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Sample records for sykes dsc frs

  1. 47 CFR 95.194 - (FRS Rule 4) FRS units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (FRS Rule 4) FRS units. 95.194 Section 95.194 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.194 (FRS Rule 4) FRS units. (a) You may only...

  2. FRS REST Services

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    FRS exposes several REST services that allows developers to utilize a live feed of data from the FRS database. This web page is intended for a technical audience and describes the content and purpose of each service available.

  3. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): CERCLIS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data provides location and attribute information on Facilities regulated under the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) for a intranet web feature service . The data provided in this service are obtained from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS). The FRS is an integrated source of comprehensive (air, water, and waste) environmental information about facilities, sites or places. This service connects directly to the FRS database to provide this data as a feature service. FRS creates high-quality, accurate, and authoritative facility identification records through rigorous verification and management procedures that incorporate information from program national systems, state master facility records, data collected from EPA's Central Data Exchange registrations and data management personnel. Additional Information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  4. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): CAMDBS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS). Administered by the EPA Clean Air Markets Division, within the Office of Air and Radiation, CAMDBS supports the implementation of market-based air pollution control programs, including the Acid Rain Program and regional programs designed to reduce the transport of ozone. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to CAMDBS facilities once the CAMDBS data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  5. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): RCRA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of hazardous waste facilities that link to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo). EPA's comprehensive information system in support of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments (HSWA) of 1984, RCRAInfo tracks many types of information about generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of hazardous waste. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to RCRAInfo hazardous waste facilities once the RCRAInfo data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs

  6. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): OIL

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This dataset contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Oil database. The Oil database contains information on Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) and Facility Response Plan (FRP) subject facilities to prevent and respond to oil spills. FRP facilities are referred to as substantial harm facilities due to the quantities of oil stored and facility characteristics. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to Oil facilities once the Oil data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  7. EPA Facility Registry System (FRS): NEPT

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the National Environmental Performance Track (NEPT) Program dataset. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs

  8. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): NEI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) Program dataset. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs

  9. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): TRI

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) System. TRI is a publicly available EPA database reported annually by certain covered industry groups, as well as federal facilities. It contains information about more than 650 toxic chemicals that are being used, manufactured, treated, transported, or released into the environment, and includes information about waste management and pollution prevention activities. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to TRI facilities once the TRI data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website https://www.epa.gov/enviro/facility-registry-service-frs.

  10. EPA Facility Registry System (FRS): NCES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry System (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The primary federal database for collecting and analyzing data related to education in the United States and other Nations, NCES is located in the U.S. Department of Education, within the Institute of Education Sciences. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA00e2??s national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to NCES school facilities once the NCES data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available at the EPA website http://www.epa.gov/enviro/html/fii/index.html.

  11. Neurotrophin and FGF Signaling Adapter Proteins, FRS2 and FRS3, Regulate Dentate Granule Cell Maturation and Excitatory Synaptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sayan; Alviña, Karina; Lituma, Pablo J; Castillo, Pablo E; Hébert, Jean M

    2018-01-15

    Dentate granule cells (DGCs) play important roles in cognitive processes. Knowledge about how growth factors such as FGFs and neurotrophins contribute to the maturation and synaptogenesis of DGCs is limited. Here, using brain-specific and germline mouse mutants we show that a module of neurotrophin and FGF signaling, the FGF Receptor Substrate (FRS) family of intracellular adapters, FRS2 and FRS3, are together required for postnatal brain development. In the hippocampus, FRS promotes dentate gyrus morphogenesis and DGC maturation during developmental neurogenesis, similar to previously published functions for both neurotrophins and FGFs. Consistent with a role in DGC maturation, two-photon imaging revealed that Frs2,3-double mutants have reduced numbers of dendritic branches and spines in DGCs. Functional analysis further showed that double-mutant mice exhibit fewer excitatory synaptic inputs onto DGCs. These observations reveal roles for FRS adapters in DGC maturation and synaptogenesis and suggest that FRS proteins may act as an important node for FGF and neurotrophin signaling in postnatal hippocampal development. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): PCS_NPDES

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Permit Compliance System (PCS) or the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). PCS tracks NPDES surface water permits issued under the Clean Water Act. This system is being incrementally replaced by the NPDES module of ICIS. Under NPDES, all facilities that discharge pollutants from any point source into waters of the United States are required to obtain a permit. The permit will likely contain limits on what can be discharged, impose monitoring and reporting requirements, and include other provisions to ensure that the discharge does not adversely affect water quality. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities. This data set contains the subset of FRS integrated facilities that link to NPDES facilities once the PCS or ICIS-NPDES data has been integrated into the FRS database. Additional information on FRS is available

  13. Biodiesel: Characterization by DSC and P-DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, Rodica; Toche, François; Brylinski, Christian

    Thermal analytical methods such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been successfully applied to neat petrodiesel and engine oils in the last 25 years. This chapter shows how DSC and P-DSC (pressurized DSC) techniques can be used to compare, characterize, and predict some properties of alternative non-petroleum fuels, such as cold flow behavior and oxidative stability. These two properties are extremely important with respect to the operability, transport, and long-term storage of biodiesel fuel. It is shown that the quantity of unsaturated fatty acids in the fuel composition has an important impact on both properties. In addition, it is shown that the impact of fuel additives on the oxidative stability or the cold flow behavior of biodiesel can be studied by means of DSC and P-DSC techniques. Thermomicroscopy can also be used to study the cold flow behavior of biodiesel, giving information on the size and the morphology of crystals formed at low temperature.

  14. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications. 95.193 Section 95.193 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.193 (FRS Rule 3) Types...

  15. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): ICIS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service contains location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for the subset of facilities that link to the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS). When complete, ICIS will provide a database that will contain integrated enforcement and compliance information across most of EPA's programs. The vision for ICIS is to replace EPA's independent databases that contain enforcement data with a single repository for that information. Currently, ICIS contains all Federal Administrative and Judicial enforcement actions and a subset of the Permit Compliance System (PCS), which supports the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). ICIS exchanges non-sensitive enforcement/compliance activities, non-sensitive formal enforcement actions and NPDES information with FRS. This web feature service contains the enforcement/compliance activities and formal enforcement action related facilities; the NPDES facilities are contained in the PCS_NPDES web feature service. FRS identifies and geospatially locates facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from EPA's national program systems, other federal agencies, and State and tribal master facility records and provides EPA with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on f

  16. 47 CFR 95.192 - (FRS Rule 2) Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.192 (FRS Rule 2... problem with the Arecibo Observatory. If the Commission determines that an operator has satisfied its...

  17. 47 CFR 95.192 - (FRS Rule 2) Authorized locations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.192 (FRS Rule 2... problem with the Arecibo Observatory. If the Commission determines that an operator has satisfied its...

  18. FGF-Dependent, Context-Driven Role for FRS Adapters in the Early Telencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Grigoriy; Blackwood, Christopher A.; Kamatkar, Nachiket G.; Lee, Kyung W.; Fishell, Gordon; Wang, Fen

    2017-01-01

    FGF signaling, an important component of intercellular communication, is required in many tissues throughout development to promote diverse cellular processes. Whether FGF receptors (FGFRs) accomplish such varied tasks in part by activating different intracellular transducers in different contexts remains unclear. Here, we used the developing mouse telencephalon as an example to study the role of the FRS adapters FRS2 and FRS3 in mediating the functions of FGFRs. Using tissue-specific and germline mutants, we examined the requirement of Frs genes in two FGFR-dependent processes. We found that Frs2 and Frs3 are together required for the differentiation of a subset of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived neurons, but are dispensable for the survival of early telencephalic precursor cells, in which any one of three FGFRs (FGFR1, FGFR2, or FGFR3) is sufficient for survival. Although FRS adapters are dispensable for ERK-1/2 activation, they are required for AKT activation within the subventricular zone of the developing MGE. Using an FRS2,3-binding site mutant of Fgfr1, we established that FRS adapters are necessary for mediating most or all FGFR1 signaling, not only in MGE differentiation, but also in cell survival, implying that other adapters mediate at least in part the signaling from FGFR2 and FGFR3. Our study provides an example of a contextual role for an intracellular transducer and contributes to our understanding of how FGF signaling plays diverse developmental roles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT FGFs promote a range of developmental processes in many developing tissues and at multiple developmental stages. The mechanisms underlying this multifunctionality remain poorly defined in vivo. Using telencephalon development as an example, we show here that FRS adapters exhibit some selectivity in their requirement for mediating FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling and activating downstream mediators that depend on the developmental process, with a requirement in neuronal

  19. FGF-Dependent, Context-Driven Role for FRS Adapters in the Early Telencephalon.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Sayan; Gutin, Grigoriy; Blackwood, Christopher A; Kamatkar, Nachiket G; Lee, Kyung W; Fishell, Gordon; Wang, Fen; Goldfarb, Mitchell; Hébert, Jean M

    2017-06-07

    FGF signaling, an important component of intercellular communication, is required in many tissues throughout development to promote diverse cellular processes. Whether FGF receptors (FGFRs) accomplish such varied tasks in part by activating different intracellular transducers in different contexts remains unclear. Here, we used the developing mouse telencephalon as an example to study the role of the FRS adapters FRS2 and FRS3 in mediating the functions of FGFRs. Using tissue-specific and germline mutants, we examined the requirement of Frs genes in two FGFR-dependent processes. We found that Frs2 and Frs3 are together required for the differentiation of a subset of medial ganglionic eminence (MGE)-derived neurons, but are dispensable for the survival of early telencephalic precursor cells, in which any one of three FGFRs (FGFR1, FGFR2, or FGFR3) is sufficient for survival. Although FRS adapters are dispensable for ERK-1/2 activation, they are required for AKT activation within the subventricular zone of the developing MGE. Using an FRS2,3-binding site mutant of Fgfr1 , we established that FRS adapters are necessary for mediating most or all FGFR1 signaling, not only in MGE differentiation, but also in cell survival, implying that other adapters mediate at least in part the signaling from FGFR2 and FGFR3. Our study provides an example of a contextual role for an intracellular transducer and contributes to our understanding of how FGF signaling plays diverse developmental roles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT FGFs promote a range of developmental processes in many developing tissues and at multiple developmental stages. The mechanisms underlying this multifunctionality remain poorly defined in vivo Using telencephalon development as an example, we show here that FRS adapters exhibit some selectivity in their requirement for mediating FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling and activating downstream mediators that depend on the developmental process, with a requirement in neuronal

  20. 47 CFR 95.191 - (FRS Rule 1) Eligibility and responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....191 Section 95.191 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Family Radio Service (FRS) General Provisions § 95.191 (FRS Rule... subpart. No license will be issued. (b) You are responsible for all communications that you make with the...

  1. Fibroblast growth factor receptor-Frs2α signaling is critical for nephron progenitors.

    PubMed

    Di Giovanni, Valeria; Walker, Kenneth A; Bushnell, Daniel; Schaefer, Caitlin; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Puri, Pawan; Bates, Carlton M

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies using transgenic Pax3cre mice have revealed roles for fibroblast growth factor receptors (Fgfrs) and Fgfr substrate 2α (Frs2α) signaling in early metanephric mesenchyme patterning and in ureteric morphogenesis. The role of Fgfr/Frs2α signaling in nephron progenitors is unknown. Thus, we generated mouse models using BAC transgenic Six2EGFPcre (Six2cre) mediated deletion of Fgfrs and/or Frs2α in nephron progenitors. Six2cre mediated deletion of Fgfr1 or Fgfr2 alone led to no obvious kidney defects. Six2creFgfr1(flox/flox)Fgfr2(flox/flox) (Fgfr1/2(NP-/-)) mice generate a discernable kidney; however, they develop nephron progenitor depletion starting at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and later demonstrate severe cystic dysplasia. To determine the role of Frs2α signaling downstream of Fgfr2 in Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) mice, we generated Six2cre(,)Fgfr1(flox/flox)Fgfr2(LR/LR) (Fgfr1(NP-/-)Fgfr2(LR/LR)) mice that have point mutations in the Frs2α binding site of Fgfr2. Like Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) mice, Fgfr1(NP-/-)Fgfr2(LR/LR) develop nephron progenitor depletion, but it does not start until E14.5 and older mice have less severe cystic dysplasia than Fgfr1/2(NP-/-) To determine the role of Frs2α alone in nephron progenitors, we generated Six2creFrs2'A(flox/flox) (Frs2a(NP-/-)) mice. Frs2a(NP-/-)mice also develop nephron progenitor depletion and renal cysts, although these occurred later and were less severe than in the other Six2cre mutant mice. The nephron progenitor loss in all Six2cre mutant lines was associated with decreased Cited1 expression and increased apoptosis versus controls. FAC-sorted nephron progenitors in Six2cre Frs2'A(flox/flox) mice demonstrated evidence of increased Notch activity versus controls, which likely drives the progenitor defects. Thus, Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 have synergistic roles in maintaining nephron progenitors; furthermore, Fgfr signaling in nephron progenitors appears to be mediated predominantly by Frs2α. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc

  2. Analytical and policy issues in energy economics: Uses of the FRS data base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-12-01

    The relevant literature concerning several major analytical and policy issues in energy economics is reviewed and criticized. The possible uses of the Financial Reporting System (FRS) data base for the analysis of energy policy issues are investigated. Certain features of FRS data suggest several ways in which the data base can be used by policy makers. FRS data are collected on the firm level, and different segments of the same firm operating in different markets can be separately identified. The methods of collection as well as FRS's elaborate data verification process guarantee a high degree of accuracy and consistency among firms.

  3. Alternative Fistula Risk Score for Pancreatoduodenectomy (a-FRS): Design and International External Validation.

    PubMed

    Mungroop, Timothy H; van Rijssen, L Bengt; van Klaveren, David; Smits, F Jasmijn; van Woerden, Victor; Linnemann, Ralph J; de Pastena, Matteo; Klompmaker, Sjors; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Ecker, Brett L; van Dieren, Susan; Bonsing, Bert; Busch, Olivier R; van Dam, Ronald M; Erdmann, Joris; van Eijck, Casper H; Gerhards, Michael F; van Goor, Harry; van der Harst, Erwin; de Hingh, Ignace H; de Jong, Koert P; Kazemier, Geert; Luyer, Misha; Shamali, Awad; Barbaro, Salvatore; Armstrong, Thomas; Takhar, Arjun; Hamady, Zaed; Klaase, Joost; Lips, Daan J; Molenaar, I Quintus; Nieuwenhuijs, Vincent B; Rupert, Coen; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Scheepers, Joris J; van der Schelling, George P; Bassi, Claudio; Vollmer, Charles M; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Abu Hilal, Mohammed; Groot Koerkamp, Bas; Besselink, Marc G

    2017-12-12

    The aim of this study was to develop an alternative fistula risk score (a-FRS) for postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreatoduodenectomy, without blood loss as a predictor. Blood loss, one of the predictors of the original-FRS, was not a significant factor during 2 recent external validations. The a-FRS was developed in 2 databases: the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Audit (18 centers) and the University Hospital Southampton NHS. Primary outcome was grade B/C POPF according to the 2005 International Study Group on Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. The score was externally validated in 2 independent databases (University Hospital of Verona and University Hospital of Pennsylvania), using both 2005 and 2016 ISGPS definitions. The a-FRS was also compared with the original-FRS. For model design, 1924 patients were included of whom 12% developed POPF. Three predictors were strongly associated with POPF: soft pancreatic texture [odds ratio (OR) 2.58, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.80-3.69], small pancreatic duct diameter (per mm increase, OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.61-0.76), and high body mass index (BMI) (per kg/m increase, OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.04-1.11). Discrimination was adequate with an area under curve (AUC) of 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71-0.78) after internal validation, and 0.78 (0.74-0.82) after external validation. The predictive capacity of a-FRS was comparable with the original-FRS, both for the 2005 definition (AUC 0.78 vs 0.75, P = 0.03), and 2016 definition (AUC 0.72 vs 0.70, P = 0.05). The a-FRS predicts POPF after pancreatoduodenectomy based on 3 easily available variables (pancreatic texture, duct diameter, BMI) without blood loss and pathology, and was successfully validated for both the 2005 and 2016 POPF definition.

  4. Structural insights into FRS2α PTB domain recognition by neurotrophin receptor TrkB.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lei; Kuti, Miklos; Mujtaba, Shiraz; Zhou, Ming-Ming

    2014-07-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) substrate 2 (FRS2) family proteins function as scaffolding adapters for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The FRS2α proteins interact with RTKs through the phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and transfer signals from the activated receptors to downstream effector proteins. Here, we report the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the FRS2α PTB domain bound to phosphorylated TrkB. The structure reveals that the FRS2α-PTB domain is comprised of two distinct but adjacent pockets for its mutually exclusive interaction with either nonphosphorylated juxtamembrane region of the FGFR, or tyrosine phosphorylated peptides TrkA and TrkB. The new structural insights suggest rational design of selective small molecules through targeting of the two conjunct pockets in the FRS2α PTB domain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  6. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  7. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  8. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  9. 47 CFR 95.647 - FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRS unit and R/C transmitter antennas. 95.647... transmitter antennas. The antenna of each FRS unit, and the antenna of each R/C station transmitting in the 72-76 MHz band, must be an integral part of the transmitter. The antenna must have no gain (as compared...

  10. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of haz

  11. Association of atypical protein kinase C isotypes with the docker protein FRS2 in fibroblast growth factor signaling.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y P; Low, B C; Lim, J; Wong, E S; Guy, G R

    1999-07-02

    FRS2 is a docker protein that recruits signaling proteins to the plasma membrane in fibroblast growth factor signal transduction. We report here that FRS2 was associated with PKC lambda when Swiss 3T3 cells were stimulated with basic fibroblast growth factor. PKC zeta, the other member of the atypical PKC subfamily, could also bind FRS2. The association between FRS2 and PKC lambda is likely to be direct as shown by yeast two-hybrid analysis. The C-terminal fragments of FRS2 (amino acid residues 300-508) and SNT2 (amino acids 281-492), an isoform bearing 50% identity to FRS2, interacted with PKC lambda at a region (amino acids 240-562) that encompasses the catalytic domain. In vitro kinase assays revealed neither FRS2 nor SNT2 was a substrate of PKC lambda or zeta. Mutation of the alanine residue (Ala-120) to glutamate in the pseudo-substrate region of PKC lambda results in a constitutively active kinase that exhibited more than 2-fold greater binding to FRS2 in vitro than its "closed" wild-type counterpart. Tyrosine phosphorylation of FRS2 did not affect its binding to the constitutively active PKC lambda mutant, suggesting that the activation of PKC lambda is necessary and sufficient for its association with FRS2. It is likely that FRS2 serves as an anchoring protein for targeting activated atypical PKCs to the cell plasma membrane in signaling pathways.

  12. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset Download

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This downloadable data package consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers

  13. EPA FRS Facilities Combined File CSV Download for the Marshall Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Facility Registry System (FRS) identifies facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest to EPA programs or delegated states. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from program national systems, state master facility records, tribal partners, and other federal agencies and provides the Agency with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities.

  14. EPA FRS Facilities Single File CSV Download for the Marshall Islands

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Facility Registry System (FRS) identifies facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest to EPA programs or delegated states. Using vigorous verification and data management procedures, FRS integrates facility data from program national systems, state master facility records, tribal partners, and other federal agencies and provides the Agency with a centrally managed, single source of comprehensive and authoritative information on facilities.

  15. Adaptation and validation of a Spanish-language version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS).

    PubMed

    Turró-Garriga, O; Hermoso Contreras, C; Olives Cladera, J; Mioshi, E; Pelegrín Valero, C; Olivera Pueyo, J; Garre-Olmo, J; Sánchez-Valle, R

    2017-06-01

    The Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS) is a tool designed to aid with clinical staging and assessment of the progression of frontotemporal dementia (FTD-FRS). Present a multicentre adaptation and validation study of a Spanish version of the FRS. The adapted version was created using 2 translation-back translation processes (English to Spanish, Spanish to English) and verified by the scale's original authors. We validated the adapted version in a sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with FTD. The procedure included evaluating internal consistency, testing unidimensionality with the Rasch model, analysing construct validity and discriminant validity, and calculating the degree of agreement between the Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR) and FTD-FRS for FTD cases. The study included 60 patients with DFT. The mean score on the FRS was 12.1 points (SD=6.5; range, 2-25) with inter-group differences (F=120.3; df=3; P<.001). Cronbach's alpha was 0.897 and principal component analysis of residuals delivered an acceptable eigenvalue for 5 contrasts (1.6-2.7) and 36.1% raw variance. FRS was correlated with the Mini-mental State Examination (r=0.572; P<.001) and functional capacity (DAD; r=0.790; P<.001). FTD-FRS also showed a significant correlation with CDR (r=-0.641; P<.001), but we did observe variability in the severity levels; cases appeared to be less severe according to the CDR than when measured with the FTD-FRS (kappa=0.055). This process of validating the Spanish translation of the FTD-FRS yielded satisfactory results for validity and unidimensionality (severity) in the assessment of patients with FTD. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset - Intranet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This web feature service consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers of haz

  17. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Facility Interests Dataset - Intranet Download

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This downloadable data package consists of location and facility identification information from EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS) for all sites that are available in the FRS individual feature layers. The layers comprise the FRS major program databases, including:Assessment Cleanup and Redevelopment Exchange System (ACRES) : brownfields sites ; Air Facility System (AFS) : stationary sources of air pollution ; Air Quality System (AQS) : ambient air pollution data from monitoring stations; Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) : schools data on Indian land; Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) facilities; Clean Air Markets Division Business System (CAMDBS) : market-based air pollution control programs; Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) : hazardous waste sites; Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) : integrated enforcement and compliance information; National Compliance Database (NCDB) : Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA); National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) module of ICIS : NPDES surface water permits; Radiation Information Database (RADINFO) : radiation and radioactivity facilities; RACT/BACT/LAER Clearinghouse (RBLC) : best available air pollution technology requirements; Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information System (RCRAInfo) : tracks generators, transporters, treaters, storers, and disposers

  18. EPA FRS Facilities State Single File CSV Download

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides state comma separated value (CSV) files containing key information of all facilities and sites within the Facility Registry System (FRS). Each state zip file contains a single CSV file of key facility-level information.

  19. 47 CFR 95.627 - FRS unit channel frequencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 462.6625 6 462.6875 7 462.7125 8 467.5625 9 467.5875 10 467.6125 11 467.6375 12 467.6625 13 467.6875 14 467.7125 (b) Each FRS unit must be maintained within a frequency tolerance of 0.00025%. [61 FR...

  20. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... command of a user, except that an FRS unit receiving an interrogation request may automatically respond... automatically respond to more than one interrogation request received within a thirty-second period. (c) You...

  1. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... command of a user, except that an FRS unit receiving an interrogation request may automatically respond... automatically respond to more than one interrogation request received within a thirty-second period. (c) You...

  2. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... command of a user, except that an FRS unit receiving an interrogation request may automatically respond... automatically respond to more than one interrogation request received within a thirty-second period. (c) You...

  3. 47 CFR 95.193 - (FRS Rule 3) Types of communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... command of a user, except that an FRS unit receiving an interrogation request may automatically respond... automatically respond to more than one interrogation request received within a thirty-second period. (c) You...

  4. 47 CFR 95.191 - (FRS Rule 1) Eligibility and responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false (FRS Rule 1) Eligibility and responsibility. 95.191 Section 95.191 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL... 1) Eligibility and responsibility. (a) Unless you are a representative of a foreign government, you...

  5. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation and applicability of the Brazilian version of the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS)

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Silva, Thais Bento; Bahia, Valéria Santoro; Carvalho, Viviane Amaral; Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira; Caramelli, Paulo; Balthazar, Márcio; Damasceno, Benito; Bottino, Cássio Machado de Campos; Brucki, Sônia Maria Dozzi; Mioshi, Eneida; Nitrini, Ricardo; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Staging scales for dementia have been devised for grading Alzheimer's disease (AD) but do not include the specific symptoms of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). OBJECTIVE To translate and adapt the Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS) to Brazilian Portuguese. METHODS The cross-cultural adaptation process consisted of the following steps: translation, back-translation (prepared by independent translators), discussion with specialists, and development of a final version after minor adjustments. A pilot application was carried out with 12 patients diagnosed with bvFTD and 11 with AD, matched for disease severity (CDR=1.0). The evaluation protocol included: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Executive Interview (EXIT-25), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Frontotemporal Dementia Rating Scale (FTD-FRS) and Clinical Dementia Rating scale (CDR). RESULTS The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seemed appropriate for use in this country. Preliminary results revealed greater levels of disability in bvFTD than in AD patients (bvFTD: 25% mild, 50% moderate and 25% severe; AD: 36.36% mild, 63.64% moderate). It appears that the CDR underrates disease severity in bvFTD since a relevant proportion of patients rated as having mild dementia (CDR=1.0) in fact had moderate or severe levels of disability according to the FTD-FRS. CONCLUSION The Brazilian version of the FTD-FRS seems suitable to aid staging and determining disease progression. PMID:29213863

  6. New insight into the levels, distribution and health risk diagnosis of indoor and outdoor dust-bound FRs in colder, rural and industrial zones of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-09-01

    This is the first robust study designed to probe selected flame retardants (FRs) in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones of Pakistan with special emphasis upon their occurrence, distribution and associated health risk. For this purpose, we analyzed FRs such as polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), dechlorane plus (DP), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in the total of 82 dust samples (indoor and outdoor) collected three from each zone: industrial, rural and background. We found higher concentrations of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) in industrial zones as compared to the rural and background zones. Our results reveal that the concentrations of studied FRs are relatively higher in the indoor dust samples being compared with the outdoor dust and they are ranked as: ∑OPFRs > ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. A significant correlation in the FRs levels between the indoor and outdoor dust suggest the potential intermixing of these compounds between them. The principal component analysis/multiple linear regression predicts the percent contribution of FRs from different consumer products in the indoor and outdoor dust of industrial, rural and background zones to trace their source origin. The FRs detected in the background zones reveal the dust-bound FRs suspended in the air might be shifted from different warmer zones or consumers products available/used in the same zones. Hazard quotient (HQ) for FRs via indoor and outdoor dust intake at mean and high dust scenarios to the exposed populations (adults and toddlers) are found free of risk (HQ < 1) in the target zones. Furthermore, our nascent results will provide a baseline record of FRs (PBDEs, DP, NBFRs and OPFRs) concentrations in the indoor and outdoor dust of Pakistan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. E-Waste Driven Pollution in Pakistan: The First Evidence of Environmental and Human Exposure to Flame Retardants (FRs) in Karachi City.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Mehreen; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Breivik, Knut; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2017-12-05

    Informal e-waste recycling activities have been shown to be a major emitter of organic flame retardants (FRs), contributing to both environmental and human exposure to laborers at e-waste recycling sites in some West African countries, as well as in China and India. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of selected organic FRs in both air and soil samples collected from areas with intensive informal e-waste recycling activities in Karachi, Pakistan. Dechlorane Plus (DP) and "novel" brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were often detected in high concentrations in soils, while phosphorus-based FRs (OPFRs) dominated atmospheric samples. Among individual substances and substance groups, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) (726 ng/g), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) (551 ng/g), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE) (362 ng/g), and triphenyl-phosphate (∑TPP) (296 ng/g) were found to be prevalent in soils, while OPFR congeners (5903-24986 ng/m 3 ) were prevalent in air. The two major e-waste recycling areas (Shershah and Lyari) were highly contaminated with FRs, suggesting informal e-waste recycling activities as a major emission source of FRs in the environment in Karachi City. However, the hazards associated with exposure to PM 2.5 appear to exceed those attributed to exposure to selected FRs via inhalation and soil ingestion.

  8. Novel flame retardants (N-FRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in fish, penguin, and skua from King George Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Wolschke, Hendrik; Meng, Xiang-Zhou; Xie, Zhiyong; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Cai, Minghong

    2015-07-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are frequently detected in biota from Antarctica, whereas no data are available for their replacements, such as novel flame retardants (N-FRs). This study presented the occurrence of several N-FRs, PBDEs, and PCBs in tissue samples of an Antarctic rock cod (Trematomus bernacchii), a young gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua), and a brown skua (Stercorarius antarcticus) collected from King George Island. The total concentrations of N-FRs (ΣN-FRs; mean: 931 pg/g dry weight (dw)) were comparable to PBDEs (Σ8PBDEs; 681 pg/gdw), which were much lower than PCBs (ΣDL-PCBs; 12,800 pg/gdw). Overall, skua contained two to three orders of magnitude higher contamination than penguin and fish. In the future, more attention should be focused on the fate of N-FRs in Antarctica, where usages have increased since PBDEs were banned. To our knowledge, this is the first report of N-FRs in biota from Antarctica. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Radiation protection design for the Super-FRS and SIS100 at the international FAIR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Ekaterina; Sokolov, Alexey; Radon, Torsten; Lang, Rupert; Conrad, Inna; Fehrenbacher, Georg; Weick, Helmut; Winkler, Martin

    2017-09-01

    The new accelerator SIS100 and the Super-FRS will be built at the international Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research FAIR. The synchrotron SIS100 is a core part of the FAIR facility which serves for acceleration of ions like Uranium up to 2.7 GeV/u with intensities of 3x1011 particles per second or protons up to 30 GeV with intensities of 5x1012 particles per second. The Super-FRS is a superconducting fragment separator, it will be able to separate all kinds of nuclear projectile fragments of primary heavy ion beams including Uranium with energies up to 1.5 GeV/u and intensities up to 3x1011 particles per second. During operation activation of several components, especially the production target and the beam catchers will take place. For handling of highly activated components it is foreseen to have a hot cell with connected storage place. All calculations for the optimisation of the shielding design of the SIS100, the Super-FRS and the hot cell were performed using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA, results are presented.

  10. 47 CFR 80.359 - Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC... for digital selective calling (DSC). (a) General purpose calling. The following table describes the calling frequencies for use by authorized ship and coast stations for general purpose DSC. There are three...

  11. 75 FR 28778 - Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... INFORMATION: The environmental assessment of this federally assisted action indicates that the project will... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Magma Flood Retarding Structure (FRS) Supplemental Watershed Plan, Pinal County, AZ AGENCY: Natural Resources Conservation Service...

  12. Design and long-term monitoring of DSC/CIGS tandem solar module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vildanova, M. F.; Nikolskaia, A. B.; Kozlov, S. S.; Shevaleevskiy, O. I.

    2015-11-01

    This paper describes the design and development of tandem dye-sensitized/Cu(In, Ga)Se (DSC/CIGS) PV modules. The tandem PV module comprised of the top DSC module and a bottom commercial 0,8 m2 CIGS module. The top DSC module was made of 10 DSC mini-modules with the field size of 20 × 20 cm2 each. Tandem DSC/CIGS PV modules were used for providing the long-term monitoring of energy yield and electrical parameters in comparison with standalone CIGS modules under outdoor conditions. The outdoor test facility, containing solar modules of both types and a measurement unit, was located on the roof of the Institute of Biochemical Physics in Moscow. The data obtained during monitoring within the 2014 year period has shown the advantages of the designed tandem DSC/CIGS PV-modules over the conventional CIGS modules, especially for cloudy weather and low-intensity irradiation conditions.

  13. 47 CFR 80.359 - Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC... for digital selective calling (DSC). (a) General purpose calling. The following table describes the... Digital Selective-Calling Equipment in the Maritime Mobile Service,” with Annexes 1 through 5, 2004, and...

  14. 7 CFR 1710.114 - TIER, DSC, OTIER and ODSC requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false TIER, DSC, OTIER and ODSC requirements. 1710.114... AND GUARANTEES Loan Purposes and Basic Policies § 1710.114 TIER, DSC, OTIER and ODSC requirements. (a) General. Requirements for coverage ratios are set forth in the borrower's mortgage, loan contract, or...

  15. Effect of milling on DSC thermogram of excipient adipic acid.

    PubMed

    Ng, Wai Kiong; Kwek, Jin Wang; Yuen, Aaron; Tan, Chin Lee; Tan, Reginald

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate why and how mechanical milling results in an unexpected shift in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measured fusion enthalpy (Delta(fus)H) and melting point (T(m)) of adipic acid, a pharmaceutical excipient. Hyper differential scanning calorimetry (hyper-DSC) was used to characterize adipic acid before and after ball-milling. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate previous postulations such as electrostatic charging using the Faraday cage method, crystallinity loss using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermal annealing using DSC, impurities removal using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Karl Fischer titration. DSC thermograms showed that after milling, the values of Delta(fus)H and T(m) were increased by approximately 9% and 5 K, respectively. Previous suggestions of increased electrostatic attraction, change in particle size distribution, and thermal annealing during measurements did not explain the differences. Instead, theoretical analysis and experimental findings suggested that the residual solvent (water) plays a key role. Water entrapped as inclusions inside adipic acid during solution crystallization was partially evaporated by localized heating at the cleaved surfaces during milling. The correlation between the removal of water and melting properties measured was shown via drying and crystallization experiments. These findings show that milling can reduce residual solvent content and causes a shift in DSC results.

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling can occur independently of the multi-substrate adaptor FRS2.

    PubMed

    Lo, Te-Wen; Bennett, Daniel C; Goodman, S Jay; Stern, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The components of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling complexes help to define the specificity of the effects of their activation. The Caenorhabditis elegans fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), EGL-15, regulates a number of processes, including sex myoblast (SM) migration guidance and fluid homeostasis, both of which require a Grb2/Sos/Ras cassette of signaling components. Here we show that SEM-5/Grb2 can bind directly to EGL-15 to mediate SM chemoattraction. A yeast two-hybrid screen identified SEM-5 as able to interact with the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of EGL-15, a domain that is specifically required for SM chemoattraction. This interaction requires the SEM-5 SH2-binding motifs present in the CTD (Y(1009) and Y(1087)), and these sites are required for the CTD role of EGL-15 in SM chemoattraction. SEM-5, but not the SEM-5 binding sites located in the CTD, is required for the fluid homeostasis function of EGL-15, indicating that SEM-5 can link to EGL-15 through an alternative mechanism. The multi-substrate adaptor protein FRS2 serves to link vertebrate FGFRs to Grb2. In C. elegans, an FRS2-like gene, rog-1, functions upstream of a Ras/MAPK pathway for oocyte maturation but is not required for EGL-15 function. Thus, unlike the vertebrate FGFRs, which require the multi-substrate adaptor FRS2 to recruit Grb2, EGL-15 can recruit SEM-5/Grb2 directly.

  17. Multispectral Image Compression Based on DSC Combined with CCSDS-IDC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing multispectral image compression encoder requires low complexity, high robust, and high performance because it usually works on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. For multispectral images, the compression algorithms based on 3D transform (like 3D DWT, 3D DCT) are too complex to be implemented in space mission. In this paper, we proposed a compression algorithm based on distributed source coding (DSC) combined with image data compression (IDC) approach recommended by CCSDS for multispectral images, which has low complexity, high robust, and high performance. First, each band is sparsely represented by DWT to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then, the wavelet coefficients are encoded by bit plane encoder (BPE). Finally, the BPE is merged to the DSC strategy of Slepian-Wolf (SW) based on QC-LDPC by deep coupling way to remove the residual redundancy between the adjacent bands. A series of multispectral images is used to test our algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed DSC combined with the CCSDS-IDC (DSC-CCSDS)-based algorithm has better compression performance than the traditional compression approaches. PMID:25110741

  18. Multispectral image compression based on DSC combined with CCSDS-IDC.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing multispectral image compression encoder requires low complexity, high robust, and high performance because it usually works on the satellite where the resources, such as power, memory, and processing capacity, are limited. For multispectral images, the compression algorithms based on 3D transform (like 3D DWT, 3D DCT) are too complex to be implemented in space mission. In this paper, we proposed a compression algorithm based on distributed source coding (DSC) combined with image data compression (IDC) approach recommended by CCSDS for multispectral images, which has low complexity, high robust, and high performance. First, each band is sparsely represented by DWT to obtain wavelet coefficients. Then, the wavelet coefficients are encoded by bit plane encoder (BPE). Finally, the BPE is merged to the DSC strategy of Slepian-Wolf (SW) based on QC-LDPC by deep coupling way to remove the residual redundancy between the adjacent bands. A series of multispectral images is used to test our algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed DSC combined with the CCSDS-IDC (DSC-CCSDS)-based algorithm has better compression performance than the traditional compression approaches.

  19. Aberrant Receptor Internalization and Enhanced FRS2-dependent Signaling Contribute to the Transforming Activity of the Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 2 IIIb C3 Isoform*

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Maddileti, Savitri; Mitin, Natalia; Harden, T. Kendall; Der, Channing J.

    2009-01-01

    Alternative splice variants of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) IIIb, designated C1, C2, and C3, possess progressive reduction in their cytoplasmic carboxyl termini (822, 788, and 769 residues, respectively), with preferential expression of the C2 and C3 isoforms in human cancers. We determined that the progressive deletion of carboxyl-terminal sequences correlated with increasing transforming potency. The highly transforming C3 variant lacks five tyrosine residues present in C1, and we determined that the loss of Tyr-770 alone enhanced FGFR2 IIIb C1 transforming activity. Because Tyr-770 may compose a putative YXXL sorting motif, we hypothesized that loss of Tyr-770 in the 770YXXL motif may cause disruption of FGFR2 IIIb C1 internalization and enhance transforming activity. Surprisingly, we found that mutation of Leu-773 but not Tyr-770 impaired receptor internalization and increased receptor stability and activation. Interestingly, concurrent mutations of Tyr-770 and Leu-773 caused 2-fold higher transforming activity than caused by the Y770F or L773A single mutations, suggesting loss of Tyr and Leu residues of the 770YXXL773 motif enhances FGFR2 IIIb transforming activity by distinct mechanisms. We also determined that loss of Tyr-770 caused persistent activation of FRS2 by enhancing FRS2 binding to FGFR2 IIIb. Furthermore, we found that FRS2 binding to FGFR2 IIIb is required for increased FRS2 tyrosine phosphorylation and enhanced transforming activity by Y770F mutation. Our data support a dual mechanism where deletion of the 770YXXL773 motif promotes FGFR2 IIIb C3 transforming activity by causing aberrant receptor recycling and stability and persistent FRS2-dependent signaling. PMID:19103595

  20. The EXPERT project: part of the Super-FRS Experiment Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudoba, V.; "EXPERT project, FRS Experiment Collaboration, being part of NUSTAR@FAIR. The experiments will be aimed at the nuclear systems in the most outer regions of the nuclear landscape. Special attention will be payed to few-body decays which are expected to be a regular phenomena in the vicinity and beyond the driplines. Studies of rare and not yet observed (multi-)nucleon radioactivity, many-body decays of resonance states of unbound nuclei as well as beta-delayed decays and search for exotic excitation modes will be carried out. The scientific program will be performed using the modular detector system containing the methods for detection of all particle and radiation types.

  1. Changes of multi-scale structure during mimicked DSC heating reveal the nature of starch gelatinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-06-01

    A thorough understanding of starch gelatinization is extremely important for precise control of starch functional properties for food processing and human nutrition. Here we reveal the molecular mechanism of starch gelatinization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with a protocol using the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) to generate material for analysis under conditions that simulated the DSC heating profiles. The results from DSC, FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses all showed that residual structural order remained in starch that was heated to the DSC endotherm end temperature in starch:water mixtures of 0.5 to 4:1 (v/w). We conclude from this study that the DSC endotherm of starch at a water:starch ratio of 2 to 4 (v/w) does not represent complete starch gelatinization. The DSC endotherm of starch involves not only the water uptake and swelling of amorphous regions, but also the melting of starch crystallites.

  2. Changes of multi-scale structure during mimicked DSC heating reveal the nature of starch gelatinization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shujun; Zhang, Xiu; Wang, Shuo; Copeland, Les

    2016-01-01

    A thorough understanding of starch gelatinization is extremely important for precise control of starch functional properties for food processing and human nutrition. Here we reveal the molecular mechanism of starch gelatinization by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with a protocol using the rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) to generate material for analysis under conditions that simulated the DSC heating profiles. The results from DSC, FTIR, Raman, X-ray diffraction and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses all showed that residual structural order remained in starch that was heated to the DSC endotherm end temperature in starch:water mixtures of 0.5 to 4:1 (v/w). We conclude from this study that the DSC endotherm of starch at a water:starch ratio of 2 to 4 (v/w) does not represent complete starch gelatinization. The DSC endotherm of starch involves not only the water uptake and swelling of amorphous regions, but also the melting of starch crystallites. PMID:27319782

  3. D-DSC: Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding for Internet of Sensing Things

    PubMed Central

    Akan, Ozgur B.

    2018-01-01

    Spatial correlation between densely deployed sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be exploited to reduce the power consumption through a proper source coding mechanism such as distributed source coding (DSC). In this paper, we propose the Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding (D-DSC) to improve the energy efficiency of the classical DSC by employing the decoding delay concept which enables the use of the maximum correlated portion of sensor samples during the event estimation. In D-DSC, network is partitioned into clusters, where the clusterheads communicate their uncompressed samples carrying the side information, and the cluster members send their compressed samples. Sink performs joint decoding of the compressed and uncompressed samples and then reconstructs the event signal using the decoded sensor readings. Based on the observed degree of the correlation among sensor samples, the sink dynamically updates and broadcasts the varying compression rates back to the sensor nodes. Simulation results for the performance evaluation reveal that D-DSC can achieve reliable and energy-efficient event communication and estimation for practical signal detection/estimation applications having massive number of sensors towards the realization of Internet of Sensing Things (IoST). PMID:29538405

  4. D-DSC: Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding for Internet of Sensing Things.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Metin; Kuscu, Murat; Dinc, Ergin; Akan, Ozgur B

    2018-01-01

    Spatial correlation between densely deployed sensor nodes in a wireless sensor network (WSN) can be exploited to reduce the power consumption through a proper source coding mechanism such as distributed source coding (DSC). In this paper, we propose the Decoding Delay-based Distributed Source Coding (D-DSC) to improve the energy efficiency of the classical DSC by employing the decoding delay concept which enables the use of the maximum correlated portion of sensor samples during the event estimation. In D-DSC, network is partitioned into clusters, where the clusterheads communicate their uncompressed samples carrying the side information, and the cluster members send their compressed samples. Sink performs joint decoding of the compressed and uncompressed samples and then reconstructs the event signal using the decoded sensor readings. Based on the observed degree of the correlation among sensor samples, the sink dynamically updates and broadcasts the varying compression rates back to the sensor nodes. Simulation results for the performance evaluation reveal that D-DSC can achieve reliable and energy-efficient event communication and estimation for practical signal detection/estimation applications having massive number of sensors towards the realization of Internet of Sensing Things (IoST).

  5. Gelatinisation kinetics of corn and chickpea starches using DSC, RVA, and dynamic rheometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gelatinisation kinetics (non-isothermal) of corn and chickpea starches at different heating rates were calculated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), rapid visco analyser (RVA), and oscillatory dynamic rheometry. The data obtained from the DSC thermogram and the RVA profiles were fitt...

  6. MiR-4653-3p and its target gene FRS2 are prognostic biomarkers for hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients receiving tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Wang, Yu; Wang, YanPing; Qiu, Yan; Li, Li; Bu, Hong; Li, JiaYuan; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Long-term tamoxifen treatment significantly improves the survival of hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer (BC) patients. However, tamoxifen resistance remains a challenge. We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers for tamoxifen resistance and reveal the underlying mechanism. From March 2001 to September 2013, 400 HR+ BC women (stage I~III) were treated with adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years or until relapse in West China Hospital. We included a discovery set of 6 patients who were refractory to tamoxifen, and a validation cohort of 88 patients including 35 cases with relapse. In the discovery set, microRNA microarray showed that miR-4653-3p decreased in recurrent/metastatic lesions compared to the matched primary lesions. In the validation cohort, real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that, following tamoxifen treatment, miR-4653-3p overexpression in the primary tumors decreased the risk of relapse (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.05~0.57, P = 0.004). Conversely, high expression of FRS2, the key adaptor protein required by FGFR signaling, predicted poor disease-free survival (DFS) (adjusted HR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.11~6.56, P = 0.03). MiR-4653-3p down regulated FRS2 by binding to its 3′ untranslated region. Either overexpressing miR-4653-3p or attenuating FRS2 expression could restore TAM sensitivity in two tamoxifen-resistant BC cell lines. In conclusion, high miR-4653-3p level was the potential predictor for favorable DFS, while FRS2 overexpression was potential high-risk factor for relapse in HR+ BC patients receiving TAM adjuvant therapy. FGFR/FRS2 signaling might be a promising target for reversing tamoxifen resistance. PMID:27533459

  7. Distinct Roles of the DmNav and DSC1 Channels in the Action of DDT and Pyrethroids

    PubMed Central

    Rinkevich, Frank D.; Du, Yuzhe; Tolinski, Josh; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhorov, Boris S.; Dong, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels) are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system and are the primary targets of the insecticides DDT and pyrethroids. In Drosophila melanogaster, besides the canonical Nav channel, Para (also called DmNav), there is a sodium channel-like cation channel called DSC1 (Drosophila sodium channel 1). Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations in DmNav (parats) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, whereas DSC1 knockout flies exhibit enhanced sensitivity to pyrethroids. To further define the roles and interaction of DmNav and DSC1 channels in DDT and pyrethroid neurotoxicology, we generated a DmNav/DSC1 double mutant line by introducing a parats1 allele (carrying the I265N mutation) into a DSC1 knockout line. We confirmed that the I265N mutation reduced the sensitivity to two pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin of a DmNav variant expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Computer modeling predicts that the I265N mutation confers pyrethroid resistance by allosterically altering the second pyrethroid receptor site on the DmNav channel. Furthermore, we found that I265N-mediated pyrethroid resistance in parats1 mutant flies was almost completely abolished in parats1;DSC1−/− double mutant flies. Unexpectedly, however, the DSC1 knockout flies were less sensitive to DDT, compared to the control flies (w1118A), and the parats1;DSC1−/− double mutant flies were even more resistant to DDT compared to the DSC1 knockout or parats1 mutant. Our findings revealed distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the neurotoxicology of DDT vs. pyrethroids and implicate the exciting possibility of using DSC1 channel blockers or modifiers in the management of pyrethroid resistance. PMID:25687544

  8. Distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the action of DDT and pyrethroids.

    PubMed

    Rinkevich, Frank D; Du, Yuzhe; Tolinski, Josh; Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-03-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav channels) are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system and are the primary targets of the insecticides DDT and pyrethroids. In Drosophila melanogaster, besides the canonical Nav channel, Para (also called DmNav), there is a sodium channel-like cation channel called DSC1 (Drosophila sodium channel 1). Temperature-sensitive paralytic mutations in DmNav (para(ts)) confer resistance to DDT and pyrethroids, whereas DSC1 knockout flies exhibit enhanced sensitivity to pyrethroids. To further define the roles and interaction of DmNav and DSC1 channels in DDT and pyrethroid neurotoxicology, we generated a DmNav/DSC1 double mutant line by introducing a para(ts1) allele (carrying the I265N mutation) into a DSC1 knockout line. We confirmed that the I265N mutation reduced the sensitivity to two pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin of a DmNav variant expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Computer modeling predicts that the I265N mutation confers pyrethroid resistance by allosterically altering the second pyrethroid receptor site on the DmNav channel. Furthermore, we found that I265N-mediated pyrethroid resistance in para(ts1) mutant flies was almost completely abolished in para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies. Unexpectedly, however, the DSC1 knockout flies were less sensitive to DDT, compared to the control flies (w(1118A)), and the para(ts1);DSC1(-/-) double mutant flies were even more resistant to DDT compared to the DSC1 knockout or para(ts1) mutant. Our findings revealed distinct roles of the DmNav and DSC1 channels in the neurotoxicology of DDT vs. pyrethroids and implicate the exciting possibility of using DSC1 channel blockers or modifiers in the management of pyrethroid resistance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DSC of human hair: a tool for claim support or incorrect data analysis?

    PubMed

    Popescu, C; Gummer, C

    2016-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data are increasingly used to substantiate product claims of hair repair. Decreasing peak temperatures may indicate structural changes and chemical damage. Increasing the DSC, wet peak temperature is, therefore, often considered as proof of hair repair. A detailed understanding of the technique and hair structure indicates that this may not be a sound approach. Surveying the rich literature on the use of dynamic thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the analyses of human hair and the effect of cosmetic treatments, we underline some of the problems of hair structure and data interpretation. To overcome some of the difficulties of data interpretation, we advise that DSC acquired data should be supported by other techniques when used for claim substantiation. In this way, one can provide meaningful interpretation of the hair science and robust data for product claims support. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  10. Implementation of DSC model and application for analysis of field pile tests under cyclic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Changming; Desai, Chandra S.

    2000-05-01

    The disturbed state concept (DSC) model, and a new and simplified procedure for unloading and reloading behavior are implemented in a nonlinear finite element procedure for dynamic analysis for coupled response of saturated porous materials. The DSC model is used to characterize the cyclic behavior of saturated clays and clay-steel interfaces. In the DSC, the relative intact (RI) behavior is characterized by using the hierarchical single surface (HISS) plasticity model; and the fully adjusted (FA) behavior is modeled by using the critical state concept. The DSC model is validated with respect to laboratory triaxial tests for clay and shear tests for clay-steel interfaces. The computer procedure is used to predict field behavior of an instrumented pile subjected to cyclic loading. The predictions provide very good correlation with the field data. They also yield improved results compared to those from a HISS model with anisotropic hardening, partly because the DSC model allows for degradation or softening and interface response.

  11. Functional characterization of the Dsc E3 ligase complex in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Ruoxin; Chung, Kuang-Ren; Li, Hongye

    2017-12-01

    Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) are required for sterol homeostasis in eukaryotes. Activation of SREBPs is regulated by the Dsc E3 ligase complex in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus spp. Previous studies indicated that an SREBP-coding gene PdsreA is required for fungicide resistance and ergosterol biosynthesis in the citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum. In this study, five genes, designated PddscA, PddscB, PddscC, PddscD, and PddscE encoding the Dsc E3 ligase complex were characterized to be required for fungicide resistance, ergosterol biosynthesis and CoCl 2 tolerance in P. digitatum. Each of the dsc genes was inactivated by target gene disruption and the resulted phenotypes were analyzed and compared. Genetic analysis reveals that, of five Dsc complex components, PddscB is the core subunit gene in P. digitatum. Although the resultant dsc mutants were able to infect citrus fruit and induce maceration lesions as the wild-type, the mutants rarely produced aerial mycelia on affected citrus fruit peels. P. digitatum Dsc proteins regulated not only the expression of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis but also that of PdsreA. Yeast two-hybrid assays revealed a direct interaction between the PdSreA protein and the Dsc proteins. Ectopic expression of the PdSreA N-terminus restored fungicide resistance in the dsc mutants. Our results provide important evidence to understand the mechanisms underlying SREBP activation and regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Degradation of components in drug formulations: a comparison between HPLC and DSC methods.

    PubMed

    Ceschel, G C; Badiello, R; Ronchi, C; Maffei, P

    2003-08-08

    Information about the stability of drug components and drug formulations is needed to predict the shelf-life of the final products. The studies on the interaction between the drug and the excipients may be carried out by means of accelerated stability tests followed by analytical determination of the active principle (HPLC and other methods) and by means of the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This research has been focused to the acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) physical-chemical characterisation by using DSC method in order to evaluate its compatibility with some of the most used excipients. It was possible to show, with the DSC method, the incompatibility of magnesium stearate with ASA; the HPLC data confirm the reduction of ASA concentration in the presence of magnesium stearate. With the other excipients the characteristic endotherms of the drug were always present and no or little degradation was observed with the accelerated stability tests. Therefore, the results with the DSC method are comparable and in good agreement with the results obtained with other methods.

  13. Comparative kinetic analysis on thermal degradation of some cephalosporins using TG and DSC data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The thermal decomposition of cephalexine, cefadroxil and cefoperazone under non-isothermal conditions using the TG, respectively DSC methods, was studied. In case of TG, a hyphenated technique, including EGA, was used. Results The kinetic analysis was performed using the TG and DSC data in air for the first step of cephalosporin’s decomposition at four heating rates. The both TG and DSC data were processed according to an appropriate strategy to the following kinetic methods: Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose, Friedman, and NPK, in order to obtain realistic kinetic parameters, even if the decomposition process is a complex one. The EGA data offer some valuable indications about a possible decomposition mechanism. The obtained data indicate a rather good agreement between the activation energy’s values obtained by different methods, whereas the EGA data and the chemical structures give a possible explanation of the observed differences on the thermal stability. A complete kinetic analysis needs a data processing strategy using two or more methods, but the kinetic methods must also be applied to the different types of experimental data (TG and DSC). Conclusion The simultaneous use of DSC and TG data for the kinetic analysis coupled with evolved gas analysis (EGA) provided us a more complete picture of the degradation of the three cephalosporins. It was possible to estimate kinetic parameters by using three different kinetic methods and this allowed us to compare the Ea values obtained from different experimental data, TG and DSC. The thermodegradation being a complex process, the both differential and integral methods based on the single step hypothesis are inadequate for obtaining believable kinetic parameters. Only the modified NPK method allowed an objective separation of the temperature, respective conversion influence on the reaction rate and in the same time to ascertain the existence of two simultaneous steps. PMID:23594763

  14. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP.

  15. Kuipers works with DSC Hardware in the U.S. Laboratory

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-16

    ISS030-E-155917 (16 Jan. 2012) --- European Space Agency astronaut Andre Kuipers, Expedition 30 flight engineer, prepares to place Diffusion Soret Coefficient (DSC) hardware in stowage containers in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station.

  16. Forensic characterization of HDPE pipes by DSC.

    PubMed

    Sajwan, Madhuri; Aggarwal, Saroj; Singh, R B

    2008-03-05

    The melting behavior of 28 high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe samples manufactured and supplied by 13 different manufacturers in India was examined by 'differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)' to find out if this parameter could be used in differentiating between these HDPE pipe samples which are chemically the same and being manufactured by different manufacturer. The results indicate that the melting temperature may serve as the useful criteria for differentiating HDPE (i) pipe samples from different sources and (ii) samples of different diameter from the same source.

  17. Estimation of Temperature Range for Cryo Cutting of Frozen Mackerel using DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    Frozen mackerel flesh was subjected to measurement of its fracture stress (bending energy) in a low temperature range. The optimum conditions for low temperature cutting, "cryo cutting," were estimated from the results of enthalpy changes measured by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). There were two enthalpy changes for gross transition on the DSC chart for mackerel, one was at -63°C to -77°C and the other at -96°C to -112°C. Thus we estimated that mackerel was able to cut by bending below -63°C and that there would be a great decrease in bending energy occurring at around -77°C and -112°C. In testing, there were indeed two great decreases of bending energy for the test pieces of mackerel that had been frozen at -40°C, one was at -70°C to -90°C and the other was at -100°C to -120°C. Therefore, the test pieces of mackerel could be cut by bending at -70°C. The results showed that the DSC measurement of mackerel flesh gave a good estimation of the appropriate cutting temperature of mackerel.

  18. Temperature-modulated DSC provides new insight about nickel-titanium wire transformations.

    PubMed

    Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Grentzer, Thomas H

    2003-10-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a well-known method for investigating phase transformations in nickel-titanium orthodontic wires; the microstructural phases and phase transformations in these wires have central importance for their clinical performance. The purpose of this study was to use the more recently developed technique of temperature-modulated DSC (TMDSC) to gain insight into transformations in 3 nickel-titanium orthodontic wires: Neo Sentalloy (GAC International, Islandia, NY), 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti (Ormco, Glendora, Calif) and Nitinol SE (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif). In the oral environment, the first 2 superelastic wires have shape memory, and the third wire has superelastic behavior but not shape memory. All wires had cross-section dimensions of 0.016 x 0.022 in. Archwires in the as-received condition and after bending 135 degrees were cut into 5 or 6 segments for test specimens. TMDSC analyses (Model 2910 DSC, TA Instruments, Wilmington, Del) were conducted between -125 degrees C and 100 degrees C, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C per min, an oscillation amplitude of 0.318 degrees C with a period of 60 seconds, and helium as the purge gas. For all 3 wire alloys, strong low-temperature martensitic transformations, resolved on the nonreversing heat-flow curves, were not present on the reversing heat-flow curves, and bending appeared to increase the enthalpy change for these peaks in some cases. For Neo Sentalloy, TMDSC showed that transformation between martensitic and austenitic nickel-titanium, suggested as occurring directly in the forward and reverse directions by conventional DSC, was instead a 2-step process involving the R-phase. Two-step transformations in the forward and reverse directions were also found for 35 degrees C Copper Ni-Ti and Nitinol SE. The TMDSC results show that structural transformations in these wires are complex. Some possible clinical implications of these observations are discussed.

  19. Comparing Single-Point and Multi-point Calibration Methods in Modulated DSC

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Van Buskirk, Caleb Griffith

    2017-06-14

    Heat capacity measurements for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) were performed using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (mDSC) over a wide temperature range, -70 to 115 °C, with a TA Instruments Q2000 mDSC. The default calibration method for this instrument involves measuring the heat capacity of a sapphire standard at a single temperature near the middle of the temperature range of interest. However, this method often fails for temperature ranges that exceed a 50 °C interval, likely because of drift or non-linearity in the instrument's heat capacity readings over time or over the temperature range. Therefore,more » in this study a method was developed to calibrate the instrument using multiple temperatures and the same sapphire standard.« less

  20. 47 CFR 80.359 - Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... calling frequencies for use by authorized ship and coast stations for general purpose DSC. There are three.... The “Series A” designation includes coast stations along, and ship stations in, the Atlantic Ocean... location of the called station and propagation conditions. Acknowledgement is made on the paired frequency...

  1. 47 CFR 80.359 - Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... calling frequencies for use by authorized ship and coast stations for general purpose DSC. There are three.... The “Series A” designation includes coast stations along, and ship stations in, the Atlantic Ocean... location of the called station and propagation conditions. Acknowledgement is made on the paired frequency...

  2. 47 CFR 80.359 - Frequencies for digital selective calling (DSC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... calling frequencies for use by authorized ship and coast stations for general purpose DSC. There are three.... The “Series A” designation includes coast stations along, and ship stations in, the Atlantic Ocean... location of the called station and propagation conditions. Acknowledgement is made on the paired frequency...

  3. New insight into the distribution pattern, levels, and risk diagnosis of FRs in indoor and outdoor air at low- and high-altitude zones of Pakistan: Implications for sources and exposure.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Usman; Besis, Athanasios; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2017-10-01

    Data regarding flame retardants (FRs) in indoor and outdoor air and their exposure to population are scarce and especially unknown in the case of Pakistan. The current study was designed to probe FR concentrations and distribution pattern in indoor and outdoor air at different altitudinal zones (DAZs) of Pakistan with special emphasis on their risk to the exposed population. In this study, passive air samplers for the purpose of FR deposition were deployed in indoor and outdoor air at the industrial, rural, and background/colder zones/sites. All the indoor and outdoor air samples collected from DAZs were analyzed for the target FRs (9.30-472.30 pg/m 3 ), showing a decreasing trend as follows: ∑NBFRs > ∑PBDEs > ∑DP. However, significant correlations among FRs in the indoor and outdoor air at DAZs signified a similar source of FR origin that is used in different consumer goods. Furthermore, air mass trajectories revealed that movement of air over industrial area sources influenced concentrations of FRs at rural sites. The FR concentrations, estimated daily intake (EDI) and the hazard quotient (HQ), were recorded to be higher in toddlers than those in adults. In addition, indoor air samples showed higher FR levels, EDI and HQ, than outdoor air samples. An elevated FR concentrations and their prevalent exposure risks were recorded in the industrial zones followed by rural and background zones. The HQ for BDE-47 and BDE-99 in the indoor and outdoor air samples at different industrial and rural sites were recorded to be >1 in toddlers and adults, this further warrants a health risk in the population. However, FR investigation in indoor and outdoor air samples will provide a baseline data in Pakistan to take further steps by the government and agencies for its implementations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculations of high-power production target and beamdump for the GSI future Super-FRS for a fast extraction scheme at the FAIR Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Weick, H.; Iwase, H.; Geissel, H.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Radon, T.; Münzenberg, G.; Shutov, A.; Sümmerer, K.; Winkler, M.

    2005-06-01

    A superconducting fragment separator (Super-FRS) is being designed for the production and separation of radioactive isotopes at the future FAIR (Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research) facility at Darmstadt. This paper discusses various aspects and requirements for the high-power production target that will be used in the Super-FRS experiments. The production target must survive over an extended period of time as it will be used during the course of many experiments. The specific power deposited by the high intensity beam that will be generated at the future FAIR facility will be high enough to destroy the target in most of the cases as a result of a single shot from the new heavy ion synchrotrons SIS100/300. By using an appropriate beam intensity and focal spot parameters, the target would survive after being irradiated once. However, the heat should be dissipated efficiently before the same target area is irradiated again. We have considered a wheel shaped solid carbon target that rotates around its axis so that different areas of the target are irradiated successively. This allows for cooling of the beam heated region by thermal conduction before the same part of the target is irradiated a second time. Another attractive option is to use a liquid jet target at the Super-FRS. First calculations of a possible liquid lithium target are also presented in this paper. One of the advantages of using lithium as a target is that it will survive even if one uses a smaller focal spot, which has half the area of that used for a solid carbon target. This will significantly improve the isotope resolution. A similar problem associated with these experiments will be safe deposition of the beam energy in a beamdump after its interaction with the production target. We also present calculations to study the suitability of a proposed beamdump.

  5. 47 CFR 80.103 - Digital selective calling (DSC) operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... DSC “Acknowledgment of distress calls” and “Distress relays.” (See subpart W of this part.) (d) Group calls to vessels under the common control of a single entity are authorized. A group call identity may... (ITU), Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. [68 FR 46961, Aug. 7, 2003, as amended at 73...

  6. 47 CFR 80.103 - Digital selective calling (DSC) operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... DSC “Acknowledgment of distress calls” and “Distress relays.” (See subpart W of this part.) (d) Group calls to vessels under the common control of a single entity are authorized. A group call identity may... (ITU), Place des Nations, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. [68 FR 46961, Aug. 7, 2003, as amended at 73...

  7. Reticulation of Aqueous Polyurethane Systems Controlled by DSC Method

    PubMed Central

    Cakic, Suzana; Lacnjevac, Caslav; Rajkovic, Milos B.; Raskovic, Ljiljana; Stamenkovic, Jakov

    2006-01-01

    The DSC method has been employed to monitor the kinetics of reticulation of aqueous polyurethane systems without catalysts, and with the commercial catalyst of zirconium (CAT®XC-6212) and the highly selective manganese catalyst, the complex Mn(III)-diacetylacetonemaleinate (MAM). Among the polyol components, the acrylic emulsions were used for reticulation in this research, and as suitable reticulation agents the water emulsible aliphatic polyisocyanates based on hexamethylendoisocyanate with the different contents of NCO-groups were employed. On the basis of DSC analysis, applying the methods of Kissinger, Freeman-Carroll and Crane-Ellerstein the pseudo kinetic parameters of the reticulation reaction of aqueous systems were determined. The temperature of the examination ranged from 50°C to 450°C with the heat rate of 0.5°C/min. The reduction of the activation energy and the increase of the standard deviation indicate the catalytic action of the selective catalysts of zirconium and manganese. The impact of the catalysts on the reduction of the activation energy is the strongest when using the catalysts of manganese and applying all the three afore-said methods. The least aberrations among the stated methods in defining the kinetic parameters were obtained by using the manganese catalyst.

  8. Determining the main thermodynamic parameters of caffeine melting by means of DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agafonova, E. V.; Moshchenskii, Yu. V.; Tkachenko, M. L.

    2012-06-01

    The temperature and enthalpy of the melting of caffeine, which are 235.5 ± 0.1°C and 19.6 ± 0.2 kJ/mol, respectively, are determined by DSC. The melting entropy and the cryoscopic constant of caffeine are calculated.

  9. First beam test of a liquid Cherenkov detector prototype for a future TOF measurements at the Super-FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Ferber, Nadine; Rozhkova, Elena; Kaufeld, Ingo; Voss, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    In order to separate and identify fragmentation products with the Super-Fragment Separator (SuperFRS) at FAIR a high resolving power detector system is required for position and Time-Of-Flight (TOF) measurements. The TOF detector is used to measure the velocity of the particles and hence, in conjunction with their momentum or energy, to determine their mass and hence their identity. Aiming to develop a system with a precision down to about 50 ps in time and resistant to a high radiation rate of relativistic heavy ions of up to 107 per spill (at the second focal plane), we have shown a conceptual design for a Cherenkov detector envisioned for the future TOF measurements employing Iodine Naphthalene (C10H7I) as a fluid radiator. The application of a liquid radiator allows the circulation of the active material and therefore to greatly reduce the effects of the degradation of the optical performance expected after exposure to the high ion rates at the Super-FRS. The prototype of a TOF-Cherenkov detector was designed, constructed and its key-properties have been investigated in measurements with heavy ions at CaveC at GSI. These measurements were performed with nickel ions at 300-1500 MeV/u and ion-beam intensities of up to 4 × 106 ions/spill of 8 s. As a first result a maximum detection efficiency of 70% and a timing resolution of 267 ps (σ) was achieved. We report the first attempt of time measurements with a Cherenkov detector based on a liquid radiator. Further optimization is required.

  10. Determination of the heat of hydride formation/decomposition by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC).

    PubMed

    Rongeat, Carine; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Doppiu, Stefania; Deledda, Stefano; Borgschulte, Andreas; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2007-11-22

    Among the thermodynamic properties of novel materials for solid-state hydrogen storage, the heat of formation/decomposition of hydrides is the most important parameter to evaluate the stability of the compound and its temperature and pressure of operation. In this work, the desorption and absorption behaviors of three different classes of hydrides are investigated under different hydrogen pressures using high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC). The HP-DSC technique is used to estimate the equilibrium pressures as a function of temperature, from which the heat of formation is derived. The relevance of this procedure is demonstrated for (i) magnesium-based compounds (Ni-doped MgH2), (ii) Mg-Co-based ternary hydrides (Mg-CoHx) and (iii) Alanate complex hydrides (Ti-doped NaAlH4). From these results, it can be concluded that HP-DSC is a powerful tool to obtain a good approximation of the thermodynamic properties of hydride compounds by a simple and fast study of desorption and absorption properties under different pressures.

  11. Characterization of the Polycaprolactone Melt Crystallization: Complementary Optical Microscopy, DSC, and AFM Studies

    PubMed Central

    Speranza, V.; Sorrentino, A.; De Santis, F.; Pantani, R.

    2014-01-01

    The first stages of the crystallization of polycaprolactone (PCL) were studied using several techniques. The crystallization exotherms measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analyzed and compared with results obtained by polarized optical microscopy (POM), rheology, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The experimental results suggest a strong influence of the observation scale. In particular, the AFM, even if limited on time scale, appears to be the most sensitive technique to detect the first stages of crystallization. On the contrary, at least in the case analysed in this work, rheology appears to be the least sensitive technique. DSC and POM provide closer results. This suggests that the definition of induction time in the polymer crystallization is a vague concept that, in any case, requires the definition of the technique used for its characterization. PMID:24523644

  12. Characterization of the polycaprolactone melt crystallization: complementary optical microscopy, DSC, and AFM studies.

    PubMed

    Speranza, V; Sorrentino, A; De Santis, F; Pantani, R

    2014-01-01

    The first stages of the crystallization of polycaprolactone (PCL) were studied using several techniques. The crystallization exotherms measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analyzed and compared with results obtained by polarized optical microscopy (POM), rheology, and atomic force microscope (AFM). The experimental results suggest a strong influence of the observation scale. In particular, the AFM, even if limited on time scale, appears to be the most sensitive technique to detect the first stages of crystallization. On the contrary, at least in the case analysed in this work, rheology appears to be the least sensitive technique. DSC and POM provide closer results. This suggests that the definition of induction time in the polymer crystallization is a vague concept that, in any case, requires the definition of the technique used for its characterization.

  13. An elegant access to formation and vaporization enthalpies of ionic liquids by indirect DSC experiment and "in silico" calculations.

    PubMed

    Verevkin, Sergey P; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Schick, Christoph; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Maginn, Edward J

    2012-07-14

    We used DSC for determination of the reaction enthalpy of the synthesis of the ionic liquid [C(4)mim][Cl]. A combination of DSC and quantum chemical calculations presents a new, indirect way to study thermodynamics of ionic liquids. The new procedure was validated with two direct experimental measurements and MD simulations.

  14. Measuring the glass transition temperature of EPDM roofing materials: Comparison of DMA, TMA, and DSC techniques

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Paroli, R.M.; Penn, J.

    1994-09-01

    Two ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM) roofing membranes were aged at 100 C for 7 and 28 days. The T{sub g} of these membranes was then determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), thermomechanical analysis (TMA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the results compared. It was found that: (1) T{sub g} data can be obtained easily using the DMA and TMA techniques. The DSC method requires greater care due to the broad step change in the baseline which is associated with heavily plasticized materials. (2) The closest correspondence between techniques was for TMA and DSC (half-height). The latter, within experimental error, yieldedmore » the same glass transition temperature before and after heat-aging. (3) The peak maxima associated with tan{delta} and E{double_prime} measurements should be cited with T{sub g} values as significant differences can exist. (4) The T{sub g}(E{double_prime}) values were closer to the T{sub g}(TMA) and T{sub g}(DSC) data than were the T{sub g}(tan{delta}) values. Data obtained at 1 Hz (or possibly less) should be used when making comparisons based on various techniques. An assessment of T{sub g} values indicated that EPDM 112 roofing membrane is more stable than the EPDM 111 membrane. The T{sub g} for EPDM 112 did not change significantly with heat-aging for 28 days at 130 C.« less

  15. Combining Diffusion Tensor Metrics and DSC Perfusion Imaging: Can It Improve the Diagnostic Accuracy in Differentiating Tumefactive Demyelination from High-Grade Glioma?

    PubMed

    Hiremath, S B; Muraleedharan, A; Kumar, S; Nagesh, C; Kesavadas, C; Abraham, M; Kapilamoorthy, T R; Thomas, B

    2017-04-01

    Tumefactive demyelinating lesions with atypical features can mimic high-grade gliomas on conventional imaging sequences. The aim of this study was to assess the role of conventional imaging, DTI metrics ( p:q tensor decomposition), and DSC perfusion in differentiating tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas. Fourteen patients with tumefactive demyelinating lesions and 21 patients with high-grade gliomas underwent brain MR imaging with conventional, DTI, and DSC perfusion imaging. Imaging sequences were assessed for differentiation of the lesions. DTI metrics in the enhancing areas and perilesional hyperintensity were obtained by ROI analysis, and the relative CBV values in enhancing areas were calculated on DSC perfusion imaging. Conventional imaging sequences had a sensitivity of 80.9% and specificity of 57.1% in differentiating high-grade gliomas ( P = .049) from tumefactive demyelinating lesions. DTI metrics ( p : q tensor decomposition) and DSC perfusion demonstrated a statistically significant difference in the mean values of ADC, the isotropic component of the diffusion tensor, the anisotropic component of the diffusion tensor, the total magnitude of the diffusion tensor, and rCBV among enhancing portions in tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas ( P ≤ .02), with the highest specificity for ADC, the anisotropic component of the diffusion tensor, and relative CBV (92.9%). Mean fractional anisotropy values showed no significant statistical difference between tumefactive demyelinating lesions and high-grade gliomas. The combination of DTI and DSC parameters improved the diagnostic accuracy (area under the curve = 0.901). Addition of a heterogeneous enhancement pattern to DTI and DSC parameters improved it further (area under the curve = 0.966). The sensitivity increased from 71.4% to 85.7% after the addition of the enhancement pattern. DTI and DSC perfusion add profoundly to conventional imaging in differentiating tumefactive

  16. Prevalence by Computed Tomographic Angiography of Coronary Plaques in South Asian and White Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at Low and High Risk Using Four Cardiovascular Risk Scores (UKPDS, FRS, ASCVD, and JBS3).

    PubMed

    Gobardhan, Sanjay N; Dimitriu-Leen, Aukelien C; van Rosendael, Alexander R; van Zwet, Erik W; Roos, Cornelis J; Oemrawsingh, Pranobe V; Kharagjitsingh, Aan V; Jukema, J Wouter; Delgado, Victoria; Schalij, Martin J; Bax, Jeroen J; Scholte, Arthur J H A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between various cardiovascular (CV) risk scores and coronary atherosclerotic burden on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus and matched whites. Asymptomatic type 2 diabetic South Asians and whites were matched for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia. Ten-year CV risk was estimated using different risk scores (United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS], Framingham Risk Score [FRS], AtheroSclerotic CardioVascular Disease [ASCVD], and Joint British Societies for the prevention of CVD [JBS3]) and categorized into low- and high-risk groups. The presence of coronary artery calcium (CAC) and obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD; ≥50% stenosis) was assessed using coronary CTA. Finally, the relation between coronary atherosclerosis on CTA and the low- and high-risk groups was compared. UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD showed no differences in estimated CV risk between 159 South Asians and 159 matched whites. JBS3 showed a significant greater absolute CV risk in South Asians (18.4% vs 14.2%, p <0.01). Higher presence of CAC score >0 (69% vs 55%, p <0.05) and obstructive CAD (39% vs 27%, p <0.05) was observed in South Asians. South Asians categorized as high risk, using UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD, showed more CAC and CAD compared than whites. JBS3 showed no differences. In conclusion, asymptomatic South Asians with type 2 diabetes mellitus more frequently showed CAC and obstructive CAD than matched whites in the population categorized as high-risk patients using UKPDS, FRS, and ASCVD as risk estimators. However, JBS3 seems to correlate best to CAC and CAD in both ethnicity groups compared with the other risk scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlation of Tumor Immunohistochemistry with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and DSC-MRI Parameters in Patients with Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T B; Cron, G O; Bezzina, K; Perdrizet, K; Torres, C H; Chakraborty, S; Woulfe, J; Jansen, G H; Thornhill, R E; Zanette, B; Cameron, I G

    2016-12-01

    Tumor CBV is a prognostic and predictive marker for patients with gliomas. Tumor CBV can be measured noninvasively with different MR imaging techniques; however, it is not clear which of these techniques most closely reflects histologically-measured tumor CBV. Our aim was to investigate the correlations between dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC-MR imaging parameters and immunohistochemistry in patients with gliomas. Forty-three patients with a new diagnosis of glioma underwent a preoperative MR imaging examination with dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC sequences. Unnormalized and normalized cerebral blood volume was obtained from DSC MR imaging. Two sets of plasma volume and volume transfer constant maps were obtained from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Plasma volume obtained from the phase-derived vascular input function and bookend T1 mapping (Vp_Φ) and volume transfer constant obtained from phase-derived vascular input function and bookend T1 mapping (K trans _Φ) were determined. Plasma volume obtained from magnitude-derived vascular input function (Vp_SI) and volume transfer constant obtained from magnitude-derived vascular input function (K trans _SI) were acquired, without T1 mapping. Using CD34 staining, we measured microvessel density and microvessel area within 3 representative areas of the resected tumor specimen. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for differences according to grade and degree of enhancement. The Spearman correlation was performed to determine the relationship between dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC parameters and histopathologic measurements. Microvessel area, microvessel density, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and DSC-MR imaging parameters varied according to the grade and degree of enhancement (P < .05). A strong correlation was found between microvessel area and Vp_Φ and between microvessel area and unnormalized blood volume (r s ≥ 0.61). A moderate correlation was found between microvessel area and normalized blood

  18. Cerebral perfusion alterations in epileptic patients during peri-ictal and post-ictal phase: PASL vs DSC-MRI.

    PubMed

    Pizzini, Francesca B; Farace, Paolo; Manganotti, Paolo; Zoccatelli, Giada; Bongiovanni, Luigi G; Golay, Xavier; Beltramello, Alberto; Osculati, Antonio; Bertini, Giuseppe; Fabene, Paolo F

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive pulsed arterial spin labeling (PASL) MRI is a method to study brain perfusion that does not require the administration of a contrast agent, which makes it a valuable diagnostic tool as it reduces cost and side effects. The purpose of the present study was to establish the viability of PASL as an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC-MRI) and other perfusion imaging methods in characterizing changes in perfusion patterns caused by seizures in epileptic patients. We evaluated 19 patients with PASL. Of these, the 9 affected by high-frequency seizures were observed during the peri-ictal period (within 5hours since the last seizure), while the 10 patients affected by low-frequency seizures were observed in the post-ictal period. For comparison, 17/19 patients were also evaluated with DSC-MRI and CBF/CBV. PASL imaging showed focal vascular changes, which allowed the classification of patients in three categories: 8 patients characterized by increased perfusion, 4 patients with normal perfusion and 7 patients with decreased perfusion. PASL perfusion imaging findings were comparable to those obtained by DSC-MRI. Since PASL is a) sensitive to vascular alterations induced by epileptic seizures, b) comparable to DSC-MRI for detecting perfusion asymmetries, c) potentially capable of detecting time-related perfusion changes, it can be recommended for repeated evaluations, to identify the epileptic focus, and in follow-up and/or therapy-response assessment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Longitudinal DSC-MRI for Distinguishing Tumor Recurrence From Pseudoprogression in Patients With a High-grade Glioma.

    PubMed

    Boxerman, Jerrold L; Ellingson, Benjamin M; Jeyapalan, Suriya; Elinzano, Heinrich; Harris, Robert J; Rogg, Jeffrey M; Pope, Whitney B; Safran, Howard

    2017-06-01

    For patients with high-grade glioma on clinical trials it is important to accurately assess time of disease progression. However, differentiation between pseudoprogression (PsP) and progressive disease (PD) is unreliable with standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) can measure relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and may help distinguish PsP from PD. A subset of patients with high-grade glioma on a phase II clinical trial with temozolomide, paclitaxel poliglumex, and concurrent radiation were assessed. Nine patients (3 grade III, 6 grade IV), with a total of 19 enhancing lesions demonstrating progressive enhancement (≥25% increase from nadir) on postchemoradiation conventional contrast-enhanced MRI, had serial DSC-MRI. Mean leakage-corrected rCBV within enhancing lesions was computed for all postchemoradiation time points. Of the 19 progressively enhancing lesions, 10 were classified as PsP and 9 as PD by biopsy/surgery or serial enhancement patterns during interval follow-up MRI. Mean rCBV at initial progressive enhancement did not differ significantly between PsP and PD (2.35 vs. 2.17; P=0.67). However, change in rCBV at first subsequent follow-up (-0.84 vs. 0.84; P=0.001) and the overall linear trend in rCBV after initial progressive enhancement (negative vs. positive slope; P=0.04) differed significantly between PsP and PD. Longitudinal trends in rCBV may be more useful than absolute rCBV in distinguishing PsP from PD in chemoradiation-treated high-grade gliomas with DSC-MRI. Further studies of DSC-MRI in high-grade glioma as a potential technique for distinguishing PsP from PD are indicated.

  20. Interactions of tamoxifen with distearoyl phosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles: FTIR and DSC studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilge, Duygu; Sahin, Ipek; Kazanci, Nadide; Severcan, Feride

    2014-09-01

    Interactions of a non-steroidal antiestrogen drug, tamoxifen (TAM), with distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC) multilamellar liposomes (MLVs) were investigated as a function of drug concentration (1-15 mol%) by using two noninvasive techniques, namely Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopy results show that increasing TAM concentrations (except 1 mol%) increased the wavenumbers of the CH2 stretching modes, implying an disordering effect for DSPC MLVs both in the gel and liquid crystalline phases. The bandwidth values of the CH2 stretchings except for 1 mol% increased when TAM concentrations increased for DSPC liposomes, indicating an increase in the dynamics of liposomes. The Cdbnd O stretching and PO2- antisymmetric double bond stretching bands were analyzed to study interactions of TAM with head groups of lipids. As the concentrations of TAM increased, dehydration occurred around these functional groups in the polar part of the lipids. The DSC studies on thermal properties of DSPC lipids indicate that TAM eliminated the pre transition, shifted the main phase transition to lower temperatures and broadened the phase transition curve of the liposomes.

  1. Decentralized Adaptive Neural Output-Feedback DSC for Switched Large-Scale Nonlinear Systems.

    PubMed

    Lijun Long; Jun Zhao

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, for a class of switched large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control coefficients and unmeasurable states, a switched-dynamic-surface-based decentralized adaptive neural output-feedback control approach is developed. The approach proposed extends the classical dynamic surface control (DSC) technique for nonswitched version to switched version by designing switched first-order filters, which overcomes the problem of multiple "explosion of complexity." Also, a dual common coordinates transformation of all subsystems is exploited to avoid individual coordinate transformations for subsystems that are required when applying the backstepping recursive design scheme. Nussbaum-type functions are utilized to handle the unknown control coefficients, and a switched neural network observer is constructed to estimate the unmeasurable states. Combining with the average dwell time method and backstepping and the DSC technique, decentralized adaptive neural controllers of subsystems are explicitly designed. It is proved that the approach provided can guarantee the semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness for all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with average dwell time, and the tracking errors to a small neighborhood of the origin. A two inverted pendulums system is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method proposed.

  2. A theoretical framework to model DSC-MRI data acquired in the presence of contrast agent extravasation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarles, C. C.; Gochberg, D. F.; Gore, J. C.; Yankeelov, T. E.

    2009-10-01

    Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI methods rely on compartmentalization of the contrast agent such that a susceptibility gradient can be induced between the contrast-containing compartment and adjacent spaces, such as between intravascular and extravascular spaces. When there is a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as is frequently the case with brain tumors, a contrast agent leaks out of the vasculature, resulting in additional T1, T2 and T*2 relaxation effects in the extravascular space, thereby affecting the signal intensity time course and reducing the reliability of the computed hemodynamic parameters. In this study, a theoretical model describing these dynamic intra- and extravascular T1, T2 and T*2 relaxation interactions is proposed. The applicability of using the proposed model to investigate the influence of relevant MRI pulse sequences (e.g. echo time, flip angle), and physical (e.g. susceptibility calibration factors, pre-contrast relaxation rates) and physiological parameters (e.g. permeability, blood flow, compartmental volume fractions) on DSC-MRI signal time curves is demonstrated. Such a model could yield important insights into the biophysical basis of contrast-agent-extravasastion-induced effects on measured DSC-MRI signals and provide a means to investigate pulse sequence optimization and appropriate data analysis methods for the extraction of physiologically relevant imaging metrics.

  3. Verification of passive cooling techniques in the Super-FRS beam collimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, C. A.; Gellanki, J.; Najafi, M. A.; Moeini, H.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Rigollet, C.; Kuiken, O. J.; Lindemulder, M. F.; Smit, H. A. J.; Timersma, H. J.

    2016-08-01

    The Super FRagment Separator (Super-FRS) at the FAIR facility will be the largest in-flight separator of heavy ions in the world. One of the essential steps in the separation procedure is to stop the unwanted ions with beam collimators. In one of the most common situations, the heavy ions are produced by a fission reaction of a primary 238U-beam (1.5 GeV/u) hitting a 12C target (2.5 g/cm2). In this situation, some of the produced ions are highly charged states of 238U. These ions can reach the collimators with energies of up to 1.3 GeV/u and a power of up to 500 W. Under these conditions, a cooling system is required to prevent damage to the collimators and to the corresponding electronics. Due to the highly radioactive environment, both the collimators and the cooling system must be suitable for robot handling. Therefore, an active cooling system is undesirable because of the increased possibility of malfunctioning and other complications. By using thermal simulations (performed with NX9 of Siemens PLM), the possibility of passive cooling is explored. The validity of these simulations is tested by independent comparison with other simulation programs and by experimental verification. The experimental verification is still under analysis, but preliminary results indicate that the explored passive cooling option provides sufficient temperature reduction.

  4. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Interview with Sir Arnold Wolfendale FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltsher, Conducted by Nicholas

    1997-11-01

    Sir Arnold Wolfendale was born on 25 June 1927, the son of Arnold and Doris Wolfendale. His BSc in Physics with First Class honours from the University of Manchester in 1948 was followed by a PhD in 1953 and a DSc in 1970. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977, and of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1973. In 1951 he married Audrey Darby, and they have twin sons. Sir Arnold's career has included lecturing posts at the Universities of Manchester, Durham, Ceylon and Hong Kong, and he was head of department at Durham. He retired from teaching in 1992 and was knighted in 1995. From 1991 to 1995 he was Astronomer Royal. Since 1996 he has been Professor of Experimental Physics with the Royal Institution of Great Britain. He has given lectures in many countries and in many places, and has had several books published on the subject of cosmic rays and astrophysics. He lives in Durham.

  5. SU-D-18C-02: Feasibility of Using a Short ASL Scan for Calibrating Cerebral Blood Flow Obtained From DSC-MRI

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, P; Chang, T; Huang, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using a short arterial spin labeling (ASL) scan for calibrating the dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC-) MRI in a group of patients with internal carotid artery stenosis. Methods: Six patients with unilateral ICA stenosis enrolled in the study on a 3T clinical MRI scanner. The ASL-cerebral blood flow (-CBF) maps were calculated by averaging different number of dynamic points (N=1-45) acquired by using a Q2TIPS sequence. For DSC perfusion analysis, arterial input function was selected to derive the relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) map and the delay (Tmax) map. Patient-specific CF wasmore » calculated from the mean ASL- and DSC-CBF obtained from three different masks: (1)Tmax< 3s, (2)combined gray matter mask with mask 1, (3)mask 2 with large vessels removed. One CF value was created for each number of averages by using each of the three masks for calibrating the DSC-CBF map. The CF value of the largest number of averages (NL=45) was used to determine the acceptable range(< 10%, <15%, and <20%) of CF values corresponding to the minimally acceptable number of average (NS) for each patient. Results: Comparing DSC CBF maps corrected by CF values of NL (CBFL) in ACA, MCA and PCA territories, all masks resulted in smaller CBF on the ipsilateral side than the contralateral side of the MCA territory(p<.05). The values obtained from mask 1 were significantly different than the mask 3(p<.05). Using mask 3, the medium values of Ns were 4(<10%), 2(<15%) and 2(<20%), with the worst case scenario (maximum Ns) of 25, 4, and 4, respectively. Conclusion: This study found that reliable calibration of DSC-CBF can be achieved from a short pulsed ASL scan. We suggested use a mask based on the Tmax threshold, the inclusion of gray matter only and the exclusion of large vessels for performing the calibration.« less

  6. Comparative Study Of Various Grades Of Polyethylene By Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Correlated With Raman Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumeau, Richard; Bourson, Patrice; Ferriol, Michel; Lahure, François; Ducos, Franck; Ligneron, Jérôme

    2011-05-01

    Polyethylene (PE) is a very important material. In 2008, almost 30% of the world plastics production was dedicated to this polymer (70 million tons) [1]. It is a consumer polymer because of its moderate cost of manufacturing and its physical and mechanical properties compatible with various applications in everyday life. Indeed, PE is generally easily processable. It possesses an excellent electric insulation and shock resistance combined with a very good chemical and biological inertia [2]. For each application, there is a particular grade, i.e. a polyethylene with well defined rheological properties. Therefore, it is essential to know how to differentiate these different grades by suitable methods of characterization. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) is one of the techniques usually used for this purpose. The knowledge of characteristic temperatures such as melting, cold crystallization or glass transition gives information on the viscosity and thus, on the grade of the polymer. DSC also allows the detection of defects, (for example, presence of unmelted pieces). However DSC is a tedious method for on-line quality control, limiting its scope. The determination of the polymer structure represents a major challenge in the industrial world of polymers. Raman spectroscopy, another technique of polymer analysis, is nowadays growing fast because of the advantages it presents. It is a non-destructive method, capable of also giving useful information about the morphology of the polymer. This technique can be perfectly used in industry by means of adapted sensors and devices with more and more reduced dimensions [3]. That technique is used to obtain the characteristic temperatures of PE and information on the polymer structure. The purpose of this article is to establish the correlation between the viscosity of a polymer and its characteristic temperatures obtained by DSC and subsequent possibilities of quality control in industry. These measurements are correlated

  7. DSC investigation of bovine hide collagen at varying degrees of crosslinking and humidities.

    PubMed

    Schroepfer, Michaela; Meyer, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Bovine hide collagen (nonCLC; non-CrossLinked Collagen) was analysed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different hydration degrees and compared with hide collagen samples crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (CLC-GA) and chromium(III) ions (CLC-Cr), respectively. Crosslinking and drying were confirmed to increase the denaturation temperature. Different regions were assigned, that reflect the variation of the influence of water on the denaturation temperature. Furthermore, at moderate hydration degrees, the enthalpies of non-crosslinked collagen increase compared to the fully hydrated state. This reflects a glue-like action of water in the range of 25% hydration. Crosslinking of bovine hide collagen decreases the enthalpy by 25% in the fully hydrated state, even at very low levels of crosslinking This can be explained by intensive effects of the crosslinking agent on the hydration network of the collagen molecules, assuming that the enthalpies are principally a result of hydrogen bonding. At very low water contents DSC peaks of CLC-Cr completely disappear. This could be explained by competition between hydroxosulfochromate(III) complexes and collagen for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Remote Evaluation of Rotational Velocity Using a Quadrant Photo-Detector and a DSC Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiangkai; Zhu, Zhixiong; Chen, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to remotely evaluate the rotational velocity of a measured object by using a quadrant photo-detector and a differential subtraction correlation (DSC) algorithm. The rotational velocity of a rotating object is determined by two temporal-delay numbers at the minima of two DSCs that are derived from the four output signals of the quadrant photo-detector, and the sign of the calculated rotational velocity directly represents the rotational direction. The DSC algorithm does not require any multiplication operations. Experimental calculations were performed to confirm the proposed evaluation method. The calculated rotational velocity, including its amplitude and direction, showed good agreement with the given one, which had an amplitude error of ~0.3%, and had over 1100 times the efficiency of the traditional cross-correlation method in the case of data number N > 4800. The confirmations have shown that the remote evaluation of rotational velocity can be done without any circular division disk, and that it has much fewer error sources, making it simple, accurate and effective for remotely evaluating rotational velocity. PMID:27120607

  9. Segregation of Visual Response Properties in the Mouse Superior Colliculus and Their Modulation during Locomotion

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) receives direct input from the retina and integrates it with information about sound, touch, and state of the animal that is relayed from other parts of the brain to initiate specific behavioral outcomes. The superficial SC layers (sSC) contain cells that respond to visual stimuli, whereas the deep SC layers (dSC) contain cells that also respond to auditory and somatosensory stimuli. Here, we used a large-scale silicon probe recording system to examine the visual response properties of SC cells of head-fixed and alert male mice. We found cells with diverse response properties including: (1) orientation/direction-selective (OS/DS) cells with a firing rate that is suppressed by drifting sinusoidal gratings (negative OS/DS cells); (2) suppressed-by-contrast cells; (3) cells with complex-like spatial summation nonlinearity; and (4) cells with Y-like spatial summation nonlinearity. We also found specific response properties that are enriched in different depths of the SC. The sSC is enriched with cells with small RFs, high evoked firing rates (FRs), and sustained temporal responses, whereas the dSC is enriched with the negative OS/DS cells and with cells with large RFs, low evoked FRs, and transient temporal responses. Locomotion modulates the activity of the SC cells both additively and multiplicatively and changes the preferred spatial frequency of some SC cells. These results provide the first description of the negative OS/DS cells and demonstrate that the SC segregates cells with different response properties and that the behavioral state of a mouse affects SC activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The superior colliculus (SC) receives visual input from the retina in its superficial layers (sSC) and induces eye/head-orientating movements and innate defensive responses in its deeper layers (dSC). Despite their importance, very little is known about the visual response properties of dSC neurons. Using high-density electrode recordings and novel

  10. Diffusion of liquid polystyrene into glassy poly(phenylene oxide) characterized by DSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linling; Wang, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Dongshan; Xue, Gi

    2013-03-01

    We report a diffusion study on the polystyrene/poly(phenylene oxide) (PS/PPO) mixture consisted by the PS and PPO nanoparticles. Diffusion of liquid PS into glassy PPO (l-PS/g-PPO) is promoted by annealing the PS/PPO mixture at several temperatures below Tg of the PPO. By tracing the Tgs of the PS-rich domain behind the diffusion front using DSC, we get the relationships of PS weight fractions and diffusion front advances with the elapsed diffusion times at different diffusion temperatures using the Gordon-Taylor equation and core-shell model. We find that the plots of weight fraction of PS vs. elapsed diffusion times at different temperatures can be converted to a master curve by Time-Temperature superposition, and the shift factors obey the Arrhenius equation. Besides, the diffusion front advances of l-PS into g-PPO show an excellent agreement with the t1/2 scaling law at the beginning of the diffusion process, and the diffusion coefficients of different diffusion temperatures also obey the Arrhenius equation. We believe the diffusion mechanism for l-PS/g-PPO should be the Fickean law rather than the Case II, though there are departures of original linearity at longer diffusion times due to the limited liquid supply system. Diffusion of liquid polystyrene into glassy poly(phenylene oxide) characterized by DSC

  11. DSC studies to evaluate the impact of bio-oil on cold flow properties and oxidation stability of bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Manuel; Adams, Thomas T; Goodrum, John W; Das, K C; Geller, Daniel P

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the use of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to evaluate the impact of varying mix ratios of bio-oil (pyrolysis oil) and bio-diesel on the oxidation stability and on some cold flow properties of resulting blends. The bio-oils employed were produced from the semi-continuous Auger pyrolysis of pine pellets and the batch pyrolysis of pine chips. The bio-diesel studied was obtained from poultry fat. The conditions used to prepare the bio-oil/bio-diesel blends as well as some of the fuel properties of these blends are reported. The experimental results suggest that the addition of bio-oil improves the oxidation stability of the resulting blends and modifies the crystallization behavior of unsaturated compounds. Upon the addition of bio-oil an increase in the oxidation onset temperature, as determined by DSC, was observed. The increase in bio-diesel oxidation stability is likely to be due to the presence of hindered phenols abundant in bio-oils. A relatively small reduction in DSC characteristic temperatures which are associated with cold flow properties was also observed but can likely be explained by a dilution effect. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug-polymer interaction between glucosamine sulfate and alginate nanoparticles: FTIR, DSC and dielectric spectroscopy studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Houssiny, A. S.; Ward, A. A.; Mostafa, D. M.; Abd-El-Messieh, S. L.; Abdel-Nour, K. N.; Darwish, M. M.; Khalil, W. A.

    2016-06-01

    This work involves the preparation and characterization of alginate nanoparticles (Alg NPs) as a new transdermal carrier for site particular transport of glucosamine sulfate (GS). The GS-Alg NPs were examined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric spectroscopy. GS-Alg NPs was efficiently prepared via ionic gelation method which generates favorable conditions for the entrapment of hydrophilic drugs. The TEM studies revealed that GS-Alg NPs are discrete and have spherical shapes. FTIR studies showed a spectral change of the characteristic absorptions bands of Alg NPs after encapsulation with GS because of the amine groups of GS and the carboxylic acid groups of Alg. The DSC data showed changes in the thermal behavior of GS-Alg NPs after the addition of GS indicating signs of main chemical interaction among the drug (GS) and the polymer (Alg). The absence of the drug melting endothermic peak within the DSC thermogram of GS-Alg NPs indicating that GS is molecularly dispersed in the NPs and not crystallize. From the dielectric study, it was found modifications within the dielectric loss (ɛ″) and conductivity (σ) values after the addition of GS. The ɛ″ and σ values of Alg NPs decreased after the addition of GS which indicated the successful encapsulation of GS within Alg NPs. Furthermore, the dielectric study indicated an increase of the activation energy and the relaxation time for the first process in the GS-Alg NPs as compared to Alg NPs. Consequently, the existing observations indicated an initiation of electrostatic interaction among the amine group of GS and carboxyl group of Alg indicating the successful encapsulation of GS inside Alg NPs which could provide favorable circumstance for the encapsulation of GS for topical management.

  13. Melting temperature and enthalpy variations of phase change materials (PCMs): a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Medina, Mario A.; Chu, Youhong; Li, Chuanchang

    2018-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis is a standard thermal analysis technique used to determine the phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy of phase change materials (PCMs). To determine the appropriate heating rate and sample mass, various DSC measurements were carried out using two kinds of PCMs, namely N-octadecane paraffin and calcium chloride hexahydrate. The variations in phase transition temperature, enthalpy, heat of fusion, specific heat and activation energy were observed within applicable heating rates and sample masses. It was found that the phase transition temperature range increased with increasing heating rate and sample mass; while the heat of fusion varied without any established pattern. The specific heat decreased with the increase of heating rate and sample mass. For accuracy purpose, it is recommended that for PCMs with high thermal conductivity (e.g. hydrated salt) the focus will be on heating rate rather than sample mass.

  14. Preliminary Design of the Vacuum System for FAIR Super FRS Quadrupole Magnet Cryostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhter, J.; Pal, G.; Datta, A.; Sarma, P. R.; Bhunia, U.; Roy, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Nandi, C.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2012-11-01

    The Super-Conducting Fragment Separator (Super FRS) of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI Darmstadt is a large-acceptance superonducting fragment separator. The separator consists of large dipole, quadrupole and hexapole superconducting magnets. The long quadrupole magnet cryostat houses the helium chamber, which has the magnet iron and NbTi superconducting coil. The magnet weighs about 30 tons. The helium chamber is enclosed in vacuum inside the magnet cryostat. Multilayer Insulation (MLI) will be wrapped around the thermal shield to reduce radiation loss. Polyster of MLI comprises the major component responsible for outgassing. In order to reduce outgassing, pumping at elevated temperatures has to be carried out. In view of the large size and weight of the magnet, a seal off approach might not be operationally feasible. Continuous pumping of the cryostat has also been examined. Pump has been kept at a distance from the magnet considering the effect of stray magnetic fields. Oil free turbo molecular pump and scroll pump combination will be used to pump down the cryostat. The ultimate heat load of the cryostat will be highly dependent on the pressure attained. Radiation and conduction plays an important role in the heat transfer at low temperatures. This paper presents the vacuum design of the long quadrupole magnet cryostat and estimates the heat load of the cryostat.

  15. Brominated and phosphate flame retardants (FRs) in indoor dust from different microenvironments: Implications for human exposure via dust ingestion and dermal contact.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Qiao, Lin; Covaci, Adrian; Sun, Runxia; Guo, Huiying; Zheng, Jing; Luo, Xiaojun; Xie, Qilai; Mai, Bixian

    2017-10-01

    Indoor dust has been widely used to monitor flame retardants (FRs) in indoor environment, but most studies only focused on floor dust. In the present study, FRs were examined in indoor dust from different locations. Dust from air conditioner (AC) filters, beddings, floor, and windows in bedrooms, and dust from AC filters, printer table surface, computer table surface, floor, and windows in offices were collected, respectively. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener 209 (BDE 209) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were the most abundant brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and tris(chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were the most abundant phosphate flame retardants (PFRs). In bedrooms, the AC filter dust had the highest median levels of BDE 209 (536 ng/g) and DBDPE (2720 ng/g), while bed dust had the highest median levels of ΣPFRs (2750 ng/g) among dust samples. In offices, printer table dust had higher median levels of BDE 209 (1330 ng/g), DBDPE (8470 ng/g), and ΣPFRs (11,000 ng/g) than those in other dust samples. The high dust ingestion values of BDE 209, DBDPE, and individual PFR were 0.28, 1.20, and <0.01-0.32 ng/kg bw/day and 7.37, 31.2, and <0.01-4.54 ng/kg bw/day for BDE 209, DBDPE, and individual PFR for adults and toddlers, respectively. The high dermal exposure values of individual PFR during sleeping were <0.01-0.23 and <0.01-0.36 ng/kg bw/day for adults and toddlers, respectively. More human exposure pathways other than dust ingestion should be considered, such as the dermal contact with beddings and furniture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Heavier alkali-metal monosulfides (KS, RbS, CsS, and FrS) and their cations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Edmond P F; Wright, Timothy G

    2005-10-08

    The heavier alkali-metal monosulfides (KS, RbS, CsS, and FrS) have been studied by high-level ab initio calculations. The RCCSD(T) method has been employed, combined with large flexible valence basis sets. All-electron basis sets are used for potassium and sulfur, with effective core potentials being used for the other metals, describing the core electrons. Potential-energy curves are calculated for the lowest two neutral and cationic states: all neutral monosulfide species have a (2)Pi ground state, in contrast with the alkali-metal monoxide species, which undergo a change in the electronic ground state from (2)Pi to (2)Sigma(+) as the group is descended. In the cases of KS, RbS, and CsS, spin-orbit curves are also calculated. We also calculate potential-energy curves for the lowest (3)Sigma(-) and (3)Pi states of the cations. From the potential-energy curves, spectroscopic constants are derived, and for KS the spectroscopic results are compared to experimental spectroscopic values. Ionization energies, dissociation energies, and heats of formation are also calculated; for KS, we explore the effects of relativity and basis set extrapolation on these values.

  17. Cryomilled Aluminum with Diamantane: Thermal Characterization by DSC and Effects of Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Michael Colin

    Many structural applications require a material that is both lightweight and corrosion resistant, for which aluminum and its alloys may be considered for use if not for their relatively low strength. By improving strength of aluminum through the Hall-Petch mechanism, it could become a more suitable choice for many structural applications. Cryomilling is used as a production technique to strengthen aluminum by reduction of grain size to the 20-50 nm range. Although the powders produced by cryomilling are well within the nanocrystalline regime, the powders experience significant grain growth during consolidation to a solid body. Cryomilled powders have been shown to remain nanocrystalline by introducing a nano-diamond, diamantane to the grain boundaries. To better characterize the thermal stability of the cryomilled powder with diamantane, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure the isothermal heat flow in the 0.6Tm to 0.9Tm range. A model was developed to correlate the isothermal DSC signal to a grain growth curve and grain growth parameters were elucidated by assuming variable boundary mobility with a sigmoidal form. The model revealed a tendency for boundary mobility to transition from an athermal grain growth mechanism to standard thermally activated grain growth. Grain growth parameters were compared to shed light on possible mechanisms of aluminum-diamantane involvement during grain growth. Powders and consolidated samples with very low concentrations of diamantane and with magnesium were observed by TEM, SEM and XRD, and compared both separately and together to characterize the how thermal stability is affected by diamantane concentration and the presence of magnesium.

  18. DSC studies on gamma irradiated poly(vinylidene fluoride) applied to high gamma dose dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, Adriana S. M.; Faria, Luiz O.

    2017-11-01

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride) homopolymer (PVDF) was investigated for use on high gamma dose dosimetry. Samples were irradiated with gamma doses ranging from 100 kGy to 3000 kGy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to construct an unambiguous relationship between the melting transition latent heat (LM) and the absorbed dose (D). DSC thermograms were taken immediately, 1, 2 and 8 months after the irradiation process revealing that the LMx D relationship presented no change for doses ranging from 100 to 2750 kGy. FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy data revealed the radio-induction of C˭O and C˭C bonds. These radio-induced bonds were responsible by the chain stiffening and chain oxidation, respectively. SEM microscopy demonstrates that the spherulitic large crystalline structures present in pristine PVDF are destroyed with doses as low as 100 kGy. The DRX analysis revealed that the main effect of high gamma doses in the crystalline structure of PVDF is to provoke a change from the pristine PVDF α-phase to the γ-phase. Both the ability to detect gamma doses in a large dose range and the low fading features make PVDF homopolymers good candidates to be investigated as high gamma dose dosimeters.

  19. Corrigendum: Redescription of Nemachilichthys rueppelli, a senior synonym of N. shimogensis (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae).

    PubMed

    Keskar, Ashwini; Kumkar, Pradeep; Katwate, Unmesh; Ali, Anvar; Raghavan, Rajeev; Dahanukar, Neelesh

    2016-05-12

    In Keskar et al. (2015) we emended the original name Cobitis rupelli Sykes, 1839, because Sykes (1839) specifically mentions that the species was named after Rüppell. The specific epithet 'rupelli', with a single 'p', is an incorrect original spelling and should be emended into 'ruppelli' as required by Article 32.5 (International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 1999). However, citing Art 32.5.2.1, we also suggested that because Sykes (1839) named the species after Rüppell, the umlaut 'ü' should be corrected to 'ue' and that the specific epithet should thus be 'rueppelli'. This is an error. Sykes (1839) did not use 'ü' in the original spelling of the species epithet rupelli: hence changing it to 'ue' is incorrect. Therefore, the correct spelling for the species should be 'Nemachilichthys ruppelli', a change that should be reflected in the title and in the rest of the text of Keskar et al. (2015).

  20. Advances in simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy for rapid solid-state chemical stability studies: some dipeptide drugs as examples.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shan-Yang; Wang, Shun-Li

    2012-04-01

    The solid-state chemistry of drugs has seen growing importance in the pharmaceutical industry for the development of useful API (active pharmaceutical ingredients) of drugs and stable dosage forms. The stability of drugs in various solid dosage forms is an important issue because solid dosage forms are the most common pharmaceutical formulation in clinical use. In solid-state stability studies of drugs, an ideal accelerated method must not only be selected by different complicated methods, but must also detect the formation of degraded product. In this review article, an analytical technique combining differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier-transform infrared (DSC-FTIR) microspectroscopy simulates the accelerated stability test, and simultaneously detects the decomposed products in real time. The pharmaceutical dipeptides aspartame hemihydrate, lisinopril dihydrate, and enalapril maleate either with or without Eudragit E were used as testing examples. This one-step simultaneous DSC-FTIR technique for real-time detection of diketopiperazine (DKP) directly evidenced the dehydration process and DKP formation as an impurity common in pharmaceutical dipeptides. DKP formation in various dipeptides determined by different analytical methods had been collected and compiled. Although many analytical methods have been applied, the combined DSC-FTIR technique is an easy and fast analytical method which not only can simulate the accelerated drug stability testing but also at the same time enable to explore phase transformation as well as degradation due to thermal-related reactions. This technique offers quick and proper interpretations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimization of DSC MRI Echo Times for CBV Measurements Using Error Analysis in a Pilot Study of High-Grade Gliomas.

    PubMed

    Bell, L C; Does, M D; Stokes, A M; Baxter, L C; Schmainda, K M; Dueck, A C; Quarles, C C

    2017-09-01

    The optimal TE must be calculated to minimize the variance in CBV measurements made with DSC MR imaging. Simulations can be used to determine the influence of the TE on CBV, but they may not adequately recapitulate the in vivo heterogeneity of precontrast T2*, contrast agent kinetics, and the biophysical basis of contrast agent-induced T2* changes. The purpose of this study was to combine quantitative multiecho DSC MRI T2* time curves with error analysis in order to compute the optimal TE for a traditional single-echo acquisition. Eleven subjects with high-grade gliomas were scanned at 3T with a dual-echo DSC MR imaging sequence to quantify contrast agent-induced T2* changes in this retrospective study. Optimized TEs were calculated with propagation of error analysis for high-grade glial tumors, normal-appearing white matter, and arterial input function estimation. The optimal TE is a weighted average of the T2* values that occur as a contrast agent bolus transverses a voxel. The mean optimal TEs were 30.0 ± 7.4 ms for high-grade glial tumors, 36.3 ± 4.6 ms for normal-appearing white matter, and 11.8 ± 1.4 ms for arterial input function estimation (repeated-measures ANOVA, P < .001). Greater heterogeneity was observed in the optimal TE values for high-grade gliomas, and mean values of all 3 ROIs were statistically significant. The optimal TE for the arterial input function estimation is much shorter; this finding implies that quantitative DSC MR imaging acquisitions would benefit from multiecho acquisitions. In the case of a single-echo acquisition, the optimal TE prescribed should be 30-35 ms (without a preload) and 20-30 ms (with a standard full-dose preload). © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. A GEM-TPC in twin configuration for the Super-FRS tracking of heavy ions at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, F.; Grahn, T.; Hoffmann, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kaya, C.; Kunkel, J.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Risch, H.; Rusanov, I.; Schmidt, C. J.; Simon, H.; Simons, C.; Turpeinen, R.; Voss, B.; Äystö, J.; Winkler, M.

    2018-03-01

    The GEM-TPC described herein will be part of the standard beam-diagnostics equipment of the Super-FRS. This chamber will provide tracking information for particle identification at rates up to 1 MHz on an event-by-event basis. The key requirements of operation for these chambers are: close to 100% tracking efficiency under conditions of high counting rate, spatial resolution below 1 mm and a superb large dynamic range covering projectiles from Z = 1 up to Z = 92. The current prototype consists of two GEM-TPCs inside a single vessel, which are operating independently and have electrical drift fields in opposite directions. The twin configuration is done by flipping one of the GEM-TPCs on the middle plane with respect to the second one. In order to put this development in context, the evolution of previous prototypes will be described and its performances discussed. Finally, this chamber was tested at the University of Jyväskylä accelerator with proton projectiles and at GSI with Uranium, Xenon, fragments and Carbon beams. The results obtained have shown a position resolution between 120 to 300 μm at moderate counting rate under conditions of full tracking efficiency.

  3. Determination of microplastic polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) in environmental samples using thermal analysis (TGA-DSC).

    PubMed

    Majewsky, Marius; Bitter, Hajo; Eiche, Elisabeth; Horn, Harald

    2016-10-15

    Microplastics are increasingly detected in the environment and the consequences on water resources and ecosystems are not clear to date. The present study provides a cost-effective and straightforward method to determine the mass concentrations of polymer types using thermal analysis. Characteristic endothermic phase transition temperatures were determined for seven plastic polymer types using TGA-DSC. Based on that, extracts from wastewater samples were analyzed. Results showed that among the studied polymers, only PE and PP could be clearly identified, while the phase transition signals of the other polymers largely overlap each other. Subsequently, calibration curves were run for PE and PP for qualitative measurements. 240 and 1540mg/m(3) of solid material (12µm to 1mm) was extracted from two wastewater effluent samples of a municipal WWTP of which 34% (81mg/m(3)) and 17% (257mg/m(3)) could be assigned to PE, while PP was not detected in any of the samples. The presented application of TGA-DSC provides a complementary or alternative method to FT-IR analyses for the determination of PE and PP in environmental samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Effects of Climate Change | Science Inventory | US ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Kathy Sykes provided a general overview of the health effects and the Clean Power Plan expected health benefits while Wayne Cascio discussed the health effects of wildland fires. The Surgeon General requested that the National Prevention representatives from EPA, Kathy Sykes and Wayne Cascio, provide a presentation on the health effects of climate change.

  5. Drug release studies from lipid nanoparticles in physiological media by a new DSC method.

    PubMed

    Roese, Elin; Bunjes, Heike

    2017-06-28

    Lipid nanoparticles are an interesting parenteral delivery system for poorly water-soluble drugs. In order to approach physiological conditions when conducting release studies from such systems the release media should preferentially contain lipophilic acceptor compartments such as lipoproteins or other colloidal lipophilic components. In practice, drug release studies under such close to physiological conditions may be complicated by the small size of lipid nanoparticles, which is in the same range as that of the potential acceptor particles. This study describes a novel differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method for drug release measurements which works without separation of donor and acceptor particles. The technique is based on measuring the crystallization temperature of trimyristin nanoparticles by DSC. The crystallization temperature of the nanoparticles decreases proportionally with the amount of active ingredient incorporated and thus increases as a result of drug release. Liquid trimyristin nanoparticles loaded with fenofibrate, orlistat, tocopherol acetate and ubidecarenone were studied in three different release media with increasing complexity and comparability to physiological conditions: a rapeseed oil nanoemulsion, porcine serum and porcine blood. Using the new method, a correlation between release behavior and drug lipophilicity was observed: the higher the logP value of the drug, the slower the release. The extent of drug release was influenced by partition equilibrium as indicated by increased drug release in the rapeseed oil nanoemulsion compared to porcine serum and blood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of critical molecular weight of PEO in epoxy/EPO blends as characterized by advanced DSC and solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lu, Shoudong; Sun, Pingchuan; Xue, Gi

    2013-03-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid state NMR have been used to systematically study the length scale of the miscibility and local dynamics of the epoxy resin/poly(ethylene oxide) (ER/PEO) blends with different PEO molecular weight. By DSC, we found that the diffusion behavior of PEO with different Mw is an important factor in controlling these behaviors upon curing. We further employed two-dimensional 13C-{1H}PISEMA NMR experiment to elucidate the possible weak interaction and detailed local dynamics in ER/PEO blends. The CH2O group of PEO forms hydrogen bond with hydroxyl proton of cured-ER ether group, and its local dynamics frozen by such interaction. Our finding indicates that molecular weight (Mw) of PEO is a crucial factor in controlling the miscibility, chain dynamics and hydrogen bonding interaction in these blends.

  7. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.

    2016-07-01

    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  8. Physical transformation of niclosamide solvates in pharmaceutical suspensions determined by DSC and TG analysis.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, M M; Mahlatji, M D; Malan, S F; van Tonder, E C; Liebenberg, W

    2004-07-01

    This study reports the preparation of four niclosamide solvates and the determination of the stability of the crystal forms in different suspension vehicles by DSC and TG analysis. Thermal analysis showed that the niclosamide solvates were extremely unstable in a PVP-vehicle and rapidly changed to monohydrated crystals. A suspension in propylene glycol was more stable and TG analysis showed that crystal transformation was less rapid. In this vehicle, the crystals transformed to the anhydrate, rather than the monohydrate, since the vehicle was non-aqueous. The TEG-hemisolvate was the most stable in suspension and offered the best possibility of commercial exploitation.

  9. A Literature Review of Empowerment With a Suggested Empowerment Model for the BDF

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    rights movement, feminism , and others. Potterfield (1999) indicates that through personal conversation with management and employee empowerment...corporate culture and the style of management. Potts and Sykes (1993, p.63) state: In the traditional corporate culture, policy manuals often...Connecticut, 1999. 19. Potts, T. and Sykes , A., Executive Talent, 1st ed., Irwin, Illinois, 1993. 20. Quinn, R.E. and Spreitzer, G.M., “The Road

  10. Summary of the HypHI Phase 0 experiment and future plans with FRS at GSI (FAIR Phase 0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, T. R.; Rappold, C.; Bertini, O.; Bianchin, S.; Bozkurt, V.; Geissel, H.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Kim, E.; Ma, Y.; Maas, F.; Minami, S.; Nakajima, D.; Nociforo, C.; Özel-Tashenov, B.; Pochodzalla, J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Yoshida, K.

    2016-10-01

    Results of the HypHI Phase 0 experiment with the reaction of 6Li+12C at 2 A GeV are summarised. Invariant mass distributions as well as the lifetime measurements for 3ΛH and 4ΛH are discussed. The lifetime values for both the hypernuclei are respectively observed to be 183+42-32 ps and 140+48-33 ps, being significantly shorter than those of the Λ-hyperon. Statistical analyses of existing lifetime data for 3ΛH up to 2014 confirm a significantly short lifetime of 3ΛH, which is not explained by present models. Observed hypernuclear production cross section values for 3ΛH and 4ΛH are also summarised. In addition, observed signals for the final states of d +π- and t +π- are discussed. All the discussions on the results of the HypHI Phase 0 experiment in this article are based on [1-4]. We also present a new proposed experiment with the FRS (FRagment Separator) at GSI (FAIR Phase 0) to improve the precision of the hypernuclear spectroscopy with peripheral heavy ion induced reactions.

  11. Structure and Phase Transitions of Poly (Hexamethylene p,p'-Bibenzoate) as Studied by DSC and Real-Time SAXS/WAXS Employing Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Katerska, B.; Krasteva, M.; Perez, E.

    2007-04-23

    Real-time small and wide angle X-ray scattering as well as DSC studies were carried out in order to analyzes the structure and phase transitions of liquid crystalline thermotropic poly(methylene p,p' bibenzoat)

  12. DSC, X-ray and FTIR studies of a gemfibrozil/dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex produced by co-grinding.

    PubMed

    Aigner, Z; Berkesi, O; Farkas, G; Szabó-Révész, P

    2012-01-05

    The steps of formation of an inclusion complex produced by the co-grinding of gemfibrozil and dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. The endothermic peak at 59.25°C reflecting the melting of gemfibrozil progressively disappeared from the DSC curves of the products on increase of the duration of co-grinding. The crystallinity of the samples too gradually decreased, and after 35min of co-grinding the product was totally amorphous. Up to this co-grinding time, XRPD and FTIR investigations indicated a linear correlation between the cyclodextrin complexation and the co-grinding time. After co-grinding for 30min, the ratio of complex formation did not increase. These studies demonstrated that co-grinding is a suitable method for the complexation of gemfibrozil with dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin. XRPD analysis revealed the amorphous state of the gemfibrozil-dimethyl-β-cyclodextrin product. FTIR spectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis may be useful as a semiquantitative analytical method for discriminating the molecular and amorphous states of gemfibrozil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the Diagnostic Accuracy of DSC- and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI in the Preoperative Grading of Astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T B; Cron, G O; Perdrizet, K; Bezzina, K; Torres, C H; Chakraborty, S; Woulfe, J; Jansen, G H; Sinclair, J; Thornhill, R E; Foottit, C; Zanette, B; Cameron, I G

    2015-11-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging parameters can be biased by poor measurement of the vascular input function. We have compared the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging by using a phase-derived vascular input function and "bookend" T1 measurements with DSC MR imaging for preoperative grading of astrocytomas. This prospective study included 48 patients with a new pathologic diagnosis of an astrocytoma. Preoperative MR imaging was performed at 3T, which included 2 injections of 5-mL gadobutrol for dynamic contrast-enhanced and DSC MR imaging. During dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging, both magnitude and phase images were acquired to estimate plasma volume obtained from phase-derived vascular input function (Vp_Φ) and volume transfer constant obtained from phase-derived vascular input function (K(trans)_Φ) as well as plasma volume obtained from magnitude-derived vascular input function (Vp_SI) and volume transfer constant obtained from magnitude-derived vascular input function (K(trans)_SI). From DSC MR imaging, corrected relative CBV was computed. Four ROIs were placed over the solid part of the tumor, and the highest value among the ROIs was recorded. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to test for difference between grades. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed by using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Vp_ Φ and K(trans)_Φ values were lower for grade II compared with grade III astrocytomas (P < .05). Vp_SI and K(trans)_SI were not significantly different between grade II and grade III astrocytomas (P = .08-0.15). Relative CBV and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging parameters except for K(trans)_SI were lower for grade III compared with grade IV (P ≤ .05). In differentiating low- and high-grade astrocytomas, we found no statistically significant difference in diagnostic accuracy between relative CBV and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging parameters. In the preoperative grading of astrocytomas, the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic

  14. Investigation of Phase Mixing in Amorphous Solid Dispersions of AMG 517 in HPMC-AS Using DSC, Solid-State NMR, and Solution Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Calahan, Julie L; Azali, Stephanie C; Munson, Eric J; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2015-11-02

    Intimate phase mixing between the drug and the polymer is considered a prerequisite to achieve good physical stability for amorphous solid dispersions. In this article, spray dried amorphous dispersions (ASDs) of AMG 517 and HPMC-as were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), solid-state NMR (SSNMR), and solution calorimetry. DSC analysis showed a weakly asymmetric (ΔTg ≈ 13.5) system with a single glass transition for blends of different compositions indicating phase mixing. The Tg-composition data was modeled using the BKCV equation to accommodate the observed negative deviation from ideality. Proton spin-lattice relaxation times in the laboratory and rotating frames ((1)H T1 and T1ρ), as measured by SSNMR, were consistent with the observation that the components of the dispersion were in intimate contact over a 10-20 nm length scale. Based on the heat of mixing calculated from solution calorimetry and the entropy of mixing calculated from the Flory-Huggins theory, the free energy of mixing was calculated. The free energy of mixing was found to be positive for all ASDs, indicating that the drug and polymer are thermodynamically predisposed to phase separation at 25 °C. This suggests that miscibility measured by DSC and SSNMR is achieved kinetically as the result of intimate mixing between drug and polymer during the spray drying process. This kinetic phase mixing is responsible for the physical stability of the ASD.

  15. Multivariate analysis of DSC-XRD simultaneous measurement data: a study of multistage crystalline structure changes in a linear poly(ethylene imine) thin film.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Hiroyuki; Okada, Tetsuo; Otsuka, Makoto; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Hasegawa, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    A multivariate analytical technique has been applied to the analysis of simultaneous measurement data from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to study thermal changes in crystalline structure of a linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) film. A large number of XRD patterns generated from the simultaneous measurements were subjected to an augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis, and the XRD patterns were readily decomposed into chemically independent XRD patterns and their thermal profiles were also obtained at the same time. The decomposed XRD patterns and the profiles were useful in discussing the minute peaks in the DSC. The analytical results revealed the following changes of polymorphisms in detail: An LPEI film prepared by casting an aqueous solution was composed of sesquihydrate and hemihydrate crystals. The sesquihydrate one was lost at an early stage of heating, and the film changed into an amorphous state. Once the sesquihydrate was lost by heating, it was not recovered even when it was cooled back to room temperature. When the sample was heated again, structural changes were found between the hemihydrate and the amorphous components. In this manner, the simultaneous DSC-XRD measurements combined with ALS analysis proved to be powerful for obtaining a better understanding of the thermally induced changes of the crystalline structure in a polymer film.

  16. Use of thermal analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry, quadrupole mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR) to monitor chemical properties and thermal stability of fulvic and humic acids.

    PubMed

    Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia; Skic, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetry-coupled with differential scanning calorimetry, quadrupole mass spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR)-was applied to monitor the thermal stability (in an N2 pyrolytic atmosphere) and chemical properties of natural polymers, fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA), isolated from chemically different soils. Three temperature ranges, R1, 40-220°C; R2, 220-430°C; and R3, 430-650°C, were distinguished from the DSC data, related to the main thermal processes of different structures (including transformations without weight loss). Weight loss (ΔM) estimated from TG curves at the above temperature intervals revealed distinct differences within the samples in the content of physically adsorbed water (at R1), volatile and labile functional groups (at R2) as well as recalcitrant and refractory structures (at R3). QMS and FTIR modules enabled the chemical identification (by masses and by functional groups, respectively) of gaseous species evolved during thermal decomposition at R1, R2 and R3. Variability in shape, area and temperature of TG, DSC, QMS and FTIR peaks revealed differences in thermal stability and chemical structure of the samples between the FAs and HAs fractions of different origin. The statistical analysis showed that the parameters calculated from QMS (areas of m/z = 16, 17, 18, 44), DSC (MaxDSC) and TG (ΔM) at R1, R2 and R3 correlated with selected chemical properties of the samples, such as N, O and COOH content as well as E2/E6 and E2/E4 indexes. This indicated a high potential for the coupled method to monitor the chemical changes of humic substances. A new humification parameter, HTD, based on simple calculations of weight loss at specific temperature intervals proved to be a good alternative to indexes obtained from other methods. The above findings showed that the TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR coupled technique can represent a useful tool for the comprehensive assessment of FAs and HAs properties related to their

  17. Use of thermal analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry, quadrupole mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR) to monitor chemical properties and thermal stability of fulvic and humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Sokołowska, Zofia; Skic, Kamil

    2017-01-01

    Thermogravimetry–coupled with differential scanning calorimetry, quadrupole mass spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR)–was applied to monitor the thermal stability (in an N2 pyrolytic atmosphere) and chemical properties of natural polymers, fulvic (FA) and humic acids (HA), isolated from chemically different soils. Three temperature ranges, R1, 40–220°C; R2, 220–430°C; and R3, 430–650°C, were distinguished from the DSC data, related to the main thermal processes of different structures (including transformations without weight loss). Weight loss (ΔM) estimated from TG curves at the above temperature intervals revealed distinct differences within the samples in the content of physically adsorbed water (at R1), volatile and labile functional groups (at R2) as well as recalcitrant and refractory structures (at R3). QMS and FTIR modules enabled the chemical identification (by masses and by functional groups, respectively) of gaseous species evolved during thermal decomposition at R1, R2 and R3. Variability in shape, area and temperature of TG, DSC, QMS and FTIR peaks revealed differences in thermal stability and chemical structure of the samples between the FAs and HAs fractions of different origin. The statistical analysis showed that the parameters calculated from QMS (areas of m/z = 16, 17, 18, 44), DSC (MaxDSC) and TG (ΔM) at R1, R2 and R3 correlated with selected chemical properties of the samples, such as N, O and COOH content as well as E2/E6 and E2/E4 indexes. This indicated a high potential for the coupled method to monitor the chemical changes of humic substances. A new humification parameter, HTD, based on simple calculations of weight loss at specific temperature intervals proved to be a good alternative to indexes obtained from other methods. The above findings showed that the TG-DSC-QMS-FTIR coupled technique can represent a useful tool for the comprehensive assessment of FAs and HAs properties related

  18. Dynamics of Polymorphic Transformations in Palm Oil, Palm Stearin and Palm Kernel Oil Characterized by Coupled Powder XRD-DSC.

    PubMed

    Zaliha, Omar; Elina, Hishamuddin; Sivaruby, Kanagaratnam; Norizzah, Abd Rashid; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2018-06-01

    The in situ polymorphic forms and thermal transitions of refined, bleached and deodorized palm oil (RBDPO), palm stearin (RBDPS) and palm kernel oil (RBDPKO) were investigated using coupled X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results indicated that the DSC onset crystallisation temperature of RBDPO was at 22.6°C, with a single reflection at 4.2Å started to appear from 23.4 to 17.1°C, and were followed by two prominent exothermic peaks at 20.1°C and 8.5°C respectively. Further cooling to -40°C leads to the further formation of a β'polymorph. Upon heating, a of β'→βtransformation was observed between 32.1 to 40.8°C, before the sample was completely melted at 43.0°C. The crystallization onset temperature of RBDPS was 44.1°C, with the appearance of the α polymorph at the same temperature as the appearance of the first sharp DSC exothermic peak. This quickly changed from α→β´ in the range 25 to 21.7°C, along with the formation of a small β peak at -40°C. Upon heating, a small XRD peak for the β polymorph was observed between 32.2 to 36.0°C, becoming a mixture of (β´+ β) between 44.0 to 52.5°C. Only the β polymorph survived further heating to 59.8°C. For RBDPKO, the crystallization onset temperature was 11.6°C, with the formation of a single sharp exothermic peak at 6.5°C corresponding to the β' polymorphic form until the temperature reached -40°C. No transformation of the polymorphic form was observed during the melting process of RBDPKO, before being completely melted at 33.2°C. This work has demonstrated the detailed dynamics of polymorphic transformations of PKO and PS, two commercially important hardstocks used widely by industry and will contribute to a greater understanding of their crystallization and melting dynamics.

  19. Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Perchlorate by TG/DSC-MS-FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yan-Li; Huang, Hao; Ren, Hui; Jiao, Qing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The method of thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry-mass spectrometry-Fourier transform infrared (TG/DSC-MS-FTIR) simultaneous analysis has been used to study thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). The processing of nonisothermal data at various heating rates was performed using NETZSCH Thermokinetics. The MS-FTIR spectra showed that N2O and NO2 were the main gaseous products of the thermal decomposition of AP, and there was a competition between the formation reaction of N2O and that of NO2 during the process with an iso-concentration point of N2O and NO2. The dependence of the activation energy calculated by Friedman's iso-conversional method on the degree of conversion indicated that the AP decomposition process can be divided into three stages, which are autocatalytic, low-temperature diffusion and high-temperature, stable-phase reaction. The corresponding kinetic parameters were determined by multivariate nonlinear regression and the mechanism of the AP decomposition process was proposed.

  20. DSC and EPR investigations on effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel and phospholipid within lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lingyun; Feng, Si-Shen; Kocherginsky, Nikolai; Kostetski, Iouri

    2007-06-29

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR) were applied to investigate effects of cholesterol component on molecular interactions between paclitaxel, which is one of the best antineoplastic agents found from nature, and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) within lipid bilayer vesicles (liposomes), which could also be used as a model cell membrane. DSC analysis showed that incorporation of paclitaxel into the DPPC bilayer causes a reduction in the cooperativity of bilayer phase transition, leading to a looser and more flexible bilayer structure. Including cholesterol component in the DPPC/paclitaxel mixed bilayer can facilitate the molecular interaction between paclitaxel and lipid and make the tertiary system more stable. EPR analysis demonstrated that both of paclitaxel and cholesterol have fluidization effect on the DPPC bilayer membranes although cholesterol has more significant effect than paclitaxel does. The reduction kinetics of nitroxides by ascorbic acid showed that paclitaxel can inhibit the reaction by blocking the diffusion of either the ascorbic acid or nitroxide molecules since the reaction is tested to be a first order one. Cholesterol can remarkably increase the reduction reaction speed. This research may provide useful information for optimizing liposomal formulation of the drug as well as for understanding the pharmacology of paclitaxel.

  1. Diagnostic Values of DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI for Differentiation Between High-grade and Low-grade Gliomas: A Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianye; Liu, Dexiang; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Hanwei; Shi, Changzheng; Luo, Liangping

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to collect the studies on the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and evaluate the diagnostic performances of relevant quantitative parameters in glioma grading. We systematically searched studies on the diagnosis of gliomas with DCE-MRI or DSC-MRI in Medline, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure database, Cochrane Library, and Embase published between January 2005 and December 2016. Standardized mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for volume transfer coefficient (K trans ), volume fraction of extravascular extracellular space (V e ), rate constant of backflux (K ep ), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using Review Manager 5.2 software. Sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC), and Begg test were calculated by Stata 12.0. Twenty-two studies with available outcome data were included in the analysis. The standardized mean difference of K trans values between high-grade glioma and low-grade glioma were 1.18 (0.91, 1.45); V e values were 1.43 (1.06, 1.80); K ep values were 0.65 (-0.05, 1.36); rCBV values were 1.44 (1.08, 1.81); and rCBF values were 1.17 (0.68, 1.67), respectively. The results were all significant statistically (P < .05) except K ep values (P = .07), and high-grade glioma had higher K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF values than low-grade glioma. AUC values of K trans , V e , rCBV, and rCBF were 0.90, 0.88, 0.93, and 0.73, respectively; rCBV had the largest AUC among the four parameters (P < .05). Both DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI are reliable techniques in differentiating the grades of gliomas, and rCBV was found to be the most sensitive one. Copyright © 2018 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Modified Framingham Risk Factor Score for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Urowitz, Murray B; Ibañez, Dominique; Su, Jiandong; Gladman, Dafna D

    2016-05-01

    The traditional Framingham Risk Factor Score (FRS) underestimates the risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to determine whether an adjustment to the FRS would more accurately reflect the higher prevalence of CAD among patients with SLE. Patients with SLE without a previous history of CAD or diabetes followed regularly at the University of Toronto Lupus Clinic were included. A modified FRS (mFRS) was calculated by multiplying the items by 1.5, 2, 3, or 4. In the first part of the study, using one-third of all eligible patients, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of the FRS and the different multipliers for the mFRS. In the second part of the study, using the remaining 2/3 of the eligible patients, we compared the predictive ability of the FRS to the mFRS. In the third part of the study, we assessed the prediction for CAD in a time-dependent analysis of the FRS and mFRS. There were 905 women (89.3%) with a total of 95 CAD events included. In part 1, we determined that a multiplier of 2 provided the best combination of sensitivity and specificity. In part 2, 2.4% of the patients were classified as moderate/high risk based on the classic FRS and 17.3% using the 2FRS (the FRS with a multiplier of 2). In part 3, a time-dependent covariate analysis for the prediction of the first CAD event revealed an HR of 3.22 (p = 0.07) for the classic FRS and 4.37 (p < 0.0001) for the 2FRS. An mFRS in which each item is multiplied by 2 more accurately predicts CAD in patients with SLE.

  3. Walter Laing Macdonald Perry KT OBE, Barron Perry of Walton, 21 June 1921 - 17 July 2003.

    PubMed

    Kelly, John S; Horlock, John H

    2004-01-01

    Lord Perry of Walton died suddenly on 17 July 2003, at the age of 82 years. Walter Laing Macdonald Perry was a native of Dundee, educated at Morgan Academy Dundee, Ayr Academy, Dundee High School and St Andrews University (MB ChB, MD and DSc), winning the Rutherford Silver Medal for his MD thesis and the Sykes Gold Medal for his DSc thesis. After Casaulty Officer and House Surgeon posts in 1943-44, he served as a Medical Officer in the Colonial Medical Service in Nigeria in 1944-46, then briefly as a Medical Officer in the RAF, 1946-47, before embarking on a scientific career on the staff of the Medical Research COuncil at the National Institute for Medical Research from 1947 to 1958, serving as Director of the Department of Biological Standards from 1952 to 1958. Professionally, he achieved MRCP (ED) in 1963 and was elected FRCPE in 1967, FRCP in 1978, FRSE in 1960 and FRS in 1985. In 1958 he came to Edinburgh as Professor of Pharmacology, holding the Chair from 1958 to 1968. During this time he also served as Dean of the Faculty of Medicine (1965-67) and Vice-Principal of the University (1967-68) before leaving to become the inaugural Vice-Chancellor of the Open University in 1968, a post he held until 1980. During this period at the Open University he developed a second distinguish career as a university administrator and a promotor and facilitator of open and distance learning, in which fields he later performed extensive work on behalf of the United Nations. A third career, in politics and public life, began with his ennoblement to a life peerage in 1979, taking the title of Walton in the County of Buckinghamshire, the initial base of the Open University. Latterly Walter sat as a Liberal Democrat, having twice been Social Democratic Party deputy leader in the Lords in the 1980s. He took an active role in the Lords' Select Committee on Science and Technology and held interests in and spoke on many areas of public policy, including fisheries policy. Recognition

  4. Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM

    PubMed Central

    Fini, Adamo; Cavallari, Cristina; Ospitali, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation. PMID:27721347

  5. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion MRI in differential diagnosis between radionecrosis and neoangiogenesis in cerebral metastases using rCBV, rCBF and K2.

    PubMed

    Muto, Mario; Frauenfelder, Giulia; Senese, Rossana; Zeccolini, Fabio; Schena, Emiliano; Giurazza, Francesco; Jäger, Hans Rolf

    2018-07-01

    Distinction between treatment-related changes and tumour recurrence in patients who have received radiation treatment for brain metastases can be difficult on conventional MRI. In this study, we investigated the ability of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion in differentiating necrotic changes from pathological angiogenesis and compared measurements of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and K2, using a dedicated software. Twenty-nine patients with secondary brain tumors were included in this retrospective study and underwent DSC perfusion MRI with a 3-month follow-up imaging after chemo- or radiation-therapy. Region-of-interests were drawn around the contrast enhancing lesions and measurements of rCBV, rCBF and K2 were performed in all patients. Based on subsequent histological examination or clinico-radiological follow-up, the cohort was divided in two groups: recurrent disease and stable disease. Differences between the two groups were analyzed using the Student's t test. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of rCBV measurements were analyzed considering three different cut-off values. Between patients with and without disease, only rCBV and rCBF values were significant (p < 0.05). The only cut-off value giving the best diagnostic accuracy of 100% was rCBV = 2.1 (sensitivity = 100%; specificity = 100%). Patients with tumor recurrence showed a higher mean value of rCBV (mean = 4.28, standard deviation = 2.09) than patients with necrotic-related changes (mean = 0.77, standard deviation = 0.44). DSC-MRI appears a clinically useful method to differentiate between tumor recurrence, tumor necrosis and pseudoprogression in patients treated for cerebral metastases. Relative CBV using a cut-off value of 2.1 proved to be the most accurate and reliable parameter.

  6. Inclusion complexes of cypermethrin and permethrin with monochlorotriazinyl-beta-cyclodextrin: A combined spectroscopy, TG/DSC and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Qi; You, Bin; Zhou, Shuli; Chen, Meng; Wang, Yujiao; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The suitable size hydrophobic cavity and monochlorotriazinyl group as a reactive anchor make MCT-β-CD to be widely used in fabric finishing. In this paper, the inclusion complexes of monochlorotriazinyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCT-β-CD) with cypermethrin (CYPERM) and permethrin (PERM) are synthesized and analyzed by TG/DSC, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. TG/DSC reveals that the decomposed temperatures of inclusion complexes are lower by 25-30 °C than that of physical mixtures. DFT calculations in conjunction with FT-IR and Raman spectral analyses are used to study the structures of MCT-β-CD and their inclusion complexes. Four isomers of trisubstituted MCT-β-CD are designed and DFT calculations reveal that 1,3,5-trisubstituted MCT-β-CD has the lowest energy and can be considered as main component of MCT-β-CD. The ground-state geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, IR and Raman intensities of MCT-β-CD and their inclusion complexes were calculated at B3LYP/6-31G (d) level of theory. Upon examining the optimized geometry of inclusion complex, we find that the CYPERM and PERM are inserted into the toroid of MCT-β-CD from the larger opening. The band at 1646 cm-1 in IR and at 1668 cm-1 in Raman spectrum reveals that monochloroazinyl group of MCT-β-CD exists in ketone form but not in anion form. The noticeable IR and Raman shift of phenyl reveals that these two benzene rings of CYPERM and PERM stays inside the cavity of MCT-β-CD and has weak interaction with MCT-β-CD. This spectroscopy conclusion is consistent with theoretical predicted structure.

  7. Automated external defibrillator (AED) utilization rates and reasons fire and police first responders did not apply AEDs.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E Brooke; Billittier, Anthony J; Newman, Mary M; Groh, William J

    2002-01-01

    To determine the rate at which fire and police first responders (FRs) apply automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and to ascertain reasons for not applying them. Twenty-one emergency medical services (EMS) systems whose FRs had been supplied with AEDs by a philanthropic foundation provided data for all out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Data including the incidence of AED application and explanations for not applying AEDs were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 2,456 OHCAs were reported. AED application information was available for 2,439 patients and revealed that FRs had not applied AEDs to 1,025 patients (42%). Fire FRs were more likely than police FRs to have applied AEDs (relative risk 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.65-2.12). Reasons for not applying AEDs were listed for 664 (65%) of the OHCA patients to whom AEDs had not been applied. The predominant reason the FRs did not apply an AED was that the transporting ambulance defibrillator had already been applied (74%). However, when response times for FRs and the transporting ambulances were compared for these OHCA patients, it was found that the transporting ambulances arrived after the FRs 23% the time, simultaneously with the FRs 45% of the time, and before the FRs only 32% of the time. Fire and police FRs did not apply AEDs to a significant number of OHCA patients. Use of the transport ambulance defibrillator was the primary reason given for not applying the FR AED. Given low AED application rates by FRs, future studies are needed to determine the characteristics of communities in which equipping FRs with AEDs is the most beneficial deployment strategy, and how to increase AED application by FRs in communities with FR AED programs.

  8. A Serious Game for Massive Training and Assessment of French Soldiers Involved in Forward Combat Casualty Care (3D-SC1): Development and Deployment.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Pierre; Mérat, Stéphane; Malgras, Brice; Petit, Ludovic; Queran, Xavier; Bay, Christian; Boutonnet, Mathieu; Jault, Patrick; Ausset, Sylvain; Auroy, Yves; Perez, Jean Paul; Tesnière, Antoine; Pons, François; Mignon, Alexandre

    2016-05-18

    The French Military Health Service has standardized its military prehospital care policy in a ''Sauvetage au Combat'' (SC) program (Forward Combat Casualty Care). A major part of the SC training program relies on simulations, which are challenging and costly when dealing with more than 80,000 soldiers. In 2014, the French Military Health Service decided to develop and deploy 3D-SC1, a serious game (SG) intended to train and assess soldiers managing the early steps of SC. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation and production of 3D-SC1 and to present its deployment. A group of 10 experts and the Paris Descartes University Medical Simulation Department spin-off, Medusims, coproduced 3D-SC1. Medusims are virtual medical experiences using 3D real-time videogame technology (creation of an environment and avatars in different scenarios) designed for educational purposes (training and assessment) to simulate medical situations. These virtual situations have been created based on real cases and tested on mannequins by experts. Trainees are asked to manage specific situations according to best practices recommended by SC, and receive a score and a personalized feedback regarding their performance. The scenario simulated in the SG is an attack on a patrol of 3 soldiers with an improvised explosive device explosion as a result of which one soldier dies, one soldier is slightly stunned, and the third soldier experiences a leg amputation and other injuries. This scenario was first tested with mannequins in military simulation centers, before being transformed into a virtual 3D real-time scenario using a multi-support, multi-operating system platform, Unity. Processes of gamification and scoring were applied, with 2 levels of difficulty. A personalized debriefing was integrated at the end of the simulations. The design and production of the SG took 9 months. The deployment, performed in 3 months, has reached 84 of 96 (88%) French Army units, with a total of 818

  9. Schneiderian First Rank Symptoms and Gamma Oscillatory Activity in Neuroleptic Naïve First Episode Schizophrenia: A 192 Channel EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shailly; Nizamie, Shamusul Haque; Das, Basudeb; Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Goyal, Nishant

    2014-01-01

    Objective Schneiderian first-rank symptoms (FRS) and abnormal EEG gamma activity in schizophrenia have been reported independently to have a neurodevelopmental basis. We aimed to investigate spontaneous gamma power in two groups of first episode schizophrenia patients (those who experience FRS and those who do not). Methods A comparative hospital based study having 37neuroleptic naïve male patients with schizophrenia divided into two groups-FRS(+) and FRS(-) groups based on the presence of FRS. Thirty age, sex, education and handedness matched individuals served as controls (N). All participants underwent a 192-channel resting Electroencephalography (EEG) recording. Gamma spectral power was calculated for low- (30-50 Hz) and high-gamma 1 & 2 (51-70 and 71-100 Hz) bands. Spectral power was compared between three groups using MANOVA and supplementary one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni test controlling for multiple comparisons. Linear regression was used to identifying predictor variables for FRS. Pearson correlation coefficient was computed between spectral power parameters and various clinical variables. Results Significantly higher high gamma band-1 power was observed over right frontal (p<0.05), parietal (p<0.05) and temporal (p<0.05) regions in FRS(+) than FRS(-) group and normal controls. Right parietal high gamma-1 power and paranoid cluster on PANSS significantly predicted number of FRS in total schizophrenia patients; paranoid cluster on PANSS showed significant correlation with number of FRS in FRS(+) group. Conclusion Findings of our study add to the evidence that areas contained within the hetero modal association cortex are associated with FRS. The study findings also strengthen the neurodevelopmental basis of FRS in schizophrenia. PMID:25395979

  10. Fungal Rhinosinusitis: A Retrospective Microbiologic and Pathologic Review of 400 Patients at a Single University Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Montone, Kathleen T.; Livolsi, Virginia A.; Feldman, Michael D.; Palmer, James; Chiu, Alexander G.; Lanza, Donald C.; Kennedy, David W.; Loevner, Laurie A.; Nachamkin, Irving

    2012-01-01

    Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is a well known entity, but only in more recent times have the types of FRS been more fully defined. In this study, we evaluate the diagnosis of FRS in a single medical center. Cases were divided into 2 main categories, non-invasive and invasive. Non-invasive FRS included fungus ball (FB) and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS). Invasive FRS included acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS), chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (CIFRS), and chronic invasive granulomatous fungal rhinosinusitis (CGFRS). Fungal culture data, if available was reviewed. 400 patients with FRS were identified. 87.25% were non-invasive (45% AFRS, 40% FB, and 2% combined AFRS and FB and 12.5% were invasive 11% AIFRS 1.2% CIFRS 0.5% CGFRS. One patient (0.25%) had combined FB/CGFRS. Aspergillus sp. or dematiaceous species were the most common fungi isolated in AFS while Aspergillus sp. was most common in FB and AIFRS. In our experience, most FRS is non-invasive. In our patient population, invasive FRS is rare with AIFRS representing >90% of cases. Culture data supports that a variety of fungal agents are responsible for FRS, but Aspergillus sp. appears to be one of the most common organisms in patients with FRS. PMID:22518160

  11. Disturbance of Intentionality: A Phenomenological Study of Body-Affecting First-Rank Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Thomann, Philipp Arthur; Fuchs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objectives In 1950, Kurt Schneider proposed that a considerable number of schizophrenia patients develop first-rank symptoms (FRS). In such cases, patients report made experiences, replaced control of will, thought insertion, broadcast or withdrawal and delusional perception, respectively. Although a number of recent studies tend to explain FRS in terms of neurobiological and neuropsychological processes, the origin of these symptoms still remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the subjective experience of patients with the following two FRS: (1) "made" impulses and (2) “made" volitional acts. Method The method applied for the study of two FRS consists first in the overview of psychiatric and philosophical literature and second in the further investigation of subjective experience in patients with FRS. Psychopathological and phenomenological aspects of FRS are discussed by means of patient cases. Results We discovered a profound transformation of intentionality and agency in schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS. This concept offers an insight into the interrelatedness between particular FRS. Conclusion We propose that the subjective experience of schizophrenia patients with body-affecting FRS is rooted in the disturbance of intentionality and diminished sense of agency. This theoretical account of body-affecting FRS will open up new directions in both phenomenological and neurobiological psychiatric research. PMID:24019932

  12. A comparative study of basal metabolism and thermoregulation in a folivorous (Colobus guereza) and an omnivorous (Cercopithecus mitis) primate species.

    PubMed

    Müller, E F; Kamau, J M; Maloiy, G M

    1983-01-01

    1. Abdominal temperatures (Tab) and oxygen consumption (VO2) were measured in two males each of colobus and Sykes monkeys. 2. Tab in both species had the same range (36 38.5 C), but there were marked differences in the daily rhythms. 3. Low ambient temperatures (Ta) had little effect on Tab; at Ta = 33.5 35.5 C. however, Tab rose quickly to above 40 C. 4. The thermoneutral zone (TNZ) extended from about 5 to 28 C in both species. 5. In the colobus monkeys the basal metabolic rate (BMR) was considerably lower than in the Sykes monkeys: 85% vs 113% of the value predicted from body mass.

  13. Comparison of two DSC-based methods to predict drug-polymer solubility.

    PubMed

    Rask, Malte Bille; Knopp, Matthias Manne; Olesen, Niels Erik; Holm, René; Rades, Thomas

    2018-04-05

    The aim of the present study was to compare two DSC-based methods to predict drug-polymer solubility (melting point depression method and recrystallization method) and propose a guideline for selecting the most suitable method based on physicochemical properties of both the drug and the polymer. Using the two methods, the solubilities of celecoxib, indomethacin, carbamazepine, and ritonavir in polyvinylpyrrolidone, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and Soluplus® were determined at elevated temperatures and extrapolated to room temperature using the Flory-Huggins model. For the melting point depression method, it was observed that a well-defined drug melting point was required in order to predict drug-polymer solubility, since the method is based on the depression of the melting point as a function of polymer content. In contrast to previous findings, it was possible to measure melting point depression up to 20 °C below the glass transition temperature (T g ) of the polymer for some systems. Nevertheless, in general it was possible to obtain solubility measurements at lower temperatures using polymers with a low T g . Finally, for the recrystallization method it was found that the experimental composition dependence of the T g must be differentiable for compositions ranging from 50 to 90% drug (w/w) so that one T g corresponds to only one composition. Based on these findings, a guideline for selecting the most suitable thermal method to predict drug-polymer solubility based on the physicochemical properties of the drug and polymer is suggested in the form of a decision tree. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Study of the diagnostic specificity by Schneider's first rank symptoms].

    PubMed

    Wu, Y

    1990-04-01

    This study rediscussed the prevalence of Schneider's first rank symptoms (FRS) in 132 patients with mental diseases and the specificity and the sensitivity of FRS for schizophrenia. Results showed: In the absence of organic or toxic etiology, the specificity of FRS for schizophrenia as opposed to manicdepressive psychosis, was 93%. The sensitivity of FRS for Schizophrenia was 72.9%.

  15. Investigating Body Image Disturbance in Anorexia Nervosa Using Novel Biometric Figure Rating Scales: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mölbert, Simone C; Thaler, Anne; Streuber, Stephan; Black, Michael J; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Zipfel, Stephan; Mohler, Betty; Giel, Katrin E

    2017-11-01

    This study uses novel biometric figure rating scales (FRS) spanning body mass index (BMI) 13.8 to 32.2 kg/m 2 and BMI 18 to 42 kg/m 2 . The aims of the study were (i) to compare FRS body weight dissatisfaction and perceptual distortion of women with anorexia nervosa (AN) to a community sample; (ii) how FRS parameters are associated with questionnaire body dissatisfaction, eating disorder symptoms and appearance comparison habits; and (iii) whether the weight spectrum of the FRS matters. Women with AN (n = 24) and a community sample of women (n = 104) selected their current and ideal body on the FRS and completed additional questionnaires. Women with AN accurately picked the body that aligned best with their actual weight in both FRS. Controls underestimated their BMI in the FRS 14-32 and were accurate in the FRS 18-42. In both FRS, women with AN desired a body close to their actual BMI and controls desired a thinner body. Our observations suggest that body image disturbance in AN is unlikely to be characterized by a visual perceptual disturbance, but rather by an idealization of underweight in conjunction with high body dissatisfaction. The weight spectrum of FRS can influence the accuracy of BMI estimation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Elaboration, structural, spectroscopy, DSC investigations and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a one-dimensional self-assembled organic-inorganic hybrid compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesbeh, Radhia; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha

    2017-01-01

    The new organic-inorganic hybrid of the formula [H2mela]Cu2Cl6, where mela = 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine, has been synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6-triamine and copper(II) chloride dihydrate in the presence of hydrochloric acid. This compound has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis and characterized by FT-IR, Raman, NMR characterization, differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis, dielectric measurements and Hirshfeld surface. 1,3,5-triazinidium-2,4,6-triamine hexachlorodicuprate(II) crystallizes in the monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The final refinement of the structure of the program led to the reliability factors unweighted R1 = 3.53% and weighted WR2 = 8.87%. The observed internal C3sbnd N31sbnd C1 and C3sbnd N23sbnd C2 angle (121.5 and 121.4°) at protanated N-atom are significantly greater the other ring angle C1sbnd N12sbnd C2 (117.1°). The titled compound crystallizes as an organic-inorganic one-dimensional (1D) structure. The crystal structure was stabilized by two types of hydrogen bonding Nsbnd H⋯Cl and Nsbnd H⋯N. The infrared spectra was recorded in the 4000-400 cm-1 frequency region and the Raman spectra was recorded in the external region of the anionic sublattice vibration 4000-50 cm-1 at room temperature. Solid-state 13C and 63Cu MAS-NMR spectroscopies are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) show the presence of a structural phase transition of the title compound at 338 K. Hirshfeld surface analyses for visually analyzing intermolecular interactions in crystal structures employing molecular surface contours and 2D fingerprint plots have been used to examine molecular shapes.

  17. Validation of a T1 and T2* leakage correction method based on multi-echo DSC-MRI using MION as a reference standard

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ashley M.; Semmineh, Natenael; Quarles, C. Chad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A combined biophysical- and pharmacokinetic-based method is proposed to separate, quantify, and correct for both T1 and T2* leakage effects using dual-echo DSC acquisitions to provide more accurate hemodynamic measures, as validated by a reference intravascular contrast agent (CA). Methods Dual-echo DSC-MRI data were acquired in two rodent glioma models. The T1 leakage effects were removed and also quantified in order to subsequently correct for the remaining T2* leakage effects. Pharmacokinetic, biophysical, and combined biophysical and pharmacokinetic models were used to obtain corrected cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF), and these were compared with CBV and CBF from an intravascular CA. Results T1-corrected CBV was significantly overestimated compared to MION CBV, while T1+T2*-correction yielded CBV values closer to the reference values. The pharmacokinetic and simplified biophysical methods showed similar results and underestimated CBV in tumors exhibiting strong T2* leakage effects. The combined method was effective for correcting T1 and T2* leakage effects across tumor types. Conclusions Correcting for both T1 and T2* leakage effects yielded more accurate measures of CBV. The combined correction method yields more reliable CBV measures than either correction method alone, but for certain brain tumor types (e.g., gliomas) the simplified biophysical method may provide a robust and computationally efficient alternative. PMID:26362714

  18. Azide derivatized anticancer agents of Vitamin K 3: X-ray structural, DSC, resonance spectral and API studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badave, Kirti; Patil, Yogesh; Gonnade, Rajesh; Srinivas, Darbha; Dasgupta, Rajan; Khan, Ayesha; Rane, Sandhya

    2011-12-01

    Compound 1 [1-imino (acetyl hydrazino)-Vitamin K 3], displays valence tautomerically related electronic isomers as Form I and Form II. Form I exhibits 2D packing fragment with 1D ribbon chains of N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and shows EPR silent features. While Form II is EPR active and exhibits biradical nature with double quantum transitions at g = 2.0040. 1H NMR of compound 2, [1-imino (hydrazino carboxylate)-Vitamin K 3] and Form II exhibit π delocalization via resonance assisted H-bonding [RAHB] effect compared to Form I. Molecular interactions in Form I and II are visualized by DSC. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 have been correlated to their API values by measuring anticancer activities, mitochondrial potentials and DNA shearing patterns. Form II and compound 2 indicate mitochondria mediated apoptosis (˜75% cell death) while Form I causes 35% cell death.

  19. Use of DSC and DMA to Study Rubber Crystallization as a Possible Cause for a Tear in a Neoprene Glove Used in a Space Shuttle Pressurized Astronaut Suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Doug

    2009-01-01

    The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) is a pressurized suit normally worn by astronauts during launch and landing phases of Space Shuttle operations. In 2008, a large tear (0.5 -1 in. long, between the pinky and ring finger) in the ACES left-hand glove made of neoprene latex rubber was found during training for Shuttle flight STS-124. An investigation to help determine the cause(s) of the glove tear was headed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas. Efforts at JSC to reproduce the actual glove tear pattern by cutting/tearing or rupturing were unsuccessful. Chemical and material property data from JSC such as GC-MS, FTIR, DSC and TGA mostly showed little differences between samples from the torn and control gloves. One possible cause for the glove tear could be a wedding ring/band worn by a male astronaut. Even with a smooth edge, such a ring could scratch the material and initiate the tear observed in the left-hand glove. A decision was later made by JSC to not allow the wearing of such a ring during training or actual flight. Another possible cause for the ACES glove tear is crystallinity induced by strain in the neoprene rubber over a long period of time and use. Neoprene is one several elastomeric materials known to be susceptible to crystallization, and such a process is accelerated with exposure of the material to cold temperatures plus strain. When the temperature is lowered below room temperature, researchers have shown that neoprene crystallization may be maintained at temperatures as high as 45-50 F, with a maximum crystallization rate near 20-25 F (1). A convenient conditioning temperature for inducing neoprene crystallization is a typical freezer that is held near 0 F. For work at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), samples were cut from several areas/locations (pinky/ring finger crotch, index finger and palm) on each of two pairs of unstrained ACES gloves for DSC and DMA thermal analysis testing. The samples were conditioned

  20. Poly(fumaric-co-sebacic anhydride). A degradation study as evaluated by FTIR, DSC, GPC and X-ray diffraction.

    PubMed

    Santos, C A; Freedman, B D; Leach, K J; Press, D L; Scarpulla, M; Mathiowitz, E

    1999-06-28

    The degradation of three poly(fumaric-co-sebacic anhydride) [P(FA:SA)] copolymers is examined in a composition of microspheres made by the hot melt encapsulation process. The emergence of low molecular weight oligomers occurs during degradation of the copolymer microspheres, as evidenced by a variety of characterization methods. Characterization was conducted to determine the extent of degradation of the polyanhydride microspheres using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction. It is demonstrated that degradation of P(FA:SA) is greatly accelerated at basic pH, yet there is little difference between degradation in neutral and acidic buffers. A good correlation exists between the results of each characterization method, which allows a better understanding of the degradation process and the resulting formation of low molecular weight oligomers in poly(fumaric-co-sebacic anhydride).

  1. Some considerations on the vibrational environment of the DSC-DCMIX1 experiment onboard ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, R.; Gavaldà, Jna.; Simón, M. J.; Pallarés, J.; Laverón-Simavilla, A.; Ruiz, X.; Shevtsova, V.

    2016-12-01

    The present work attempts to characterize the accelerometric environment of the DSC-DCMIX1 thermodiffusion experiment carried out in the International Space Station, from November 7th 2011 until January 16th 2012. Quasi-steady and vibrational/transient data coming from MAMS and SAMS2 sensors have been downloaded from the database of the PIMS NASA website. To be as exhaustive as possible, simultaneous digital signals coming from different SAMS2 sensors located in the Destiny and Columbus modules have also been considered. In order to detect orbital adjustments, dockings, undockings, as well as, quiescent periods, when the experiment runs were active, we have used the quasi-steady eight hours averaged (XA, YA and ZA) acceleration functions as well as the eight hours RMS ones. To determine the spectral contents of the different signals the Thomson multitaper and Welch methods have been used. On the other hand, to suppress the high levels of noise always existing in the raw SAMS2 signals, denoising techniques have been preferred for comparative reboostings considerations. Finally, the RMS values for specific 1/3 octave frequency bands showed that the International Space Station vibratory limit requirements have not been totally accomplished during both quiescent periods and strong disturbances, specially in the low frequency range.

  2. [Neuronal activity of monkey dorso-lateral premotor cortex during tasks of figure recognition guided motor sequence vs memorized spatial motor sequence].

    PubMed

    Chen, Y C; Huang, F D; Chen, N H; Shou, J Y; Wu, L

    1998-04-01

    In the last 2-3 decades the role of the premotor cortex (PM) of monkey in memorized spatial sequential (MSS) movements has been amply investigated. However, it is as yet not known whether PM participates in the movement sequence behaviour guided by recognition of visual figures (i.e. the figure-recognition sequence, FRS). In the present work three monkeys were trained to perform both FRS and MSS tasks. Postmortem examination showed that 202 cells were in the dorso-lateral premotor cortex. Among 111 cells recorded during the two tasks, more than 50% changed their activity during the cue periods in either task. During the response period, the ratios of cells with changes of firing rate in both FRS and MSS were high and roughly equal to each other, while during the image period, the proportion in the FRS (83.7%) was significantly higher than that in the MSS (66.7%). Comparison of neuronal activities during same motor sequence of two different tasks showed that during the image periods PM neuronal activities were more closely related to the FRS task, while during the cue periods no difference could be found. Analysis of cell responses showed that the neurons with longer latency were much more in MSS than in FRS in either cue or image period. The present results indicate that the premotor cortex participates in FRS motor sequence as well as in MSS and suggest that the dorso-lateral PM represents another subarea in function shared by both FRS and MSS tasks. However, in view of the differences of PM neuronal responses in cue or image periods of FRS and MSS tasks, it seems likely that neural networks involved in FRS and MSS tasks are different.

  3. Automatic twin vessel recrystallizer. Effective purification of acetaminophen by successive automatic recrystallization and absolute determination of purity by DSC.

    PubMed

    Nara, Osamu

    2011-01-24

    I describe an interchangeable twin vessel (J, N) automatic glass recrystallizer that eliminates the time-consuming recovery and recycling of crystals for repeated recrystallization. The sample goes in the dissolution vessel J containing a magnetic stir-bar K; J is clamped to the upper joint H of recrystallizer body D. Empty crystallization vessel N is clamped to the lower joint M. Pure solvent is delivered to the dissolution vessel and the crystallization vessel via the head of the condenser A. Crystallization vessel is heated (P). The dissolution reservoir is stirred and heated by the solvent vapor (F). Continuous outflow of filtrate E out of J keeps N at a stable boiling temperature. This results in efficient dissolution, evaporation and separation of pure crystals Q. Pure solvent in the dissolution reservoir is recovered by suction. Empty dissolution and crystallization vessels are detached. Stirrer magnet is transferred to the crystallization vessel and the role of the vessels are then reversed. Evacuating mother liquor out of the upper twin vessel, the apparatus unit is ready for the next automatic recrystallization by refilling twin vessels with pure solvent. We show successive automatic recrystallization of acetaminophen from diethyl ether obtaining acetaminophen of higher melting temperatures than USP and JP reference standards by 8× automatic recrystallization, 96% yield at each stage. Also, I demonstrate a novel approach to the determination of absolute purity by combining the successive automatic recrystallization with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement requiring no reference standards. This involves the measurement of the criterial melting temperature T(0) corresponding to the 100% pure material and quantitative ΔT in DSC based on the van't Hoff law of melting point depression. The purity of six commercial acetaminophen samples and reference standards and an eight times recrystallized product evaluated were 98.8 mol%, 97.9 mol%, 99

  4. Flame Retardant Chemicals in College Dormitories: Flammability Standards Influence Dust Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Robin E; Rodgers, Kathryn M; Carey, Gale; Cedeno Laurent, Jose Guillermo; Covaci, Adrian; Poma, Giulia; Malarvannan, Govindan; Spengler, John D; Rudel, Ruthann A; Allen, Joseph G

    2017-05-02

    Furniture flammability standards are typically met with chemical flame retardants (FRs). FRs can migrate out of products into dust and are linked to cancer, neurological impairment, and endocrine disruption. We collected 95 dust samples from dormitory common areas and student rooms on two U.S. college campuses adhering to two different furniture flammability standards: Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117) and Technical Bulletin 133 (TB133). Because TB133 requires furniture to withstand a much-more-demanding test flame than TB117, we hypothesized that spaces with TB133 furniture would have higher levels of FRs in dust. We found all 47 targeted FRs, including 12 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, 19 other brominated FRs, 11 phosphorus FRs (PFRs), 2 Dechlorane-Plus (DP) isomers, and 3 hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) isomers in the 95 dust samples. We measured the highest reported U.S. concentrations for a number of FRs, including BDE 209 (up to 990 000 ng/g), which may be used to meet the TB133 standard. We prioritized 16 FRs and analyzed levels in relation to flammability standard as well as presence and age of furniture and electronics. Adherence to TB133 was associated with higher concentrations of BDE 209, decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), DPs, and HBCDD compared to adherence to TB117 in univariate models (p < 0.05). Student dormitory rooms tended to have higher levels of some FRs compared to common rooms, likely a result of the density of furniture and electronics. As flammability standards are updated, it is critical to understand their impact on exposure and health risks.

  5. Thermal characterization and model free kinetics of aged epoxies and foams using TGA and DSC methods.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel; Kruizenga, Alan Michael; Nissen, April

    2013-10-01

    Two classes of materials, poly(methylene diphenyl diisocyanate) or PMDI foam, and cross-linked epoxy resins, were characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), to help understand the effects of aging and %E2%80%9Cbake-out%E2%80%9D. The materials were evaluated for mass loss and the onset of decomposition. In some experiments, volatile materials released during heating were analyzed via mass spectroscopy. In all, over twenty materials were evaluated to compare the mass loss and onset temperature for decomposition. Model free kinetic (MFK) measurements, acquired using variable heating rate TGA experiments, were used to calculate the apparent activation energy of thermal decomposition.more » From these compiled data the effects of aging, bake-out, and sample history on the thermal stability of materials were compared. No significant differences between aged and unaged materials were detected. Bake-out did slightly affect the onset temperature of decomposition but only at the highest bake-out temperatures. Finally, some recommendations for future handling are made.« less

  6. Flame retardants: Dust - And not food - Might be the risk.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J; Ballesteros-Gómez, A; Leslie, H A; Brandsma, S H; Leonards, P E G

    2016-05-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are used to delay ignition of materials such as furniture and electric and electronic instruments. Many FRs are persistent and end up in the environment. Environmental studies on flame retardants (FRs) took off in the late 1990s. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) appeared to be bioaccumulative and were found in many organisms all over the world. When PBDEs were banned or their production voluntarily terminated, alternatives appeared on the market that often had similar properties or were of more concern due to their toxicity such as halogenated phosphorus-based FRs. Here we show that in spite of the ban on PBDEs more brominated FRs are being produced, an increasing number of other FRs is being applied and FR levels in our homes are much higher than in the outdoor environment. While nowadays we live in better isolated houses and sit in front of the computer or television, on flame retarded upholstery, we are at risk due to the toxic effects of a suite of FRs. The high exposure to these substances indoors calls for better risk assessments that include mixture effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bidirectional Contrast agent leakage correction of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)-MRI improves cerebral blood volume estimation and survival prediction in recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Leu, Kevin; Boxerman, Jerrold L; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Pope, Whitney B; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate a leakage correction algorithm for T 1 and T2* artifacts arising from contrast agent extravasation in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) that accounts for bidirectional contrast agent flux and compare relative cerebral blood volume (CBV) estimates and overall survival (OS) stratification from this model to those made with the unidirectional and uncorrected models in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We determined median rCBV within contrast-enhancing tumor before and after bevacizumab treatment in patients (75 scans on 1.5T, 19 scans on 3.0T) with recurrent GBM without leakage correction and with application of the unidirectional and bidirectional leakage correction algorithms to determine whether rCBV stratifies OS. Decreased post-bevacizumab rCBV from baseline using the bidirectional leakage correction algorithm significantly correlated with longer OS (Cox, P = 0.01), whereas rCBV change using the unidirectional model (P = 0.43) or the uncorrected rCBV values (P = 0.28) did not. Estimates of rCBV computed with the two leakage correction algorithms differed on average by 14.9%. Accounting for T 1 and T2* leakage contamination in DSC-MRI using a two-compartment, bidirectional rather than unidirectional exchange model might improve post-bevacizumab survival stratification in patients with recurrent GBM. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;44:1229-1237. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  8. Kinetics of Cold-Cap Reactions for Vitrification of Nuclear Waste Glass Based on Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry - Thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and Evolved Gas Analysis (EGA)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Pierce, David A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2013-12-03

    For vitrifying nuclear waste glass, the feed, a mixture of waste with glass-forming and modifying additives, is charged onto the cold cap that covers 90-100% of the melt surface. The cold cap consists of a layer of reacting molten glass floating on the surface of the melt in an all-electric, continuous glass melter. As the feed moves through the cold cap, it undergoes chemical reactions and phase transitions through which it is converted to molten glass that moves from the cold cap into the melt pool. The process involves a series of reactions that generate multiple gases and subsequent massmore » loss and foaming significantly influence the mass and heat transfers. The rate of glass melting, which is greatly influenced by mass and heat transfers, affects the vitrification process and the efficiency of the immobilization of nuclear waste. We studied the cold-cap reactions of a representative waste glass feed using both the simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry thermogravimetry (DSC-TGA) and the thermogravimetry coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (TGA-GC-MS) as complementary tools to perform evolved gas analysis (EGA). Analyses from DSC-TGA and EGA on the cold-cap reactions provide a key element for the development of an advanced cold-cap model. It also helps to formulate melter feeds for higher production rate.« less

  9. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' [1], and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John realised that he should explore the properties of pseudopotentials in depth. This had never been done before, and the result was a paper of typical originality. The story of how John explored truly original aspects of physics, right from the start of his research career, is given by Volker Heine (in his own inimitable style), at the end of this short biography. Of course the result of John's PhD research was his development of the entire methodology for computing and interpreting LEED intensities, and their relationship to surface atomic structure. With experiments performed by Stig Andersson in Gothenburg, John's calculations led to the first ever surface structure determination, of Na adsorbed in a c(2 x 2) structure on Ni(001) [2]. His 1974 book, 'Low Energy Electron Diffraction' [3], remains a classic, and not only for LEED theorists—there is plenty of other surface science here to get one's teeth into. John extended the theory of LEED in the 1980s with the introduction of several new theoretical techniques and concepts. The Pendry R-factor [4] enabled surface structure determination to be largely automated, and quantified agreement between LEED theory and experiment. Tensor-LEED was developed by John, together with his PhD student Philip Rous [5], as an accurate approximation for calculating the LEED spectra of complex surface structures, enabling structures of hitherto impossible complexity to be determined. The methods of DLEED—both the experimental technique and its theoretical interpretation—were developed with Saldin, Van Hove and the Erlangen group of Heinz and Müller [6, 7]; this is a technique for interpreting electron scattering from atoms randomly adsorbed on surfaces, hence determining their bonding to neighbouring atoms. LEED experiments and calculations continue to this day, of course, with John's contribution remaining fundamental. Articles in this issue by John's former PhD student Michel Van Hove, his one-time post-doc Dilano Saldin, and his long-standing collaborator Klaus Heinz, illustrate the power of LEED in determining surface structure. And everywhere in the surface science literature you will see the Pendry R-factor quoted, as a measure of the accuracy of the structure determination. The contribution which theory and computation can make to the interpretation of electron spectroscopies has been an underlying theme in John's work over many years, and as in the case of LEED he has developed the computer programs to make the interpretation possible. After finishing his PhD in 1969, and during the period of a research fellowship at Downing College, Cambridge, John spent the year 1972-3 at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey; it was there that he started collaborating with Patrick Lee on the interpretation of extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) [8], oscillations seen above the absorption edge when x-rays excite core electrons of atoms in a molecular or solid state environment. This was the first quantitative theory of the effect, and led to the use of EXAFS in determining atomic structure in systems, such as glasses, where x-ray diffraction is less useful. Since then, EXAFS and its derivative techniques such as NEXAFS (which explores the structure immediately above the absorption edge, particularly sensitive to chemical bonding), and SEXAFS (EXAFS at surfaces) have become standard techniques in the armoury of structure determination methods at every synchrotron radiation laboratory. And it was to the Daresbury Laboratory in Cheshire, with its synchrotron radiation facility, that John moved in 1975, from Cambridge, as Head of the Theory Group. This was an inspired appointment on the part of the then Science and Engineering Research Council, as it led to unrivalled theoretical support for the electron spectroscopists using the SRS facility. For John it was a move back to the North of England, the area from which he came and where he had been to school. In Daresbury he published his theory of angle-resolved photoemission [9], which remains the standard model in the field. These methods have enabled the band structure of electrons in solids and at surfaces to be determined to unprecedented accuracy, on the basis of photoemission experiments. But photoemission involves the occupied electronic states—what about the unoccupied states? These are just as important, certainly from the point of view of understanding the band structure and the many-body interaction with other electrons. In 1980 John proposed the technique of inverse photoemission, in which an electron emits light as it decays into the unoccupied states in the vicinity of the surface [10]. The viability of this technique was demonstrated soon afterwards, and it is now widely used for probing unoccupied electron states. It was natural that John should explore the nature of electronic states at surfaces, and with Steve Gurman and later Pedro Echenique he developed criteria for the existence of the localised surface states, so important in determining surface properties and readily detectable using photoemission and inverse photoemission [11]. Their computational techniques were based on those used in the LEED and photoemission programs—the semi-infinite solid is split into atomic layers, the scattering properties of each layer are calculated, and then these are combined together to give the scattering of the solid with a surface. Such techniques are still immensely useful, and Simon Crampin has developed them further to calculate electronic states at surfaces with atomic islands, for example. This work began when John was still at Cambridge, but it was after his move to Daresbury that perhaps his most important work on surface states was produced—the demonstration of the possibility of resolving the image-potential-induced surface states on metal surfaces, with Echenique [12]. These states are caused by the image potential trapping an electron, which cannot penetrate into the bulk if its energy lies in a band-gap; the image states form a Rydberg series, and as their energy is just below the vacuum level, they are normally unoccupied. This makes inverse photoemission the ideal technique for observing them. Recent developments on two-photon photoemission, energy- and time-resolved, have produced a wealth of experimental information on these states. Since their prediction and observation, image states have become a playground for theoretical and experimental studies of many-electron effects at surfaces. It is remarkable how John Pendry maintained his position as the leading theoretical surface physicist in the UK (and possibly the world) at the same time that he developed new areas of research. In 1981 John moved to Imperial College as Professor of Theoretical Solid State Physics and Head of the Condensed Matter Theory Group, and soon after began to study the behaviour of electrons in disordered systems, a field in which he collaborated with his colleague Angus MacKinnon. John applied group theoretical methods to study the transport of electrons in disordered media, and obtained for the first time a complete solution of the general scattering problem in one dimension [13], deriving advanced techniques for studying higher dimensions [14]. A key result was the prediction that in all dimensions, the channels for transport (distinct ways in which an electron can propagate through the system) are either open (that is, essentially transparent) or closed (opaque) in the limit of large systems [15]. These notions are relevant to such topical research as the conductivity of bio-molecules. In this novel approach to transport, John was helped by his wife Pat, who is a mathematician by training, with a thesis on group representation theory—John benefited not only from Pat's expertise, but also from her library on group theory, which was far better than that of most universities! (John and Pat wrote a joint paper shortly after they met in Cambridge, on scattering methods—a recurring theme in John's research [16].) What drove John to develop this new area of research, when the work on LEED and tensor-LEED was progressing so successfully? The answer is that he has always made a conscious effort to work on completely new topics, every ten years or so. The question was what next? We remember John remarking about 20 years ago that the propagation of light in artificial periodic systems would be important in the future, and it turned out that the layer techniques he had developed for electronic structure could be adapted to electromagnetic waves (not so straightforward because of the vectorial nature of the electromagnetic field). As a result, and because of his appreciation of the importance of this field, John was working in photonics right from the start, and in 1994 he published his first papers on photonic band structures; his techniques enabled the interaction of light with metallic systems to be calculated, unlike the existing, poorly converging, plane wave methods. The titles of his early photonics papers show the originality of his work, and perhaps already indicate where it would eventually lead—'Refraction and geometry in Maxwell's equations'[17], 'Absolute three-dimensional photonic band gap in the infrared regime in woven structures' [18], 'Transmission resonances on metallic gratings with very narrow slits' [19], and many more. John went much further than most other researchers in the field, for example exploring the consequences of the near-field electromagnetic radiation, leading amongst other effects to friction between separated resistive plates, which could be associated with Van der Waal's forces [20]. And early on, he had invented the concept of metamaterials, devising a metallic mesostructure consisting of a three-dimensional array of wires with an extremely low plasmon frequency [21, 22]. Where it led to was the brilliant work on metamaterials which would show negative refraction [23, 24], the concept of the perfect lens [25], ways of exploiting the near field for imaging purposes [26], methods of controlling electromagnetic fields and 'cloaks of invisibility [27], and much more. His physical insight, as well as his mathematical virtuosity, was demonstrated early on in the story of metamaterials by the famous split-ring structure, with negative magnetic permeability as well as negative permittivity, and the way that John could solve Maxwell's equations for this system to give an effective epsilon and μ [23]. The split-ring resonator has been adopted in many laboratories as the starting point for their metamaterial designs. The work on the perfect lens sparked storms of enthusiasm and controversy in equal measure when it was first published in 2000, in the Physical Review Letter 'Negative refraction makes a perfect lens' [25]. Many eminent scientists demonstrated that the perfect lens, unlimited by conventional resolution criteria, was impossible, but of course it wasn't (we knew he was right!), and John's experimental colleagues have subsequently demonstrated the lensing effect. John's paper in 2000 has already been cited more than 1300 times, and was named letter-of-the-year: it can safely be said that the concept of the perfect lens has revolutionised nanoscale optics. His recent work with collaborators at Duke has shown that it is possible to design a 'cloak' that screens objects from electromagnetic fields; this resolved a long-standing mathematical challenge, questioning whether a region of space could be completely screened in this way [27]. Needless to say, this concept of a cloak of invisibility, which has been realised experimentally [28], has attracted great media interest, as well as numerous emails from schoolchildren. John has always made a full contribution to wider scientific life, and during this latest, immensely productive period he has been Dean of the Royal College of Science (1993-1996), Head of Department at Imperial College (1998-2001), and subsequently Principal of the Faculty of Physical Sciences (2001- 2002). He has taken on the chairmanship of the Physics Sub-Panel of the 2008 UK Research Assessment Exercise, a huge task which he began in 2005. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1984, he has been Member of Council from 1992-1994, and Editor of the Royal Society Proceedings A from 1996-2002. For the Institute of Physics, since 2007 he has been Member of Council, Chairman of Institute of Physics Publishing and Vice-President for Publishing. He has received honours and awards, recognising his contributions, culminating in his knighthood for services to science in 2004, and the Royal Medal of the Royal Society in 2006. John Pendry has worked with many research students, post-docs, and leading theoreticians and experimentalists, and has always been thoughtful and generous in his interactions with others. He is a very loyal person, loyal to friends, colleagues, his old college—it gave him great pleasure to be awarded an Honorary Fellowship at Downing College in 2005. Beyond science there is that necessary hinterland, particularly his love and knowledge of music, for John is a fine pianist. We also think of his enjoyment of gardening, photography, the countryside, and natural history: hobbies shared with Pat. John relishes gadgets—the latest GPS or camera lens—perhaps his interest in photography kindled his interest in imaging? This is our friend John Pendry, whom we have had the privilege of knowing for 40 years—may he enjoy many more years of activity, research and the rest, in the years beyond his 65th birthday! Volker Heine1 writes: What I can contribute is a bit of history about John as a research student. After his Part II in Natural Sciences, he went on to do a one-year graduate diploma in advanced theoretical physics, called Part III of the Mathematics Tripos. I was away in Chicago on my first sabbatical leave, and Leo Falicov was spending a year in Cambridge holding the fort. So I asked him was this chap (JBP) really OK and should we take him, and Leo said 'yes'. So that was that. The techniques of ultra high vacuum systems had been developed in the 1950s so that for the first time one could do experiments faster than dirt accumulated on a surface; and surface science took off. At that time before computing got into a useful stride, there were very few theoreticians around. As my professor in New Zealand expressed it to me when I said I wanted to do theory, he said there weren't any jobs in theoretical physics because it only took the Fermi's and Mott's of this world ten seconds to have an idea, and that was how it went. Indeed my first job in Cambridge was to 'demonstrate' (teach) in laboratory classes. In the 1960s it was obvious that low energy electron diffraction (LEED) would clearly be extremely important for determining surface structures if one could only understand what it was telling one. X-ray and neutron diffraction were used to determine solid structures, and so why not electron diffraction for surfaces? Electrons in the 0-100 eV range have a suitable wavelength. However they scatter extremely strongly from atomic potentials, and so the scattering pattern is much more complex than with x-rays or neutrons from bulk, where each photon or neutron is only scattered once. Well, we knew about solving the electronic structure for the conduction (valence) electrons in a solid, and so why not have a go in the LEED energy range. That was the project I suggested to John for his PhD, and it worked. The only trouble was that the calculations took forever, because one had to solve the Schrödinger equation for the whole system of vacuum plus solid together: there didn't seem to be any short cut. It was John who saw that there was a possible short cut. He is one of the few research students that I have had who did things independently that I could never have done myself. Although the forward scattering is indeed very strong, he noticed that the back scattering is much weaker, and this allowed him to develop a method of successive approximation. The material and the calculation are cut up into a series of atomic slices, and the electronic structure solved without approximation in each slice. Being two-dimensional, this was much more manageable than a full three-dimensional calculation. Then the slices could be put together by a sort of perturbation theory to calculate the scattering current as a function of energy along each of the reciprocal lattice 'rods' allowed by the surface periodicity. John didn't just stop at having solved the problem in principle, he also developed a suite of computer codes to do the job in a routine way. He even published the code for all to use, and I believe that to the present day the calculations are still done effectively in the same way. Without the calculations, one cannot interpret the data in terms of a surface atomic structure. Effectively one is doing a computer experiment in parallel to the laboratory experiment, and one fiddles more or less systematically with the surface structure until one gets agreement between the simulations and the laboratory data. One of the things that John noticed was that the process of photoemission (UPS) from a surface is rather similar, and can be calculated in an analogous way. This suddenly became very important because the new synchrotron at Daresbury was about to become operational, pumping out billions of photons for solid state research. Sam Edwards (now Sir Sam) was head of SRC (forerunner of EPSRC) at the time and recognised the problem of interpreting all the data that the machine would provide. And after UPS would come EXAFS, and after that XANES and all the rest of the alphabet soup. With that foresight, unusual at the time, John Pendry was appointed to head the theory group at Daresbury. Previously the theoreticians had revolved around the nuclear physics accelerator, and John had to turn it completely around and refocus it, which he did, ably supported and abetted by Phil Burke as head of the Theory and Computational Science Division. 1Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK Selected Bibliography [1] Pendry J B 1968 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 1 1065-74 [2] Andersson S and Pendry J B 1972 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 5 L41-5 [3] Pendry J B 1974 Low Energy Electron Diffraction (London: Academic Press) [4] Pendry J B 1980 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 13 937-44 [5] Rous P J and Pendry 1989 Surf. Sci. 219 355-72 [6] Saldin D K, Pendry J B, Van Hove M A and Somorjai G A 1985 Phys. Rev. B 31 1216-8 [7] Heinz K, Saldin D K and Pendry J B 1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 2312-5 [8] Lee P A and Pendry J B 1975 Phys. Rev. B 11 2795-811 [9] Pendry J B 1976 Surf. Sci. 57 679-705 [10] Pendry J B 1980 Phys. Rev. Lett. 45 1356-8 [11] Pendry J B and Gurman S J 1975 Surf. Sci. 49 87-105 [12] Echenique P M and Pendry J B 1978 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 11 2065-75 [13] Slevin K M and Pendry J B 1988 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 21 141-9 [14] Pendry J B and Castaño E 1988 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 21 4333-55 [15] Pendry J B, MacKinnon A and Prêtre A B 1990 Physica A 168 400-7 [16] Pendry J B and Gard P 1975 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 8 2048-58 [17] Ward A J and Pendry J B 1996 J. Mod. Opt. 43 773-93 [18] Tsai Y-C, Pendry J B and Shung K W-K 1999 Phys. Rev. B 59 15261-6 [19] Porto J A, García-Vidal F J and Pendry J B 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 2845-8 [20] Pendry J B 1997 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 9 10301-20 [21] Pendry J B, Holden A J, Stewart W J and Youngs I 1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 76 4773-6 [22] Pendry J B, Holden A J, Robbins D J and Stewart W J 1998 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 10 4785-809 [23] Pendry J B, Holden A J, Robbins D J and Stewart W J 1999 IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 47 2075-84 [24] Smith D R, Pendry J B and Wiltshire M C K 2004 Science 305 78-92 [25] Pendry J B 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 3966-9 [26] Wiltshire M C K, Hajnal J V, Pendry J B, Edwards D J and Stevens C J 2003 Opt. Express 11 709-15 [27] Pendry J B, Schurig D and Smith D R 2006 Science 312 1780-2 [28] Schurig D, Mock D D, Justice B J, Cummer S A, Pendry J B, Starr A F and Smith D R 2006 Science 314 977-80 Due to a typesetting error, corrections were made to p 5 of this article on 10 July 2008. The corrected electronic version is identical to the print version.

  10. Development and validation of an open source quantification tool for DSC-MRI studies.

    PubMed

    Gordaliza, P M; Mateos-Pérez, J M; Montesinos, P; Guzmán-de-Villoria, J A; Desco, M; Vaquero, J J

    2015-03-01

    This work presents the development of an open source tool for the quantification of dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced (DSC) perfusion studies. The development of this tool is motivated by the lack of open source tools implemented on open platforms to allow external developers to implement their own quantification methods easily and without the need of paying for a development license. This quantification tool was developed as a plugin for the ImageJ image analysis platform using the Java programming language. A modular approach was used in the implementation of the components, in such a way that the addition of new methods can be done without breaking any of the existing functionalities. For the validation process, images from seven patients with brain tumors were acquired and quantified with the presented tool and with a widely used clinical software package. The resulting perfusion parameters were then compared. Perfusion parameters and the corresponding parametric images were obtained. When no gamma-fitting is used, an excellent agreement with the tool used as a gold-standard was obtained (R(2)>0.8 and values are within 95% CI limits in Bland-Altman plots). An open source tool that performs quantification of perfusion studies using magnetic resonance imaging has been developed and validated using a clinical software package. It works as an ImageJ plugin and the source code has been published with an open source license. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Thermal characterization of Titan's tholins by simultaneous TG-MS, DTA, DSC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nna-Mvondo, Delphine; de la Fuente, José L.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Khare, Bishun; McKay, Christopher P.

    2013-09-01

    Three samples of Titan's tholins synthesized in laboratory under simulated Titan's conditions and presenting different degrees of exposure to ambient atmosphere have been used to study in detail their thermal behavior using thermogravimetry coupled with a mass spectrometer (TG-MS), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The degradation of Titan's tholins under inert atmosphere follows a three-step consecutive decomposition: a drying stage (>150 °C) where moisture is desorbed, this stage indicated the high hydrophilicity of the tholins; a second stage, the main pyrolysis stage (150-575 °C) where endothermic decomposition begins releasing mainly ammonia, HCN, acetonitrile, and methane over a broad temperature range. Few other hydrocarbon fragments such as ethylene and propane are released but no cyclic molecules, aliphatic or aromatic, are observed. The last stage (>575 °C) is the carbonization of the material leading to a non-crystalline graphitic residue. The thermal degradation under oxygen atmosphere shows the same stages as in argon, with a shift of the thermogravimetric peaks toward lower temperatures indicating a lower thermal stability. The last stage in this case is an oxidative combustion of the char residue. This research concludes that even if Titan tholins, subjected to air contamination for few minutes to several years (varying with the storage conditions) transform to produce different C/N and C/O ratios and thermal stabilities, they undergo the same thermal degradation phases and products. This suggests that the studied three tholins have a similar main chemical structure which does not alter by the air exposure. We discuss on the possible nature of this structure.

  12. A convenient dichotomy: critical eyes on the limits to biological knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Catherine

    2011-06-01

    In The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed, Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by the Forum papers by Jay Lemke and Francis Broadway who broaden the analysis examining the way that what counts as knowledge in science is a political decision while also encouraging authors, including Bazzul and Sykes, to also look critically at their own theoretical lenses. In this paper I pull together their ideas while exploring cultural contexts for a more nuanced representation of biological knowledge and the politics of what it means to know science.

  13. 76 FR 79224 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Clariant Corp (Company)..... Martin, SC 11/29/11 11/29/11 81117 Sykes Enterprise Inc., Re: Grand Junction...). 81121 Third Degree Graphics & Ventura, CA 11/29/11 11/21/11 Marketing (Workers). 81122 Siemens Energy...

  14. Kinetics of thermolysis of lanthanum nitrate with hexamethylenetetramine: Crystal structure, TG-DSC, impact and friction sensitivity studies, Part-96

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nibha; Baranwal, B. P.; Singh, Gurdip; Singh, C. P.; Daniliuc, Constantin G.; Soni, P. K.; Nath, Yogeshwar

    2014-11-01

    The development of high energetic materials includes process ability and the ability to attain insensitive munitions (IM). This paper investigates the preparation of lanthanum metal nitrate complex of hexamethylenetetramine in water at room temperature. This complex of molecular formulae [La (NO3)2(H2O)6] (2HMTA) (NO3-) (H2O) was characterized by X-ray crystallography. Thermal decomposition was investigated using TG, TG-DSC and ignition delay measurements. Kinetic analysis of isothermal TG data has been investigated using model fitting methods as well as model free isoconversional methods. The sensitivity measurements towards mechanical destructive stimuli such as impact and friction were carried out and the complex was found to be insensitive. In order to identify the end product of thermolysis, X-ray diffraction patterns of end product was carried out which proves the formation of La2O3.

  15. 77 FR 1009 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B, and A mandatory terminating action to the repetitive inspections to be... Repaired Using RR Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B Borescope-inspect combustion liner head sections previously repaired using RR Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B. Use paragraphs 3.A.(1) through 3.A.(5) of the...

  16. 75 FR 63727 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce plc (RR) RB211-524 Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... models that have not been repaired to RR Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B, and A mandatory terminating... Repaired Using RR Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B (h) If the combustion liner head section was previously repaired using RR Field Repair Scheme FRS5367/B, do the following: (1) Borescope-inspect combustion liner...

  17. 77 FR 13355 - Investigations Regarding Certifications of Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Veritas, Consumer Taunton, MA 02/15/12 02/14/12 Product Services, Inc. (Workers). 81337 Fu Sing Fashion...). 81324 CBS Fashion Inc. (Workers). New York, NY 02/13/12 02/10/12 81325 Sykes Enterprise (Workers...

  18. FTIR, XRD and DSC studies of nanochitosan, cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol blend ultrafiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Vinodhini, P Angelin; K, Sangeetha; Thandapani, Gomathi; P N, Sudha; Jayachandran, Venkatesan; Sukumaran, Anil

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, a series of novel nanochitosan/cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (NCS/CA/PEG) blend flat sheet membranes were fabricated in different ratios (1:1:1, 1:1:2, 2:1:1, 2:1:2, 1:2:1, 2:2:1) in a polar solvent of N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) using the most popular phase inversion method. Nanochitosan was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and its average particle size has been analyzed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The effect of blending of the three polymers was investigated using FTIR and XRD studies. FTIR results confirmed the formation of well-blended membranes and the XRD analysis revealed enhanced amorphous nature of the membrane ratio 2:1:2. DSC study was conducted to find out the thermal behavior of the blend membranes and the results clearly indicated good thermal stability and single glass transition temperature (T g ) of all the prepared membranes. Asymmetric nature and rough surface morphology was confirmed using SEM analysis. From the results it was evident that the blending of the polymers with higher concentration of nanochitosan can alter the nature of the resulting membranes to a greater extent and thus amorphous membranes were obtained with good miscibility and compatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Treatment in a Preventive Cardiology Clinic Utilizing Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) Effectively Closes Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) Risk Management Gaps Amongst a Primary Prevention Population Compared with a Propensity-Matched Primary Care Cohort: A Team Based Care Model and its Impact on Lipid and Blood Pressure Management.

    PubMed

    Fentanes, Emilio; Vande Hei, Anthony G; Holuby, R Scott; Suarez, Norma; Slim, Yousif; Slim, Jennifer N; Slim, Ahmad M; Thomas, Dustin

    2018-04-17

    Advanced Practice Providers (APPs) can fill access to care gaps created by physician shortages and improve adherence/compliance with preventive atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) interventions. We retrospectively reviewed data on 595 patients enrolled in a preventive cardiology clinic (PCC) utilizing APPs compared with a propensity-matched cohort (PMC) of 595 patients enrolled in primary care clinics alone. PCC patients were risk stratified using Framingham risk scoring (FRS) and coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) and treated based on published guideline-based algorithms. Baseline demographics were well balanced between the groups. CACS was more commonly obtained in PCC patients (p<0.001) resulting in reclassification of 30.6% patients to a higher risk category, including statin therapy in 26.6% of low FRS PCC patients with CACS ≥75 th MESA percentile. Aspirin initiation was higher for high and intermediate FRS patients in the PCC (p <0.001). Post-intervention mean LDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (all p<0.05) were lower in the PCC group. Compliance with appropriate lipid treatment was higher in intermediate to high FRS patients (p=0.004) in the PCC group. Aggressive LDL and non-HDL treatment goals <70mg/dL (p=0.005) and <130mg/dL (p<0.001), respectively, were more commonly achieved in high FRS PCC patients. Median post-intervention SBP was lower amongst intermediate and low FRS patients (p=0.001 & p<0.001, respectively). Cumulatively, this resulted in a reduction in median post-intervention PCC FRS across all initial FRS risk categories (p<0.001 for all). APPs within a preventive cardiology clinic effectively risk stratify and aggressively manage ASCVD risk factors resulting in a reduction in post-intervention FRS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of integrated multiple 'omics' datasets reveals the mechanisms of initiation and determination in the formation of tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingjie; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Xinyu; Gu, Li; Wang, Fengji; Feng, Fajie; Tian, Yunhe; Wang, Fengqing; Wang, Xiaoran; Lin, Wenxiong; Chen, Xinjian; Zhang, Zhongyi

    2015-09-01

    All tuberous roots in Rehmannia glutinosa originate from the expansion of fibrous roots (FRs), but not all FRs can successfully transform into tuberous roots. This study identified differentially expressed genes and proteins associated with the expansion of FRs, by comparing the tuberous root at expansion stages (initiated tuberous root, ITRs) and FRs at the seedling stage (initiated FRs, IFRs). The role of miRNAs in the expansion of FRs was also explored using the sRNA transcriptome and degradome to identify miRNAs and their target genes that were differentially expressed between ITRs and FRs at the mature stage (unexpanded FRs, UFRs, which are unable to expand into ITRs). A total of 6032 genes and 450 proteins were differentially expressed between ITRs and IFRs. Integrated analyses of these data revealed several genes and proteins involved in light signalling, hormone response, and signal transduction that might participate in the induction of tuberous root formation. Several genes related to cell division and cell wall metabolism were involved in initiating the expansion of IFRs. Of 135 miRNAs differentially expressed between ITRs and UFRs, there were 27 miRNAs whose targets were specifically identified in the degradome. Analysis of target genes showed that several miRNAs specifically expressed in UFRs were involved in the degradation of key genes required for the formation of tuberous roots. As far as could be ascertained, this is the first time that the miRNAs that control the transition of FRs to tuberous roots in R. glutinosa have been identified. This comprehensive analysis of 'omics' data sheds new light on the mechanisms involved in the regulation of tuberous roots formation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Crystallization kinetics of orthorhombic paracetamol from supercooled melts studied by non-isothermal DSC.

    PubMed

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos

    2017-02-01

    A simple and highly reproducible procedure was established for the study of orthorhombic paracetamol crystallization kinetics, comprising melting, quench-cooling of the melt and scanning the formed glass by DSC at different heating rates. Results were analyzed on the basis of the mean as well as local values of the Avrami exponent, n, the energy of activation, as well as the Šesták-Berggren two-parameter autocatalytic kinetic model. The mean value of the Avrami kinetic exponent, n, ranged between 3 and 5, indicating deviation from the nucleation and growth mechanism underlying the Johnson-Mehl, Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. To verify the extent of the deviation, local values of the Avrami exponent as a function of the volume fraction transformed were calculated. Inspection of the local exponent values indicates that the crystallization mechanism changes over time, possibly reflecting the uncertainty of crystallization onset, instability of nucleation due to an autocatalytic effect of the crystalline phase, and growth anisotropy due to impingement of spherulites in the last stages of crystallization. The apparent energy of activation, E a , has a rather low mean value, close to 81 kJ/mol, which is in agreement with the observed instability of glassy-state paracetamol. Isoconversional methods revealed that E a tends to decrease with the volume fraction transformed, possibly because of the different energy demands of nucleation and growth. The exponents of the Šesták-Berggren two-parameter model showed that the crystallized fraction influences the process, confirming the complexity of the crystallization mechanism.

  2. 78 FR 41957 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Company (The) (State/One- Stop). 82849 Sykes Home Powered by Denver, CO 06/26/13 06/25/13 Alpine Access... Automation (State/ Milwaukee, WI......... 06/27/13 06/27/13 One-Stop). 82858 Choice Hotels (State/One...

  3. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Anna; Traub, Roger D.; Vladimirov, Nikita; Jenkins, Alistair; Nicholson, Claire; Whittaker, Roger G.; Schofield, Ian; Clowry, Gavin J.; Cunningham, Mark O.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ripples (FRs) are network oscillations, defined variously as having frequencies of > 150 to > 250 Hz, with a controversial mechanism. FRs appear to indicate a propensity of cortical tissue to originate seizures. Here, we demonstrate field oscillations, at up to 400 Hz, in spontaneously epileptic human cortical tissue in vitro, and present a network model that could explain FRs themselves, and their relation to ‘ordinary’ (slower) ripples. We performed network simulations with model pyramidal neurons, having axons electrically coupled. Ripples (< 250 Hz) were favored when conduction of action potentials, axon to axon, was reliable. Whereas ripple population activity was periodic, firing of individual axons varied in relative phase. A switch from ripples to FRs took place when an ectopic spike occurred in a cell coupled to another cell, itself multiply coupled to others. Propagation could then start in one direction only, a condition suitable for re-entry. The resulting oscillations were > 250 Hz, were sustained or interrupted, and had little jitter in the firing of individual axons. The form of model FR was similar to spontaneously occurring FRs in excised human epileptic tissue. In vitro, FRs were suppressed by a gap junction blocker. Our data suggest that a given network can produce ripples, FRs, or both, via gap junctions, and that FRs are favored by clusters of axonal gap junctions. If axonal gap junctions indeed occur in epileptic tissue, and are mediated by connexin 26 (recently shown to mediate coupling between immature neocortical pyramidal cells), then this prediction is testable. PMID:24118191

  4. Exposure to hepatitis E virus, hepatitis A virus and Borrelia spp. infections in forest rangers from a single forest district in western Poland.

    PubMed

    Bura, Maciej; Bukowska, Alicja; Michalak, Michał; Bura, Aleksandra; Nawrocki, Mariusz J; Karczewski, Marek; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2018-03-13

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an emerging problem in developed countries. At least 2 zoonotic genotypes of the virus (HEV-3 and HEV-4) infect human beings. There are some data suggesting that forest rangers (FRs) can be at a higher risk of contact with HEV. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HEV exposure markers in FRs from a single forest district in Greater Poland in relation to anti-HAV (hepatitis A virus) IgG, and anti-Borrelia spp. IgM and IgG antibodies. In total, 138 participants (48 FRs and 90 blood donors - BDs) were tested for anti-HEV IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG, Luebeck, Germany) and 96 individuals (48 FRs and 48 BDs) were tested for anti-HAV IgG (ARCHITECT immunoassays, Abbott Laboratories, Wiesbaden, Germany); anti-Borrelia IgM and IgG (EUROIMMUN kits) were assessed in FRs only. Anti-HEV markers were detected in 3 participants (2.2%; IgM in 1 FR, IgG in 2 BDs), less frequently than anti-HAV (16 out of 96 individuals, about 17%; FRs 19% vs BDs 15%) or anti-Borrelia antibodies (18 out of 48 individuals, 37.5%) (p < 0.0001 for both). Older study participants (≥45 years of age) were more frequently HAV-seropositive (29% vs 4% of the younger individuals; p = 0.0012). We failed to unequivocally prove HEV exposure in FRs. The HAV seroprevalence in this study paralleled the situation in the general population. Exposure to Borrelia spp. in FRs was common.

  5. Brominated flame retardants in the indoor environment - Comparative study of indoor contamination from three countries.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Audy, Ondřej; Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Romanak, Kevin; Melymuk, Lisa; Krátká, Martina; Kukučka, Petr; Okeme, Joseph; Saini, Amandeep; Diamond, Miriam L; Klánová, Jana

    2016-09-01

    Concentrations of more than 20 brominated flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and emerging FRs, were measured in air, dust and window wipes from 63 homes in Canada, the Czech Republic and the United States in the spring and summer of 2013. Among the PBDEs, the highest concentrations were generally BDE-209 in all three matrices, followed by Penta-BDEs. Among alternative FRs, EHTBB and BEHTBP were detected at the highest concentrations. DBDPE was also a major alternative FR detected in dust and air. Bromobenzenes were detected at lower levels than PBDEs and other alternative FRs; among the bromobenzenes, HBB and PBEB were the most abundant compounds. In general, FR levels were highest in the US and lowest in the Czech Republic - a geographic trend that reflects the flame retardants' market. No statistically significant differences were detected between bedroom and living room FR concentrations in the same house (n=10), suggesting that sources of FRs are widespread indoors and mixing between rooms. The concentrations of FRs in air, dust, and window film were significantly correlated, especially for PBDEs. We found a significant relationship between the concentrations in dust and window film and in the gas phase for FRs with log KOA values <14, suggesting that equilibrium was reached for these but not compounds with log KOA values >14. This hypothesis was confirmed by a large discrepancy between values predicted using a partitioning model and the measured values for FRs with log KOA values >14. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Life satisfaction and cardiovascular disease risk in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Szklarska, Alicja; Lipowicz, Anna; Jankowska, Ewa Anita; Kozieł, Sławomir

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Life satisfaction is a predictor of morbidity and mortality, irrespectively of objective measures of health status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between life satisfaction (LS) and cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) assessed with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in Polish adults. Material and methods Past, present and projected LS were estimated. The FRS reflecting 10-year CVD risk was calculated from health indices and lifestyle parameters. Relationships between LS and FRS were tested by two-way analysis of variance in 489 men and 591 women, 40–50 years of age. Results Subjects with a reduction in LS over time had a higher FRS compared to peers with an improvement in LS. The relationship between current LS and FRS had a J-shape in men; FRS was lowest in men with an LS of 5–7 (average LS), slightly higher in men with an LS of 8–10 (highest LS), and highest in men with an LS of 1–4 (lowest LS). Among women, there was an inverse linear relationship between LS and FRS: the higher the LS, the lower FRS. There was a strong linear relationship between predicted LS and CVD risk. Highest risk was evident in subjects with low LS in whom low LS was predicted over the next five years. Conclusions Low LS (dissatisfaction) thus has a long-term negative effect on CVD risk in Polish adults of both sexes. PMID:24049521

  7. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations.

    PubMed

    Simon, Anna; Traub, Roger D; Vladimirov, Nikita; Jenkins, Alistair; Nicholson, Claire; Whittaker, Roger G; Schofield, Ian; Clowry, Gavin J; Cunningham, Mark O; Whittington, Miles A

    2014-01-01

    Fast ripples (FRs) are network oscillations, defined variously as having frequencies of > 150 to > 250 Hz, with a controversial mechanism. FRs appear to indicate a propensity of cortical tissue to originate seizures. Here, we demonstrate field oscillations, at up to 400 Hz, in spontaneously epileptic human cortical tissue in vitro, and present a network model that could explain FRs themselves, and their relation to 'ordinary' (slower) ripples. We performed network simulations with model pyramidal neurons, having axons electrically coupled. Ripples (< 250 Hz) were favored when conduction of action potentials, axon to axon, was reliable. Whereas ripple population activity was periodic, firing of individual axons varied in relative phase. A switch from ripples to FRs took place when an ectopic spike occurred in a cell coupled to another cell, itself multiply coupled to others. Propagation could then start in one direction only, a condition suitable for re-entry. The resulting oscillations were > 250 Hz, were sustained or interrupted, and had little jitter in the firing of individual axons. The form of model FR was similar to spontaneously occurring FRs in excised human epileptic tissue. In vitro, FRs were suppressed by a gap junction blocker. Our data suggest that a given network can produce ripples, FRs, or both, via gap junctions, and that FRs are favored by clusters of axonal gap junctions. If axonal gap junctions indeed occur in epileptic tissue, and are mediated by connexin 26 (recently shown to mediate coupling between immature neocortical pyramidal cells), then this prediction is testable. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Shall we really say goodbye to first rank symptoms?

    PubMed

    Heinz, A; Voss, M; Lawrie, S M; Mishara, A; Bauer, M; Gallinat, J; Juckel, G; Lang, U; Rapp, M; Falkai, P; Strik, W; Krystal, J; Abi-Dargham, A; Galderisi, S

    2016-09-01

    First rank symptoms (FRS) of schizophrenia have been used for decades for diagnostic purposes. In the new version of the DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has abolished any further reference to FRS of schizophrenia and treats them like any other "criterion A" symptom (e.g. any kind of hallucination or delusion) with regard to their diagnostic implication. The ICD-10 is currently under revision and may follow suit. In this review, we discuss central points of criticism that are directed against the continuous use of first rank symptoms (FRS) to diagnose schizophrenia. We describe the specific circumstances in which Schneider articulated his approach to schizophrenia diagnosis and discuss the relevance of his approach today. Further, we discuss anthropological and phenomenological aspects of FRS and highlight the importance of self-disorder (as part of FRS) for the diagnosis of schizophrenia. Finally, we will conclude by suggesting that the theory and rationale behind the definition of FRS is still important for psychopathological as well as neurobiological approaches today. Results of a pivotal meta-analysis and other studies show relatively poor sensitivity, yet relatively high specificity for FRS as diagnostic marker for schizophrenia. Several methodological issues impede a systematic assessment of the usefulness of FRS in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, there is good evidence that FRS may still be useful to differentiate schizophrenia from somatic causes of psychotic states. This may be particularly important in countries or situations with little access to other diagnostic tests. FRS may thus still represent a useful aid for clinicians in the diagnostic process. In conclusion, we suggest to continue a tradition of careful clinical observation and fine-grained psychopathological assessment, including a focus on symptoms regarding self-disorders, which reflects a key aspect of psychosis. We suggest that the importance of FRS may indeed be

  9. NATbox: a network analysis toolbox in R.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Shweta S; Bauer, Michael A; Scutari, Marco; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan

    2009-10-08

    There has been recent interest in capturing the functional relationships (FRs) from high-throughput assays using suitable computational techniques. FRs elucidate the working of genes in concert as a system as opposed to independent entities hence may provide preliminary insights into biological pathways and signalling mechanisms. Bayesian structure learning (BSL) techniques and its extensions have been used successfully for modelling FRs from expression profiles. Such techniques are especially useful in discovering undocumented FRs, investigating non-canonical signalling mechanisms and cross-talk between pathways. The objective of the present study is to develop a graphical user interface (GUI), NATbox: Network Analysis Toolbox in the language R that houses a battery of BSL algorithms in conjunction with suitable statistical tools for modelling FRs in the form of acyclic networks from gene expression profiles and their subsequent analysis. NATbox is a menu-driven open-source GUI implemented in the R statistical language for modelling and analysis of FRs from gene expression profiles. It provides options to (i) impute missing observations in the given data (ii) model FRs and network structure from gene expression profiles using a battery of BSL algorithms and identify robust dependencies using a bootstrap procedure, (iii) present the FRs in the form of acyclic graphs for visualization and investigate its topological properties using network analysis metrics, (iv) retrieve FRs of interest from published literature. Subsequently, use these FRs as structural priors in BSL (v) enhance scalability of BSL across high-dimensional data by parallelizing the bootstrap routines. NATbox provides a menu-driven GUI for modelling and analysis of FRs from gene expression profiles. By incorporating readily available functions from existing R-packages, it minimizes redundancy and improves reproducibility, transparency and sustainability, characteristic of open-source environments

  10. Structures and phase transitions in a new ferroelectric -- pyridinium chlorochromate -- studied by X-ray diffraction, DSC and dielectric methods.

    PubMed

    Małuszyńska, Hanna; Czarnecki, Piotr; Czarnecka, Anna; Pająk, Zdzisław

    2012-04-01

    Pyridinium chlorochromate, [C(5)H(5)NH](+)[ClCrO(3)](-) (hereafter referred to as PyClCrO(3)), was studied by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dielectric methods. Studies reveal three reversible phase transitions at 346, 316 and 170 K with the following phase sequence: R ̅3m (I) → R3m (II) → Cm (III) → Cc (IV), c' = 2c. PyClCrO(3) is the first pyridinium salt in which all four phases have been successfully characterized by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction method. Structural results together with dielectric and calorimetric studies allow the classification of the two intermediate phases (II) and (III) as ferroelectric with the Curie point at 346 K, and the lowest phase (IV) as most probably ferroelectric. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop was observed only in phase (III). The high ionic conductivity hindered its observation in phase (II).

  11. Survival, Growth and Reproduction of Non-Native Nile Tilapia II: Fundamental Niche Projections and Invasion Potential in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-27

    Cambridge University Press. 47. Gritti ESB, Smith B, Sykes MT (2006) Vulnerability of Mediterranean Basin ecosystems to climate change and invasion by...2011) Monitoring diets and growth rates of native predatory fish stocked to suppress non-native tilapia. MS Thesis, Nicholls State University

  12. 77 FR 48550 - Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ...). 81840 Sykes Enterprise Langhorne, PA 08/01/12 07/31/12 (Workers). 81841 Heidtman Steel Baltimore, MD 08..., PA 08/03/12 08/02/12 (Company). [FR Doc. 2012-19915 Filed 8-13-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4510-FN-P ...

  13. High-resolution genomic mapping reveals consistent amplification of the fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2 gene in well-differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoke; Asmann, Yan W; Erickson-Johnson, Michele R; Oliveira, Jennifer L; Zhang, Hongying; Moura, Rafael D; Lazar, Alexander J; Lev, Dina; Bill, Katelynn; Lloyd, Ricardo V; Yaszemski, Michael J; Maran, Avudaiappan; Oliveira, Andre M

    2011-11-01

    Well-differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) is one of the most common malignant mesenchymal tumors and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS) is a malignant tumor consisting of both WDLS and a transformed nonlipogenic sarcomatous component. Cytogenetically, WDLS is characterized by the presence of ring or giant rod chromosomes containing several amplified genes, including MDM2, TSPAN31, CDK4, and others mainly derived from chromosome bands 12q13-15. However, the 12q13-15 amplicon is large and discontinuous. The focus of this study was to identify novel critical genes that are consistently amplified in primary (nonrecurrent) WDLS and with potential relevance for future targeted therapy. Using a high-resolution (5.0 kb) "single nucleotide polymorphism"/copy number variation microarray to screen the whole genome in a series of primary WDLS, two consistently amplified areas were found on chromosome 12: one region containing the MDM2 and CPM genes, and another region containing the FRS2 gene. Based on these findings, we further validated FRS2 amplification in both WDLS and DDLS. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed FRS2 amplification in all WDLS and DDLS tested (n = 57). Real time PCR showed FRS2 mRNA transcriptional upregulation in WDLS (n = 19) and DDLS (n = 13) but not in lipoma (n = 5) and normal fat (n = 9). Immunoblotting revealed high expression levels of phospho-FRS2 at Y436 and slightly overexpression of total FRS2 protein in liposarcoma but not in normal fat or preadipocytes. Considering the critical role of FRS2 in mediating fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling, our findings indicate that FRS2 signaling should be further investigated as a potential therapeutic target for liposarcoma. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Spatial and temporal comparisons of legacy and emerging flame retardants in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of Canada and United States.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Martin, Pamela A; de Solla, Shane R; Bowerman, William W

    2015-10-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes basin of North America, an increasing number of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are being investigated, including legacy and replacement flame retardants (FRs). In the present study, 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs) and 16 organophosphate ester FRs (OPE-FRs) were analyzed in 100 individual eggs collected in 2012 and 2013 and in 15 egg pools of herring gulls collected in 2012 from 20 colonies across the entire Laurentian Great Lakes basin. For CEC-FRs in eggs from all colonies, 14 PBDEs, 12 NPHFRs and 9 OPE-FRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 115 analyzed samples. The mean sum PBDE (Σ14PBDE) concentrations ranged from 244 to 657 ng/g wet weight (ww), and on average were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the Σ12NPHFR concentrations (13.8-35.6 ng/g ww), and 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than Σ9OPE-FR concentrations (0.31-2.14 ng/g ww). Mean Σ14PBDE and sum of syn- and anti-Dechlorane Plus isomer (Σ2DDC-CO) concentrations in eggs from colonies within Laurentian Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) were in most cases greater than in eggs from nearby colonies outside of AOCs. Comparing CEC-FR concentrations in eggs collected in 2012-2013 to those previously measured in eggs collected approximately 7 years earlier (2006 and 2008) showed that Σ7PBDE (BDE-28, -47, -100, -99, -154,-153 and -183) mean concentrations in eggs from 6 colonies were approximately 30% less than they were in eggs from the same colonies from the earlier time period, whereas 3 current-use FR (BDE-209, HBCDD and Σ2DDC-CO) concentrations were significantly greater (p<0.05) than previously measured. Between 2006 and 2013 there were significant changes in individual PBDE patterns for BDE-71, -138, -153, -203, -206 and -207. Among all of the examined CEC-FRs, concentrations of Σ4PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) and HBCDD in gull eggs from all colonies were greater than or comparable to their lowest

  15. Evidence for a global seismic-moment release sequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bufe, C.G.; Perkins, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Temporal clustering of the larger earthquakes (foreshock-mainshock-aftershock) followed by relative quiescence (stress shadow) are characteristic of seismic cycles along plate boundaries. A global seismic-moment release history, based on a little more than 100 years of instrumental earthquake data in an extended version of the catalog of Pacheco and Sykes (1992), illustrates similar behavior for Earth as a whole. Although the largest earthquakes have occurred in the circum-Pacific region, an analysis of moment release in the hemisphere antipodal to the Pacific plate shows a very similar pattern. Monte Carlo simulations confirm that the global temporal clustering of great shallow earthquakes during 1952-1964 at M ??? 9.0 is highly significant (4% random probability) as is the clustering of the events of M ??? 8.6 (0.2% random probability) during 1950-1965. We have extended the Pacheco and Sykes (1992) catalog from 1989 through 2001 using Harvard moment centroid data. Immediately after the 1950-1965 cluster, significant quiescence at and above M 8.4 begins and continues until 2001 (0.5% random probability). In alternative catalogs derived by correcting for possible random errors in magnitude estimates in the extended Pacheco-Sykes catalog, the clustering of M ??? 9 persists at a significant level. These observations indicate that, for great earthquakes, Earth behaves as a coherent seismotectonic system. A very-large-scale mechanism for global earthquake triggering and/or stress transfer is implied. There are several candidates, but so far only viscoelastic relaxation has been modeled on a global scale.

  16. Methods of Responsibly Managing End-of-Life Foams and Plastics Containing Flame Retardants: Part I.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Donald; Petty, Sara M; Keen, Olya; Luedeka, Bob; Schlummer, Martin; Weber, Roland; Barlaz, Morton; Yazdani, Ramin; Riise, Brian; Rhodes, James; Nightingale, Dave; Diamond, Miriam L; Vijgen, John; Lindeman, Avery; Blum, Arlene; Koshland, Catherine P

    2018-06-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are added to foams and plastics to comply with flammability standards and test requirements in products for household and industrial uses. When these regulations were implemented, potential health and environmental impacts of FR use were not fully recognized or understood. Extensive research in the past decades reveal that exposure to halogenated FRs, such as those used widely in furniture foam, is associated with and/or causally related to numerous health effects in animals and humans. While many of the toxic FRs have been eliminated and replaced by other FRs, existing products containing toxic or potentially toxic chemical FRs will remain in use for decades, and new products containing these and similar chemicals will permeate the environment. When such products reach the end of their useful life, proper disposal methods are needed to avoid health and ecological risks. To minimize continued human and environmental exposures to hazardous FR chemicals from discarded products, waste management technologies and processes must be improved. This review discusses a wide range of issues associated with all aspects of the use and responsible disposal of wastes containing FRs, and identifies basic and applied research needs in the areas of responsible collection, pretreatment, processing, and management of these wastes.

  17. Preliminary Analysis of the Social and Scientific Impact of the UAEM-ININ M.Sc. and D.Sc. Graduate Programme in Medical Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsoura, Eleni; Isaac-Olive, Keila; Torres-Garcia, Eugenio; Camacho-Lopez, Miguel Angel; Hardy-Perez, Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in 1994, the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) started in Mexico a teaching and training programme (Diplomado) in Radiotherapy Medical Physics. Based on this experience, the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México (UAEM) and the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) launched two years later, the first Graduate Programme in Science (M.Sc. and D.Sc.), specialised in Medical Physics in Mexico. A preliminary analysis of the social and scientific impact of the UAEM-ININ Programme is presented in this work based on the achievements attained, regarding the number of graduated Medical Physicists, their geographic and academic origin, their current professional activities and the number of scientific publications produced as a result of the thesis, as well as their citations.

  18. FRS EZ Query

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page is the starting point for EZ Query. This page describes how to select key data elements from EPA's Facility Information Database and Geospatial Reference Database to build a tabular report or a Comma Separated Value (CSV) files for downloading.

  19. Natural History of HTLV III Infection in USAF Personnel: Clinical Evaluation, Laboratory Evaluation, Assessment of In Vivo and In Vitro Immunologic Status, and Data Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    glycoprotein (soluble suppressor factor) and its association with disease progression, an association of remission of previously diagnosed sarcoidosis , and the...Stockholm, Sweden, June 1988. 38. Zajac R, Houk R, Zefo N, Weiland F, Jaso R, Abbadessa S, Fowler C, Sykes R, Boswell R. Sarcoidosis and HIV Infection

  20. Bioavailability of classical and novel flame retardants: Effect of fullerene presence.

    PubMed

    Santín, Giselle; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2016-09-15

    To understand the behavior of some emerging flame retardants (FRs) in the environment, a nonexhaustive extraction using Tenax was applied to study their behavior in aquatic ecosystems. Desorption of 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 8 methoxylated PBDEs, 3 emerging brominated FRs and 6 halogenated norbornenes from sediments spiked in the laboratory was studied. Results showed that emerging FRs have a similar bioavailability than that of legacy FRs, already banned. In addition, some parameters such as sediment total organic carbon (TOC), aging or nanomaterial (NMs) presence in the sediment were modified in order to study their effects on the bioavailability of FRs. Bioavailability increases with a diminution of sediment TOC, while diminishes with an increase of aging. The study of effect of NM presence was performed at three different pH (acidic, neutral and basic), and for the three scenarios, FR bioavailability decreased with NM presence. The retention of pollutants in the sediment seems to be favoured by NM presence, minimizing their impact on living organisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fiber reinforced superalloys for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1988-01-01

    High-pressure turbopumps for advanced reusable liquid-propellant rocket engines such as that for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require turbine blade materials that operate under extreme conditions of temperature, hydrogen environment, high-cycle fatigue loading, thermal fatigue and thermal shock. Such requirements tax the capabilities of current blade materials. Based on projections of properties for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, it was concluded that FRS turbine blades offer the potential of a several-fold increase in life and over a 200C increase in temperature capability over current SSME blade material. FRS composites were evaluated with respect to mechanical property requirements for SSME blade applications. Compared to the current blade material, the thermal shock resistance of FRS materials is excellent, two to nine times better, and their thermal fatigue resistance is equal to or higher than the current blade material. FRS materials had excellent low and high-cycle fatigue strengths, and thermal shock-induced surface microcracks had no influence on their fatigue strength. The material also exhibited negligible embrittlement when exposed to a hydrogen environment.

  2. Fiber reinforced superalloys for rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1989-01-01

    High pressure turbopumps for advanced reusable liquid propellant rocket engines such as that for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require turbine blade materials that operate under extreme conditions of temperature, hydrogen environment, high-cycle fatigue loading, thermal fatigue and thermal shock. Such requirements tax the capabilities of current blade materials. Based on projections of properties for tungsten fiber reinforced superalloy (FRS) composites, it was concluded that FRS turbine blades offer the potential of a several fold increase in life and over a 200 C increase in temperature capability over the current SSME blade material. FRS composites were evaluated with respect to mechanical property requirements for SSME blade applications. Compared to the current blade material, the thermal shock resistance of FRS materials is excellent, two to nine times better, and their thermal fatigue resistance is equal to or higher than the current blade material. FRS materials had excellent low and high-cycle fatigue strengths, and thermal shock-induced surface microcracks had no influence on their fatigue strength. The material also exhibited negligible embrittlement when exposed to a hydrogen environment.

  3. Cardiovascular risk scores for coronary atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Murat; Kardesoglu, Ejder; Aparci, Mustafa; Isilak, Zafer; Uz, Omer; Yiginer, Omer; Ozmen, Namik; Cingozbay, Bekir Yilmaz; Uzun, Mehmet; Cebeci, Bekir Sitki

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare frequently used cardiovascular risk scores in predicting the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and 3-vessel disease. In 350 consecutive patients (218 men and 132 women) who underwent coronary angiography, the cardiovascular risk level was determined using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), the Modified Framingham Risk Score (MFRS), the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) score, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The area under the curve for receiver operating characteristic curves showed that FRS had more predictive value than the other scores for CAD (area under curve, 0.76, P < or = 0.001), but all scores had good specificity and positive predictive value. For 3-vessel disease, the FRS had better predictive value than the other scores (area under curve, 0.74, P < or = 0.001), but all scores had good specificity and negative predictive value. The risk scores (FRS, MFRS, PROCAM, and SCORE) may predict the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis.The FRS had better predictive value than the other scores.

  4. Full suspension mountain bike improves off-road cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Nishii, T; Umemura, Y; Kitagawa, K

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of suspension systems on the cycling performance of cyclists during off-road bicycling. Eight elite male cyclists (67.8+/-5.8 ml/min/kg of (.-)VO(2max)) performed 30-minute riding tests on bicycles with 2 different suspension setups: front suspension (FS) and front and rear suspension (FRS). Heart rate, blood lactate concentration, pedaling power, cadence, cycling velocity, and completed distance during the trial were measured creatin kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) were measured before and after the trials. The average cadence during the trial was significantly higher (p<0.05) with the FRS (73.6+/-6.1 rpm) than the FS (70.2+/-6.2 rpm). Subjects rode significantly faster (p<0.05) on FRS (24.1+/-2.6 km/h) than FS bikes (22.9+/-2.4 km/h), although no significant difference was observed in pedaling power (240.7+/-26.6 W vs 242.2+/-28.8 W, FS vs FRS, respectively). Serum creatin kinase increased significantly (p<0.05) at 24 h after the trial when cyclists exercised with the FS bike. We conclude that the FRS improved cycling performance over rough terrain. FRS might therefore be more suitable for cross-country mountain bike races.

  5. Time discrimination deficits in schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie; Jablensky, Assen

    2009-05-15

    Schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms (FRS) report a loss of clear boundaries between the self and others and that their thoughts and actions are controlled by external forces. One of the more widely accepted explanatory models of FRS suggests a dysfunction in the 'forward model' system, whose role consists in predicting the sensory consequences of actions [Frith, C., 2006. The neural basis of hallucinations and delusions. Comptes Rendus Biologies 328, 169-175.]. There has been recent interest in the importance of timing precision underlying both the functioning of the forward model, and in processes contributing to the mechanisms of self-recognition [Haggard, P., Martin, F., Taylor-Clarke, M., Jeannerod, M., Franck, N., 2003. Awareness of action in schizophrenia. Neuroreport 14, 1081-1085.]. In the current study, we examined whether schizophrenia patients with FRS have a time perception impairment, using an auditory discrimination task requiring judgments of temporal intervals. Thirty-five schizophrenia patients (15 with, and 20 without, FRS), and 16 non-clinical controls completed the task. The results showed that patients with FRS experienced time differently by underestimating the duration of time intervals. Given the role of timing in shaping sensory awareness and in the formation of causal mental associations, a breakdown in timing mechanisms may affect the processes relating to the perceived control of actions and mental events, leading to disturbances of self-recognition in FRS.

  6. Estimating 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in Asian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Gurpreet; Khyne, Toe Toe; Lee, Jimmy

    This study aims to describe the cardiovascular risk profile of Asian patients with schizophrenia. Data was extracted from the databases of 139 patients with schizophrenia and 206 controls from two previous studies conducted at the Institute for Mental Health (IMH), Singapore. Their medical and smoking histories were obtained, and anthropometric parameters measured. Framingham risk score (FRS) calculator using body mass index was used to compute the 10-year cardiovascular disease risk (FRS BMI ) and the vascular age (VA BMI ) for each participant. Data on fasting lipids were available for 80 patients and all the controls; hence the FRS for lipids (FRS lipids ) and VA (VA lipids ) were also computed. The difference between VA and actual age was computed as VA diff . The 10-year CVD risk and VA diff based on lipids as well as BMI were significantly higher for patients compared to controls (all p<0.01). There was a strong correlation between FRS lipids and FRS BMI (r=0.97, p<0.001). Significantly higher numbers of patients than controls were smokers and obese; and reported having dyslipidaemia. We found a high risk of CVD in patients with schizophrenia as compared to controls; and conclude that patients with schizophrenia need regular physical health monitoring, especially for cardiovascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Framingham risk score for estimation of 10-years of cardiovascular diseases risk in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jahangiry, Leila; Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2017-11-13

    There are a few studies evaluating the predictive value of Framingham risk score (FRS) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment in patients with metabolic syndrome in Iran. Because of the emerging high prevalence of CVD among Iranian population, it is important to predict its risk among populations with potential predictive tools. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the FRS and its determinants in patients with metabolic syndrome. In the current cross-sectional study, 160 patients with metabolic syndrome diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria were enrolled. The FRS was calculated using a computer program by a previously suggested algorithm. Totally, 77.5, 16.3, and 6.3% of patients with metabolic syndrome were at low, intermediate, and high risk of CVD according to FRS categorization. The highest prevalence of all of metabolic syndrome components were in low CVD risk according to the FRS grouping (P < 0.05), while the lowest prevalence of these components was in high CVD risk group (P < 0.05). According to multiple logistic regression analysis, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and fasting serum glucose (FSG) were potent determinants of intermediate and high risk CVD risk of FRS scoring compared with low risk group (P < 0.05). In the current study, significant associations between components of metabolic syndrome and different FRS categorization among patients with metabolic syndrome were identified. High SBP and FSG were associated with meaningfully increased risk of CVD compared with other parameters. The study is not a trial; the registration number is not applicable.

  8. Use and Customization of Risk Scores for Predicting Cardiovascular Events Using Electronic Health Record Data.

    PubMed

    Wolfson, Julian; Vock, David M; Bandyopadhyay, Sunayan; Kottke, Thomas; Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Johnson, Paul; Adomavicius, Gediminas; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2017-04-24

    Clinicians who are using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations (PCE) to estimate risk for their patients based on electronic health data (EHD) face 4 questions. (1) Do published risk scores applied to EHD yield accurate estimates of cardiovascular risk? (2) Are FRS risk estimates, which are based on data that are up to 45 years old, valid for a contemporary patient population seeking routine care? (3) Do the PCE make the FRS obsolete? (4) Does refitting the risk score using EHD improve the accuracy of risk estimates? Data were extracted from the EHD of 84 116 adults aged 40 to 79 years who received care at a large healthcare delivery and insurance organization between 2001 and 2011. We assessed calibration and discrimination for 4 risk scores: published versions of FRS and PCE and versions obtained by refitting models using a subset of the available EHD. The published FRS was well calibrated (calibration statistic K=9.1, miscalibration ranging from 0% to 17% across risk groups), but the PCE displayed modest evidence of miscalibration (calibration statistic K=43.7, miscalibration from 9% to 31%). Discrimination was similar in both models (C-index=0.740 for FRS, 0.747 for PCE). Refitting the published models using EHD did not substantially improve calibration or discrimination. We conclude that published cardiovascular risk models can be successfully applied to EHD to estimate cardiovascular risk; the FRS remains valid and is not obsolete; and model refitting does not meaningfully improve the accuracy of risk estimates. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Fungal Rhinosinusitis: Microbiological and Histopathological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Nitya; Khare, Vineeta; Ahamad, Abrar; Verma, Virendra; Agarwal, S.P

    2017-01-01

    Introduction On the basis of histopathology Fungal Rhinosinusitis (FRS) is categorized into non-invasive (allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, fungal ball) and invasive (acute invasive, chronic invasive and granulomatous invasive fungal sinusitis). This differentiation helps to decide the treatment. Role of latest molecular methods such as PCR and conventional methods such as KOH microscopy and culture also needs to be evaluated. Therefore, in this study we planned to categorise fungal rhinosinusitis on the basis of histopathology and compare it with other methods such as PCR, culture and KOH microscopy. Aim To analyse fungal rhinosinusitis cases by both histopathologically and microbiologically. Materials and Methods A total of 76 clinically suspected fungal rhinosinusitis cases were included in the study. The tissue of suspected cases were processed and examined by KOH microscopy, histopathologically, culture and PCR. Histopathological examination was done by PAS, GMS and H&E stain. Results FRS was diagnosed in 37 (48.68%) cases out of 76 clinically suspected cases of FRS. In which 17 (22.3%) cases were positive by direct microscopy, 21 (27.6%) by culture, 27 (35.5%) by PCR and 14 (18.42%) by histopathology. Approximately 14 cases of FRS were classified according to histopathology; 10 (71.3%) as non-invasive FRS. Out of these 10, 9 (64.2%) were classified as AFRS and 1 (7.14%) as fungal ball. Only 4 cases (28.5%) were diagnosed with invasive FRS. Out of these 4 cases, 2 (14.2%) were of chronic invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, 1 (7.14%) was of granulomatous invasive fungal rhinosinusitis and 1 (7.14%) was of acute fulminant invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis (AFRS) is the most common type of FRS. Aspergillus flavus was found to be the most common fungi causing FRS. Conclusion Diagnosis should not be based on the single method. It should be done by both histopathological and microbiological methods, especially for those cases which are

  10. Aspects of Apache's Acquisition of Mariner Energy and Selected Devon Energy Assets

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration reviews mergers, acquisitions, and alliances by companies that are respondents to Form EIA-28 (Financial Reporting System (FRS)), or that result in a company that meets the FRS reporting criteria.

  11. 78 FR 70027 - Senior Executive Service; Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    .... SYKES, MERLE L. SYNAKOWSKI, EDMUND J. TALBOT JR, GERALD L. TAYLOR, CHARLES W. THOMPSON, MICHAEL A..., WILLIAM N. BURROWS, CHARLES W. BUTTRESS, LARRY D. CADIEUX, GENA E. CALBOS, PHILIP T. CALLAHAN, SAMUEL N..., JAMES MELBOURN DURANT, CHARLES K. ECKROADE, WILLIAM A. EDWARDS III, ROBERT E. EHLI, CATHY L. ELKIND...

  12. UF Biomotor/Biosensor Nanotechnologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-25

    compared to experimental data ( Bernheim -Groswasser et al. 2002; Wiesner et al. 2003). Plot from (Dickinson and Purich 2006). 44 Task 5 - Direct real-time...13. Bernheim -Groswasser A, Wiesner S, Golsteyn RM, Carlier ME, Sykes C. 2002. The dynamics of actin-based motility depend on surface parameters

  13. Hills for the Head. Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Maltby Sykes, the painter, addressing issues such as his assignment during World War II, being an apprentice to Diego Rivera, and his relationship with George C. Miller. Discusses both the painting and the sketch titled "Hills." Includes activities in geography, visual art, history, and mathematics. (CMK)

  14. R2 REGULATED FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Facility Registry System (FRS) is a centrally managed database that identifies facilities, sites or places subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest. FRS creates high-quality, accurate, and authoritative facility identification records through rigorous...

  15. Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight Qualities of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sykes, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    Maurice Sykes has made advocating for and advancing high-quality early childhood education his life's work. Through mentorships, presentations, and personal example, Maurice challenges and inspires educators to become effective leaders who make a difference in children's lives. He does the same in "Doing the Right Thing for Children: Eight…

  16. The Secret Identity of Science Education: Masculine and Politically Conservative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This response to Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes' paper, "The secret identity of a biology textbook: straight and naturally sexed," explores their critiques of textbooks and curricula that authoritatively present scientific accounts of the natural world without engaging students in critical thinking. It proposes that we need to go beyond such…

  17. Teaching the Pragmatics of Russian Conversation Using a Corpus-Referred Website

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, Eddie A.

    2016-01-01

    Pragmatic competence is essential for oral fluency and listening comprehension, allowing speakers to use and interpret language appropriately in varied contexts. The use of technological applications for teaching pragmatics is on the rise (Taguchi & Sykes, 2013), in part because they are well-suited to the types of awareness-raising tasks…

  18. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Leakage in Multiple Enteric Inflammation Models in Chickens.

    PubMed

    Kuttappan, Vivek A; Vicuña, Eduardo A; Latorre, Juan D; Wolfenden, Amanda D; Téllez, Guillermo I; Hargis, Billy M; Bielke, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Enteric inflammation models can help researchers' study methods to improve health and performance and evaluate various growth promoters and dietary formulations targeted to improve performance in poultry. Oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d; 3-5 kDa) and its pericellular mucosal epithelial leakage are an established marker to evaluate enteric inflammation in multiple species. The present study evaluated different methods to induce gut inflammation in poultry based on FITC-d leakage. Four independent experiments were completed with different inflammation treatment groups, and serum FITC-d and/or retention of FITC-d in GI tract were determined. In experiment 1 (n = 10 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 14 days), groups included control (CON), dextran sodium sulfate (DSS; drinking water at 0.75%) and feed restriction (FRS; 24 h before processing). Experiment 2 (n = 14 birds/treatment, leghorns, processed at 7 days) included CON, DSS, FRS, and rye-based diet (RBD). In experiments 3 and 4 (n = 15 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 7 days), groups were CON, DSS, high fat diet (HFD), FRS, and RBD. In all experiments, FRS and RBD treatments showed significantly higher serum FITC-d levels compared to the respective CON. This indicates that FRS and RBD results in disruption of the intact barrier of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), resulting in increased gut permeability. DSS and HFD groups showed elevation of serum FITC-d levels although the magnitude of difference from respective CON was inconsistent between experiments. FRS was the only treatment which consistently showed elevated retention of FITC-d in GIT in all experiments. The results from present studies showed that FRS and RBD, based on serum FITC-d levels, can be robust models to induce gut leakage in birds in different age and species/strains.

  19. Evaluation of Gastrointestinal Leakage in Multiple Enteric Inflammation Models in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Vicuña, Eduardo A.; Latorre, Juan D.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Téllez, Guillermo I.; Hargis, Billy M.; Bielke, Lisa R.

    2015-01-01

    Enteric inflammation models can help researchers’ study methods to improve health and performance and evaluate various growth promoters and dietary formulations targeted to improve performance in poultry. Oral administration of fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-d; 3–5 kDa) and its pericellular mucosal epithelial leakage are an established marker to evaluate enteric inflammation in multiple species. The present study evaluated different methods to induce gut inflammation in poultry based on FITC-d leakage. Four independent experiments were completed with different inflammation treatment groups, and serum FITC-d and/or retention of FITC-d in GI tract were determined. In experiment 1 (n = 10 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 14 days), groups included control (CON), dextran sodium sulfate (DSS; drinking water at 0.75%) and feed restriction (FRS; 24 h before processing). Experiment 2 (n = 14 birds/treatment, leghorns, processed at 7 days) included CON, DSS, FRS, and rye-based diet (RBD). In experiments 3 and 4 (n = 15 birds/treatment, broilers, processed at 7 days), groups were CON, DSS, high fat diet (HFD), FRS, and RBD. In all experiments, FRS and RBD treatments showed significantly higher serum FITC-d levels compared to the respective CON. This indicates that FRS and RBD results in disruption of the intact barrier of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), resulting in increased gut permeability. DSS and HFD groups showed elevation of serum FITC-d levels although the magnitude of difference from respective CON was inconsistent between experiments. FRS was the only treatment which consistently showed elevated retention of FITC-d in GIT in all experiments. The results from present studies showed that FRS and RBD, based on serum FITC-d levels, can be robust models to induce gut leakage in birds in different age and species/strains. PMID:26697435

  20. Association between global leukocyte DNA methylation and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Ramon Bossardi; Fabris, Vitor; Lecke, Sheila Bunecker; Maturana, Maria Augusta; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2016-10-10

    Genetic studies to date have not provided satisfactory evidence regarding risk polymorphisms for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Conversely, epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, seem to influence the risk of CVD and related conditions. Because postmenopausal women experience an increase in CVD, we set out to determine whether global DNA methylation was associated with cardiovascular risk in this population. In this cross sectional study carried out in a university hospital, 90 postmenopausal women without prior CVD diagnosis (55.5 ± 4.9 years, 5.8 [3.0-10.0] years since menopause) were enrolled. DNA was extracted from peripheral leukocytes and global DNA methylation levels were obtained with an ELISA kit. Cardiovascular risk was estimated by the Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (10-year risk) (FRS). Clinical and laboratory variables were assessed. Patients were stratified into two CVD risk groups: low (FRS: <10 %, n = 69) and intermediate/high risk (FRS ≥10 %, n = 21). Age, time since menopause, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL-c levels were higher in FRS ≥10 % group vs. FRS <10 % group. BMI, triglycerides, HDL-c, HOMA-IR, glucose and hsC-reactive protein levels were similar in the two groups. Global DNA methylation (% 5mC) in the overall sample was 26.5 % (23.6-36.9). The FRS ≥10 % group presented lower global methylation levels compared with the FRS <10 % group: 23.9 % (20.6-29.1) vs. 28.8 % (24.3-39.6), p = 0.02. This analysis remained significant even after adjustment for time since menopause (p = 0.02). Our results indicate that lower global DNA methylation is associated with higher cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women.

  1. Relationship between two indicators of coronary risk estimated by the Framingham Risk Score and the number of metabolic syndrome components in Japanese male manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki; Inagaki, Hirofumi; Wakayama, Yoko; Li, Qing; Katsumata, Masao

    2009-10-01

    The Framingham Risk Score (FRS) has frequently been used in the United States to predict the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Components of the metabolic syndrome and several lifestyle factors have also been evaluated to estimate the risk of CHD. To determine the relationship between the FRS and components of metabolic syndrome as coronary risk indicators, the authors conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,619 Japanese male workers, ranging in age from 40 to 64 years, at a single workplace. Although the estimation by the FRS and metabolic syndrome involved some different factors, significant association of the risk estimated by the 2 methods was observed. When logistic regression analysis was conducted with adjustment for several lifestyle factors, the FRS and serum insulin were found to be significantly associated with the risk of likelihood of metabolic syndrome. The odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of FRS by per standard deviation increment and serum insulin by increasing 1 microIU/mL for the prediction of metabolic syndrome were 2.50 (2.17-2.88) and 1.24 (1.20-1.27), respectively. A preventive effect of abstaining from drinking every day and eating breakfast almost daily against the likelihood of metabolic syndrome was also observed. In conclusion, the FRS and insulin were found to be significantly associated with the risk of likelihood of metabolic syndrome, even after controlling for weight change.

  2. TGF-β Determines the Pro-migratory Potential of bFGF Signaling in Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Santhana Kumar, Karthiga; Neve, Anuja; Guerreiro Stucklin, Ana S; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Rushing, Elisabeth J; Taylor, Michael D; Tripolitsioti, Dimitra; Behrmann, Lena; Kirschenbaum, Daniel; Grotzer, Michael A; Baumgartner, Martin

    2018-06-26

    The microenvironment shapes cell behavior and determines metastatic outcomes of tumors. We addressed how microenvironmental cues control tumor cell invasion in pediatric medulloblastoma (MB). We show that bFGF promotes MB tumor cell invasion through FGF receptor (FGFR) in vitro and that blockade of FGFR represses brain tissue infiltration in vivo. TGF-β regulates pro-migratory bFGF function in a context-dependent manner. Under low bFGF, the non-canonical TGF-β pathway causes ROCK activation and cortical translocation of ERK1/2, which antagonizes FGFR signaling by inactivating FGFR substrate 2 (FRS2), and promotes a contractile, non-motile phenotype. Under high bFGF, negative-feedback regulation of FRS2 by bFGF-induced ERK1/2 causes repression of the FGFR pathway. Under these conditions, TGF-β counters inactivation of FRS2 and restores pro-migratory signaling. These findings pinpoint coincidence detection of bFGF and TGF-β signaling by FRS2 as a mechanism that controls tumor cell invasion. Thus, targeting FRS2 represents an emerging strategy to abrogate aberrant FGFR signaling. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Shot-noise Limited Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy for Detection of Nitric Oxide Isotopes in Breath, Urine, and Blood

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Nikodem, Michal; Zhang, Eric; Cikach, Frank; Barnes, Jarrod; Comhair, Suzy; Dweik, Raed A.; Kao, Christina; Wysocki, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of NO and/or its metabolites in the various body compartments has transformed our understanding of biology. The inability of the current NO measurement methods to account for naturally occurring and experimental NO isotopes, however, has prevented the scientific community from fully understating NO metabolism in vivo. Here we present a mid-IR Faraday rotation spectrometer (FRS) for detection of NO isotopes. The instrument utilizes a novel dual modulation/demodulation (DM) FRS method which exhibits noise performance at only 2 times the fundamental quantum shot-noise level and provides the record sensitivity in its class. This is achieved with a system that is fully autonomous, robust, transportable, and does not require cryogenic cooling. The DM-FRS enables continuous monitoring of nitric oxide isotopes with the detection limits of 3.72 ppbv/Hz1/2 to14NO and 0.53 ppbv/Hz1/2 to15NO using only 45 cm active optical path. This DM-FRS measurement method can be used to improve the performance of conventional FRS sensors targeting other radical species. The feasibility of the instrument to perform measurements relevant to studies of NO metabolism in humans is demonstrated. PMID:25767064

  4. Plasmodium falciparum mitochondria import tRNAs along with an active phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arvind; Sharma, Amit

    2015-02-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum protein translation enzymes aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are an emergent family of drug targets. The aaRS ensemble catalyses transfer of amino acids to cognate tRNAs, thus providing charged tRNAs for ribosomal consumption. P. falciparum proteome expression relies on a total of 36 aaRSs for the three translationally independent compartments of cytoplasm, apicoplast and mitochondria. In the present study, we show that, of this set of 36, a single genomic copy of mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (mFRS) is targeted to the parasite mitochondria, and that the mFRS gene is exclusive to malaria parasites within the apicomplexan phyla. Our protein cellular localization studies based on immunofluorescence data show that, along with mFRS, P. falciparum harbours two more phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (FRS) assemblies that are localized to its apicoplast and cytoplasm. The 'extra' mFRS is found in mitochondria of all asexual blood stage parasites and is competent in aminoacylation. We show further that the parasite mitochondria import tRNAs from the cytoplasmic tRNA pool. Hence drug targeting of FRSs presents a unique opportunity to potentially stall protein production in all three parasite translational compartments.

  5. Fiber-reinforced superalloy composites provide an added performance edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrasek, D. W.; Mcdaniels, D. L.; Westfall, L. J.; Stephens, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    Fiber reinforcements are being explored as a means to increasing the performance of superalloys past 980 C. Fiber-reinforced superalloys (FRS), particularly tungsten FRS (TFRS) are candidate materials for rocket-engine turbopump blades for advanced Shuttle engines and in airbreathing and other rocket engines. Refractory metal wires are the reinforcement of choice due to tolerance to fiber/matrix interactions. W alloy fibers have a maximum tensile strength of 2165 MPa at 1095 C and a 100 hr creep rupture strength at stresses up to 1400 MPa. A TFRS has the potential of a service temperature 110 C over the strongest superalloy. Manufacturing processes being evaluated to realize the FRS components are summarized, together with design features which will be introduced in turbine blades to take advantage of the FRS materials and to extend their surface life.

  6. Unspecific membrane protein-lipid recognition: combination of AFM imaging, force spectroscopy, DSC and FRET measurements.

    PubMed

    Borrell, Jordi H; Montero, M Teresa; Morros, Antoni; Domènech, Òscar

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we will describe in quantitative terms the unspecific recognition between lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, a polytopic model membrane protein, and one of the main components of the inner membrane of this bacterium. Supported lipid bilayers of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) (3:1, mol/mol) in the presence of Ca(2+) display lateral phase segregation that can be distinguished by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as force spectroscopy. LacY shows preference for fluid (Lα) phases when it is reconstituted in POPE : POPG (3:1, mol/mol) proteoliposomes at a lipid-to-protein ratio of 40. When the lipid-to-protein ratio is decreased down to 0.5, two domains can be distinguished by AFM. While the upper domain is formed by self-segregated units of LacY, the lower domain is constituted only by phospholipids in gel (Lβ) phase. On the one hand, classical differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements evidenced the segregation of a population of phospholipids and point to the existence of a boundary region at the lipid-protein interface. On the other hand, Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) measurements in solution evidenced that POPE is selectively recognized by LacY. A binary pseudophase diagram of POPE : POPG built from AFM observations enables to calculate the composition of the fluid phase where LacY is inserted. These results are consistent with a model where POPE constitutes the main component of the lipid-LacY interface segregated from the fluid bulk phase where POPG predominates. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Estimation of human percutaneous uptake for two novel brominated flame retardants, 2-ethylhexyl tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) using the parallelogram method

    EPA Science Inventory

    2-ethylhexyl- tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromobenzoate (TBPH) are novel brominated flame retardants (FRs). TBPH is used as a plasticizer or with TBB in polyurethane foam FRs. TBB & TBPH have been detected in both indoor and outdoor environmental sampl...

  8. Techniques of Neutralising Wildlife Crime in Rural England and Wales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enticott, Gareth

    2011-01-01

    Within rural studies there have been few attempts to critically analyse crimes against nature. This paper addresses this gap by providing an analysis of farmers' reasons for illegally culling badgers in the United Kingdom. Drawing on Sykes and Matza's (1957) concepts of neutralisation and drift, the paper shows how farmers rationalise this…

  9. An Investigation of Alignment in CMC from a Sociocognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzum, Baburhan

    2010-01-01

    Computer technology improves the process of SLA by providing access to an ample amount of input within a communicative context in which participants can engage in synchronous and asynchronous conversations (Payne & Whitney, 2002; Sykes, 2005). This research project aims to investigate the role of alignment in learning a second language within the…

  10. Novel organic NLO material bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate - A combined X-ray diffraction, DSC and vibrational spectroscopic study of its unique polymorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matulková, Irena; Císařová, Ivana; Vaněk, Přemysl; Němec, Petr; Němec, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Three polymorphic modifications of bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate are reported, and their characterization is discussed in this paper. The non-centrosymmetric bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate (I), which was obtained from an aqueous solution at 313 K, belongs to the monoclinic space group Cc (a = 6.2560(2) Å, b = 18.6920(3) Å, c = 18.2980(5) Å, β = 96.249(1)°, V = 2127.0(1) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0314 for 4738 observed reflections). The centrosymmetric bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate (II) was obtained from an aqueous solution at 298 K and belongs to the monoclinic space group P21/n (a = 6.1335(3) Å, b = 11.7862(6) Å, c = 14.5962(8) Å, β = 95.728(2)°, V = 1049.90(9) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0420 for 2396 observed reflections). The cooling of the centrosymmetric phase (II) leads to the formation of bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate (III) (a = 6.1083(2) Å, b = 11.3178(5) Å, c = 14.9947(5) Å, β = 93.151(2)°, V = 1035.05(8) Å3, Z = 4, R = 0.0345 for 2367 observed reflections and a temperature of 110 K), which also belongs to the monoclinic space group P21/n. The crystal structures of the three characterized phases are generally based on layers of isolated N-phenylbiguanidium(1 +) cations separated by oxalate anions and interconnected with them by several types of N-H...O hydrogen bonds. The observed phases generally differ not only in their crystal packing but also in the lengths and characteristics of their hydrogen bonds. The thermal behaviour of the prepared compounds was studied using the DSC method in the temperature range from 90 K up to a temperature near the melting point of each crystal. The bis(N-phenylbiguanidium(1+)) oxalate (II) crystals exhibit weak reversible thermal effects on the DSC curve at 147 K (heating run). Further investigation of this effect, which was assigned to the isostructural phase transformation, was performed using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis in a wide temperature range.

  11. Evaluating the Bioaccessibility of Flame Retardants in House Dust Using an In Vitro Tenax Bead-Assisted Sorptive Physiologically Based Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to house dust is a significant source of exposure to flame retardant chemicals (FRs), particularly in the US. Given the high exposure there is a need to understand the bioaccessibility of FRs from dust. In this study, Tenax beads (TA) encapsulated within a stainless steel insert were used as an adsorption sink to estimate the dynamic absorption of a suite of FRs commonly detected in indoor dust samples (n = 17), and from a few polyurethane foam samples for comparison. Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) had the highest estimated bioaccessibility (∼80%) compared to brominated compounds (e.g., PBDEs), and values generally decreased with increasing Log Kow, with <30% bioaccessibility measured for BDE209. These measurements were in very close agreement with reported PBDE bioavailability measures from an in vivo rat exposure study using indoor dust. The bioaccessibility of very hydrophobic FRs (Log Kow > 6) in foam was much less than that in house dust, and increasing bioaccessibility was observed with decreasing particle size. In addition, we examined the stability of more labile FRs containing ester groups (e.g., OPFRs and 2-ethylhexyl-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB)) in a mock-digestive fluid matrix. No significant changes in the OPFR concentrations were observed in this fluid; however, EH-TBB was found to readily hydrolyze to tetrabromobenzoic acid (TBBA) in the intestinal fluid in the presence of lipases. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the bioaccessibility and stability of FRs following ingestion varies by chemical and sample matrix and thus should be considered in exposure assessments. PMID:25330458

  12. A Convenient Dichotomy: Critical Eyes on the Limits to Biological Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milne, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In "The Secret Identity of a Biology Textbook: straight and naturally sexed," Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes conduct a case study of a biology textbook as an oppressive instructional material. Using queer theory they explore how the text of the biology textbook produces "truths" about sex, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis is complemented by…

  13. First rank symptoms for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Soares-Weiser, Karla; Maayan, Nicola; Bergman, Hanna; Davenport, Clare; Kirkham, Amanda J; Grabowski, Sarah; Adams, Clive E

    2015-01-25

    Early and accurate diagnosis and treatment of schizophrenia may have long-term advantages for the patient; the longer psychosis goes untreated the more severe the repercussions for relapse and recovery. If the correct diagnosis is not schizophrenia, but another psychotic disorder with some symptoms similar to schizophrenia, appropriate treatment might be delayed, with possible severe repercussions for the person involved and their family. There is widespread uncertainty about the diagnostic accuracy of First Rank Symptoms (FRS); we examined whether they are a useful diagnostic tool to differentiate schizophrenia from other psychotic disorders. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of one or multiple FRS for diagnosing schizophrenia, verified by clinical history and examination by a qualified professional (e.g. psychiatrists, nurses, social workers), with or without the use of operational criteria and checklists, in people thought to have non-organic psychotic symptoms. We conducted searches in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycInfo using OvidSP in April, June, July 2011 and December 2012. We also searched MEDION in December 2013. We selected studies that consecutively enrolled or randomly selected adults and adolescents with symptoms of psychosis, and assessed the diagnostic accuracy of FRS for schizophrenia compared to history and clinical examination performed by a qualified professional, which may or may not involve the use of symptom checklists or based on operational criteria such as ICD and DSM. Two review authors independently screened all references for inclusion. Risk of bias in included studies were assessed using the QUADAS-2 instrument. We recorded the number of true positives (TP), true negatives (TN), false positives (FP), and false negatives (FN) for constructing a 2 x 2 table for each study or derived 2 x 2 data from reported summary statistics such as sensitivity, specificity, and/or likelihood ratios. We included 21 studies with a total of 6253 participants

  14. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in indoor dust of Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Ismail, Iqbal Mohammad Ibrahim; Malarvannan, Govindan; Kadi, Mohammad W; Albar, Hussain Mohammed Salem; Rehan, Mohammad; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Different flame retardants (FRs) namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging brominated/chlorinated flame retardants (Br/Cl FRs), and organophosphate FRs (OPFRs) were analyzed in cars, air conditioner (AC) filters and floor dust of different households from Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). To the best of our knowledge, this is first study in literature reporting emerging Br/Cl FRs and OPFRs in AC filter dust and also first to report on their occurrence in dust from KSA. Chlorinated alkyl phosphate, penta-BDEs, BDE-209, and decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) were the major chemicals in dust samples from all microenvironments. ΣOPFRs occurred at median concentrations (ng/g dust) of 15,400, 10,500, and 3750 in AC filter, car and house floor dust, respectively. For all analyzed chemicals, relatively lower levels were observed in floor dust than car and AC filter dust. The profiles of FRs in car dust were different from AC filter and floor dust, which reflected their wider application as FR and plasticizer in variety of household and commercial products. For toddlers, assuming high dust intake and 95th percentile concentrations, the computed exposure estimation for BDE-99 was higher than RfD values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of different rearing systems on growth, small intestinal morphology and selected indices of fermentation status in broilers.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhui; Miao, Zhiqiang; Tian, Wenxia; Yang, Yu; Wang, Jundong; Yang, Ying

    2017-06-01

    A 3×2 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of rearing system and stocking density on the growth performance, intestinal morphology and fermentation status of broilers. Broilers were kept on three rearing systems: floor litter rearing (FRS), plastic net rearing (NRS) and multilayer cage rearing system (CRS), each with two stocking densities (normal and high stocking densities). Results showed that on 7 to 28 days of age, body weight gain appeared as FRS > NRS > CRS. Whereas, CRS significantly enhanced the weight gain of broilers compared with the other systems subsequently. Broilers on FRS had higher counts of cecum Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli at 28 days of age but had more Escherichia coli and less Bifidobacteria than CRS at 42 days of age. The FRS also decreased volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and jejunal villus height-to-crypt depth ratio at all ages. In conclusion, FRS appeared to benefit gut microorganisms during the early growing period along with high body weight gain of broilers, whereas this system might have a harmful effect on subsequent intestinal growth, as indicated by high E. coli, low Bifidobacteria count, low VFA concentration and villus height-to-crypt depth ratio along with low weight gain of broilers. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Geochemistry of waters from springs, wells, and snowpack on and adjacent to Medicine Lake volcano, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mariner, R.H.; Lowenstern, Jacob B.

    1999-01-01

    Chemical analyses of waters from cold springs and wells of the Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding region indicate small chloride anomalies that may be due to water-rock interaction or limited mixing with high-temperature geothermal fluids. The Fall River Springs (FRS) with a combined discharge of approximately 37 m3/s, show a negative correlation between chloride (Cl) and temperature, implying that the Cl is not derived from a high-temperature geothermal fluid. The high discharge from the FRS indicates recharge over a large geographic region. Chemical and isotopic variations in the FRS show that they contain a mixture of three distinct waters. The isotopic composition of recharge on and adjacent to the volcano are estimated from the isotopic composition of snow and precipitation amounts adjusted for evapotranspiration. Enough recharge of the required isotopic composition (-100 parts per thousand ??D) is available from a combination of the Medicine Lake caldera, the Fall River basin and the Long Bell basin to support the slightly warmer components of the FRS (32 m3/s). The cold-dilute part of the FRS (approximately 5 m3/s) may recharge in the Bear Creek basin or at lower elevations in the Fall River basin.

  17. Evaluation of in vitro vs. in vivo methods for assessment of dermal absorption of organic flame retardants: a review.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; Pawar, Gopal; Harrad, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest to study human dermal exposure to a large number of chemicals, whether in the indoor or outdoor environment. Such studies are essential to predict the systemic exposure to xenobiotic chemicals for risk assessment purposes and to comply with various regulatory guidelines. However, very little is currently known about human dermal exposure to persistent organic pollutants. While recent pharmacokinetic studies have highlighted the importance of dermal contact as a pathway of human exposure to brominated flame retardants, risk assessment studies had to apply assumed values for percutaneous penetration of various flame retardants (FRs) due to complete absence of specific experimental data on their human dermal bioavailability. Therefore, this article discusses the current state-of-knowledge on the significance of dermal contact as a pathway of human exposure to FRs. The available literature on in vivo and in vitro methods for assessment of dermal absorption of FRs in human and laboratory animals is critically reviewed. Finally, a novel approach for studying human dermal absorption of FRs using in vitro three-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent models is presented and the challenges facing future dermal absorption studies on FRs are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Atmospheric Concentrations of New Persistent Organic Pollutants and Emerging Chemicals of Concern in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) Region.

    PubMed

    Rauert, Cassandra; Harner, Tom; Schuster, Jasmin K; Eng, Anita; Fillmann, Gilberto; Castillo, Luisa Eugenia; Fentanes, Oscar; Villa Ibarra, Martín; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Moreno Rivadeneira, Isabel; Pozo, Karla; Aristizábal Zuluaga, Beatriz Helena

    2018-06-15

    A special initiative was run by the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) Network to provide atmospheric data on a range of emerging chemicals of concern and candidate and new persistent organic pollutants in the Group of Latin America and Caribbean (GRULAC) region. Regional-scale data for a range of flame retardants (FRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphate esters (OPEs), and a range of alternative FRs (novel FRs) are reported over 2 years of sampling with low detection frequencies of the novel FRs. Atmospheric concentrations of the OPEs were an order of magnitude higher than all other FRs, with similar profiles at all sites. Regional-scale background concentrations of the poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including the neutral PFAS (n-PFAS) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), and the volatile methyl siloxanes (VMS) are also reported. Ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA) was detected at highly elevated concentrations in Brazil and Colombia, in line with the use of the pesticide sulfluramid in this region. Similar concentrations of the perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFAS) were detected throughout the GRULAC region regardless of location type, and the VMS concentrations in air increased with the population density of sampling locations. This is the first report of atmospheric concentrations of the PFAAs and VMS from this region.

  19. [Study on the classification of dominant pathogens related to febrile respiratory syndrome, based on the method of Bayes discriminant analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, X C; Li, J S; Meng, L; Bai, Y N; Yu, D S; Liu, X N; Liu, X F; Jiang, X J; Ren, X W; Yang, X T; Shen, X P; Zhang, J W

    2017-08-10

    Objective: To understand the dominant pathogens of febrile respiratory syndrome (FRS) patients in Gansu province and to establish the Bayes discriminant function in order to identify the patients infected with the dominant pathogens. Methods: FRS patients were collected in various sentinel hospitals of Gansu province from 2009 to 2015 and the dominant pathogens were determined by describing the composition of pathogenic profile. Significant clinical variables were selected by stepwise discriminant analysis to establish the Bayes discriminant function. Results: In the detection of pathogens for FRS, both influenza virus and rhinovirus showed higher positive rates than those caused by other viruses (13.79%, 8.63%), that accounting for 54.38%, 13.73% of total viral positive patients. Most frequently detected bacteria would include Streptococcus pneumoniae , and haemophilus influenza (44.41%, 18.07%) that accounting for 66.21% and 24.55% among the bacterial positive patients. The original-validated rate of discriminant function, established by 11 clinical variables, was 73.1%, with the cross-validated rate as 70.6%. Conclusion: Influenza virus, Rhinovirus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were the dominant pathogens of FRS in Gansu province. Results from the Bayes discriminant analysis showed both higher accuracy in the classification of dominant pathogens, and applicative value for FRS.

  20. Examination of fluorination effect on physical properties of saturated long-chain alcohols by DSC and Langmuir monolayer.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Shohei; Okahashi, Yoshinori; Kitaguchi, Daisuke; Kawabata, Noritake; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Shibata, Osamu

    2013-02-01

    Partially fluorinated long-chain alcohols have been newly synthesized from a radical reaction, which is followed by a reductive reaction. The fluorinated alcohols have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression isotherms in a Langmuir monolayer state. Their melting points increase with an increase in chain length due to elongation of methylene groups. However, the melting points for the alcohols containing shorter fluorinated moieties are lower than those for the typical hydrogenated fatty alcohols. Using the Langmuir monolayer technique, surface pressure (π)-molecular area (A) and surface potential (ΔV)-A isotherms of monolayers of the fluorinated alcohols have been measured in the temperature range from 281.2 to 303.2K. In addition, a compressibility modulus (Cs(-1)) is calculated from the π-A isotherms. Four kinds of the alcohol monolayers show a phase transition (π(eq)) from a disordered to an ordered state upon lateral compression. The π(eq) values increase linearly with increasing temperatures. A slope of π(eq) against temperature for the alcohols with shorter fluorocarbons is unexpectedly larger than that for the corresponding fatty alcohols. Generally, fluorinated amphiphiles have a greater thermal stability (or resistance), which is a characteristic of highly fluorinated or perfluorinated compounds. Herein, however, the alcohols containing perfluorobutylated and perfluorohexylated chains show the irregular thermal behavior in both the solid and monolayer states. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of first pass bolus AIFs extracted from sequential 18F-FDG PET and DSC-MRI of mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Eleanor; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Ward, Alexander O.; Buonincontri, Guido; Hawkes, Robert C.; Adrian Carpenter, T.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate kinetic modelling of in vivo physiological function using positron emission tomography (PET) requires determination of the tracer time-activity curve in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The AIF is usually determined by invasive blood sampling methods, which are prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. Extracting AIFs from PET images is also challenging due to large partial volume effects (PVE). We hypothesise that in combined PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR), a co-injected bolus of MR contrast agent and PET ligand can be tracked using fast MR acquisitions. This protocol would allow extraction of a MR AIF from MR contrast agent concentration-time curves, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than an image-derived PET AIF. A conversion factor could then be applied to the MR AIF for use in PET kinetic analysis. This work has compared AIFs obtained from sequential DSC-MRI and PET with separate injections of gadolinium contrast agent and 18F-FDG respectively to ascertain the technique‧s validity. An automated voxel selection algorithm was employed to improve MR AIF reproducibility. We found that MR and PET AIFs displayed similar character in the first pass, confirmed by gamma variate fits (p<0.02). MR AIFs displayed reduced PVE compared to PET AIFs, indicating their potential use in PET/MR studies.

  2. Comparison of first pass bolus AIFs extracted from sequential 18F-FDG PET and DSC-MRI of mice.

    PubMed

    Evans, Eleanor; Sawiak, Stephen J; Ward, Alexander O; Buonincontri, Guido; Hawkes, Robert C; Carpenter, T Adrian

    2014-01-11

    Accurate kinetic modelling of in vivo physiological function using positron emission tomography (PET) requires determination of the tracer time-activity curve in plasma, known as the arterial input function (AIF). The AIF is usually determined by invasive blood sampling methods, which are prohibitive in murine studies due to low total blood volumes. Extracting AIFs from PET images is also challenging due to large partial volume effects (PVE). We hypothesise that in combined PET with magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MR), a co-injected bolus of MR contrast agent and PET ligand can be tracked using fast MR acquisitions. This protocol would allow extraction of a MR AIF from MR contrast agent concentration-time curves, at higher spatial and temporal resolution than an image-derived PET AIF. A conversion factor could then be applied to the MR AIF for use in PET kinetic analysis. This work has compared AIFs obtained from sequential DSC-MRI and PET with separate injections of gadolinium contrast agent and 18 F-FDG respectively to ascertain the technique's validity. An automated voxel selection algorithm was employed to improve MR AIF reproducibility. We found that MR and PET AIFs displayed similar character in the first pass, confirmed by gamma variate fits (p<0.02). MR AIFs displayed reduced PVE compared to PET AIFs, indicating their potential use in PET/MR studies.

  3. Detoxification of furfural residues hydrolysate for butanol fermentation by Clostridium saccharobutylicum DSM 13864.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jin-Jun; Han, Rui-Zhi; Xu, Guo-Chao; Gong, Lei; Xing, Wan-Ru; Ni, Ye

    2018-07-01

    The toxicity of furfural residues (FRs) hydrolysate is a major obstacle in its application. This work focused on the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol fermentation. Combination of activated carbon and resin 717 was appropriate for the detoxification of hydrolysate. Mixed sterilization of FRs hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL) was better than the separate ones, since proteins in CSL could adsorb and remove toxic components during sterilization. The results further confirmed that simultaneous sterilization of activated carbon + resin and fermentation medium was more efficient for detoxification and butanol production, in which 76.4% of phenolic compounds and 99.3% of Maillard reaction products were removed, 8.48 g/L butanol and 12.61 g/L total solvent were obtained. This study provides feasible and economic approaches for the detoxification of FRs hydrolysate and its application in butanol production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. High glucose recovery from direct enzymatic hydrolysis of bisulfite-pretreatment on non-detoxified furfural residues.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yang; Bu, Lingxi; Sun, Dafeng; Liu, Zhiping; Liu, Shijie; Jiang, Jianxin

    2015-10-01

    This study reports four schemes to pretreat wet furfural residues (FRs) with sodium bisulfite for production of fermentable sugar. The results showed that non-detoxified FRs (pH 2-3) had great potential to lower the cost of bioconversion. The optimal process was that unwashed FRs were first pretreated with bisulfite, and the whole slurry was then directly used for enzymatic hydrolysis. A maximum glucose yield of 99.4% was achieved from substrates pretreated with 0.1 g NaHSO3/g dry substrate (DS), at a relatively low temperature of 100 °C for 3 h. Compared with raw material, enzymatic hydrolysis at a high-solid of 16.5% (w/w) specifically showed more excellent performance with bisulfite treated FRs. Direct bisulfite pretreatment improved the accessibility of substrates and the total glucose recovery. Lignosulfonate in the non-detoxified slurry decreased the non-productive adsorption of cellulase on the substrate, thus improving enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phenols, flame retardants and phthalates in water and wastewater - a global problem.

    PubMed

    Ayanda, Olushola Sunday; Olutona, Godwin Oladele; Olumayede, Emmanuel G; Akintayo, Cecilia O; Ximba, Bhekumusa J

    Organic pollutants in water and wastewater have been causing serious environmental problems. The arbitrary discharge of wastewater by industries, and handling, use, and disposal constitute a means by which phenols, flame retardants (FRs), phthalates (PAEs) and other toxic organic pollutants enter the ecosystem. Moreover, these organic pollutants are not completely removed during treatment processes and might be degraded into highly toxic derivatives, which has led to their occurrence in the environment. Phenols, FRs and PAEs are thus highly toxic, carcinogenic and mutagenic, and are capable of disrupting the endocrine system. Therefore, investigation to understand the sources, pathways, behavior, toxicity and exposure to phenols, FRs and PAEs in the environment is necessary. Formation of different by-products makes it difficult to compare the efficacy of the treatment processes, most especially when other organic matters are present. Hence, high levels of phenols, FRs and PAEs removal could be attained with in-line combined treatment processes.

  6. First-rank symptoms in schizophrenia: reexamining mechanisms of self-recognition.

    PubMed

    Waters, Flavie A V; Badcock, Johanna C

    2010-05-01

    Disturbances of self are a common feature of schizophrenic psychopathology, with patients reporting that their thoughts and actions are controlled by external forces, as shown in first-rank symptoms (FRS). One widely accepted explanatory model of FRS suggests a deficiency in the internal forward model system. Recent studies in the field of cognitive sciences, however, have generated new insights into how complex sensory and motor systems contribute to the sense of self-recognition, and it is becoming clear that the forward model conceptualization does not have unique access to representations about the self. We briefly evaluate the forward model explanation of FRS, reassess the distinction made between the sense of agency and body ownership, and outline recent developments in 4 domains of sensory-motor control that have supplemented our understanding of the processes underlying the sense of self-recognition. The application of these findings to FRS will open up new research directions into the processes underlying these symptoms.

  7. Comparison of cardiovascular risk algorithms in patients with vs without rheumatoid arthritis and the role of C-reactive protein in predicting cardiovascular outcomes in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Alemao, Evo; Cawston, Hélène; Bourhis, François; Al, Maiwenn; Rutten-van Molken, Maureen; Liao, Katherine P; Solomon, Daniel H

    2017-05-01

    The aims were to compare the performance of cardiovascular risk calculators, Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and QRISK2, in RA and matched non-RA patients and to evaluate whether their performance could be enhanced by the addition of CRP. We conducted a retrospective analysis, using a clinical practice data set linked to Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data from the UK. Patients presenting with at least one RA diagnosis code and no prior cardiovascular events were matched to non-RA patients using disease risk scores. The overall performance of the FRS and QRISK2 was compared between cohorts, and assessed with and without CRP in the RA cohort using C-Index, Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the net reclassification index (NRI). Four thousand seven hundred and eighty RA patients met the inclusion criteria and were followed for a mean of 3.8 years. The C-Index for the FRS in the non-RA and RA cohort was 0.783 and 0.754 (P < 0.001) and that of the QRISK2 was 0.770 and 0.744 (P < 0.001), respectively. Log[CRP] was positively associated with cardiovascular events, but improvements in the FRS and QRISK2 C-Indices as a result of inclusion of CRP were small, from 0.764 to 0.767 (P = 0.026) for FRS and from 0.764 to 0.765 (P = 0.250) for QRISK2. The NRI was 3.2% (95% CI: -2.8, 5.7%) for FRS and -2.0% (95% CI: -5.8, 4.5%) for QRISK2. The C-Index for the FRS and QRISK2 was significantly better in the non-RA compared with RA patients. The addition of CRP in both equations was not associated with a significant improvement in reclassification based on NRI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Impact of particle size on distribution and human exposure of flame retardants in indoor dust.

    PubMed

    He, Rui-Wen; Li, Yun-Zi; Xiang, Ping; Li, Chao; Cui, Xin-Yi; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-04-01

    The effect of dust particle size on the distribution and bioaccessibility of flame retardants (FRs) in indoor dust remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed 20 FRs (including 6 organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), 8 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 4 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), and 2 dechlorane plus (DPs)) in composite dust samples from offices, public microenvironments (PME), and cars in Nanjing, China. Each composite sample (one per microenvironment) was separated into 6 size fractions (F1-F6: 200-2000µm, 150-200µm, 100-150µm, 63-100µm, 43-63µm, and <43µm). FRs concentrations were the highest in car dust, being 16 and 6 times higher than those in offices and PME. The distribution of FRs in different size fractions was Kow-dependent and affected by surface area (Log Kow=1-4), total organic carbon (Log Kow=4-9), and FR migration pathways into dust (Log Kow>9). Bioaccessibility of FRs was measured by the physiologically-based extraction test, with OPFR bioaccessibility being 1.8-82% while bioaccessible PBDEs, NBFRs, and DPs were under detection limits due to their high hydrophobicity. The OPFR bioaccessibility in 200-2000µm fraction was significantly higher than that of <43µm fraction, but with no difference among the other four fractions. Risk assessment was performed for the most abundant OPFR-tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate. The average daily dose (ADD) values were the highest for the <43µm fraction for all three types of dust using total concentrations, but no consistent trend was found among the three types of dust if based on bioaccessible concentrations. Our results indicated that dust size impacted human exposure estimation of FRs due to their variability in distribution and bioaccessibility among different fractions. For future risk assessment, size selection for dust sampling should be standardized and bioaccessibility of FRs should not be overlooked. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Family resources for families of children with cerebral palsy in Jordan: psychometric properties of the Arabic-family resources scale.

    PubMed

    Almasri, N A; Saleh, M; Dunst, C J

    2014-05-01

    Resource-based, family-centred practices are associated with better health, emotional, and social well-being of children with disabilities. The adequacy of resources available for families of children with disabilities in Middle Eastern countries has not been described adequately in part because of lack of measures that are culturally adapted to be used in Arabic countries. Therefore, this study aims to (1) to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Arabic-Family Resource Scale (A-FRS) on a sample of families of children cerebral palsy (CP); (2) examine the adequacy of family resources as perceived by parents of children with CP in Jordan; and (3) examine the influence of child and family demographic variables on how parents report resources available to their families. A cross-section design was applied. One-hundred fifteen parents of children with CP with mean age 4.6 years (SD = 4.4) and their parents participated in the study. Research assistants interviewed the participants to complete the A-FRS, and family and child demographic questionnaire, and determined the Gross Motor Function Classification System level of children. The principal axis factoring of the A-FRS yielded a six-factor solution that accounted for 67.39% of the variance and that is different than the factor structure reported by the developers of the FRS. Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of the total score of family resources was 0.86 indicating a good internal consistency and the test–retest reliability for the total scale score was r = 0.92 (P = 0.000) indicating excellent test–retest reliability. Child health and family income were significantly associated with the total score of the A-FRS. The A-FRS is a valid and reliable measure of family resources for Jordanian families of children with CP. Service providers are encouraged to use A-FRS with families to plan resource-based interventions in which family resources are mobilized to meet family needs.

  10. Lifting the Differentiation Embargo.

    PubMed

    Latif, Anne-Louise; Holyoake, Tessa L

    2016-09-22

    Effective differentiation therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been restricted to a small subset of patients with one defined genetic abnormality. Using an unbiased small molecule screen, Sykes et al. now identify a mechanism of de-repression of differentiation in several models of AML driven by distinct genetic drivers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assembly and Validation of a Colorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bill

    2013-01-01

    A low-cost and portable colorimeter kit has been designed and developed as an educational tool at Penn State University by Dr. Daniel Sykes for K-12 schools' integrated STEM learning. This scientific instrument allows students to learn how scientists utilize light as a means to study the chemical and physical properties of materials with an…

  12. NewsMars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Mars: Express journey to Mars ASE 2003: Knocked out by meteorites Events: Sun-Earth Day ASE 2003: Fun Physics - popular as ever Appointments: Sykes to bring science to the people UK Science Education: The future's bright, the future's science ASE 2003: A grand finale for Catherine Teaching Resources: UK goes to the planets Cambridge Physics Update: Basement physics Conferences: Earth Science Teachers' Association Conference 2003 New Website: JESEI sets sail GIREP: Teacher education seminar Malaysia: Rewards for curriculum change Cambridge Physics Update: My boomerang will come back! Teaching Resources: Widening particiption through ideas and evidence with the University of Surrey Wales: First Ffiseg Events: Nuna: Solar car on tour Physics on Stage: Physics on Stage 3 embraces life Symposium: In what sense a nuclear 'debate'? Gifted and Talented: Able pupils experiencing challenging science Australia: ISS flies high Down Under

  13. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Fernández, José M; Plaza, César; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO(2) respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic

  14. The ability of the 2013 ACC/AHA cardiovascular risk score to identify rheumatoid arthritis patients with high coronary artery calcification scores

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Vivian K.; Chung, Cecilia P.; Solus, Joseph F.; Oeser, Annette; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) that is underestimated by the Framingham risk score (FRS). We hypothesized that the 2013 ACC/AHA 10-year risk score would perform better than the FRS and the Reynolds risk score (RRS) in identifying RA patients known to have elevated cardiovascular risk based on high coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores. Methods Among 98 RA patients eligible for risk stratification using the ACC/AHA score we identified 34 patients with high CAC (≥ 300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile) and compared the ability of the 10-year FRS, RRS and the ACC/AHA risk scores to correctly assign these patients to an elevated risk category. Results All three risk scores were higher in patients with high CAC (P values <0.05). The percentage of patients with high CAC correctly assigned to the elevated risk category was similar among the three scores (FRS 32%, RRS 32%, ACC/AHA 41%) (P=0.233). The c-statistics for the FRS, RRS and ACC/AHA risk scores predicting the presence of high CAC were 0.65, 0.66, and 0.65, respectively. Conclusions The ACC/AHA 10-year risk score does not offer any advantage compared to the traditional FRS and RRS in the identification of RA patients with elevated risk as determined by high CAC. The ACC/AHA risk score assigned almost 60% of patients with high CAC into a low risk category. Risk scores and standard risk prediction models used in the general population do not adequately identify many RA patients with elevated cardiovascular risk. PMID:25371313

  15. The origin and evolution of fast and slow rotators in the Illustris simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penoyre, Zephyr; Moster, Benjamin P.; Sijacki, Debora; Genel, Shy

    2017-07-01

    Using the Illustris simulation, we follow thousands of elliptical galaxies back in time to identify how the dichotomy between fast- and slow-rotating ellipticals (FRs and SRs) develops. Comparing to the ATLAS3D survey, we show that Illustris reproduces similar elliptical galaxy rotation properties, quantified by the degree of ordered rotation, λR. There is a clear segregation between low-mass (M* < 1011 M⊙) ellipticals, which form a smooth distribution of FRs, and high-mass galaxies (M* > 1011.5 M⊙), which are mostly SRs, in agreement with observations. We find that SRs are very gas poor, metal rich and red in colour, while FRs are generally more gas rich and still star forming. We suggest that ellipticals begin naturally as FRs and, as they grow in mass, lose their spin and become SRs. While at z = 1, the progenitors of SRs and FRs are nearly indistinguishable, their merger and star formation histories differ thereafter. We find that major mergers tend to disrupt galaxy spin, though in rare cases can lead to a spin-up. No major difference is found between the effects of gas-rich and gas-poor mergers, and the number of minor mergers seems to have little correlation with galaxy spin. In between major mergers, lower mass ellipticals, which are mostly gas rich, tend to recover their spin by accreting gas and stars. For galaxies with M* above ˜1011 M⊙, this trend reverses; galaxies only retain or steadily lose their spin. More frequent mergers, accompanied by an inability to regain spin, lead massive ellipticals to lose most of ordered rotation and transition from FRs to SRs.

  16. Do not fear the Framingham: Practical application to properly evaluate and modify cardiovascular risk in commercial divers.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Rahul; Pavela, James; Kus, Marcus S; Alleman, Tony; Sanders, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). For those at elevated risk, further testing is recommended. This approach has raised concerns about potential operational and financial impacts. However, the prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk and need for additional testing among commercial divers is not known. Clinical data required to calculate the FRS was abstracted for 190 commercial divers in two cohorts. Population demographics, FRS distribution, contributions of risk factors and effect of interventions on reducing risk-factor burden were assessed. Mean FRS score was 1.68 ± 6.35 points, with 13 divers (6.8%) at intermediate risk and none at high 10-year risk. In these 13 divers, the mean contributions to the FRS were from age (6.5 points), cholesterol (3.1 pts.), smoking (1.3 pts.), highdensity lipoprotein (1 pt.), and systolic blood pressure (0.8 pts). The youngest age group had a significantly higher modifiable risk core than the oldest age group (5.87 vs. 1.2 points, P ⟨ 0.001). All 13 intermediate risk divers could have been reclassified as low-risk with successful treatment of modifiable risk factors. The prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk among commercial divers is low, and treatment of modifiable risk factors could reclassify those at intermediate risk to low risk. Therefore, FRS implementation coupled with intensive risk-reduction strategies for at risk-divers may help improve diver health and prolong the careers of divers while limiting the need for additional testing and adverse operational impact. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  17. Facility Registry Service (FRS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a centrally managed database that identifies facilities either subject to environmental regulations or of environmental interest, providing an integrated source of air, water, and waste environmental data.

  18. R4FRS_RCRAINFO

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To improve public health and the environment, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) collects information about facilities, sites, or places subject to environmental regulation or of environmental interest. Through the Geospatial Data Download Service, the public is now able to download the EPA Geodata shapefile containing facility and site information from EPA's national program systems. The file is Internet accessible from the Envirofacts Web site (http://www.epa.gov/enviro). The data may be used with geospatial mapping applications. (Note: The shapefile omits facilities without latitude/longitude coordinates.) The EPA Geospatial Data contains the name, location (latitude/longitude), and EPA program information about specific facilities and sites. In addition, the file contains a Uniform Resource Locator (URL), which allows mapping applications to present an option to users to access additional EPA data resources on a specific facility or site.

  19. Effects of a floodwater-retarding structure on the hydrology and ecology of Trout Creek in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wentz, Dennis A.; Graczyk, David J.

    1982-01-01

    From 1960 to 1979, winter floods seem to have had the greatest adverse effect on the survival of brown trout eggs and sac fry. Although construction of the FRS has eliminated some spawning gravels in the flood pool owing to sedimentation, the wild trout have adapted by using spawning grounds above the flood pool more extensively and intensively. The FRS has not blocked the upstream migration of spawning trout, but it has eliminated similar migrations of fish that compete with and prey on the trout. Controlled streamflows downstream from the FRS have had a stabilizing influence on the limited trout reproduction in this region.

  20. Halogenated flame-retardant concentrations in settled dust, respirable and inhalable particulates and polyurethane foam at gymnastic training facilities and residences.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Halogenated flame-retardants (FRs) are used in a wide array of polymer-containing products. Animal studies and structure-activity modeling exercises suggest that FR exposure may result in detrimental toxicological effects. Workers with extended contact with such polymers (e.g., electronic dismantlers, carpet installers and aircraft personnel) have previously been observed to exhibit elevated body burdens of FRs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, elevated PBDE blood levels were also reported in a non-occupational exposure group, gymnasts. These levels were hypothesized to be related to the large volumes of FR-treated polyurethane foam in gymnastics facilities. To further our understanding of workers' potential exposure, we analyzed FR concentrations in indoor dust and size-fractionated air particulates (respirable (<4 μm) and inhalable (>4 μm)) from gymnastic studios. Values were compared to samples from the homes of coaches employed at these facilities. Polyurethane foam blocks (i.e., pit foam) were also analyzed to characterize potential FR sources. FRs examined included those used to flame-retard polyurethane foam: 8 PBDE congeners, two brominated components of Firemaster 550 (2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH)) and three chlorinated organophosphates (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)). Several additional FRs not used in polyurethane were also evaluated. These have also been detected in indoor dust and air and may also lead to adverse health effects. These include: BDE-183 and its replacement product (1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), two congeners of the deca-BDE formulation (BDE-206, -209) and their replacement decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β-, γ-HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)). Pit foam contained multiple

  1. Characterisation of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate by XRD, FT-IR, FT-Raman, DSC and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunarayanan, S.; Arjunan, V.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.; Atalay, Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    The crystals of 1,3-diammonium propylselenate monohydrate (DAPS) were prepared and characterised X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR, FT-Raman spectroscopy, and DFT/B3LYP methods. It comprises protonated propyl ammonium moieties (diammonium propyl cations), selenate anions and water molecule which are held together by a number of hydrogen bonds and form infinite chains. The XRD data confirm the transfer of two protons from selenic acid to 1,3-diaminopropane molecule. The DAPS complex is stabilised by the presence of O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds and the electrostatic interactions as well. The N···O and O···O bond distances are 2.82-2.91 and 2.77 Å, respectively. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1,3-diammonium propyl selenate monohydrate are recorded and the complete vibrational assignments have been discussed. The geometry is optimised by B3LYP method using 6-311G, 6-311+G and 6-311+G* basis sets and the energy, structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, IR and Raman intensities are determined. Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) data were also presented to analyse the possibility of the phase transition. Complete natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis is carried out to analyse the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energies. The electrostatic potential of the complex lies in the range +1.902e × 10-2 to -1.902e × 10-2. The limits of total electron density of the complex is +8.43e × 10-2 to -8.43e × 10-2.

  2. Techniques for estimating flood peak discharges for unregulated streams and streams regulated by small floodwater retarding structures in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tortorelli, R.L.; Bergman, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Statewide regression relations for Oklahoma were determined for estimating peak discharge of floods for selected recurrence intervals from 2 to 500 years. The independent variables required for estimating flood discharge for rural streams are contributing drainage area and mean annual precipitation. Main-channel slope, a variable used in previous reports, was found to contribute very little to the accuracy of the relations and was not used. The regression equations are applicable for watersheds with drainage areas less than 2,500 square miles that are not significantly affected by regulation from manmade works. These relations are presented in graphical form for easy application. Limitations on the use of the regression relations and the reliability of regression estimates for rural unregulated streams are discussed. Basin and climatic characteristics, log-Pearson Type III statistics and the flood-frequency relations for 226 gaging stations in Oklahoma and adjacent states are presented. Regression relations are investigated for estimating flood magnitude and frequency for watersheds affected by regulation from small FRS (floodwater retarding structures) built by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service in their watershed protection and flood prevention program. Gaging-station data from nine FRS regulated sites in Oklahoma and one FRS regulated site in Kansas are used. For sites regulated by FRS, an adjustment of the statewide rural regression relations can be used to estimate flood magnitude and frequency. The statewide regression equations are used by substituting the drainage area below the FRS, or drainage area that represents the percent of the basin unregulated, in the contributing drainage area parameter to obtain flood-frequency estimates. Flood-frequency curves and flow-duration curves are presented for five gaged sites to illustrate the effects of FRS regulation on peak discharge.

  3. Favre-Racouchot syndrome: a novel two-step treatment approach using the carbon dioxide laser.

    PubMed

    Rai, S; Madan, V; August, P J; Ferguson, J E

    2014-03-01

    Favre-Racouchot syndrome (FRS) is both disfiguring and difficult to treat. Available medical and surgical therapies are of variable efficacy. Most treatments do not achieve complete resolution and do not show maintenance of therapeutic response. To assess the response to a novel two-step treatment using the CO2 laser in patients with FRS. Seven patients with FRS were treated with the CO2 laser in resurfacing mode with manual expression of comedones under infiltrative local anaesthesia. The procedure was completed in one treatment session lasting 30 min and the wound was left to heal by secondary intention. A topical antibiotic was applied to treated areas, which were covered with a nonadherent dressing. All patients were assessed 3 months postoperatively by the operating laser surgeon and a visual assessment of clinical response to treatment in comparison with pretreatment photographs was made. Patient satisfaction was also recorded. All patients achieved complete resolution of FRS. The follow-up duration for our cohort ranged from 8 months to 3 years. Two patients required further treatment within a 2-3-year period from initial treatment. Disease relapse was noted over 1 year after the primary treatment; both these cases were smokers and repeat treatment with similar laser parameters maintained reproducible results. Our longest disease-free follow-up duration was 3 years postprimary treatment. The laser surgeons and patients reported high levels of therapeutic benefit and satisfaction with the results. This two-step treatment of FRS (CO2 laser resurfacing and manual pressure-induced expression of comedones) is an effective and durable treatment for FRS with an excellent cosmetic outcome. Long-term follow-up beyond 3 years is planned to determine whether later recurrence occurs with this technique. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Physical employment standards for U.K. fire and rescue service personnel.

    PubMed

    Blacker, S D; Rayson, M P; Wilkinson, D M; Carter, J M; Nevill, A M; Richmond, V L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based physical employment standards are vital for recruiting, training and maintaining the operational effectiveness of personnel in physically demanding occupations. (i) Develop criterion tests for in-service physical assessment, which simulate the role-related physical demands of UK fire and rescue service (UK FRS) personnel. (ii) Develop practical physical selection tests for FRS applicants. (iii) Evaluate the validity of the selection tests to predict criterion test performance. Stage 1: we conducted a physical demands analysis involving seven workshops and an expert panel to document the key physical tasks required of UK FRS personnel and to develop 'criterion' and 'selection' tests. Stage 2: we measured the performance of 137 trainee and 50 trained UK FRS personnel on selection, criterion and 'field' measures of aerobic power, strength and body size. Statistical models were developed to predict criterion test performance. Stage 3: matter experts derived minimum performance standards. We developed single person simulations of the key physical tasks required of UK FRS personnel as criterion and selection tests (rural fire, domestic fire, ladder lift, ladder extension, ladder climb, pump assembly, enclosed space search). Selection tests were marginally stronger predictors of criterion test performance (r = 0.88-0.94, 95% Limits of Agreement [LoA] 7.6-14.0%) than field test scores (r = 0.84-0.94, 95% LoA 8.0-19.8%) and offered greater face and content validity and more practical implementation. This study outlines the development of role-related, gender-free physical employment tests for the UK FRS, which conform to equal opportunities law. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Prognostic implications of surrogate markers of atherosclerosis in low to intermediate risk patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients are at increased risk of developing cardiovascular events. Unfortunately traditional risk assessment scores, including the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), have only modest accuracy in cardiovascular risk prediction in these patients. Methods We sought to determine the prognostic values of different non-invasive markers of atherosclerosis, including brachial artery endothelial function, carotid artery atheroma burden, ankle-brachial index, arterial stiffness and computed tomography coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in 151 T2DM Chinese patients that were identified low-intermediate risk from the FRS recalibrated for Chinese (<20% risk in 10 years). Patients were prospectively followed-up and presence of atherosclerotic events documented for a mean duration of 61 ± 16 months. Results A total of 17 atherosclerotic events in 16 patients (11%) occurred during the follow-up period. The mean FRS of the study population was 5.0 ± 4.6% and area under curve (AUC) from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for prediction of atherosclerotic events was 0.59 ± 0.07 (P = 0.21). Among different vascular assessments, CACS > 40 had the best prognostic value (AUC 0.81 ± 0.06, P < 0.01) and offered significantly better accuracy in prediction compared with FRS (P = 0.038 for AUC comparisons). Combination of FRS with CACS or other surrogate vascular markers did not further improve the prognostic values over CACS alone. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified CACS > 40 as an independent predictor of atherosclerotic events in T2DM patients (Hazards Ratio 27.11, 95% Confidence Interval 3.36-218.81, P = 0.002). Conclusions In T2DM patients identified as low-intermediate risk by the FRS, a raised CACS > 40 was an independent predictor for atherosclerotic events. PMID:22900680

  6. 76 FR 28426 - Withdrawal of Notice Inviting Applications for New Awards for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... the FRS, toll free, at 1--800--877--8339. Electronic Access to This Document: The official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official... or by e-mail: [email protected] . If you use a TDD, call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free...

  7. 77 FR 40590 - Applications for New Awards: Disability and Rehabilitation Research Projects and Centers Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal... (TDD) or a text telephone (TTY) call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339..., Washington, DC 20202-2550. Telephone: (202) 245-7363. If you use a TDD or a TTY call the FRS, toll-free, at 1...

  8. 78 FR 39717 - Reopening; Applications for New Awards; Training and Information for Parents of Children With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal Register and the Code of... telephone (TTY), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339. Accessible Format...-2550. Telephone: (202) 245-7363. If you use a TDD or a TTY, call the FRS, toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...

  9. Chemist, Entomologist, Darwinian, and Man of Affairs: Raphael Meldola and the Making of a Scientific Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Hannah

    2010-01-01

    Raphael Meldola FRS (1849-1915) was professor of chemistry at the City and Guilds Technical College in Finsbury. He was a colleague and close friend of Silvanus Phillips Thompson FRS (1851-1916), the college principal and professor of physics. This paper follows an earlier one on Thompson and the making of his career. It is intended to illustrate…

  10. Underestimation of Risk of Carotid Subclinical Atherosclerosis by Cardiovascular Risk Scores in Patients with Psoriatic Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiayun; Lam, Steven H; Shang, Qing; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Li, Edmund K; Wong, Priscilla; Kun, Emily W; Cheng, Isaac T; Li, Martin; Li, Tena K; Zhu, Tracy Y; Lee, Jack Jock-Wai; Chang, Mimi; Lee, Alex Pui-Wai; Tam, Lai-Shan

    2018-02-01

    To test the performances of established cardiovascular (CV) risk scores in discriminating subclinical atherosclerosis (SCA) in patients with psoriatic arthritis. These scores were calculated: Framingham risk score (FRS), QRISK2, Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk algorithm (ASCVD) from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association, and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR)-recommended modified versions (by 1.5 multiplication factor, m-). Carotid intima-media thickness > 0.9 mm and/or the presence of plaque determined by ultrasound were classified as SCA+. We recruited 146 patients [49.4 ± 10.2 yrs, male: 90 (61.6%)], of whom 142/137/128/118 patients were eligible to calculate FRS/QRISK2/SCORE/ASCVD. Further, 62 (42.5%) patients were SCA+ and were significantly older, with higher systolic blood pressure and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (all p < 0.05). All CV risk scores were significantly higher in patients with SCA+ [FRS: 7.8 (3.9-16.5) vs 2.7 (1.1-7.8), p < 0.001; QRISK2: 5.5 (3.1-10.2) vs 2.9 (1.2-6.3), p < 0.001; SCORE: 1 (0-2) vs 0 (0-1), p < 0.001; ASCVD: 5.6 (2.6-12.4) vs 3.4 (1.4-6.1), p = 0.001]. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test revealed moderate goodness of fit for the 4 CV scores (p ranged from 0.087 to 0.686). However, of the patients with SCA+, those identified as high risk were only 44.1% (by FRS > 10%), 1.8% (QRISK2 > 20%), 10.9% (SCORE > 5%), and 43.6% (ASCVD > 7.5%). By applying the EULAR multiplication factor, 50.8%/14.3%/14.5%/54.5% of the patients with SCA+ were identified as high risk by m-FRS/m-QRISK2/m-SCORE/m-ASCVD, respectively. EULAR modification increased the sensitivity of FRS and ASCVD in discriminating SCA+ from 44% to 51%, and 44% to 55%, respectively. All CV risk scores underestimated the SCA+ risk. EULAR-recommended modification improved the sensitivity of FRS and ASCVD only to a moderate level.

  11. Dynamic Changes in Spectral and Spatial Signatures of High Frequency Oscillations in Rat Hippocampi during Epileptogenesis in Acute and Chronic Stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Pan-Pan; Xiang, Jing; Jiang, Li; Chen, Heng-Sheng; Liu, Ben-Ke; Hu, Yue

    2016-01-01

    To analyze spectral and spatial signatures of high frequency oscillations (HFOs), which include ripples and fast ripples (FRs, >200 Hz) by quantitatively assessing average and peak spectral power in a rat model of different stages of epileptogenesis. The lithium-pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy was used. The acute phase of epilepsy was assessed by recording intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) activity for 1 day after status epilepticus (SE). The chronic phase of epilepsy, including spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs), was assessed by recording EEG activity for 28 days after SE. Average and peak spectral power of five frequency bands of EEG signals in CA1, CA3, and DG regions of the hippocampus were analyzed with wavelet and digital filter. FRs occurred in the hippocampus in the animal model. Significant dynamic changes in the spectral power of FRS were identified in CA1 and CA3. The average spectral power of ripples increased at 20 min before SE ( p  < 0.05), peaked at 10 min before diazepam injection. It decreased at 10 min after diazepam ( p  < 0.05) and returned to baseline after 1 h. The average spectral power of FRs increased at 30 min before SE ( p  < 0.05) and peaked at 10 min before diazepam. It decreased at 10 min after diazepam ( p  < 0.05) and returned to baseline at 2 h after injection. The dynamic changes were similar between average and peak spectral power of FRs. Average and peak spectral power of both ripples and FRs in the chronic phase showed a gradual downward trend compared with normal rats 14 days after SE. The spectral power of HFOs may be utilized to distinguish between normal and pathologic HFOs. Ictal average and peak spectral power of FRs were two parameters for predicting acute epileptic seizures, which could be used as a new quantitative biomarker and early warning marker of seizure. Changes in interictal HFOs power in the hippocampus at the chronic stage may be not related to

  12. Birds and flame retardants: A review of the toxic effects on birds of historical and novel flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Guigueno, Mélanie F; Fernie, Kim J

    2017-04-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals, many of which persist in the environment and bioaccumulate in biota. Although some FRs have been withdrawn from manufacturing and commerce (e.g., legacy FRs), many continue to be detected in the environment; moreover, their replacements and/or other novel FRs are also detected in biota. Here, we review and summarize the literature on the toxic effects of various FRs on birds. Birds integrate chemical information (exposure, effects) across space and time, making them ideal sentinels of environmental contamination. Following an adverse outcome pathway (AOP) approach, we synthesized information on 8 of the most commonly reported endpoints in avian FR toxicity research: molecular measures, thyroid-related measures, steroids, retinol, brain anatomy, behaviour, growth and development, and reproduction. We then identified which of these endpoints appear more/most sensitive to FR exposure, as determined by the frequency of significant effects across avian studies. The avian thyroid system, largely characterized by inconsistent changes in circulating thyroid hormones that were the only measure in many such studies, appears to be moderately sensitive to FR exposure relative to the other endpoints; circulating thyroid hormones, after reproductive measures, being the most frequently examined endpoint. A more comprehensive examination with concurrent measurements of multiple thyroid endpoints (e.g., thyroid gland, deiodinase enzymes) is recommended for future studies to more fully understand potential avian thyroid toxicity of FRs. More research is required to determine the effects of various FRs on avian retinol concentrations, inconsistently sensitive across species, and to concurrently assess multiple steroid hormones. Behaviour related to courtship and reproduction was the most sensitive of all selected endpoints, with significant effects recorded in every study. Among domesticated species (Galliformes), raptors

  13. Coherent Frequency Reference System for the NASA Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Blake C.; Lauf, John E.; Hamell, Robert L.; Gonzaler, Jorge, Jr.; Diener, William A.; Tjoelker, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) requires state-of-the-art frequency references that are derived and distributed from very stable atomic frequency standards. A new Frequency Reference System (FRS) and Frequency Reference Distribution System (FRD) have been developed, which together replace the previous Coherent Reference Generator System (CRG). The FRS and FRD each provide new capabilities that significantly improve operability and reliability. The FRS allows for selection and switching between frequency standards, a flywheel capability (to avoid interruptions when switching frequency standards), and a frequency synthesis system (to generate standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals). The FRS is powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems and includes a monitor and control capability for station operations to interact and control the frequency-standard selection process. The FRD receives the standardized 5-, 10-, and 100-MHz reference signals and distributes signals to distribution amplifiers in a fan out fashion to dozens of DSN users that require the highly stable reference signals. The FRD is also powered by redundant, specially filtered, and sustainable power systems. The new DSN Frequency Distribution System, which consists of the FRS and FRD systems described here, is central to all operational activities of the NASA DSN. The frequency generation and distribution system provides ultra-stable, coherent, and very low phase-noise references at 5, l0, and 100 MHz to between 60 and 100 separate users at each Deep Space Communications Complex.

  14. Dermal bioaccessibility of flame retardants from indoor dust and the influence of topically applied cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Gopal; Abdallah, Mohamed Abou-Elwafa; de Sáa, Eugenia Villaverde; Harrad, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Despite extensive literature on their potential adverse health effects, there is a lack of information on human dermal exposure to organic flame retardant chemicals (FRs). This study applies an in vitro physiologically based extraction test to provide new insights into the dermal bioaccessibility of various FRs from indoor dust to synthetic sweat/sebum mixture (SSSM). The bioaccessible fractions of α-, β- and γ-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) to 1:1 (sweat/sebum) mixture were 41%, 47%, 50% and 40%, respectively. For Tris-2-chloroethyl phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP) and tris-1,3-dichloropropyl phosphate (TDCIPP), bioaccessible fractions were 10%, 17% and 19%. Composition of the SSSM and compound-specific physicochemical properties were the major factors influencing the bioaccessibility of target FRs. Except for TBBPA, the presence of cosmetics (moisturising cream, sunscreen lotion, body spray and shower gel) had a significant effect (P<0.05) on the bioaccessibility of the studied FRs. The presence of cosmetics decreased the bioaccessibility of HBCDs from indoor dust, whereas shower gel and sunscreen lotion enhanced the bioaccessibility of target PFRs. Our bioaccessibility data were applied to estimate the internal exposure of UK adults and toddlers to the target FRs via dermal contact with dust. Our worst-case scenario exposure estimates fell far below available health-based limit values for TCEP, TCIPP and TDCIPP. However, future research may erode the margin of safety for these chemicals.

  15. A content analysis of food references in television programming specifically targeting viewing audiences aged 11 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Mary G; Poor, Morgan; Stephenson, Tammy J

    2014-01-01

    Examine food in cable television programming specifically targeting 11- to 14-year-olds ("tweens"). Content analysis of food-related scenes (FRS)-in which food was shown, mentioned, and/or consumed-in 880 minutes of programming was conducted. Five days of afternoon/early evening television programs on the Disney Channel. Food references were compared with USDA MyPlate and classified according to modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components. The authors found 331 FRS, averaging 16.6 scenes/h. Preponderance of FRS was physiological needs (40.7%), followed by display (10%), party (8.5%), social event (8%), and retail store (6.6%). Snacks dominated 41% of FRS, and breakfast, lunch, and dinner were much lower in frequency. Half of FRS was visual only, followed by verbal only. Food references were not congruent with MyPlate recommendations; 42% of food items did not fit into MyPlate food groups. Only 24% of food items were fruit or vegetables, which is considerably less than recommended by MyPlate guidelines. Using modified Ratio of Recommended to Restricted Food Components, 66% of food items scored < 1.0, signifying less nutritious. Tween television programming regularly includes non-nutritious food, which likely influences tweens' attitudes and behaviors. Television programming may consider past approaches to tobacco smoking and health messages on television. More attention is warranted regarding television programming by nutrition educators, researchers, health professionals, and industry specialists. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breakthrough mucormycosis after voriconazole use in a case of invasive fungal rhinosinusitis due to Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Gagandeep; Ratnakar, Gogineni; Vinod, Kutty Sharada; Wig, Naveet

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) is a potentially fatal illness requiring early diagnosis and aggressive treatment with surgery and antifungals. We report a case of chronic FRS in a recently diagnosed diabetic individual due to Curvularia lunata. Imaging revealed extension into the right orbit and right basifrontal lobe. This was further complicated by development of nosocomial mucormycosis which was attributed to voriconazole therapy. The patient responded well to debridement and amphotericin B based therapy. To our knowledge, there are no reported cases of invasive FRS due to Curvularia lunata. Also, breakthrough mucormycosis on voriconazole therapy is rarely seen in non-malignancy, non-transplant settings. The possibility of rare fungal infections (community and nosocomial) should be entertained in developing settings where fungal spores are ubiquitous.

  17. A survey for Cyclospora spp. in Kenyan primates, with some notes on its biology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, M L; Njenga, M N; DaSilva, A J; Owino, D; Nace, E K; Won, K Y; Mwenda, J M

    2001-12-01

    From March 1999 through August 2000, 511 stool samples collected from 11 different primate species in 10 geographically distinct locations in Kenya, East Africa, were screened for the presence of Cyclospora spp. oocysts. Positive samples (43/102, 42%) were identified in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) in 4 of 4 locations; 19/206 (9%) in yellow and olive baboons (Papio cynocephalus, P. anubis, respectively) in 5 of 5 locations; and 19/76 (25%) in black and white colobus monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. guereza, respectively) from 2 of 3 locations. DNA sequences obtained from 18 S rRNA coding regions from respective subsets of these positive samples were typed as Cyclospora cercopitheci (samples from Cercopithecus aethiops). Cyclospora papionis (samples from Papio cynocephalus and P. anubis), and Cyclospora colobi (samples from Colobus angolensis and C. guereza). Cyclospora oocysts were not detected in samples collected from patas, highland sykes, lowland sykes, blue sykes, DeBrazza, or red-tailed monkeys. A coded map showing the geographic location of the collected samples is given. Stool samples from 1 troop of vervet monkeys were collected over a 12-mo period. Positive samples ranged between 21 and 63%. These results suggest that there is no strongly marked seasonality evident in Cyclospora infection in monkeys as has been noted in human infection. This is further confirmed by the recovery of positive samples collected from vervet monkeys, baboons, and colobus monkeys at all times of the year during this survey. This absence of seasonality in infection is especially notable because of the extreme weather patterns typical of Kenya, where marked rainy and dry seasons occur. A second noteworthy observation is that the striking host specificity of the Cyclospora species initially described was confirmed in this survey. Baboons were only infected with C. papionis, vervet monkeys with C. cercopitheci, and colobus monkeys with C. colobi, despite geographic

  18. An efficient buffer-mediated control between free radical substitution and proton-coupled electron transfer: dehalogenation of iodoethane by the α-hydroxyethyl radical in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ljubić, Ivan; Matasović, Brunislav; Bonifačić, Marija

    2013-11-07

    A remarkable buffer-mediated control between free-radical substitution (FRS) and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is demonstrated for the reaction between iodoethane and the α-hydroxyethyl radical in neutral aqueous solution in the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate buffer. The reaction is initiated by the γ-radiolysis of the water solvent, and the products, either the iodine atom (FRS) or anion (PCET), are analysed using ion chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. A detailed insight into the mechanism is gained by employing density functional theory (M06-2X), Møller-Plesset perturbation treatment to the second order (MP2), and multireference methods (CASSCF/CASPT2). Addition of a basic buffer anion is indispensable for the reaction to occur and the competition between the two channels depends subtly on its proton accepting affinity, with FRS being the dominant channel in the phosphate and PCET in the bicarbonate containing solutions. Unlike the former, the latter channel sustains a chain-like process which significantly enhances the dehalogenation. The present systems furnish an example of the novel PCET/FRS dichotomy, as well as insights into possibilities of its efficient control.

  19. Cryogen-free heterodyne-enhanced mid-infrared Faraday rotation spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yin; Nikodem, Michal; Wysocki, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    A new detection method for Faraday rotation spectra of paramagnetic molecular species is presented. Near shot-noise limited performance in the mid-infrared is demonstrated using a heterodyne enhanced Faraday rotation spectroscopy (H-FRS) system without any cryogenic cooling. Theoretical analysis is performed to estimate the ultimate sensitivity to polarization rotation for both heterodyne and conventional FRS. Sensing of nitric oxide (NO) has been performed with an H-FRS system based on thermoelectrically cooled 5.24 μm quantum cascade laser (QCL) and a mercury-cadmium-telluride photodetector. The QCL relative intensity noise that dominates at low frequencies is largely avoided by performing the heterodyne detection in radio frequency range. H-FRS exhibits a total noise level of only 3.7 times the fundamental shot noise. The achieved sensitivity to polarization rotation of 1.8 × 10−8 rad/Hz1/2 is only 5.6 times higher than the ultimate theoretical sensitivity limit estimated for this system. The path- and bandwidth-normalized NO detection limit of 3.1 ppbv-m/Hz1/2 was achieved using the R(17/2) transition of NO at 1906.73 cm−1. PMID:23388967

  20. Generation of a chickenized catalytic anti-nucleic acid antibody by complementarity-determining region grafting.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jooho; Byun, Sung June; Seo, Youngsil; KIm, Minjae; Lee, Jae-Ho; Kim, Songmi; Lee, Yuno; Lee, Keun Woo; Kim, Jin-Kyoo; Kwon, Myung-Hee

    2015-02-01

    In contrast to a number of studies on the humanization of non-human antibodies, the reshaping of a non-human antibody into a chicken antibody has never been attempted. Therefore, nothing is known about the animal species-dependent compatibility of the framework regions (FRs) that sustain the appropriate conformation of the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs). In this study, we attempted the reshaping of the variable domains of the mouse catalytic anti-nucleic acid antibody 3D8 (m3D8) into the FRs of a chicken antibody (“chickenization”) by CDR grafting, which is a common method for the humanization of antibodies. CDRs of the acceptor chicken antibody that showed a high homology to the FRs of m3D8 were replaced with those of m3D8, resulting in the chickenized antibody (ck3D8). ck3D8 retained the biochemical properties (DNA binding, DNA hydrolysis, and cellular internalizing activities) and three-dimensional structure of m3D8 and showed reduced immunogenicity in chickens. Our study demonstrates that CDR grafting can be applied to the chickenization of a mouse antibody, probably due to the interspecies compatibility of the FRs.

  1. Novel brominated flame retardants and dechloranes in three fish species from the St. Lawrence River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Houde, Magali; Berryman, David; de Lafontaine, Yves; Verreault, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Restrictions in the utilization of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures have led to the increased usage of alternative flame retardant additives in a wide range of commercial applications. The present study examined the occurrence of established and emerging flame retardants (FRs) in fish from a densely-populated urbanized sector of the St. Lawrence River (Montreal, Quebec, Canada). Thirty-eight PBDE congeners and sixteen emerging FRs were determined in fish belonging to three predatory species (yellow perch, northern pike, and muskellunge). The ∑PBDE in fish were up to 24,115 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) in the apex predator muskellunge. Twelve emerging FRs including bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), Dechlorane Plus (anti and syn), dechloranes (Dec) 602, Dec 604, Dec 604 Compound B (Dec 604 CB), and Chlordene Plus (CP) were detected (>0.01 ng/gl.w.) in the liver of muskellunge and northern pike but not in yellow perch homogenates. This is the first report of Dec 604 CB in any fish species. The bioavailability of these FRs in human-impacted aquatic ecosystems warrants further environmental assessment and toxicity testing. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Physical activity, the Framingham risk score and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women of the EPIC-Norfolk study.

    PubMed

    Arsenault, Benoit J; Rana, Jamal S; Lemieux, Isabelle; Després, Jean-Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Kastelein, John J P; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2010-03-01

    Test the hypothesis that considering leisure-time and work-related physical activity habits in addition to the Framingham risk score (FRS) would result into better classification of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk than FRS alone. Prospective, population-based study of 9564 men and 12165 women aged 45-79 years followed for an average of 11.4 years. A modified FRS which takes into account physical activity (evaluated using a validated lifestyle questionnaire taking into account leisure-time and work-related physical activity) was computed. During follow-up, 2191 CHD events occurred. Among 3369 men who were classified as intermediate risk (event rate of 12.4%) according to the FRS, 413 were reclassified into the low-risk category and 279 were reclassified into the high-risk category after modification of the FRS. After reclassification of these men, CHD event rate was of 5.3% and 18.6%, respectively for men classified at low and high CHD risk. Among 4766 women initially classified as intermediate risk (event rate of 8.4%), 1282 were reclassified into the low-risk category whereas 1071 women were reclassified into the high-risk category. After reclassification of these women, CHD event rate was of 6.8% and 12.2%, respectively for women classified at low and high CHD risk. Results of the present study suggest that asking simple questions about leisure-time and work-related physical activity which can be rapidly obtained by any physician at no cost could be helpful in the estimation of patients' CHD risk.

  3. Effects of rearing systems on laying performance, egg quality, and serum biochemistry of Xianju chickens in summer.

    PubMed

    Dong, X Y; Yin, Z Z; Ma, Y Z; Cao, H Y; Dong, D J

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the laying performance, egg quality, and serum biochemistry of hens maintained in conventional cage rearing system (CRS), flat net-rearing system (NRS), and free range system (FRS) under summer conditions. Indigenous Xianju chickens (n = 540) were randomly allocated into cages or pens of rearing system groups, within each system there were 5 replicates with 36 hens in each replicate. The experiment lasted between 21 and 29 wk of age. Hen-day egg production (P = 0.00) and egg mass (P = 0.00) were higher in the CRS but were similar in the NRS and FRS. Lowest egg weight (P = 0.02), yolk weight (P = 0.00) and yolk ratio (P = 0.01), and feed intake (P = 0.01) were observed from the FRS, whereas lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was recorded from the CRS (P = 0.01). Rearing systems had negligible effect on egg quality. Serum Ca (P = 0.04) and total protein (P = 0.03) levels were found to be higher in the CRS but were lower in the FRS. Serum levels of glucose (P = 0.01), cholesterol (P = 0.00), and triglyceride (P = 0.00) in the CRS increased compared with the NRS and FRS groups, whereas serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C; P = 0.01) in the CRS decreased. It can be concluded that under summer conditions, Xianju chickens from CRS had an advantage in terms of productivity parameters, but exhibited higher levels of serum lipids and glucose. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  4. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanfei; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Mingxin; Zhu, Min; Wang, Mei; Sun, Yufeng; Gu, Haitong; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Lu, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of FRS fungi is less clear. A total of 153 FRS isolates obtained from patients were analysed at the Clinical Laboratory at the Beijing Tongren Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University, between January 2014 and December 2015. They were identified by traditional phenotypic methods and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biotyper version 3.1), respectively. Discrepancies between the two methods were further validated by sequencing. Among the 153 isolates, 151 had correct species identification using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biot 3.1, score ≥2.0 or 2.3). MALDI-TOF MS enabled identification of some very closely related species that were indistinguishable by conventional phenotypic methods, including 1/10 Aspergillus versicolor, 3/20 Aspergillus flavus, 2/30 Aspergillus fumigatus and 1/20 Aspergillus terreus, which were misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods as Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. In addition, 2/2 Rhizopus oryzae and 1/1 Rhizopus stolonifer that were identified only to the genus level by the phenotypic method were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate technique, and could replace the conventional phenotypic method for routine identification of FRS fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  5. A review of chamber experiments for determining specific emission rates and investigating migration pathways of flame retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauert, Cassandra; Lazarov, Borislav; Harrad, Stuart; Covaci, Adrian; Stranger, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of flame retardants (FRs) in indoor products has led to their ubiquitous distribution within indoor microenvironments with many studies reporting concentrations in indoor air and dust. Little information is available however on emission of these compounds to air, particularly the measurement of specific emission rates (SERs), or the migration pathways leading to dust contamination. Such knowledge gaps hamper efforts to develop understanding of human exposure. This review summarizes published data on SERs of the following FRs released from treated products: polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), including a brief discussion of the methods used to derive these SERs. Also reviewed are published studies that utilize emission chambers for investigations/measurements of mass transfer of FRs to dust, discussing the chamber configurations and methods used for these experiments. A brief review of studies investigating correlations between concentrations detected in indoor air/dust and possible sources in the microenvironment is included along with efforts to model contamination of indoor environments. Critical analysis of the literature reveals that the major limitations with utilizing chambers to derive SERs for FRs arise due to the physicochemical properties of FRs. In particular, increased partitioning to chamber surfaces, airborne particles and dust, causes loss through “sink” effects and results in long times to reach steady state conditions inside the chamber. The limitations of chamber experiments are discussed as well as their potential for filling gaps in knowledge in this area.

  6. A comparative study of frictional force in self-ligating brackets according to the bracket-archwire angulation, bracket material, and wire type

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Souk Min

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the frictional force (FR) in self-ligating brackets among different bracket-archwire angles, bracket materials, and archwire types. Methods Passive and active metal self-ligating brackets and active ceramic self-ligating brackets were included as experimental groups, while conventional twin metal brackets served as a control group. All brackets were maxillary premolar brackets with 0.022 inch [in] slots and a -7° torque. The orthodontic wires used included 0.018 round and 0.019 × 0.025 in rectangular stainless steel wires. The FR was measured at 0°, 5°, and 10° angulations as the wire was drawn through the bracket slots after attaching brackets from each group to the universal testing machine. Static and kinetic FRs were also measured. Results The passive self-ligating brackets generated a lower FR than all the other brackets. Static and kinetic FRs generally increased with an increase in the bracket-archwire angulation, and the rectangular wire caused significantly higher static and kinetic FRs than the round wire (p < 0.001). The metal passive self-ligating brackets exhibited the lowest static FR at the 0° angulation and a lower increase in static and kinetic FRs with an increase in bracket-archwire angulation than the other brackets, while the conventional twin brackets showed a greater increase than all three experimental brackets. Conclusions The passive self-ligating brackets showed the lowest FR in this study. Self-ligating brackets can generate varying FRs in vitro according to the wire size, surface characteristics, and bracket-archwire angulation. PMID:25667913

  7. Cost effectiveness of a systematic guidelines-based approach to the prevention and management of vascular disease in a primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, Laveena; Oh, Paul; Levine, Mitchell; Kammila, Srinu; Casey, William; Harterre, Don; Goeree, Ron

    2016-01-15

    In Ontario, Canada, the Comprehensive Vascular Disease Prevention and Management Initiative (CVDPMI) was undertaken to improve the vascular health in communities. The CVDPMI significantly improved cardiovascular (CV) risk factor profiles from baseline to follow-up visits including the 10 year Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Although the CVDPMI improved CV risk, the economic value of this program had not been evaluated. We examined the cost effectiveness of the CVDPMI program compared to no CVDPMI program in adult patients identified at risk for an initial or subsequent vascular event in a primary care setting. A one year and a ten year cost effectiveness analyses were conducted. To determine the uncertainty around the cost per life year gained ratio, a non-parametric bootstrap analysis was conducted. The overall population base case analysis at one year resulted in a cost per CV event avoided of $70,423. FRS subgroup analyses showed the high risk cohort (FRS >20%) had an incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) that was dominant. In the moderate risk subgroup (FRS 10%-20%) the ICER was $47,439 per CV event avoided and the low risk subgroup (FRS <10%) showed a highly cost ineffective result of greater than $5 million per CV event avoided. The ten year analysis resulted in a dominant ICER. At one year, the CVDPMI program is economically acceptable for patients at moderate to high risk for CV events. The CVDPMI results in increased life expectancy at an incremental cost saving to the healthcare system over a ten year period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Undesirable Choice Biases with Small Differences in the Spatial Structure of Chance Stimulus Sequences.

    PubMed

    Herrera, David; Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    In two-alternative discrimination tasks, experimenters usually randomize the location of the rewarded stimulus so that systematic behavior with respect to irrelevant stimuli can only produce chance performance on the learning curves. One way to achieve this is to use random numbers derived from a discrete binomial distribution to create a 'full random training schedule' (FRS). When using FRS, however, sporadic but long laterally-biased training sequences occur by chance and such 'input biases' are thought to promote the generation of laterally-biased choices (i.e., 'output biases'). As an alternative, a 'Gellerman-like training schedule' (GLS) can be used. It removes most input biases by prohibiting the reward from appearing on the same location for more than three consecutive trials. The sequence of past rewards obtained from choosing a particular discriminative stimulus influences the probability of choosing that same stimulus on subsequent trials. Assuming that the long-term average ratio of choices matches the long-term average ratio of reinforcers, we hypothesized that a reduced amount of input biases in GLS compared to FRS should lead to a reduced production of output biases. We compared the choice patterns produced by a 'Rational Decision Maker' (RDM) in response to computer-generated FRS and GLS training sequences. To create a virtual RDM, we implemented an algorithm that generated choices based on past rewards. Our simulations revealed that, although the GLS presented fewer input biases than the FRS, the virtual RDM produced more output biases with GLS than with FRS under a variety of test conditions. Our results reveal that the statistical and temporal properties of training sequences interacted with the RDM to influence the production of output biases. Thus, discrete changes in the training paradigms did not translate linearly into modifications in the pattern of choices generated by a RDM. Virtual RDMs could be further employed to guide the selection of

  9. Association between liver fibrosis and coronary heart disease risk in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Serkan; Celikbilek, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Yunus K; Sarikaya, Savas; Zararsiz, Gokmen; Serin, Halil I; Borekci, Elif; Akyol, Lütfi; Pirti, Ilyas; Davarci, Sena E

    2015-03-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is being increasingly recognized as the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. It has been shown that NAFLD in adults is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Because of the limitations of liver biopsy, noninvasive scoring indexes such as the NAFLD fibrosis score (NFS) were developed. The Framingham risk score (FRS) provides an estimate of CHD risk. In our study we aimed to investigate whether the severity of liver fibrosis estimated with the NFS is associated with a higher risk of CHD among individuals with ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD. A total of 155 patients and controls (81 patients with NAFLD and 74 controls) with ages ranging from 18 to 70 years were enrolled in this cross-sectional prospective study. Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were obtained from each individual. The NAFLD patients were divided into subgroups on the basis of the severity of fatty liver. The FRS and NFS were adopted to predict the risk of CHD and the severity of hepatic fibrosis. In our study, we found that the FRS was higher in NAFLD patients than in controls (P<0.05). According to the FRS category, NFSs were higher in the intermediate/high probability CHD risk group in NAFLD (P<0.05). In multiple models, only age, sex, cholesterol, and HDL were independently associated with intermediate/high CHD risk (P<0.05). We also found a positive correlation between the NFS and the FRS (r=0.373, P<0.001). The optimum NFS cutoff point for identifying intermediate/high CHD risk in NAFLD patients was -2.1284, with a sensitivity and specificity of 95.20 and 48.30%, respectively. The predictive performance of the NFS in the determination of intermediate/high CHD risk in NAFLD patients was found to be 72% based on the area under the curve value. The FRS is associated with the NFS in NAFLD. The assessment of liver fibrosis may be useful for the risk stratification of CHD in the absence of liver

  10. Using IFN-γ antibodies to identify the pathogens of fungal rhinosinusitis: A novel immunohistochemical approach

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yuyan; Zhao, Zuotao; Dong, Gehong; Han, Yiding; Yang, Dongmei; Yin, Hongyan; Piao, Yingshi; He, Chunyan; Tian, Cheng; Wan, Hongfei; Li, Xue; Jin, Yulan; Fang, Jugao; Liu, Honggang

    2018-01-01

    Fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS) is commonly caused by various Aspergillus species (spp) and Mucorales fungi, and the treatment and prognosis of cases differ depending on the causative fungus. The present study describes a novel immunohistochemical method that has high sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing between these two types of fungi in patients with FRS. Three groups were included in the study. Group A included formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of 51 nasal tissue specimens of patients with FRS (27 Aspergillus spp and 24 Mucorales) that were continuously obtained from the Department of Pathology of Tongren Hospital in Beijing as the experimental group and 34 cultures (26 Aspergillus spp and 8 Mucorales) of FRS that were randomly selected from the bacterial laboratory of Tongren Hospital in Beijing to verify the staining results of the paraffin-embedded blocks. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks of 10 esophageal cancer specimens were included in Group B as the positive control group. All specimens in Groups A and B were stained with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) antibody. Group C consisted of the same specimens as described in Group A, however, when performing the immunohistochemical assay, IFN-γ antibody was replaced by PBS and this served as the negative control group. The differences in IFN-γ immunohistochemical staining between Aspergillus spp and Mucorales were analyzed. Staining of IFN-γ in paraffin-embedded samples was positive in 92.6% (25/27) of specimens in which Aspergillus spp were the causative pathogen, which was significantly higher compared with specimens in which Mucorales was causative (P<0.001), with only 4.2% (1/24) of specimens staining positive for IFN-γ. Immunohistochemical staining of cell cultures was 100% positive for Aspergillus spp, whereas all Mucorales were negative. Thus, the results of the current study indicated that IFN-γ antibody immunohistochemical staining may be used as a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish

  11. Exposure to brominated and organophosphate ester flame retardants in U.S. childcare environments: Effect of removal of flame-retarded nap mats on indoor levels.

    PubMed

    Stubbings, W A; Schreder, E D; Thomas, M B; Romanak, K; Venier, M; Salamova, A

    2018-07-01

    We assessed exposure to 39 brominated and 16 organophosphate ester flame retardants (FRs) from both dust and indoor air at seven childcare centres in Seattle, USA, and investigated the importance of nap mats as a source of these chemicals. Many childcare centres serving young children use polyurethane foam mats for the children's naptime. Until recently, the vast majority of these mats sold in the United States contained flame-retarded polyurethane foam to meet California Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117) requirements. With the 2013 update of TB117, allowing manufacturers to meet flammability standards without adding FRs to filling materials, FR-free nap mats have become widely available. We conducted an intervention study by actively switching out FR-treated nap mats with FR-free nap mats and measuring FR levels in indoor air and dust before and after the switch-out. The predominant FRs found in dust and indoor air were 2-ethylhexyl tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB) and tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), respectively. Nap mat samples analysed from four of the six centres contained a Firemaster ® mixture, while one mat was predominantly treated with tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and the other contained no detectable target FRs. After replacement, there was a significant decrease (p = 0.03-0.09) in median dust concentrations for bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), EHTBB, tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and TDCIPP with reductions of 90%, 79%, 65%, and 42%, respectively. These findings suggest that the nap mats were an important source of these FRs to dust in the investigated childcare environments and that a campaign of swapping out flame-retarded mats for FR-free ones would reduce exposure to these chemicals. While calculated exposure estimates to the investigated FRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption were below established reference dose values, they are likely underestimated when considering the toddlers

  12. Discovery of a fluorinated 4-oxo-quinoline derivative as a potential positron emission tomography radiotracer for imaging cannabinoid receptor type 2.

    PubMed

    Slavik, Roger; Müller Herde, Adrienne; Haider, Ahmed; Krämer, Stefanie D; Weber, Markus; Schibli, Roger; Ametamey, Simon M; Mu, Linjing

    2016-09-01

    The cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is part of the endocannabinoid system and has gained growing attention in recent years because of its important role in neuroinflammatory/neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we reported on a carbon-11 labeled 4-oxo-quinoline derivative, designated RS-016, as a promising radiotracer for imaging CB2 using PET. In this study, three novel fluorinated analogs of RS-016 were designed, synthesized, and pharmacologically evaluated. The results of our efforts led to the identification of N-(1-adamantyl)-1-(2-(2-fluoroethoxy)ethyl)-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (RS-126) as the most potent candidate for evaluation as a CB2 PET ligand. [(18) F]RS-126 was obtained in ≥ 99% radiochemical purity with an average specific radioactivity of 98 GBq/μmol at the end of the radiosynthesis. [(18) F]RS-126 showed a logD7.4 value of 1.99 and is stable in vitro in rat and human plasma over 120 min, whereas 55% intact parent compound was found in vivo in rat blood plasma at 10 min post injection. In vitro autoradiographic studies with CB2-positive rat spleen tissue revealed high and blockable binding which was confirmed in in vivo displacement experiments with rats by dynamic PET imaging. Ex vivo biodistribution studies confirmed accumulation of [(18) F]RS-126 in rat spleen with a specificity of 79% under blocking conditions. The moderate elevated CB2 levels in LPS-treated mice brain did not permit the detection of CB2 by [(18) F]RS-126 using PET imaging. In summary, [(18) F]RS-126 demonstrated high specificity toward CB2 receptor in vitro and in vivo and is a promising radioligand for imaging CB2 receptor expression. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) is an interesting target for PET imaging. Specific binding of [(18) F]RS-126 in CB2-positive spleen tissue (white arrow head) was confirmed in in vivo displacement experiments with rats. Time activity curve of [(18) F]RS-126 in the spleen after the addition of GW405833 (CB2

  13. Association between red cell distribution width and the risk of heart events in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Li, Xiaoting; Wang, Maofeng; Ge, Xuan; Li, Feixiang; Huang, Bian; Peng, Jiren; Li, Guohong; Lu, Liang; Yu, Zhuoyuan; Ma, Jiaojiao; Xu, Liaohang; Jin, Meijuan; Si, Hongping; Wan, Rugen

    2015-04-01

    Red cell distribution width (RDW) has been found to be a novel prognostic biomarker in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the association between RDW and the risk of heart events in patients with CAD is yet to be fully elucidated. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether an elevated RDW was associated with the Framingham risk score (FRS) in patients with CAD. Data were retrospectively collected from Affiliated Dongyang Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University (Dongyang, China). The patients had undergone a coronary angiography and their clinical data were integrated. The patients (male, 260; female, 132) were divided into two groups based on the results of the coronary angiography, namely the CAD (n=283) and control groups (n=109). The FRS was calculated for all the subjects, and complete blood count testing with biochemical measurements was performed. The mean RDW level was 13.7±1.8% in the CAD group and 13.1±1.0% in the control group, while the mean FRS was 9.0±4.9 in the CAD group and 6.4±3.9 in the control group. The RDW and FRS were significantly higher in the CAD group compared with the control group (P<0.001). No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups with regard to the hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, platelets, glucose, urea, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P>0.05). The RDW was shown to significantly correlate with the red blood cell (RBC) count ( r =-0.133, P=0.029), hemoglobin level ( r =-0.207, P=0.001) and TG level ( r =0.226, P<0.001) within the laboratory parameters, as well as the FRS ( r =0.206, P<0.001). In the stepwise multivariate linear regression, which included the RBC count, hemoglobin level, TG level and RDW, the FRS was predicted by hemoglobin ( r 2 =0.034, P=0.001), TG ( r 2 =0.059, P<0.001) and RDW ( r

  14. The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) agonist FGF1 and the neural cell adhesion molecule-derived peptide FGL activate FGFR substrate 2alpha differently.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongshuo; Li, Shizhong; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2010-07-01

    Activation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors (FGFRs) both by FGFs and by the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is crucial in the development and function of the nervous system. We found that FGFR substrate 2alpha (FRS2alpha), Src homologous and collagen A (ShcA), and phospholipase-Cgamma (PLCgamma) were all required for neurite outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) induced by FGF1 and FGL (an NCAM-derived peptide agonist of FGFR1). Like FGF1, FGL induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FGFR1, FRS2alpha, ShcA, and PLCgamma in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, the activation of FRS2alpha by FGL was significantly lower than the activation by FGF1, indicating a differential signaling profile induced by NCAM compared with the cognate growth factor.

  15. The secret identity of science education: masculine and politically conservative?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemke, Jay

    2011-06-01

    This response to Jesse Bazzul and Heather Sykes' paper, The secret identity of a biology textbook: straight and naturally sexed, explores their critiques of textbooks and curricula that authoritatively present scientific accounts of the natural world without engaging students in critical thinking. It proposes that we need to go beyond such useful critiques to develop alternatives to the unsatisfactory heteronormative status quo in biology textbooks and in science education more generally.

  16. Lower bounds to energies for cusped-gaussian wavefunctions. [hydrogen atom ground state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaves, J. O.; Walsh, B. C.; Steiner, E.

    1974-01-01

    Calculations for the ground states of H, He, and Be, conducted by Steiner and Sykes (1972), show that the inclusion of a very small number of cusp functions can lead to a substantial enhancement of the quality of the Gaussian basis used in molecular wavefunction computations. The properties of the cusped-Gaussian basis are investigated by a calculation of lower bounds concerning the ground state energy of the hydrogen atom.

  17. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fernandez, Jose M., E-mail: joseman@sas.upenn.edu; Plaza, Cesar; Polo, Alfredo

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis was used to assess stability and composition of organic matter in three diverse municipal waste streams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results were compared with C mineralization during 90-day incubation, FTIR and {sup 13}C NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermal analysis reflected the differences between the organic wastes before and after the incubation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The calculated energy density showed a strong correlation with cumulative respiration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conventional and thermal methods provide complimentary means of characterizing organic wastes. - Abstract: The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and providesmore » a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC

  18. FRS Geospatial Return File Format

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Geospatial Return File Format describes format that needs to be used to submit latitude and longitude coordinates for use in Envirofacts mapping applications. These coordinates are stored in the Geospatail Reference Tables.

  19. Impact of Individual and Neighborhood Factors on Cardiovascular Risk in White Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Women and Men.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Tanya; Miller, Arlene; Fogg, Louis; Braun, Lynne T; Coke, Lola

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality for adults in the US, regardless of ethnicity. A cross-sectional correlational design was used to describe and compare CVD risk and cardiac mortality in White Hispanic and non-Hispanic women and men. Data from 3,317 individuals (1,523 women and 1,794 men) hospitalized for non-cardiac causes during 2012-2013, and data from the 2010 United States Census were included. The sex-specific 10-year Framingham General Cardiovascular Risk Score (FRS-10) was used to estimate long-term risk for major cardiac events. Approximately three-quarters of the sample was White Hispanic. FRS-10 scores were generally low, but a high prevalence of risk factors not included in the standard FRS-10 scoring formula was seen. White Hispanic women had significantly lower estimated CVD risk scores compared to White Hispanic and non-Hispanic men despite higher non-FRS-10 risks. Neighborhood median household income had a significant negative relationship and Hispanic neighborhood concentration had a significant positive relationship with cardiac mortality. Hispanic concentration was the only predictor of estimated CVD risk in a multilevel model. CVD risk assessment tools that are calibrated for ethnic groups and socioeconomic status may be more appropriate for Hispanic individuals than the FRS-10. Neighborhood-level factors should be included in clinical cardiac assessment in addition to individual characteristics and behavioral risks. Researchers should continue to seek additional risk factors that may contribute to or protect against CVD in order to close the gap between estimated CVD risk and actual cardiac mortality for Hispanics in the US. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effluent Free Radicals are Associated with Residual Renal Function and Predict Technique Failure in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Morinaga, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Inoue, Tatsuyuki; Takiue, Keiichi; Kikumoto, Yoko; Kitagawa, Masashi; Akagi, Shigeru; Nakao, Kazushi; Maeshima, Yohei; Miyazaki, Ikuko; Asanuma, Masato; Hiramatsu, Makoto; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    ♦ Objective: Residual renal function (RRF) is associated with low oxidative stress in peritoneal dialysis (PD). In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the impact of oxidative stress on RRF and patient outcomes during PD. ♦ Methods: Levels of free radicals (FRs) in effluent from the overnight dwell in 45 outpatients were determined by electron spin resonance spectrometry. The FR levels, clinical parameters, and the level of 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine were evaluated at study start. The effects of effluent FR level on technique and patient survival were analyzed in a prospective cohort followed for 24 months. ♦ Results: Levels of effluent FRs showed significant negative correlations with daily urine volume and residual renal Kt/V, and positive correlations with plasma β2-microglobulin and effluent 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine. A highly significant difference in technique survival (p < 0.05), but not patient survival, was observed for patients grouped by effluent FR quartile. The effluent FR level was independently associated with technique failure after adjusting for patient age, history of cardiovascular disease, and presence of diabetes mellitus (p < 0.001). The level of effluent FRs was associated with death-censored technique failure in both univariate (p < 0.001) and multivariate (p < 0.01) hazard models. Compared with patients remaining on PD, those withdrawn from the modality had significantly higher levels of effluent FRs (p < 0.005). ♦ Conclusions: Elevated effluent FRs are associated with RRF and technique failure in stable PD patients. These findings highlight the importance of oxidative stress as an unfavorable prognostic factor in PD and emphasize that steps should be taken to minimize oxidative stress in these patients. PMID:22215657

  1. Removing interictal fast ripples on electrocorticography linked with seizure freedom in children.

    PubMed

    Wu, J Y; Sankar, R; Lerner, J T; Matsumoto, J H; Vinters, H V; Mathern, G W

    2010-11-09

    Fast ripples (FR, 250-500 Hz) detected with chronic intracranial electrodes are proposed biomarkers of epileptogenesis. This study determined whether resection of FR-containing neocortex recorded during intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) was associated with postoperative seizure freedom in pediatric patients with mostly extratemporal lesions. FRs were retrospectively reviewed in 30 consecutive pediatric cases. ECoGs were recorded at 2,000 Hz sampling rate and visually inspected for FR, with reviewer blinded to the resection and outcome. Average age at surgery was 9.1 ± 6.7 years, ECoG duration was 11.8 ± 8.1 minutes, and postoperative follow-up was 27 ± 4 months. FRs were undetected in 6 ECoGs with remote or extensive lesions. FR episodes (n = 273) were identified in ECoGs from 24 patients, and in 64% FRs were independent of spikes, sharp waves, voltage attenuation, and paroxysmal fast activity. Of these 24 children, FR-containing cortex was removed in 19 and all became seizure-free, including 1 child after a second surgery. The remaining 5 children had incomplete FR resection and all continued with seizures postoperatively. In 2 ECoGs, the location of electrographic seizures matched FR location. FR-containing cortex was found outside of MRI and FDG-PET abnormalities in 6 children. FRs were detected during intraoperative ECoG in 80% of pediatric epilepsy cases, and complete resection of FR cortex correlated with postoperative seizure freedom. These findings support the view that interictal FRs are excellent surrogate markers of epileptogenesis, can be recorded during brief ECoG, and could be used to guide future surgical resections in children.

  2. Augmentation index is a better marker for cardiovascular risk in young Malaysian males. A comparison of involvement of pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Aminuddin, Amilia; Chellappan, Kalaivani; Maskon, Oteh; Zakaria, Zaiton; Karim, Aminuddin A; Ngah, Wan Z; Nordin, Nor Anita M

    2014-02-01

    To determine the association between carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVCF) and augmentation index (AI) with future cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and to assess whether high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important mediator towards these vascular changes, among young men. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from July 2011 to December 2012. Two hundred and eleven young men were recruited. The PWVCF and AI were measured using Vicorder. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was measured by using immunological methods. The future CVD risk was assessed by Framingham risk score (FRS) and age adjusted FRS (A-FRS). Data for analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of the subjects was 27.09 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 26.39-27.79) years old. Those with ≥2 risk factors had significantly higher AI [10.09 (95% CI: 9.06-11.12) versus 6.56 (95% CI: 5.54-7.57) (p=0.001), but not PWVCF 7.45 (95% CI: 7.29-7.61) m/s versus 7.29 (95% CI: 7.06-7.51) m/s, (p=0.90) when compared to the healthy subjects. High sensitivity C-reactive protein was not an independent determinant for PWVCF and AI. Only AI was significantly associated with FRS and A-FRS (p=0.0001). To assess the impact of risk factors on vascular damage and for future assessment of CVD risk among the young men, AI may be a better marker than PWVCF. The increase in AI among these subjects was not related to hs-CRP.

  3. Women at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease Lack Knowledge of Heart Attack Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Flink, Laura E; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael L; Rodriguez, Juviza; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Background It is not known whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk level is related to knowledge of the leading cause of death of women, or heart attack symptoms. Hypothesis Women with higher CVD risk estimated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or Metabolic Syndrome (MS) have lower CVD knowledge. Methods Women visiting primary care clinics completed a standardized behavioral risk questionnaire. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist size, fasting glucose and lipid profile were assessed. Women were queried regarding CVD knowledge. Results Participants (n=823) were Hispanic women (46%), Non-Hispanic White (37%), Non-Hispanic Black (8%). FRS was determined in 278: low (63%), moderate (29%), and high (8%); 24% had ≥3 components of MS. The leading cause of death was answered correctly by 54%, heart attack symptoms by 67%. Knowledge was lowest among racial/ethnic minorities and those with less education (both p<0.001). Increasing FRS was inversely associated with knowing the leading cause of death (low 72%, moderate 68%, high 45%, p=0.045). After multivariable adjustment, moderate/high FRS was inversely associated with knowing symptoms (moderate OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28–0.98, high OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.11–0.81), but not the leading cause of death. MS was inversely associated with knowing the leading cause of death (p<0.001) or heart attack symptoms (p=0.018), but not after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions Women with higher FRS were less likely to know heart attack symptoms. Efforts to target those at higher CVD risk must persist or the most vulnerable may suffer disproportionately, not only because of risk factors, but also inadequate knowledge. PMID:23338973

  4. Women at risk for cardiovascular disease lack knowledge of heart attack symptoms.

    PubMed

    Flink, Laura E; Sciacca, Robert R; Bier, Michael L; Rodriguez, Juviza; Giardina, Elsa-Grace V

    2013-03-01

    It is not known whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk level is related to knowledge of the leading cause of death of women or heart attack symptoms. Women with higher CVD risk estimated by Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or metabolic syndrome (MS) have lower CVD knowledge. Women visiting primary care clinics completed a standardized behavioral risk questionnaire. Blood pressure, weight, height, waist size, fasting glucose, and lipid profile were assessed. Women were queried regarding CVD knowledge. Participants (N = 823) were Hispanic women (46%), non-Hispanic white (37%), and non-Hispanic black (8%). FRS was determined in 278: low (63%), moderate (29%), and high (8%); 24% had ≥3 components of MS. The leading cause of death was answered correctly by 54%, heart attack symptoms by 67%. Knowledge was lowest among racial/ethnic minorities and those with less education (both P< 0.001). Increasing FRS was inversely associated with knowing the leading cause of death (low 72%, moderate 68%, high 45%, P = 0.045). After multivariable adjustment, moderate/high FRS was inversely associated with knowing symptoms (moderate odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.28-0.98; high OR 0.29, 95% CI: 0.11-0.81), but not the leading cause of death. MS was inversely associated with knowing the leading cause of death (P< 0.001) or heart attack symptoms (P = 0.018), but not after multivariable adjustment. Women with higher FRS were less likely to know heart attack symptoms. Efforts to target those at higher CVD risk must persist, or the most vulnerable may suffer disproportionately, not only because of risk factors but also inadequate knowledge. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The 10-year Absolute Risk of Cardiovascular (CV) Events in Northern Iran: a Population Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Motamed, Nima; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Siamian, Hasan; Maadi, Mansooreh; Zamani, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was conducted to estimate 10-year cardiovascular disease events (CVD) risk using three instruments in northern Iran. Material and methods: Baseline data of 3201 participants 40-79 of a population based cohort which was conducted in Northern Iran were analyzed. Framingham risk score (FRS), World Health Organization (WHO) risk prediction charts and American college of cardiovascular / American heart association (ACC/AHA) tool were applied to assess 10-year CVD events risk. The agreement values between the risk assessment instruments were determined using the kappa statistics. Results: Our study estimated 53.5%of male population aged 40-79 had a 10 –year risk of CVD events≥10% based on ACC/AHA approach, 48.9% based on FRS and 11.8% based on WHO risk charts. A 10 –year risk≥10% was estimated among 20.1% of women using the ACC/AHA approach, 11.9%using FRS and 5.7%using WHO tool. ACC/AHA and Framingham tools had closest agreement in the estimation of 10-year risk≥10% (κ=0.7757) in meanwhile ACC/AHA and WHO approaches displayed highest agreement (κ=0.6123) in women. Conclusion: Different estimations of 10-year risk of CVD event were provided by ACC/AHA, FRS and WHO approaches. PMID:26236160

  6. Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events and current post-traumatic stress disorder in New York City's first responders.

    PubMed

    Geronazzo-Alman, Lupo; Eisenberg, Ruth; Shen, Sa; Duarte, Cristiane S; Musa, George J; Wicks, Judith; Fan, Bin; Doan, Thao; Guffanti, Guia; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hoven, Christina W

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative exposure to work-related traumatic events (CE) is a foreseeable risk for psychiatric disorders in first responders (FRs). Our objective was to examine the impact of work-related CE that could serve as predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or depression in FRs. Cross-sectional examination of previous CE and past-month PTSD outcomes and depression in 209 FRs. Logistic (probable PTSD; probable depression) and Poisson regressions (PTSD score) of the outcomes on work-related CE indexes, adjusting for demographic variables. Differences across occupational groups were also examined. Receiver operating characteristic analysis determined the sensitivity and specificity of CE indexes. All indexes were significantly and differently associated with PTSD; associations with depression were non-significant. The index capturing the sheer number of different incidents experienced regardless of frequency ('Variety') showed conceptual, practical and statistical advantages compared to other indexes. In general, the indexes showed poor to fair discrimination accuracy. Work-related CE is specifically associated with PTSD. Focusing on the variety of exposures may be a simple and effective strategy to predict PTSD in FRs. Further research on sensitivity and specificity of exposure indexes, preferably examined prospectively, is needed and could lead to early identification of individuals at risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of RISAT-1 SAR data for tropical forestry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padalia, Hitendra; Yadav, Sadhana

    2017-01-01

    India launched C band (5.35 GHz) RISAT-1 (Radar Imaging Satellite-1) on 26th April, 2012, equipped with the capability to image the Earth at multiple-resolutions and -polarizations. In this study the potential of Fine Resolution Strip (FRS) modes of RISAT-1 was evaluated for characterization and classification forests and estimation of biomass of early growth stages. The study was carried out at the two sites located in the foothills of western Himalaya, India. The pre-processing and classification of FRS-1 SAR data was performed using PolSAR Pro ver. 5.0 software. The scattering mechanisms derived from m-chi decomposition of FRS-1 RH/RV data were found physically meaningful for the characterization of various surface features types. The forest and land use type classification of the study area was developed applying Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm on FRS-1 derived appropriate polarimetric features. The biomass of early growth stages of Eucalyptus (up to 60 ton/ha) was estimated developing a multi-linear regression model using C band σ0 HV and σ0 HH backscatter information. The study outcomes has promise for wider application of RISAT-1 data for forest cover monitoring, especially for the tropical regions.

  8. A photoelectrochemical immunosensor for detection of α-fetoprotein based on Au-ZnO flower-rod heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhizhong; Luo, Min; Chen, Li; Chen, Jinghua; Li, Chunyan

    2017-04-01

    In this work, a novel label free photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor has been developed for the detection of α-fetoprotein (AFP). The immunosensor was based on Au-ZnO flower-rods (FRs) heterostructure, where Au nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly electrodeposited by cyclic voltammetry methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mott-Schottky plot (MS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and fluorescence emission spectrum were used for the characterizations of Au-ZnO FRs. The results demonstrated that Au NPs not only obviously enhanced the visible light absorption of ZnO FRs due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) but also improved the separation of photo-generated electron-hole pairs. Therefore, the photocurrent of Au-ZnO FRs was increased under simulated sunlight. The photocurrent was reduced after the specific antibody-antigen immune reaction. And the photocurrent decrement was linear with the logarithm of AFP antigen concentration in the range from 0.005 ng mL-1 to 50 ng mL-1 with a low detection limit of 0.56 pg mL-1 (S/N = 3). The PEC immunosensor also exhibited high anti-interference property and acceptable stability. This work would provide a promising photoelectrochemical strategy for the detection of other proteins in clinical diagnosis.

  9. Investigation of lithium ion battery electrolytes containing flame retardants in combination with the film forming electrolyte additives vinylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate and fluoroethylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagger, Tim; Grützke, Martin; Reichert, Matthias; Haetge, Jan; Nowak, Sascha; Winter, Martin; Schappacher, Falko M.

    2017-12-01

    In order to address the trade-off between the safety lithium ion battery (LIB) electrolytes and their electrochemical performance, synergetic effects of flame retardant additives (FRs) in combination with film forming additives (FFAs) are investigated. Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and a silicon-containing additive (WA) are applied as FRs to improve the onset temperature of the thermal runaway of a LIB standard electrolyte (LP57: 1 M LiPF6 in EC:EMC 3:7) about 15 K and 28 K, respectively. The application of the FRs in MCMB graphite/lithium metal and NMC111/lithium metal three-electrode cells induces insufficiencies in terms of charge/discharge cycling stability and rate capability. It is investigated if the addition of FFAs can degrade the insufficiencies that are induced by the FRs. Vinylene carbonate, vinyl ethylene carbonate and fluoroethylene carbonate are added to a mixture of LP57 with 10% FR to enhance the cycling performance via improved interphase formation. Results reveal, that the rate capability of cells containing TPP or WA is especially improved by addition of 2% or 5% FEC, respectively. Postmortem analyses of the electrodes by SEM and of the electrolyte by GC-MS are performed. Direct correlations between the cycling behavior during the C-rate study and the electrolyte decomposition products are drawn.

  10. The Three Wars of Lt. Gen. George E. Stratemeyer. His Korean War Diary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Powers (SCAP), he exercised command over all occupation forces and, in essence , ruled Japan; as Commander-in-Chief, Far East Command (CINCFE), he exercised... essence , he was attempting to make national policy himself and was giving the Chinese an ultimatum that the war would be extended to their mainland...LT. GEN. GEORGE E. STRATEMEYER : HIS KOREAN WAR DIARY 45. The Sykes report was, in essence , General Stratemeyer’s diary entries for those dates with

  11. Development of Soil-Based Controlled Low-Strength Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    report shall not be used in advertising or sales promotion to indicate endorsement of this product by the U.S. Government. Appendix A Results of...used in advertising or sales promotion to indicate endorsement of this product by the U.S. Government. . _ A4 Appendix A Results of Tests of Cement...MELVIN C. SYKES ENGINEERING SCIENCES BRANCH STRUCTURES LABORATORY Information given in this report shall not be used in advertising or sales

  12. Chemical alternatives assessment of different flame retardants - A case study including multi-walled carbon nanotubes as synergist.

    PubMed

    Aschberger, Karin; Campia, Ivana; Pesudo, Laia Quiros; Radovnikovic, Anita; Reina, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. Halogenated FRs (HFRs) are widely used because of their low impact on other material properties and the low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. Health and environmental hazards associated with some halogenated FRs have driven research for identifying safer alternatives. A variety of halogen-free FRs are available on the market, including organic (phosphorus and nitrogen based chemicals) and inorganic (metals) materials. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) have been demonstrated to act as an effective/synergistic co-additive in some FR applications and could thereby contribute to reducing the loading of FRs in products and improving their performance. As part of the FP7 project DEROCA we carried out a chemical alternatives assessment (CAA). This is a methodology for identifying, comparing and selecting safer alternatives to chemicals of concern based on criteria for categorising human and environmental toxicity as well as environmental fate. In the project we assessed the hazard data of different halogen-free FRs to be applied in 5 industrial and consumer products and here we present the results for MWCNT, aluminium diethylphosphinate, aluminium trihydroxide, N-alkoxy hindered amines and red phosphorus compared to the HFR decabromodiphenylether. We consulted the REACH guidance, the criteria of the U.S.-EPA Design for Environment (DfE) and the GreenScreen® Assessment to assess and compare intrinsic properties affecting the hazard potential. A comparison/ranking of exposure reference values such as Derived No Effect Levels (DNELs) showed that FRs of concern are not identified by a low DNEL. A comparison based on hazard designations according to the U.S.-EPA DfE and GreenScreen® for human health endpoints, aquatic toxicity and environmental fate showed that the

  13. RNA and DNA interactions with zwitterionic and charged lipid membranes - a DSC and QCM-D study.

    PubMed

    Michanek, Agnes; Kristen, Nora; Höök, Fredrik; Nylander, Tommy; Sparr, Emma

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish under which conditions tRNA associates with phospholipid bilayers, and to explore how this interaction influences the lipid bilayer. For this purpose we have studied the association of tRNA or DNA of different sizes and degrees of base pairing with a set of model membrane systems with varying charge densities, composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholines (PC) in mixtures with anionic phosphatidylserine (PS) or cationic dioctadecyl-dimethyl-ammoniumbromide (DODAB), and with fluid or solid acyl-chains (oleoyl, myristoyl and palmitoyl). To prove and quantify the attractive interaction between tRNA and model-lipid membrane we used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring to study the tRNA adsorption to deposit phospholipid bilayers from solutions containing monovalent (Na(+)) or divalent (Ca(2+)) cations. The influence of the adsorbed polynucleic acids on the lipid phase transitions and lipid segregation was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The basic findings are: i) tRNA adsorbs to zwitterionic liquid-crystalline and gel-phase phospholipid bilayers. The interaction is weak and reversible, and cannot be explained only on the basis of electrostatic attraction. ii) The adsorbed amount of tRNA is higher for liquid-crystalline bilayers compared to gel-phase bilayers, while the presence of divalent cations show no significant effect on the tRNA adsorption. iii) The adsorption of tRNA can lead to segregation in the mixed 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC)-1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylserine (DMPS) and DMPC-DODAB bilayers, where tRNA is likely excluded from the anionic DMPS-rich domains in the first system, and associated with the cationic DODAB-rich domains in the second system. iv) The addition of shorter polynucleic acids influence the chain melting transition and induce segregation in a mixed DMPC-DMPS system, while larger polynucleic acids do

  14. Cost-effectiveness of rosuvastatin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events according to Framingham Risk Score in patients with elevated C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Gary P

    2010-08-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved rosuvastatin calcium for prevention of cardiovascular events in patients who have elevated levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) but not overt hyperlipidemia. The FDA's decision was based primarily on research reported by the JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) Study Group. The cost-effectiveness of such treatment is unknown. To compare the cost-effectiveness of treatment with rosuvastatin vs standard management, according to Framingham Risk Score (FRS), for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients who have hs-CRP levels of 2.0 mg/L or higher and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels of less than 130 mg/dL. A Markov-type model was used to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of rosuvastatin (20 mg daily) vs standard management for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients over a 10-year period. Cost data were obtained from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services and the Red Book drug reference. Health utility measures were obtained from the literature. Cardiovascular event data were obtained directly from the JUPITER Study Group. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were conducted. Treating patients with rosuvastatin to prevent cardiovascular events based on a hs-CRP level greater than 2.0 mg/L and an LDL-C level of 130 mg/dL or lower would result in estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $35,455 per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) in patients with an FRS greater than 10% and $90,714 per QALY in patients with an FRS less than or equal to 10%. Results of probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that in patients with an FRS greater than 10%, the probability that rosuvastatin is considered cost-effective at $50,000 per QALY is approximately 98%. In patients with an FRS less than or equal to 10%, the

  15. DSC and optical studies on BaO-Li{sub 2}O-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CuO glass system

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bhogi, Ashok, E-mail: ashokbhogi@gmail.com; Kumar, R. Vijaya; Ahmmad, Shaik Kareem

    2016-05-06

    Glasses with composition 15BaO-25Li{sub 2}O-(60-x)B{sub 2}O{sub 3} -xCuO (x= 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1 mol%) were prepared by the conventional melt quenching technique. These glasses were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and density measurements. Optical absorption studies were carried out as a function of copper ion concentration. The optical absorption spectra of studied glasses containing copper oxide exhibit a single broad band around 761nm which has been assigned to the 2B{sub 1g}→2B{sub 2g} transition. From these studies, the variations in the values of glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) have been observed. The fundamental absorption edgemore » has been determined from the optical absorption spectra. The values of optical band gap and Urbach energy were determined with increase in concentration of CuO. The variations in density, glass transition temperature, optical band gap and Urbach energy with CuO content have been discussed in terms of changes in the glass structure. The analysis of these results indicated that copper ions mostly exist in Cu{sup 2+} state in these glasses when the concentration of CuO ≤ 0.8 mol% and above this concentration copper ions seem to subsist in Cu{sup 1+} state.« less

  16. Characterization and cytotoxic activity of sulfated derivatives of polysaccharides from Agaricus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Camelini, C. M.; Cordeiro, M. N. S.; Mascarello, A.; Malagoli, B. G.; Larsen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Nunes, R. J.; Braga, F. C.; Brandt, C.R.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2014-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis cell-wall polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body (FR) and mycelium (MI) and their respective sulfated derivatives (FR-S and MI-S) were chemically characterized using elemental analysis, TLC, FT-IR, NMR, HPLC, and thermal analysis. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated against A549 tumor cells by MTT and sulforhodamine assays. The average molecular weight (Mw) of FR and MI was estimated to be 609 and 310 kDa, respectively. FR-S (127 kDa) and MI-S (86 kDa) had lower Mw, probably due to hydrolysis occurred during the sulfation reaction. FR-S and MI-S presented ~14 % sulfur content in elemental analysis. Sulfation of samples was characterized by the appearance of two new absorption bands at 1253 and 810 cm−1 in the infrared spectra, related to S=O and C-S-O sulfate groups, respectively. Through 1H and 13C NMR analysis FR-S was characterized as a (1→6)-(1→3)-β-D-glucan fully sulfated at C-4 and C-6 terminal and partially sulfated at C-6 of (1→3)-β-D-glucan moiety. MI-S was shown to be a (1→3)-β-D-gluco-(1→2)-β-D-mannan, partially sulfated at C-2, C-3, C-4, and C-6, and fully sulfated at C-6 of the terminal residues. The combination of high degree of sulfation and low molecular weight was correlated with the increased cytotoxic activity (48 h of treatment) of both FR-S (EC50=605.6 μg/mL) and MI-S (EC50=342.1 μg/mL) compared to the non-sulfated polysaccharides FR and MI (EC50>1500 μg/mL). PMID:23511057

  17. Formulation, release characteristics, and bioavailability study of gastroretentive floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl

    PubMed Central

    El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Teaima, Mahmoud H; Abd El-Monem, Rehab A; El Nabarawy, Nagla A; Gaber, Dalia A

    2017-01-01

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH) and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin® 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs. The optimized tablet formula (FT-10) and raft system formula (FRS-11) were found to float within 34±5 sec and 15±7 sec, respectively, and both remain buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid. FT-10 (Compritol/HPMC K100M 1:1) showed the slowest drug release among all prepared tablet formulations, releasing about 80.2% of MbH over 8 h. In contrast, FRS-11 (Sodium alginate 3%/HPMC K100M 1%/Precirol 2%) had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 82.1% within 8 h. Compared with the marketed MbH product, the Cmax of FT-10 was almost the same, while FRS-11 maximum concentration was higher. The tmax was 3.33, 2.167, and 3.0 h for marketed MbH product, FT-10, and FRS-11, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment showed that the relative bioavailability of the MbH was 104.76 and 116.01% after oral administration of FT-10 and FRS-11, respectively, compared to marketed product. These results demonstrated that both controlled-released floating matrix tablet and raft system would be promising gastroretentive delivery systems for prolonging drug action. PMID:28435220

  18. Independent Epileptiform Discharge Patterns in the Olfactory and Limbic Areas of the In Vitro Isolated Guinea Pig Brain During 4-Aminopyridine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Carriero, Giovanni; Uva, Laura; Gnatkovsky, Vadym; Avoli, Massimo; de Curtis, Marco

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies performed on brain slices demonstrate that the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4AP, 50 μM) discloses electrographic seizure activity and interictal discharges. These epileptiform patterns have been further analyzed here in a isolated whole guinea pig brain in vitro by using field potential recordings in olfactory and limbic structures. In 8 of 13 experiments runs of fast oscillatory activity (fast runs, FRs) in the piriform cortex (PC) propagated to the lateral entorhinal cortex (EC), hippocampus and occasionally to the medial EC. Early and late FRs were asynchronous in the hemispheres showed different duration [1.78 ± 0.51 and 27.95 ± 4.55 (SD) s, respectively], frequency of occurrence (1.82 ± 0.49 and 34.16 ± 6.03 s) and frequency content (20–40 vs. 40–60 Hz). Preictal spikes independent from the FRs appeared in the hippocampus/EC and developed into ictal-like discharges that did not propagate to the PC. Ictal-like activity consisted of fast activity with onset either in the hippocampus (n = 6) or in the mEC (n = 2), followed by irregular spiking and sequences of diffusely synchronous bursts. Perfusion of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (100 μM) did not prevent FRs, increased the duration of limbic ictal-like discharges and favored their propagation to olfactory structures. The AMPA receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (50 μM) blocked ictal-like events and reduced FRs. In conclusion, 4AP-induced epileptiform activities are asynchronous and independent in olfactory and hippocampal-entorhinal regions. Epileptiform discharges in the isolated guinea pig brain show different pharmacological properties compared with rodent in vitro slices. PMID:20220076

  19. Simplifying the assessment of coronary artery stenosis by enhancing instantaneous wave free ratio.

    PubMed

    Spagnoli, Vincent; Picard, Fabien; Tadros, Victor-Xavier; Cournoyer, Daniel; Doucet, Serge; Tanguay, Jean François; Gosselin, Gilbert; de Guise, Pierre; Gallo, Richard

    2018-04-01

    Instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR) does not require adenosine, but has a relatively wide intermediate range where functional assessment remains inconclusive. In this pilot study, we sought to enhance iFR through with the use of intracoronary (IC) saline (iFRs) and contrast media (iFRc) and determine whether these techniques correlated well with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS) associated with an iFR in the intermediate zone (≥0.86 and ≤0.93) were prospectively assessed with resting distal coronary pressure/aorta pressure (Pd/Pa), iFR, iFRs, iFRc and FFR. A total of 40 coronary lesions were studied (40 patients). Pearson correlation coefficients for FFR and iFR, FFR and iFRs, FFR and iFRc were respectively: 0.57 (P=0.0002), 0.80 (P<0.0001) and 0.77 (P<0.0001). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed similar area under the curve (AUC) of iFRs and iFR [0.90 (95% CI: 0.76-1) vs. 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79-0.99), P=0.89]. Youden's index established cut-off values of ≤0.90 for iFR (sensitivity =91%, specificity =74%) and ≤0.78 for iFRs (sensitivity =73%, specificity =100%). In contrast, the AUC of iFRc was superior to the AUC of iFR [0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-1), P=0.049]. iFRc showed excellent accuracy and established cut-off values of ≤0.81 in predicting an FFR value of ≤0.80 (sensitivity =100%, specificity =93%). When iFR is in the intermediate zone, functional assessment of CAS by iFR is enhanced with the use of contrast media but not saline. This pilot study could be hypothesis generating for further study to enhance iFR specificity and sensibility.

  20. Formulation, release characteristics, and bioavailability study of gastroretentive floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl.

    PubMed

    El Nabarawi, Mohamed A; Teaima, Mahmoud H; Abd El-Monem, Rehab A; El Nabarawy, Nagla A; Gaber, Dalia A

    2017-01-01

    To prolong the residence time of dosage forms within the gastrointestinal tract until all drug is released at the desired rate is one of the real challenges for oral controlled-release drug delivery systems. This study was designed to develop a controlled-release floating matrix tablet and floating raft system of Mebeverine HCl (MbH) and evaluate different excipients for their floating behavior and in vitro controlled-release profiles. Oral pharmacokinetics of the optimum matrix tablet, raft system formula, and marketed Duspatalin ® 200 mg retard as reference were studied in beagle dogs. The optimized tablet formula (FT-10) and raft system formula (FRS-11) were found to float within 34±5 sec and 15±7 sec, respectively, and both remain buoyant over a period of 12 h in simulated gastric fluid. FT-10 (Compritol/HPMC K100M 1:1) showed the slowest drug release among all prepared tablet formulations, releasing about 80.2% of MbH over 8 h. In contrast, FRS-11 (Sodium alginate 3%/HPMC K100M 1%/Precirol 2%) had the greatest retardation, providing sustained release of 82.1% within 8 h. Compared with the marketed MbH product, the C max of FT-10 was almost the same, while FRS-11 maximum concentration was higher. The t max was 3.33, 2.167, and 3.0 h for marketed MbH product, FT-10, and FRS-11, respectively. In addition, the oral bioavailability experiment showed that the relative bioavailability of the MbH was 104.76 and 116.01% after oral administration of FT-10 and FRS-11, respectively, compared to marketed product. These results demonstrated that both controlled-released floating matrix tablet and raft system would be promising gastroretentive delivery systems for prolonging drug action.

  1. Time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for margin analysis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Nourhan; Al-Ebraheem, Alia; Le, Du; Cornacchi, Sylvie; Fang, Qiyin; Farrell, Thomas; Lovrics, Peter; Gohla, Gabriela; Reid, Susan; Hodgson, Nicole; Farquharson, Michael

    2018-03-01

    One of the major problems in breast cancer surgery is defining surgical margins and establishing complete tumor excision within a single surgical procedure. The goal of this work is to establish instrumentation that can differentiate between tumor and normal breast tissue with the potential to be implemented in vivo during a surgical procedure. A time-resolved fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy (tr-FRS) system is used to measure fluorescence intensity and lifetime as well as collect diffuse reflectance (DR) of breast tissue, which can subsequently be used to extract optical properties (absorption and reduced scatter coefficient) of the tissue. The tr-FRS data obtained from patients with Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) whom have undergone lumpectomy and mastectomy surgeries is presented. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the validity of using banked pre-frozen breast tissue samples to study the fluorescence response and optical properties. Once the validity was established, the tr-FRS system was used on a data-set of 40 pre-frozen matched pair cases to differentiate between tumor and normal breast tissue. All measurements have been conducted on excised normal and tumor breast samples post surgery. Our results showed the process of freezing and thawing did not cause any significant differences between fresh and pre-frozen normal or tumor breast tissue. The tr-FRS optical data obtained from 40 banked matched pairs showed significant differences between normal and tumor breast tissue. The work detailed in the main study showed the tr-FRS system has the potential to differentiate malignant from normal breast tissue in women undergoing surgery for known invasive ductal carcinoma. With further work, this successful outcome may result in the development of an accurate intraoperative real-time margin assessment system. Lasers Surg. Med. 50:236-245, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Is an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile a risk factor for vasomotor menopausal symptoms? Results of a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, M J; Herber-Gast, G C M; van der Schouw, Y T

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests an association between vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMSs), i.e. hot flushes and night sweats, and cardiovascular disease. However, the causal pathway is unclear. We investigated whether an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile is a risk factor for VMS later in life. Retrospective cohort study. Women aged 50-70 from the general population. The Prospect-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (Prospect-EPIC) cohort is a population-based cohort of women who enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Follow-up questionnaires were sent at 5-year intervals for 15 years. Women who returned the third questionnaire, answered questions regarding lifetime VMS and did not report VMS prior to baseline were included in this study (n = 1295). At baseline, the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) was determined. We used logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratios (ORs) for the association between baseline FRS and incident VMS. Incident VMS. At baseline (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.2 ± 3.6 years), 21.2% had a FRS > 10%. During follow-up, 40.2% of women reported the onset of VMS. Adjusted for body mass index, physical activity, education and alcohol consumption, each point increase in FRS was associated with a decreased incidence of VMS [OR, 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91-0.97)]. Additional adjustment for menopausal status attenuated the OR to null [OR, 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1.01)]. None of the separate FRS variables were associated with VMS after adjustment for age. In our cohort, an unfavourable cardiovascular risk profile was not associated with VMS, and therefore we found no evidence for the involvement of a vascular mechanism in the etiology of VMS. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Weight gain, body image and sexual function in young patients treated with contraceptive vaginal ring. A prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Morotti, Elena; Casadio, Paolo; Guasina, Francesca; Battaglia, Bruno; Mattioli, Mara; Battaglia, Cesare

    2017-08-01

    Oral contraceptives could induce mood changes. As far as our knowledge, there are no studies in literature that have examined the role of vaginal contraception in self-perceived body image. To evaluate the effects of intravaginal contraception on weight gain and perceived body image in relation with the Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire (BDI) and the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire (MFSQ). Twenty-one adult (18-35 years old) eumenorrheic (menstrual cycle of 25-35 days), lean (body mass index - BMI - of 19-25 kg/m 2 ) women who were referred for hormonal contraception were administered the Stunkard Figure Rating Scale (FRS), BDI and MFSQ. Subjects were studied in basal condition and after 6 months of therapy with vaginal contraception (NuvaRing®; Organon-Schering-Plough Italia, Milan, Italy). BMI, FRS, MFSQ and BDI. After 6 months of therapy with NuvaRing®, both body weight (60.0 ± 8.3; p = 0.050) and BMI (22.1 ± 3.1; p = 0.028) slightly, but statistically, increased. FRS and BDI showed no differences after the vaginal contraception. Hormonal contraception was associated with a significant decrease in the two-factor Italian MFSQ score. Vaginal ring seems a good alternative to other hormonal contraceptive not significantly altering the female sexuality and not influencing the FRS and BDI.

  4. After the PBDE Phase-Out: A Broad Suite of Flame Retardants in Repeat House Dust Samples from California

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Higher house dust levels of PBDE flame retardants (FRs) have been reported in California than other parts of the world, due to the state’s furniture flammability standard. However, changing levels of these and other FRs have not been evaluated following the 2004 U.S. phase-out of PentaBDE and OctaBDE. We analyzed dust collected in 16 California homes in 2006 and again in 2011 for 62 FRs and organohalogens, which represents the broadest investigation of FRs in homes. Fifty-five compounds were detected in at least one sample; 41 in at least 50% of samples. Concentrations of chlorinated OPFRs, including two (TCEP and TDCIPP) listed as carcinogens under California’s Proposition 65, were found up to 0.01% in dust, higher than previously reported in the U.S. In 75% of the homes, we detected TDBPP, or brominated “Tris,” which was banned in children’s sleepwear because of carcinogenicity. To our knowledge, this is the first report on TDBPP in house dust. Concentrations of Firemaster 550 components (EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP, and TPHP) were higher in 2011 than 2006, consistent with its use as a PentaBDE replacement. Results highlight the evolving nature of FR exposures and suggest that manufacturers continue to use hazardous chemicals and replace chemicals of concern with chemicals with uncharacterized toxicity. PMID:23185960

  5. Assessing the impact of a fistula after a pancreaticoduodenectomy using the Post-operative Morbidity Index.

    PubMed

    Miller, Benjamin C; Christein, John D; Behrman, Stephen W; Callery, Mark P; Drebin, Jeffrey A; Kent, Tara S; Pratt, Wande B; Lewis, Russell S; Vollmer, Charles M

    2013-10-01

    The Post-operative Morbidity Index (PMI) is a quantitative utility measure of a complication burden created by severity weighting. The Fistula Risk Score (FRS) is a validated model that predicts whether a patient will develop a post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF). These novel tools might provide further discrimination of the ISGPF grading system. From 2001 to 2012, 1021 pancreaticoduodenectomies were performed at four institutions. POPFs were categorized by ISGPF standards. PMI scores were calculated based on the Modified Accordion Severity Grading System. FRS scores were assigned according to the relative influence of four recognized factors for developing a clinically relevant POPF (CR-POPF). In total, 231 patients (22.6%) developed a POPF, of which 54.1% were CR-POPFs. The PMI differed significantly between the ISGPF grades and patients with no or non-fistulous complications (P < 0.001). 64.9% of POPFs and 84.0% of CR-POPFs contributed the highest Accordion grade to the PMI. Overall, the FRS correlated well with PMI (R(2) = 0.81, P < 0.001). These data quantitatively reinforce the ISGPF grades that were developed qualitatively around the concept of clinical severity. CR-POPFs usually reflect the patient's highest Accordion score whereas biochemical POPFs are often superseded. The correlation between FRS and PMI indicates that risk factors for a fistula contribute to overall pancreaticoduodenectomy morbidity. © 2013 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  6. Physical Constraints on Seismic Waves from Chemical and Nuclear Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-04-22

    AIR FORCE SYSTEMS COMMAND HANSCOM AIR FORCE BASE , MASSACHUSETTS 01731-5000 92-23124 9 2 8 1 9 5 9 IIII!I!I l1!j lIII ii SPONSORED BY Defense Advanced...in good agreement with seismic yield esti- improve the detection capabilities of new systems. Given mates [Sykes and Ekstrom, 1989]. (1990) reports...nuclear ,eismology. physical model for spall; (4) Determination of energy balance in Many questions still remain, particularly those associated with the

  7. Fictitious domain method for fully resolved reacting gas-solid flow simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Longhui; Liu, Kai; You, Changfu

    2015-10-01

    Fully resolved simulation (FRS) for gas-solid multiphase flow considers solid objects as finite sized regions in flow fields and their behaviours are predicted by solving equations in both fluid and solid regions directly. Fixed mesh numerical methods, such as fictitious domain method, are preferred in solving FRS problems and have been widely researched. However, for reacting gas-solid flows no suitable fictitious domain numerical method has been developed. This work presents a new fictitious domain finite element method for FRS of reacting particulate flows. Low Mach number reacting flow governing equations are solved sequentially on a regular background mesh. Particles are immersed in the mesh and driven by their surface forces and torques integrated on immersed interfaces. Additional treatments on energy and surface reactions are developed. Several numerical test cases validated the method and a burning carbon particles array falling simulation proved the capability for solving moving reacting particle cluster problems.

  8. Investigation of the cardiovascular risk profile in a south Brazilian city: surveys from 2012 to 2016.

    PubMed

    Rissardo, Jamir Pitton; Caprara, Ana Letícia Fornari; Prado, Ana Lucia Cervi; Leite, Martim Tobias Bravo

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular risk profile of the participants recruited from stroke awareness campaigns in Santa Maria RS, Brazil, from 2012 to 2016, using the simplified version of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Questionnaires were used to evaluate 1,061 participants from 20 to 74 years old. Data on cardiovascular risk factors were obtained. The prevalence of risk factors and mean FRS for men and women were estimated. The FRS for women was 11.8% (moderate risk) and 24.7% for men (high risk). The vascular age for women was 61.6 years, whereas the vascular age for men was 66 years. Two percent of women had hypertension and diabetes, while both these risk factors were present in 5% of men. Based on the data, the prevalence of stroke risk factors is worrisome, as are the numbers of individuals with moderate and high cardiovascular risk in Santa Maria.

  9. Long working hours may increase risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Kang, Mo-Yeol; Cho, Soo-Hun; Yoo, Min-Sang; Kim, Taeshik; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the association between long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) estimated by Framingham risk score (FRS) in Korean adults. This study evaluated adult participants in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009). After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size for this study model was 8,350. Subjects were asked about working hours and health status. Participants also completed physical examinations and biochemical measurement necessary for estimation of FRS. Multiple logistic regression was conducted to investigate the association between working hours and 10-year risk for CHD estimated by FRS. Compared to those who work 31-40 hr, significantly higher 10-year risk was estimated among subjects working longer hours. As working hours increased, odds ratio (OR) for upper 10 percent of estimated 10-year risk for CHD was increased up to 1.94. Long working hours are significantly related to risk of coronary heart disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Superconducting-Magnet-Based Faraday Rotation Spectrometer for Real Time in Situ Measurement of OH Radicals at 106 Molecule/cm3 Level in an Atmospheric Simulation Chamber.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weixiong; Fang, Bo; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Yanbo; Zhang, Weijun; Chen, Wenge; Chen, Zhiyou; Zhang, Haifeng; Chen, Weidong

    2018-03-20

    Atmospheric simulation chambers play vital roles in the validation of chemical mechanisms and act as a bridge between field measurements and modeling. Chambers operating at atmospheric levels of OH radicals (10 6 -10 7 molecule/cm 3 ) can significantly enhance the possibility for investigating the discrepancies between the observation and model predications. However, few chambers can directly detect chamber OH radicals at ambient levels. In this paper, we report on the first combination of a superconducting magnet with midinfrared Faraday rotation spectroscopy (FRS) for real time in situ measurement of the OH concentration in an atmospheric simulation chamber. With the use of a multipass enhanced FRS, a detection limit of 3.2 × 10 6 OH/cm 3 (2σ, 4 s) was achieved with an absorption path length of 108 m. The developed FRS system provided a unique, self-calibrated analytical instrument for in situ direct measurement of chamber OH concentration.

  11. Crystallization kinetic of Sb-V2O5-TeO2 glasses investigated by DSC and their elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souri, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Ternary tellurate glasses of the form xSb-(60-x)V2O5-40TeO2 (0≤x≤15 in mol%) were prepared by using the usual melt quenching method. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at different heating rates (φ) was used to thermal analyze and to gain more insight in to the thermal stability, glass forming tendency and so calorimetric behavior of the present glasses. The glass transition temperature (Tg), the temperature corresponding to the onset of crystallization (Tx) and also the crystallization temperature (TCr) were obtained at different heating rates, to estimate the key kinetic parameter of activation energy of crystallization (ΔE) by using different empirical formulas. Also some other thermal parameters such as thermal stability and glass forming tendency were determined. It was found that Tg, Tx and TCr increase with increase in Sb content and also with increase in heating rate. Moreover, Makishima-Makenzie's theory was employed to evaluate the Poisson's ratio and elastic moduli, indicating a strong relation between elastic properties and the structure of glass. From the mechanical and thermal data and also the values of oxygen molar volume ( V O *), it was founded that the glass systems can be divided in to "two compositional regions"; so, results indicate that glasses with 10≤x≤15 (especially for x=12) are more thermal stable and strong glasses, which make them as more useful and promising materials in technological advantages and device manufacturing.

  12. Fiber-Reinforced Superalloys For Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Jack R.; Yuen, Jim L.; Petrasek, Donald W.; Stephens, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses experimental studies of fiber-reinforced superalloy (FRS) composite materials for use in turbine blades in rocket engines. Intended to withstand extreme conditions of high temperature, thermal shock, atmospheres containing hydrogen, high cycle fatigue loading, and thermal fatigue, which tax capabilities of even most-advanced current blade material - directionally-solidified, hafnium-modified MAR M-246 {MAR M-246 (Hf) (DS)}. FRS composites attractive combination of properties for use in turbopump blades of advanced rocket engines at temperatures from 870 to 1,100 degrees C.

  13. A.C. impedance, XRD, DSC, SEM and charge/discharge studies on Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2 dispersoid LiPF6/PVC/PVdF-co-HFP composite polymer electrolytes by phase inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vickraman, P.; Gopukumar, S.

    2017-07-01

    The PVC/PVdF-co-HFP composite polymer electrolyte membranes (CPEMs) by varying blend ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 with fixed content of Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 having soaked in 0.5 M LiPF6 in EC/DEC (1:1) v/v) have been prepared by phase inversion. CPEMs of higher ionic conductivity (not dependent on electrolyte uptake as observed in our study) ASA4 (3.61×10-4 Scm-1), TSA3 (1.53×10-4 Scm-1), and SSA3 (4.81×10-4 Scm-1) have been only chosen for XRD, DSC, SEM and electrochemical studies. In XRD, crystalline peaks (phases) of PVdF have been noted with/without change in intensity as well as FWHM which correspond to type of filler interaction with host matrix. In DSC, it is observed that shifts in baseline, melting endotherms, and area under the endotherms indicating the thermal hist ory of PVC (Tg = 82 ° C) and melting of VdF crystallites varied with nature of the filler dispersoid. In SEM, the coagulated fibrils of the polymer coiled with the sponge like structure has been mapped. The charge/discharge studies are carried out on these CPEMs at C/10 rate in the voltage range 2.8 V - 4.2 V, and it is noted that the TSA3 showed better cycling performance with good capacity retention i.e., 50 cycles with 66% capacity retention than ASA4 of 28 cycles with 65% and SSA3 of 5 cycles with 56%. In the present study Coulombic efficiency is concerned only for first cycle and it is noted that the TSA3 showed 71% than 66% and 62% respectively for SSA3 and ASA4.

  14. Resonant Optical Circuits Based on Coupling Between Whispering Gallery Modes in Dielectric Microresonators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-30

    111111 (2006). 2. S.P. Ashili , V.N. Astratov, and E.C.H. Sykes, “The effects of inter-cavity separation on optical coupling in dielectric bispheres...chains of coupled spherical cavities,” Opt. Lett. 32, 409-411 (2007). 4. V.N. Astratov, and S.P. Ashili , “Percolation of light through whispering...Propagation via Whispering Gallery Modes in 3-D Networks of Coupled Spherical Cavities (Talk), V.N. Astratov, S.P. Ashili , and A.M. Kapitonov, in Frontiers in

  15. Comprehensive characterisation of flame retardants in textile furnishings by ambient high resolution mass spectrometry, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and environmental forensic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ionas, Alin C; Ballesteros Gómez, Ana; Uchida, Natsuyo; Suzuki, Go; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takata, Kyoko; Takigami, Hidetaka; Leonards, Pim E G; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-10-01

    The presence and levels of flame retardants (FRs), such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), was determined in textile home furnishings, such as carpets and curtains from stores in Belgium. A comprehensive characterisation of FRs in textile was done by ambient high resolution mass spectrometry (qualitative screening), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (quantitation), and environmental forensic microscopy (surface distribution). Ambient ionisation coupled to a time-of-flight (TOF) high resolution mass spectrometer (direct probe-TOF-MS) was investigated for the rapid screening of FRs. Direct probe-TOF-MS proved to be useful for a first screening step of textiles to detect FRs below the levels required to impart flame retardancy and to reduce, in this way, the number of samples for further quantitative analysis. Samples were analysed by GC-MS to confirm the results obtained by ambient mass spectrometry and to obtain quantitative information. The levels of PBDEs and PFRs were typically too low to impart flame retardancy. Only high levels of BDE-209 (11-18% by weight) were discovered and investigated in localised hotspots by employing forensic microscopy techniques. Most of the samples were made of polymeric materials known to be inherently flame retarded to some extent, so it is likely that other alternative and halogen-free FR treatments/solutions are preferred for the textiles on the Belgian market. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SEMICIRCULAR-LIKE SECONDARY FLARE RIBBONS ASSOCIATED WITH A FAILED ERUPTION

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zheng, R.; Korsós, M. B.; Erdélyi, R., E-mail: r.zheng@sheffield.ac.uk, E-mail: robertus@sheffield.ac.uk

    Flare ribbons (FRs) are one of the most apparent signatures of solar flares and have been treated as an indicator of magnetic reconnection. Drawing upon the observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present semicircular-like secondary FRs (SFRs) of a C2.3 flare on 2013 June 19. Before the flare eruption, two bipoles in this core region subsequently emerged. Due to the interaction between the two bipoles, a tether-cutting eruption took place in the core region. The SFRs, surrounding the core region nearly simultaneously with the flare onset, were much weaker than the two normal FRs. Two ends of the SFRsmore » experienced a separation and extension movement, but the middle part of the SFRs hardly expanded outward. We find SFRs are closely associated with the footpoint brightenings of some small loops around the core region. The eruption was confined by transequatorial loops (TLs), which resulted in the plasma material falling in the north end of the TLs and remote brightenings showing up in the south end of the TLs. The disappearance of the faint (filament) material during the emergence of the SFRs could indicate another eruption. We conclude that two or more magnetic reconnections are involved in this event and propose that SFRs consisting of a small part of true FRs resulted from the second magnetic reconnection and bright footpoints of loop clusters likely heated by the main flare.« less

  17. Correlation between severity of ultrasonographic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiometabolic risk among Filipino wellness patients

    PubMed Central

    Cuenza, Lucky R.; Razon, Tamara Louise J.; Dayrit, Juan Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent condition which is known to be related to factors that predispose to the development of coronary artery disease as well as development of metabolic syndrome. The study aimed to determine the association between ultrasound-based grading of hepatic steatosis with metabolic profile and estimated cardiovascular risk using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study on 100 Filipino patients without established cardiovascular disease who underwent a general wellness health evaluation. Cases with NAFLD diagnosed on the basis of ultrasound grading were analyzed. Comparison of demographics and metabolic parameters between grades of hepatic steatosis was performed using Kruskal Wallis test. FRS was used to assess cardiovascular risk with Spearman rank test for correlation with the degree of NAFLD. Results: Mean age was 47 ± 9.6 years, with 70% males. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 28.7 ± 5.1. Most patients had grade I NAFLD (53%), 34% were grade II, and 13% were grade III. BMI (P =0.034), liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase [ALT], P = 0.001; aspartate aminotransferase [AST], P = 0.00), triglycerides (P = 0.047), and fasting blood sugar [FBS] (P = 0.049) were associated with fatty liver grade. No association was noted with total cholesterol (P = 0.569), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.220), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P = 0.792). Using the FRS 43% were stratified as low (<10% risk), 45% as intermediate (10%-20% risk) and 12% as high risk (>20% risk). Severity of fatty liver was directly correlated with the FRS (Spearman rank 0.741, P = 0.009). Conclusion: Ultrasound-based grading of the severity of NAFLD is associated with abnormalities in the metabolic profile of patients. The FRS is correlated with increasing severity of NAFLD based on ultrasound. These findings suggest that the presence of NAFLD may be a marker for the presence of increased cardiovascular

  18. Impact of Replacing the Pooled Cohort Equation With Other Cardiovascular Disease Risk Scores on Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]).

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Michos, Erin D; Flueckiger, Peter; Blaha, Michael; Sandfort, Veit; Herrington, David M; Burke, Gregory; Yeboah, Joseph

    2016-09-01

    The increase in statin eligibility by the new cholesterol guidelines is mostly driven by the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE) criterion (≥7.5% 10-year PCE). The impact of replacing the PCE with either the modified Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) on assessment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk assessment and statin eligibility remains unknown. We assessed the comparative benefits of using the PCE, FRS, and SCORE for ASCVD risk assessment in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Of 6,815 participants, 654 (mean age 61.4 ± 10.3; 47.1% men; 37.1% whites; 27.2% blacks; 22.3% Hispanics; 12.0% Chinese-Americans) were included in analysis. Area under the curve (AUC) and decision curve analysis were used to compare the 3 risk scores. Decision curve analysis is the plot of net benefit versus probability thresholds; net benefit = true positive rate - (false positive rate × weighting factor). Weighting factor = Threshold probability/1 - threshold probability. After a median of 8.6 years, 342 (6.0%) ASCVD events (myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, fatal or nonfatal stroke) occurred. All 4 risk scores had acceptable discriminative ability for incident ASCVD events; (AUC [95% CI] PCE: 0.737 [0.713 to 0.762]; FRS: 0.717 [0.691 to 0.743], SCORE (high risk) 0.722 [0.696 to 0.747], and SCORE (low risk): 0.721 [0.696 to 0.746]. At the ASCVD risk threshold recommended for statin eligibility for primary prevention (≥7.5%), the PCE provides the best net benefit. Replacing the PCE with the SCORE (high), SCORE (low) and FRS results in a 2.9%, 8.9%, and 17.1% further increase in statin eligibility. The PCE has the best discrimination and net benefit for primary ASCVD risk assessment in a US-based multiethnic cohort compared with the SCORE or the FRS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Simplifying the assessment of coronary artery stenosis by enhancing instantaneous wave free ratio

    PubMed Central

    Spagnoli, Vincent; Picard, Fabien; Tadros, Victor-Xavier; Cournoyer, Daniel; Doucet, Serge; Tanguay, Jean François; Gosselin, Gilbert; de Guise, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Background Instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR) does not require adenosine, but has a relatively wide intermediate range where functional assessment remains inconclusive. In this pilot study, we sought to enhance iFR through with the use of intracoronary (IC) saline (iFRs) and contrast media (iFRc) and determine whether these techniques correlated well with fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods Patients with coronary artery stenosis (CAS) associated with an iFR in the intermediate zone (≥0.86 and ≤0.93) were prospectively assessed with resting distal coronary pressure/aorta pressure (Pd/Pa), iFR, iFRs, iFRc and FFR. Results A total of 40 coronary lesions were studied (40 patients). Pearson correlation coefficients for FFR and iFR, FFR and iFRs, FFR and iFRc were respectively: 0.57 (P=0.0002), 0.80 (P<0.0001) and 0.77 (P<0.0001). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed similar area under the curve (AUC) of iFRs and iFR [0.90 (95% CI: 0.76–1) vs. 0.89 (95% CI: 0.79–0.99), P=0.89]. Youden’s index established cut-off values of ≤0.90 for iFR (sensitivity =91%, specificity =74%) and ≤0.78 for iFRs (sensitivity =73%, specificity =100%). In contrast, the AUC of iFRc was superior to the AUC of iFR [0.99 (95% CI: 0.98–1), P=0.049]. iFRc showed excellent accuracy and established cut-off values of ≤0.81 in predicting an FFR value of ≤0.80 (sensitivity =100%, specificity =93%). Conclusions When iFR is in the intermediate zone, functional assessment of CAS by iFR is enhanced with the use of contrast media but not saline. This pilot study could be hypothesis generating for further study to enhance iFR specificity and sensibility. PMID:29850406

  20. Mobile Versus Fixed Deployment of Automated External Defibrillators in Rural EMS.

    PubMed

    Nelson, R Darrell; Bozeman, William; Collins, Greg; Booe, Brian; Baker, Todd; Alson, Roy

    2015-04-01

    There is no consensus on where automated external defibrillators (AEDs) should be placed in rural communities to maximize impact on survival from cardiac arrest. In the community of Stokes County, North Carolina (USA) the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system promotes cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) public education and AED use with public access defibrillators (PADs) placed mainly in public schools, churches, and government buildings. This study tested the utilization of AEDs assigned to first responders (FRs) in their private-owned-vehicle (POV) compared to AEDs in fixed locations. The authors performed a prospective, observational study measuring utilization of AEDs carried by FRs in their POV compared to utilization of AEDs in fixed locations. Automated external defibrillator utilization is activation with pads placed on the patient and analysis of heart rhythm to determine if shock/no-shock is indicated. The Institutional Review Board of Wake Forest University Baptist Health System approved the study and written informed consent was waived. The study began on December 01, 2012 at midnight and ended on December 01, 2013 at midnight. During the 12-month study period, 81 community AEDs were in place, 66 in fixed locations and 15 assigned to FRs in their POVs. No utilizations of the 66 fixed location AEDs were reported (0.0 utilizations/AED/year) while 19 utilizations occurred in the FR POV AED study group (1.27 utilizations/AED/year; P<.0001). Odds ratio of using a FR POV located AED was 172 times more likely than using a community fixed-location AED in this rural community. Discussion Placing AEDs in a rural community poses many challenges for optimal utilization in terms of cardiac arrest occurrences. Few studies exist to direct rural community efforts in placing AEDs where they can be most effective, and it has been postulated that placing them directly with FRs may be advantageous. In this rural community, the authors found that placing AED devices with

  1. Great debate probes Pluto's planetary credentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-09-01

    It had all the trappings of an Olympic boxing final: two fiery competitors, a partisan crowd and the attention of the global press. But no individual gold medalist emerged from the Great Planet Debate held last month in Baltimore to discuss what type of astronomical object Pluto really is. Rather, the contest between Neil de-Grasse Tyson, director of New York's Hayden Planetarium, and Mark Sykes of the University of Arizona's Planetary Science Institute provided a view of how science deals with controversial issues of definition.

  2. Environmental Variability during the CHURCH STROKE II Cruise 5 Exercise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-02-01

    Route Z eNerth Stonington, CT 06359 ATTN: S. Elam 1 Arthur D. Little, inc. 15 Acorn Park ’ambridge, MA 02140 "ATTN. Dr, G. Roisbeck 1 W. G. Sykes 1 ...aircraft throughout these areas to coincide with acoustic events. (U) OCEANOGRAPHIC FINDINGS 1 . (U) Typhoon Lucy, a storm which packed sustained...winds of 120 mph, had only a minimal effect on the sound speed structure along the baseline as late as 2- 1 /2 days after its passage. The lack of observed

  3. Differential Scanning Calorimetry Techniques: Applications in Biology and Nanoscience

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Pooria; Moghadam, Tahereh Tohidi; Ranjbar, Bijan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the best-known differential scanning calorimetries (DSCs), such as conventional DSC, microelectromechanical systems-DSC, infrared-heated DSC, modulated-temperature DSC, gas flow-modulated DSC, parallel-nano DSC, pressure perturbation calorimetry, self-reference DSC, and high-performance DSC. Also, we describe here the most extensive applications of DSC in biology and nanoscience. PMID:21119929

  4. SLIPPING MAGNETIC RECONNECTIONS WITH MULTIPLE FLARE RIBBONS DURING AN X-CLASS SOLAR FLARE

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zheng, Ruisheng; Chen, Yao; Wang, Bing, E-mail: ruishengzheng@sdu.edu.cn

    2016-06-01

    With the observations of the Solar Dynamics Observatory , we present the slipping magnetic reconnections with multiple flare ribbons (FRs) during an X1.2 eruptive flare on 2014 January 7. A center negative polarity was surrounded by several positive ones, and three FRs appeared. The three FRs showed apparent slipping motions, and hook structures formed at their ends. Due to the moving footpoints of the erupting structures, one tight semi-circular hook disappeared after the slippage along its inner and outer edges, and coronal dimmings formed within the hook. The east hook also faded as a result of the magnetic reconnection betweenmore » the arcades of a remote filament and a hot loop that was impulsively heated by the under flare loops. Our results are accordant with the slipping magnetic reconnection regime in three-dimensional standard model for eruptive flares. We suggest that the complex structures of the flare are likely a consequence of the more complex flux distribution in the photosphere, and the eruption involves at least two magnetic reconnections.« less

  5. Improvement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of furfural residues by pretreatment with combined green liquor and ethanol organosolv.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hailong; Xing, Yang; Lei, Fuhou; Liu, Zhiping; Liu, Zuguang; Jiang, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Furfural residues (FRs) were pretreated with ethanol and a green liquor (GL) catalyst to produce fermentable sugar. Anthraquinone (AQ) was used as an auxiliary reagent to improve delignification and reduce cellulose decomposition. The results showed that 42.7% of lignin was removed and 96.5% of cellulose was recovered from substrates pretreated with 1.0 mL GL/g of dry substrate and 0.4% (w/w) AQ at 140°C for 1h. Compared with raw material, ethanol-GL pretreatment of FRs increased the glucose yield from 69.0% to 85.9% after 96 h hydrolysis with 18 FPU/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27 CBU/g-cellulose for β-glucosidase. The Brauner-Emmett-Teller surface area was reduced during pretreatment, which did not inhibit the enzymatic hydrolysis. Owing to the reduced surface area, the unproductive binding of cellulase to lignin was decreased, thus improving the enzymatic hydrolysis. The degree of polymerization of cellulose from FRs was too low to be a key factor for improving enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The determination of the radical power - an in vitro test for the evaluation of cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Herrling, T; Seifert, M; Sandig, G; Jung, K

    2016-06-01

    Cosmetic formulations are influenced by environmental impacts and ageing, resulting in rancidity and change of colour and structure. These changes are caused by free radicals (FRs). The sensitivity of cosmetics generating FRs is a metric for its quality and should be determined. Electron spin resonance spectroscopy in combination with UV irradiation tested cosmetics such as creams, milks, lotions and fragrances. The probes were directly measured without expensive preparation. Nine formulations are tested for its radical generation and ranked corresponding to the radical power. The transformation of the FR properties of three formulations to skin is measured by the radical skin status factor (RSF) method. It shows that the higher the radical power (RP) is, the lower the radical status RSF of skin will be. The knowledge of the sensitivity of cosmetics to generate FRs is necessary for its stabilization and prevention of potential damages to skin. It is a new way in development of cosmetics which has to be considered. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. The nuclear region of low luminosity flat radio spectrum sources. II. Emission-line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. C.; Serote Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marchã's et al. (\\cite{March96}) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. The fact that we observe a LINER-type spectrum in LL FRS sources supports the idea that some of these objects could be undergoing an ADAF phase; in addition, such a low ionization emission-line spectrum is in agreement with the black hole mass values and sub-Eddington accretion rates published for some FRS sources. Based on observations collected at the Multiple Mirror Telescope on Mt. Hopkins. Full Fig. 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org

  8. The joint associations of occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity, and the Framingham risk score on the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Borodulin, Katja; Jousilahti, Pekka

    2007-02-01

    To determine joint associations of different kinds of physical activity and the Framingham risk score (FRS) with the 10-year risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Study cohorts included 41 053 Finnish participants aged 25-64 years without history of CHD and stroke. The multivariable-adjusted 10-year hazard ratios (HRs) of coronary events associated with low, moderate, and high occupational physical activity were 1.00, 0.66, and 0.74 (Ptrend<0.001) for men, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.58 (Ptrend<0.001) for women, respectively. The multivariable-adjusted 10-year HRs of coronary events associated with low, moderate, and high leisure-time physical activity were 1.00, 0.97, and 0.66 (Ptrend=0.002) for men, and 1.00, 0.74, and 0.54 (Ptrend=0.003) for women, respectively. Active commuting had a significant inverse association with 10-year risk of coronary events in women only. The FRS predicted 10-year risk of coronary events among both men and women. The protective effects of occupational, commuting, or leisure-time physical activity were consistent in subjects with a very low (<6%), low (6-9%), intermediate (10-19%), or high (>or=20%) risk of the FRS. Moderate or high levels of occupational or leisure-time physical activity among both men and women, and daily walking or cycling to and from work among women are associated with a reduced 10-year risk of CHD events. These favourable effects of physical activity on CHD risk are observed at all levels of CHD risk based on FRS assessment.

  9. Comparison of the Framingham Risk Score, UKPDS Risk Engine, and SCORE for Predicting Carotid Atherosclerosis and Peripheral Arterial Disease in Korean Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hye-Ran; Shin, Min-Ho; Yun, Woo-Jun; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Lee, Young-Hoon; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Rhee, Jung-Ae; Choi, Jin-Su; Choi, Seong-Woo

    2011-03-01

    To compare the predictability of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) risk engine, and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) for carotid atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. Among 1,275 registered type 2 diabetes patients in the health center, 621 subjects with type 2 diabetes participated in the study. Well-trained examiners measured the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), carotid plaque, and ankle brachial index (ABI). The subject's 10-year risk of coronary heart disease was calculated according to the FRS, UKPDS, and SCORE risk scores. These three risk scores were compared to the areas under the curve (AUC). The odds ratios (ORs) of all risk scores increased as the quartiles increased for plaque, IMT, and ABI. For plaque and IMT, the UKPDS risk score provided the highest OR (95% confidence interval) at 3.82 (2.36, 6.17) and at 6.21 (3.37, 11.45). For ABI, the SCORE risk estimation provided the highest OR at 7.41 (3.20, 17.18). However, no significant difference was detected for plaque, IMT, or ABI (P = 0.839, 0.313, and 0.113, respectively) when the AUCs of the three risk scores were compared. When we graphed the Kernel density distribution of these three risk scores, UKPDS had a higher distribution than FRS and SCORE. No significant difference was observed when comparing the predictability of the FRS, UKPDS risk engine, and SCORE risk estimation for carotid atherosclerosis and peripheral arterial disease in Korean type 2 diabetic patients.

  10. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: Results from the Filipino-American Women Cardiovascular Study.

    PubMed

    Ancheta, Irma B; Battie, Cynthia A; Volgman, Annabelle S; Ancheta, Christine V; Palaniappan, Latha

    2017-02-01

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of Filipino-Americans, conventional CVD risk calculators may not be accurate for this population. CVD risk scores of a group of Filipino-American women (FAW) were measured using the major risk calculators. Secondly, the sensitivity of the various calculators to obesity was determined. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study that enrolled 40-65-year-old FAW (n = 236), during a community-based health screening study. Ten-year CVD risk was calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), Reynolds Risk Score (RRS), and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease (ASCVD) calculators. The 30-year risk FRS and the lifetime ASCVD calculators were also determined. Levels of predicted CVD risk varied as a function of the calculator. The 10-year ASCVD calculator classified 12 % of participants with ≥10 % risk, but the 10-year FRS and RRS calculators classified all participants with ≤10 % risk. The 30-year "Hard" Lipid and BMI FRS calculators classified 32 and 43 % of participants with high (≥20 %) risk, respectively, while 95 % of participants were classified with ≥20 % risk by the lifetime ASCVD calculator. The percent of participants with elevated CVD risk increased as a function of waist circumference for most risk score calculators. Differences in risk score as a function of the risk score calculator indicate the need for outcome studies in this population. Increased waist circumference was associated with increased CVD risk scores underscoring the need for obesity control as a primary prevention of CVD in FAW.

  11. Morphology of blends of linear and long-chain-branched polyethylenes in the solid state: A study by SANS, SAXS, and DSC

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wignall, G.D.; Londono, J.D.; Lin, J.S.

    1995-04-24

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been used to investigate the solid-state morphology of blends of linear (high density) and long-chain-branched (low-density) polyethylenes (HDPE/LDPE). The blends are homogeneous in the melt, as previously demonstrated by SANS using the contrast obtained by deuterating the linear polymer. However, due to the structural and melting point differences ({approximately} 20 C) between HDPE and LDPE, the components may phase segregate on slow cooling (0.75 C/min). For high concentrations ({phi} {ge} 0.5) of HDPE, relatively high rates of crystallization of the linear component lead to the formation ofmore » separate stacks of HDPE and LDPE lamellae, as indicated by two-peak SAXS curves. For predominantly branched blends, the difference in crystallization rate of the components becomes smaller and only one SAXS peak is observed, indicating that the two species are in the same lamellar stack. Moreover, the phases no longer consist of the pure component and the HDPE lamellae contain up to 15--20% LDPE (and vice versa). Rapid quenching into dry ice/2-propanol ({minus}78 C) produces only one SAXS peak (and hence one lamellar stack) over the whole concentration range. The blends show extensive cocrystallization, along with a tendency for the branched material to be preferentially located in the amorphous interlamellar regions. For high concentrations ({phi} > 0.5) of HDPE-D, the overall scattering length density (SLD) is high and the excess concentration of LDPE between the lamellae enhances the SLD contrast between the crystalline and amorphous phases. Thus, the interlamellar spacing (long period) is clearly visible in the SANS pattern. The blend morphology is a strong function of the quenching rate, and samples quenched less rapidly (e.g., into water at 23 C) are similar to slowly cooled blends.« less

  12. Risk of coronary artery disease in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Felippe Dantas; Lorenzo, Andrea Rocha de; Tura, Bernardo Rangel; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini; Hadlich, Marcelo; Barros, Marcelo Viana de Lima; Lima, Ana Beatriz Ribeiro; Meirelles, Vanderson

    2011-01-01

    Current treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved survival and allowed infected patients to develop atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD). Specific strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in the infected population have not been developed. It is necessary to know the magnitude of cardiovascular risk in this population. This study aimed to assess cardiovascular risk using a well-known clinical score and to investigate coronary artery calcium scoring (CACS) in this population. This was a cross-sectional study. Adults with HIV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and anthropometric data, serum glucose and lipids were obtained. Cardiovascular risk was calculated through Framingham risk score (FRS) and CACS. Categorical variables were compared by Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, and continuous variables were analyzed by Student t test or Mann-Whitney test. An analysis of concordance between FRS and CACS was performed using kappa statistic. Forty patients, aged 45.9 ± 8.1 years, were studied. Age of risk for CAD were found in 30.0%, hypertension in 55.0%, diabetes in 10.0%, smoking in 35.0%, dyslipidemia in 67.5% and family history of CAD in 57.5%. Altered levels of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were found in 30.0%, 25.0% and 82.5%, respectively. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were altered more frequently among protease inhibitors users. The FRS classified the risk as low for 72.5%, moderate for 25.0%, and high for 2.5%. CACS > 0 was found in 32.5% of the patients, in 67.5% the score was low, in 17.5% moderate, and in 15.0% high. Concordance between FRS and CACS showed a kappa = 0.435. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for CAD in the studied population, with dyslipidemia being the most frequent. HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were the most frequently altered factors and were associated with the use of protease inhibitors. Risk assessed by the FRS was low in most

  13. Multi-contaminant analysis of organophosphate and halogenated flame retardants in food matrices using ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction, multi-stage cleanup and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuchao; García-Bermejo, Ángel; Malarvannan, Govindan; Gómara, Belén; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2015-07-03

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of a range of flame retardants (FRs), including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated FRs (EFRs) and organophosphate FRs (PFRs), in food matrices. An ultrasonication and vacuum assisted extraction (UVAE), followed by a multi-stage clean-up procedure, enabled the removal of up to 1g of lipid from 2.5 g of freeze-dried food samples and significantly reduce matrix effects. UVAE achieves a waste factor (WF) of about 10%, while the WFs of classical QuEChERS methods range usually between 50 and 90%. The low WF of UVAE leads to a dramatic improvement in the sensitivity along with saving up to 90% of spiking (internal) standards. Moreover, a two-stage clean-up on Florisil and aminopropyl silica was introduced after UVAE, for an efficient removal of pigments and residual lipids, which led to cleaner extracts than normally achieved by dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE). In this way, the extracts could be concentrated to low volumes, e.g. <100 μL and the equivalent matrix concentrations were up to 100g ww/mL. The final analysis of PFRs was performed on GC-EI-MS, while PBDEs and EFRs were measured by GC-ECNI-MS. Validation tests were performed with three food matrices (lean beef, whole chicken egg and salmon filet), obtaining acceptable recoveries (66-135%) with good repeatability (RSD 1-24%, mean 7%). Method LOQs ranged between 0.008 and 0.04 ng/g dw for PBDEs, between 0.08 and 0.20 ng/g dw for EFRs, and between 1.4 and 3.6 ng/g dw for PFRs. The method was further applied to eight types of food samples (including meat, eggs, fish, and seafood) with lipid contents ranging from 0.1 to 22%. Various FRs were detected above MLOQ levels, demonstrating the wide-range applicability of our method. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method reported for simultaneous analysis of brominated and organophosphate FRs in food matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  14. Novel and high volume use flame retardants in US couches reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE phase out.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Heather M; Sharma, Smriti; Getzinger, Gordon; Ferguson, P Lee; Gabriel, Michelle; Webster, Thomas F; Blum, Arlene

    2012-12-18

    California's furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on the

  15. Novel and High Volume Use Flame Retardants in US Couches Reflective of the 2005 PentaBDE Phase Out

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    California’s furniture flammability standard Technical Bulletin 117 (TB 117) is believed to be a major driver of chemical flame retardant (FR) use in residential furniture in the United States. With the phase-out of the polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) FR mixture PentaBDE in 2005, alternative FRs are increasingly being used to meet TB 117; however, it was unclear which chemicals were being used and how frequently. To address this data gap, we collected and analyzed 102 samples of polyurethane foam from residential couches purchased in the United States from 1985 to 2010. Overall, we detected chemical flame retardants in 85% of the couches. In samples purchased prior to 2005 (n = 41) PBDEs associated with the PentaBDE mixture including BDEs 47, 99, and 100 (PentaBDE) were the most common FR detected (39%), followed by tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP; 24%), which is a suspected human carcinogen. In samples purchased in 2005 or later (n = 61) the most common FRs detected were TDCPP (52%) and components associated with the Firemaster550 (FM 550) mixture (18%). Since the 2005 phase-out of PentaBDE, the use of TDCPP increased significantly. In addition, a mixture of nonhalogenated organophosphate FRs that included triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(4-butylphenyl) phosphate (TBPP), and a mix of butylphenyl phosphate isomers were observed in 13% of the couch samples purchased in 2005 or later. Overall the prevalence of flame retardants (and PentaBDE) was higher in couches bought in California compared to elsewhere, although the difference was not quite significant (p = 0.054 for PentaBDE). The difference was greater before 2005 than after, suggesting that TB 117 is becoming a de facto standard across the U.S. We determined that the presence of a TB 117 label did predict the presence of a FR; however, lack of a label did not predict the absence of a flame retardant. Following the PentaBDE phase out, we also found an increased number of flame retardants on

  16. High prevalence of subclinical atherosclerosis in Brazilian postmenopausal women with low and intermediate risk by Framingham score.

    PubMed

    Petisco, Ana Claudia Gomes Pereira; Assef, Jorge Eduardo; de Jesus, Carlos Alberto; Saleh, Mohamed Hassan; Barbosa, Jose Eduardo Martins; Costa de Souza Le Bihan, David; Pinto, Ibraim Masciarelli França; Rolim Fernandes Fontes Pedra, Simone; Barretto, Rodrigo Bellio de Mattos; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego

    2017-03-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality among women in several countries. Early detection of subclinical atherosclerosis (SA) could enable the adoption of preventive measures to avoid cardiovascular events. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of SA in Brazilian asymptomatic postmenopausal women in Framingham Risk Score (FRS) low and intermediate groups. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound (US) scans were performed in 138 asymptomatic postmenopausal women (56.1 ± 4.9 years of age) to survey for coronary artery and aortic calcification (CT scan) and assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and identify carotid plaques (US). The mean FRS was 2.64 ± 2.13 %. The prevalence of increased CIMT, carotid plaques, increased CIMT and/or plaques, coronary artery calcification (CAC) >0 and aortic calcification (AC) were, respectively, 45.7, 37.7, 62.3, 23.9 and 45.7 %. Normal imaging tests were found in 22.4 %. SA, defined as at least one abnormal imaging test, was associated with age, FRS, waist-to-rip ratio, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL-c and ApoA1 levels, and ApoA1/ApoB ratio. In logistic regression, SA was associated with higher age (OR 1.108, 95 % CI 1.010-1.215, p = 0.029) and lower ApoA1 levels (OR 0.979, 95 % CI 0.960-0.998, p = 0.029). SA was prevalent in Brazilian postmenopausal women with low and intermediate risk groups (FRS) and was associated with higher age and lower levels of ApoA1. Carotid atherosclerosis was the most common presentation of SA in this group.

  17. Prospective comparison of three risk scoring systems in non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Thanapirom, Kessarin; Ridtitid, Wiriyaporn; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Thungsuk, Rattikorn; Noophun, Phadet; Wongjitrat, Chatchawan; Luangjaru, Somchai; Vedkijkul, Padet; Lertkupinit, Comson; Poonsab, Swangphong; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Hansomburana, Piyathida; Pornthisarn, Bubpha; Thongbai, Thirada; Mahachai, Varocha; Treeprasertsuk, Sombat

    2016-04-01

    Data regarding the efficacy of the Glasgow Blatchford score (GBS), full Rockall score (FRS) and pre-endoscopic Rockall scores (PRS) in comparing non-variceal and variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) are limited. Our aim was to determine the performance of these three risk scores in predicting the need for treatment, mortality, and re-bleeding among patients with non-variceal and variceal UGIB. During January, 2010 and September, 2011, patients with UGIB from 11 hospitals were prospectively enrolled. The GBS, FRS, and PRS were calculated. Discriminative ability for each score was assessed using the receiver operated characteristics curve (ROC) analysis. A total of 981 patients presented with acute UGIB, 225 patients (22.9%) had variceal UGIB. The areas under the ROC (AUC) of the GBS, FRS, and PRS for predicting the need for treatment were 0.77, 0.69, and 0.61 in non-variceal versus 0.66, 0.66, and 0.59 in variceal UGIB. The AUC for predicting mortality and re-bleeding during admission were 0.66, 0.80, and 0.76 in non-variceal versus 0.63, 0.57, and 0.63 in variceal UGIB. AUC score was not statistically significant for predicting need for therapy and clinical outcome in variceal UGIB. The GBS ≤ 2 and FRS ≤ 1 identified low-risk non-variceal UGIB patients for death and re-bleeding during hospitalization. In contrast to non-variceal UGIB, the GBS, FRS, and PRS were not precise scores for assessing the need for therapy, mortality, and re-bleeding during admission in variceal UGIB. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index as a predictor of 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in a group of Iranian employees.

    PubMed

    Hariri, N; Darafshi Ghahroudi, S; Nasseri, E; Bondarianzadeh, D; Houshyar-Rad, A; Zayeri, F

    2017-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, of which almost half are some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), have overtaken communicable diseases as the world's major disease burden. There is growing evidence that indices of diet quality could have an association with a decreased risk of CVD in several countries. We aimed to examine the association between diet quality, as measured by the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and 10-year predicted CVD risk based on the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in a group of Iranian employees. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 296 (232 male, 64 female) employees aged ≥30 years selected by nonrandom sampling. AHEI was calculated according to a food frequency questionnaire with complementary questions on intake of cooking fats and oils among households. The 10-year risk of CVD was calculated based on FRS. Total and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure were measured to help in the calculation of FRS. AHEI did not have a significant relationship with FRS (r = -0.02, P = 0.67). However, some of its components, such as the intake of nuts and soy groups (r = -0.11, P = 0.04) and fruits (r = -0.14, P = 0.01), had a significant relationship with a reduced risk of CVD. According to stepwise multiple linear regression results, for every single increase in the intake of fruit servings, there would be a 0.14 reduction in the 10-year CVD risk score (β = -0.14, P = 0.01). The present study showed no significant relationship between AHEI and the 10-year predicted risk of CVD among Iranian employees. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  19. Preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic targets in dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Hanes, Robert; Grad, Iwona; Lorenz, Susanne; Stratford, Eva W; Munthe, Else; Reddy, Chilamakuri Chandra Sekhar; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Myklebost, Ola

    2016-08-23

    Sarcomas are rare cancers with limited treatment options. Patients are generally treated by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery, and would benefit from new personalized approaches. In this study we demonstrate the potential of combining personal genomic characterization of patient tumors to identify targetable mutations with in vitro testing of specific drugs in patient-derived cell lines. We have analyzed three metastases from a patient with high-grade metastatic dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLPS) by exome and transcriptome sequencing as well as DNA copy number analysis. Genomic aberrations of several potentially targetable genes, including amplification of KITLG and FRS2, in addition to amplification of CDK4 and MDM2, characteristic of this disease, were identified. We evaluated the efficacy of drugs targeting these aberrations or the corresponding signaling pathways in a cell line derived from the patient. Interestingly, the pan-FGFR inhibitor NVP-BGJ398, which targets FGFR upstream of FRS2, strongly inhibited cell proliferation in vitro and induced an accumulation of cells into the G0 phase of the cell cycle. This study indicates that FGFR inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of DDLPS with amplified FRS2.

  20. Master Metadata Repository and Metadata-Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Edward; Reed, Nate; Zhang, Wen

    2007-01-01

    A master metadata repository (MMR) software system manages the storage and searching of metadata pertaining to data from national and international satellite sources of the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature Pilot Project [GHRSSTPP]. These sources produce a total of hundreds of data files daily, each file classified as one of more than ten data products representing global sea-surface temperatures. The MMR is a relational database wherein the metadata are divided into granulelevel records [denoted file records (FRs)] for individual satellite files and collection-level records [denoted data set descriptions (DSDs)] that describe metadata common to all the files from a specific data product. FRs and DSDs adhere to the NASA Directory Interchange Format (DIF). The FRs and DSDs are contained in separate subdatabases linked by a common field. The MMR is configured in MySQL database software with custom Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (PERL) programs to validate and ingest the metadata records. The database contents are converted into the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standard format by use of the Extensible Markup Language (XML). A Web interface enables users to search for availability of data from all sources.

  1. Improvement of the enzymatic hydrolysis of furfural residues by pretreatment with combined green liquor and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hai-Long; Tang, Yong; Xing, Yang; Zhu, Li-Wei; Jiang, Jian-Xin

    2013-11-01

    A potential commercial pretreatment for furfural residues (FRs) was investigated by using a combination of green liquor and hydrogen peroxide (GL-H2O2). The results showed that 56.2% of lignin removal was achieved when the sample was treated with 0.6 g H2O2/g-DS (dry substrate) and 6 mL GL/g-DS at 80 °C for 3 h. After 96 h hydrolysis with 18 FPU/g-cellulose for cellulase, 27 CBU/g-cellulose for β-glucosidase, the glucose yield increased from 71.2% to 83.6%. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid was used to reduce the degradation of H2O2, the glucose yield increased to 90.4% after the addition of 1% (w/w). The untreated FRs could bind more easily to cellulase than pretreated FRs could. The structural changes on the surface of sample were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicated that the surface lignin could be effectively removed during pretreatment, thereby decreasing the enzyme-lignin binding activity. Moreover, the carbonyl from lignin plays an important role in cellulase binding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1997

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The energy industry generally and petroleum and natural gas operations in particular are frequently reacting to a variety of unsettling forces. Falling oil prices, economic upswings, currency devaluations, increasingly rigorous environmental quality standards, deregulation of electricity markets, and continued advances in exploration and production technology were among the challenges and opportunities to the industry in 1997. To analyze the extent to which these and other developments have affected energy industry financial and operating performance, strategies, and industry structure, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) maintains the Financial Reporting Systems (FRS). Through Form EIA-28, major US energy companies annually report to themore » FRS. Financial and operating information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production (upstream), petroleum refining and marketing (downstream), other energy operations, and nonenergy business. Performance Profiles of Major Producers 1997 examines the interplays of energy markets, companies` strategies, and government policies (in 1997 and in historical context) that gave rise to the results given here. The report also analyzes other key aspects of energy company financial performance as seen through the multifaceted lens provided by the FRS data and complementary data for industry overall. 41 figs., 77 tabs.« less

  3. Greg Wilson, D.Sc. | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    Chemical Engineering from Washington University in St. Louis and a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the Number 6,284,384. Gregory M. Wilson, et al., "Pressure Equalization System for Chemical Vapor

  4. Statin underuse and low prevalence of LDL-C control among U.S. adults at high risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Gamboa, Christopher M; Safford, Monika M; Levitan, Emily B; Mann, Devin M; Yun, Huifeng; Glasser, Stephen P; Woolley, J Michael; Rosenson, Robert; Farkouh, Michael; Muntner, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Statins reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in individuals with a history of CHD or risk equivalents. A 10-year CHD risk >20% is considered a risk equivalent but is frequently not detected. Statin use and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) control were examined among participants with CHD or risk equivalents in the nationwide Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke study (n = 8812). Participants were categorized into 4 mutually exclusive groups: (1) history of CHD (n = 4025); (2) no history of CHD but with a history of stroke and/or abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) (n = 946); (3) no history of CHD or stroke/AAA but with diabetes mellitus (n = 3134); or (4) no history of the conditions in (1) through (3) but with 10-year Framingham CHD risk score (FRS) >20% calculated using the third Adult Treatment Panel point scoring system (n = 707). Statins were used by 58.4% of those in the CHD group and 41.7%, 40.4% and 20.1% of those in the stroke/AAA, diabetes mellitus and FRS >20% groups, respectively. Among those taking statins, 65.1% had LDL-C <100 mg/dL, with no difference between the CHD, stroke/AAA, or diabetes mellitus groups. However, compared with those in the CHD group, LDL-C <100 mg/dL was less common among participants in the FRS >20% group (multivariable adjusted prevalence ratio: 0.72; 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.85). Results were similar using the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol treatment guideline. These data suggest that many people with high CHD risk, especially those with an FRS >20%, do not receive guideline-concordant lipid-lowering therapy and do not achieve an LDL-C <100 mg/dL.

  5. Space and time in the context of equilibrium-point theory.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2011-05-01

    Advances to the equilibrium-point (EP) theory and solutions to several classical problems of action and perception are suggested and discussed. Among them are (1) the posture-movement problem of how movements away from a stable posture can be made without evoking resistance of posture-stabilizing mechanisms resulting from intrinsic muscle and reflex properties; (2) the problem of kinesthesia or why our sense of limb position is fairly accurate despite ambiguous positional information delivered by proprioceptive and cutaneous signals; (3) the redundancy problems in the control of multiple muscles and degrees of freedom. Central to the EP hypothesis is the notion that there are specific neural structures that represent spatial frames of reference (FRs) selected by the brain in a task-specific way from a set of available FRs. The brain is also able to translate or/and rotate the selected FRs by modifying their major attributes-the origin, metrics, and orientation-and thus substantially influence, in a feed-forward manner, action and perception. The brain does not directly solve redundancy problems: it only limits the amount of redundancy by predetermining where, in spatial coordinates, a task-specific action should emerge and allows all motor elements, including the environment, to interact to deliver a unique action, thus solving the redundancy problem (natural selection of action). The EP theory predicts the existence of specific neurons associated with the control of different attributes of FRs and explains the role of mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus and place cells in the hippocampus. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 287-304 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.108 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Quantifying the impact of using Coronary Artery Calcium Score for risk categorization instead of Framingham Score or European Heart SCORE in lipid lowering algorithms in a Middle Eastern population.

    PubMed

    Isma'eel, Hussain A; Almedawar, Mohamad M; Harbieh, Bernard; Alajaji, Wissam; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hourani, Mukbil; El-Merhi, Fadi; Alam, Samir; Abchee, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The use of the Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) for risk categorization instead of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or European Heart SCORE (EHS) to improve classification of individuals is well documented. However, the impact of reclassifying individuals using CACS on initiating lipid lowering therapy is not well understood. We aimed to determine the percentage of individuals not requiring lipid lowering therapy as per the FRS and EHS models but are found to require it using CACS and vice versa; and to determine the level of agreement between CACS, FRS and EHS based models. Data was collected for 500 consecutive patients who had already undergone CACS. However, only 242 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Risk stratification comparisons were conducted according to CACS, FRS, and EHS, and the agreement (Kappa) between them was calculated. In accordance with the models, 79.7% to 81.5% of high-risk individuals were down-classified by CACS, while 6.8% to 7.6% of individuals at intermediate risk were up-classified to high risk by CACS, with slight to moderate agreement. Moreover, CACS recommended treatment to 5.7% and 5.8% of subjects untreated according to European and Canadian guidelines, respectively; whereas 75.2% to 81.2% of those treated in line with the guidelines would not be treated based on CACS. In this simulation, using CACS for risk categorization warrants lipid lowering treatment for 5-6% and spares 70-80% from treatment in accordance with the guidelines. Current strong evidence from double randomized clinical trials is in support of guideline recommendations. Our results call for a prospective trial to explore the benefits/risks of a CACS-based approach before any recommendations can be made.

  7. Case management to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease in a county health care system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Berra, Kathy; Haskell, William L; Klieman, Linda; Hyde, Shauna; Smith, Mark W; Xiao, Lan; Stafford, Randall S

    2009-11-23

    Case management (CM) is a systematic approach to supplement physician-centered efforts to prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD). Research is limited on its implementation and efficacy in low-income, ethnic minority populations. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to evaluate a nurse- and dietitian-led CM program for reducing major CVD risk factors in low-income, primarily ethnic minority patients in a county health care system, 63.0% of whom had type 2 diabetes mellitus. The primary outcome was the Framingham risk score (FRS). A total of 419 patients at elevated risk of CVD events were randomized and followed up for a mean of 16 months (81.4% retention). The mean FRS was significantly lower for the CM vs usual care group at follow-up (7.80 [95% confidence interval, 7.21-8.38] vs 8.93 [8.36-9.49]; P = .001) after adjusting for baseline FRS. This is equivalent to 5 fewer heart disease events per 1000 individuals per year attributable to the intervention or to 200 individuals receiving the intervention to prevent 1 event per year. The pattern of group differences in the FRS was similar in subgroups defined a priori by sex and ethnicity. The main driver of these differences was lowering the mean (SD) systolic (-4.2 [18.5] vs 2.6 [22.7] mm Hg; P = .003) and diastolic (-6.0 [11.6] vs -3.0 [11.7] mm Hg; P = .02) blood pressures for the CM vs usual care group. Nurse and dietitian CM targeting multifactor risk reduction can lead to modest improvements in CVD risk factors among high-risk patients in low-income, ethnic minority populations receiving care in county health clinics. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00128687.

  8. Quantifying the impact of using Coronary Artery Calcium Score for risk categorization instead of Framingham Score or European Heart SCORE in lipid lowering algorithms in a Middle Eastern population

    PubMed Central

    Isma’eel, Hussain A.; Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Harbieh, Bernard; Alajaji, Wissam; Al-Shaar, Laila; Hourani, Mukbil; El-Merhi, Fadi; Alam, Samir; Abchee, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of the Coronary Artery Calcium Score (CACS) for risk categorization instead of the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) or European Heart SCORE (EHS) to improve classification of individuals is well documented. However, the impact of reclassifying individuals using CACS on initiating lipid lowering therapy is not well understood. We aimed to determine the percentage of individuals not requiring lipid lowering therapy as per the FRS and EHS models but are found to require it using CACS and vice versa; and to determine the level of agreement between CACS, FRS and EHS based models. Methods Data was collected for 500 consecutive patients who had already undergone CACS. However, only 242 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Risk stratification comparisons were conducted according to CACS, FRS, and EHS, and the agreement (Kappa) between them was calculated. Results In accordance with the models, 79.7% to 81.5% of high-risk individuals were down-classified by CACS, while 6.8% to 7.6% of individuals at intermediate risk were up-classified to high risk by CACS, with slight to moderate agreement. Moreover, CACS recommended treatment to 5.7% and 5.8% of subjects untreated according to European and Canadian guidelines, respectively; whereas 75.2% to 81.2% of those treated in line with the guidelines would not be treated based on CACS. Conclusion In this simulation, using CACS for risk categorization warrants lipid lowering treatment for 5–6% and spares 70–80% from treatment in accordance with the guidelines. Current strong evidence from double randomized clinical trials is in support of guideline recommendations. Our results call for a prospective trial to explore the benefits/risks of a CACS-based approach before any recommendations can be made. PMID:26557741

  9. Down-regulation of the IbEXP1 gene enhanced storage root development in sweetpotato

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jung Myung

    2013-01-01

    The role of an expansin gene (IbEXP1) in the formation of the storage root (SR) was investigated by expression pattern analysis and characterization of IbEXP1-antisense sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas cv. Yulmi) plants in an attempt to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying SR development in sweetpotato. The transcript level of IbEXP1 was high in the fibrous root (FR) and petiole at the FR stage, but decreased significantly at the young storage root (YSR) stage. IbEXP1-antisense plants cultured in vitro produced FRs which were both thicker and shorter than those of wild-type (WT) plants. Elongation growth of the epidermal cells was significantly reduced, and metaxylem and cambium cell proliferation was markedly enhanced in the FRs of IbEXP1-antisense plants, resulting in an earlier thickening growth in these plants relative to WT plants. There was a marked reduction in the lignification of the central stele of the FRs of the IbEXP1-antisense plants, suggesting that the FRs of the mutant plants possessed a higher potential than those of WT plants to develop into SRs. IbEXP1-antisense plants cultured in soil produced a larger number of SRs and, consequently, total SR weight per IbEXP1-antisense plant was greater than that per WT plant. These results demonstrate that SR development was accelerated in IbEXP1-antisense plants and suggest that IbEXP1 plays a negative role in the formation of SR by suppressing the proliferation of metaxylem and cambium cells to inhibit the initial thickening growth of SRs. IbEXP1 is the first sweetpotato gene whose role in SR development has been directly identified in soil-grown transgenic sweetpotato plants. PMID:22945944

  10. Flame retardant emission from e-waste recycling operation in northern Vietnam: environmental occurrence of emerging organophosphorus esters used as alternatives for PBDEs.

    PubMed

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Suzuki, Go; Someya, Masayuki; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2015-05-01

    Three oligomeric organophosphorus flame retardants (o-PFRs), eight monomeric PFRs (m-PFRs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were identified and quantified in surface soils and river sediments around the e-waste recycling area in Bui Dau, northern Vietnam. Around the e-waste recycling workshops, 1,3-phenylene bis(diphenyl phosphate) (PBDPP), bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), TBBPA, and PBDEs were dominant among the investigated flame retardants (FRs). The respective concentrations of PBDPP, BPA-BDPP, TPHP, TBBPA and the total PBDEs were 6.6-14000 ng/g-dry, <2-1500 ng/g-dry, 11-3300 ng/g-dry, <5-2900 ng/g-dry, and 67-9200 ng/g-dry in surface soils, and 4.4-78 ng/g-dry, <2-20 ng/g-dry, 7.3-38 ng/g-dry, 6.0-44 ng/g-dry and 100-350 ng/g-dry in river sediments. Near the open burning site of e-waste, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP), (2-ethylhexyl)diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), TPHP, and the total PBDEs were abundantly with respective concentrations of <2-190 ng/g-dry, <2-69 ng/g-dry, <3-51 ng/g-dry and 1.7-67 ng/g-dry in surface soils. Open storage and burning of e-waste have been determined to be important factors contributing to the emissions of FRs. The environmental occurrence of emerging FRs, especially o-PFRs, indicates that the alternation of FRs addition in electronic products is shifting in response to domestic and international regulations of PBDEs. The emissions of alternatives from open storage and burning of e-waste might become greater than those of PBDEs in the following years. The presence and environmental effects of alternatives should be regarded as a risk factor along with e-waste recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste-water treatment plants are implicated as an important source of flame retardants in insectivorous tree swallows (Tachicyneta bicolor).

    PubMed

    Fernie, Kimberly J; Letcher, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an important source of anthropogenic chemicals, including organic flame retardants (FRs). Limited studies indicate birds can be exposed to FRs by feeding from waters receiving WWTP effluent or in fields receiving biosolids. Expanding on our earlier study, 47 legacy and 18 new FR contaminants were characterized in the eggs of insectivorous tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) feeding in water bodies receiving effluent from two WWTPs and compared to those from a reference site 19 km downstream of the nearest WWTP. Of the FRs measured, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) dominated the FR profile, specifically BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, with considerably lower concentrations of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), BDE-183 and BDE-209; each detected in 96-100% of the eggs overall except HBCDD (83%). FR concentrations were usually significantly greater in eggs from the secondary WWTP versus the tertiary WWTP and/or reference site. Despite low detection rates, concentrations of new FRs, specifically pentabromobenzyl acrylate (PBBA), 1,2,-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate (BEHTBP), tetrabromo-o-chlorotoluene (TBCT), hexabromobenzene (HBB), α- and β-1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)-cyclohexane (DBE-DBCH), were greater than HBCDD or BDE-209. Additional evidence that WWTPs are an important source of exposure to new FR contaminants for birds utilizing associated water bodies is that only the WTTP eggs, not the reference eggs, had measureable concentrations of PBBA, TBCT, BEHTBP, HBB, α-DBE-DBCH, 2,2',4,5,5'-pentabromobiphenyl (BB-101), pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB), 2,4,6-tribromophenyl allyl ether (TBPAE), and tetrabromo-p-xylene (pTBX). Our study suggests that WWTPs are an important source of legacy and new FR contaminants for birds consuming prey that are associated with WWTP out-flows. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Boehringer Ingelheim employee study (Part 2): 10-year cardiovascular diseases risk estimation.

    PubMed

    Kempf, K; Martin, S; Döhring, C; Dugi, K; Haastert, B; Schneider, M

    2016-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may cause an economic burden to companies, but CVD risk estimations specific to working populations are lacking. To estimate the 10-year CVD risk in the Boehringer Ingelheim (BI) employee cohort and analyse the potential effect of hypothetical risk reduction interventions. We estimated CVD risk using the Framingham (FRS), PROCAM (PRS) and Reynolds (RRS) risk scores, using cross-sectional baseline data on BI Pharma employees collected from 2005 to 2011. Results were compared using Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon tests. The predictive ability of the score estimates was assessed using receiver-operating characteristics analyses. Among the 4005 study subjects, we estimated 10-year CVD risks of 35% (FRS), 9% (PRS) and 6% (RRS) for men and 10% (FRS), 4% (PRS) and 1% (RRS) for women. One hundred and thirty-four (6%) men and 111 (6%) women employees had current CVD. The best predictors of prevalent CVD were the FRS and the RRS for men [area-under-the-curve 0.62 (0.57-0.67) for both]. A hypothetical intervention that would improve systolic blood pressure, HbA1c (for diabetes), C-reactive protein, triglycerides and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 10% each would potentially reduce expected CVD cases by 36-41% in men and 30-45% in women, and if smoking cessation is incorporated, by 39-45% and 30-55%, respectively, depending on the pre-intervention risk score. There was a substantial risk of developing CVD in this working cohort. Occupational health programmes with lifestyle interventions for high-risk individuals may be an effective risk reduction measure. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. FRS Download Summary and Data Element Dictionary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ECHO, Enforcement and Compliance History Online, provides compliance and enforcement information for approximately 800,000 EPA-regulated facilities nationwide. ECHO includes permit, inspection, violation, enforcement action, and penalty information about facilities regulated under the Clean Air Act (CAA) Stationary Source Program, Clean Water Act (CWA) National Pollutant Elimination Discharge System (NPDES), and/or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Information also is provided on surrounding demographics when available.

  14. Environmental Impact of Flame Retardants (Persistence and Biodegradability)

    PubMed Central

    Segev, Osnat; Kushmaro, Ariel; Brenner, Asher

    2009-01-01

    Flame-retardants (FR) are a group of anthropogenic environmental contaminants used at relatively high concentrations in many applications. Currently, the largest market group of FRs is the brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Many of the BFRs are considered toxic, persistent and bioaccumulative. Bioremediation of contaminated water, soil and sediments is a possible solution for the problem. However, the main problem with this approach is the lack of knowledge concerning appropriate microorganisms, biochemical pathways and operational conditions facilitating degradation of these chemicals at an acceptable rate. This paper reviews and discusses current knowledge and recent developments related to the environmental fate and impact of FRs in natural systems and in engineered treatment processes. PMID:19440395

  15. Reduction of the uncertainty of the PTB vacuum pressure scale by a new large area non-rotating piston gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Th; Ahrendt, H.; Jousten, K.

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes the metrological characterization of a new large area piston gauge (FRS5, Furness Rosenberg Standard) installed at the vacuum metrology laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The operational procedure and the uncertainty budget for pressures between 30 Pa and 11 kPa are given. Comparisons between the FRS5 and a mercury manometer, a rotary piston gauge and a force-balanced piston gauge are described. We show that the reproducibility of the calibration values of capacitance diaphragm gauges is enhanced by a factor of 6 compared with a static expansion primary standard (SE2). Improvements of the SE2 performance by reducing the number of expansions and smaller uncertainties of expansion ratios are discussed.

  16. Supercooling as a Viable Non-Freezing Cell Preservation Method of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Usta, O. Berk; Kim, Yeonhee; Ozer, Sinan; Bruinsma, Bote G.; Lee, Jungwoo; Demir, Esin; Berendsen, Tim A.; Puts, Catheleyne F.; Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Uygun, Korkut; Uygun, Basak E.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2013-01-01

    Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4oC) on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics) to that of static cold storage (CS at +4oC) and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a) Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS) and b) University of Wisconsin solution (UW) and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 oC). We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4oC) for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture). With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%); moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells) with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells) performed in cryovials. PMID:23874947

  17. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    PubMed Central

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  18. Validity and test-retest reliability in assessing current body size with figure drawings in Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wing-Sze; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Bonny Yee-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2011-06-01

    The reliability and validity of Stunkard's Figure Rating Scale (FRS) as a measure of current body size (CBS) was established in Western adolescent girls but not in non-Western population. We examined the validity and test-retest reliability of Stunkard's FRS in assessing CBS among Chinese adolescents. Methods. In a school-based survey in Hong Kong, 5666 adolescents (boys: 45.1%; mean age 14.7 years) provided data on self-reported height and weight, CBS, perceived weight status, and health-related quality of life using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form version 2 (SF-12v2). Height and weight were also objectively measured. Spearman's correlation was used to assess construct validity, concurrent validity and test-retest reliability. Convergent and discriminant validity were good: CBS correlated strongly with weight and self-reported/measured BMI, but only weakly with SF-12v2. CBS correlated strongly with perceived weight status, showing concurrent validity. Spearman's correlation (r) for CBS was 0.78 for girls and 0.72 for boys indicating good test-retest reliability. Validity and reliability results did not differ significantly between senior and junior grade adolescents. Our findings support the use of Stunkard's FRS to measure body size among Chinese adolescents.

  19. Fgfr1 regulates development through the combinatorial use of signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Brewer, J Richard; Molotkov, Andrei; Mazot, Pierre; Hoch, Renée V; Soriano, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) signaling governs multiple processes important in development and disease. Many lines of evidence have implicated Erk1/2 signaling induced through Frs2 as the predominant effector pathway downstream from Fgf receptors (Fgfrs), but these receptors can also signal through other mechanisms. To explore the functional significance of the full range of signaling downstream from Fgfrs in mice, we engineered an allelic series of knock-in point mutations designed to disrupt Fgfr1 signaling functions individually and in combination. Analysis of each mutant indicates that Frs2 binding to Fgfr1 has the most pleiotropic functions in development but also that the receptor uses multiple proteins additively in vivo. In addition to Frs2, Crk proteins and Plcγ also contribute to Erk1/2 activation, affecting axis elongation and craniofacial and limb development and providing a biochemical mechanism for additive signaling requirements. Disruption of all known signaling functions diminished Erk1/2 and Plcγ activation but did not recapitulate the peri-implantation Fgfr1-null phenotype. This suggests that Erk1/2-independent signaling pathways are functionally important for Fgf signaling in vivo. © 2015 Brewer et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Structures of human folate receptors reveal biological trafficking states and diversity in folate and antifolate recognition.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Ardian S; Singh, Mirage; Reeder, Kristen M; Carter, Joshua J; Kovach, Alexander R; Meng, Wuyi; Ratnam, Manohar; Zhang, Faming; Dann, Charles E

    2013-09-17

    Antifolates, folate analogs that inhibit vitamin B9 (folic acid)-using cellular enzymes, have been used over several decades for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases. Cellular uptake of the antifolates in clinical use occurs primarily via widely expressed facilitative membrane transporters. More recently, human folate receptors (FRs), high affinity receptors that transport folate via endocytosis, have been proposed as targets for the specific delivery of new classes of antifolates or folate conjugates to tumors or sites of inflammation. The development of specific, FR-targeted antifolates would be accelerated if additional biophysical data, particularly structural models of the receptors, were available. Here we describe six distinct crystallographic models that provide insight into biological trafficking of FRs and distinct binding modes of folate and antifolates to these receptors. From comparison of the structures, we delineate discrete structural conformations representative of key stages in the endocytic trafficking of FRs and propose models for pH-dependent conformational changes. Additionally, we describe the molecular details of human FR in complex with three clinically prevalent antifolates, pemetrexed (also Alimta), aminopterin, and methotrexate. On the whole, our data form the basis for rapid design and implementation of unique, FR-targeted, folate-based drugs for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  1. High-Throughput, Protein-Targeted Biomolecular Detection Using Frequency-Domain Faraday Rotation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Richard J; Putnam, Shawn A; Das, Soumen; Gupta, Ankur; Chase, Elyse D Z; Seal, Sudipta

    2017-03-01

    A clinically relevant magneto-optical technique (fd-FRS, frequency-domain Faraday rotation spectroscopy) for characterizing proteins using antibody-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is demonstrated. This technique distinguishes between the Faraday rotation of the solvent, iron oxide core, and functionalization layers of polyethylene glycol polymers (spacer) and model antibody-antigen complexes (anti-BSA/BSA, bovine serum albumin). A detection sensitivity of ≈10 pg mL -1 and broad detection range of 10 pg mL -1 ≲ c BSA ≲ 100 µg mL -1 are observed. Combining this technique with predictive analyte binding models quantifies (within an order of magnitude) the number of active binding sites on functionalized MNPs. Comparative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies are conducted, reproducing the manufacturer advertised BSA ELISA detection limits from 1 ng mL -1 ≲ c BSA ≲ 500 ng mL -1 . In addition to the increased sensitivity, broader detection range, and similar specificity, fd-FRS can be conducted in less than ≈30 min, compared to ≈4 h with ELISA. Thus, fd-FRS is shown to be a sensitive optical technique with potential to become an efficient diagnostic in the chemical and biomolecular sciences. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A comparison of live counseling with a web-based lifestyle and medication intervention to reduce coronary heart disease risk: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Keyserling, Thomas C; Sheridan, Stacey L; Draeger, Lindy B; Finkelstein, Eric A; Gizlice, Ziya; Kruger, Eliza; Johnston, Larry F; Sloane, Philip D; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Evenson, Kelly R; Gross, Myron D; Donahue, Katrina E; Pignone, Michael P; Vu, Maihan B; Steinbacher, Erika A; Weiner, Bryan J; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-07-01

    Most primary care clinicians lack the skills and resources to offer effective lifestyle and medication (L&M) counseling to reduce coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. Thus, effective and feasible CHD prevention programs are needed for typical practice settings. To assess the effectiveness, acceptability, and cost-effectiveness of a combined L&M intervention to reduce CHD risk offered in counselor-delivered and web-based formats. A comparative effectiveness trial in 5 diverse family medicine practices in North Carolina. Participants were established patients, aged 35 to 79 years, with no known cardiovascular disease, and at moderate to high risk for CHD (10-year Framingham Risk Score [FRS], ≥10%). Participants were randomized to counselor-delivered or web-based format, each including 4 intensive and 3 maintenance sessions. After randomization, both formats used a web-based decision aid showing potential CHD risk reduction associated with L&M risk-reducing strategies. Participants chose the risk-reducing strategies they wished to follow. The primary outcome was within-group change in FRS at 4-month follow-up. Other measures included standardized assessments of blood pressure, blood lipid levels, lifestyle behaviors, and medication adherence. Acceptability and cost-effectiveness were also assessed. Outcomes were assessed at 4 and 12 months. Of 2274 screened patients, 385 were randomized (192 counselor; 193 web): mean age, 62 years; 24% African American; and mean FRS, 16.9%. Follow-up at 4 and 12 months included 91% and 87% of the randomized participants, respectively. There was a sustained reduction in FRS at both 4 months (primary outcome) and 12 months for both counselor-based (-2.3% [95% CI, -3.0% to -1.6%] and -1.9% [95% CI, -2.8% to -1.1%], respectively) and web-based groups (-1.5% [95% CI, -2.2% to -0.9%] and -1.7% [95% CI, -2.6% to -0.8%] respectively). At 4 months, the adjusted difference in FRS between groups was -1.0% (95% CI, -1.8% to -0.1%) (P = .03

  3. R. A. Fisher, Lancelot Hogben, and the ‘Competition’ for the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics in 1930: Correcting the Legend

    PubMed Central

    Tabery, James; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2015-01-01

    From 1930 to 1937 Lancelot Hogben FRS occupied the Chair of Social Biology at the London School of Economics and Political Science. According to standard histories of this appointment, he and R. A. Fisher FRS both applied for the position, but Hogben was selected over Fisher. The episode has received attention in large part because of the later prominence of the two figures involved. The surviving archival records, however, tell a remarkably different story. Neither Fisher nor Hogben was ever an official candidate for the chair. Indeed, Fisher seems not to have applied for the position at all, and Hogben was approached only behind the scenes of the official search. The purpose of this paper is to correct and complete the history of this episode. PMID:26665489

  4. Development of a fuel-rod simulator and small-diameter thermocouples for high-temperature, high-heat-flux tests in the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor Core Flow Test Loop

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    McCulloch, R.W.; MacPherson, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop was constructed to perform many of the safety, core design, and mechanical interaction tests in support of the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) using electrically heated fuel rod simulators (FRSs). Operation includes many off-normal or postulated accident sequences including transient, high-power, and high-temperature operation. The FRS was developed to survive: (1) hundreds of hours of operation at 200 W/cm/sup 2/, 1000/sup 0/C cladding temperature, and (2) 40 h at 40 W/cm/sup 2/, 1200/sup 0/C cladding temperature. Six 0.5-mm type K sheathed thermocouples were placed inside the FRS cladding to measure steady-state and transient temperatures through cladmore » melting at 1370/sup 0/C.« less

  5. Annotated checklist of Georgia birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beaton, G.; Sykes, P.W.; Parrish, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    This edition of the checklist includes 446 species, of which 407 are on the Regular Species List, 8 on the Provisional, and 31 on the Hypothetical. This new publication has been greatly expanded and much revised over the previous checklist (GOS Occasional Publ. No. 10, 1986, 48 pp., 6x9 inches) to a 7x10-inch format with an extensive Literature Cited section added, 22 species added to the Regular List, 2 to the Provisional List, and 9 to the Hypothetical List. Each species account is much more comprehensive over all previous editions of the checklist. Among some of the new features are citations for sources of most information used, high counts of individuals for each species on the Regular List, extreme dates of occurrence within physiographic regions, a list of abbreviations and acronyms, and for each species the highest form of verifiable documentation given with its repository institution with a catalog number. This checklist is helpful for anyone working with birds in the Southeastern United States or birding in that region. Sykes' contribution to this fifth edition of the Annotated Checklist of Georgia Birds includes: suggestion of the large format and spiral binding, use of Richard A. Parks' painting of the Barn Owl on the front cover, use of literature citations throughout, and inclusion of high counts for each species. Sykes helped plan all phases of the publication, wrote about 90% of the Introduction and 84 species accounts (Osprey through Red Phalarope), designed the four maps in the introduction section and format for the Literature Cited, and with Giff Beaton designed the layout of the title page.

  6. 75 FR 69988 - Privacy Act of 1974; Computer Matching Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... Administration (GSA) for inclusion in GSA's List of Parties Excluded from Federal Procurements and Nonprocurement... (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can obtain this document in an...

  7. Unusual collateral vessel from right subclavian vein to left atrium, a rare complication of superior vena cava obstruction.

    PubMed

    Parsaee, Mozhgan; Pouraliakbar, Hamidreza; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Moosavi, Jamal; Behjati, Mohaddeseh

    2018-06-10

    The most commonly reported collateral systems in the setting of superior vena cava obstruction are azygos venous system, vertebral venous system, external and internal thoracic venous system based on McLntire and Sykes classification. A 49-year-old female with renal disease complained dyspnea on exertion. Transesophageal echocardiography showed significant mitral annular calcification, large multi-lobulated mass at posterior aspect of RA, and complete obstruction of superior vena cava by thrombus formation. Computed tomography angiography showed a collateral vein to the left atrium (LA) roof. This case report is the first one which shows development of collateral vein from right subclavian to LA. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Communication development of a young child with foetal retinoid syndrome: a seven-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kritzinger, Alta; Steenkamp, Lizanne

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the article is to describe the communication development of a child with Fetal Retinoid syndrome (FRS) from six months to seven years of age. Little is known about this rare acquired syndrome and its long-term implications, especially on a child's communication development. A descriptive, ex post facto research design was used to study the participant's communication development from 1996 when the family enrolled in an early communication intervention programme. Annual serial assessments of the participant and her family were conducted and the data were stored in a research database after each assessment. The results are described according to a 4-level assessment framework and indicated consistent, but moderate to minor delays in the participant's communication development with a mild hearing loss in the right ear, associated with ear anomalies. Although prenatal exposure to isotretinoin may have serious effects on the unborn fetus and even cause death, the participant did not display all the symptoms of FRS described in the literature. The favorable family circumstances, early commencement of intervention, and supporting early educational environments were protecting factors that could have contributed positively to the participant's communication development. The importance of knowledge accumulation about rare syndromes such as FRS in Communication Pathology and Audiology is discussed and guidelines for early identification, assessment and treatment applicable to the case are proposed as an intervention option.

  9. Stochastic and information-thermodynamic structures of population dynamics in a fluctuating environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Sughiyama, Yuki

    2017-07-01

    Adaptation in a fluctuating environment is a process of fueling environmental information to gain fitness. Living systems have gradually developed strategies for adaptation from random and passive diversification of the phenotype to more proactive decision making, in which environmental information is sensed and exploited more actively and effectively. Understanding the fundamental relation between fitness and information is therefore crucial to clarify the limits and universal properties of adaptation. In this work, we elucidate the underlying stochastic and information-thermodynamic structure in this process, by deriving causal fluctuation relations (FRs) of fitness and information. Combined with a duality between phenotypic and environmental dynamics, the FRs reveal the limit of fitness gain, the relation of time reversibility with the achievability of the limit, and the possibility and condition for gaining excess fitness due to environmental fluctuation. The loss of fitness due to causal constraints and the limited capacity of real organisms is shown to be the difference between time-forward and time-backward path probabilities of phenotypic and environmental dynamics. Furthermore, the FRs generalize the concept of the evolutionary stable state (ESS) for fluctuating environment by giving the probability that the optimal strategy on average can be invaded by a suboptimal one owing to rare environmental fluctuation. These results clarify the information-thermodynamic structures in adaptation and evolution.

  10. A pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy with a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhengze; Ge, Yegang; Sun, Qiaoqiao; Pan, Wei; Wan, Xiuyan; Li, Na; Tang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    Tumor-specific targeting based on folic acid (FA) is one of the most common and significant approaches in cancer therapy. However, the expression of folate receptors (FRs) in normal tissues will lead to unexpected targeting and unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. To address this issue, we develop a pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite, which can be triggered in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The DNA/upconversion nanocomposite is composed of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), the surface of which is modified using FA and chlorin e6 (Ce6) functionalized DNA sequences with different lengths. Initially, FA on the shorter DNA was protected by a longer DNA to prevent the bonding to FRs on normal cells. Once reaching the acidic tumor microenvironment, C base-rich longer DNA forms a C-quadruplex, resulting in the exposure of the FA groups and the bonding of FA and FRs on cancer cell membranes to achieve precise targeting. Simultaneously, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) gets close to the surface of UCNPs, enabling the excitation of Ce6 to generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) under near infrared light via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In vivo experiments indicated that higher tumor targeting efficiency was achieved and the tumor growth was greatly inhibited through the pre-protective strategy.

  11. Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Garbett, Nichola C.; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S.; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modifications underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article. PMID:25448297

  12. Anaphylaxis to foods in a population of adolescents: incidence, characteristics and associated risks.

    PubMed

    Vetander, M; Protudjer, J L P; Lilja, G; Kull, I; Hedlin, G; van Hage, M; Östblom, E; Bergström, A; Wickman, M

    2016-12-01

    Information about severe reactions to foods in adolescence is limited. To describe reactions to foods, including anaphylaxis, with regard to incidence, characteristics and associated risks, among 16-year-olds (adolescents) in a large, population-based birth cohort. Parent-reported questionnaire data from ages 2-3 months, and 1, 2 and 16 years were used (N = 3153). Anaphylaxis at age 16 years was defined per NIAID/FAAN criteria. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to 14 common food and inhalant allergens were analysed at ages 4 (n = 2283) and 16 years (n = 2510). Among adolescents with food-related symptoms (FRS) and for whom blood was available (n = 221), 25 additional food allergen extracts or allergen components were analysed. Associations between reactions to foods, and sensitization and allergic multimorbidity were investigated. In the 12 months prior to the 16-year assessment, 8.5% of adolescents had FRS. This included 0.8% (n = 24) adolescents who were classified as having anaphylaxis, yielding an incidence rate of 761/100 000 person-years. One-third of adolescents accessed health care during anaphylaxis. Allergic multimorbidity in infancy, as well as sensitization to foods and airborne allergens at age 4 years, was associated with an increased risk for FRS in adolescence. Peanuts and tree nuts were the most common culprit foods for anaphylaxis, and fruits and vegetables for non-anaphylactic reactions. Adolescents with anaphylaxis were significantly more likely to be sensitized to storage proteins (Ara h 2, Cor a 9, Cor a 14) and to be polysensitized to foods (P < 0.001 vs. non-anaphylactic reactions). The incidence of food-induced anaphylaxis during adolescence in our population-based birth cohort is higher than previously reported. Adolescents with anaphylaxis differ from adolescents with non-anaphylactic FRS with regard to culprit foods and sensitization. Adolescents with previous anaphylaxis are likely to be polysensitized to foods

  13. Association of Risk Estimates of Three Different Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Tools with Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Herath, Herath Mudiyanselage Meththananda; Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Dulanjalee, Ranasinghe Bethmi Arachige Thilini; Jayawardana, Madumekala Rupasinghe; Edirisingha, Udara Priyadarshani; Rathnayake, Madushanka

    2016-07-01

    Risk assessment tools used to calculate the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes study (UKPDS) risk engine and the World Health Organization (WHO) risk score have not been tested on their ability to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in most developing countries. To study the association between the calculated CVD risk scores using each of these tools and Carotid Intima Medial Thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in a group of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Sri Lanka. We calculated CVD risk scores of 68 randomly selected patients with T2DM with no history or symptoms of CVD and measured their CIMT using B-mode ultrasonography (USS). Carotid USS was considered positive when the maximum carotid IMT was 0.9mm or when arteriosclerotic plaques were detected. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the FRS, the UKPDS risk engine and the WHO risk score. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between CVD risk scores with CIMT. Of the 68 patients studied, 50% were males and their mean age (SD) was 56.9 (±9.6) years. The mean age at onset and duration of diabetes were 44.3(±9.1) and 12.2(±7.6) years respectively. Of the scoring methods, UKPDS tool had weak, but significantly positive (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) and FRS had positive but not significant association (r= 0. 21) with CIMT. There was a negative association between CIMT and WHO risk score (r= - 0.07). Of the three CVD risk assessment tools, both UKPDS risk engine and FRS have almost equal ability (former being marginally superior) in predicting underlying atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with T2DM. Negative association of the WHO risk score with CIMT argues against its utility for CVD screening. These findings highlight the need for developing more sensitive and reliable CVD risk assessment tools for developing countries.

  14. Association of Risk Estimates of Three Different Cardiovascular Risk Assessment Tools with Carotid Intima Media Thickness in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Weerarathna, Thilak Priyantha; Dulanjalee, Ranasinghe Bethmi Arachige Thilini; Jayawardana, Madumekala Rupasinghe; Edirisingha, Udara Priyadarshani; Rathnayake, Madushanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Risk assessment tools used to calculate the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk such as the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes study (UKPDS) risk engine and the World Health Organization (WHO) risk score have not been tested on their ability to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in most developing countries. Aim To study the association between the calculated CVD risk scores using each of these tools and Carotid Intima Medial Thickness (CIMT), a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, in a group of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Sri Lanka. Materials and Methods We calculated CVD risk scores of 68 randomly selected patients with T2DM with no history or symptoms of CVD and measured their CIMT using B-mode ultrasonography (USS). Carotid USS was considered positive when the maximum carotid IMT was 0.9mm or when arteriosclerotic plaques were detected. The 10-year CVD risk was calculated using the FRS, the UKPDS risk engine and the WHO risk score. Pearson correlation was used to study the association between CVD risk scores with CIMT. Results Of the 68 patients studied, 50% were males and their mean age (SD) was 56.9 (±9.6) years. The mean age at onset and duration of diabetes were 44.3(±9.1) and 12.2(±7.6) years respectively. Of the scoring methods, UKPDS tool had weak, but significantly positive (r = 0.26, p < 0.05) and FRS had positive but not significant association (r= 0. 21) with CIMT. There was a negative association between CIMT and WHO risk score (r= - 0.07). Conclusion Of the three CVD risk assessment tools, both UKPDS risk engine and FRS have almost equal ability (former being marginally superior) in predicting underlying atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with T2DM. Negative association of the WHO risk score with CIMT argues against its utility for CVD screening. These findings highlight the need for developing more sensitive and reliable CVD risk assessment tools for developing countries. PMID

  15. Folic acid-functionalized up-conversion nanoparticles: toxicity studies in vivo and in vitro and targeted imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lining; Wei, Zuwu; Chen, Haige; Liu, Jinliang; Guo, Jianjian; Cao, Ming; Wen, Tieqiao; Shi, Liyi

    2014-07-01

    Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents.Folate receptors (FRs) are overexpressed on a variety of human cancer cells and tissues, including cancers of the breast, ovaries, endometrium, and brain. This over-expression of FRs can be used to target folate-linked imaging specifically to FR-expressing tumors. Fluorescence is emerging as a powerful new modality for molecular imaging in both the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Combining innovative molecular biology and chemistry, we prepared three kinds of folate-targeted up-conversion nanoparticles as imaging agents (UCNC-FA: UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm-FA, and UCNC-Er,Tm-FA). In vivo and in vitro toxicity studies showed that these nanoparticles have both good biocompatibility and low toxicity. Moreover, the up-conversion luminescence imaging indicated that they have good targeting to HeLa cells and can therefore serve as potential fluorescent contrast agents. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Up-conversion luminescence spectra of UCNC-Er and UCNC-Er-FA, UCNC-Tm and UCNC-Tm-FA. Confocal luminescence imaging data collected as a series along the Z optical axis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02312a

  16. Impaired Lipid Profile is a Risk Factor for the Development of Sexual Dysfunction in Women.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Maurizio; Alvisi, Stefania; Mancini, Ilaria; Moscatiello, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Seracchioli, Renato; Meriggiola, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a common risk factor for cardiovascular disease which may contribute to sexual dysfunction in women. To assess the impact of dyslipidemia compared with other metabolic alterations on female sexual function. In total, 466 women were enrolled in the study, of which 256 were postmenopausal. Dyslipidemia was defined based on high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides levels. Women completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS), and the Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire (MHQ). Biochemical and anthropometric measurements were performed and the Framingham risk score (FRS) was calculated for each subject. FSFI, FSDS, and MHQ scores, prevalence of FSD and FRS. Median age of the population enrolled was 51.5 (range 42.0-58.0) years. The overall prevalence of FSD, according to FSFI and FSDS scores, was 24%. A significantly higher prevalence of FSFI (P = .001) and FSDS (P = .006) pathological scores were found in women with dyslipidemia compared with the control group. The prevalence of FSD was significantly higher in dyslipidemic women (P = .001). Women with dyslipidemia had significantly higher total scores in areas of depression, somatization, and obsession in the MHQ questionnaire compared with control women. Multivariate analysis showed that dyslipidemia (OR:1.7, CI 1.1-2.9, P = .037), postmenopausal status (OR:2.7, CI 1.5-4.7, P = .001), higher education (OR:0.6; CI 0.3-0.9, P = .038), and somatization (OR:1.7, CI 1.0-2.8, P = .045) were independently associated with FSD. The FRS was higher in dyslipidemic women (P = .001) and in those with FSD (P = .001), being associated with an almost doubled risk of developing FSD. Our results indicate that dyslipidemia is an independent risk factor for FSD irrespective of postmenopausal status. Also, psychopathological alterations such as somatization are strongly associated with sexual dysfunction. The direct correlation between FSFI score and FRS

  17. Recent Abacavir Use Increases Risk of Type 1 and Type 2 Myocardial Infarctions Among Adults With HIV.

    PubMed

    Elion, Richard A; Althoff, Keri N; Zhang, Jinbing; Moore, Richard D; Gange, Stephen J; Kitahata, Mari M; Crane, Heidi M; Drozd, Daniel R; Stein, James H; Klein, Marina B; Eron, Joseph J; Silverberg, Michael J; Mathews, William C; Justice, Amy C; Sterling, Timothy R; Rabkin, Charles S; Mayor, Angel M; Klein, Daniel B; Horberg, Michael A; Bosch, Ronald J; Eyawo, Oghenowede; Palella, Frank J

    2018-05-01

    There is persistent confusion as to whether abacavir (ABC) increases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI), and whether such risk differs by type 1 (T1MI) or 2 (T2MI) MI in adults with HIV. Incident MIs in North American Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design participants were identified from 2001 to 2013. Discrete time marginal structural models addressed channeling biases and time-dependent confounding to estimate crude hazard ratio (HR) and adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% confidence intervals; analyses were performed for T1MI and T2MI separately. A sensitivity analysis evaluated whether Framingham risk score (FRS) modified the effect of ABC on MI occurrence. Eight thousand two hundred sixty-five adults who initiated antiretroviral therapy contributed 29,077 person-years and 123 MI events (65 T1MI and 58 T2MI). Median follow-up time was 2.9 (interquartile range 1.4-5.1) years. ABC initiators were more likely to have a history of injection drug use, hepatitis C virus infection, hypertension, diabetes, impaired kidney function, hyperlipidemia, low (<200 cells/mm) CD4 counts, and a history of AIDS. The risk of the combined MI outcome was greater for persons who used ABC in the previous 6 months [aHR = 1.84 (1.17-2.91)]; and persisted for T1MI (aHR = 1.62 [1.01]) and T2MI [aHR = 2.11 (1.08-4.29)]. FRS did not modify the effect of ABC on MI (P = 0.14) and inclusion of FRS in the MSM did not diminish the effect of recent ABC use on the combined outcome. Recent ABC use was associated with MI after adjustment for known risk factors and for FRS. However, screening for T1MI risks may not identify all or even most persons at risk of ABC use-associated MIs.

  18. Antioxidant Properties of Fractions for Unripe Fruits of Capsicum annuum L. var. Conoides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yi; Yen, Ching-Yu; Shen, Gao-Mai; Yu, Tzu-Jung; Liao, Yi-Shin; Jian, Ru-In; Wang, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jen-Yang; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2018-02-07

    Capsicum plant, especially for C. annuum, is an abundant resource for bioactive antioxidants, but few studies have examined the unripe fruit part of the Capsicum plant. MeOH extract of unripe fruits of C. annuum L. var. conoides (UFCA) was chromatographed over a silica gel column using a gradient of CH2Cl2/MeOH as eluent to produce 9 fractions. Antioxidant activities are evaluated along with cell viabilities of 9 fractions of UFCA. The antioxidant properties were analyzed in terms of total phenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, 2,2-azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, ferric reducing, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. The cell viability of human oral cancer cells (Ca9-22) was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2- (4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay. Except for TFC, fractions (Frs.) 1 and 2 showed the lowest level of these antioxidant properties. Frs. 3 to 9 showed dose-responsive induction for antioxidant effects. Fr. 8 and Fr. 5 respectively showed the highest levels of TPC and TFC for 1162 ± 11 gallic acid equivalents (GAE) (mg)/UFCA (g) and 1295 ± 32 quercetin equivalents (QCE) (mg)/UFCA (g). The cell viability of Fr. 3 was moderately decreased (78.2%) while those of Frs. 4, 5, and 9 were dramatically decreased (55.6, 57.8, and 46.8%, respectively) in oral cancer Ca9-22 cells. UFCA-derived 14 compounds/mixtures derived from Frs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 displayed differential antioxidant performance for these analyses. Taken together, fractions of UFCA displayed diverse antioxidant and anticancer effects for oral cancer cells. Some fractions of UFCA may be potent natural antioxidant supplements for antioral cancer cell treatment. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Different scoring systems to predict 6-week mortality in cirrhosis patients with acute variceal bleeding: a retrospective analysis of 202 patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Cui, Shu; Wang, Fengmei; Li, Fenghui; Tang, Fei; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Yanying; Lv, Hongmin

    2018-06-17

    Determine the optimal scoring system for evaluation of 6-week bleeding-related mortality in liver cirrhosis patients with acute variceal bleeding (AVB). Prediction effects of six scoring systems, AIMS65 score, Glasgow-Blatchford (GBS) score, full Rockall (FRS) score, the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), the MELD-Na model and the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score were analyzed in this study. A total of 202 liver cirrhosis patients with AVB were enrolled between 1 January 2014, and 31 December 2014. All subjects were scored according to AIMS65, GBS, FRS, MELD, MELD-Na and CTP scoring systems on the first day of admission. The primary endpoint of the study was 6-week mortality. The prediction effect of these scoring systems for 6-week mortality was compared by ROC curve and the area under the curve (AUC). The scores of nonsurvival group evaluated by the AIMS65, GBS, FRS, MELD, MELD-Na and CTP (2.6 ± 1.1, 12.9 ± 2.7, 6.6 ± 1.8, 26.9 ± 6.5, 31.6 ± 9.3, 9.6 ± 2.2, respectively) were higher than those of the survival group (1.2 ± 1.1, 10.2 ± 3.4, 5.1 ± 1.6, 21.0 ± 6.4, 22.8 ± 8.2, 7.7 ± 2.0, respectively) (p < .01). The values of AUC and Youden index of AIMS65 and MELD-Na scoring systems [(0.808, 0.453) and (0.781, 0.516), respectively] were superior to those of MELD (0.761, 0.454), CTP (0.748, 0.399), FRS (0.738, 0.358) and GBS scoring systems (0.726, 0.370). AIMS65 and MELD-Na scoring systems are recommended for evaluation of 6-week bleeding-related mortality in liver cirrhosis patients with AVB.

  20. Results from Screening Polyurethane Foam Based Consumer Products for Flame Retardant Chemicals: Assessing Impacts on the Change in the Furniture Flammability Standards

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Flame retardant (FR) chemicals have often been added to polyurethane foam to meet required state and federal flammability standards. However, some FRs (e.g., PBDEs and TDCIPP) are associated with health hazards and are now restricted from use in some regions. In addition, California’s residential furniture flammability standard (TB-117) has undergone significant amendments over the past few years, and TDCIPP has been added to California’s Proposition 65 list. These events have likely led to shifts in the types of FRs used, and the products to which they are applied. To provide more information on the use of FRs in products containing polyurethane foam (PUF), we established a screening service for the general public. Participants residing in the US were allowed to submit up to 5 samples from their household for analysis, free of charge, and supplied information on the product category, labeling, and year and state of purchase. Between February 2014 and June 2016, we received 1141 PUF samples for analysis from various products including sofas, chairs, mattresses, car seats and pillows. Of these samples tested, 52% contained a FR at levels greater than 1% by weight. Tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) was the most common FR detected in PUF samples, and was the most common FR detected in all product categories. Analysis of the data by purchasing date suggests that the use of TDCIPP decreased in recent years, paralleled with an increase in the use of TCIPP and a nonhalogenated aryl phosphate mixture we call “TBPP.” In addition, we observed significant decreases in FR applications in furniture products and child car seats, suggesting the use of additive FRs in PUF may be declining, perhaps as a reflection of recent changes to TB-117 and Proposition 65. More studies are needed to determine how these changes in FR use relate to changes in exposure among the general population. PMID:27552529

  1. Brominated flame retardants and Dechloranes in European and American eels from glass to silver life stages.

    PubMed

    Sühring, Roxana; Byer, Jonathan; Freese, Marko; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Möller, Axel; Hodson, Peter V; Alaee, Mehran; Hanel, Reinhold; Ebinghaus, Ralf

    2014-12-01

    The populations of American (Anguilla rostrata) and European eels (Anguilla anguilla) have been declining rapidly in the last decades. Organic contaminants are suspected to be one of the possible causes for the decline; however, so far there have been few investigations of the uptake of specific compounds by different life cycle stages (e.g. freshwater or marine stage) and how the contamination patterns develop throughout the eel's life cycle. In the present study we measured concentrations of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), alternate brominated flame retardants (alternate BFRs) and Dechloranes (Decs) in different life stages of European and American eels to compare the contamination patterns and their development throughout the eel's life cycle. In general, concentrations of flame retardants (FRs) were similar to or higher in American than in European eels, and a greater number of FRs were detected. PBDE congeners that are characteristic of the Penta-PBDE formulation were the most abundant FRs in all adult eels as well as American glass eels. In European glass eels the alternate BFR 2,3-dibromopropyl-2,4,6-tribromophenylether (DPTE) and Dechlorane Plus were the dominating FRs, with average concentrations of 1.1±0.31 ng g(-1) ww and up to 0.32 ng g(-1) ww respectively. Of the PBDEs BDE-183 was the most abundant congener in European glass eels. Low concentrations (less than 10% of the total contamination) of Tetra and Penta-PBDEs in juvenile European eels indicated that bans of technical Penta-PBDE in the European Union are effective. Enrichment of PBDEs was observed over the life stages of both European and American eels. However, a greater relative contribution of PBDEs to the sum FR contamination in American eels indicated an on-going exposure to these substances. High contributions of alternate BFRs in juvenile eels indicated an increased use of these substances in recent years. Concentrations seemed to be driven primarily by location, rather than life

  2. Occurrence and human exposure to brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants via indoor dust in a Brazilian city.

    PubMed

    Cristale, Joyce; Aragão Belé, Tiago Gomes; Lacorte, Silvia; Rodrigues de Marchi, Mary Rosa

    2018-06-01

    Indoor dust is considered an important human exposure route to flame retardants (FRs), which has arised concern due the toxic properties of some of these substances. In this study, ten organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and four new brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) were determined in indoor dust from different places in Araraquara-SP (Brazil). The sampled places included houses, apartments, offices, primary schools and cars. The analysis of the sample extracts was performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and two ionization techniques were used (electron ionization - EI; electron capture negative ionization - ECNI). OPFRs were the most abundant compounds and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(phenyl) phosphate (TPHP), tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) were present at the highest concentrations. Among the brominated FRs, the most ubiquitous compounds were BDE-209, bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE). Statistical analysis revealed that there were differences among dust typologies for TBOEP, TDCIPP, ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), BDE-209, 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), BEH-TEBP and DBDPE, which were attributed to different construction materials in each particular environment and to the age of the buildings. The highest levels of brominated FRs were observed in offices, TBOEP was at high concentration in primary schools, and TDCIPP was at high concentration in cars. A preliminary risk assessment revealed that toddlers were exposed to TBOEP levels higher than the reference dose when considering the worst case scenario. The results obtained in this study showed for the first time that although Brazil does not regulate the use of FRs, these substances are present in indoor dust at levels similar to the observed in countries that have strict fire safety

  3. Validity of cardiovascular risk prediction models in Latin America and among Hispanics in the United States of America: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cortes-Bergoderi, Mery; Thomas, Randal J; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Batsis, John A; Burdiat, Gerard; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Trejo-Gutierrez, Jorge; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2012-08-01

    To assess the use and validity of prediction models to estimate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin America and among Hispanic populations in the United States of America. This was a systematic review of three databases: Ovid MEDLINE (1 January 1950-15 April 2010), LILACS (1 January 1988-15 April 2010), and EMBASE (1 January 1988-15 April 2010). MeSH search terms and domains were related to CVD, prediction rules, Latin America (including the Caribbean), and Hispanics in the United States. Database searches were supplemented by correspondence with experts in the field. A total of 1 655 abstracts were identified, of which five cohorts with a total of 13 142 subjects met inclusion criteria. A Mexican cohort showed that the predicted/observed event-rate ratio for coronary heart disease (CHD) according to the Framingham risk score (FRS) was 1.68 (95% CI, 1.26-2.11); incident myocardial infarction, 1.36 (95% CI, 0.90-1.83); and CHD death, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.43-2.00). In Ecuador, a prediction model for CVD and total deaths in hypertensive patients had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79 (95% CI, 0.72-0.86), while the World Health Organization method had an AUC of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.67-0.82). A study predicting mortality risk in people with Chagas' disease had an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90). Among a United State s cohort that included Hispanics, FRS overestimated CVD risk for Hispanics with an AUC of 0.69. Another study in the United States that assessed FRS factors predicting CVD death among Mexican-Americans had an AUC of 0.78. The evidence regarding CVD risk prediction rules in Latin America or among Hispanics in the United States is modest at best. It is likely that the FRS overestimates CVD risk in Hispanics when not properly recalibrated.

  4. 2001 Federal Radionavigation Systems.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-12-01

    This edition of Federal Radio navigation Systems (FRS) updates and replaces sections in the 1999 Federal Radio navigation Plan (FRP) relating to Government roles and responsibilities, system selection considerations, civil user requirements, and syst...

  5. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... Solomon, Program Coordinator, 202-205-1376, [email protected] . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Relay Service (FRS) at 1-800-877-8339 twenty-four hours a...

  6. Clinical application of plasma thermograms. Utility, practical approaches and considerations.

    PubMed

    Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; DeLeeuw, Lynn; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2015-04-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of blood plasma are part of an emerging area of the clinical application of DSC to biofluid analysis. DSC analysis of plasma from healthy individuals and patients with various diseases has revealed changes in the thermal profiles of the major plasma proteins associated with the clinical status of the patient. The sensitivity of DSC to the concentration of proteins, their interactions with other proteins or ligands, or their covalent modification underlies the potential utility of DSC analysis. A growing body of literature has demonstrated the versatility and performance of clinical DSC analysis across a range of biofluids and in a number of disease settings. The principles, practice and challenges of DSC analysis of plasma are described in this article. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calling (DSC) equipment has been verified by actual communications or a test call; (ii) The portable... devices which do not have integral navigation receivers, including: VHF DSC, MF DSC, satellite EPIRB and HF DSC or INMARSAT SES. On a ship without integral or directly connected navigation receiver input to...

  8. 47 CFR 80.409 - Station logs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... calling (DSC) equipment has been verified by actual communications or a test call; (ii) The portable... devices which do not have integral navigation receivers, including: VHF DSC, MF DSC, satellite EPIRB and HF DSC or INMARSAT SES. On a ship without integral or directly connected navigation receiver input to...

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns and relationships among the diet, biochemistry, and exposure to flame retardants in an apex avian predator, the peregrine falcon.

    PubMed

    Fernie, Kim J; Chabot, Dominique; Champoux, Louise; Brimble, Samantha; Alaee, Mehran; Marteinson, Sarah; Chen, Da; Palace, Vince; Bird, David M; Letcher, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Flame retardants (FR) are industrial chemicals and some are proven environmental contaminants that accumulate in predatory birds. Few studies have examined the influence of diet on FR profiles in nestling raptors and the possible physiological implications of such FR exposure. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine spatial patterns of ≤ 48 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners and ≤ 26 non-PBDE FRs, including organophosphate esters (OPEs), in nestling peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) across the Canadian Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin (GL-SLR; 2010) and in the eastern Canadian Arctic (2007); (2) to identify temporal changes in FR concentrations from the mid-2000s to 2010 in GL-SLR peregrine nestlings; (3) to investigate the role of diet using stable isotopes on exposure patterns of quantifiable FRs; and (4) to assess possible associations between circulating FRs and total (T) thyroxine (TT 4 ) and triiodothyronine (TT 3 ), tocopherol, retinol and oxidative status (isoprostanes). The summed concentrations of the top 5 PBDEs (Σ 5 ) (BDE-47, -99, -100, -154, -153) were significantly higher in rural nestlings than urban nestlings in the GL-SLR, followed by the eastern Arctic nestlings. The PBDE congener profile of rural nestlings was dominated by BDE-99 (34‰), whereas BDE-209 (31‰) became dominant in the 2010 urban PBDE profile marking a shift since the mid-2000s. Low (ppb) concentrations of 25 novel non-PBDE FRs (e.g., 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE)) were measured in the nestlings in at least one region, with the first report in peregrines of 15 novel non-PBDE FRs (e.g., 2-ethyl-1-hyxyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EHTBB), pentabromo allyl ether (PBPAE), tetrabromoethylcyclohexane (α-, β-DBE-DBCH)) as well as of tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) (0-7.5ng/g ww) > tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP) (0.1-5.5ng/g ww) > tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) (0.02-2.0ng

  10. Loss of Desmocollin 3 in Skin Tumor Development and Progression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiangli; O’Shea, Charlene; Fitzpatrick, James E.; Koster, Maranke I.; Koch, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Desmocollin 3 (DSC3) is a desmosomal cadherin that is required for maintaining cell adhesion in the epidermis as demonstrated by the intra-epidermal blistering observed in Dsc3 null skin. Recently, it has been suggested that deregulated expression of DSC3 occurs in certain human tumor types. It is not clear whether DSC3 plays a role in the development or progression of cancers arising in stratified epithelia such as the epidermis. To address this issue, we generated a mouse model in which Dsc3 expression is ablated in K-Ras oncogene-induced skin tumors. Our results demonstrate that loss of Dsc3 leads to an increase in K-Ras induced skin tumors. We hypothesize that acantholysis-induced epidermal hyperplasia in the Dsc3 null epidermis facilitates Ras-induced tumor development. Further, we demonstrate that spontaneous loss of DSC3 expression is a common occurrence during human and mouse skin tumor progression. This loss occurs in tumor cells invading the dermis. Interestingly, other desmosomal proteins are still expressed in tumor cells that lack DSC3, suggesting a specific function of DSC3 loss in tumor progression. While loss of DSC3 on the skin surface leads to epidermal blistering, it does not appear to induce loss of cell-cell adhesion in tumor cells invading the dermis, most likely due to a protection of these cells within the dermis from mechanical stress. We thus hypothesize that DSC3 can contribute to the progression of tumors both by cell adhesion-dependent (skin surface) and likely by cell adhesion-independent (invading tumor cells) mechanisms. PMID:21681825

  11. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ....us or Maya Solomon, Program Coordinator, 202-205-1376, [email protected] . Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Relay Service (FRS) at 1-800-877-8339 twenty-four...

  12. Desmocollin 2 is a new immunohistochemical marker indicative of squamous differentiation in urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Oue, Naohide; Anami, Katsuhiro; Sakamoto, Naoya; Ohara, Shinya; Teishima, Jun; Noguchi, Tsuyoshi; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Taniyama, Kiyomi; Matsubara, Akio; Yasui, Wataru

    2011-10-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) with squamous differentiation tends to present at higher stages than pure UC. To distinguish UC with squamous differentiation from pure UC, a sensitive and specific marker is needed. Desmocollin 2 (DSC2) is a protein localized in desmosomal junctions of stratified epithelium, but little is known about its biological significance in bladder cancer. We examined the utility of DSC2 as a diagnostic marker. We analysed the immunohistochemical characteristics of DSC2, and studied the relationship of DSC2 expression with the expression of the known markers uroplakin III (UPIII), cytokeratin (CK)7, CK20, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and p53. DSC2 staining was detected in 24 of 25 (96%) cases of UC with squamous differentiation, but in none of 85 (0%) cases of pure UC. DSC2 staining was detected only in areas of squamous differentiation. DSC2 expression was mutually exclusive of UPIII expression, and was correlated with EGFR expression. Furthermore, DSC2 expression was correlated with higher stage (P = 0.0314) and poor prognosis (P = 0.0477). DSC2 staining offers high sensitivity (96%) and high specificity (100%) for the detection of squamous differentiation in UC. DSC2 is a useful immunohistochemical marker for separation of UC with squamous differentiation from pure UC. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Limited.

  13. John Alexander Sinton, MD FRS VC (1884-1956).

    PubMed

    Cook, G C

    2016-05-01

    Brigadier John Sinton is the only individual in history to have been both awarded the Victoria Cross and also elected to the Royal Society. He qualified at Belfast and afterwards joined the Indian Medical Service (IMS). Serving before and during the Great War (1914-18), he was first posted to the North-West Frontier province, and afterwards as a captain in the Indian Expeditionary force in Mesopotamia (now Iraq). It was there in 1916 that, shot in both arms during an engagement and under heavy gunfire, he remained steadfastly at his post; for this bravery he received the Victoria Cross. Following the war he carried out major researches into malaria in India, and became Director of the Malaria Survey of India Both there and shortly afterwards, Sinton published about 200 papers on various aspects of malaria and leishmaniasis. In England, he later worked at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health's laboratory at Horton, Epsom. In 1946, he was elected to the Royal Society for his researches into malaria and kala-azar, and following retirement he underwent another distinguished career in Northern Ireland. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Oscillations and Analogies: Thomas Young, MD, FRS, Genius.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Colin

    2001-01-01

    Thomas Young was a renowned genius in his time who did important work in many scientific disciplines. In today's specialized environment, scientists in each discipline do not appreciate his work. Despite his current obscurity, Young exemplifies traits found in a first-order genius (analogical thinking, high intelligence, hard work, wide interests,…

  15. Rapid sample preparation and fast GC-MS/MS for the analysis of pesticides and environmental contaminants in fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A rapid high-throughput analytical method for the simultaneous determination of pesticides and environmental contaminants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and flame retardants (FRs) in fish was developed and ...

  16. Direct Ca2+-dependent Heterophilic Interaction between Desmosomal Cadherins, Desmoglein and Desmocollin, Contributes to Cell–Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Chitaev, Nikolai A.; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.

    1997-01-01

    Human fibrosarcoma cells, HT-1080, feature extensive adherens junctions, lack mature desmosomes, and express a single known desmosomal protein, Desmoglein 2 (Dsg2). Transfection of these cells with bovine Desmocollin 1a (Dsc1a) caused dramatic changes in the subcellular distribution of endogenous Dsg2. Both cadherins clustered in the areas of the adherens junctions, whereas only a minor portion of Dsg2 was seen in these areas in the parental cells. Deletion mapping showed that intact extracellular cadherin-like repeats of Dsc1a (Arg1-Thr170) are required for the translocation of Dsg2. Deletion of the intracellular C-domain that mediates the interaction of Dsc1a with plakoglobin, or the CSI region that is involved in the binding to desmoplakin, had no effect. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments of cell lysates stably expressing Dsc1a with anti-Dsc or -Dsg antibodies demonstrate that the desmosomal cadherins, Dsg2 and Dsc1a, are involved in a direct Ca2+-dependent interaction. This conclusion was further supported by the results of solid phase binding experiments. These showed that the Dsc1a fragment containing cadherin-like repeats 1 and 2 binds directly to the extracellular portion of Dsg in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The contribution of the Dsg/ Dsc interaction to cell–cell adhesion was tested by coculturing HT-1080 cells expressing Dsc1a with HT-1080 cells lacking Dsc but expressing myc-tagged plakoglobin (MPg). In the latter cells, MPg and the endogenous Dsg form stable complexes. The observed specific coimmunoprecipitation of MPg by anti-Dsc antibodies in coculture indicates that an intercellular interaction between Dsc1 and Dsg is involved in cell–cell adhesion. PMID:9214392

  17. 78 FR 52900 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... regulations, contact Scott Stewart, Program Manager, 202-205-1618, [email protected] or Maya Solomon, Program... (TDD) may call the Federal Relay Service (FRS) at 1-800-877-8339 twenty-four hours a day, every day of...

  18. Monitoring Conformance and Containment for Geological Carbon Storage: Can Technology Meet Policy and Public Requirements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, D. C.; Osadetz, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Province of Alberta, Canada identified carbon capture and storage (CCS) as a key element of its 2008 Climate Change strategy. The target is a reduction in CO2 emissions of 139 Mt/year by 2050. To encourage uptake of CCS by industry, the province has provided partial funding to two demonstration scale projects, namely the Quest Project by Shell and partners (CCS), and the Alberta Carbon Trunk Line Project (pipeline and CO2-EOR). Important to commercial scale implementation of CCS will be the requirement to prove conformance and containment of the CO2 plume injected during the lifetime of the CCS project. This will be a challenge for monitoring programs. The Containment and Monitoring Institute (CaMI) is developing a Field Research Station (FRS) to calibrate various monitoring technologies for CO2 detection thresholds at relatively shallow depths. The objective being assessed with the FRS is sensitivity for early detection of loss of containment from a deeper CO2 storage project. In this project, two injection wells will be drilled to sandstone reservoir targets at depths of 300 m and 700 m. Up to four observation wells will be drilled with monitoring instruments installed. Time-lapse surface and borehole monitoring surveys will be undertaken to evaluate the movement and fate of the CO2 plume. These will include seismic, microseismic, cross well, electrical resistivity, electromagnetic, gravity, geodetic and geomechanical surveys. Initial baseline seismic data from the FRS will presented.

  19. Large Scale Application of Vibration Sensors for Fan Monitoring at Commercial Layer Hen Houses

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Ni, Ji-Qin; Diehl, Claude A.; Heber, Albert J.; Bogan, Bill W.; Chai, Li-Long

    2010-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the operation of each individual fan can significantly improve the measurement quality of aerial pollutant emissions from animal buildings that have a large number of fans. To monitor the fan operation by detecting the fan vibration is a relatively new technique. A low-cost electronic vibration sensor was developed and commercialized. However, its large scale application has not yet been evaluated. This paper presents long-term performance results of this vibration sensor at two large commercial layer houses. Vibration sensors were installed on 164 fans of 130 cm diameter to continuously monitor the fan on/off status for two years. The performance of the vibration sensors was compared with fan rotational speed (FRS) sensors. The vibration sensors exhibited quick response and high sensitivity to fan operations and therefore satisfied the general requirements of air quality research. The study proved that detecting fan vibration was an effective method to monitor the on/off status of a large number of single-speed fans. The vibration sensor itself was $2 more expensive than a magnetic proximity FRS sensor but the overall cost including installation and data acquisition hardware was $77 less expensive than the FRS sensor. A total of nine vibration sensors failed during the study and the failure rate was related to the batches of product. A few sensors also exhibited unsteady sensitivity. As a new product, the quality of the sensor should be improved to make it more reliable and acceptable. PMID:22163544

  20. [Flame retardants--use and hazards for human].

    PubMed

    Góralczyk, Katarzyna; Struciński, Paweł; Czaja, Katarzyna; Hernik, Agnieszka; Ludwicki, Jan K

    2002-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs) are chemicals which added to materials during or after manufacture, inhibit or even suppress the combustion process due to their thermal stability. Large quantities of FRs are added to the plastic material (resins) in variety of electrical and electronic appliances including television and computer casing. The other uses of these compounds include production of building materials, upholstered furniture, textiles, wall covering, carpets, hydraulic fluids as well as vehicles and aircraft. Taking into account the chemical structure, there are five main groups of FRs: brominated, chlorinated, phosphorous-containing, nitrogen-containing (i.e. melamines) and inorganic compounds. Halogenated compounds, especially polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, due to their lipophilic characteristics and persistence have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. There are indications that PBDEs may affect hormone function acting as endocrine disruption and may be toxic for developing brain. These compounds have been associated with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans, a variety of cancers in rodents and disruption of thyroid hormones balance. Similarly to other persistent halogenated compounds they are also able to affect the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes activity. PBDEs are now found as residues in sediments, wildlife and human (milk, serum adipose tissue) samples. The predominant congeners in environmental samples, including human specimens are two congeners: 47 and 99. Currently, the estimated daily intake of PBDEs by adult humans is equal 51 ng x day-1 while by breast-fed infants equals 110 ng x day-1.

  1. Physical-chemical properties and evaluative fate modelling of 'emerging' and 'novel' brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in the indoor and outdoor environment.

    PubMed

    Liagkouridis, Ioannis; Cousins, Anna Palm; Cousins, Ian T

    2015-08-15

    Several groups of flame retardants (FRs) have entered the market in recent years as replacements for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but little is known about their physical-chemical properties or their environmental transport and fate. Here we make best estimates of the physical-chemical properties and undertake evaluative modelling assessments (indoors and outdoors) for 35 so-called 'novel' and 'emerging' brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and 22 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs). A QSPR (Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship) based technique is used to reduce uncertainty in physical-chemical properties and to aid property selection for modelling, but it is evident that more, high quality property data are required for improving future assessments. Evaluative modelling results show that many of the alternative FRs, mainly alternative BFRs and some of the halogenated OPFRs, behave similarly to the PBDEs both indoors and outdoors. These alternative FRs exhibit high overall persistence (Pov), long-range transport potential (LRTP) and POP-like behaviour and on that basis cannot be regarded as suitable replacements to PBDEs. A group of low molecular weight alternative BFRs and non-halogenated OPFRs show a potentially better environmental performance based on Pov and LRTP metrics. Results must be interpreted with caution though since there are significant uncertainties and limited data to allow for thorough model evaluation. Additional environmental parameters such as toxicity and bioaccumulative potential as well as functionality issues should be considered in an industrial substitution strategy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Breeding objectives for indigenous chicken: model development and application to different production systems.

    PubMed

    Okeno, Tobias O; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2013-01-01

    A bio-economic model was developed to evaluate the utilisation of indigenous chickens (IC) under different production systems accounting for the risk attitude of the farmers. The model classified the production systems into three categories based on the level of management: free-range system (FRS), where chickens were left to scavenge for feed resources with no supplementation and healthcare; intensive system (IS), where the chickens were permanently confined and supplied with rationed feed and healthcare; and semi-intensive system (SIS), a hybrid of FRS and IS, where the chickens were partially confined, supplemented with rationed feeds, provided with healthcare and allowed to scavenge within the homestead or in runs. The model allows prediction of the live weights and feed intake at different stages in the life cycle of the IC and can compute the profitability of each production system using both traditional and risk-rated profit models. The input parameters used in the model represent a typical IC production system in developing countries but are flexible and therefore can be modified to suit specific situations and simulate profitability and costs of other poultry species production systems. The model has the capability to derive the economic values as changes in the genetic merit of the biological parameter results in marginal changes in profitability and costs of the production systems. The results suggested that utilisation of IC in their current genetic merit and production environment is more profitable under FRS and SIS but not economically viable under IS.

  3. Automated Detector of High Frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy Based on Maximum Distributed Peak Points.

    PubMed

    Ren, Guo-Ping; Yan, Jia-Qing; Yu, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Dan; Li, Xiao-Nan; Mei, Shan-Shan; Dai, Jin-Dong; Li, Xiao-Li; Li, Yun-Lin; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2018-02-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) are considered as biomarker for epileptogenicity. Reliable automation of HFOs detection is necessary for rapid and objective analysis, and is determined by accurate computation of the baseline. Although most existing automated detectors measure baseline accurately in channels with rare HFOs, they lose accuracy in channels with frequent HFOs. Here, we proposed a novel algorithm using the maximum distributed peak points method to improve baseline determination accuracy in channels with wide HFOs activity ranges and calculate a dynamic baseline. Interictal ripples (80-200[Formula: see text]Hz), fast ripples (FRs, 200-500[Formula: see text]Hz) and baselines in intracerebral EEGs from seven patients with intractable epilepsy were identified by experienced reviewers and by our computer-automated program, and the results were compared. We also compared the performance of our detector to four well-known detectors integrated in RIPPLELAB. The sensitivity and specificity of our detector were, respectively, 71% and 75% for ripples and 66% and 84% for FRs. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient comparing automated and manual detection was [Formula: see text] for ripples and [Formula: see text] for FRs ([Formula: see text]). In comparison to other detectors, our detector had a relatively higher sensitivity and specificity. In conclusion, our automated detector is able to accurately calculate a dynamic iEEG baseline in different HFO activity channels using the maximum distributed peak points method, resulting in higher sensitivity and specificity than other available HFO detectors.

  4. The Construct Validity of the CODA and Repeated Sprint Ability Tests in Football Referees.

    PubMed

    Riiser, Amund; Andersen, Vidar; Castagna, Carlo; Arne Pettersen, Svein; Saeterbakken, Atle; Froyd, Christian; Ylvisaker, Einar; Naess Kjosnes, Terje; Fusche Moe, Vegard

    2018-06-14

    As of 2017, the international football federation introduced the change of direction ability test (CODA) and the 5×30 m sprint test for assistant referees (ARs) and continued the 6×40 m sprint test for field referees (FRs) as mandatory tests. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between performance in these tests and running performance during matches at the top level in Norway. The study included 9 FRs refereeing 21 matches and 19 ARs observed 53 times by a local positioning system at three stadiums during the 2016 season. Running performance during matches was assessed by high-intensity running (HIR) distance, HIR counts, acceleration distance, and acceleration counts. For the ARs, there was no association between the CODA test with high-intensity running or acceleration ( P >0.05). However, the 5×30 m sprint test was associated with HIR count during the entire match (E -12.9, 95% CI -25.4 to -0.4) and the 5-min period with the highest HIR count (E -2.02, 95% CI -3.55 to -0.49). For the FRs, the 6×40 m fitness test was not associated with running performance during matches ( P >0.05). In conclusion, performance in these tests had weak or no associations with accelerations or HIR in top Norwegian referees during match play. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Wang, Chunsheng; Taxer, Jamie; Yang, Zhong; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two-player ultimatum game (UG) have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs), response times (RTs), and fairness ratings (FRs). If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions.

  6. Development of gastroretentive metronidazole floating raft system for targeting Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Abou Youssef, Nancy Abdel Hamid; Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; El-Massik, Magda Abd Elsamea; Boraie, Nabila Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonging gastric residence time and release rate of metronidazole (Mz) by preparing floating raft system (FRS) using ion-sensitive in situ gel forming polymers. FRSs contained 3, 4, 5 and 0.5, 0.75, 1% w/v sodium alginate (Alg) and gellan gum (G), respectively, 0.25% w/v sodium citrate and calcium carbonate (C). Lipids: glyceryl mono stearate (GMS), Precirol(®) and Compritol(®) were incorporated into G-based formulations (G1%C1%). Mz:lipid ratio was 1:1, except for Mz:GMS, ratios of 1:1.5 and 1:2 were also investigated. Buoyancy, gelation capacity and viscosity parameters were evaluated. Drug release and kinetics for selected formulae were examined. The selected lipid containing formula was subjected to an accelerated stability testing. Alg4%C2% FRS exhibited short gelation lag time (3s), long duration (>24h), floating lag time 1m in and duration >24h, and a reliable sustained drug release (MDT 6h). Gellan gum FRSs achieved successful floating gastroretention, but failed to achieve the required gelation capacity. Incorporation of GMS (Mz:GMS 1:1) enhanced the gelation lag time and duration (6s and >24h, respectively), keeping sustained drug release and formulation stability. The improved characteristics of the selected FRS make them excellent candidates for gastric targeting to eradicate Helicobacter pylori. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relative value of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk score estimates in premature acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Kalantzi, Kallirroi; Korantzopoulos, Panagiotis; Tzimas, Petros; Katsouras, Christos S; Goudevenos, John A; Milionis, Haralampos J

    2008-03-01

    To compare the relative value of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular risk score estimates in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) aged <45 years. Two hundred consecutive patients (183 men, mean age 40.8 +/- 3.5 years) presented with a first-ever ACS, and 200 age-and sex-matched controls were evaluated. Metabolic syndrome diagnostic criteria, European Risk SCORE estimation function, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) were assessed in all participants. The prevalence of the MetS was significantly higher in the patients' group compared with the control group (51.5% vs 26.0%, P < .001). No subjects with a SCORE >1.0% were identified. The mean 10-year FRS for patients and controls was 13.03% +/- 7.96% and 10.02 +/- 8.10%, respectively (P < .001), whereas only 22.5% of ACS patients had a 10-year risk >20.0% compared with 14.5% of controls (P = .04). After controlling for potential confounders, MetS was associated with 1.93 (95% CI 1.13-3.28, P = .01) higher odds of having an ACS. Moreover, the odds had a positive association with the increasing cumulative number of MetS components. Crude and adjusted ORs for the FRS were 1.05 (95% CI 1.029-1.08, P = .001) and 0.98 (95% CI 0.92-1.05, P = NS), respectively. Metabolic syndrome is highly associated with ACS in subjects <45 years of age and seems to be more valuable than established cardiovascular risk calculators.

  8. The Influence of Counterfactual Comparison on Fairness in Gain-Loss Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qi; Wang, Chunsheng; Taxer, Jamie; Yang, Zhong; Zheng, Ya; Liu, Xun

    2017-01-01

    Fairness perceptions may be affected by counterfactual comparisons. Although certain studies using a two-player ultimatum game (UG) have shown that comparison with the proposers influences the responders' fairness perceptions in a gain context, the effect of counterfactual comparison in a UG with multiple responders or proposers remains unclear, especially in a loss context. To resolve these issues, this study used a modified three-player UG with multiple responders in Experiment 1 and multiple proposers in Experiment 2 to examine the influence of counterfactual comparison on fairness-related decision-making in gain and loss contexts. The two experiments consistently showed that regardless of the gain or loss context, the level of inequality of the offer and counterfactual comparison influenced acceptance rates (ARs), response times (RTs), and fairness ratings (FRs). If the offers that were received were better than the counterfactual offers, unequal offers were more likely to be accepted than equal offers, and participants were more likely to report higher FRs and to make decisions more quickly. In contrast, when the offers they received were worse than the counterfactual offers, participants were more likely to reject unequal offers than equal offers, reported lower FRs, and made decisions more slowly. These results demonstrate that responders' fairness perceptions are influenced by not only comparisons of the absolute amount of money that they would receive but also specific counterfactuals from other proposers or responders. These findings improve our understanding of fairness perceptions. PMID:28536542

  9. Informed renesting decisions: the effect of nest predation risk.

    PubMed

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Rönkä, Nelli; Thomson, Robert L; Koivula, Kari

    2014-04-01

    Animals should cue on information that predicts reproductive success. After failure of an initial reproductive attempt, decisions on whether or not to initiate a second reproductive attempt may be affected by individual experience and social information. If the prospects of breeding success are poor, long-lived animals in particular should not invest in current reproductive success (CRS) in case it generates costs to future reproductive success (FRS). In birds, predation risk experienced during breeding may provide a cue for renesting success. Species having a high FRS potential should be flexible and take predation risk into account in their renesting decisions. We tested this prediction using breeding data of a long-lived wader, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii. As predicted, dunlin cued on predation risk information acquired from direct experience of nest failure due to predation and ambient nest predation risk. While the overall renesting rate was low (34.5%), the early season renesting rate was high but declined with season, indicating probable temporal changes in the costs and benefits of renesting. We develop a conceptual cost-benefit model to describe the effects of the phase and the length of breeding season on predation risk responses in renesting. We suggest that species investing in FRS should not continue breeding in short breeding seasons in response to predation risk but without time constraints, their response should be similar to species investing in CRS, e.g. within-season dispersal and increased nest concealment.

  10. Toddler exposure to flame retardant chemicals: Magnitude, health concern and potential risk- or protective factors of exposure: Observational studies summarized in a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sugeng, Eva J; de Cock, Marijke; Schoonmade, Linda J; van de Bor, Margot

    2017-10-01

    Endocrine disrupting flame retardant (FR) chemicals form a human health concern, that is investigated mostly from the perspective of adult- and early life exposure. No overview of studies on toddler exposure and health effects exist. However, toddlerhood is a critical developmental period and toddlers are at increased risk for exposure because of their age-specific behavior. This systematic review encompasses toddler FR exposure studies in three countries, associated health effects and potential environmental, demographic, or behavioral risk- or protective factors for toddler exposure. A systematic literature search in four databases (PubMed, Embase.com, The Cochrane Library (via Wiley) and Web of Science Core collection) resulted in the identification of ten publications representing seven unique studies that measured brominated and/or phosphorylated FRs in toddlers' (8-24 month-old) serum, urine, hand wipes and feces. This review showed that toddlers are exposed to a range of FRs, that thyroid hormone disruption is associated with FR exposure and that factors in the indoor environment, including products such as plastic toys, might increase FR exposure. Considering the limited amount of studies, and the variety of biological matrices, FRs, and risk- and protective factors, this review did not reveal a uniform pattern of toddler exposure across the different cohorts studied. More evidence is necessary and considering the feasibility of invasive sampling in young children, we suggest to emphasize research on non-invasive matrices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Promises and Challenges of Thorium Implementation for Transuranic Transmutation - 13550

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Franceschini, F.; Lahoda, E.; Wenner, M.

    2013-07-01

    This paper focuses on the challenges of implementing a thorium fuel cycle for recycle and transmutation of long-lived actinide components from used nuclear fuel. A multi-stage reactor system is proposed; the first stage consists of current UO{sub 2} once-through LWRs supplying transuranic isotopes that are continuously recycled and burned in second stage reactors in either a uranium (U) or thorium (Th) carrier. The second stage reactors considered for the analysis are Reduced Moderation Pressurized Water Reactors (RMPWRs), reconfigured from current PWR core designs, and Fast Reactors (FRs) with a burner core design. While both RMPWRs and FRs can in principlemore » be employed, each reactor and associated technology has pros and cons. FRs have unmatched flexibility and transmutation efficiency. RMPWRs have higher fuel manufacturing and reprocessing requirements, but may represent a cheaper solution and the opportunity for a shorter time to licensing and deployment. All options require substantial developments in manufacturing, due to the high radiation field, and reprocessing, due to the very high actinide recovery ratio to elicit the claimed radiotoxicity reduction. Th reduces the number of transmutation reactors, and is required to enable a viable RMPWR design, but presents additional challenges on manufacturing and reprocessing. The tradeoff between the various options does not make the choice obvious. Moreover, without an overarching supporting policy in place, the costly and challenging technologies required inherently discourage industrialization of any transmutation scheme, regardless of the adoption of U or Th. (authors)« less

  12. Occurrence and behavior of natural and anthropogenic (emerging and historical) halogenated compounds in marine biota from the Coast of Concepcion (Chile).

    PubMed

    Barón, Enrique; Rudolph, Ignacio; Chiang, Gustavo; Barra, Ricardo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià

    2013-09-01

    Fifty-five biota samples from the Coast of Concepcion (Chile) were analyzed for PBDEs, emerging brominated FRs, halogenated norbornenes and naturally-occurring MeO-PBDEs. PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and halogenated norbornenes were detected at concentration levels ranging from 11 to 170, nd to 118 and nd to 5.8 ng/g lw, respectively. However, emerging brominated FRs such as decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB) were not detected in any sample. Bioaccumulation and bioconcentration processes were evaluated for the different families of compounds. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were calculated, and some PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-183 and BDE-209) as well as MeO-PBDEs presented BMF>1, being values of the naturally occurring MeO-PBDEs higher than those obtained for PBDEs. As regards halogenated norbornenes, BMF<1 were found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 12935 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; The American Community Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... to conduct interviews via Computer-assisted Telephone Interviews (CATI). We will also conduct Computer-assisted Personal Interviews (CAPI) for a sub sample of nonrespondents. A content reinterview will... representatives (FRs) will conduct personal interviews with respondents to complete questionnaires or, if...

  14. The influences of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives on flame retardancy and thermal behaviors of cotton cellulose

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to create the environmentally-friendly flame retardants (FRs) for cotton cellulose, two phosphoramidates derivatives, tetraethyl piperazine-1,4-diyldiphosphonate (PDP) and diethyl 4-methylpiperazin-1-ylphosphoramidate (PAP), have been developed. Both were synthesized in high yield and ...

  15. Bioaccumulation and Effects of the Alternative Flame Retardant, Bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), in Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), is a high production volume chemical classified as an alternative flame retardant (FR), which replaces legacy FRs withdrawn from US markets dues to health and environmental concerns. This study provides experimental data on the bioacc...

  16. Development of test systems for characterizing emissions from spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relationship between onsite manufacture of spray polyurethane foam insulation (SPFI) and potential exposures to diisocyanates, amines, flame retardants (FRs), blowing agents, aldehydes and other organic compounds that may be emitted from SPFI is not well understood. EPA is de...

  17. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

    2014-10-10

    Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis-specific cardiovascular risk scores are not superior to general risk scores: a validation analysis of patients from seven countries.

    PubMed

    Crowson, Cynthia S; Gabriel, Sherine E; Semb, Anne Grete; van Riel, Piet L C M; Karpouzas, George; Dessein, Patrick H; Hitchon, Carol; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Kitas, George D

    2017-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk calculators developed for the general population do not accurately predict CVD events in patients with RA. We sought to externally validate risk calculators recommended for use in patients with RA including the EULAR 1.5 multiplier, the Expanded Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Score for RA (ERS-RA) and QRISK2. Seven RA cohorts from UK, Norway, Netherlands, USA, South Africa, Canada and Mexico were combined. Data on baseline CVD risk factors, RA characteristics and CVD outcomes (including myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and cardiovascular death) were collected using standardized definitions. Performance of QRISK2, EULAR multiplier and ERS-RA was compared with other risk calculators [American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), Framingham Adult Treatment Panel III Framingham risk score-Adult Treatment Panel (FRS-ATP) and Reynolds Risk Score] using c-statistics and net reclassification index. Among 1796 RA patients without prior CVD [mean ( s . d .) age: 54.0 (14.0) years, 74% female], 100 developed CVD events during a mean follow-up of 6.9 years (12430 person-years). Estimated CVD risk by ERS-RA [mean ( s . d .) 8.8% (9.8%)] was comparable to FRS-ATP [mean ( s . d .) 9.1% (8.3%)] and Reynolds [mean ( s . d .) 9.2% (12.2%)], but lower than ACC/AHA [mean ( s . d .) 9.8% (12.1%)]. QRISK2 substantially overestimated risk [mean ( s . d .) 15.5% (13.9%)]. Discrimination was not improved for ERS-RA (c-statistic = 0.69), QRISK2 or EULAR multiplier applied to ACC/AHA compared with ACC/AHA (c-statistic = 0.72 for all) or for FRS-ATP (c-statistic = 0.75). The net reclassification index for ERS-RA was low (-0.8% vs ACC/AHA and 2.3% vs FRS-ATP). The QRISK2, EULAR multiplier and ERS-RA algorithms did not predict CVD risk more accurately in patients with RA than CVD risk calculators developed for the general population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for

  19. Calcaneocuboid arthrodesis for recurrent clubfeet: what is the outcome at 17-year follow-up?

    PubMed

    Chu, Alice; Chaudhry, Sonia; Sala, Debra A; Atar, Dan; Lehman, Wallace B

    2014-02-01

    Calcaneocuboid arthrodesis was used during revision clubfoot surgery in order to maintain midfoot correction. The purposes of this study were to determine: (1) functional level at 17-year follow-up compared to 5-year follow-up; (2) patients' current functional level, satisfaction, and pain; and (3) current arthropometric measurements. Twenty patients (27 clubfeet) with clubfoot relapse underwent revision soft tissue release and calcaneocuboid fusion between 1991 and 1994. They were previously evaluated at a mean follow-up of 5.5 years. Ten out of 20 patients (13 clubfeet), mean age of 24 years, were reevaluated at mean follow-up of 17.5 years. The Hospital for Joint Diseases Functional Rating System (HJD FRS) for clubfoot surgery, Outcome Evaluation in Clubfoot developed by the International Clubfoot Study Group, the Clubfoot Disease-Specific Instrument, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Foot and Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire, Laaveg and Ponseti's functional rating system for clubfoot and pain scale were completed by patient and/or surgeon to assess function, patient satisfaction and pain. Foot and ankle radiographs and anthropometric measurements were reviewed. For HJD FRS, scores from original follow-up were compared to current ones. The HJD FRS score of all feet was 65.9, demonstrating a significant decline from the original mean score of 77.8 (p = 0.03). Excellent/good HJD FRS scores went from 85 to 38 %. Mean AAOS Foot Ankle Outcomes Questionnaire standardized core and shoe comfort scores were 84.6 and 84.5, respectively. Average foot pain was 1.8 on a scale of 1-10. Patients were very/somewhat satisfied with status of foot in 76 % of feet and appearance of foot in 46 % of feet, based on Clubfoot Disease-Specific Instrument questions. Revision clubfoot surgery with calcaneocuboid fusion in patients 5-8 years of age showed an expected decline in functional outcome measures over a 17-year follow-up period. It still produced comparable

  20. Comparative study of pulsed-continuous arterial spin labeling and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging by histogram analysis in evaluation of glial tumors.

    PubMed

    Arisawa, Atsuko; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Hisashi; Takahashi, Hiroto; Matsuo, Chisato; Fujiwara, Takuya; Fujiwara, Masahiro; Fujimoto, Yasunori; Tomiyama, Noriyuki

    2018-06-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a non-invasive perfusion technique that may be an alternative to dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) for assessment of brain tumors. To our knowledge, there have been no reports on histogram analysis of ASL. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ASL is comparable with DSC-MRI in terms of differentiating high-grade and low-grade gliomas by evaluating the histogram analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the entire tumor. Thirty-four patients with pathologically proven glioma underwent ASL and DSC-MRI. High-signal areas on contrast-enhanced T 1 -weighted images or high-intensity areas on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images were designated as the volumes of interest (VOIs). ASL-CBF, DSC-CBF, and DSC-cerebral blood volume maps were constructed and co-registered to the VOI. Perfusion histogram analyses of the whole VOI and statistical analyses were performed to compare the ASL and DSC images. There was no significant difference in the mean values for any of the histogram metrics in both of the low-grade gliomas (n = 15) and the high-grade gliomas (n = 19). Strong correlations were seen in the 75th percentile, mean, median, and standard deviation values between the ASL and DSC images. The area under the curve values tended to be greater for the DSC images than for the ASL images. DSC-MRI is superior to ASL for distinguishing high-grade from low-grade glioma. ASL could be an alternative evaluation method when DSC-MRI cannot be used, e.g., in patients with renal failure, those in whom repeated examination is required, and in children.

  1. Estimation of human percutaneous bioavailability for two novel brominated flame retardants, 2-ethylhexyl tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), using the parallelogram approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    2-ethylhexyltetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl)tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP) are novel brominated flame retardants (FRs). BEH-TEBP is used alone as a plasticizer or with EH-TBB in polyurethane foams; both are contaminants in the indoor and outdoor environments. In ...

  2. Quantitative measurement of indomethacin crystallinity in indomethacin-silica gel binary system using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaohong; Julian, Thomas; Augsburger, Larry

    2006-02-10

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) methods were developed for the quantitative analysis of the crystallinity of indomethacin (IMC) in IMC and silica gel (SG) binary system. The DSC calibration curve exhibited better linearity than that of XRPD. No phase transformation occurred in the IMC-SG mixtures during DSC measurement. The major sources of error in DSC measurements were inhomogeneous mixing and sampling. Analyzing the amount of IMC in the mixtures using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) could reduce the sampling error. DSC demonstrated greater sensitivity and had less variation in measurement than XRPD in quantifying crystalline IMC in the IMC-SG binary system.

  3. Targeting of herbal bioactives through folate receptors: a novel concept to enhance intracellular drug delivery in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anshita; Kaur, Chanchal Deep; Saraf, Shailendra; Saraf, Swarnlata

    2017-06-01

    Targeted drug delivery through folate receptor (FR) has emerged as a most biocompatible, target oriented, and non-immunogenic cargoes for the delivery of anticancer drugs. FRs are highly overexpressed in many tumor cells (like ovarian, lung, breast, kidney, brain, endometrial, and colon cancer), and targeting them through conjugates bearing specific ligand with encapsulated nanodrug moiety is undoubtedly, a promising approach toward tumor targeting. Folate, being an endogenous ligand, can be exploited well to affect various cellular events occurring during the progress of tumor, in a more natural and definite way. Thus, the aim of the review lies in summarizing the advancements taken place in the drug delivery system of different therapeutics through FRs and to refine its role as an endogenous ligand, in targeting of synthetic as well as natural bioactives. The review also provides an update on the patents received on the folate-based drug delivery system.

  4. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Coronary Artery Calcium Score as Indications of Subclinical Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Steven J.; Eleid, Mackram F.; Khandheria, Bijoy K.; Hurst, R. Todd

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the ability of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and coronary artery calcium score (CACS) to detect subclinical atherosclerosis in a young to middle-aged, low-risk, primary-prevention population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients aged 36 to 59 years who underwent determination of CIMT and CACS at our institution between May 1, 2004, and April 1, 2008, were included in the study. Those with diabetes mellitus or a history of coronary, peripheral, or cerebral vascular disease were excluded. Other information, such as Framingham risk score (FRS), was obtained by a review of clinical and laboratory data. RESULTS: Of 118 patients, 89 (75%) had a CACS of zero and 94 (80%) were men; mean ± SD age was 48.9±5.7 years. The mean FRS of this group was 4.0; 86 patients (97%) were considered at low risk (<1% annualized rate) of cardiovascular events. Evidence of carotid atherosclerosis was found in 42 (47%; 95% confidence interval, 37%-58%) of these 89 patients; carotid plaque was found in 30 (34%); and CIMT above the 75th percentile was found in 12 (13%) of age-, sex-, and race-matched control patients. Of the 40 patients with low-risk CIMT (below the 50th percentile), 4 (10%) had a CACS at or above the 50th percentile. CONCLUSION: Subclinical vascular disease can be detected by CIMT evaluation in young to middle-aged patients with a low FRS and a CACS of zero. These findings have important implications for vascular disease screening and the implementation of primary-prevention strategies. PMID:19252109

  5. Relationships Between Internal and External Match-Load Indicators in Soccer Match Officials.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Daniel; Weston, Matthew; McLaren, Shaun J; Cámara, Jesús; Yanci, Javier

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the internal and external match loads (ML) of refereeing activity during official soccer matches and to investigate the relationship among the methods of ML quantification across a competitive season. A further aim was to examine the usefulness of differential perceived exertion (dRPE) as a tool for monitoring internal ML in soccer referees. Twenty field referees (FRs) and 43 assistant referees (ARs) participated in the study. Data were collected from 30 competitive matches (FR = 20 observations, AR = 43 observations) and included measures of internal (Edwards' heart-rate-derived training impulse [TRIMP EDW ]) ML, external (total distance covered, distance covered at high speeds, and player load) ML, and ML differentiated ratings of perceived respiratory (sRPE res ) and leg-muscle (sRPE mus ) exertion. Internal and external ML were all greater for FRs than for ARs (-19.7 to -72.5), with differences ranging from very likely very large to most likely extremely large. The relationships between internal-ML and external-ML indicators were, in most cases, unclear for FR (r < .35) and small to moderate for AR (r < .40). The authors found substantial differences between RPE res and RPE mus scores in both FRs (0.6 AU; ±90% confidence limits 0.4 AU) and ARs (0.4; ±0.3). These data demonstrate the multifaceted demands of soccer refereeing and thereby highlight the importance of monitoring both internal and external ML. Moreover, dRPE represents distinct dimensions of effort and may be useful in monitoring soccer referees' ML during official matches.

  6. Trajectories of the Framingham general cardiovascular risk profile in midlife and poor motor function later in life: the Whitehall II study.

    PubMed

    Elbaz, Alexis; Shipley, Martin J; Nabi, Hermann; Brunner, Eric J; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2014-03-01

    Vascular risk factors are associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, but their association with motor function, another key feature of aging, has received little research attention. We examined the association between trajectories of the Framingham general cardiovascular disease risk score (FRS) over midlife and motor function later in life. A total of 5376 participants of the Whitehall II cohort study (29% women) who had up to four repeat measures of FRS between 1991-1993 (mean age=48.6 years) and 2007-2009 (mean age=65.4 years) and without history of stroke or coronary heart disease in 2007-2009 were included. Motor function was assessed in 2007-2009 through objective tests (walking speed, chair rises, balance, finger tapping, grip strength). We used age- and sex-adjusted linear mixed models. Participants with poorer performances for walking speed, chair rises, and balance in 2007-2009 had higher FRS concurrently and also in 1991-1993, on average 16 years earlier. These associations were robust to adjustment for cognition, socio-economic status, height, and BMI, and not explained by incident mobility limitation prior to motor assessment. No association was found with finger tapping and grip strength. Cardiovascular risk early in midlife is associated with poor motor performances later in life. Vascular risk factors play an important and under-recognized role in motor function, independently of their impact on cognition, and suggest that better control of vascular risk factors in midlife may prevent physical impairment and disability in the elderly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and alternative flame retardants in surface soils and river sediments from an electronic waste-processing area in northern Vietnam, 2012-2014.

    PubMed

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Suzuki, Go; Someya, Masayuki; Uchida, Natsuyo; Tue, Nguyen Minh; Tuyen, Le Huu; Viet, Pham Hung; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative flame retardants (FRs) in environmental samples collected in January 2012, 2013, and 2014 from an electronic waste-processing area in northern Vietnam. During the study period, PBDE and alternative FR concentrations in soils around the electronic waste-processing workshops ranged from 37 to 9200 ng g -1 dry weight (dw) and from 35 to 24,000 ng g -1 dw; the concentrations in soils around the open-burning sites ranged from 1.6 to 62 ng g -1 dw and from <4 to 1900 ng g -1 dw; and the concentrations in river sediments around the workshops ranged from 100 to 3800 ng g -1 dw and from 23 to 6800 ng g -1 dw, respectively. Over the course of study period, we observed significant decreases in concentrations of PBDEs and significant increases in concentrations of alternative FRs, particularly Dechlorane Plus isomers and oligomeric organophosphorus FRs (o-PFRs) in both soils and sediments around the workshops. We also report information on concentrations and environmental emissions of o-PFRs and their low-molecular-weight impurities in the same soils and sediments. The detection of o-PFR impurities around the workshops and the open-burning sites highlights an enhanced breakdown of o-PFRs probably due to weathering during open storage and high temperature attained during the burning of electronic wastes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The ATLAS3D project - XXVI. H I discs in real and simulated fast and slow rotators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Paolo; Oser, Ludwig; Krajnović, Davor; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Morganti, Raffaella; Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Young, Lisa M.; Blitz, Leo; Davis, Timothy A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Hirschmann, Michaela; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Alatalo, Katherine; Bayet, Estelle; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, Martin; Crocker, Alison F.; Davies, Roger L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; McDermid, Richard M.; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas

    2014-11-01

    One quarter of all nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) outside Virgo host a disc/ring of H I with size from a few to tens of kpc and mass up to ˜109 M⊙. Here we investigate whether this H I is related to the presence of a stellar disc within the host making use of the classification of ETGs in fast and slow rotators (FR/SR). We find a large diversity of H I masses and morphologies within both families. Surprisingly, SRs are detected as often, host as much H I and have a similar rate of H I discs/rings as FRs. Accretion of H I is therefore not always linked to the growth of an inner stellar disc. The weak relation between H I and stellar disc is confirmed by their frequent kinematical misalignment in FRs, including cases of polar and counterrotating gas. In SRs the H I is usually polar. This complex picture highlights a diversity of ETG formation histories which may be lost in the relative simplicity of their inner structure and emerges when studying their outer regions. We find that Λ CDM hydrodynamical simulations have difficulties reproducing the H I properties of ETGs. The gas discs formed in simulations are either too massive or too small depending on the star formation feedback implementation. Kinematical misalignments match the observations only qualitatively. The main point of conflict is that nearly all simulated FRs and a large fraction of all simulated SRs host corotating H I. This establishes the H I properties of ETGs as a novel challenge to simulations.

  9. Congenital malformations associated with assisted reproductive technology: a California statewide analysis.

    PubMed

    Kelley-Quon, Lorraine I; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Janzen, Carla; Shew, Stephen B

    2013-06-01

    Management of congenital malformations comprises a large part of pediatric surgical care. Despite increasing utilization of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and fertility-related services (FRS), associations with birth defects are poorly understood. Infants born after ART or FRS were identified from the California Linked Birth Cohort Dataset from 2006 to 2007 and compared to propensity matched infants conceived naturally. Factors associated with major congenital malformations were evaluated using Firth logistic regression. With a cohort of 4,795 infants born after ART and 46,025 naturally conceived matched controls, major congenital malformations were identified in 3,463 infants. Malformations were increased for ART infants (9.0% vs. 6.6%, p<0.001). After adjusting for infant and maternal factors, ART infants exhibited increased odds of major malformations overall (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.12-1.39), specifically defects of the eye (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.04-3.16), head and neck (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.00-1.86), heart (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.22-1.64), and genitourinary system (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.09-1.82). The likelihood of birth defects was increased for multiples (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.18-1.54) and not singletons. Odds of congenital malformation after FRS alone (n=1,749) were non-significant. ART contributes a significant risk of congenital malformation and may be more pronounced for multiples. Accurate counseling for parents considering ART and multidisciplinary coordination of care prior to delivery are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Concentrations in air of organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphate flame retardants in Toronto, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Ahrens, Lutz; Jantunen, Liisa; Harner, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Concentrations of organobromine (BFRs), organochlorine (CFRs) and organophosphate esters flame retardants and plasticizers (PFRs) in air were monitored for over one year at an urban site in Toronto, Canada during 2010-2011. The mean value for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) (gas + particle phase) was 38 pg/m3 with BDE-47 and BDE-99 as the dominant congeners. The mean concentrations in air for ∑non-BDE (BFRs and CFRs), was 9.6 pg/m3 - about four times lower than the BDEs. The brominated FRs: TBP-AE, BTBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and the chlorinated syn- and anti-DP were detected frequently, ranging from 87% to 96%. Highest concentrations in air among all flame retardant classes were observed for the Σ-PFRs. The yearly mean concentration in air for ΣPFRs was 2643 pg/m3 with detection frequency higher than 80%. Except for TBP-AE and b- DBE-DBCH, non-BDEs (BFRs, CFRs and PFRs) were mainly associated with the particle phase. BDE concentrations in air were positively correlated with temperature indicating that volatilization from local sources was an important factor controlling levels in air. This correlation did not hold for most BFRs, CFRs and PFRs which were mainly on particles. For these compounds, air concentrations in Toronto are likely related to emissions from point sources and advective inputs. This study highlights the importance of urban air monitoring for FRs. Urban air can be considered a sentinel for detecting changes in the use and application of FRs in commercial products.

  11. Selection and Neutral Mutations Drive Pervasive Mutability Losses in Long-Lived Anti-HIV B-Cell Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Marcos C; Zinder, Daniel; Cobey, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Abstract High-affinity antibodies arise within weeks of infection from the evolution of B-cell receptors under selection to improve antigen recognition. This rapid adaptation is enabled by the distribution of highly mutable “hotspot” motifs in B-cell receptor genes. High mutability in antigen-binding regions (complementarity determining regions [CDRs]) creates variation in binding affinity, whereas low mutability in structurally important regions (framework regions [FRs]) may reduce the frequency of destabilizing mutations. During the response, loss of mutational hotspots and changes in their distribution across CDRs and FRs are predicted to compromise the adaptability of B-cell receptors, yet the contributions of different mechanisms to gains and losses of hotspots remain unclear. We reconstructed changes in anti-HIV B-cell receptor sequences and show that mutability losses were ∼56% more frequent than gains in both CDRs and FRs, with the higher relative mutability of CDRs maintained throughout the response. At least 21% of the total mutability loss was caused by synonymous mutations. However, nonsynonymous substitutions caused most (79%) of the mutability loss in CDRs. Because CDRs also show strong positive selection, this result suggests that selection for mutations that increase binding affinity contributed to loss of mutability in antigen-binding regions. Although recurrent adaptation to evolving viruses could indirectly select for high mutation rates, we found no evidence of indirect selection to increase or retain hotspots. Our results suggest mutability losses are intrinsic to both the neutral and adaptive evolution of B-cell populations and might constrain their adaptation to rapidly evolving pathogens such as HIV and influenza. PMID:29688540

  12. Machine learning for prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: a 5-year multicentre prospective registry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Manish; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel S.; Germano, Guido; Achenbach, Stephan; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H.; Andreini, Daniele; Budoff, Matthew J.; Cademartiri, Filippo; Callister, Tracy Q.; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Chinnaiyan, Kavitha; Chow, Benjamin J.W.; Cury, Ricardo C.; Delago, Augustin; Gomez, Millie; Gransar, Heidi; Hadamitzky, Martin; Hausleiter, Joerg; Hindoyan, Niree; Feuchtner, Gudrun; Kaufmann, Philipp A.; Kim, Yong-Jin; Leipsic, Jonathon; Lin, Fay Y.; Maffei, Erica; Marques, Hugo; Pontone, Gianluca; Raff, Gilbert; Rubinshtein, Ronen; Shaw, Leslee J.; Stehli, Julia; Villines, Todd C.; Dunning, Allison; Min, James K.; Slomka, Piotr J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims Traditional prognostic risk assessment in patients undergoing non-invasive imaging is based upon a limited selection of clinical and imaging findings. Machine learning (ML) can consider a greater number and complexity of variables. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility and accuracy of ML to predict 5-year all-cause mortality (ACM) in patients undergoing coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), and compared the performance to existing clinical or CCTA metrics. Methods and results The analysis included 10 030 patients with suspected coronary artery disease and 5-year follow-up from the COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter registry. All patients underwent CCTA as their standard of care. Twenty-five clinical and 44 CCTA parameters were evaluated, including segment stenosis score (SSS), segment involvement score (SIS), modified Duke index (DI), number of segments with non-calcified, mixed or calcified plaques, age, sex, gender, standard cardiovascular risk factors, and Framingham risk score (FRS). Machine learning involved automated feature selection by information gain ranking, model building with a boosted ensemble algorithm, and 10-fold stratified cross-validation. Seven hundred and forty-five patients died during 5-year follow-up. Machine learning exhibited a higher area-under-curve compared with the FRS or CCTA severity scores alone (SSS, SIS, DI) for predicting all-cause mortality (ML: 0.79 vs. FRS: 0.61, SSS: 0.64, SIS: 0.64, DI: 0.62; P< 0.001). Conclusions Machine learning combining clinical and CCTA data was found to predict 5-year ACM significantly better than existing clinical or CCTA metrics alone. PMID:27252451

  13. 75 FR 44234 - Notice of Proposed Extension of Project Period and Waiver for the National Center on Educational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... inclusion of children with disabilities in assessments, as the Department works on reauthorization of the... request, technical assistance to States regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities as they... the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll-free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can...

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMALL CHAMBER METHOD FOR SVOC SINK EFFECT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the details of the improved chamber system and reports the sink effect study for organophosphorus flame retardants (OP-FRs), including tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate(TCEP), tris(1-chlor-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDC...

  15. Transforming Benzophenoxazine Laser Dyes into Chromophores for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells: A Molecular Engineering Approach

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schröder, Florian A. Y. N.; Cole, Jacqueline M.; Waddell, Paul G.

    2015-02-03

    The re-functionalization of a series of four well-known industrial laser dyes, based on benzophenoxazine, is explored with the prospect of molecularly engineering new chromophores for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Such engineering is important since a lack of suitable dyes is stifling the progress of DSC technology. The conceptual idea involves making laser dyes DSC-active by chemical modification, while maintaining their key property attributes that are attractive to DSC applications. This molecular engineering follows a step-wise approach. Firstly, molecular structures and optical absorption properties are determined for the parent laser dyes: Cresyl Violet (1); Oxazine 170 (2); Nile Blue Amore » (3), Oxazine 750 (4). These reveal structure-property relationships which define the prerequisites for computational molecular design of DSC dyes; the nature of their molecular architecture (D-π-A) and intramolecular charge transfer. Secondly, new DSC dyes are computationally designed by the in silico addition of a carboxylic acid anchor at various chemical substitution points in the parent laser dyes. A comparison of the resulting frontier molecular orbital energy levels with the conduction band edge of a TiO2 DSC photoanode and the redox potential of two electrolyte options I-/I3- and Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl) suggests promise for these computationally designed dyes as co-sensitizers for DSC applications.« less

  16. Media Coverage of FDA Drug Safety Communications about Zolpidem: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis.

    PubMed

    Woloshin, Steve; Schwartz, Lisa M; Dejene, Sara; Rausch, Paula; Dal Pan, Gerald J; Zhou, Esther H; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2017-05-01

    FDA issues Drug Safety Communications (DSCs) to alert health care professionals and the public about emerging safety information affecting prescription and over-the-counter drugs. News media may amplify DSCs, but it is unclear how DSC messaging is transmitted through the media. We conducted a content analysis of the lay media coverage reaching the broadest audience to characterize the amount and content of media coverage of two zolpidem DSCs from 2013. After the first DSC, zolpidem news stories increased from 19 stories/week in the preceding 3 months to 153 following its release. Most (81%) appeared in the lay media, and 64% focused on the DSC content. After the second DSC, news stories increased from 24 stories/week in the preceding 3 months to 39 following. Among the 100 unique lay media news stories, at least half correctly reported three key DSC messages: next-day impairment and drowsiness as common safety hazards, lower doses for some but not all zolpidem products, and women's higher risk for impairment. Other DSC messages were reported in fewer than one-third of stories, such as the warning that impairment can happen even when people feel fully awake. The first-but not the second-zolpidem DSC generated high-profile news coverage. The finding that some messages were widely reported but others were not emphasizes the importance of ensuring translation of key DSC content.

  17. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations, and...-STD, “RTCM Recommended Minimum Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment Providing... Class ‘D’ Digital Selective Calling (DSC)—Methods of testing and required test results,” March 2003. ITU...

  18. 78 FR 16463 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... evaluations, and as a sampling frame for the American Community Survey and our other demographic current... area and group quarters frame listings for many ongoing demographic surveys (the Current Population... blocks in the area or group quarters frame sample for the demographic surveys. FRs will update existing...

  19. Majors' Shift to Natural Gas, The

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    The Majors' Shift to Natural Gas investigates the factors that have guided the United States' major energy producers' growth in U.S. natural gas production relative to oil production. The analysis draws heavily on financial and operating data from the Energy Information Administration's Financial Reporting System (FRS)

  20. Gene Transcription, Metabolite and Lipid Profiling in Eco-Indicator Daphnia magna Indicate Diverse Mechanisms of Toxicity by Legacy and Emerging Flame-Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of chemical flame-retardants (FR) in consumer products has steadily increased over the last 30 years. Toxicity data exist for legacy FRs such as pentabromodiphenyl ether (pentaBDE), but less is known about effects of new formulations. To address this issue, the toxicity o...

  1. 7 CFR 1744.66 - The financial requirement statement (FRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... amount, exclusive of the amount for class B stock, of each loan advance, at the time of such advance. (5) Operating expenses—(i) Working capital—new system. Based on the borrower's itemized estimate. (ii) Current... part 1753. (iv) Real estate. Upon request by the borrower after submission of evidence of a valid title...

  2. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is strongly expressed in the fetal bovine ileal Peyer's patch and spleen and is associated with expansion of the primary antibody repertoire in the absence of exogenous antigens.

    PubMed

    Liljavirta, J; Ekman, A; Knight, J S; Pernthaner, A; Iivanainen, A; Niku, M

    2013-09-01

    Due to a limited range of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes, cattle and several other domestic animals rely on postrecombinatorial amplification of the primary repertoire. We report that activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is strongly expressed in the fetal bovine ileal Peyer's patch and spleen but not in fetal bone marrow. The numbers of IGHV (immunoglobulin heavy chain variable) mutations correlate with AID expression. The mutational profile in the fetuses is similar to postnatal and immunized calves, with targeting of complementarity-determining region (CDR) over framework region (FR), preference of replacement over silent mutations in CDRs but not in FRs, and targeting of the AID hotspot motif RGYW/WRCY. Statistical analysis indicates negative selection on FRs and positive selection on CDRs. Our results suggest that AID-mediated somatic hypermutation and selection take place in bovine fetuses, implying a role for AID in the diversification of the primary antibody repertoire in the absence of exogenous antigens.

  3. Formulation of microspheres containing Crataegus monogyna Jacq. extract with free radical scavenging activity.

    PubMed

    Lucconi, Giulia; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Martino, Emanuela; Gaggeri, Raffaella; Perteghella, Sara; Rossi, Daniela; Faragò, Silvio; Vigo, Daniele; Faustini, Massimo; Collina, Simona; Torre, Maria Luisa

    2014-02-01

    Extracts of Crataegus monogyna Jacq. (hawthorn) show an interesting free radical scavenging (FRS) effect, related to their flavonoids content. Unfortunately, their oral administration is affected by their low bioavailability. The aim of this work is to obtain a multiparticulate drug delivery system for hawthorn extracts for oral administration. The extracts from flowering tops (FL) or fruits (FR) of hawthorn were obtained with maceration, using ethanol as an extraction solvent, and their antioxidant activity was evaluated. FL extract showed the highest FRS activity (EC50 3.72 ± 1.21 µg/ml), so it was selected to prepare microparticulate systems by a spray-drying technique, which were characterized by granulometric analysis, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal fluorescence microscopy and hyperoside content. Antioxidant activity was evaluated before and after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation. Results indicate that the microparticulate systems maintained the antioxidant activity of hawthorn also after gastrointestinal transit in vitro simulation, exhibiting properties suitable for oral administration.

  4. Design of Safer Flame Retardant Textiles through Inclusion Complex Formation with Cyclodextrins: A Combined Experimental and Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Nanshan

    Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is widely used as a phosphorus flame retardant. It is also one component of a commercial flame retardant mixture known as Firemaster 550. TPP is likely to be released into the environment due to its high volatility and has been detected at a concentration as high as 47,000 ng/m3 in air. Recent studies have also indicated that FRs like TPP could contribute to obesity and osteoporosis in humans. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are enzymatic degradation products of starch and consist of several (alpha-1,4)-linked alpha-Dglucopyranose units. CDs own a hydrophilic outside and a hydrophobic inner cavity, which enables the formation of non-covalently bonded cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) with a vast array of molecules. We hypothesize that the formation of inclusion complexes between TPP and cyclodextrins will reduce its exposure yet also retain flame retarding properties of TPP, since the formation of FR-CD-ICs is expected to eliminate unnecessary loss of FRs, especially volatile FR compounds like TPP, and release them only during a fire when they are actually needed. After creating the TPP-beta-CD-IC, we applied it to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films by a hot press technique. Flame tests indicated TPP-beta-CD-IC exhibited flame resistant performance matching that of neat TPP, even though much less TPP was contained in its beta-CD-IC. Incorporation of FRs and other chemical additives into textile substrates in the form of their crystalline CD-ICs is a promising way to reduce the exposure of hazardous chemicals to humans and to our environment while not impacting their efficacy. Two other parent CDs (alpha-CD and gamma-CD) were applied and their abilities to form ICs with guest TPP were studied. Results from a series of characterization methods, including FTIR, DSC, TGA, XRD and NMR indicated the successful synthesis of TPP-gamma-CD-IC via two routes. However, alpha-CD appears unable to form an IC with TPP, which is likely attributable to a

  5. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  6. Assessment of accuracy and efficiency of atlas-based autosegmentation for prostate radiotherapy in a variety of clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Simmat, I; Georg, P; Georg, D; Birkfellner, W; Goldner, G; Stock, M

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to evaluate the commercially available atlas-based autosegmentation software for clinical use in prostate radiotherapy. The accuracy was benchmarked against interobserver variability. A total of 20 planning computed tomographs (CTs) and 10 cone-beam CTs (CBCTs) were selected for prostate, rectum, and bladder delineation. The images varied regarding to individual (age, body mass index) and setup parameters (contrast agent, rectal balloon, implanted markers). Automatically created contours with ABAS(®) and iPlan(®) were compared to an expert's delineation by calculating the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and conformity index. Demo-atlases of both systems showed different results for bladder (DSC(ABAS) 0.86 ± 0.17, DSC(iPlan) 0.51 ± 0.30) and prostate (DSC(ABAS) 0.71 ± 0.14, DSC(iPlan) 0.57 ± 0.19). Rectum delineation (DSC(ABAS) 0.78 ± 0.11, DSC(iPlan) 0.84 ± 0.08) demonstrated differences between the systems but better correlation of the automatically drawn volumes. ABAS(®) was closest to the interobserver benchmark. Autosegmentation with iPlan(®), ABAS(®) and manual segmentation took 0.5, 4 and 15-20 min, respectively. Automatic contouring on CBCT showed high dependence on image quality (DSC bladder 0.54, rectum 0.42, prostate 0.34). For clinical routine, efforts are still necessary to either redesign algorithms implemented in autosegmentation or to optimize image quality for CBCT to guarantee required accuracy and time savings for adaptive radiotherapy.

  7. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an INMARSAT ship earth station capable of two way communication. (b) The VHF radio installation... which the ship is normally navigated, operating either: (1) On VHF using DSC; or (2) Through the polar... voyages within coverage of MF coast stations equipped with DSC; or (4) On HF using DSC; or (5) Through the...

  8. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an INMARSAT ship earth station capable of two way communication. (b) The VHF radio installation... which the ship is normally navigated, operating either: (1) On VHF using DSC; or (2) Through the polar... voyages within coverage of MF coast stations equipped with DSC; or (4) On HF using DSC; or (5) Through the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1087 - Ship radio equipment-Sea area A1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an INMARSAT ship earth station capable of two way communication. (b) The VHF radio installation... which the ship is normally navigated, operating either: (1) On VHF using DSC; or (2) Through the polar... voyages within coverage of MF coast stations equipped with DSC; or (4) On HF using DSC; or (5) Through the...

  10. 78 FR 38304 - Applications for New Awards; Native Hawaiian Career and Technical Education Program (NHCTEP...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the Federal... Service (FRS), toll free, at 1- 800-877-8339. Accessible Format: Individuals with disabilities can obtain... Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at the site. You may also access documents of the...

  11. 77 FR 3751 - Extension of Deadlines; Upward Bound Program (Regular Upward Bound (UB))

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access to the official edition of the... Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-(800) 877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On..., you must have Adobe Acrobat Reader, which is available free at this site. You may also access...

  12. 76 FR 12719 - Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools; Safe Schools/Healthy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... official version of this document is the document published in the Federal Register. Free Internet access... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Safe Schools/Healthy Students Program; Office of Safe and Drug- Free... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Relay Service (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339...

  13. William E. Wilson and his contemporaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, I.

    Although he never attended school or university, William E. Wilson FRS, of Daramona, County Westmeath, made pioneering contributions to solar physics, celestial photography and stellar photometry. His well-equipped observatory attracted collaborators who included George Francis FitzGerald of Trinity College Dublin and Arthur Rambaut of Dunsink Observatory.

  14. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to any...

  15. 47 CFR 95.649 - Power capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Power capability. 95.649 Section 95.649... SERVICES Technical Regulations Certification Requirements § 95.649 Power capability. No CB, R/C, LPRS, FRS, MedRadio, MURS, or WMTS unit shall incorporate provisions for increasing its transmitter power to any...

  16. 75 FR 30005 - Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services; List of Correspondence

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Topic Addressed: Maintenance of Effort [cir] Letter dated October 29, 2009 to Learning Disabilities... the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Under section 607(f) of the IDEA, the... (FRS), toll free, at 1-800-877-8339. Individuals with disabilities can obtain a copy of this notice in...

  17. Center Variation and Outcomes Associated with Delayed Sternal Closure Following Stage 1 Palliation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jason N.; Jaggers, James; Li, Shuang; O’Brien, Sean M.; Li, Jennifer S.; Jacobs, Jeffrey P.; Jacobs, Marshall L.; Welke, Karl F.; Peterson, Eric D.; Pasquali, Sara K.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives There is debate whether primary or delayed sternal closure (DSC) is the best strategy following Stage 1 palliation (S1P) for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). We describe center variation in DSC following S1P and associated outcomes. Methods Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Database participants performing S1P for HLHS from 2000–2007 were included. We examined center variation in DSC, and compared in-hospital mortality, prolonged length of stay (LOS >6wks), and postoperative infection in centers with low (≤25% of cases), middle (26%–74% of cases), and high (≥75% of cases) DSC utilization, adjusting for patient and center factors. Results There were 1283 patients (45 centers) included. Median age and weight at surgery were 6d (IQR4-9d) and 3.2 kg (IQR2.8–3.5kg); 59% were male. DSC was used in 74% (range 3–100% of cases/center). In centers with high (n=23) and middle (n=17) vs. low (n=5) DSC utilization, there was a greater proportion of patients with prolonged LOS and infection, and a trend toward increased in-hospital mortality in unadjusted analysis. In multivariable analysis, there was no difference in mortality. Centers with high and middle DSC utilization had prolonged LOS [OR (95%CI): 2.83(1.46–5.47) p=0.002 and 2.23(1.17–4.26) p=0.02] and more infection [2.34(1.20–4.57) p=0.01 and 2.37(1.36–4.16) p=0.003]. Conclusions Utilization of DSC following S1P varies widely. These observational data suggest more frequent use of DSC is associated with longer LOS and higher postoperative infection rates. Further evaluation of the risks and benefits of DSC in the management of these complex infants is necessary. PMID:20167337

  18. Comparison of the transformation temperatures of heat-activated Nickel-Titanium orthodontic archwires by two different techniques.

    PubMed

    Obaisi, Noor Aminah; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Evans, Carla A; Tsay, Tzong Guang Peter; Viana, Grace; Berzins, David; Megremis, Spiro

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the suitability of the Bend and Free Recovery (BFR) method as a standard test method to determine the transformation temperatures of heat-activated Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires. This was done by determining the transformation temperatures of two brands of heat-activated Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires using the both the BFR method and the standard method of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The values obtained from the two methods were compared with each other and to the manufacturer-listed values. Forty heat-activated Ni-Ti archwires from both Rocky Mountain Orthodontics (RMO) and Opal Orthodontics (Opal) were tested using BFR and DSC. Round (0.016 inches) and rectangular (0.019×0.025 inches) archwires from each manufacturer were tested. The austenite start temperatures (As) and austenite finish temperatures (Af) were recorded. For four of the eight test groups, the BFR method resulted in lower standard deviations than the DSC method, and, overall, the average standard deviation for BFR testing was slightly lower than for DSC testing. Statistically significant differences were seen between the transformation temperatures obtained from the BFR and DSC test methods. However, the Af temperatures obtained from the two methods were remarkably similar with the mean differences ranging from 0.0 to 2.1°C: Af Opal round (BFR 26.7°C, DSC 27.6°C) and rectangular (BFR 27.6°C, DSC 28.6°C); Af RMO round (BFR 25.5°C, DSC 25.5°C) and rectangular (BFR 28.0°C, DSC 25.9°C). Significant differences were observed between the manufacturer-listed transformation temperatures and those obtained with BFR and DSC testing for both manufacturers. The results of this study suggest that the Bend and Free Recovery method is suitable as a standard method to evaluate the transformation temperatures of heat-activated Ni-Ti orthodontic archwires. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A novel abbreviation standard for organobromine, organochlorine and organophosphorus flame retardants and some characteristics of the chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Åke; Rydén, Andreas; Law, Robin J.; de Boer, Jacob; Covaci, Adrian; Alaee, Mehran; Birnbaum, Linda; Petreas, Myrto; Rose, Martin; Sakai, Shinichi; Van den Eede, Nele; van der Veen, Ike

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the interest in organic environmental contaminants first emerged 50 years ago, there has been a need to present discussion of such chemicals and their transformation products using simple abbreviations so as to avoid the repetitive use of long chemical names. As the number of chemicals of concern has increased, the number of abbreviations has also increased dramatically, sometimes resulting in the use of different abbreviations for the same chemical. In this article, we propose abbreviations for flame retardants (FRs) substituted with bromine or chlorine atoms or including a functional group containing phosphorus, i.e. BFRs, CFRs and PFRs, respectively. Due to the large number of halogenated and organophosphorus FRs, it has become increasingly important to develop a strategy for abbreviating the chemical names of FRs. In this paper, a two step procedure is proposed for deriving practical abbreviations (PRABs) for the chemicals discussed. In the first step, structural abbreviations (STABs) are developed using specific STAB criteria based on the FR structure. However, since several of the derived STABs are complicated and long, we propose instead the use of PRABs. These are, commonly, an extract of the most essential part of the STAB, while also considering abbreviations previously used in the literature. We indicate how these can be used to develop an abbreviation that can be generally accepted by scientists and other professionals involved in FR related work. Tables with PRABs and STABs for BFRs, CFRs and PFRs are presented, including CAS (Chemical Abstract Service) numbers, notes of abbreviations that have been used previously, CA (Chemical Abstract) name, common names and trade names, as well as some fundamental physico-chemical constants. PMID:22982223

  20. A Comparison Study of an Active Region Eruptive Filament and a Neighboring Non-Eruptive Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. T.; Jiang, C.; Feng, X. S.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    We perform a comparison study of an eruptive filament in the core region of AR 11283 and a nearby non-eruptive filament. The coronal magnetic field supporting these two filaments is extrapolated using our data-driven CESE-MHD-NLFFF code (Jiang et al. 2013, Jiang etal. 2014), which presents two magnetic flux ropes (FRs) in the same extrapolation box. The eruptive FR contains a bald-patch separatrix surface (BPSS) spatially co-aligned very well with a pre-eruption EUV sigmoid, which is consistent with the BPSS model for the coronal sigmoids. The numerically reproduced magnetic dips of the FRs match observations of the filaments strikingly well, which supports strongly the FR-dip model for filaments. The FR that supports the AR eruptive filament is much smaller (with a length of 3 Mm) compared with the large-scale FR holding the quiescent filament (with a length of 30 Mm). But the AR eruptive FR contains most of the magnetic free energy in the extrapolation box and holds a much higher magnetic energy density than the quiescent FR, because it resides along the main polarity inversion line (PIL) around sunspots with strong magnetic shear. Both the FRs are weakly twisted and cannot trigger kink instability. The AR eruptive FR is unstable because its axis reaches above a critical height for torus instability (TI), at which the overlying closed arcades can no longer confine the FR stably. To the contrary, the quiescent FR is firmly held down by its overlying field, as its axis apex is far below the TI threshold height. (This work is partially supported by NSF AGS-1153323 and 1062050)