor, texture and aroma. Proteolysis, lipolysis and glycolysis are the three main biochemical reactions that are responsible for the basic changes during the maturation period. As ripening is a relatively expensive process for the cheese industry, reducing maturation time without destroying the quality of the ripened cheese has economic and technological benefits. Elevated ripening temperatures, addition of enzymes, addition of cheese slurry, attenuated starters, adjunct cultures, genetically engineered starters and recombinant enzymes and microencapsulation of ripening enzymes are traditional and modern methods used to accelerate cheese ripening. In this context, an up to date review of Cheddar cheese ripening is presented.

  6. Diversity and activities of yeasts from different parts of a Stilton cheese.

    PubMed

    Gkatzionis, Konstantinos; Yunita, Dewi; Linforth, Robert S T; Dickinson, Matthew; Dodd, Christine E R

    2014-05-02

    Blue cheeses are very complex food matrices presenting significant spatial differentiation between sections and the Stilton variety also has a hard brown crust making its matrix even more complex. The mycobiota communities in the three sections (blue veins, white core and outer crust) of a Stilton blue cheese were studied by employing culture-independent (TRFLP, DGGE) and culture-dependent analyses. Yeasts isolated from the cheese were studied for aroma production in a dairy model system with and without the starter Lactococcus lactis and filamentous fungus Penicillium roqueforti using SPME GC-MS. Significant qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the yeast communities between the cheese sections with all the techniques. Yarrowia lipolytica presented strong synergistic activity with P. roqueforti enhancing the production of ketone aroma compounds, characteristic of blue cheeses. Culture techniques allowed the observation of the presence and uneven distribution of two different morphological groups of Debaryomyces hansenii in the different sections and of Trichosporon ovoides but failed to isolate Candida catenulata which dominated some parts of the cheese in the culture-independent analysis. This suggests that this species may be an important early coloniser but fails to survive into the final cheese. The study indicated that the yeast flora in the cheese sections differ including isolates that could affect their aroma profiles.

  7. Casein peptization, functional properties, and sensory acceptance of processed cheese spreads made with different emulsifying salts.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Clarissa R; Viotto, Walkiria H

    2010-01-01

    "Requeijão cremoso" is a traditional Brazilian processed cheese spread, showing ample acceptance on the national market. Emulsifying salts (ES) are an important factor influencing the characteristics of processed cheeses, but the literature presents conflicting results about their action on cheese functionality. Requeijão cremoso obtained from anhydrous ingredients allows the study of the influence of each type of ES on the cheese properties, since it can be treated as a model system where the variables are limited and well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different types of ES (TSC-sodium citrate, SHMP-sodium hexametaphosphate, STPP-sodium tripolyphosphate, and TSPP-tetrasodium pyrophosphate) on the sensory and functional characteristics of requeijão cremoso-processed cheeses obtained from anhydrous ingredients. The physicochemical composition, degree of casein dissociation, fat particle size, melting index, color, texture profile, and sensory acceptance of the cheeses were determined. The functional behavior of processed cheeses was strongly influenced by the type of ES and its physicochemical properties including its ability to bind Ca, the casein dispersion during cooking, and the possible creation of cross-links with casein during cooling. The cheese made with SHMP was the one most differentiated from the others, presenting lower melting index, whiter color, and higher values for hardness, gumminess, and adhesiveness. The differences in texture had an impact on sensory acceptance: with the exception of the sample manufactured with sodium hexametaphosphate, all the samples presented good sensory acceptance.

  8. The Neural Bases of Disgust for Cheese: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Royet, Jean-Pierre; Meunier, David; Torquet, Nicolas; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Jiang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    The study of food aversion in humans by the induction of illness is ethically unthinkable, and it is difficult to propose a type of food that is disgusting for everybody. However, although cheese is considered edible by most people, it can also be perceived as particularly disgusting to some individuals. As such, the perception of cheese constitutes a good model to study the cerebral processes of food disgust and aversion. In this study, we show that a higher percentage of people are disgusted by cheese than by other types of food. Functional magnetic resonance imaging then reveals that the internal and external globus pallidus and the substantia nigra belonging to the basal ganglia are more activated in participants who dislike or diswant to eat cheese (Anti) than in other participants who like to eat cheese, as revealed following stimulation with cheese odors and pictures. We suggest that the aforementioned basal ganglia structures commonly involved in reward are also involved in the aversive motivated behaviors. Our results further show that the ventral pallidum, a core structure of the reward circuit, is deactivated in Anti subjects stimulated by cheese in the wanting task, highlighting the suppression of motivation-related activation in subjects disgusted by cheese. PMID:27799903

  9. Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens, subsp. nov., a starter culture component for surface ripened semi-hard cheeses.

    PubMed

    Place, Raymond B; Hiestand, Daniel; Gallmann, Hans Rudolf; Teuber, Michael

    2003-03-01

    Two staphylococcal strains, RP29T and RP33, were isolated from the main microflora of a surface ripened Swiss mountain cheese made from raw milk. These two strains were differentiated from the most closely related species Staphylococcus equorum on the basis of DNA-DNA hybridisation and phenotypic characteristics and are proposed as Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens subsp. nov. They could be distinguished phenotypically from S. equorum by their sensitivity to all 14 tested antibiotics, especially to novobiocin, their incapability to ferment alpha-D-lactose, maltose, sucrose, D-trehalose, D-xylose, L-arabinose, salicin, D-ribose, D-raffinose, D-mannitol, and D-alanine. The GenBank accession numbers for the reference sequences of the 16S rDNA and the hsp60 gene used in this study are AF527483 and AF527484, respectively. 30 tons of a semi-hard Swiss cheese were produced with Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097T as starter culture component in addition to Debaryomyces hansenii, Geotrichum candidum, Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium casei for surface ripened cheeses. The products were sensorically and hygienically perfect. Therefore, Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens DSM 15097T can be proposed as starter culture component for surface ripened cheeses without any detected antibiotic resistances. The type strain of Staphylococcus equorum subsp. linens is DSM 15097T (CIP 107656T).

  10. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  12. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  13. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  14. 21 CFR 133.140 - Gammelost cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gammelost cheese. 133.140 Section 133.140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Products § 133.140 Gammelost cheese. (a) Description. (1) Gammelost cheese is the food prepared from nonfat...

  15. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  16. Acid adaptation promotes survival of Salmonella spp. in cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Leyer, G J; Johnson, E A

    1992-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium was adapted to acid by exposure to hydrochloric acid at pH 5.8 for one to two doublings. Acid-adapted cells had increased resistance to inactivation by organic acids commonly present in cheese, including lactic, propionic, and acetic acids. Recovery of cells during the treatment with organic acids was increased 1,000-fold by inclusion of 0.1% sodium pyruvate in the recovery medium. Acid-adapted S. typhimurium cells survived better than nonadapted cells during a milk fermentation by a lactic acid culture. Acid-adapted cells also showed enhanced survival over a period of two months in cheddar, Swiss, and mozzarella cheeses kept at 5 degrees C. Acid adaptation was found in Salmonella spp., including Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype heidelberg, and Salmonella choleraesuis subsp. choleraesuis serotype javiana, associated with food poisoning. These observations support the theory that acid adaptation is an important survival mechanism enabling Salmonella spp. to persist in fermented dairy products and possibly other acidic food products. PMID:1622286

  17. Genetically inbred Balb/c mice differ from outbred Swiss Webster mice on discrete measures of sociability: relevance to a genetic mouse model of autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jacome, Luis F; Burket, Jessica A; Herndon, Amy L; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2011-12-01

    The Balb/c mouse is proposed as a model of human disorders with prominent deficits of sociability, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) that may involve pathophysiological disruption of NMDA receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A standard procedure was used to measure sociability in 8-week-old male genetically inbred Balb/c and outbred Swiss Webster mice. Moreover, because impaired sociability may influence the social behavior of stimulus mice, we also measured the proportion of total episodes of social approach made by the stimulus mouse while test and stimulus mice were allowed to interact freely. Three raters with good inter-rater agreement evaluated operationally defined measures of sociability chosen because of their descriptive similarity to deficits of social behavior reported in persons with ASDs. The data support previous reports that the Balb/c mouse is a genetic mouse model of impaired sociability. The data also show that the behavior of the social stimulus mouse is influenced by the impaired sociability of the Balb/c strain. Interestingly, operationally defined measures of sociability did not necessarily correlate with each other within mouse strain and the profile of correlated measures differed between strains. Finally, "stereotypic" behaviors (i.e. rearing, grooming and wall climbing) recorded during the session of free interaction between the test and social stimulus mice were more intensely displayed by Swiss Webster than Balb/c mice, suggesting that the domains of sociability and "restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior" are independent of each other in the Balb/c strain.

  18. The influence of cheese composition and microstructure on the diffusion of macromolecules: A study using Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP).

    PubMed

    Chapeau, A L; Silva, Juliana V C; Schuck, Pierre; Thierry, Anne; Floury, Juliane

    2016-02-01

    In cheese technology, the diffusion phenomena are crucial during ripening. The technique of Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching was applied for the first time on real cheese, in order to investigate the relationships between molecular diffusion and the cheese composition and/or its microstructure. Measured effective diffusion coefficients in soft and hard cheese of a group of dextrans (10-500 kDa) were found to be in the same order of magnitude with values observed when using a comparable non-fat model cheese (∼ 0.1-20 μm(2) s(-1)). Diffusion of the dextrans was mainly dependent on the fraction of "free" aqueous phase present in the cheese, closely which is linked to cheese-making technology and ripening stage. Diffusion coefficients were modeled by a power law relationship as a function of dextran molecular weight, which allowed some study of the cheese microstructure. A tighter protein network will require some deformation of those flexible macromolecules with a higher molecular weight (>250 kDa), in order to diffuse through the pores of such cheese structures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of processed cheese on human plaque pH and demineralization and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Jensen, M E; Wefel, J S

    1990-10-01

    This two-part study was undertaken to examine the effects of processed cheese on human plaque pH and de- and remineralization of enamel and root lesions in a human in situ caries model system. In the first part of the study the selected processed cheese (Kraft American Singles Processed Cheese Food) was eaten alone and followed by a 10% sucrose rinse after the acidogenicity of the plaque was demonstrated. A 10% sucrose rinse alone resulted in a mean minimum pH of 4.26. The cheese alone showed a mean minimum pF of 6.32 and cheese followed by sucrose resulted in a mean minimum pH of 6.48. The plaque pH of cheese eaten alone stayed at pH above 5.7 (the "safe for teeth" level). Cheese consumption also prevented the acid challenge when followed by sucrose. The second part of the study utilized the thin-sections of artificially created caries-like lesions on enamel and root, and sound root sections. One-month periods were used in a cross-over design to examine the effect of eating the cheese q.i.d. Polarized light microscopy was used to determine changes in the size of lesion areas. The addition of the processed cheese to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in enamel lesion size as well as a reduction in progression of root lesions. Lesions created on the sound root surfaces were approximately one-third the size of those created during the control period. This study indicates that processed cheese is hypoacidogenic, anti-acidogenic, and prevents demineralization as well as enhances remineralization.

  20. Optimization of "Serpa" cheese whey nanofiltration for effluent minimization and by-products recovery.

    PubMed

    Minhalma, Miguel; Magueijo, Vítor; Queiroz, Denise P; de Pinho, Maria Norberta

    2007-01-01

    Second cheese whey (SCW) is a by-product of cheese and curd cheese production that is usually not recovered and therefore substantially contributes to the negative environmental impact of the cheese manufacture plants. Membrane technology, namely nanofiltration (NF), is used in this work for the recovery of SCW organic nutrients, resulting from "Serpa" cheese and curd production. The SCW is processed by NF to recover a rich lactose fraction in the concentrate and a process water with a high salt content in the permeate. The permeation experiments were carried out in a plate & frame NF unit, where two NF membranes (NFT50 and HR-95-PP) were characterized and tested. The NF permeation experiments were performed accordingly with two different operation modes: total recirculation and concentration. In order to select the best membrane and operating pressure for the SCW fractionation, total recirculation experiments were carried out. The NF modeling was also performed, in terms of permeate fluxes and rejection coefficients using the resistances-in-series model and the solution-diffusion model, respectively. After the membrane selection, the concentration experiments showed that the selected membrane (NFT50) at 3.0MPa allows a water recovery of approximately 80%, concentrating the SCW nutrients approximately 5 times. Therefore, the NF operation can successfully reduce the wastewater organic load and simultaneously contributes to the valorization of the cheese and curd cheese manufacture by-products.

  1. "Cottage Cheese" Texture on the Martian North Polar Cap in Summer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Martian Dairy Products? If parts of the south polar cap can look like swiss cheese (see "Martian "Swiss Cheese""), then parts of the north polar cap might as well look like some kind of cheese, too. This picture shows a cottage cheese-like texture on the surface of a part of the residual--summertime--north polar cap. The north polar cap surface is mostly covered by pits, cracks, small bumps and knobs. In this image, the cap surface appears bright and the floors of pits look dark. Based upon observations made by the Mariner 9 and Viking orbiters in the 1970s, the north polar residual cap is thought to contain mostly water ice because its summertime temperature is usually near the freezing point of water and water vapor was observed by the Vikings to be coming off the cap during summer. The south residual cap is different--its temperatures in summer remain cold enough to freeze carbon dioxide, and very little to no water vapor has been observed to come off the south cap in summer. The pits that have developed on the north polar cap surface are closely-spaced relative to the very different depressions in the south polar cap. The pits are estimated from the length of shadows cast in them to be less than about 2 meters (5.5 feet) deep. These pits probably develop slowly over thousands of years of successive spring and summer seasons. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on April 5, 1999. The picture is located near 82.1°N, 329.6°W and covers an area 1.5 km wide by 3 km long (0.9 x 1.8 miles) at a resolution of 3 meters (10 ft) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02369

  2. Dynamic models for estimating the effect of HAART on CD4 in observational studies: application to the Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    PRAGUE, M.; COMMENGES, D.; GRAN, J.M.; LEDERGERBER, B.; YOUNG, J.; FURRER, H.; THIEBAUT, R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started preferentially in subjects with severe conditions. This general problem had been treated using Marginal Structural Models (MSM) relying on the counterfactual formulation. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models. We present three discrete-time dynamic models based on linear increments models (LIM): the first one based on one difference equation for CD4 counts, the second with an equilibrium point, and the third based on a system of two difference equations, which allows jointly modeling CD4 counts and viral load. We also consider continuous-time models based on ordinary differential equations with non-linear mixed effects (ODE-NLME). These mechanistic models allow incorporating biological knowledge when available, which leads to increased statistical evidence for detecting treatment effect. Because inference in ODE-NLME is numerically challenging and requires specific methods and softwares, LIM are a valuable intermediary option in terms of consistency, precision and complexity. We compare the different approaches in simulation and in illustration on the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. PMID:27461460

  3. Dynamic models for estimating the effect of HAART on CD4 in observational studies: Application to the Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Prague, Mélanie; Commenges, Daniel; Gran, Jon Michael; Ledergerber, Bruno; Young, Jim; Furrer, Hansjakob; Thiébaut, Rodolphe

    2017-03-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has proved efficient in increasing CD4 counts in many randomized clinical trials. Because randomized trials have some limitations (e.g., short duration, highly selected subjects), it is interesting to assess the effect of treatments using observational studies. This is challenging because treatment is started preferentially in subjects with severe conditions. This general problem had been treated using Marginal Structural Models (MSM) relying on the counterfactual formulation. Another approach to causality is based on dynamical models. We present three discrete-time dynamic models based on linear increments models (LIM): the first one based on one difference equation for CD4 counts, the second with an equilibrium point, and the third based on a system of two difference equations, which allows jointly modeling CD4 counts and viral load. We also consider continuous-time models based on ordinary differential equations with non-linear mixed effects (ODE-NLME). These mechanistic models allow incorporating biological knowledge when available, which leads to increased statistical evidence for detecting treatment effect. Because inference in ODE-NLME is numerically challenging and requires specific methods and softwares, LIM are a valuable intermediary option in terms of consistency, precision, and complexity. We compare the different approaches in simulation and in illustration on the ANRS CO3 Aquitaine Cohort and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  11. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  12. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  13. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  14. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  15. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  16. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  17. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  18. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  19. 21 CFR 133.114 - Cheddar cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. 133.114 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.114 Cheddar cheese for manufacturing. Cheddar cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for cheddar cheese by §...

  20. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.119 - Colby cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colby cheese for manufacturing. 133.119 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.119 Colby cheese for manufacturing. Colby cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for colby cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.109 - Brick cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Brick cheese for manufacturing. 133.109 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.109 Brick cheese for manufacturing. Brick cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity for brick cheese prescribed by §...

  5. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  6. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.137 - Washed curd cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. 133.137... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.137 Washed curd cheese for manufacturing. Washed curd cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for washed curd cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to... ingredients prescribed for monterey cheese by § 133.153, except that its moisture content is more than...

  10. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  11. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  12. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process pimento cheese. 133.171... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.171 Pasteurized process pimento cheese. Pasteurized process...

  13. 21 CFR 133.193 - Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. 133.193... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.193 Spiced, flavored standardized cheeses. (a) Except as...

  14. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese... determined by the methods prescribed in § 133.5(a), (b), and (d). (6) The weight of each variety of cheese in... total weight of both, except that the weight of blue cheese, nuworld cheese, roquefort cheese, or...

  15. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese... determined by the methods prescribed in § 133.5(a), (b), and (d). (6) The weight of each variety of cheese in... total weight of both, except that the weight of blue cheese, nuworld cheese, roquefort cheese, or...

  16. 21 CFR 133.169 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the method prescribed in § 133.5(c), the phenol equivalent of 0.25 gram of pasteurized process cheese... determined by the methods prescribed in § 133.5(a), (b), and (d). (6) The weight of each variety of cheese in... total weight of both, except that the weight of blue cheese, nuworld cheese, roquefort cheese, or...

  17. Swiss Village Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    Describes educational principles and practices of village schools in Baselland Canton, Switzerland. Examines educational philosophy, administrative and school structure, financial support, curricula and grading, and perceptions of teachers and administrators. Suggests that the Swiss are content with their educational system and level of school…

  18. Quantification of pizza baking properties of different cheeses, and their correlation with cheese functionality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xixiu; Balaban, Murat O; Zhang, Lu; Emanuelsson-Patterson, Emma A C; James, Bryony

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the pizza baking properties and performance of different cheeses, including the browning and blistering, and to investigate the correlation to cheese properties (rheology, free oil, transition temperature, and water activity). The color, and color uniformity, of different cheeses (Mozzarella, Cheddar, Colby, Edam, Emmental, Gruyere, and Provolone) were quantified, using a machine vision system and image analysis techniques. The correlations between cheese appearance and attributes were also evaluated, to find that cheese properties including elasticity, free oil, and transition temperature influence the color uniformity of cheeses.

  19. Production of probiotic cheese (cheddar-like cheese) using enriched cream fermented by Bifidobacterium infantis.

    PubMed

    Daigle, A; Roy, D; Bélanger, G; Vuillemard, J C

    1999-06-01

    Probiotic cheeses (Cheddar-like cheese) were produced with microfiltered milk standardized with cream enriched with native phosphocaseinate retentate and fermented by Bifidobacterium infantis. During the manufacture and storage of cheeses, viability of the bifidobacteria was determined. Biochemical changes such as proteolysis, sugar metabolism, and organic acids production were estimated. No bifidobacteria growth was observed during cheese-making steps. Bifidobacteria survived very well in cheeses packed in vacuum sealed bags kept at 4 degrees C for 84 d and remained above 3 x 10(6) cfu/g of cheese. No significant difference was observed between cheeses produced with or without bifidobacteria for fat, protein, moisture, salt, ash, or pH. After 12 wk of storage, more than 56% of the as1-CN was hydrolyzed in cheeses that were produced with bifidobacteria and inoculated at 10(8) cfu/g in the cream, and > 45% of hydrolysis was observed in the control cheese. However, no significant differences in the electrophoretic sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns were observed in cheeses at any period of storage. At the first day after manufacture, lactose was completely hydrolyzed in cheeses made with bifidobacteria, which suggested high beta-galactosidase activity by B. infantis. Small quantities of acetic acid were detected in bifidus cheeses. The results indicated that B. infantis introduced into hard pressed cheese exhibited excellent viability during storage for 12 wk and could be metabolically active.

  20. Application of salt whey in process cheese food made from Cheddar cheese containing exopolysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Janevski, O; Hassan, A N; Metzger, L

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to use salt whey in making process cheese food (PCF) from young (3-wk-old) Cheddar cheese. To maximize the level of salt whey in process cheese, low salt (0.6%) Cheddar cheese was used. Because salt reduction causes undesirable physiochemical changes during extended cheese ripening, young Cheddar cheese was used in making process cheese. An exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing strain (JFR) and a non-EPS-producing culture (DVS) were applied in making Cheddar cheese. To obtain similar composition and pH in the EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses, the cheese making protocol was modified in the latter cheese to increase its moisture content. No differences were seen in the proteolysis between EPS-positive and EPS-negative Cheddar cheeses. Cheddar cheese made with the EPS-producing strain was softer, and less gummy and chewy than that made with the EPS-negative culture. Three-week-old Cheddar cheese was shredded and stored frozen until used for PCF manufacture. Composition of Cheddar cheese was determined and used to formulate the corresponding PCF (EPS-positive PCF and EPS-negative PCF). The utilization of low salt Cheddar cheese allowed up to 13% of salt whey containing 9.1% salt to be used in process cheese making. The preblend was mixed in the rapid visco analyzer at 1,000 rpm and heated at 95°C for 3 min; then, the process cheese was transferred into copper cylinders, sealed, and kept at 4°C. Process cheese foods contained 43.28% moisture, 23.7% fat, 18.9% protein, and 2% salt. No difference in composition was seen between the EPS-positive and EPS-negative PCF. The texture profile analysis showed that EPS-positive PCF was softer, and less gummy and chewy than EPS-negative PCF. The end apparent viscosity and meltability were higher in EPS-positive PCF than in EPS-negative PCF, whereas emulsification time was shorter in the former cheese. Sensory evaluation indicated that salt whey at the level used in this study did not affect

  1. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10−11) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α1 = 1, α2 = 91; α1 = 1, α2 = 309)×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be −2.35 and −2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10−14 and 3.58×10−14, respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness

  2. Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment for Clostridium perfringens in Natural and Processed Cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-08-01

    This study evaluated the risk of Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) foodborne illness from natural and processed cheeses. Microbial risk assessment in this study was conducted according to four steps: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. The hazard identification of C. perfringens on cheese was identified through literature, and dose response models were utilized for hazard characterization of the pathogen. For exposure assessment, the prevalence of C. perfringens, storage temperatures, storage time, and annual amounts of cheese consumption were surveyed. Eventually, a simulation model was developed using the collected data and the simulation result was used to estimate the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption with @RISK. C. perfringens was determined to be low risk on cheese based on hazard identification, and the exponential model (r = 1.82×10(-11)) was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Annual amounts of natural and processed cheese consumption were 12.40±19.43 g and 19.46±14.39 g, respectively. Since the contamination levels of C. perfringens on natural (0.30 Log CFU/g) and processed cheeses (0.45 Log CFU/g) were below the detection limit, the initial contamination levels of natural and processed cheeses were estimated by beta distribution (α 1 = 1, α 2 = 91; α 1 = 1, α 2 = 309)×uniform distribution (a = 0, b = 2; a = 0, b = 2.8) to be -2.35 and -2.73 Log CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, no growth of C. perfringens was observed for exposure assessment to simulated conditions of distribution and storage. These data were used for risk characterization by a simulation model, and the mean values of the probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness by cheese consumption per person per day for natural and processed cheeses were 9.57×10(-14) and 3.58×10(-14), respectively. These results indicate that probability of C. perfringens foodborne illness

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  4. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  5. Influence of small ruminant lentivirus infection on cheese yield in goats.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Dorota; Czopowicz, Michał; Bagnicka, Emilia; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Strzałkowska, Nina; Kaba, Jarosław

    2015-02-01

    Three-year cohort study was carried out to investigate the influence of small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infection on cheese yield in goats. For this purpose records of milk yield, milk composition and cheese yield were collected in a dairy goat herd. Cheese yield was recorded as the amount of fresh cheese obtained from 1 kg milk. All goats were serologically tested for SRLV infection twice a year. The analysis included 247 records in total (71 for seropositive and 176 from seronegative individuals) and was carried out with the use of the four-level hierarchical linear model (α = 0·05). SRLV infection proved to be a statistically significant independent factor reducing cheese yield (P = 0·013)--when other covariates were held constant cheese yield was reduced by 4·6 g per each 1 kg milk in an infected goat compared with an uninfected goat. Other statistically significant covariates positively associated with cheese yield were protein contents, fat contents and the 3rd stage of lactation (P < 0·001 for all).

  6. Homogenization and lipase treatment of milk and resulting methyl ketone generation in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Cao, Mingkai; Fonseca, Leorges M; Schoenfuss, Tonya C; Rankin, Scott A

    2014-06-25

    A specific range of methyl ketones contribute to the distinctive flavor of traditional blue cheeses. These ketones are metabolites of lipid metabolism by Penicillium mold added to cheese for this purpose. Two processes, namely, the homogenization of milk fat and the addition of exogenous lipase enzymes, are traditionally applied measures to control the formation of methyl ketones in blue cheese. There exists little scientific validation of the actual effects of these treatments on methyl ketone development. The present study evaluated the effects of milk fat homogenization and lipase treatments on methyl ketone and free fatty acid development using sensory methods and the comparison of selected volatile quantities using gas chromatography. Initial work was conducted using a blue cheese system model; subsequent work was conducted with manufactured blue cheese. In general, there were modest effects of homogenization and lipase treatments on free fatty acid (FFA) and methyl ketone concentrations in blue cheese. Blue cheese treatments involving Penicillium roqueforti lipase with homogenized milk yielded higher FFA and methyl ketone levels, for example, a ∼20-fold increase for hexanoic acid and a 3-fold increase in 2-pentanone.

  7. Use of propidium monoazide for selective profiling of viable microbial cells during Gouda cheese ripening.

    PubMed

    Erkus, Oylum; de Jager, Victor C L; Geene, Renske T C M; van Alen-Boerrigter, Ingrid; Hazelwood, Lucie; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J

    2016-07-02

    DNA based microbial community profiling of food samples is confounded by the presence of DNA derived from membrane compromised (dead or injured) cells. Selective amplification of DNA from viable (intact) fraction of the community by propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment could circumvent this problem. Gouda cheese manufacturing is a proper model to evaluate the use of PMA for selective detection of intact cells since large fraction of membrane compromised cells emerges as a background in the cheese matrix during ripening. In this study, the effect of PMA on cheese community profiles was evaluated throughout manufacturing and ripening using quantitative PCR (qPCR). PMA effectively inhibited the amplification of DNA derived from membrane compromised cells and enhanced the analysis of the intact fraction residing in the cheese samples. Furthermore, a two-step protocol, which involves whole genome amplification (WGA) to enrich the DNA not modified with PMA and subsequent sequencing, was developed for the selective metagenome sequencing of viable fraction in the Gouda cheese microbial community. The metagenome profile of PMA treated cheese sample reflected the viable community profile at that time point in the cheese manufacturing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Amaltheys: A fluorescence-based analyzer to assess cheese milk denatured whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Lacotte, Pierre; Gomez, Franck; Bardeau, Floriane; Muller, Sabine; Acharid, Abdelhaq; Quervel, Xavier; Trossat, Philippe; Birlouez-Aragon, Inès

    2015-10-01

    The cheese industry faces many challenges to optimize cheese yield and quality. A very precise standardization of the cheese milk is needed, which is achieved by a fine control of the process and milk composition. Thorough analysis of protein composition is important to determine the amount of protein that will be retained in the curd or lost in the whey. The fluorescence-based Amaltheys analyzer (Spectralys Innovation, Romainville, France) was developed to assess pH 4.6-soluble heat-sensitive whey proteins (sWP*) in 5 min. These proteins are those that can be denatured upon heat-treatment and further retained in the curd after coagulation. Monitoring of sWP* in milk and subsequent adaptation of the process is a reliable solution to achieve stable cheese yield and quality. Performance of the method was evaluated by an accredited laboratory on a 0 to 7 g/L range. Accuracy compared with the reference Kjeldahl method is also provided with a standard error of 0.25 g/L. Finally, a 4-mo industrial trial in a cheese plant is described, where Amaltheys was used as a process analytical technology to monitor sWP* content in ingredients and final cheese milk. Calibration models over quality parameters of final cheese were also built from near-infrared and fluorescence spectroscopic data. The Amaltheys analyzer was found to be a rapid, compact, and accurate device to help implementation of standardization procedures in the dairy industry.

  9. Processes that contribute to radiocesium decontamination of feta cheese

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, C.P.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Mantzios, A.S.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of experiments, the transfer of radiocesium from ovine milk to feta cheese was investigated through modifications of the standard cheese making procedure. All variations explored showed no significant change in the percentage of radiocesium transfer and the milk-to-cheese transfer coefficient was determined as f=.79 plus/minus .04 L.kg-1. It is concluded that cesium, like the rest of the alkali metals, remains in the water phase and thus follows very closely the distribution of moisture into the products of cheese making. The possibility of radiocesium decontamination of mature feta during the customary storage of the product in brine was also explored in a second series of experiments. The theoretical model employed in the analysis of cesium transport from feta to brine is presented in the Appendix to this paper. Predictions of the model were validated by experiments. A procedure is thus proposed for decontaminating mature feta during storage through successive replacements of the storage medium. Nomograms are presented for the determination of the optimum time interval between changes of the brine and the radiocesium concentration remaining in the feta. Changes in the properties of the product induced by the proposed treatment were also investigated with respect to composition, taste, and overall quality.

  10. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized... other foods is the class of foods prepared by mixing, with or without the aid of heat, cream cheese with...

  11. Microbiota characterization of a Belgian protected designation of origin cheese, Herve cheese, using metagenomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Delcenserie, V; Taminiau, B; Delhalle, L; Nezer, C; Doyen, P; Crevecoeur, S; Roussey, D; Korsak, N; Daube, G

    2014-10-01

    Herve cheese is a Belgian soft cheese with a washed rind, and is made from raw or pasteurized milk. The specific microbiota of this cheese has never previously been fully explored and the use of raw or pasteurized milk in addition to starters is assumed to affect the microbiota of the rind and the heart. The aim of the study was to analyze the bacterial microbiota of Herve cheese using classical microbiology and a metagenomic approach based on 16S ribosomal DNA pyrosequencing. Using classical microbiology, the total counts of bacteria were comparable for the 11 samples of tested raw and pasteurized milk cheeses, reaching almost 8 log cfu/g. Using the metagenomic approach, 207 different phylotypes were identified. The rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses was found to be highly diversified. However, 96.3 and 97.9% of the total microbiota of the raw milk and pasteurized cheese rind, respectively, were composed of species present in both types of cheese, such as Corynebacterium casei, Psychrobacter spp., Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Staphylococcus equorum, Vagococcus salmoninarum, and other species present at levels below 5%. Brevibacterium linens were present at low levels (0.5 and 1.6%, respectively) on the rind of both the raw and the pasteurized milk cheeses, even though this bacterium had been inoculated during the manufacturing process. Interestingly, Psychroflexus casei, also described as giving a red smear to Raclette-type cheese, was identified in small proportions in the composition of the rind of both the raw and pasteurized milk cheeses (0.17 and 0.5%, respectively). In the heart of the cheeses, the common species of bacteria reached more than 99%. The main species identified were Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Psychrobacter spp., and Staphylococcus equorum ssp. equorum. Interestingly, 93 phylotypes were present only in the raw milk cheeses and 29 only in the pasteurized milk cheeses, showing the high diversity of the microbiota

  12. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food... specified in paragraph (e) of this section may be used. (2) All cheeses used in a cold-pack cheese food are...

  13. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food... specified in paragraph (e) of this section may be used. (2) All cheeses used in a cold-pack cheese food are...

  14. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food... specified in paragraph (e) of this section may be used. (2) All cheeses used in a cold-pack cheese food are...

  15. An integrated approach for catchment delineation and conduit-network modeling in karst aquifers: application to a site in the Swiss tabular Jura

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malard, Arnauld; Jeannin, Pierre-Yves; Vouillamoz, Jonathan; Weber, Eric

    2015-11-01

    An essential issue in karst hydrology is the characterization of the hydrogeological flow systems, i.e., the delineation of catchment areas and the organization of the main flow paths (conduit network) feeding one or several outlets. The proposed approach provides an explicit way to sketch catchment areas, and to generate karst conduits on the basis of a three-dimensional (3D) conceptual model of the aquifer (KARSYS approach). The approach follows three main principles: (1) conduits develop according to the hydraulic gradient, which depends on the aquifer zonation, (2) conduits are guided by preferential guidance features (or inception horizons) prevailing in the unsaturated and saturated zones of the aquifer, and (3) conduits initiate on a regular basis below the autogenic zone of the catchment area. This approach was applied to a site in the Swiss Jura as a base for the assessment of flood-hazard risks. The resulting model proposes a new delineation of the system catchment area and appears fairer regarding hydrological measurements than previous interpretations, which under-estimated the catchment area by about 20 %. Furthermore, the proposed conduit network for the whole aquifer is also consistent with local cave surveys and dye-tracing observations. These interesting results demonstrate that the combination of this approach with the KARSYS 3D model provides an integrated and effective way for the characterization of karst-flow systems.

  16. Effect of milk composition and coagulation traits on Grana Padano cheese yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pretto, Denis; De Marchi, Massimo; Penasa, Mauro; Cassandro, Martino

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of chemical composition, coagulation properties, pH, and titratable acidity (TA, SH°/50 ml) of vat milk on Grana Padano cheese yield (CY) under field conditions. Twelve cheese-making sessions were carried out from February to December 2009 in a dairy cooperative of Grana Padano Consortium (Italy), for a total of 96 vats of milk processed. For each vat, samples of raw milk were collected and analysed for quality traits (fat, protein, and casein contents), pH, TA, and milk coagulation properties (MCP), measured as rennet coagulation time (RCT, min), curd-firming time (k(20), min), and curd firmness (a(30), mm). Cheese yield was expressed as kilograms of cheese per 100 kg milk transformed, and was measured after 2 d of drainage. Fat, protein, and casein contents were positively and strongly correlated with CY (coefficients of correlation, r = 0.72, 0.88, and 0.84, respectively; P < 0.001). Coagulation properties were moderately and significantly (P < 0.001) related to CY: milk that coagulated earlier and had stronger a(30) was associated to greater CY. Cheese yield was analysed with a model that accounted for fixed effects of cheese-making day, fat and protein content, TA, and a(30). Significance was found for all the effects (P < 0.05). Milk characterised by high values of a(30) resulted in higher CY than milk with low values of a 30, indicating that MCP could be used as indicators of cheese-making efficiency. Future research should investigate the relationships between MCP and quality of cheese, and explore the feasibility of including MCP in multiple component milk pricing system for Grana Padano cheese production.

  17. Enhanced lactose cheese milk does not guarantee calcium lactate crystals in finished cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Blake, A J; Powers, J R; Luedecke, L O; Clark, S

    2005-07-01

    Three experimental batches of Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate, with standardization of the initial cheese-milk lactose content to high (5.24%), normal (4.72%, control), and low lactose (3.81%). After 35 d of aging at 4.4 degrees C, the cheeses were subjected to temperature abuse (24 h at 21 degrees C, unopened) and contamination (24 h at 21 degrees C, packages opened and cheeses contaminated with crystal-containing cheese). After aging for 167 d, residual cheese lactose (0.08 to 0.43%) and L(+)-lactate concentrations (1.37 to 1.60%) were high and D(-)-lactate concentrations were low (<0.03%) for all cheeses. No significant differences in lactose concentrations were attributable to temperature abuse or contamination. No significant differences in L(+)- or D(-)-lactate concentrations were attributable to temperature abuse. However, concentrations of L(+)-lactate were significantly lower and D(-)-lactate were significantly higher in contaminated cheeses than in control cheeses, indicating inoculation (at d 35) with heterofermentative nonstarter lactic acid bacteria able to racemize L(+)-lactate to D(-)-lactate. The fact that none of the cheeses exhibited crystals after 167 d demonstrates that high cheese milk or residual lactose concentrations do not guarantee crystal formation. Contamination with nonstarter lactic acid bacteria can significantly contribute to D(-)-lactate accumulation in cheese.

  18. Mycotoxicogenic fungal inhibition by innovative cheese cover with aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Moro, Armando; Librán, Celia M; Berruga, M Isabel; Zalacain, Amaya; Carmona, Manuel

    2013-03-30

    The use of aromatic plants and their extracts with antimicrobial properties may be compromised in the case of cheese, as some type of fungal starter is needed during its production. Penicillium verrucosum is considered a common cheese spoiler. The aim of this study was to evaluate the innovative use of certain aromatic plants as natural cheese covers in order to prevent mycotoxicogenic fungal growth (P. verrucosum). A collection of 12 essential oils (EOs) was obtained from various aromatic plants by solvent-free microwave extraction technology, and volatile characterisation of the EOs was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The most effective EOs against P. verrucosum were obtained from Anethum graveolens, Hyssopus officinalis and Chamaemelum nobile, yielding 50% inhibition of fungal growth at concentration values lower than 0.02 µL mL⁻¹. All EOs showed high volatile heterogeneity, with α-phellandrene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone, α-pinene, camphene, 1,8-cineole, carvacrol and trans-anethole being found to be statistically significant in the antifungal model. The use of these aromatic plants as natural covers on cheese can satisfactorily inhibit the growth of some mycotoxicogenic fungal spoilers. Among the volatile compounds present, α- and β-phellandrene were confirmed as the most relevant in the inhibition. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Quantitative microbial risk assessment for Staphylococcus aureus in natural and processed cheese in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyunga; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-09-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the microbial risk of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese in Korea. The quantitative microbial risk assessment was carried out for natural and processed cheese from factory to consumption. Hazards for S. aureus in cheese were identified through the literature. For exposure assessment, the levels of S. aureus contamination in cheeses were evaluated, and the growth of S. aureus was predicted by predictive models at the surveyed temperatures, and at the time of cheese processing and distribution. For hazard characterization, a dose-response model for S. aureus was found, and the model was used to estimate the risk of illness. With these data, simulation models were prepared with @RISK (Palisade Corp., Ithaca, NY) to estimate the risk of illness per person per day in risk characterization. Staphylococcus aureus cell counts on cheese samples from factories and markets were below detection limits (0.30-0.45 log cfu/g), and pert distribution showed that the mean temperature at markets was 6.63°C. Exponential model [P=1 - exp(7.64×10(-8) × N), where N=dose] for dose-response was deemed appropriate for hazard characterization. Mean temperature of home storage was 4.02°C (log-logistic distribution). The results of risk characterization for S. aureus in natural and processed cheese showed that the mean values for the probability of illness per person per day were higher in processed cheese (mean: 2.24×10(-9); maximum: 7.97×10(-6)) than in natural cheese (mean: 7.84×10(-10); maximum: 2.32×10(-6)). These results indicate that the risk of S. aureus-related foodborne illness due to cheese consumption can be considered low under the present conditions in Korea. In addition, the developed stochastic risk assessment model in this study can be useful in establishing microbial criteria for S. aureus in cheese. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Swiss Orthopaedic Registry.

    PubMed

    Röder, Christoph; El-Kerdi, A; Frigg, A; Kolling, C; Staub, L P; Bach, B; Müller, U

    2005-01-01

    Following the tradition of the IDES European Hip Registry inaugurated by M. E. Müller in the 1960s, the Institute for Evaluative Research in Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Bern started a new era of data collection using internet technology (www.memdoc.org). With support of the Swiss Orthopaedic Society, the pilot of the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was conducted, and in cooperation with different academic and non-academic centers the practicability of integrating the various data collection instruments into the daily clinical workflow was evaluated. Three different sizes of hip and knee questionnaires were compiled, covering the individual demands of the participating hospitals whereby the smaller questionnaires always represent a subset of the next larger one. Different types of data collection instruments are available: the online interface, optical mark reader paper questionnaires, and barcode sheets. Precise implant tracking is implemented by scanning the implant barcodes directly in the operating theaters and linking them to the clinical data set via a central server. In addition, radiographic information can be linked with the clinical data set. The pilot clinics suggested enhancements to the user interface and additional features for data management. Also, recommendations were made to simplify content in some instances and diversify in others. With a new software release and adapted questionnaires the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was officially launched in Summer 2005.

  1. Determination and climatology of the planetary boundary layer height above the Swiss plateau by in situ and remote sensing measurements as well as by the COSMO-2 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collaud Coen, M.; Praz, C.; Haefele, A.; Ruffieux, D.; Kaufmann, P.; Calpini, B.

    2014-12-01

    The planetary boundary layer (PBL) height is a key parameter in air quality control and pollutant dispersion. The PBL height cannot, however, be directly measured, and its estimation relies on the analysis of the vertical profiles of the temperature, turbulence or the atmospheric composition. An operational PBL height detection method including several remote sensing instruments (wind profiler, Raman lidar, microwave radiometer) and several algorithms (Parcel and bulk Richardson number methods, surface-based temperature inversion, aerosol or humidity gradient analysis) was developed and tested with 1 year of measurements, which allows the methods to be validated against radio sounding measurements. The microwave radiometer provides convective boundary layer heights in good agreement with the radio sounding (RS) (median bias < 25 m, R2 > 0.70) and allows the analysis of the diurnal variation of the PBL height due to its high temporal resolution. The Raman lidar also leads to a good agreement with RS, whereas the wind profiler yields some more dispersed results mostly due to false attribution problems. A comparison with the numerical weather prediction model COSMO-2 has shown a general overestimation of the model PBL height by some hundreds to thousand meters. Finally the seasonal cycles of the daytime and nighttime PBL heights are discussed for each instrument and each detection algorithm for two stations on the Swiss plateau.

  2. A model-data comparison of Holocene timberline changes in the Swiss Alps reveals past and future drivers of mountain forest dynamics.

    PubMed

    Schwörer, Christoph; Henne, Paul D; Tinner, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Mountain vegetation is strongly affected by temperature and is expected to shift upwards with climate change. Dynamic vegetation models are often used to assess the impact of climate on vegetation and model output can be compared with paleobotanical data as a reality check. Recent paleoecological studies have revealed regional variation in the upward shift of timberlines in the Northern and Central European Alps in response to rapid warming at the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition ca. 11 700 years ago, probably caused by a climatic gradient across the Alps. This contrasts with previous studies that successfully simulated the early Holocene afforestation in the (warmer) Central Alps with a chironomid-inferred temperature reconstruction from the (colder) Northern Alps. We use LandClim, a dynamic landscape vegetation model to simulate mountain forests under different temperature, soil and precipitation scenarios around Iffigsee (2065 m a.s.l.) a lake in the Northwestern Swiss Alps, and compare the model output with the paleobotanical records. The model clearly overestimates the upward shift of timberline in a climate scenario that applies chironomid-inferred July-temperature anomalies to all months. However, forest establishment at 9800 cal. BP at Iffigsee is successfully simulated with lower moisture availability and monthly temperatures corrected for stronger seasonality during the early Holocene. The model-data comparison reveals a contraction in the realized niche of Abies alba due to the prominent role of anthropogenic disturbance after ca. 5000 cal. BP, which has important implications for species distribution models (SDMs) that rely on equilibrium with climate and niche stability. Under future climate projections, LandClim indicates a rapid upward shift of mountain vegetation belts by ca. 500 m and treeline positions of ca. 2500 m a.s.l. by the end of this century. Resulting biodiversity losses in the alpine vegetation belt might be mitigated with low

  3. An Electronic Nose Based on Coated Piezoelectric Quartz Crystals to Certify Ewes’ Cheese and to Discriminate between Cheese Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Pais, Vânia F.; Oliveira, João A. B. P.; Gomes, Maria Teresa S. R.

    2012-01-01

    An electronic nose based on coated piezoelectric quartz crystals was used to distinguish cheese made from ewes’ milk, and to distinguish cheese varieties. Two sensors coated with Nafion and Carbowax could certify half the ewes’ cheese samples, exclude 32 cheeses made from cow’s milk and to classify half of the ewes’ cheese samples as possibly authentic. Two other sensors, coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone and triethanolamine clearly distinguished between Flamengo, Brie, Gruyère and Mozzarella cheeses. Brie cheeses were further separated according to their origin, and Mozzarella grated cheese also appeared clearly separated from non-grated Mozzarella. PMID:22438717

  4. Regional-scale GIS-models for assessment of hazards from glacier lake outbursts: evaluation and application in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggel, C.; Kääb, A.; Haeberli, W.; Krummenacher, B.

    Debris flows triggered by glacier lake outbursts have repeatedly caused disasters in various high-mountain regions of the world. Accelerated change of glacial and periglacial environments due to atmospheric warming and increased anthropogenic development in most of these areas raise the need for an adequate hazard assessment and corresponding modelling. The purpose of this paper is to pro-vide a modelling approach which takes into account the current evolution of the glacial environment and satisfies a robust first-order assessment of hazards from glacier-lake outbursts. Two topography-based GIS-models simulating debris flows related to outbursts from glacier lakes are presented and applied for two lake outburst events in the southern Swiss Alps. The models are based on information about glacier lakes derived from remote sensing data, and on digital elevation models (DEM). Hydrological flow routing is used to simulate the debris flow resulting from the lake outburst. Thereby, a multiple- and a single-flow-direction approach are applied. Debris-flow propagation is given in probability-related values indicating the hazard potential of a certain location. The debris flow runout distance is calculated on the basis of empirical data on average slope trajectory. The results show that the multiple-flow-direction approach generally yields a more detailed propagation. The single-flow-direction approach, however, is more robust against DEM artifacts and, hence, more suited for process automation. The model is tested with three differently generated DEMs (including aero-photogrammetry- and satellite image-derived). Potential application of the respective DEMs is discussed with a special focus on satellite-derived DEMs for use in remote high-mountain areas.

  5. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus on cheese during extended storage at 25°C.

    PubMed

    Leong, Wan Mei; Geier, Renae; Engstrom, Sarah; Ingham, Steve; Ingham, Barbara; Smukowski, Marianne

    2014-08-01

    Potentially hazardous foods require time/temperature control for safety. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code, most cheeses are potentially hazardous foods based on pH and water activity, and a product assessment is required to evaluate safety of storage >6 h at 21°C. We tested the ability of 67 market cheeses to support growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM), Salmonella spp. (SALM), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EC), and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) over 15 days at 25°C. Hard (Asiago and Cheddar), semi-hard (Colby and Havarti), and soft cheeses (mozzarella and Mexican-style), and reduced-sodium or reduced-fat types were tested. Single-pathogen cocktails were prepared and individually inoculated onto cheese slices (∼10(5) CFU/g). Cocktails were 10 strains of L. monocytogenes, 6 of Salmonella spp., or 5 of E. coli O157:H7 or S. aureus. Inoculated slices were vacuum packaged and stored at 25°C for ≤ 15 days, with surviving inocula enumerated every 3 days. Percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, percent titratable acidity, pH, water activity, and levels of indigenous/starter bacteria were measured. Pathogens did not grow on 53 cheeses, while 14 cheeses supported growth of SA, 6 of SALM, 4 of LM, and 3 of EC. Of the cheeses supporting pathogen growth, all supported growth of SA, ranging from 0.57 to 3.08 log CFU/g (average 1.70 log CFU/g). Growth of SALM, LM, and EC ranged from 1.01 to 3.02 log CFU/g (average 2.05 log CFU/g), 0.60 to 2.68 log CFU/g (average 1.60 log CFU/g), and 0.41 to 2.90 log CFU/g (average 1.69 log CFU/g), respectively. Pathogen growth varied within cheese types or lots. Pathogen growth was influenced by pH and percent salt-in-the-moisture phase, and these two factors were used to establish growth/no-growth boundary conditions for safe, extended storage (≤25°C) of pasteurized milk cheeses. Pathogen growth/no-growth could not be predicted for Swiss-style cheeses, mold-ripened or bacterial surface-ripened cheeses, and cheeses

  6. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    PubMed

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs

  7. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens in Irish farmhouse cheese.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Martina; Hunt, Karen; McSweeney, Sara; Jordan, Kieran

    2009-12-01

    Food safety is a critical factor in the production of farmhouse cheese. In Ireland the varieties of farmhouse cheese produced reflect a much broader range than those produced commercially and some of these cheese varieties are associated with greater microbiological risk. These include cheese produced from unpasteurised milk and soft ripened cheese such as mould or smear-ripened cheeses which have high pH and relatively short ripening times. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiological quality of farmhouse cheeses in Ireland. Three hundred and fifty one cheese samples, from 15 cheese producers, were analysed for microbiological quality on a monthly basis throughout the year. The analyses included enumeration of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes (using the relevant agars) and enrichment for L. monocytogenes. The cheeses selected were produced from ovine, caprine and bovine milk. Both unpasteurised and pasteurised milk cheeses were sampled and these included hard, semi-hard and soft cheeses, internal/external mould-ripened and smear-ripened cheeses and the cheeses represented different geographic regions. Of the cheeses tested, 94% were free of L. monocytogenes, all were within the EU limits for E. coli and only one cheese variety had S. aureus levels above the recommended numbers for the first 6 months of the year. Due to a modified production process the numbers were within the guidelines for the second six months. The results indicate that Irish farmhouse cheeses are of a high microbiological quality.

  8. Bioaccessibility of essential elements from white cheese, bread, fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Khouzam, Rola Bou; Pohl, Pawel; Lobinski, Ryszard

    2011-10-30

    Bioaccessibility of five essential micronutrients (iron, zinc, copper, manganese and molybdenum) from the Lebanese food basket including bread, different varieties of white cheese, fruit and vegetables was evaluated using the in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Only very small fraction of Fe and Zn (ca. 10%) was found bioaccessible from bread, squash and cucumber. Iron in apple was not bioaccessible either (<10%) but apples were found to be a good source of Zn (56%). Most of iron (>50%) in cheese was found to be bioaccessible but only one type of cheese, double crème, contained readily bioaccessible zinc. More than 50% of copper and molybdenum was found bioaccessible regardless of the investigated food. High bioaccessibility (>50%) was also observed for manganese in fruit and vegetables whereas that from bread and cheese was fair (25-30%). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of land use regression models for nitrogen dioxide, ultrafine particles, lung deposited surface area, and four other markers of particulate matter pollution in the Swiss SAPALDIA regions.

    PubMed

    Eeftens, Marloes; Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Phuleria, Harish; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Keidel, Dirk; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Künzli, Nino; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2016-04-18

    Land Use Regression (LUR) is a popular method to explain and predict spatial contrasts in air pollution concentrations, but LUR models for ultrafine particles, such as particle number concentration (PNC) are especially scarce. Moreover, no models have been previously presented for the lung deposited surface area (LDSA) of ultrafine particles. The additional value of ultrafine particle metrics has not been well investigated due to lack of exposure measurements and models. Air pollution measurements were performed in 2011 and 2012 in the eight areas of the Swiss SAPALDIA study at up to 40 sites per area for NO2 and at 20 sites in four areas for markers of particulate air pollution. We developed multi-area LUR models for biannual average concentrations of PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, PMcoarse, PNC and LDSA, as well as alpine, non-alpine and study area specific models for NO2, using predictor variables which were available at a national level. Models were validated using leave-one-out cross-validation, as well as independent external validation with routine monitoring data. Model explained variance (R(2)) was moderate for the various PM mass fractions PM2.5 (0.57), PM10 (0.63) and PMcoarse (0.45), and was high for PM2.5 absorbance (0.81), PNC (0.87) and LDSA (0.91). Study-area specific LUR models for NO2 (R(2) range 0.52-0.89) outperformed combined-area alpine (R (2)  = 0.53) and non-alpine (R (2)  = 0.65) models in terms of both cross-validation and independent external validation, and were better able to account for between-area variability. Predictor variables related to traffic and national dispersion model estimates were important predictors. LUR models for all pollutants captured spatial variability of long-term average concentrations, performed adequately in validation, and could be successfully applied to the SAPALDIA cohort. Dispersion model predictions or area indicators served well to capture the between area variance. For NO2, applying study

  10. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and related... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS General Provisions § 133.10 Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

  11. Bioconversion of Cheese Waste (Whey)

    SciTech Connect

    Bohnert, G.W.

    1998-03-11

    The US dairy industry produces 67 billion pounds of cheese whey annually. A waste by-product of cheese production, whey consists of water, milk sugar (lactose), casein (protein), and salts amounting to about 7% total solids. Ultrafiltration is used to concentrate cheese whey into a protein-rich foodstuff; however, it too produces a waste stream, known as ''whey permeate,'' (rejected water, lactose, and salts from the membrane). Whey permeate contains about 4.5% lactose and requires treatment to reduce the high BOD (biological oxygen demand) before disposal. Ab Initio, a small business with strong chemistry and dairy processing background, desired help in developing methods for bioconversion of whey permeate lactose into lactic acid. Lactic acid is an organic acid primarily used as an acidulant in the food industry. More recently it has been used to produce polylactic acid, a biodegradable polymer and as a new method to treat meat carcasses to combat E. coli bacteria. Conversion of whey permeate to lactic acid is environmentally sound because it produces a valued product from an otherwise waste stream. FM&T has expertise in bioconversion processes and analytical techniques necessary to characterize biomass functions. The necessary engineering and analytical services for pilot biomass monitoring, process development, and purification of crude lactic acid were available at this facility.

  12. Cheese whey management: a review.

    PubMed

    Prazeres, Ana R; Carvalho, Fátima; Rivas, Javier

    2012-11-15

    Cheese whey is simultaneously an effluent with nutritional value and a strong organic and saline content. Cheese whey management has been focused in the development of biological treatments without valorization; biological treatments with valorization; physicochemical treatments and direct land application. In the first case, aerobic digestion is reported. In the second case, six main processes are described in the literature: anaerobic digestion, lactose hydrolysis, fermentation to ethanol, hydrogen or lactic acid and direct production of electricity through microbial fuel cells. Thermal and isoelectric precipitation, thermocalcic precipitation, coagulation/flocculation, acid precipitation, electrochemical and membrane technologies have been considered as possible and attractive physicochemical processes to valorize or treat cheese whey. The direct land application is a common and longstanding practice, although some precautions are required. In this review, these different solutions are analyzed. The paper describes the main reactors used, the influence of the main operating variables, the microorganisms or reagents employed and the characterizations of the final effluent principally in terms of chemical oxygen demand. In addition, the experimental conditions and the main results reported in the literature are compiled. Finally, the comparison between the different treatment alternatives and the presentation of potential treatment lines are postulated.

  13. Characterization of particles in cream cheese.

    PubMed

    Sainani, M R; Vyas, H K; Tong, P S

    2004-09-01

    Cream cheese is used as a spread and as an ingredient in many food applications. A gritty or grainy mouthfeel is an undesirable textural defect that occurs in cream cheese. However, the factors that cause the textural defect are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize particles from cream cheese and to study the effect of particles on cheese texture. Particles were isolated by washing cream cheese with water first at 25 degrees C and then at 50 degrees C repeatedly 4 to 5 times. The size of these particles was determined using a particle size analyzer. The particles as well as the original cheeses were analyzed for moisture, fat, protein, ash, and lactose. The particle size ranged of 0.04 to 850 microm. It was found that isolated particles were significantly higher in protein content as compared with the whole cheese. To study the effect on the cheese texture, particles were added at 5, 15, and 25% (wt/wt) levels to smooth cream cheese, and a sensory ranking test was done on the samples. Isolated particles were further separated into 2 size classes of 2.5 to 150 microm and > or =150 microm. These particles were then mixed with smooth cream cheese at 16 and 29% (wt/wt), and a sensory test was conducted on these samples. Smooth cream cheese with only 5% (wt/wt) added particles was perceived as significantly grittier than the control sample. This experiment also revealed that the perceived grittiness increased with increase in amount and size of particles.

  14. Sediment connectivity in the high-alpine valley of Val Müschauns, Swiss National Park - linking geomorphic field mapping with geomorphometric modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messenzehl, Karoline; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2014-09-01

    The efficiency of sediment routing through mountain sediment cascades is controlled by the connectivity of hillslopes to the main river system. A lack of connectivity may cause long-term sediment storage and exclude large fractions of a basin from the sediment routing for several thousand years. Here, we studied sediment dynamics in a small, formerly glaciated valley in the Swiss Alps. To characterise the sediment connectivity to the stream, we calculated a morphometric index using a GIS algorithm. The modelling results were tested against a field based geomorphic mapping of sediment storages, which were evaluated with respect to their state of (de)coupling. In accordance to the field diagnostics, the modelling results indicate very well that the present-day sediment flux is conditioned by the glacial valley morphometry inherited through Pleistocene glaciation. Especially in the upper hanging valleys, the connectivity index is reduced noticeably due to the glacial cirque morphology. Based on the field mapping, 30% of the hillslope sediment cascades are interrupted and 20% of the storage boundaries are currently affected by a lack of material transfer. As a consequence, ~ 29% of the basin surface is currently disconnected from the main river. Nevertheless, the GIS algorithm overestimates the connectivity within the basin, because it fails to calculate decoupling between neighbouring pixels in digital terrain models (DTMs). Around 35% of the basin surface, which has been mapped in the field as being decoupled, is related to relative high connectivity. Our study highlights the potential of morphometric GIS modelling for studying sediment connectivity, but additionally emphasises the indispensability of geomorphic field mapping for a holistic understanding of mountain cascading systems.

  15. Sensitivity of a bubble growth to the cheese material properties during ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fokoua, G.; Grenier, D.; Lucas, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a model of transport phenomena describes a single bubble growth in semi-hard cheese. Carbon dioxide production, its transport to the bubble interface, equilibrium laws and mechanics were coupled. Semi-hard cheese mainly behaves as elastic when loads are quickly applied to a piece of cheese like during chewing (few seconds). However, when slowly loaded with increasing gas pressure during ripening in warm room, the mechanical cheese behavior can be simply modelled as a viscous material (Grenier et al. [9]). It is true, as long as viscosity remains low compared to the rate of gas production. This paper investigates a wider range of viscosity (from core η = 6.32 × 107 Pa.s to rind η = 2.88 × 108 Pa.s) than that used in previous studies. FEM simulations have shown that higher viscosities encountered close to the rind of a cheese block can partly explain the increase in gas pressure within bubbles from the core to the rind (up to 3.4 kPa). These results confirm that mechanics does not really control the evolution of bubble volume in cheese. However, mechanics can explain greater pressure observed close to the rind even if gas production is lower than at core.

  16. Growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Kyungmi; Lee, Soomin; Han, Minkyung; Yoon, Yohan

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we developed mathematical models to describe the growth kinetics of Staphylococcus aureus on natural cheeses. A five-strain mixture of Staph. aureus was inoculated onto 15 g of Brie and Camembert cheeses at 4 log CFU/g. The samples were then stored at 4, 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C for 2-60 d, with a different storage time being used for each temperature. Total bacterial and Staph. aureus cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar and mannitol salt agar, respectively. The Baranyi model was fitted to the growth data of Staph. aureus to calculate kinetic parameters such as the maximum growth rate in log CFU units (r max; log CFU/g/h) and the lag phase duration (λ; h). The effects of temperature on the square root of r max and on the natural logarithm of λ were modelled in the second stage (secondary model). Independent experimental data (observed data) were compared with prediction and the respective root mean square error compared with the RMSE of the fit on the original data, as a measure of model performance. The total growth of bacteria was observed at 10, 15, 25, and 30 °C on both cheeses. The r max values increased with storage temperature (P<0·05), but a significant effect of storage temperature on λ values was only observed between 4 and 15 °C (P<0·05). The square root model and linear equation were found to be appropriate for description of the effect of storage temperature on growth kinetics (R 2=0·894-0·983). Our results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the growth kinetics of Staph. aureus on Brie and Camembert cheeses.

  17. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) “Shredded”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of cylinders, shreds, or strings. (ii) “Chipped” or “chopped”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of chips. (e) Label declaration. Each of the...

  18. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) “Shredded”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of cylinders, shreds, or strings. (ii) “Chipped” or “chopped”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of chips. (e) Label declaration. Each of the...

  19. 21 CFR 133.146 - Grated cheeses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) “Shredded”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of cylinders, shreds, or strings. (ii) “Chipped” or “chopped”, if the particles of cheese are in the form of chips. (e) Label declaration. Each of the...

  20. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and flavor...

  1. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  2. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  3. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  4. 7 CFR 58.433 - Cheese cultures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese cultures. 58.433 Section 58.433 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Material § 58.433 Cheese cultures. Harmless microbial cultures used in the development of acid and...

  5. Effect of zinc fortification on Cheddar cheese quality.

    PubMed

    Kahraman, O; Ustunol, Z

    2012-06-01

    Zinc-fortified Cheddar cheese containing 228 mg of zinc/kg of cheese was manufactured from milk that had 16 mg/kg food-grade zinc sulfate added. Cheeses were aged for 2 mo. Culture activity during cheese making and ripening, and compositional, chemical, texture, and sensory characteristics were compared with control cheese with no zinc sulfate added to the cheese milk. Compositional analysis included fat, protein, ash, moisture, zinc, and calcium determinations. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay was conducted to determine lipid oxidation during aging. Texture was analyzed by a texture analyzer. An untrained consumer panel of 60 subjects evaluated the cheeses for hardness, off-flavors, appearance, and overall preference using a 9-point hedonic scale. Almost 100% of the zinc added to cheese milk was recovered in the zinc-fortified cheese. Zinc-fortified Cheddar cheese had 5 times more zinc compared with control cheese. Zinc-fortified cheese had higher protein and slightly higher fat and ash contents, whereas moisture was similar for both cheeses. Zinc fortification did not affect culture activity during cheese making or during the 2-mo aging period. The TBA value of control cheese was higher than that of zinc-fortified cheese at the end of ripening. Although zinc-fortified cheese was harder as determined by the texture analyzer, the untrained consumer panel did not detect differences in the sensory attributes and overall quality of the cheeses. Fortification of 16 mg/kg zinc sulfate in cheese milk is a suitable approach to fortifying Cheddar cheese without changing the quality of Cheddar cheese.

  6. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  7. 21 CFR 133.124 - Cold-pack cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cold-pack cheese food. 133.124 Section 133.124 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.124 Cold-pack cheese food. (a)(1) Cold-pack cheese food is the food...

  8. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  9. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  10. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  11. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by...

  12. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  13. 21 CFR 133.175 - Pasteurized cheese spread.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pasteurized cheese spread. 133.175 Section 133.175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Cheese and Related Products § 133.175 Pasteurized cheese spread. Pasteurized cheese spread is the...

  14. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  15. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  16. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  17. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  18. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  19. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  20. 21 CFR 133.116 - Low sodium cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium cheddar cheese. 133.116 Section 133.116... Cheese and Related Products § 133.116 Low sodium cheddar cheese. Low sodium cheddar cheese is the food... ingredients, except that: (a) It contains not more than 96 milligrams of sodium per pound of finished food....

  1. 21 CFR 133.121 - Low sodium colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Low sodium colby cheese. 133.121 Section 133.121... Cheese and Related Products § 133.121 Low sodium colby cheese. Low sodium colby cheese is the food... that contains no sodium and that is recognized as a salt substitute may be used. (b) Sodium sorbate...

  2. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other conditions...

  3. 7 CFR 58.411 - Rindless cheese wrapping area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping area. 58.411 Section 58.411....411 Rindless cheese wrapping area. For rindless cheese a suitable space shall be provided for proper wrapping and boxing of the cheese. The area shall be free from dust, condensation, mold or other conditions...

  4. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be...

  5. 7 CFR 58.732 - Cooling the packaged cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooling the packaged cheese. 58.732 Section 58.732... Procedures § 58.732 Cooling the packaged cheese. After the containers are filled they shall be stacked, or... immediate progressive cooling of the individual containers of cheese. As a minimum the cheese should be...

  6. 21 CFR 133.189 - Skim milk cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. 133.189... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.189 Skim milk cheese for manufacturing. (a) Skim milk cheese for manufacturing is the food prepared from skim milk and other ingredients specified in this section, by the...

  7. The microbiota of high-moisture mozzarella cheese produced with different acidification methods.

    PubMed

    Guidone, Angela; Zotta, Teresa; Matera, Attilio; Ricciardi, Annamaria; De Filippis, Francesca; Ercolini, Danilo; Parente, Eugenio

    2016-01-04

    The microbiota of high-moisture Mozzarella cheese made from cow's milk and produced with different acidification methods was evaluated at the end of refrigerated storage by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The cheeses were clearly separated on the basis of the acidification methods. Cheeses produced with the addition of starters were dominated by Streptococcus thermophilus, but a variety of lactic acid bacteria and spoilage microorganisms appeared at low levels (0.01-1%). Cheeses produced by direct addition of citric acid were dominated by a diverse microbiota, including both lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic γ-proteobacteria. For five brands the acidification system was not declared on the label: the microbiota was dominated by thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (S. thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus helveticus) but a variety of other subdominant lactic acid bacteria, psychrotrophs and Enterobacteriaceae were present, with a diversity comparable or higher to cheeses produced by direct acid addition. This led to the conclusion that undefined starters were used for acidification. Both ordination methods and network analysis were used for the representation of beta-diversity: matrix cluster analysis, principal coordinate analysis and OTU networks uncovered different aspects of the microbial community structure. For three cheese brands both biological replicates (cheeses from different lots) and technical replicates (replicate cheeses from the same lot) were analyzed. Repeatability was acceptable for OTUs appearing at frequencies >1%, but was low otherwise. A linear mixed model showed that the starter system was responsible for most differences related to dairies, while difference due to psychrotrophic contaminants was more related to lot-to-lot variability. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Pulsed light and antimicrobial combination treatments for surface decontamination of cheese: Favorable and antagonistic effects.

    PubMed

    Proulx, J; Sullivan, G; Marostegan, L F; VanWees, S; Hsu, L C; Moraru, C I

    2017-03-01

    Postprocessing cross-contamination of cheese can lead to both food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. Pulsed light (PL) treatment, consisting of short, high-energy, broad-spectrum light pulses, has been proven effective in reducing the microbial load on cheese surface. As PL treatment effectiveness is limited by light-cheese interactions, the possibility to improve its effectiveness by combining it with the antimicrobial nisin was explored. The effect of natamycin, which is added to cheeses as an antifungal agent, on PL effectiveness was also investigated. Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Listeria innocua were used as challenge microorganisms. Bacterial cultures in stationary growth phase were diluted to initial inoculum levels of 5 or 7 log cfu per cheese slice. Slices of sharp white Cheddar cheese and white American singles were cut in rectangles of 2.5 × 5 cm. For cheese slices receiving antimicrobial treatment before PL, slices were dipped in natamycin or nisin, spot inoculated with 100 μL of bacterial suspension, and then treated with PL. Cheese slices receiving PL treatment before antimicrobials were spot inoculated, treated with PL, and then treated with antimicrobials. The PL fluence levels from 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2) were used. Survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. All treatments were performed in triplicate, and the data were analyzed using a general linear model. Treatment with nisin or natamycin before PL decreased the effectiveness of PL for all bacteria tested. For instance, PL reduced P. fluorescens on Cheddar cheese by 2.19 ± 0.27 log after 6.14 J/cm(2), whereas combination treatments at the same PL fluence yielded barely 1 log reduction. Inactivation of L. innocua on Cheddar was only 0.78 ± 0.01 log when using PL after nisin, compared with a 1.30 ± 0.76 log reduction by nisin alone. This was attributed to the absorption of UV light

  9. Quantitation of Key Tastants and Re-engineering the Taste of Parmesan Cheese.

    PubMed

    Hillmann, Hedda; Hofmann, Thomas

    2016-03-02

    Targeted quantitation of 65 candidate taste compounds and ranking on the basis of dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, followed by taste re-engineering and omission experiments in aqueous solution as well as in a cheese-like model matrix, led to the identification of a total of 31 key tastants (amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, biogenic amines, and minerals) with DoT factors ≥1.0 and a total of 15 subthreshold, but kokumi-enhancing, γ-glutamyl peptides in extraordinarily high concentrations of 20468 μmol/kg. Among the γ-glutamyl peptides, γ-Glu-Gly, γ-Glu-Ala, γ-Glu-Thr, γ-Glu-Asp, γ-Glu-Lys, γ-Glu-Glu, γ-Glu-Trp, γ-Glu-Gln, and γ-Glu-His have been identified for the first time in Parmesan cheese. The excellent match of the sensory profile of the taste recombinants and the authentic cheese demonstrated the identified taste compounds to be fully sufficient to create the characteristic taste profile of the Parmesan cheese. This molecular blueprint of a Parmesan's chemosensory signature might be a useful molecular target for visualizing analytically the changes in taste profiles throughout cheese manufacturing and opens new avenues for a more scientifically directed taste improvement of cheese by tailoring manufacturing parameters ("molecular food engineering").

  10. Farm to Fork Quantitative Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Cheese in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Uma; Cummins, Enda; Valero, Antonio; Walsh, Des; Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to model and quantify the level of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk cheese (RMc) and pasteurized milk cheese (PMc) from farm to fork using a Bayesian inference approach combined with a quantitative risk assessment. The modeling approach included a prediction of contamination arising from the farm environment as well from cross-contamination within the cheese-processing facility through storage and subsequent human exposure. The model predicted a high concentration of L. monocytogenes in contaminated RMc (mean 2.19 log10 CFU/g) compared to PMc (mean -1.73 log10 CFU/g). The mean probability of illness (P1 for low-risk population, LR) and (P2 for high-risk population, HR, e.g., immunocompromised) adult Irish consumers following exposure to contaminated cheese was 7 × 10(-8) (P1 ) and 9 × 10(-4) (P2 ) for RMc and 7 × 10(-10) (P1 ) and 8 × 10(-6) (P2 ) for PMc, respectively. In addition, the model was used to evaluate performance objectives at various stages, namely, the cheese making and ripening stages, and to set a food safety objective at the time of consumption. A scenario analysis predicted various probabilities of L. monocytogenes contamination along the cheese-processing chain for both RMc and PMc. The sensitivity analysis showed the critical factors for both cheeses were the serving size of the cheese, storage time, and temperature at the distribution stage. The developed model will allow food processors and policymakers to identify the possible routes of contamination along the cheese-processing chain and to reduce the risk posed to human health.

  11. Physical properties of pizza Mozzarella cheese manufactured under different cheese-making conditions.

    PubMed

    Banville, V; Morin, P; Pouliot, Y; Britten, M

    2013-08-01

    The effect of manufacturing factors on the shreddability and meltability of pizza Mozzarella cheese was studied. Four experimental cheeses were produced with 2 concentrations of denatured whey protein added to milk (0 or 0.25%) and 2 renneting pH values (6.4 or 6.5). The cheeses were aged 8, 22, or 36d before testing. Shreddability was assessed by the presence of fines, size of the shreds, and adhesion to the blade after shredding at 4, 13, or 22°C. A semi-empirical method was developed to measure the matting behavior of shreds by simulating industrial bulk packaging. Rheological measurements were performed on cheeses with and without a premelting treatment to assess melt and postmelt cheese physical properties. Lowering the pH of milk at renneting and aging the cheeses generally decreased the fines production during shredding. Adding whey protein to the cheeses also altered the fines production, but the effect varied depending on the renneting and aging conditions. The shred size distribution, adhesion to the blade, and matting behavior of the cheeses were adversely affected by increased temperature at shredding. The melting profiles obtained by rheological measurements showed that better meltability can be achieved by lowering the pH of milk at renneting or aging the cheese. The premelted cheeses were found to be softer at low temperatures (<40°C) and harder at high temperatures (>50°C) compared with the cheeses that had not undergone the premelting treatment. Understanding and controlling milk standardization, curd acidification, and cheese aging are essential for the production of Mozzarella cheese with desirable shreddability and meltability. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Predicting the intent to purchase unfamiliar and familiar cheeses: the effects of attitudes, expected liking and food neophobia.

    PubMed

    Arvola, A; Lähteenmäki, L; Tuorila, H

    1999-02-01

    The attitude model of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) has been applied mainly to predicting the choice of familiar foods; however, the choice of unfamiliar foods may be governed by distinct factors. In the present study, 92 females rated their attitudes and subjective norms about the purchase intentions of two familiar and two unfamiliar cheeses, and the expected and actual pleasantness of them. They also completed the food neophobia scale, which measures the tendency to avoid novel foods. Neophobic persons rated the attitudes and expected and actual taste pleasantness lower than neophilics for all cheeses, except for the most familiar, mild cheese. This suggests that food neophobia also indicates the tendency not only to avoid, but also to dislike novel foods. Before tasting, attitudes and subjective norms together predicted the intent to purchase familiar cheeses better (R2=0.54 and 0.58) than for novel cheeses (R2=0.24 and 0.35); thus, the basic TRA model was not as useful in predicting intent to purchase unfamiliar as familiar cheeses. The predictions especially for the novel cheeses were clearly improved by including expected pleasantness ratings in the model. The usefulness of the food neophobia score as an additional predictor was not clearly supported. Attitudes and subjective norms measured before tasting were poor predictors of purchase intents after tasting, which implies the importance of taste and direct product experience in food choice. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. How NaCl and water content determine water activity during ripening of Gouda cheese, and the predicted effect on inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Wemmenhove, E; Wells-Bennik, M H J; Stara, A; van Hooijdonk, A C M; Zwietering, M H

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the diffusion of NaCl and water in Gouda cheese during brining and ripening. Furthermore, we established water activity as a function of the NaCl-in-moisture content in Gouda cheese during ripening. We determined NaCl content, water content, and water activity in block-type Gouda cheeses that were brined for 3.8d and foil-ripened for a period of 26 wk, and in wheel-type Gouda cheeses that were brined for 0.33, 2.1, or 8.9d and subsequently nature-ripened for a period of 26 wk. The calculated diffusion coefficients of NaCl during brining were 3.6·10(-10) m(2)s(-1) in the block-type Gouda cheeses and 3.5·10(-10) m(2)s(-1) in the wheel-type Gouda cheeses. Immediately after brining, gradients of NaCl and water were observed throughout both types of cheese. During ripening, these gradients disappeared, except for the water gradient in nature-ripened cheeses. An empirical model was derived for Gouda cheese, in which water activity is expressed as a function of the NaCl-in-moisture content, as established for different brining times, locations and ripening times. Moreover, the effect of reduced water activity on inhibition of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in Gouda cheese was calculated. In addition to the presence of lactate and a pH of 5.2 to 5.3, the reduced water activity as seen in Gouda cheese can substantially contribute to inhibition of microbial growth and even to inactivation when cheeses are brined and ripened for extended times and subjected to nature-ripening. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical patterns in ovine cheese: influence of probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Trani, A; Faccia, M

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of lamb rennet paste containing probiotic strains on proteolysis, lipolysis, and glycolysis of ovine cheese manufactured with starter cultures. Cheeses included control cheese made with rennet paste, cheese made with rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus culture (LA-5), and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis (BB-12) and Bifidobacterium longum (BB-46). Cheeses were sampled at 1, 7, 15, and 30 d of ripening. Starter cultures coupled with probiotics strains contained in rennet paste affected the acidification and coagulation phases leading to the lowest pH in curd and cheese containing probiotics during ripening. As consequence, maturing cheese profiles were different among cheese treatments. Cheeses produced using rennet paste containing probiotics displayed higher percentages of alpha(S1)-I-casein fraction than traditional cheese up to 15 d of ripening. This result could be an outcome of the greater hydrolysis of alpha-casein fraction, attributed to higher activity of the residual chymosin. Further evidence for this trend is available in chromatograms of water-soluble nitrogen fractions, which indicated a more complex profile in cheeses made using lamb paste containing probiotics versus traditional cheese. Differences can be observed for the peaks eluted in the highly hydrophobic zone being higher in cheeses containing probiotics. The proteolytic activity of probiotic bacteria led to increased accumulation of free amino acids. Their concentrations in cheese made with rennet paste containing Lb. acidophilus culture and cheese made with rennet paste containing a mix of B. lactis and B. longum were approximately 2.5 and 3.0 times higher, respectively, than in traditional cheese. Principal component analysis showed a more intense lipolysis in terms of both free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid content in probiotic cheeses; in particular, the lipolytic pattern of

  15. Concentrations of the UV filter ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in the aquatic compartment: a comparison of modelled concentrations for Swiss surface waters with empirical monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Straub, Jürg Oliver

    2002-05-10

    UV filters in sunscreens and cosmetics protect the skin from damage through UV radiation. Many tonnes per year of UV filters are being used in Europe and will be present, at least seasonally, in detectable concentrations in surface waters similar to common pharmaceutically active substances. Predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC; CAS 5466-77-3) were extrapolated for Switzerland, taking into consideration substance-specific environmental fate data and marketing estimates, by crude worst-case reckoning and by applying two environmental models (Mackay Level III; USES 3.0), both configured for Swiss hydrological and area data. By worst-case reckoning the summer PEC is 70.8-81.3 ng/l while for the remaining 8 months of the year the PEC is 13.1-15.1 ng/l. The Level III model results in concentrations of 2.4 ng/l during the summer and 0.44 ng/l during the rest of the year, while the USES 3.0 model gives an average PEC for the whole year of 7.6 ng/l. Pooling summer monitoring data (90 single analyses) from the River Rhine below Basel in the year 1997 (Water Protection Board of Basel) and from Lakes Zurich and Hüttner in 1998 (Poiger et al., in preparation) allowed a derivation of a probabilistic median concentration of 4.6 ng/l, a 95th-percentile concentration of 18.6 ng/l and a 99th-percentile concentration of 33.5 ng/l. The 6-fold range from the median value to the maximum calls for caution in interpreting published monitoring concentrations. Comparison of modelled PECs with realistic median concentrations shows that crude reckoning overestimates actual concentrations by a factor of about 10, probably through insufficient consideration of (further) degradation of EHMC in sewage works, surface waters, sediments or river banks. Both computer models, in contrast, are within the same order of magnitude as the actual summer concentrations. Based on the available data, both these environmental fate and distribution models give

  16. Functional polysaccharides as edible coatings for cheese.

    PubMed

    Cerqueira, Miguel A; Lima, Alvaro M; Souza, Bartolomeu W S; Teixeira, José A; Moreira, Renato A; Vicente, António A

    2009-02-25

    The objective of the present study was to apply the polysaccharides from different nontraditional sources for cheese coatings. Chitosan, galactomannan from Gleditsia triacanthos, and agar from Glacilaria birdiae were tested, with different formulations and with the addition of plasticizer and corn oil. The surface properties of the cheese and the wetting capacity of the coatings on the cheese were determined. The three best solutions for each polysaccharide were chosen, further films were cast, and permeability to water vapor, oxygen, and carbon dioxide was determined, along with opacity. The solutions of G. triacanthos (formulation: 1.5% of galactomannan, 2.0% of glycerol, and 0.5% of oil) presented the best properties to coat the cheese: -38.76 mN x m(-1) for wettability; 3.24 x 10(-11) (g x (m x s x Pa)(-1)) for water vapor permeability; 0.94 x 10(-15) and 15.35 x 10(-15) (g x m(Pa x s x m(2))(-1)) for oxygen and carbon dioxide permeabilities, respectively; and opacity values of 5.27%. The O(2) consumption and CO(2) production rates of the cheese with and without coating were evaluated, showing a decrease of the respiration rates when the coating was applied. The uncoated cheese had an extensive mold growth at the surface when compared with the coated cheese. The results show that these coatings can be applied as an alternative to synthetic coatings.

  17. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Fandi; Ruvio, Suvi; Granlund, Linda; Salminen, Seppo; Viitanen, Matti; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2010-06-01

    Oral intake of specific probiotics has been reported to enhance the immunity of the elderly. Earlier studies have used milk or yoghurt as a probiotic carrier. We chose a commercial probiotic cheese to evaluate its potential as a probiotic food. Thirty-one healthy elderly volunteers (21 female, 10 male) aged from 72 to 103 (median 86) consumed a commercial probiotic cheese containing approximately 10(9) CFU day(-1) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. The 4-week probiotic intervention was preceded by a 2-week consumption of probiotic-free cheese (run-in) and followed by a 4-week wash-out period with the same control cheese. The cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the relative numbers of natural killer (NK) and NKT cells in the total PBMCs, and phagocytic activity were assessed. Consumption of the probiotic cheese significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells. A significant increase in phagocytosis was observed for both the control and the probiotic cheese. Cheese was found to be an effective carrier for the study of probiotics, and daily consumption of the probiotic enhanced parameters of innate immunity in elderly volunteers. It remains to be determined whether this enhancement correlates with a beneficial effect on the health of the elderly population.

  18. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    PubMed

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    PubMed

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  20. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  1. Tree biomass in the Swiss landscape: nationwide modelling for improved accounting for forest and non-forest trees.

    PubMed

    Price, B; Gomez, A; Mathys, L; Gardi, O; Schellenberger, A; Ginzler, C; Thürig, E

    2017-03-01

    Trees outside forest (TOF) can perform a variety of social, economic and ecological functions including carbon sequestration. However, detailed quantification of tree biomass is usually limited to forest areas. Taking advantage of structural information available from stereo aerial imagery and airborne laser scanning (ALS), this research models tree biomass using national forest inventory data and linear least-square regression and applies the model both inside and outside of forest to create a nationwide model for tree biomass (above ground and below ground). Validation of the tree biomass model against TOF data within settlement areas shows relatively low model performance (R (2) of 0.44) but still a considerable improvement on current biomass estimates used for greenhouse gas inventory and carbon accounting. We demonstrate an efficient and easily implementable approach to modelling tree biomass across a large heterogeneous nationwide area. The model offers significant opportunity for improved estimates on land use combination categories (CC) where tree biomass has either not been included or only roughly estimated until now. The ALS biomass model also offers the advantage of providing greater spatial resolution and greater within CC spatial variability compared to the current nationwide estimates.

  2. Artisanal Sonoran cheese (Cocido cheese): an exploration of its production process, chemical composition and microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-González, Paúl F; Heredia-Castro, Priscilia Y; Méndez-Romero, José I; Hernández-Mendoza, Adrián; Reyes-Díaz, Ricardo; Vallejo-Cordoba, Belinda; González-Córdova, Aarón F

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and document the production process of artisanal Cocido cheese and to determine its chemical composition and microbiological quality, considering samples from six dairies and four retailers. Cocido cheese is a semi-hard (506-555 g kg(-1) of moisture), medium fat (178.3-219.1 g kg(-1) ), pasta filata-type cheese made from raw whole cow's milk. The production process is not standardized and therefore the chemical and microbiological components of the sampled cheeses varied. Indicator microorganisms significantly decreased (P < 0.05) during the processing of Cocido cheese. Salmonella spp. were not found during the production process, and both Listeria monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were absent in the final cheeses. This study provides more information on one of the most popular artisanal cheeses with high cultural value and economic impact in northwestern Mexico. In view of the foregoing, good manufacturing practices need to be implemented for the manufacture of Cocido cheese. Also, it is of utmost importance to make sure that the heat treatment applied for cooking the curd ensures a phosphatase-negative test, otherwise it would be necessary to pasteurize milk. Nevertheless, since Cocido cheese is a non-ripened, high-moisture product, it is a highly perishable product that could present a health risk if not properly handled. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of highly lipolyzed goat cheese on HL-60 human leukemia cells: antiproliferative activity and induction of apoptotic DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, S; Kuwata, H; Kawamoto, K; Shirakawa, J; Atobe, S; Hoshi, Y; Yamasaki, M; Nishiyama, K; Tachibana, H; Yamada, K; Kobayashi, H; Igoshi, K

    2012-05-01

    To establish cheese as a dairy product with health benefits, we embarked on examining the multifunctional role of cheeses, especially in the field of cancer prevention. The current study was designed to investigate whether different types of commercial goat cheeses may possess antiproliferative activity, using an HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cell line as a cancer cell model. Among 11 cheese extracts tested at 500μg/mL, 6 (Crottin de Chavignol, Pouligny Saint-Pierre, Chabichou du Poitou, Valencay, Kavli, and Sainte-Maure de Touraine) resulted in a significant decrease of cell viability, which is consistent with a decrease in viable cell number. Compared with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of individual cheeses in cellular proliferation assays, the Pouligny Saint-Pierre extract showed strong inhibition. Incubation of cells in the presence of Pouligny Saint-Pierre extract resulted in induction of cellular morphological changes and apoptotic DNA fragmentation as well as expression of the active form of caspase-3 protein. Based on the quantification of the ratio of free fatty acids to triglycerides in different cheese samples, a significant correlation was detected between lipolytic ripeness and IC(50) values for antiproliferative capacity tested in HL-60 cells. Collectively, these results support a potential role of highly lipolyzed goat cheeses in the prevention of leukemic cell proliferation.

  4. Deacidification by Debaryomyces hansenii of smear soft cheeses ripened under controlled conditions: relative humidity and temperature influences.

    PubMed

    Bonaïti, C; Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Latrille, E; Corrieu, G

    2004-11-01

    Model smear soft cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Debaryomyces hansenii (304, GMPA) and Brevibacterium aurantiacum (ATCC 9175) under aseptic conditions. Debaryomyces hansenii growth and curd deacidification were studied in relation to ripening chamber temperature and relative humidity (RH). A total of 9 descriptors, mainly based on kinetic data, were defined to represent D. hansenii growth (2 descriptors), cheese deacidification (5 descriptors), and cheese ripening (2 descriptors). Regardless of the temperature, when the RH was 85%, D. hansenii growth was inhibited due to limitation of carbon substrate diffusions; consequently, cheese deacidification did not take place. Debaryomyces hansenii growth was most prolific when the temperature was 16 degrees C, and the RH was 95%. Kinetic descriptors of lactate consumption and pH increase were maximal at 16 degrees C and 100% RH. Under these 2 ripening conditions, on d 14 (packaging) the creamy underrind represented a third of the cheese; however, at the end of ripening (d 42), cheese was too liquid to be sold. Statistical analysis showed that the best ripening conditions to achieve an optimum between deacidification and appearance of cheeses (thickness of the creamy underrind) were 12 degrees C and 95 +/- 1% RH.

  5. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  6. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  7. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  8. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-white mold, a white mutant of Penicillium roquefortii, throughout the cheese. The minimum milkfat... forms, spores of a white mutant of the mold Penicillium roquefortii are added. The forms are...

  9. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-white mold, a white mutant of Penicillium roquefortii, throughout the cheese. The minimum milkfat... forms, spores of a white mutant of the mold Penicillium roquefortii are added. The forms are...

  10. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determined by the methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Nuworld cheese... neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd. (ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than...

  11. 21 CFR 133.106 - Blue cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least 60... ingredients. (i) Blue or green color in an amount to neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd....

  12. 21 CFR 133.164 - Nuworld cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determined by the methods described in § 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized. Nuworld cheese... neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd. (ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than...

  13. 21 CFR 133.118 - Colby cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .../catalase as provided in § 133.113(a)(3). (d)(1) Colby cheese in the form of slices or cuts may have added... the methods prescribed in § 133.5 (a), (b), and (d). If the milk used is not pasteurized, the cheese... pasteurized milk if 0.25 gram shows a phenol equivalent of more than 3 micrograms when tested by the method...

  14. The Arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 Genome Sequence Reveals Its Genetic Adaptation to the Surface of Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Monnet, Christophe; Loux, Valentin; Gibrat, Jean-François; Spinnler, Eric; Barbe, Valérie; Vacherie, Benoit; Gavory, Frederick; Gourbeyre, Edith; Siguier, Patricia; Chandler, Michaël; Elleuch, Rayda

    2010-01-01

    Arthrobacter arilaitensis is one of the major bacterial species found at the surface of cheeses, especially in smear-ripened cheeses, where it contributes to the typical colour, flavour and texture properties of the final product. The A. arilaitensis Re117 genome is composed of a 3,859,257 bp chromosome and two plasmids of 50,407 and 8,528 bp. The chromosome shares large regions of synteny with the chromosomes of three environmental Arthrobacter strains for which genome sequences are available: A. aurescens TC1, A. chlorophenolicus A6 and Arthrobacter sp. FB24. In contrast however, 4.92% of the A. arilaitensis chromosome is composed of ISs elements, a portion that is at least 15 fold higher than for the other Arthrobacter strains. Comparative genomic analyses reveal an extensive loss of genes associated with catabolic activities, presumably as a result of adaptation to the properties of the cheese surface habitat. Like the environmental Arthrobacter strains, A. arilaitensis Re117 is well-equipped with enzymes required for the catabolism of major carbon substrates present at cheese surfaces such as fatty acids, amino acids and lactic acid. However, A. arilaitensis has several specificities which seem to be linked to its adaptation to its particular niche. These include the ability to catabolize D-galactonate, a high number of glycine betaine and related osmolyte transporters, two siderophore biosynthesis gene clusters and a high number of Fe3+/siderophore transport systems. In model cheese experiments, addition of small amounts of iron strongly stimulated the growth of A. arilaitensis, indicating that cheese is a highly iron-restricted medium. We suggest that there is a strong selective pressure at the surface of cheese for strains with efficient iron acquisition and salt-tolerance systems together with abilities to catabolize substrates such as lactic acid, lipids and amino acids. PMID:21124797

  15. Interests in Geotrichum candidum for cheese technology.

    PubMed

    Boutrou, R; Guéguen, M

    2005-06-25

    The wide genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Geotrichum candidum strains does not facilitate its classification as yeast or a yeast-like fungus that is still a matter of debate. Whatever its classification, G. candidum possesses many different metabolic pathways that are of particular interest to the dairy industry. G. candidum is of importance in the maturation of cheese, and much is known about its direct contribution to cheese ripening and flavour formation. Its diverse metabolic potential means that G. candidum can play an important role in the ripening of many soft and semi-hard cheeses and make a positive contribution to the development of taste and aroma. It may also influence the growth of other microorganisms, both valuable and detrimental. The significance of the presence of G. candidum in cheese depends on the particular type of production and on the presence of biotypes featuring specific types of metabolism. However, in situ metabolic pathways involved in cheese ripening and their regulations are mainly unknown. The information available provides a good understanding of the potential of G. candidum strains that are used in cheese manufacture, and permits a better choice of strain depending on the characteristics required. The biochemical activities of G. candidum and its application in the dairy industry are presented in this review.

  16. Whey cheese: membrane technology to increase yields.

    PubMed

    Riera, Francisco; González, Pablo; Muro, Claudia

    2016-02-01

    Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2.5 and 2.8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2-3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4.6-4.8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19.6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional 'Requesón' process.

  17. Salt Reduction in a Model High-Salt Akawi Cheese: Effects on Bacterial Activity, pH, Moisture, Potential Bioactive Peptides, Amino Acids, and Growth of Human Colon Cells.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of sodium chloride reduction and its substitution with potassium chloride on Akawi cheese during storage for 30 d at 4 °C. Survival of probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum) and starter bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus), angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitory and antioxidant activities, and concentrations of standard amino acids as affected by storage in different brine solutions (10% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl, 7.5% NaCl+KCl [1:1], 5% NaCl, and 5% NaCl+KCl [1:1]) were investigated. Furthermore, viability of human colon cells and human colon cancer cells as affected by the extract showing improved peptide profiles, highest release of amino acids and antioxidant activity (that is, from cheese brined in 7.5% NaCl+KCl) was evaluated. Significant increase was observed in survival of probiotic bacteria in cheeses with low salt after 30 d. Calcium content decreased slightly during storage in all cheeses brined in various solutions. Further, no significant changes were observed in ACE-inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of cheeses during storage. Interestingly, concentrations of 4 essential amino acids (phenylalanine, tryptophan, valine, and leucine) increased significantly during storage in brine solutions containing 7.5% total salt. Low concentration of cheese extract (100 μg/mL) significantly improved the growth of normal human colon cells, and reduced the growth of human colon cancer cells. Overall, the study revealed that cheese extracts from reduced-NaCl brine improved the growth of human colon cells, and the release of essential amino acids, but did not affect the activities of potential bioactive peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Use of haloperidol and risperidone in highly aggressive Swiss Webster mice by applying the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA).

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; de Araújo-Jorge, Tânia Cremonini; de Azevedo, Marcos José; Campos, Jerônimo Diego de Souza; Cortez, Célia Martins; de Oliveira, Gabriel Melo

    2016-03-15

    Aggression is defined as the act in which an individual intentionally harms or injures another of their own species. Antipsychotics are a form of treatment used in psychiatric routine. They have been used for decades in treatment of patients with aggressive behavior. Haloperidol and risperidone promote the control of psychiatric symptoms, through their respective mechanisms of action. Experimental models are obtained by behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological manipulations, and use a reduced number of animals. In this context, we applied the model of spontaneous aggression (MSA), originating the presence of highly aggressive mice (AgR) when reassembled in adulthood. We administered haloperidol and risperidone in escalating doses, for ten consecutive days. Using positive and negative control groups, we evaluated the effectiveness of these drugs and the reversal of the aggressive behavior, performing the tail suspension test (TST) and open field test (OFT) on 10th day of treatment and 10 days after its discontinuation. The results showed that both antipsychotic drugs were effective in AgR and reversed the aggressive phenotype, reducing the number of attacks by AgR and the extent of lesions in the subordinate mice (AgD) exposed to the pattern of aggressive behavior (PAB) of the aggressors. This conclusion is based on the reduction in the animals' motor and exploratory activity, and on the reversal of patterns of aggressive behavior. The association between the MSA and experiments with other therapeutic protocols and different antipsychotics can be an important methodology in the study of aggressive behavior in psychiatric patients.

  19. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in a soil profile: Model insights and application to a restored Swiss riparian area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brovelli, Alessandro; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi; Luster, Jörg; Shrestha, Juna; Huber, Benjamin; Niklaus, Pascal; Barry, D. Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The key environmental importance of natural, healthy ecosystems has been progressively recognized and restoration of degraded lands towards their former natural state has become an area of active research worldwide. During restoration, environmental conditions (such as vegetation type and water availability) are manipulated to create ecological conditions suitable for the successful establishment of a target composition of species. Often, ecological restoration induces changes to adjacent ecosystems. This is the case of riparian ecosystems, and their restoration to their original undisturbed situation is likely to cause changes in nutrient cycles. For example, following the restoration of a riparian zone, microbial communities adapted to one set of environmental conditions have to acclimatize to another, and the subsequent changes in the composition of the biomass populations might induce changes in soil organic matter mineralization and soil respiration rates. Since the biogeochemical cycles are tightly interconnected, these changes can trigger nutrient storing or release, therefore inducing changes in nutrient cycles of adjacent ecosystems. Overall, the effects of the restoration activities on the hydrologic regime, soil properties and vegetation are still largely unknown and poorly understood. Within the RECORD project (http://www.cces.ethz.ch/projects/nature/Record), a large collaborative research effort undertaken to monitor and understand the changes in ecosystem functioning in riparian areas undergoing restoration, a numerical model has been developed to simulate the vertical transport of the mobile C and N components in a soil profile (model development discussed in the companion submitted abstract Batlle-Aguilar et al.). In the model, microbial decomposition of the soil organic matter drives biogeochemical transformations of C and N, while the activity of the soil biota is primarily controlled by the soil moisture content. The temporal evolution of the

  20. Complete Genome Sequence for Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32, an Industrial Cheese Starter and Cheese Flavor Adjunct

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Joanne E.; Welker, Dennis L.; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Steele, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus is a lactic acid bacterium widely used in the manufacture of cheese and for production of bioactive peptides from milk proteins. We present the complete genome sequence for L. helveticus CNRZ 32, a strain particularly recognized for its ability to reduce bitterness and accelerate flavor development in cheese. PMID:23969047

  1. Effect of lupine as cheese base substitution on technological and nutritional properties of processed cheese analogue.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rezik Azab; Salama, Wafaa Mohammed; Farahat, Azza Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Healthy foods have been met with marked success in the last two decades. Lupine flours, protein concentrates, and isolates can be applied as a substance for enriching different kinds of food systems such as bakery products, lupine pasta, ice cream, milk substitutes. Imitation processed cheese is made from mixtures of dairy and/or non dairy proteins and fat/oils and is variously labeled analogue, artificial, extruded, synthetic and/or filled. Processed cheese can be formulated using different types of cheese with different degree of maturation, flavorings, emulsifying, salts, and/or several ingredients of non-dairy components. Non-dairy ingredients have been used in processed cheese for many dietary and economic reasons. In this study, lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). Matured Ras cheese (3 months old) was manufactured using fresh cow milk. Soft cheese curd was manufactured using fresh buffalo skim milk. Emulsifying salts S9s and Unsalted butter were used. Lupine termis paste was prepared by soaking the seeds in tap water for week with changing the water daily, and then boiled in water for 2 hrs, cooled and peeled. The peeled seeds were minced, blended to get very fine paste and kept frozen until used. Lupine paste was used to substitute 25, 50, 75 and 100% of cheese in base formula of processed cheese analogue (PCA). The obtained PCA were analysed when fresh and during storage up to 3 months at 5±2°C for chemical composition, physical and sensory properties. The histopathological effect of lupines on alloxan diabetic albino rats and nutritional parameters were also investigated. Incorporation of lupine paste in PCA increased the ash and protein contents while meltability and penetration values of resultant products were decreased. Adding lupine in PSA formula had relatively increased the oil index and firmness of products. Feeding rats a balanced diet containing processed cheese

  2. Spatial and temporal modelling of fluvial aggradation in the Hasli Valley (Swiss Alps) during the last 1300 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, Jaime; Schulte, Lothar; Carvalho, Filipe

    2016-04-01

    The Haslital delta (upper Aare River catchment, Bernese Alps) progradated into the Lake Brienz after the retreat of the Aare Glacier (post-LGM). Present delta plain geomorphology and spatial distribution of sedimentary facies result from historical fluvial dynamics and aggradation. Over centuries, local communities have struggled to control the Aare floods and to mitigate their effects on the floodplain (by means of raising artificial levees, channelizing the course, creating an underground drainage network, constructing dams at the basin headwaters). This study focuses on the spatial and temporal evolution of sediment dynamics of the floodplain by analyzing fluvial sedimentary records . The internal variability of lithostratigraphic sequences is a key issue to understand hydrological processes in the basin under the effect of environmental and anthropogenic changes of the past. The floodplain lithostratigraphy was reconstructed by coring alongside four cross-sections; each one is composed of more than 25 shallow boreholes (2 m deep) and two long drillings (variable depth, up to 9 m). The chronostratigraphical models were obtained by AMS 14C dating, and information of paleofloods and channel migration were reconstructed from historical sources (Schulte et al., 2015). The identification of different sedimentary facies, associated with the fluvial architecture structures, provides information on variations of vertical and lateral accretion processes (Houben, 2007). The location and geometry of buried channel-levee facies (gravel and coarse sand layers) indicate a significant mobility of the riverbed of the Hasli-Aare river, following an oscillatory pattern during the last millennia. Furthermore, fine sedimentary deposits and peat layers represent the existence of stable areas where floods have a low incidence. Once the different types of deposits were identified, aggradation rates were estimated in order to determine the spatial variability of the accumulation

  3. Recovery and differentiation of long ripened cheese microflora through a new cheese-based cultural medium.

    PubMed

    Neviani, Erasmo; De Dea Lindner, Juliano; Bernini, Valentina; Gatti, Monica

    2009-05-01

    A partial picture of the typical microflora of PDO Parmigiano Reggiano cheese was achieved by studying the cultivability of lactic acid bacteria associated with its manufacturing and ripening. A comprehensive sampling design allowed for the analysis of the cheese microflora during its production over 20 months of ripening. An innovative cheese agar medium (CAM) was prepared after testing 18 formulations all based on grated Parmigiano Reggiano ripened cheese. During cheese manufacturing and ripening, different samples were sampled and their microflora was recovered using CAM in comparison with other traditional media. Colonies which formed units from the different agar media tested were picked and isolated; the phylogenetic positions of 154 isolated strains were studied at level of species by 16S-rRNA gene sequencing. CAM seems to be able to recover the minority population coming from milk and whey starter, hardly estimable, during the first hours of production, on traditional media.

  4. Biogenic Amines in Italian Pecorino Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Visciano, Pierina; Corsetti, Aldo; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The quality of distinctive artisanal cheeses is closely associated with the territory of production and its traditions. Pedoclimatic characteristics, genetic autochthonous variations, and anthropic components create an environment so specific that it would be extremely difficult to reproduce elsewhere. Pecorino cheese is included in this sector of the market and is widely diffused in Italy (∼62.000t of production in 2010). Pecorino is a common name given to indicate Italian cheeses made exclusively from pure ewes’ milk characterized by a high content of fat matter and it is mainly produced in the middle and south of Italy by traditional procedures from raw or pasteurized milk. The microbiota plays a major role in the development of the organoleptic characteristics of the cheese but it can also be responsible for the accumulation of undesirable substances, such as biogenic amines (BA). Bacterial amino acid decarboxylase activity and BA content have to be investigated within the complex microbial community of raw milk cheese for different cheese technologies. The results emphasize the necessity of controlling the indigenous bacterial population responsible for high production of BA and the use of competitive adjunct cultures could be suggested. Several factors can contribute to the qualitative and quantitative profiles of BA’s in Pecorino cheese such as environmental hygienic conditions, pH, salt concentration, water activity, fat content, pasteurization of milk, decarboxylase microorganisms, starter cultures, temperature and time of ripening, storage, part of the cheese (core, edge), and the presence of cofactor (pyridoxal phosphate, availability of aminases and deaminases). In fact physico-chemical parameters seem to favor biogenic amine-positive microbiota; both of these environmental factors can easily be modulated, in order to control growth of undesirable microorganisms. Generally, the total content of BA’s in Pecorino cheeses can range from about 100

  5. Inference about species richness and community structure using species-specific occupancy models in the National Swiss Breeding Bird Survey MUB

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kery, M.; Royle, J. Andrew; Thomson, David L.; Cooch, Evan G.; Conroy, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Species richness is the most widely used biodiversity measure. Virtually always, it cannot be observed but needs to be estimated because some species may be present but remain undetected. This fact is commonly ignored in ecology and management, although it will bias estimates of species richness and related parameters such as occupancy, turnover or extinction rates. We describe a species community modeling strategy based on species-specific models of occurrence, from which estimates of important summaries of community structure, e.g., species richness, occupancy, or measures of similarity among species or sites, are derived by aggregating indicators of occurrence for all species observed in the sample, and for the estimated complement of unobserved species. We use data augmentation for an efficient Bayesian approach to estimation and prediction under this model based on MCMC in WinBUGS. For illustration, we use the Swiss breeding bird survey (MHB) that conducts 2?3 territory-mapping surveys in a systematic sample of 267 1 km2 units on quadrat-specific routes averaging 5.1 km to obtain species-specific estimates of occupancy, and estimates of species richness of all diurnal species free of distorting effects of imperfect detectability. We introduce into our model species-specific covariates relevant to occupancy (elevation, forest cover, route length) and sampling (season, effort). From 1995 to 2004, 185 diurnal breeding bird species were known in Switzerland, and an additional 13 bred 1?3 times since 1900. 134 species were observed during MHB surveys in 254 quadrats surveyed in 2001, and our estimate of 169.9 (95% CI 151?195) therefore appeared sensible. The observed number of species ranged from 4 to 58 (mean 32.8), but with an estimated 0.7?11.2 (mean 2.6) further, unobserved species, the estimated proportion of detected species was 0.48?0.98 (mean 0.91). As is well known, species richness declined at higher elevation and fell above the timberline, and most

  6. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When... refrigerated cooling medium. A circulating pump for the heating and cooling medium is recommended....

  7. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pleasing and desirable mild cheese taste and odor characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b)...

  8. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pleasing and desirable mild cheese taste and odor characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b)...

  9. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pleasing and desirable mild cheese taste and odor characteristic of the variety or varieties of cheese... cooked or very slight acid or emulsifier flavor; is free from any undesirable tastes and odors. (b)...

  10. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concentrations, and the flavonoid content of the cheeses were also determined. The addition of fruit liquor did not affect (p> 0.05) the appearance or sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Higher amounts of crude ash, mineral, and flavonoids (p< 0.05) were observed in the liquor supplemented cheese than in the control cheese. Findings from this study suggest that wine supplemented Gouda could provide additional nutrients while maintaining flavor and quality.

  11. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on the...

  12. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth... the natural intended shape of the cheese in an acceptable manner, reasonably smooth surfaces on the...

  13. Dynamic Analysis of the Lactococcus lactis Transcriptome in Cheeses Made from Milk Concentrated by Ultrafiltration Reveals Multiple Strategies of Adaptation to Stresses ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cretenet, Marina; Laroute, Valérie; Ulvé, Vincent; Jeanson, Sophie; Nouaille, Sébastien; Even, Sergine; Piot, Michel; Girbal, Laurence; Le Loir, Yves; Loubière, Pascal; Lortal, Sylvie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel

    2011-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is used extensively for the production of various cheeses. At every stage of cheese fabrication, L. lactis has to face several stress-generating conditions that result from its own modification of the environment as well as externally imposed conditions. We present here the first in situ global gene expression profile of L. lactis in cheeses made from milk concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF-cheeses), a key economical cheese model. The transcriptomic response of L. lactis was analyzed directly in a cheese matrix, starting from as early as 2 h and continuing for 7 days. The growth of L. lactis stopped after 24 h, but metabolic activity was maintained for 7 days. Conservation of its viability relied on an efficient proteolytic activity measured by an increasing, quantified number of free amino acids in the absence of cell lysis. Extensive downregulation of genes under CodY repression was found at day 7. L. lactis developed multiple strategies of adaptation to stressful modifications of the cheese matrix. In particular, expression of genes involved in acidic- and oxidative-stress responses was induced. L. lactis underwent unexpected carbon limitation characterized by an upregulation of genes involved in carbon starvation, principally due to the release of the CcpA control. We report for the first time that in spite of only moderately stressful conditions, lactococci phage is repressed under UF-cheese conditions. PMID:21075879

  14. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  15. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  16. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  17. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the...

  18. 21 CFR 133.186 - Sap sago cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sap sago cheese. 133.186 Section 133.186 Food and... Products § 133.186 Sap sago cheese. (a) Description. (1) Sap sago cheese is the food prepared by the... method described in § 133.5. Sap sago cheese is not less than 5 months old. (2) One or more of the dairy...

  19. Effects of Storage on Vitamin-Fortified Cheddar Cheese Spread

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    PERIOD COVERED EFFECTS OF STORAGE ON VITAMIN -FORTIFIED Final Technical Report CHEDDAR CHEESE SPREAD 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTNOR(a) S...block nmber) *NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FORTIFICATION STORAGE STUDIES CHEDDAR CHEESE VITAMIN RETENTION PROCESSED CHEESE SPREAD *RETORT POUCH CHEESE...SPREAD 2 SrhACr (mftm mi re"’m ad N A ~ byeek an""w Astudy on vitamin fortified, cheddar Chees spread was conducted at Natick Research and Development

  20. Roquefortine C occurrence in blue cheese.

    PubMed

    Finoli, C; Vecchio, A; Galli, A; Dragoni, I

    2001-02-01

    Several strains of Penicillium are used for the production of mold-ripened cheeses, and some of them are able to produce mycotoxins. The aims of the research were the determination of roquefortine C and PR toxin in domestic and imported blue cheeses, the identification of the penicillia used as starter, and the investigation of their capacity for producing toxins in culture media. Roquefortine C was always found in the cheeses at levels ranging from 0.05 to 1.47 mg/kg, whereas the PR toxin was never found. The identification of the fungal strains present in the domestic cheeses included Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium roqueforti, and Penicillium cyclopium in the Gorgonzola "dolce" and Penicillium roqueforti in the Gorgonzola "naturale"; in one case, the presence of Penicillium crustosum was observed. The strains isolated from the foreign cheeses belonged to P. roqueforti. The strains were able to produce between 0.18 and 8.44 mg/liter of roquefortine in yeast extract sucrose medium and between 0.06 and 3.08 mg/liter and less than 0.05 mg/liter when inoculated in milk at 20 degrees C for 14 days and 4 degrees C for 24 days, respectively. Linear relations between production of roquefortine in culture media and cheeses did not emerge. PR toxin ranged from less than 0.05 to 60.30 mg/liter in yeast extract sucrose medium and was produced in milk at 20 degrees C from only one strain. The low levels and the relatively low toxicity of roquefortine make the consumption of blue cheese safe for the consumer.

  1. Tracing and inhibiting growth of Staphylococcus aureus in barbecue cheese production after product recall.

    PubMed

    Johler, S; Zurfluh, K; Stephan, R

    2016-05-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning is one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide. It is caused by ingestion of enterotoxins formed by Staphylococcus aureus during growth in the food matrix. Following a recall of barbecue cheese due to the detection of staphylococcal enterotoxins in Switzerland in July 2015, we analyzed the production process of the respective dairy. Although most cheese-making processes involve acidification to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, barbecue cheese has to maintain a pH >6.0 to prevent undesired melting of the cheese. In addition, the dairy decided to retain the traditional manual production process of the barbecue cheese. In this study, therefore, we aimed to (1) trace Staph. aureus along the barbecue cheese production process, and (2) develop a sustainable strategy to inhibit growth of Staph. aureus and decrease the risk of staphylococcal food poisoning without changing the traditional production process. To this end, we traced Staph. aureus in a step-wise blinded process analysis on 4 different production days using spa (Staphylococcus protein A gene) typing, DNA microarray profiling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. We subsequently selected a new starter culture and used a model cheese production including a challenge test assay to assess its antagonistic effect on Staph. aureus growth, as well as its sensory and technological implications. We detected Staph. aureus in 30% (37/124) of the collected samples taken from the barbecue cheese production at the dairy. This included detection of Staph. aureus in the final product on all 4 production days, either after enrichment or using quantitative detection. We traced 2 enterotoxigenic Staph. aureus strains (t073/CC45 and t282/CC45) colonizing the nasal cavity and the forearms of the cheesemakers to the final product. In the challenge test assay, we were able to show that the new starter culture inhibited growth of Staph. aureus while meeting

  2. Great interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria in the production of cheese aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Yee, Alyson L; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Roland, Nathalie; Chuat, Victoria; Leclerc, Aurélie; Pogačić, Tomislav; Valence, Florence; Thierry, Anne

    2014-11-17

    Flavor is an important sensory property of fermented food products, including cheese, and largely results from the production of aroma compounds by microorganisms. Propionibacterium freudenreichii is the most widely used species of dairy propionibacteria; it has been implicated in the production of a wide variety of aroma compounds through multiple metabolic pathways and is associated with the flavor of Swiss cheese. However, the ability of other dairy propionibacteria to produce aroma compounds has not been characterized. This study sought to elucidate the effect of interspecies and intraspecies diversity of dairy propionibacteria on the production of aroma compounds in a cheese context. A total of 76 strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Propionibacterium jensenii, Propionibacterium thoenii, and Propionibacterium acidipropionici were grown for 15 days in pure culture in a rich medium derived from cheese curd. In addition, one strain each of two phylogenetically related non-dairy propionibacteria, Propionibacterium cyclohexanicum and Propionibacterium microaerophilum were included. Aroma compounds were analyzed using headspace trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). An analysis of variance performed on GC-MS data showed that the abundance of 36 out of the 45 aroma compounds detected showed significant differences between the cultures. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for these 36 compounds. The first two axes of the PCA, accounting for 60% of the variability between cultures, separated P. freudenreichii strains from P. acidipropionici strains and also differentiated P. freudenreichii strains from each other. P. freudenreichii strains were associated with greater concentrations of a variety of compounds, including free fatty acids from lipolysis, ethyl esters derived from these acids, and branched-chain acids and alcohols from amino acid catabolism. P. acidipropionici strains produced less of these compounds but more sulfur

  3. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  4. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  5. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  6. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  7. 21 CFR 133.134 - Cream cheese with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cream cheese with other foods. 133.134 Section 133.134 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  8. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  9. 21 CFR 133.173 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 133.173 Section 133.173 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  10. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized...

  11. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  12. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  13. Flavor comparison of natural cheeses manufactured in different countries.

    PubMed

    Koppel, Kadri; Chambers, Delores H

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the main flavor components of different natural aged cheese types from various countries and determine whether a unique sensory characteristic exists within specific countries for European cheeses. The flavor of 152 cheeses from Estonia, France, Italy, Germany, Holland, Austria, England, Greece, Ireland, Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Belgium, and Denmark were described during 4 independent studies. The sensory data from these studies were combined. The cheeses were sorted according to milk type and texture, and flavor characteristics of these groups were described. The main flavor characteristics of the cheeses tested were salty, sweet, sour, astringent, biting, pungent, sharp, nutty, musty/earthy, dairy fat, buttery, and dairy sweet. The cluster analysis divided the cheeses into 4 clusters: clusters 1 and 2 were sour, dairy sour, salty, astringent, biting, and varied in buttery (cluster 1) and sharp notes (cluster 2). Cluster 1 and 2 were mainly composed of French cheeses, while clusters 3 and 4 represented cheeses from various countries. Cluster 3 and 4 were sweet, with cooked milk and nutty characteristics and varied from buttery (cluster 3) to sharp notes (cluster 4). Cheeses from some countries, for example, France and Estonia, generally exhibited common sensory characteristics within the specific country, but cheeses from some other countries, such as Italy, varied widely, and seemed to have no common sensory theme. Most regional cheese standards are not specific about flavor profiles and these results suggest it may be possible to start a further characterization of cheeses in some countries.

  14. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  15. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  16. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  17. 7 CFR 58.737 - Pasteurized process cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese food. 58.737 Section 58.737... Finished Products § 58.737 Pasteurized process cheese food. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese Food and Related Products, Food and...

  18. 21 CFR 133.147 - Grated American cheese food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grated American cheese food. 133.147 Section 133.147 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific...

  19. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 133.171 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, and is subject to the requirement for label statement...

  20. 21 CFR 133.171 - Pasteurized process pimento cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 133.171 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific... process cheese with fruits, vegetables, or meats, and is subject to the requirement for label statement...

  1. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  2. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  3. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  4. 21 CFR 133.103 - Asiago medium cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asiago medium cheese. 133.103 Section 133.103 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Related Products § 133.103 Asiago medium cheese. Asiago medium cheese conforms to the definition and...

  5. Using milk and cheese to demonstrate food chemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Students usually do not realize how much chemistry is involved in making a food like cheese, and teachers may use milk and cheese to reveal interesting principles. Cheese is made by lowering the pH of milk, coagulating the protein with enzymes, and removing the whey with heat and pressure. Studies b...

  6. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth...

  7. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  8. Who Moved My Cheese? Adjusting to Age-Related Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Nieli

    2012-01-01

    The popular book, Who Moved My Cheese? (Johnson, 1998) is a metaphor for change. This parable-like story has particular resonance with older adults who face many potential life-altering changes. The four characters in the book are looking for their cheese in a maze. Cheese represents whatever makes people happy. How each character adjusts to the…

  9. 7 CFR 58.736 - Pasteurized process cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurized process cheese. 58.736 Section 58.736... Finished Products § 58.736 Pasteurized process cheese. Shall conform to the provisions of the Definitions and Standards of Identity for Pasteurized Process Cheese and Related Products, Food and Drug...

  10. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  11. 7 CFR 58.512 - Cheese vats or tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cheese vats or tanks. 58.512 Section 58.512 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....512 Cheese vats or tanks. (a) Cheese vats or tanks shall meet the requirements of § 58.416. When...

  12. 7 CFR 58.426 - Rindless cheese wrapping equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. 58.426 Section 58... Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.426 Rindless cheese wrapping equipment. The equipment used to heat seal the wrapper applied to rindless cheese shall have square interior corners, reasonably smooth...

  13. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  14. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  15. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than 15...

  16. 7 CFR 58.439 - Cheese from unpasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from unpasteurized milk. 58.439 Section 58.439... Procedures § 58.439 Cheese from unpasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as “heat treated”, “unpasteurized,” “raw milk”, or “for manufacturing” the milk may be raw or heated at temperatures...

  17. 7 CFR 58.438 - Cheese from pasteurized milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cheese from pasteurized milk. 58.438 Section 58.438... Procedures § 58.438 Cheese from pasteurized milk. If the cheese is labeled as pasteurized, the milk shall be pasteurized by subjecting every particle of milk to a minimum temperature of 161 °F. for not less than...

  18. Selective enumeration of propionibacteria in Emmental-type cheese using Petrifilm™ aerobic count plates added to lithium glycerol broth.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Rosângela; Luiz, Lívia M Pinheiro; Alves, Maura Pinheiro; Valence-Bertel, Florence; Nero, Luís Augusto; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes

    2013-08-01

    Propionibacteria derived from dairy products are relevant starter cultures for the production of Swiss and Emmental-type cheeses, and the monitoring of which is mandatory for proper quality control. This study aimed to evaluate an alternative procedure to enumerate propionibacteria, in order to develop a reliable and practical methodology to be employed by dairy industries. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) inhibitory activity was tested against five reference strains (CIRM 09, 38, 39, 40 and 116); TTC at 0·0025% (w/v) was not inhibitory, with the exception of one strain (CIRM 116). Subsequently, the four TTC-resistant strains, three commercial starter cultures (PS-1, PB-I, and CHOO) and twelve Emmental-type cheese samples were subjected to propionibacteria enumeration using Lithium Glycerol (LG) agar, and Petrifilm™ Aerobic Count (AC) plates added to LG broth (anaerobic incubation at 30 °C for 7 d). Petrifilm™ AC added to LG broth presented high counts than LG agar (P<0·05) for only two reference strains (CIRM 39, and 40) and for all commercial starter cultures. Cheese sample counts obtained by both procedures did not show significant differences (P<0·05). Significant correlation indexes were observed between the counts recorded by both methods (P<0·05). These results demonstrate the reliability of Petrifilm™ AC plates added to LG broth in enumerating select Propionibacterium spp., despite some limitations observed for specific commercial starter cultures.

  19. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-02

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in

  20. Determining the minimum ripening time of artisanal Minas cheese, a traditional Brazilian cheese

    PubMed Central

    Martins, José M.; Galinari, Éder; Pimentel-Filho, Natan J.; Ribeiro, José I.; Furtado, Mauro M.; Ferreira, Célia L.L.F.

    2015-01-01

    Physical, physicochemical, and microbiological changes were monitored in 256 samples of artisanal Minas cheese from eight producers from Serro region (Minas Gerais, Brazil) for 64 days of ripening to determine the minimum ripening time for the cheese to reach the safe microbiological limits established by Brazilian legislation. The cheeses were produced between dry season (April–September) and rainy season (October–March); 128 cheeses were ripened at room temperature (25 ± 4 °C), and 128 were ripened under refrigeration (8 ± 1 °C), as a control. No Listeria monocytogenes was found, but one cheese under refrigeration had Salmonella at first 15 days of ripening. However, after 22 days, the pathogen was not detected. Seventeen days was the minimum ripening time at room temperature to reduce at safe limits of total coliforms > 1000 cfu.g −1 ), Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus (> 100 cfu.g −1 ) in both periods of manufacture. Otherwise under refrigeration, as expected, the minimum ripening time was longer, 33 days in the dry season and 63 days in the rainy season. To sum up, we suggest that the ripening of artisanal Minas cheese be done at room temperature, since this condition shortens the time needed to reach the microbiological quality that falls within the safety parameters required by Brazilian law, and at the same time maintain the appearance and flavor characteristics of this traditional cheese. PMID:26221111

  1. Cheese milk low homogenization enhanced early lipolysis and volatiles compounds production in hard cooked cheeses.

    PubMed

    Vélez, María A; Hynes, Erica R; Meinardi, Carlos A; Wolf, Verónica I; Perotti, María C

    2017-06-01

    Homogenization applied to cheese milk has shown to increase lipolysis but its use is not spread as it can induce detrimental effects. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of low-pressure homogenization of the cream followed by pre-incubation of cheese milk on the composition, ripening index, lipolysis and volatile profiles of hard cooked cheeses. For that, control and experimental miniature Reggianito cheeses were made and analyzed during ripening (3, 45 and 90days). Homogenization had no impact on composition and proteolysis. An acceleration of the lipolysis reaction was clearly noticed in cheeses made with homogenized milk at the beginning of ripening, while both type of cheeses reached similar levels at 90days. We found the level of several compounds derived from fatty acid catabolism were noticeably influenced by the treatment applied: straight-chain aldehydes such as hexanal, heptanal and nonanal and methylketones from C5 to C9 were preferentially formed in experimental cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  3. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  4. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  5. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  6. 21 CFR 133.184 - Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roquefort cheese, sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. 133.184 Section 133.184 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION..., sheep's milk blue-mold, and blue-mold cheese from sheep's milk. (a) Description. (1) Roquefort...

  7. A methodology to model causal relationships on offshore safety assessment focusing on human and organizational factors.

    PubMed

    Ren, J; Jenkinson, I; Wang, J; Xu, D L; Yang, J B

    2008-01-01

    Focusing on people and organizations, this paper aims to contribute to offshore safety assessment by proposing a methodology to model causal relationships. The methodology is proposed in a general sense that it will be capable of accommodating modeling of multiple risk factors considered in offshore operations and will have the ability to deal with different types of data that may come from different resources. Reason's "Swiss cheese" model is used to form a generic offshore safety assessment framework, and Bayesian Network (BN) is tailored to fit into the framework to construct a causal relationship model. The proposed framework uses a five-level-structure model to address latent failures within the causal sequence of events. The five levels include Root causes level, Trigger events level, Incidents level, Accidents level, and Consequences level. To analyze and model a specified offshore installation safety, a BN model was established following the guideline of the proposed five-level framework. A range of events was specified, and the related prior and conditional probabilities regarding the BN model were assigned based on the inherent characteristics of each event. This paper shows that Reason's "Swiss cheese" model and BN can be jointly used in offshore safety assessment. On the one hand, the five-level conceptual model is enhanced by BNs that are capable of providing graphical demonstration of inter-relationships as well as calculating numerical values of occurrence likelihood for each failure event. Bayesian inference mechanism also makes it possible to monitor how a safety situation changes when information flow travel forwards and backwards within the networks. On the other hand, BN modeling relies heavily on experts' personal experiences and is therefore highly domain specific. "Swiss cheese" model is such a theoretic framework that it is based on solid behavioral theory and therefore can be used to provide industry with a roadmap for BN modeling and

  8. Quantitative proteomic analysis of bacterial enzymes released in cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jardin, Julien; Mollé, Daniel; Piot, Michel; Lortal, Sylvie; Gagnaire, Valérie

    2012-04-02

    Due to increasingly available bacterial genomes in databases, proteomic tools have recently been used to screen proteins expressed by micro-organisms in food in order to better understand their metabolism in situ. While the main objective is the systematic identification of proteins, the next step will be to bridge the gap between identification and quantification of these proteins. For that purpose, a new mass spectrometry-based approach was applied, using isobaric tagging reagent for quantitative proteomic analysis (iTRAQ), which are amine specific and yield labelled peptides identical in mass. Experimental Swiss-type cheeses were manufactured from microfiltered milk using Streptococcus thermophilus ITG ST20 and Lactobacillus helveticus ITG LH1 as lactic acid starters. At three ripening times (7, 20 and 69 days), cheese aqueous phases were extracted and enriched in bacterial proteins by fractionation. Each sample, standardised in protein amount prior to proteomic analyses, was: i) analysed by 2D-electrophoresis for qualitative analysis and ii) submitted to trypsinolysis, and labelled with specific iTRAQ tag, one per ripening time. The three labelled samples were mixed together and analysed by nano-LC coupled on-line with ESI-QTOF mass spectrometer. Thirty proteins, both from bacterial or bovine origin, were identified and efficiently quantified. The free bacterial proteins detected were enzymes from the central carbon metabolism as well as stress proteins. Depending on the protein considered, the quantity of these proteins in the cheese aqueous extract increased from 2.5 to 20 fold in concentration from day 7 to day 69 of ripening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  10. Cheese can reduce indexes that estimate fatty acid desaturation. Results from the Oslo Health Study and from experiments with human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Høstmark, Arne T; Lunde, Marianne S H

    2012-02-01

    Previously, cheese intake was shown to be inversely related to serum triglycerides, raising the possibility that cheese might inhibit triglyceride synthesis, which is governed by fatty acid desaturases. Therefore, analyses were done to study whether cheese intake was associated with indexes that reflect fatty acid desaturation in 121 healthy ethnic Norwegians aged 40-45 years, a subsample from the Oslo Health Study (N = 18 777). Experiments with human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were done to clarify whether cheese might have a causal effect on desaturases. Fatty acid distribution in lipids of human sera and HepG2 cells was determined by gas chromatography. Δ9-Desaturase was estimated by the (16:1,n-7)/(16:0) and (18:1,n-9)/(18:0) ratios, abbreviated ds9_1 and ds9_2, and Δ5-desaturase (ds5) by the (20:4,n-6)/(18:2,n-6) ratio. Correlation, ANOVA, and multiple linear regression models were used to study associations. Oslo Health Study: Subjects with cheese intake >4-6 times per week had 33% lower ds9_1 and 16% lower ds5 than subjects with intake ≤ 4-6 times per week. The cheese intake vs. ds5 association prevailed when adjusting for sex, time since last meal, fatty fish, vegetables, fruit-berries, fruit juice, cod liver oil, coffee, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, length of education, and smoking. HepG2 cells: An ethanol extract of Jarlsberg cheese lowered the desaturase indexes. Inhibition of ds9_1 increased with increasing amount cheese extract added. Thus, cheese may contain inhibitors of desaturases, thereby providing an explanation for the previously reported negative association between cheese intake and triglycerides.

  11. Comparison of Petrifilm Staph Express Count System with the bacteriological analytical manual direct-plating method for enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in artificially contaminated hard cheese.

    PubMed

    Fedio, Willis M; Wendakoon, Chitra N; Zapata, Ruben; Carrillo, Christina; Browning, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm Staph Express Count System was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) direct-plate count method for the enumeration of Staphylococcus aureus in 6 types of artificially contaminated hard cheese (Asiago, Cheddar, Gruyère, Parmesan, Romano, and Swiss). Five different samples of each cheese type were inoculated with S. aureus (ATCC 25923) to achieve low, medium, and high inoculum levels. S. aureus was enumerated by the Petrifilm and BAM methods, and the results were compared. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed no significant differences (P<0.05) between the 2 methods. The Petrifilm method compared favorably with the BAM procedure. The rapid method was more convenient to use, considerably faster, and less expensive to perform than the BAM method.

  12. Composition and sensory profiling of probiotic Scamorza ewe milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Caroprese, M; Braghieri, A; Sevi, A; Napolitano, F

    2013-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the effect of the addition of different usually recognized as probiotic bacterial strains on chemical composition and sensory properties of Scamorza cheese manufactured from ewe milk. To define the sensory profile of Scamorza cheese, a qualitative and quantitative reference frame specific for a pasta filata cheese was constructed. According to the presence of probiotic bacteria, cheeses were denoted S-BB for Scamorza cheese made using a mix of Bifidobacterium longum 46 and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12, and S-LA for Scamorza cheese made using Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5. The designation for control Scamorza cheese was S-CO. Analyses were performed at 15d of ripening. The moisture content of Scamorza ewe milk cheese ranged between 44.61 and 47.16% (wt/wt), showing higher values in S-CO and S-BB cheeses than in S-LA cheese; the fat percentage ranged between 25.43 and 28.68% (wt/wt), showing higher value in S-LA cheese. The NaCl percentage in Scamorza cheese from ewe milk was 1.75 ± 0.04% (wt/wt). Protein and casein percentages were the highest in Scamorza cheese containing a mix of bifidobacteria; also, the percentage of the proteose-peptone fraction showed the highest value in S-BB, highlighting the major proteolysis carried out by enzymes associated with B. longum and B. lactis strains. Texture and appearance attributes were able to differentiate probiotic bacteria-added cheeses from the untreated control product. In particular, S-BB and S-LA Scamorza cheeses showed higher color uniformity compared with S-CO cheese. Furthermore, the control cheese showed higher yellowness and lower structure uniformity than S-BB. The control product was less creamy and grainy than S-BB; conversely, the inclusion of probiotics into the cheese determined lower adhesivity and friability in S-BB and S-LA than in S-CO. This study allowed the definition of the principal composition and sensory properties of Scamorza ewe milk cheese. The specific

  13. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  14. Selective enumeration of probiotic microorganisms in cheese.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Reza; Mortazavian, Amir M; Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh

    2012-02-01

    Cheese is a dairy product which has a good potential for delivery of probiotic microorganisms into the human intestine. To be considered to offer probiotic health benefits, probiotics must remain viable in food products above a threshold level (e.g., 10(6) cfu g(-1)) until the time of consumption. In order to ensure that a minimal number of probiotic bacteria is present in the cheese, reliable methods for enumeration are required. The choice of culture medium for selective enumeration of probiotic strains in combination with starters depends on the product matrix, the target group and the taxonomic diversity of the bacterial background flora in the product. Enumeration protocol should be designed as a function of the target microorganism(s) to be quantified in the cheese. An overview of some series of culture media for selective enumeration of commercial probiotic cultures is presented in this review.

  15. Characterization of whey cheese packaged under vacuum.

    PubMed

    Pintado, M E; Malcata, F X

    2000-02-01

    Vacuum packaging was assayed at 4 degrees C and was tested in comparison to unpackaged counterparts, in both microbiological and physicochemical terms, in studies pertaining to the preservation of Requeijão, a traditional Portuguese whey cheese. Bacteria were absent (i.e., <10 CFU/g) in whey cheeses on the day of manufacture as a result of thermal processing. After storage, both unpackaged and packaged cheeses exhibited high viable counts of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae, and lactic acid bacteria (especially lactococci). Yeasts, staphylococci, enterococci, and spore-forming clostridia were severely inhibited by the package vacuum combined with the increasing acidification developed therein. Whey cheeses packaged under vacuum underwent substantial acidification, slight depletion of lactose, and no significant variation in moisture content or texture; conversely, unpackaged whey cheeses exhibited substantial loss of water and a concomitant increase in rigidity. Vacuum packaging strongly inhibited lipolysis (even if viable counts of some microbial groups were high); saturated fatty acids (mainly C16:0 and C14:0) accounted for ca. 73% of the total free-fatty acid content, whereas the most concentrated unsaturated fatty acids were C18:1 and C18:2 (ca. 14% each). The conclusions generated in our study are, in general, useful for a wide range of whey cheeses worldwide: i.e., Requéson (Spain), Ricotta (Italy), Broccio (France), and Anthotyro (Greece). In addition, our conclusions are particularly helpful in terms of improving the safety of Requeijão, a widely acclaimed dairy specialty.

  16. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

  17. Composition and volatile profiles of commercial Argentinean blue cheeses.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Irma V; Perotti, María C; Zalazar, Carlos A

    2011-01-30

    A first approach was made to acquire knowledge of the global composition, proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profile of Argentinean blue cheeses. A total of 20 samples belonging to six leading commercial brands were analysed. A comparison of the results with bibliographical data on other blue cheeses was performed and the variability among and within dairy plants was also evaluated. Values of global composition were intermediate in relation to those reported for mould-ripened cheeses. Levels of proteolysis and lipolysis were lower than those of other blue cheeses. Volatile compound profiles were characterised mainly by short-chain fatty acids, methyl ketones and secondary alcohols, as reported previously for blue cheeses. Wide-ranging values of physicochemical parameters, lipolysis and proteolysis levels as well as volatile compound areas of cheeses produced by each dairy plant were observed. Owing to this high variability in the chemistry and volatile profile of cheeses, principal component analysis of the data did not show groupings by commercial brands. On the whole, Argentinean blue cheeses were characterised both by gross intermediate composition values and by proteolysis and lipolysis levels lower than those of blue cheeses of different origins. A typical volatile compound profile of blue cheeses was observed. The high variability found within each commercial brand could reflect the lack of standardisation of the technological processes used in blue cheese manufacturing in Argentina. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Sensory Profile and Consumers’ Liking of Functional Ovine Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Santillo, Antonella; Albenzio, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    The present research was undertaken to evaluate the sensory profile and consumers’ liking of functional ovine cheese containing probiotic cultures. Ovine cheese was made from ewe’s milk by animals reared in extensive conditions; cheesemaking trials were performed by using rennet paste containing probiotic cells. Experimental cheeses were denoted: cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste without probiotic (C), cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing a mix of Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium longum (BB), and cheese manufactured using lamb rennet paste containing Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA). Ovine cheese containing probiotic strains highlighted a more intense proteolysis and a greater level of short chain free fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid due to the metabolic activity of the adjunct microflora. The sensorial profile of ovine cheese showed lower humidity and gumminess in cheeses containing probiotics as a consequence of differences in the maturing process; furthermore, probiotic cheeses scored higher ratings for salty and pungent attributes. An interaction effect of probiotic, gender, and age of the consumers was detected in the perceived and the expected liking. The higher rate of expected liking in all experimental cheeses is attributed to the information given, regarding not only the presence of probiotic strains but also the farming conditions and cheesemaking technology. PMID:28231229

  19. Growth of Aerobic Ripening Bacteria at the Cheese Surface Is Limited by the Availability of Iron

    PubMed Central

    Back, Alexandre; Irlinger, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    The microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses is composed of various species of bacteria and yeasts that contribute to the production of the desired organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to show that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical aerobic ripening bacteria in cheese. For that purpose, we investigated the effect of iron or siderophore addition in model cheeses that were coinoculated with a yeast and a ripening bacterium. Both iron and the siderophore desferrioxamine B stimulated the growth of ripening bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, and Brevibacterium. The extent of stimulation was strain dependent, and generally, the effect of desferrioxamine B was greater than that of iron. Measurements of the expression of genes related to the metabolism of iron by Arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 by real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that these genes were transcribed during growth in cheese. The addition of desferrioxamine B increased the expression of two genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport binding proteins. The addition of iron decreased the expression of siderophore biosynthesis genes and of part of the genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport components. It was concluded that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical cheese surface bacteria. The selection of strains with efficient iron acquisition systems may be useful for the development of defined-strain surface cultures. Furthermore, the importance of iron metabolism in the microbial ecology of cheeses should be investigated since it may result in positive or negative microbial interactions. PMID:22367081

  20. Hot topic: Antilisterial activity by endolysin PlyP100 in fresh cheese.

    PubMed

    Van Tassell, Maxwell L; Ibarra-Sánchez, Luis A; Hoepker, Garrett P; Miller, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Our objective was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of a Listeria bacteriophage endolysin that may address limitations of current antilisterial processes for fresh cheeses. Listeria monocytogenes is highly problematic in the manufacture and processing of ready-to-eat foods due to its environmental persistence and its ability to grow under refrigerated storage. Special care must be taken to prevent listerial contamination during the production of fresh cheeses, as their delicate flavor and texture are incompatible with many of the antimicrobial processes and additives commonly used for other foods. Bacteriophage-derived cell wall hydrolytic enzymes, known as endolysins, comprise one possible intervention that may not suffer from the high strain specificity of their parent bacteriophages or the development of resistant strains. We recombinantly expressed endolysin PlyP100 and compared its lytic activity in vitro across several environmental parameters and target organisms, then incorporated it into a fresh cheese model challenged with a cocktail of L. monocytogenes. We show that PlyP100 demonstrates optimal activity under pH and salt concentrations consistent with a low-acid food matrix such as fresh cheese. Furthermore, we show that PlyP100 exhibits target specificity for gram-positive organisms with directly crosslinked peptidoglycan and displays considerable inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes in fresh cheese for at least 4 wk under refrigerated storage. As PlyP100 demonstrates considerable promise for preventing the propagation of L. monocytogenes in fresh cheeses, this novel preservation method could help safeguard consumer health and the market expansion of an otherwise high-risk food with few other viable preservatives.

  1. Pulsed-light inactivation of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on cheese surface.

    PubMed

    Proulx, J; Hsu, L C; Miller, B M; Sullivan, G; Paradis, K; Moraru, C I

    2015-09-01

    Cheese products are susceptible to postprocessing cross-contamination by bacterial surface contamination during slicing, handling, or packaging, which can lead to food safety issues and significant losses due to spoilage. This study examined the effectiveness of pulsed-light (PL) treatment on the inactivation of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fluorescens, the nonenterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 (nonpathogenic surrogate of Escherichia coli O157:H7), and Listeria innocua (nonpathogenic surrogate of Listeria monocytogenes) on cheese surface. The effects of inoculum level and cheese surface topography and the presence of clear polyethylene packaging were evaluated in a full factorial experimental design. The challenge microorganisms were grown to early stationary phase and subsequently diluted to reach initial inoculum levels of either 5 or 7 log cfu/slice. White Cheddar and process cheeses were cut into 2.5×5 cm slices, which were spot-inoculated with 100 µL of bacterial suspension. Inoculated cheese samples were exposed to PL doses of 1.02 to 12.29 J/cm(2). Recovered survivors were enumerated by standard plate counting or the most probable number technique, as appropriate. The PL treatments were performed in triplicate and data were analyzed using a general linear model. Listeria innocua was the least sensitive to PL treatment, with a maximum inactivation level of 3.37±0.2 log, followed by P. fluorescens, with a maximum inactivation of 3.74±0.8 log. Escherichia coli was the most sensitive to PL, with a maximum reduction of 5.41±0.1 log. All PL inactivation curves were nonlinear, and inactivation reached a plateau after 3 pulses (3.07 J/cm(2)). The PL treatments through UV-transparent packaging and without packaging consistently resulted in similar inactivation levels. This study demonstrates that PL has strong potential for decontamination of the cheese surface.

  2. Cheese Consumption and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xing; Chen, Guo-Chong; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Yu-Lu; Xu, Jia-Ying; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The association between cheese consumption and risk for major health endpoints has been investigated in many epidemiologic studies, but findings are inconsistent. As all-cause mortality can be viewed as the final net health effect of dietary intakes, we conducted a meta-analysis to examine the long-term association of cheese consumption with all-cause mortality. Relevant studies were identified by a search of the PubMed database through May 2016. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. Summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Pre-specified stratified and dose-response analyses were also performed. The final analysis included nine prospective cohort studies involving 21,365 deaths. The summary RR of all-cause mortality for the highest compared with the lowest cheese consumption was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.06), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality did not significantly differ by study location, sex, age, number of events, study quality score or baseline diseases excluded. There was no dose-response relationship between cheese consumption and risk of all-cause mortality (RR per 43 g/day = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.99–1.07). No significant publication bias was observed. Our findings suggest that long-term cheese consumption was not associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. PMID:28098767

  3. Growth of aerobic ripening bacteria at the cheese surface is limited by the availability of iron.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Christophe; Back, Alexandre; Irlinger, Françoise

    2012-05-01

    The microflora on the surface of smear-ripened cheeses is composed of various species of bacteria and yeasts that contribute to the production of the desired organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to show that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical aerobic ripening bacteria in cheese. For that purpose, we investigated the effect of iron or siderophore addition in model cheeses that were coinoculated with a yeast and a ripening bacterium. Both iron and the siderophore desferrioxamine B stimulated the growth of ripening bacteria belonging to the genera Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium, and Brevibacterium. The extent of stimulation was strain dependent, and generally, the effect of desferrioxamine B was greater than that of iron. Measurements of the expression of genes related to the metabolism of iron by Arthrobacter arilaitensis Re117 by real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that these genes were transcribed during growth in cheese. The addition of desferrioxamine B increased the expression of two genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport binding proteins. The addition of iron decreased the expression of siderophore biosynthesis genes and of part of the genes encoding iron-siderophore ABC transport components. It was concluded that iron availability is a limiting factor in the growth of typical cheese surface bacteria. The selection of strains with efficient iron acquisition systems may be useful for the development of defined-strain surface cultures. Furthermore, the importance of iron metabolism in the microbial ecology of cheeses should be investigated since it may result in positive or negative microbial interactions.

  4. Origin of disinfection by-products in cheese.

    PubMed

    Cardador, Maria Jose; Gallego, Mercedes; Prados, Francisco; Fernández-Salguero, José

    2017-06-01

    The disinfection of water, equipment and surfaces in a cheese factory is one of the factors that can originate disinfection by-products (DBPs) in cheese. This research has focused on studying cheese factories in order to evaluate the individual contribution of each step of the cheese-making process that can contribute to the presence of DBPs in cheese. Ten factories were selected according to their salting processes (brine or dry salting). Each factory was monitored by the collection of six representative samples (factory water supply, brine solution, milk, whey, curd and cheese) in which the concentrations of up to eight chemicals were detected. The study shows that contact with brine solutions containing significant levels of DBPs is the main source of these chemicals in cheese. A minor factor is the pasteurised milk used in their manufacture.

  5. Effect of paracasein degradation on sensory properties of Gouda cheese.

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Zalecka, Anna; Kornacki, Mariusz

    2003-12-01

    The relation between the sensory quality of Gouda cheese and the extent of paracasein degradation, i. e., the content of soluble N, peptide N, amino acid N and amine N, was studied. The above-mentioned parameters of paracasein degradation differently determined the sensory properties of Gouda cheese. The flavour of cheese after 6-week ripening depended to the largest extent on the content of amine N and soluble N. The effect of the content of peptide N on cheese flavour was smaller but statistically significant. Also the smell of Gouda cheese was to the largest extent correlated to the content of amine N. A dependence between smell and the content of peptide N was found only in the cheeses after 4-week ripening. None of the sensory quality parameters of the examined cheeses depended on the content of amino acid N.

  6. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support.

    PubMed

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D

    2014-07-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Identification of allyl esters in garlic cheese.

    PubMed

    Herbrand, Klaus; Hammerschmidt, Franz J; Brennecke, Stefan; Liebig, Margit; Lösing, Gerd; Schmidt, Claus Oliver; Gatfield, Ian; Krammer, Gerhard; Bertram, Heinz-Jürgen

    2007-09-19

    This study describes the identification of six allyl esters in a garlic cheese preparation and in a commercial cream cheese. The extracts were prepared by liquid/liquid extraction and concentrated by the SAFE process. The identification of the allyl esters of acetic, butyric, hexanoic, heptanoic, octanoic, and decanoic acids is based on the correlation of their mass spectrometric data and chromatographic retention time data obtained from the extracts with those of authentic standards. In addition to the gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry analysis, the flavor ingredients were characterized by GC sniffing by a trained flavorist. Some of the esters were isolated by preparative GC.

  8. Low-sodium Cheddar cheese: Effect of fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration retentate and high-hydrostatic pressure treatment of cheese.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, M; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A

    2015-10-01

    Low-sodium cheeses often exhibit an acidic flavor due to excessive acid production during the manufacturing and the initial stage of ripening, which is caused by ongoing starter culture activity facilitated by the low salt-in-moisture levels. We proposed that this excessive starter-induced acidity could be prevented by the fortification of cheese milk with ultrafiltration (UF) retentates (to increase curd buffering), and by decreasing microbial activity using the application of high-hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment (that is, to reduce residual starter numbers). Camel chymosin was also used as a coagulant to help reduce bitterness development (a common defect in low-sodium cheeses). Three types of low-Na (0.8% NaCl) Cheddar cheeses were manufactured: non-UF fortified, no HHP applied (L-Na); UF-fortified (cheese milk total solids = 17.2 ± 0.6%), no HHP applied (L-Na-UF); and UF-fortified, HHP-treated (L-Na-UF-HHP; 500 MPa for 3 min applied at 1 d post-cheese manufacture). Regular salt (2% NaCl) non-UF fortified, non-HHP treated (R-Na) cheese was also manufactured for comparison purposes. Analysis was performed at 4 d, 2 wk, and 1, 3, and 6 mo after cheese manufacture. Cheese functionality during ripening was assessed using texture profile analysis and dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology. Sensory Spectrum and quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted with 9 trained panelists to evaluate texture and flavor attributes using a 15-point scale. At 4 d and 2 wk of ripening, L-Na-UF-HHP cheese had ~2 and ~4.5 log lower starter culture numbers, respectively, than all other cheeses. Retentate fortification of cheese milk and HHP treatment resulted in low-Na cheeses having similar insoluble calcium concentrations and pH values compared with R-Na cheese during ripening. The L-Na-UF cheese exhibited significantly higher hardness values (measured by texture profile analysis) compared with L-Na cheese until 1 mo of ripening; however, after 1 mo, all low-Na cheeses

  9. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... naming the variety of cheese involved. (b) When placing the names of these foods on labels so as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and...

  10. 21 CFR 133.10 - Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... naming the variety of cheese involved. (b) When placing the names of these foods on labels so as to... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice to manufacturers, packers, and distributors of pasteurized blended cheese, pasteurized process cheese, cheese food, cheese spread, and...

  11. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread...

  12. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. Part-skim...

  13. 21 CFR 133.178 - Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread with other... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.178 Pasteurized neufchatel cheese spread...

  14. 21 CFR 133.157 - Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. 133.157... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.157 Part-skim mozzarella and scamorza cheese. Part-skim...

  15. High-throughput sequencing of microbial communities in Poro cheese, an artisanal Mexican cheese.

    PubMed

    Aldrete-Tapia, Alejandro; Escobar-Ramírez, Meyli C; Tamplin, Mark L; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-12-01

    The bacterial diversity and structure of Poro cheese, an artisanal food, was analysed by high-throughput sequencing (454 pyrosequencing) in order to gain insight about changes in bacterial communities associated with the cheese-making process. Dairy samples consisting of milk, fermented whey, curd and ripened cheese (during 7 and 60 d) were collected from three manufacturers located in the state of Tabasco, México during dry (March-June) and rainy (August-November) seasons. Independently of producer and season, raw milk samples displayed the highest diversity in bacterial communities. In raw milk, genera found were Macrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Enhydrobacter. Diversity in whey, curd and cheese was lower, principally containing Streptococcus and Lactobacillus; however, bacteria such as Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Chryseobacterium, Bacillus, Sediminibacter, Lactococcus and Enterococcus were occasionally present. After curdling step, the most dominant and abundant species were Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative study of flavor in cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese and Gouda cheese during ripening.

    PubMed

    Jung, H J; Ganesan, P; Lee, S J; Kwak, H S

    2013-04-01

    This study was performed to compare the flavor compounds of cholesterol-removed Gouda cheese (CRGC) and those of Gouda cheese (control) during ripening. The CRGC was made using milk treated with cross-linked β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). The solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was used to extract flavor compounds from Gouda cheese. In both CRGC and control cheese, 31 flavor compounds were identified, including 6 free fatty acids, 5 esters, 5 ketones, 1 aldehyde, 3 lactones, 5 alcohols, and 6 miscellaneous compounds. Free fatty acids were the most abundant flavor compounds quantified in CRGC and control cheese. In the early stage of ripening, concentrations of flavor compounds in CRGC and control cheese were 16.42 and 10.38 mg/kg, respectively. At 6 mo, they increased to 40.90 and 67.89 mg/kg, respectively. A group of esters was the second abundant flavor compound in CRGC and control cheese. At the initial stage of ripening, total concentrations of esters were 12.94 (CRGC) and 10.95 mg/kg (control) and they increased to 22.73 (CRGC) and 27.68 mg/kg (control). Total concentrations of ketones were 1.96 (CRGC) and 6.49 mg/kg (control) at the initial stage of ripening. After 6 mo of ripening, total concentrations reached 11.32 (CRGC) and 52.43 mg/kg (control). In the case of the lactones, at the early stage of ripening, total concentrations of CRGC and control cheese were 0.63 and 0.84mg/kg, respectively, and then increased to 1.73 (CRGC) and 3.25mg/kg (control) at the end of ripening. Based on the results of this study, the flavor compounds of CRGC and control showed slightly different profiles during ripening. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A new method for the production of low-fat Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Amelia, Irma; Drake, MaryAnne; Nelson, Brandon; Barbano, David M

    2013-08-01

    Our objective was to develop an alternative process to produce low-fat Cheddar cheese (LFCC) by combining reduced-fat Cheddar cheese (RFCC) made by a fat-removal process with micellar casein concentrate (MCC) to try to achieve the texture and flavor characteristics of full-fat Cheddar cheese (FFCC). The production of LFCC was replicated 3 times. The MCC was produced by ultrafiltration of skim milk, followed by 3 stages of microfiltration, and the final MCC was spray dried. The LFCC was formulated to achieve 6% fat, 28% protein, and 1.2% salt by a combination of RFCC, MCC powder, salt, and water. The 6% fat target was selected to comply with the FDA standard for a low-fat label claim. The pH of the LFCC mixture was adjusted to 5.3 by lactic acid. Rennet was added to the LFCC mixture, followed by pressing and packaging. Chemical and sensory data were analyzed by ANOVA using the Proc GLM of SAS to determine if any differences in chemical composition and sensory properties were present among different cheeses. Descriptive sensory scores were used to construct a principal component analysis biplot to visualize flavor profile differences among cheeses. The LFCC had 83% less fat, 32% less sodium, and higher protein and moisture content than FFCC. When the cheese texture was evaluated in the context of a filled-gel model consisting of matrix and filler (100% minus percentage of matrix) the LFCC had lower filler volume than FFCC, yet the LFCC had a softer texture than FFCC. The LFCC contained some of the original FFCC cheese matrix that had been disrupted by the fat-removal process, and this original FFCC matrix was embedded in the new LFCC matrix formed by the action of rennet on casein from the continuous phase of hydrated MCC. Thus, the texture of the LFCC was desirable and was softer than the FFCC it was made from, whereas commercial RFCC (50 and 75% fat reduction) were firmer than the FFCC. The sulfur flavor in LFCC was closer to FFCC than commercial RFCC. The LFCC had

  18. Monitoring the ripening process of Cheddar cheese based on hydrophilic component profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ochi, H; Sakai, Y; Koishihara, H; Abe, F; Bamba, T; Fukusaki, E

    2013-01-01

    We proposed an application methodology that combines metabolic profiling with multiple appropriate multivariate analyses and verified it on the industrial scale of the ripening process of Cheddar cheese to make practical use of hydrophilic low-molecular-weight compound profiling using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to design optimal conditions and quality monitoring of the cheese ripening process. Principal components analysis provided an overview of the effect of sodium chloride content and kind of lactic acid bacteria starter on the metabolic profile in the ripening process of Cheddar cheese and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis unveiled the difference in characteristic metabolites. When the sodium chloride contents were different (1.6 and 0.2%) but the same lactic acid bacteria starter was used, the 2 cheeses were classified by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis from their metabolic profiles, but were not given perfect discrimination. Not much difference existed in the metabolic profile between the 2 cheeses. Compounds including lactose, galactose, lactic acid, 4-aminobutyric acid, and phosphate were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. On the other hand, in the case of the same salt content of 1.6%, but different kinds of lactic acid bacteria starter, an excellent distinctive discrimination model was obtained, which showed that the difference of lactic acid bacteria starter caused an obvious difference in metabolic profiles. Compounds including lactic acid, lactose, urea, 4-aminobutyric acid, galactose, phosphate, proline, isoleucine, glycine, alanine, lysine, leucine, valine, and pyroglutamic acid were identified as contents that differed between the 2 cheeses. Then, a good sensory prediction model for "rich flavor," which was defined as "thick and rich, including umami taste and soy sauce-like flavor," was constructed based on the metabolic profile during ripening using partial least

  19. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... phenol equivalent value of 0.25 gram of cheddar cheese is not more than 3 micrograms as determined by the... this section may be warmed, treated with hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of...) Antimycotic agents, applied to the surface of slices or cuts in consumer-sized packages. (v) Hydrogen...

  20. 21 CFR 133.113 - Cheddar cheese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... phenol equivalent value of 0.25 gram of cheddar cheese is not more than 3 micrograms as determined by the... this section may be warmed, treated with hydrogen peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of...) Antimycotic agents, applied to the surface of slices or cuts in consumer-sized packages. (v) Hydrogen...