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Sample records for sympatric ecological speciation

  1. Possible incipient sympatric ecological speciation in blind mole rats (Spalax).

    PubMed

    Hadid, Yarin; Tzur, Shay; Pavlícek, Tomáš; Šumbera, Radim; Šklíba, Jan; Lövy, Matěj; Fragman-Sapir, Ori; Beiles, Avigdor; Arieli, Ran; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-02-12

    Sympatric speciation has been controversial since it was first proposed as a mode of speciation. Subterranean blind mole rats (Spalacidae) are considered to speciate allopatrically or peripatrically. Here, we report a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation in Spalax galili (2n = 52). The study microsite (0.04 km(2)) is sharply subdivided geologically, edaphically, and ecologically into abutting barrier-free ecologies divergent in rock, soil, and vegetation types. The Pleistocene Alma basalt abuts the Cretaceous Senonian Kerem Ben Zimra chalk. Only 28% of 112 plant species were shared between the soils. We examined mitochondrial DNA in the control region and ATP6 in 28 mole rats from basalt and in 14 from chalk habitats. We also sequenced the complete mtDNA (16,423 bp) of four animals, two from each soil type. Remarkably, the frequency of all major haplotype clusters (HC) was highly soil-biased. HCI and HCII are chalk biased. HC-III was abundant in basalt (36%) but absent in chalk; HC-IV was prevalent in basalt (46.5%) but was low (20%) in chalk. Up to 40% of the mtDNA diversity was edaphically dependent, suggesting constrained gene flow. We identified a homologous recombinant mtDNA in the basalt/chalk studied area. Phenotypically significant divergences differentiate the two populations, inhabiting different soils, in adaptive oxygen consumption and in the amount of outside-nest activity. This identification of a possible incipient sympatric adaptive ecological speciation caused by natural selection indirectly refutes the allopatric alternative. Sympatric ecological speciation may be more prevalent in nature because of abundant and sharply abutting divergent ecologies.

  2. Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 1. Gene expression, selection and pleiotropy.

    PubMed

    Dunning, L T; Hipperson, H; Baker, W J; Butlin, R K; Devaux, C; Hutton, I; Igea, J; Papadopulos, A S T; Quan, X; Smadja, C M; Turnbull, C G N; Savolainen, V

    2016-08-01

    Ecological speciation requires divergent selection, reproductive isolation and a genetic mechanism to link the two. We examined the role of gene expression and coding sequence evolution in this process using two species of Howea palms that have diverged sympatrically on Lord Howe Island, Australia. These palms are associated with distinct soil types and have displaced flowering times, representing an ideal candidate for ecological speciation. We generated large amounts of RNA-Seq data from multiple individuals and tissue types collected on the island from each of the two species. We found that differentially expressed loci as well as those with divergent coding sequences between Howea species were associated with known ecological and phenotypic differences, including response to salinity, drought, pH and flowering time. From these loci, we identified potential 'ecological speciation genes' and further validate their effect on flowering time by knocking out orthologous loci in a model plant species. Finally, we put forward six plausible ecological speciation loci, providing support for the hypothesis that pleiotropy could help to overcome the antagonism between selection and recombination during speciation with gene flow. PMID:27177130

  3. Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 1. Gene expression, selection and pleiotropy.

    PubMed

    Dunning, L T; Hipperson, H; Baker, W J; Butlin, R K; Devaux, C; Hutton, I; Igea, J; Papadopulos, A S T; Quan, X; Smadja, C M; Turnbull, C G N; Savolainen, V

    2016-08-01

    Ecological speciation requires divergent selection, reproductive isolation and a genetic mechanism to link the two. We examined the role of gene expression and coding sequence evolution in this process using two species of Howea palms that have diverged sympatrically on Lord Howe Island, Australia. These palms are associated with distinct soil types and have displaced flowering times, representing an ideal candidate for ecological speciation. We generated large amounts of RNA-Seq data from multiple individuals and tissue types collected on the island from each of the two species. We found that differentially expressed loci as well as those with divergent coding sequences between Howea species were associated with known ecological and phenotypic differences, including response to salinity, drought, pH and flowering time. From these loci, we identified potential 'ecological speciation genes' and further validate their effect on flowering time by knocking out orthologous loci in a model plant species. Finally, we put forward six plausible ecological speciation loci, providing support for the hypothesis that pleiotropy could help to overcome the antagonism between selection and recombination during speciation with gene flow.

  4. Incipient speciation in sympatric Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fishes: sexual selection versus ecological diversification.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A B; Noack-Kunnmann, K; Meyer, A

    2000-01-01

    The growing body of empirical evidence for sympatric speciation has been complemented by recent theoretical treatments that have identified evolutionary conditions conducive to speciation in sympatry. The Neotropical Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellum) fits both of the key characteristics of these models, with strong assortative mating on the basis of a colour polymorphism coupled with trophic and ecological differentiation derived from a polymorphism in their pharyngeal jaws. We used microsatellite markers and a 480 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region to study four polymorphic populations of the Midas cichlid from three crater lakes and one large lake in Nicaragua in an investigation of incipient sympatric speciation. All populations were strongly genetically differentiated on the basis of geography. We identified strong genetic separation based on colour polymorphism for populations from Lake Nicaragua and one crater lake (Lake Apoyo), but failed to find significant genetic structuring based on trophic differences and ecological niche separation in any of the four populations studied. These data support the idea that sexual selection through assortative mating contributes more strongly or earlier during speciation in sympatry than ecological separation in these cichlids. The long-term persistence of divergent cichlid ecotypes (as measured by the percentage sequence divergence between populations) in Central American crater lakes, despite a lack of fixed genetic differentiation, differs strikingly from the patterns of extremely rapid speciation in the cichlids in Africa, including its crater lakes. It is unclear whether extrinsic environmental factors or intrinsic biological differences, e.g. in the degree of phenotypic plasticity, promote different mechanisms and thereby rates of speciation of cichlid fishes from the Old and New Worlds. PMID:11413624

  5. Incipient speciation in sympatric Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fishes: sexual selection versus ecological diversification.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A B; Noack-Kunnmann, K; Meyer, A

    2000-11-01

    The growing body of empirical evidence for sympatric speciation has been complemented by recent theoretical treatments that have identified evolutionary conditions conducive to speciation in sympatry. The Neotropical Midas cichlid (Amphilophus citrinellum) fits both of the key characteristics of these models, with strong assortative mating on the basis of a colour polymorphism coupled with trophic and ecological differentiation derived from a polymorphism in their pharyngeal jaws. We used microsatellite markers and a 480 bp fragment of the mitochondrial DNA control region to study four polymorphic populations of the Midas cichlid from three crater lakes and one large lake in Nicaragua in an investigation of incipient sympatric speciation. All populations were strongly genetically differentiated on the basis of geography. We identified strong genetic separation based on colour polymorphism for populations from Lake Nicaragua and one crater lake (Lake Apoyo), but failed to find significant genetic structuring based on trophic differences and ecological niche separation in any of the four populations studied. These data support the idea that sexual selection through assortative mating contributes more strongly or earlier during speciation in sympatry than ecological separation in these cichlids. The long-term persistence of divergent cichlid ecotypes (as measured by the percentage sequence divergence between populations) in Central American crater lakes, despite a lack of fixed genetic differentiation, differs strikingly from the patterns of extremely rapid speciation in the cichlids in Africa, including its crater lakes. It is unclear whether extrinsic environmental factors or intrinsic biological differences, e.g. in the degree of phenotypic plasticity, promote different mechanisms and thereby rates of speciation of cichlid fishes from the Old and New Worlds.

  6. On the origin of species by sympatric speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieckmann, Ulf; Doebeli, Michael

    1999-07-01

    Understanding speciation is a fundamental biological problem. It is believed that many species originated through allopatric divergence, where new species arise from geographically isolated populations of the same ancestral species. In contrast, the possibility of sympatric speciation (in which new species arise without geographical isolation) has often been dismissed, partly because of theoretical difficulties,. Most previous models analysing sympatric speciation concentrated on particular aspects of the problem while neglecting others. Here we present a model that integrates a novel combination of different features and show that sympatric speciation is a likely outcome of competition for resources. We use multilocus genetics to describe sexual reproduction in an individual-based model, and we consider the evolution of assortative mating (where individuals mate preferentially with like individuals) depending either on an ecological character affecting resource use or on a selectively neutral marker trait. In both cases, evolution of assortative mating often leads to reproductive isolation between ecologically diverging subpopulations. When assortative mating depends on a marker trait, and is therefore not directly linked to resource competition, speciation occurs when genetic drift breaks the linkage equilibrium between the marker and the ecological trait. Our theory conforms well with mounting empirical evidence for the sympatric origin of many species.

  7. Sympatric speciation by allochrony in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Smith, A L; Gómez-Díaz, E; Bolton, M; Furness, R W; González-Solís, J; Monteiro, L R

    2007-11-20

    The importance of sympatric speciation (the evolution of reproductive isolation between codistributed populations) in generating biodiversity is highly controversial. Whereas potential examples of sympatric speciation exist for plants, insects, and fishes, most theoretical models suggest that it requires conditions that are probably not common in nature, and only two possible cases have been described for tetrapods. One mechanism by which it could occur is through allochronic isolation-separation of populations by breeding time. Oceanodroma castro (the Madeiran or band-rumped storm-petrel) is a small seabird that nests on tropical and subtropical islands throughout the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. In at least five archipelagos, different individuals breed on the same islands in different seasons. We compared variation in five microsatellite loci and the mitochondrial control region among 562 O. castro from throughout the species' range. We found that sympatric seasonal populations differ genetically within all five archipelagos and have ceased to exchange genes in two. Population and gene trees all indicate that seasonal populations within four of the archipelagos are more closely related to each other than to populations from the same season from other archipelagos; divergence of the fifth sympatric pair is too ancient for reliable inference. Thus, seasonal populations appear to have arisen sympatrically at least four times. This is the first evidence for sympatric speciation by allochrony in a tetrapod, and adds to growing indications that population differentiation and speciation can occur without geographic barriers to gene flow. PMID:18006662

  8. Genomics of Rapid Incipient Speciation in Sympatric Threespine Stickleback

    PubMed Central

    Marques, David A.; Lucek, Kay; Meier, Joana I.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Ecological speciation is the process by which reproductively isolated populations emerge as a consequence of divergent natural or ecologically-mediated sexual selection. Most genomic studies of ecological speciation have investigated allopatric populations, making it difficult to infer reproductive isolation. The few studies on sympatric ecotypes have focused on advanced stages of the speciation process after thousands of generations of divergence. As a consequence, we still do not know what genomic signatures of the early onset of ecological speciation look like. Here, we examined genomic differentiation among migratory lake and resident stream ecotypes of threespine stickleback reproducing in sympatry in one stream, and in parapatry in another stream. Importantly, these ecotypes started diverging less than 150 years ago. We obtained 34,756 SNPs with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and identified genomic islands of differentiation using a Hidden Markov Model approach. Consistent with incipient ecological speciation, we found significant genomic differentiation between ecotypes both in sympatry and parapatry. Of 19 islands of differentiation resisting gene flow in sympatry, all were also differentiated in parapatry and were thus likely driven by divergent selection among habitats. These islands clustered in quantitative trait loci controlling divergent traits among the ecotypes, many of them concentrated in one region with low to intermediate recombination. Our findings suggest that adaptive genomic differentiation at many genetic loci can arise and persist in sympatry at the very early stage of ecotype divergence, and that the genomic architecture of adaptation may facilitate this. PMID:26925837

  9. Interactions among quantitative traits in the course of sympatric speciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrashov, Alexey S.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.

    1999-07-01

    Sympatric speciation, the origin of two or more species from a single local population, has almost certainly been involved in formation of several species flocks, and may be fairly common in nature. The most straightforward scenario for sympatric speciation requires disruptive selection favouring two substantially different phenotypes, and consists of the evolution of reproductive isolation between them followed by the elimination of all intermediate phenotypes. Here we use the hypergeometric phenotypic model to show that sympatric speciation is possible even when fitness and mate choice depend on different quantitative traits, so that speciation must involve formation of covariance between these traits. The increase in the number of variable lociaffecting fitness facilitates sympatric speciation, whereas the increase in the number of variable loci affecting mate choice has the opposite effect. These predictions may enable more cases of sympatric speciation to be identified.

  10. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies.

  11. Adaptive methylation regulation of p53 pathway in sympatric speciation of blind mole rats, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Tang, Jia-Wei; Yang, Zhi; Cao, Yi-Bin; Ren, Ji-Long; Ben-Abu, Yuval; Li, Kexin; Chen, Xue-Qun; Du, Ji-Zeng; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-02-23

    Epigenetic modifications play significant roles in adaptive evolution. The tumor suppressor p53, well known for controlling cell fate and maintaining genomic stability, is much less known as a master gene in environmental adaptation involving methylation modifications. The blind subterranean mole rat Spalax eherenbergi superspecies in Israel consists of four species that speciated peripatrically. Remarkably, the northern Galilee species Spalax galili (2n = 52) underwent adaptive ecological sympatric speciation, caused by the sharply divergent chalk and basalt ecologies. This was demonstrated by mitochondrial and nuclear genomic evidence. Here we show that the expression patterns of the p53 regulatory pathway diversified between the abutting sympatric populations of S. galili in sharply divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. We identified higher methylation on several sites of the p53 promoter in the population living in chalk soil (chalk population). Site mutagenesis showed that methylation on these sites linked to the transcriptional repression of p53 involving Cut-Like Homeobox 1 (Cux1), paired box 4 (Pax 4), Pax 6, and activator protein 1 (AP-1). Diverse expression levels of p53 between the incipiently sympatrically speciating chalk-basalt abutting populations of S. galili selectively affected cell-cycle arrest but not apoptosis. We hypothesize that methylation modification of p53 has adaptively shifted in supervising its target genes during sympatric speciation of S. galili to cope with the contrasting environmental stresses of the abutting divergent chalk-basalt ecologies. PMID:26858405

  12. Computer simulations of sympatric speciation in a simple food web.

    PubMed

    Luz-Burgoa, K; Dell, Tony; de Oliveira, S Moss

    2005-07-01

    Galapagos finches, have motivated much theoretical research aimed at understanding the processes associated with the formation of the species. Inspired by them, in this paper we investigate the process of sympatric speciation in a simple food web model. For that we modify the individual-based Penna model that has been widely used to study aging as well as other evolutionary processes. Initially, our web consists of a primary food source and a single herbivore species that feeds on this resource. Subsequently we introduce a predator that feeds on the herbivore. In both instances we manipulate directly a basal resource distribution and monitor the changes in the populations. Sympatric speciation is obtained for the top species in both cases, and our results suggest that the speciation velocity depends on how far up, in the food chain, the focus population is feeding. Simulations are done with three different sexual imprinting-like mechanisms, in order to discuss adaptation by natural selection.

  13. Habitat avoidance: overlooking an important aspect of host-specific mating and sympatric speciation?

    PubMed

    Forbes, Andrew A; Fisher, Joan; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2005-07-01

    Understanding speciation requires discerning how reproductive barriers to gene flow evolve between previously interbreeding populations. Models of sympatric speciation for phytophagous insects posit that reproductive isolation can evolve in the absence of geographic isolation as a consequence of an insect shifting and ecologically adapting to a new host plant. One important adaptation contributing to sympatric differentiation is host-specific mating. When organisms mate in preferred habitats, a system of positive assortative mating is established that facilitates sympatric divergence. Models of host fidelity generally assume that host choice is determined by the aggregate effect of alleles imparting positive preferences for different plant species. But negative effect genes for avoiding nonnatal plants may also influence host use. Previous studies have shown that apple and hawthorn-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies use volatile compounds emitted from the surface of fruit as key chemosensory cues to recognize and distinguish between their host plants. Here, we report results from field trials indicating that in addition to preferring the odor of their natal fruit, apple and hawthorn flies, and their undescribed sister species infesting flowering dogwood (Cornus florida), also avoid the odors of nonnatal fruit. We discuss the implications of nonnatal fruit avoidance for the evolutionary dynamics and genetics of sympatric speciation. Our findings reveal an underappreciated role for habitat avoidance as a potential postmating, as well as prezygotic, barrier to gene flow.

  14. Host races in plant-feeding insects and their importance in sympatric speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Drès, Michele; Mallet, James

    2002-01-01

    The existence of a continuous array of sympatric biotypes - from polymorphisms, through ecological or host races with increasing reproductive isolation, to good species - can provide strong evidence for a continuous route to sympatric speciation via natural selection. Host races in plant-feeding insects, in particular, have often been used as evidence for the probability of sympatric speciation. Here, we provide verifiable criteria to distinguish host races from other biotypes: in brief, host races are genetically differentiated, sympatric populations of parasites that use different hosts and between which there is appreciable gene flow. We recognize host races as kinds of species that regularly exchange genes with other species at a rate of more than ca. 1% per generation, rather than as fundamentally distinct taxa. Host races provide a convenient, although admittedly somewhat arbitrary intermediate stage along the speciation continuum. They are a heuristic device to aid in evaluating the probability of speciation by natural selection, particularly in sympatry. Speciation is thereby envisaged as having two phases: (i) the evolution of host races from within polymorphic, panmictic populations; and (ii) further reduction of gene flow between host races until the diverging populations can become generally accepted as species. We apply this criterion to 21 putative host race systems. Of these, only three are unambiguously classified as host races, but a further eight are strong candidates that merely lack accurate information on rates of hybridization or gene flow. Thus, over one-half of the cases that we review are probably or certainly host races, under our definition. Our review of the data favours the idea of sympatric speciation via host shift for three major reasons: (i) the evolution of assortative mating as a pleiotropic by-product of adaptation to a new host seems likely, even in cases where mating occurs away from the host; (ii) stable genetic differences in

  15. Sympatric incipient speciation of spiny mice Acomys at “Evolution Canyon,” Israel

    PubMed Central

    Hadid, Yarin; Pavlíček, Tomáš; Beiles, Avigdor; Ianovici, Ron; Raz, Shmuel; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-01-01

    Does the paucity of empirical evidence of sympatric speciation in nature reflect reality, despite theoretical support? Or is it due to inappropriate searches in nature with overly restrictive assumptions and an incorrect null hypothesis? Spiny mice, Acomys, described here at Evolution Canyon (EC) incipiently and sympatrically speciate owing to microclimatic interslope divergence. The opposite slopes at EC vary dramatically, physically and biotically, representing the dry and hot south-facing slope savannoid-African continent [“African” slope (AS)], abutting with the north-facing slope forested south-European continent [“European” slope (ES)]. African-originated spiny mice, of the Acomys cahirinus complex, colonized Israel 30,000 y ago based on fossils. Genotypically, we showed significantly higher genetic diversity of mtDNA and amplified fragment length polymorphism of Acomys on the AS compared with the ES. This is also true regionally across Israel. In complete mtDNA, 25% of the haplotypes at EC were slope-biased. Phenotypically, the opposite slope’s populations also showed adaptive morphology, physiology, and behavior divergence paralleling regional populations across Israel. Preliminary tests indicate slope-specific mate choices. Colonization of Acomys at the EC first occurred on the AS and then moved to the ES. Strong slope-specific natural selection (both positive and negative) overrules low interslope gene flow. Both habitat slope selection and mate choices suggest ongoing incipient sympatric speciation. We conclude that Acomys at the EC is ecologically and genetically adaptively, incipiently, sympatrically speciating on the ES owing to adaptive microclimatic natural selection. PMID:24402169

  16. Female mate-choice behavior and sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Verzijden, Machteld N; Lachlan, Robert F; Servedio, Maria R

    2005-10-01

    Many models have investigated how the process of speciation may occur in sympatry. In these models, individuals are either asexual or mate choice is determined by very simple rules. Females, for example, may be assumed either to compare their phenotype to that of a potential mate, preferring to mate with similar males (phenotype matching), or to possess preference genes that determine which male phenotype they prefer. These rules often do not reflect the mate-choice rules found in empirical studies. In this paper, we compare these two modes of female choice with various types of sexual imprinting. We examine the efficacy of different mate-choice behavior in causing divergence in male traits under simple deterministic one-locus population genetic models as well as under polygenic, individual-based simulations based on the models of Dieckmann and Doebeli (1999). We find that the inheritance mechanism of mate choice can have a large effect on the ease of sympatric speciation. When females imprint on their mothers, the result of the model is similar to phenotype matching, where speciation can occur fairly easily. When females imprint on their fathers or imprint obliquely, speciation becomes considerably less likely. Finally, when females rely on preference genes, male trait evolution occurs easily, but the correlation between trait and preference can be weak, and interpreting these results as speciation may be suspect.

  17. Genetics of ecological divergence during speciation

    PubMed Central

    Arnegard, Matthew E.; McGee, Matthew D.; Matthews, Blake; Marchinko, Kerry B.; Conte, Gina L.; Kabir, Sahriar; Bedford, Nicole; Bergek, Sara; Chan, Yingguang Frank; Jones, Felicity C.; Kingsley, David M.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Schluter, Dolph

    2014-01-01

    Ecological differences often evolve early in speciation as divergent natural selection drives adaptation to distinct ecological niches, leading ultimately to reproductive isolation. Though this process is a major generator of biodiversity, its genetic basis remains poorly understood. Here we investigate the genetic architecture of niche differentiation in a sympatric species pair of threespine stickleback fish by mapping the environment-dependent effects of phenotypic traits on hybrid feeding and performance under semi-natural conditions. We show that multiple, unlinked loci act largely additively to determine position along the major niche axis separating these recently diverged species. We also find that functional mismatch between phenotypic traits reduces growth of some stickleback hybrids beyond that expected from an intermediate phenotype, suggesting a role for epistasis between the underlying genes. This functional mismatch might lead to hybrid incompatibilities that are analogous to those underlying intrinsic reproductive isolation but that depend on the ecological context. PMID:24909991

  18. Inheritance of female mating preference in a sympatric sibling species pair of Lake Victoria cichlids: implications for speciation

    PubMed Central

    Haesler, Marcel P.; Seehausen, Ole

    2005-01-01

    Female mate choice has often been proposed to play an important role in cases of rapid speciation, in particular in the explosively evolved haplochromine cichlid species flocks of the Great Lakes of East Africa. Little, if anything, is known in cichlid radiations about the heritability of female mating preferences. Entirely sympatric distribution, large ecological overlap and conspicuous differences in male nuptial coloration, and female preferences for these, make the sister species Pundamilia pundamilia and P. nyererei from Lake Victoria an ideally suited species pair to test assumptions on the genetics of mating preferences made in models of sympatric speciation. Female mate choice is necessary and sufficient to maintain reproductive isolation between these species, and it is perhaps not unlikely therefore, that female mate choice has been important during speciation. A prerequisite for this, which had remained untested in African cichlid fish, is that variation in female mating preferences is heritable. We investigated mating preferences of females of these sister species and their hybrids to test this assumption of most sympatric speciation models, and to further test the assumption of some models of sympatric speciation by sexual selection that female preference is a single-gene trait. We find that the differences in female mating preferences between the sister species are heritable, possibly with quite high heritabilities, and that few but probably more than one genetic loci contribute to this behavioural speciation trait with no apparent dominance. We discuss these results in the light of speciation models and the debate about the explosive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria. PMID:15705547

  19. Modeling coevolution and sympatric speciation of flowers and pollinators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyay, A.; Drossel, B.

    2005-01-01

    A model based on quantitative genetics for the coevolution of plants and their pollinators is proposed. The model is characterized by competition for resources and by a two-fold coupling between the two types of species: pollinators depend on plants for resources and plants on pollinators for pollination. Starting with unimodal trait distributions, we study the dynamics of the model using computer simulations with discrete generations and alternating reproduction and selection. Under a variety of conditions we observe an evolution towards bimodal distributions, with two subpopulations that are reproductively isolated to a large extent. We also find sympatric speciation in situations where two pollinators pollinate the same plant, and where one pollinator pollinates two plants.

  20. An Evaluation of Putative Sympatric Speciation within Limnanthes (Limnanthaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Stephen C.; Liston, Aaron; Meinke, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Limnanthes floccosa ssp. floccosa and L. floccosa ssp. grandiflora are two of five subspecies within Limnanthes floccosa endemic to vernal pools in southern Oregon and northern California. Three seasons of monitoring natural populations have quantified that L. floccosa ssp. grandiflora is always found growing sympatrically with L. floccosa ssp. floccosa and that their flowering times overlap considerably. Despite their subspecific rank within the same species crossing experiments have confirmed that their F1 hybrids are sterile. An analysis of twelve microsatellite markers, with unique alleles in each taxon, also shows exceedingly low levels of gene flow between populations of the two subspecies. Due to the lack of previous phylogenetic resolution among L. floccosa subspecies, we used Illumina next generation sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms from genomic DNA libraries of L. floccosa ssp. floccosa and L. floccosa ssp. grandiflora. These data were used to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms in the chloroplast, mitochondrial, and nuclear genomes. From these variable loci, a total of 2772 bp was obtained using Sanger sequencing of ten individuals representing all subspecies of L. floccosa and an outgroup. The resulting phylogenetic reconstruction was fully resolved. Our results indicate that although L. floccosa ssp. floccosa and L. floccosa ssp. grandiflora are closely related, they are not sister taxa and therefore likely did not diverge as a result of a sympatric speciation event. PMID:22563502

  1. Weak disruptive selection and incomplete phenotypic divergence in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2012-10-01

    Recent documentation of a few compelling examples of sympatric speciation led to a proliferation of theoretical models. Unfortunately, plausible examples from nature have rarely been used to test model predictions, such as the initial presence of strong disruptive selection. Here I estimated the form and strength of selection in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: radiations of Cameroon cichlids restricted to Lakes Barombi Mbo and Ejagham. I measured five functional traits and relative growth rates in over 500 individuals within incipient species complexes from each lake. Disruptive selection was prevalent in both groups on single and multivariate trait axes but weak relative to stabilizing selection on other traits and most published estimates of disruptive selection. Furthermore, despite genetic structure, assortative mating, and bimodal species-diagnostic coloration, trait distributions were unimodal in both species complexes, indicating the earliest stages of speciation. Long waiting times or incomplete sympatric speciation may result when disruptive selection is initially weak. Alternatively, I present evidence of additional constraints in both species complexes, including weak linkage between coloration and morphology, reduced morphological variance aligned with nonlinear selection surfaces, and minimal ecological divergence. While other species within these radiations show complete phenotypic separation, morphological and ecological divergence in these species complexes may be slow or incomplete outside optimal parameter ranges, in contrast to rapid divergence of their sexual coloration.

  2. A test of ecologically dependent postmating isolation between sympatric sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Rundle, Howard D

    2002-02-01

    Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation evolves ultimately as a result of divergent natural selection between populations inhabiting different environments or exploiting alternative resources. I tested a prediction of the ecological model concerning the fitness of hybrids between two young, sympatric species of threespine sticklebacks (Benthics and Limnetics). The two species are ecologically and morphologically divergent: the Benthic is adapted to feeding on invertebrates in the littoral zone of the lake whereas the Limnetic is adapted to feeding on zooplankton in the open water. The growth rate of two types of hybrids, the Benthic backcross and the Limnetic backcross, as well as both parent species, was evaluated in enclosures in both parental habitats in the lake. The use of backcrosses is ideal because a comparison of their growth rates in the two habitats estimates an ecologically dependent component of their fitness while controlling for any intrinsic genetic incompatibilities that may exist between the Benthic and Limnetic genomes. The backcross results revealed a striking pattern of ecological dependence: in the littoral zone, Benthic backcrosses grew at approximately twice the rate of Limnetic backcrosses, while in the open water, Limnetic backcrosses grew at approximately twice the rate of Benthic backcrosses. Such a reversal of relative fitness of the two cross-types in the two environments provides strong evidence that divergent natural selection has played a central role in the evolution of postmating isolation between Benthics and Limnetics. Although the rank order of growth rates of all cross-types in the littoral zone was Benthic > Benthic backcross > Limnetic backcross > Limnetic, neither backcross differed significantly from the parent from which it was mainly derived. Implications of this result are discussed in terms of ecological speciation and possible introgressive hybridization between the species. Results in the open water

  3. How sympatric is speciation in the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island?

    PubMed

    Babik, Wiesław; Butlin, Roger K; Baker, William J; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Boulesteix, Matthieu; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Lexer, Christian; Hutton, Ian; Savolainen, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    The two species of the palm genus Howea (Arecaceae) from Lord Howe Island, a minute volcanic island in the Tasman Sea, are now regarded as one of the most compelling examples of sympatric speciation, although this view is still disputed by some authors. Population genetic and ecological data are necessary to provide a more coherent and comprehensive understanding of this emerging model system. Here, we analyse data on abundance, juvenile recruitment, pollination mode and genetic variation and structure in both species. We find that Howea forsteriana is less abundant than Howea belmoreana. The genetic data based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms markers indicate similar levels of variation in the two species, despite the estimated census population size of H. belmoreana being three times larger than that of H. forsteriana. Genetic structure within species is low although some weak isolation by distance is detectable. Gene flow between species appears to be extremely limited and restricted to early-generation hybrids - only three admixed individuals, classified as F2s or first generation backcrosses to a parental species, were found among sampled palms. We conclude that speciation in Howea was indeed sympatric, although under certain strict definitions it may be called parapatric. PMID:19674301

  4. How sympatric is speciation in the Howea palms of Lord Howe Island?

    PubMed

    Babik, Wiesław; Butlin, Roger K; Baker, William J; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Boulesteix, Matthieu; Anstett, Marie-Charlotte; Lexer, Christian; Hutton, Ian; Savolainen, Vincent

    2009-09-01

    The two species of the palm genus Howea (Arecaceae) from Lord Howe Island, a minute volcanic island in the Tasman Sea, are now regarded as one of the most compelling examples of sympatric speciation, although this view is still disputed by some authors. Population genetic and ecological data are necessary to provide a more coherent and comprehensive understanding of this emerging model system. Here, we analyse data on abundance, juvenile recruitment, pollination mode and genetic variation and structure in both species. We find that Howea forsteriana is less abundant than Howea belmoreana. The genetic data based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms markers indicate similar levels of variation in the two species, despite the estimated census population size of H. belmoreana being three times larger than that of H. forsteriana. Genetic structure within species is low although some weak isolation by distance is detectable. Gene flow between species appears to be extremely limited and restricted to early-generation hybrids - only three admixed individuals, classified as F2s or first generation backcrosses to a parental species, were found among sampled palms. We conclude that speciation in Howea was indeed sympatric, although under certain strict definitions it may be called parapatric.

  5. Are sympatrically speciating Midas cichlid fish special? Patterns of morphological and genetic variation in the closely related species Archocentrus centrarchus.

    PubMed

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Raffini, Francesca; Fan, Shaohua; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    Established empirical cases of sympatric speciation are scarce, although there is an increasing consensus that sympatric speciation might be more common than previously thought. Midas cichlid fish are one of the few substantiated cases of sympatric speciation, and they formed repeated radiations in crater lakes. In contrast, in the same environment, such radiation patterns have not been observed in other species of cichlids and other families of fish. We analyze morphological and genetic variation in a cichlid species (Archocentrus centrarchus) that co-inhabits several crater lakes with the Midas species complex. In particular, we analyze variation in body and pharyngeal jaw shape (two ecologically important traits in sympatrically divergent Midas cichlids) and relate that to genetic variation in mitochondrial control region and microsatellites. Using these four datasets, we analyze variation between and within two Nicaraguan lakes: a crater lake where multiple Midas cichlids have been described and a lake where the source population lives. We do not observe any within-lake clustering consistent across morphological traits and genetic markers, suggesting the absence of sympatric divergence in A. centrarchus. Genetic differentiation between lakes was low and morphological divergence absent. Such morphological similarity between lakes is found not only in average morphology, but also when analyzing covariation between traits and degree of morphospace occupation. A combined analysis of the mitochondrial control region in A. centrarchus and Midas cichlids suggests that a difference between lineages in the timing of crater lake colonization cannot be invoked as an explanation for the difference in their levels of diversification. In light of our results, A. centrarchus represents the ideal candidate to study the genomic differences between these two lineages that might explain why some lineages are more likely to speciate and diverge in sympatry than others. PMID

  6. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation.

  7. Transcriptome, genetic editing, and microRNA divergence substantiate sympatric speciation of blind mole rat, Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Liuyang; Knisbacher, Binyamin A; Xu, Qinqin; Levanon, Erez Y; Wang, Huihua; Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Tagore, Satabdi; Fang, Xiaodong; Bazak, Lily; Buchumenski, Ilana; Zhao, Yang; Lövy, Matěj; Li, Xiangfeng; Han, Lijuan; Frenkel, Zeev; Beiles, Avigdor; Cao, Yi Bin; Wang, Zhen Long; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-01

    Incipient sympatric speciation in blind mole rat, Spalax galili, in Israel, caused by sharp ecological divergence of abutting chalk-basalt ecologies, has been proposed previously based on mitochondrial and whole-genome nuclear DNA. Here, we present new evidence, including transcriptome, DNA editing, microRNA, and codon usage, substantiating earlier evidence for adaptive divergence in the abutting chalk and basalt populations. Genetic divergence, based on the previous and new evidence, is ongoing despite restricted gene flow between the two populations. The principal component analysis, neighbor-joining tree, and genetic structure analysis of the transcriptome clearly show the clustered divergent two mole rat populations. Gene-expression level analysis indicates that the population transcriptome divergence is displayed not only by soil divergence but also by sex. Gene ontology enrichment of the differentially expressed genes from the two abutting soil populations highlights reproductive isolation. Alternative splicing variation of the two abutting soil populations displays two distinct splicing patterns. L-shaped FST distribution indicates that the two populations have undergone divergence with gene flow. Transcriptome divergent genes highlight neurogenetics and nutrition characterizing the chalk population, and energetics, metabolism, musculature, and sensory perception characterizing the abutting basalt population. Remarkably, microRNAs also display divergence between the two populations. The GC content is significantly higher in chalk than in basalt, and stress-response genes mostly prefer nonoptimal codons. The multiple lines of evidence of ecological-genomic and genetic divergence highlight that natural selection overrules the gene flow between the two abutting populations, substantiating the sharp ecological chalk-basalt divergence driving sympatric speciation. PMID:27339131

  8. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  9. Sympatric speciation revealed by genome-wide divergence in the blind mole rat Spalax.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Hong, Wei; Jiao, Hengwu; Wang, Guo-Dong; Rodriguez, Karl A; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Zhao, Yang; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhao, Huabin

    2015-09-22

    Sympatric speciation (SS), i.e., speciation within a freely breeding population or in contiguous populations, was first proposed by Darwin [Darwin C (1859) On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection] and is still controversial despite theoretical support [Gavrilets S (2004) Fitness Landscapes and the Origin of Species (MPB-41)] and mounting empirical evidence. Speciation of subterranean mammals generally, including the genus Spalax, was considered hitherto allopatric, whereby new species arise primarily through geographic isolation. Here we show in Spalax a case of genome-wide divergence analysis in mammals, demonstrating that SS in continuous populations, with gene flow, encompasses multiple widespread genomic adaptive complexes, associated with the sharply divergent ecologies. The two abutting soil populations of S. galili in northern Israel habituate the ancestral Senonian chalk population and abutting derivative Plio-Pleistocene basalt population. Population divergence originated ∼0.2-0.4 Mya based on both nuclear and mitochondrial genome analyses. Population structure analysis displayed two distinctly divergent clusters of chalk and basalt populations. Natural selection has acted on 300+ genes across the genome, diverging Spalax chalk and basalt soil populations. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlights strong but differential soil population adaptive complexes: in basalt, sensory perception, musculature, metabolism, and energetics, and in chalk, nutrition and neurogenetics are outstanding. Population differentiation of chemoreceptor genes suggests intersoil population's mate and habitat choice substantiating SS. Importantly, distinctions in protein degradation may also contribute to SS. Natural selection and natural genetic engineering [Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: A View From the 21st Century] overrule gene flow, evolving divergent ecological adaptive complexes. Sharp ecological divergences abound in nature; therefore, SS appears to be an

  10. Genomic architecture of ecologically divergent body shape in a pair of sympatric crater lake cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Spreitzer, Maria L; Jones, Julia C; Elmer, Kathryn R; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2014-04-01

    Determining the genetic bases of adaptations and their roles in speciation is a prominent issue in evolutionary biology. Cichlid fish species flocks are a prime example of recent rapid radiations, often associated with adaptive phenotypic divergence from a common ancestor within a short period of time. In several radiations of freshwater fishes, divergence in ecomorphological traits - including body shape, colour, lips and jaws - is thought to underlie their ecological differentiation, specialization and, ultimately, speciation. The Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp.) of Nicaragua provides one of the few known examples of sympatric speciation where species have rapidly evolved different but parallel morphologies in young crater lakes. This study identified significant QTL for body shape using SNPs generated via ddRAD sequencing and geometric morphometric analyses of a cross between two ecologically and morphologically divergent, sympatric cichlid species endemic to crater Lake Apoyo: an elongated limnetic species (Amphilophus zaliosus) and a high-bodied benthic species (Amphilophus astorquii). A total of 453 genome-wide informative SNPs were identified in 240 F2 hybrids. These markers were used to construct a genetic map in which 25 linkage groups were resolved. Seventy-two segregating SNPs were linked to 11 QTL. By annotating the two most highly supported QTL-linked genomic regions, genes that might contribute to divergence in body shape along the benthic-limnetic axis in Midas cichlid sympatric adaptive radiations were identified. These results suggest that few genomic regions of large effect contribute to early stage divergence in Midas cichlids.

  11. Strong assortative mating by diet, color, size, and morphology but limited progress toward sympatric speciation in a classic example: Cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H

    2013-07-01

    Models predict that sympatric speciation depends on restrictive parameter ranges, such as sufficiently strong disruptive selection and assortative mating, but compelling examples in nature have rarely been used to test these predictions. I measured the strength of assortative mating within a species complex of Tilapia in Lake Ejagham, Cameroon, a celebrated example of incipient sympatric adaptive radiation. This species complex is in the earliest stages of speciation: morphological and ecological divergence are incomplete, species differ primarily in breeding coloration, and introgression is common. I captured 27 mated pairs in situ and measured the diet, color, size, and morphology of each individual. I found strong assortative mating by color, size, head depth, and dietary source of benthic or pelagic prey along two independent dimensions of assortment. Thus, Ejagham Tilapia showed strong assortative mating most conducive to sympatric speciation. Nonetheless, in contrast to a morphologically bimodal Sarotherodon cichlid species pair in the lake, Ejagham Tilapia show more limited progress toward speciation, likely due to insufficient strength of disruptive selection on morphology estimated in a previous study (γ = 0.16). This supports the predicted dependence of sympatric speciation on strong assortment and strong disruptive selection by examining a potentially stalled example in nature.

  12. Sympatric speciation of spiny mice, Acomys, unfolded transcriptomically at Evolution Canyon, Israel.

    PubMed

    Li, Kexin; Wang, Huihua; Cai, Zhenyuan; Wang, Liuyang; Xu, Qinqin; Lövy, Matěj; Wang, Zhenlong; Nevo, Eviatar

    2016-07-19

    Spiny mice, Acomys cahirinus, colonized Israel 30,000 y ago from dry tropical Africa and inhabited rocky habitats across Israel. Earlier, we had shown by mtDNA that A. cahirinus incipiently sympatrically speciates at Evolution Canyon I (EC I) in Mount Carmel, Israel because of microclimatic interslope divergence. The EC I microsite consists of a dry and hot savannoid "African" slope (AS) and an abutting humid and cool-forested "European" slope (ES). Here, we substantiate incipient SS in A. cahirinus at EC I based on the entire transcriptome, showing that multiple slope-specific adaptive complexes across the transcriptome result in two divergent clusters. Tajima's D distribution of the abutting Acomys interslope populations shows that the ES population is under stronger positive selection, whereas the AS population is under balancing selection, harboring higher genetic polymorphisms. Considerable sites of the two populations were differentiated with a coefficient of FST = 0.25-0.75. Remarkably, 24 and 37 putatively adaptively selected genes were detected in the AS and ES populations, respectively. The AS genes involved DNA repair, growth arrest, neural cell differentiation, and heat-shock proteins adapting to the local AS stresses of high solar radiation, drought, and high temperature. In contrast, the ES genes involved high ATP associated with energetics stress. The sharp ecological interslope divergence led to strong slope-specific selection overruling the interslope gene flow. Earlier tests suggested slope-specific mate choice. Habitat interslope-adaptive selection across the transcriptome and mate choice substantiate sympatric speciation (SS), suggesting its prevalence at EC I and commonality in nature. PMID:27370801

  13. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert

    PubMed Central

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-01-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (FST = 0.35), and FST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times. PMID:24558582

  14. Evidence for nonallopatric speciation among closely related sympatric Heliotropium species in the Atacama Desert.

    PubMed

    Luebert, Federico; Jacobs, Pit; Hilger, Hartmut H; Muller, Ludo A H

    2014-02-01

    The genetic structure of populations of closely related, sympatric species may hold the signature of the geographical mode of the speciation process. In fully allopatric speciation, it is expected that genetic differentiation between species is homogeneously distributed across the genome. In nonallopatric speciation, the genomes may remain undifferentiated to a large extent. In this article, we analyzed the genetic structure of five sympatric species from the plant genus Heliotropium in the Atacama Desert. We used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) to characterize the genetic structure of these species and evaluate their genetic differentiation as well as the number of loci subject to positive selection using divergence outlier analysis (DOA). The five species form distinguishable groups in the genetic space, with zones of overlap, indicating that they are possibly not completely isolated. Among-species differentiation accounts for 35% of the total genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.35), and F ST between species pairs is positively correlated with phylogenetic distance. DOA suggests that few loci are subject to positive selection, which is in line with a scenario of nonallopatric speciation. These results support the idea that sympatric species of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea are under an ongoing speciation process, characterized by a fluctuation of population ranges in response to pulses of arid and humid periods during Quaternary times. PMID:24558582

  15. Advances in Ecological Speciation: an integrative approach.

    PubMed

    Faria, Rui; Renaut, Sebastien; Galindo, Juan; Pinho, Catarina; Melo-Ferreira, José; Melo, Martim; Jones, Felicity; Salzburger, Walter; Schluter, Dolph; Butlin, Roger

    2014-02-01

    The role of natural selection in promoting reproductive isolation has received substantial renewed interest within the last two decades. As a consequence, the study of ecological speciation has become an extremely productive research area in modern evolutionary biology. Recent innovations in sequencing technologies offer an unprecedented opportunity to study the mechanisms involved in ecological speciation. Genome scans provide significant insights but have some important limitations; efforts are needed to integrate them with other approaches to make full use of the sequencing data deluge. An international conference 'Advances in Ecological Speciation' organized by the University of Porto (Portugal) aimed to review current progress in ecological speciation. Using some of the examples presented at the conference, we highlight the benefits of integrating ecological and genomic data and discuss different mechanisms of parallel evolution. Finally, future avenues of research are suggested to advance our knowledge concerning the role of natural selection in the establishment of reproductive isolation during ecological speciation.

  16. Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background After a volcano erupts, a lake may form in the cooled crater and become an isolated aquatic ecosystem. This makes fishes in crater lakes informative for understanding sympatric evolution and ecological diversification in barren environments. From a geological and limnological perspective, such research offers insight about the process of crater lake ecosystem establishment and speciation. In the present study we use genetic and coalescence approaches to infer the colonization history of Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus) that inhabit a very young crater lake in Nicaragua-the ca. 1800 year-old Lake Apoyeque. This lake holds two sympatric, endemic morphs of Midas cichlid: one with large, hypertrophied lips (~20% of the total population) and another with thin lips. Here we test the associated ecological, morphological and genetic diversification of these two morphs and their potential to represent incipient speciation. Results Gene coalescence analyses [11 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences] suggest that crater lake Apoyeque was colonized in a single event from the large neighbouring great lake Managua only about 100 years ago. This founding in historic times is also reflected in the extremely low nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity in Apoyeque. We found that sympatric adult thin- and thick-lipped fishes occupy distinct ecological trophic niches. Diet, body shape, head width, pharyngeal jaw size and shape and stable isotope values all differ significantly between the two lip-morphs. The eco-morphological features pharyngeal jaw shape, body shape, stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ15N) all show a bimodal distribution of traits, which is compatible with the expectations of an initial stage of ecological speciation under disruptive selection. Genetic differentiation between the thin- and thick-lipped population is weak at mtDNA sequence (FST = 0.018) and absent at nuclear microsatellite loci (FST < 0

  17. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    PubMed

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  18. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  19. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids.

    PubMed

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  20. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids

    PubMed Central

    Kautt, Andreas F.; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  1. Stridulations Reveal Cryptic Speciation in Neotropical Sympatric Ants

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ronara Souza; Poteaux, Chantal; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Fresneau, Dominique; Rybak, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species underlines the importance of using multiple criteria in species delimitation. In the current paper we tested the use of acoustic analysis as a tool to assess the real diversity in a cryptic species complex of Neotropical ants. In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. We observed that each of the cryptic morph studied presents a morphologically distinct stridulatory organ and that all sympatric morphs produce distinctive stridulations. This is the first evidence of such a degree of specialization in the acoustic organ and signals in ants, which suggests that stridulations may be among the cues used by these ants during inter-specific interactions. Mitochondrial DNA variation corroborated the acoustic differences observed, confirming acoustics as a helpful tool to determine cryptic species in this group of ants, and possibly in stridulating ants in general. Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence. Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists. PMID:21203529

  2. Stridulations reveal cryptic speciation in neotropical sympatric ants.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ronara Souza; Poteaux, Chantal; Delabie, Jacques Hubert Charles; Fresneau, Dominique; Rybak, Fanny

    2010-12-22

    The taxonomic challenge posed by cryptic species underlines the importance of using multiple criteria in species delimitation. In the current paper we tested the use of acoustic analysis as a tool to assess the real diversity in a cryptic species complex of Neotropical ants. In order to understand the potential of acoustics and to improve consistency in the conclusions by comparing different approaches, phylogenetic relationships of all the morphs considered were assessed by the analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b. We observed that each of the cryptic morph studied presents a morphologically distinct stridulatory organ and that all sympatric morphs produce distinctive stridulations. This is the first evidence of such a degree of specialization in the acoustic organ and signals in ants, which suggests that stridulations may be among the cues used by these ants during inter-specific interactions. Mitochondrial DNA variation corroborated the acoustic differences observed, confirming acoustics as a helpful tool to determine cryptic species in this group of ants, and possibly in stridulating ants in general. Congruent morphological, acoustic and genetic results constitute sufficient evidence to propose each morph studied here as a valid new species, suggesting that P. apicalis is a complex of at least 6 to 9 species, even if they present different levels of divergence. Finally, our results highlight that ant stridulations may be much more informative than hitherto thought, as much for ant communication as for integrative taxonomists.

  3. Through thick and thin: cryptic sympatric speciation in the submersed genus Najas (Hydrocharitaceae).

    PubMed

    Les, Donald H; Peredo, Elena L; King, Ursula M; Benoit, Lori K; Tippery, Nicholas P; Ball, Cassandra J; Shannon, Robynn K

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic sympatric species arise when reproductive isolation is established in sympatry, leading to genetically divergent lineages that are highly similar morphologically or virtually indistinguishable. Although cryptic sympatric species have been reported in various animals, fungi, and protists, there are few compelling examples for plants. This investigation presents a case for cryptic sympatric speciation in Najas flexilis, a widespread aquatic plant, which extends throughout northern North America and Eurasia. The taxon is noted for its variable seed morphology, which earlier research associated with cytotypes; i.e., diploids were characterized by thicker seeds and tetraploids by thinner seeds. However, cytotypes are not patterned geographically with diploid and tetraploid plants often found in close proximity within the same lake. Using digital image and DNA sequence analyses, we found that diploids and tetraploids are well-isolated and remain genetically distinct throughout their sympatric range, where sterile hybrids occur frequently. Incorporation of sequence data from the single-copy nuclear phytoene desaturase locus revealed further that the tetraploids are allopolyploid derivatives of N. flexilis and N. guadalupensis, the latter a closely related species with an overlapping distribution. We conclude that the taxon widely known as N. flexilis actually comprises two cryptic, sibling species, which diverged in sympatry by interspecific hybridization and subsequent chromosomal isolation. By comparing seed morphology of type specimens, we associated the names N. flexilis and N. canadensis to the diploids and tetraploids respectively. Additionally, the narrowly restricted taxon known formerly as N. muenscheri is shown via morphological and genetic evidence to be synonymous with N. canadensis.

  4. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-09-06

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry.

  5. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry. PMID:27597183

  6. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish

    PubMed Central

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R.; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry. PMID:27597183

  7. Thermodynamic behavior of a phase transition in a model for sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Luz-Burgoa, K; Moss de Oliveira, S; Schwämmle, Veit; Sá Martins, J S

    2006-08-01

    We investigate the macroscopic effects of the ingredients that drive the origin of species through sympatric speciation. In our model, sympatric speciation is obtained as we tune up the strength of competition between individuals with different phenotypes. As a function of this control parameter, we can characterize, through the behavior of a macroscopic order parameter, a phase transition from a nonspeciation to a speciation state of the system. The behavior of the first derivative of the order parameter with respect to the control parameter is consistent with a phase transition and exhibits a sharp peak at the transition point. For different resources distribution, the transition point is shifted, an effect similar to pressure in a PVT system. The inverse of the parameter related to a sexual selection strength behaves like an external field in the system and, as thus, is also a control parameter. The macroscopic effects of the biological parameters used in our model are a reminiscent of the behavior of thermodynamic quantities in a phase transition of an equilibrium physical system.

  8. Sympatric speciation in an age-structured population living on a lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, A. O.

    2004-06-01

    A square lattice is introduced into the Penna model for biological aging in order to study the evolution of diploid sexual populations under certain conditions when one single locus in the individual’s genome is considered as identifier of species. The simulation results show, after several generations, the flourishing and coexistence of two separate species in the same environment, i.e., one original species splits up into two on the same territory (sympatric speciation). As well, the mortalities obtained are in a good agreement with the Gompertz law of exponential increase of mortality with age.

  9. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants.

  10. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Karl A; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  11. Mechanisms regulating proteostasis are involved in sympatric speciation of the blind mole rat, Spalax galili

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Karl A.; Li, Kexin; Nevo, Eviatar; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Genome-wide analysis demonstrates extensive genomic adaptive complexes involved in sympatric speciation between blind mole rats (Spalax galili) in abutting populations living in basalt and chalk soils. Among the gene ontology (GO) enrichment, musculature and metabolism stood out in basalt dwellers while nutrition and neurogenetics were highlighted in chalk residents. Measurements of mechanisms regulating protein homeostasis inspired by these GO terms suggest that at the proteomic level there is also a habitat/soil-type driven divergence with the basalt residents exhibiting higher proteasome activity whereas elevated levels of markers of autophagy are evident in the chalk inhabitants. PMID:27050459

  12. [Sympatric Speciation of the Plague Microbe Yersinia pestis: Monohostal Specialization in the Host-Parasite Marmot-Flea (Marmota sibirica-Oropsylla silantiewi) System].

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V

    2016-01-01

    An ecological scenario of the origin of the plague microbe that is interpreted in the light of modern Darwinism (synthetic theory of evolution) is presented. It is shown that the plague microbe emerged from a clone of the psychrophilic saprozoonotic pseudotuberculosis microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan time, 22000-15000 years ago, in the monohostal Mongolian marmot (Marmota sibirica)-flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) host-parasite system. It was noted that the evolutionary process described corresponds to the sympatric form of speciation by transition ofthe clone of migrant founders to a new, already-existing ecological niche. It was established that monohostal specialization of the plague microbe was made possible due to heterothermia (5-37 degrees C) of marmots in the hibernation period. The factors of the speciation process--isolation, the struggle for existence, and natural selection--were analyzed. PMID:27396172

  13. [Sympatric Speciation of the Plague Microbe Yersinia pestis: Monohostal Specialization in the Host-Parasite Marmot-Flea (Marmota sibirica-Oropsylla silantiewi) System].

    PubMed

    Suntsov, V V

    2016-01-01

    An ecological scenario of the origin of the plague microbe that is interpreted in the light of modern Darwinism (synthetic theory of evolution) is presented. It is shown that the plague microbe emerged from a clone of the psychrophilic saprozoonotic pseudotuberculosis microbe Yersinia pseudotuberculosis O:1b in the mountain steppe landscapes of Central Asia in the Sartan time, 22000-15000 years ago, in the monohostal Mongolian marmot (Marmota sibirica)-flea (Oropsylla silantiewi) host-parasite system. It was noted that the evolutionary process described corresponds to the sympatric form of speciation by transition ofthe clone of migrant founders to a new, already-existing ecological niche. It was established that monohostal specialization of the plague microbe was made possible due to heterothermia (5-37 degrees C) of marmots in the hibernation period. The factors of the speciation process--isolation, the struggle for existence, and natural selection--were analyzed.

  14. Evidence for ecology's role in speciation.

    PubMed

    McKinnon, Jeffrey S; Mori, Seiichi; Blackman, Benjamin K; David, Lior; Kingsley, David M; Jamieson, Leia; Chou, Jennifer; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-05-20

    A principal challenge in testing the role of natural selection in speciation is to connect the build-up of reproductive isolation between populations to divergence of ecologically important traits. Demonstrations of 'parallel speciation', or assortative mating by selective environment, link ecology and isolation, but the phenotypic traits mediating isolation have not been confirmed. Here we show that the parallel build-up of mating incompatibilities between stickleback populations can be largely accounted for by assortative mating based on one trait, body size, which evolves predictably according to environment. In addition to documenting the influence of body size on reproductive isolation for stickleback populations spread across the Northern Hemisphere, we have confirmed its importance through a new experimental manipulation. Together, these results suggest that speciation may arise largely as a by-product of ecological differences and divergent selection on a small number of phenotypic traits. PMID:15152252

  15. Complex histories of repeated gene flow in Cameroon crater lake cichlids cast doubt on one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H; Cutler, Joseph S; Friel, John P; Dening Touokong, Cyrille; Coop, Graham; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    One of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation in nature are monophyletic radiations of cichlid fishes endemic to Cameroon crater lakes. However, phylogenetic inference of monophyly may not detect complex colonization histories involving some allopatric isolation, such as double invasions obscured by genome-wide gene flow. Population genomic approaches are better suited to test hypotheses of sympatric speciation in these cases. Here, we use comprehensive sampling from all four sympatric crater lake cichlid radiations in Cameroon and outgroups across Africa combined with next-generation sequencing to genotype tens of thousands of SNPs. We find considerable evidence of gene flow between all four radiations and neighboring riverine populations after initial colonization. In a few cases, some sympatric species are more closely related to outgroups than others, consistent with secondary gene flow facilitating their speciation. Our results do not rule out sympatric speciation in Cameroon cichlids, but rather reveal a complex history of speciation with gene flow, including allopatric and sympatric phases, resulting in both reproductively isolated species and incipient species complexes. The best remaining non-cichlid examples of sympatric speciation all involve assortative mating within microhabitats. We speculate that this feature may be necessary to complete the process of sympatric speciation in nature.

  16. Complex histories of repeated gene flow in Cameroon crater lake cichlids cast doubt on one of the clearest examples of sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Martin, Christopher H; Cutler, Joseph S; Friel, John P; Dening Touokong, Cyrille; Coop, Graham; Wainwright, Peter C

    2015-06-01

    One of the most celebrated examples of sympatric speciation in nature are monophyletic radiations of cichlid fishes endemic to Cameroon crater lakes. However, phylogenetic inference of monophyly may not detect complex colonization histories involving some allopatric isolation, such as double invasions obscured by genome-wide gene flow. Population genomic approaches are better suited to test hypotheses of sympatric speciation in these cases. Here, we use comprehensive sampling from all four sympatric crater lake cichlid radiations in Cameroon and outgroups across Africa combined with next-generation sequencing to genotype tens of thousands of SNPs. We find considerable evidence of gene flow between all four radiations and neighboring riverine populations after initial colonization. In a few cases, some sympatric species are more closely related to outgroups than others, consistent with secondary gene flow facilitating their speciation. Our results do not rule out sympatric speciation in Cameroon cichlids, but rather reveal a complex history of speciation with gene flow, including allopatric and sympatric phases, resulting in both reproductively isolated species and incipient species complexes. The best remaining non-cichlid examples of sympatric speciation all involve assortative mating within microhabitats. We speculate that this feature may be necessary to complete the process of sympatric speciation in nature. PMID:25929355

  17. Ecological speciation in tropical reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luiz A; Robertson, D Ross; Roman, Joe; Bowen, Brian W

    2005-03-22

    The high biodiversity in tropical seas provides a long-standing challenge to allopatric speciation models. Physical barriers are few in the ocean and larval dispersal is often extensive, a combination that should reduce opportunities for speciation. Yet coral reefs are among the most species-rich habitats in the world, indicating evolutionary processes beyond conventional allopatry. In a survey of mtDNA sequences of five congeneric west Atlantic reef fishes (wrasses, genus Halichoeres) with similar dispersal potential, we observed phylogeographical patterns that contradict expectations of geographical isolation, and instead indicate a role for ecological speciation. In Halichoeres bivittatus and the species pair Halichoeres radiatus/brasiliensis, we observed strong partitions (3.4% and 2.3% divergence, respectively) between adjacent and ecologically distinct habitats, but high genetic connectivity between similar habitats separated by thousands of kilometres. This habitat partitioning is maintained even at a local scale where H. bivittatus lineages are segregated between cold- and warm-water habitats in both Bermuda and Florida. The concordance of evolutionary partitions with habitat types, rather than conventional biogeographical barriers, indicates parapatric ecological speciation, in which adaptation to alternative environmental conditions in adjacent locations overwhelms the homogenizing effect of dispersal. This mechanism can explain the long-standing enigma of high biodiversity in coral reef faunas.

  18. Functional basis of ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The evolution of ecological divergence in closely related species is a key component of adaptive radiation. However, in most examples of adaptive radiation the mechanistic basis of ecological divergence remains unclear. A classic example is seen in the young benthic and limnetic stickleback species pairs of British Columbia. In each pair the benthic species feeds on littoral macroinvertebrates whereas the limnetic feeds on pelagic zooplankton. Previous studies indicate that in both short-term feeding trials and long-term enclosure studies, benthics and limnetics exhibit enhanced performance on their own resource but fare more poorly on the other species’ resource. We examined the functional basis of ecological divergence in the stickleback species pair from Paxton Lake, BC, using biomechanical models of fish feeding applied to morphological traits. We examined the consequences of morphological differences using high speed video of feeding fish. Results Benthic stickleback possess morphological traits that predict high suction generation capacity, including greatly hypertrophied epaxial musculature. In contrast, limnetic stickleback possess traits thought to enhance capture of evasive planktonic prey, including greater jaw protrusion than benthics and greater displacement advantage in both the lower jaw-opening lever system and the opercular four-bar linkage. Kinematic data support the expectations from the morphological analysis that limnetic stickleback exhibit faster strikes and greater jaw protrusion than benthic fish, whereas benthics exert greater suction force on attached prey. Conclusions We reveal a previously unknown suite of complex morphological traits that affect rapid ecological divergence in sympatric stickleback. These results indicate that postglacial divergence in stickleback involves many functional systems and shows the value of investigating the functional consequences of phenotypic divergence in adaptive radiation. PMID:24380474

  19. Sampling genetic diversity in the sympatrically and allopatrically speciating Midas cichlid species complex over a 16 year time series

    PubMed Central

    Bunje, Paul ME; Barluenga, Marta; Meyer, Axel

    2007-01-01

    Background Speciation often occurs in complex or uncertain temporal and spatial contexts. Processes such as reinforcement, allopatric divergence, and assortative mating can proceed at different rates and with different strengths as populations diverge. The Central American Midas cichlid fish species complex is an important case study for understanding the processes of speciation. Previous analyses have demonstrated that allopatric processes led to species formation among the lakes of Nicaragua as well as sympatric speciation that is occurring within at least one crater lake. However, since speciation is an ongoing process and sampling genetic diversity of such lineages can be biased by collection scheme or random factors, it is important to evaluate the robustness of conclusions drawn on individual time samples. Results In order to assess the validity and reliability of inferences based on different genetic samples, we have analyzed fish from several lakes in Nicaragua sampled at three different times over 16 years. In addition, this time series allows us to analyze the population genetic changes that have occurred between lakes, where allopatric speciation has operated, as well as between different species within lakes, some of which have originated by sympatric speciation. Focusing on commonly used genetic markers, we have analyzed both DNA sequences from the complete mitochondrial control region as well as nuclear DNA variation at ten microsatellite loci from these populations, sampled thrice in a 16 year time period, to develop a robust estimate of the population genetic history of these diversifying lineages. Conclusion The conclusions from previous work are well supported by our comprehensive analysis. In particular, we find that the genetic diversity of derived crater lake populations is lower than that of the source population regardless of when and how each population was sampled. Furthermore, changes in various estimates of genetic diversity within lakes

  20. Influence of substrate and pH on the diversity of the aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium (Klebsormidiales, Streptophyta): a potentially important factor for sympatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    Ryšánek, David; Holzinger, Andreas; Škaloud, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the processes involved in speciation of microalgae remains highly limited. In the present study, we investigated a potential role of ecological speciation processes in diversification of the filamentous green alga Klebsormidium. We examined 12 strains representing four different genotypes. The strains were collected from sandstone and limestone rocks and were cultivated at five different pH levels ranging from pH 4 to pH 8. We determined the responses of the 12 strains to the experimental pH conditions by (1) measuring the effective quantum yield of photosystem II, and (2) determining the growth rates after cultivation at different pH levels. Strong differences were found between the results obtained by these two methods. Direct counting of cells revealed a strong ecological differentiation of strains of Klebsormidium isolated from different substrate types. Strains isolated from limestone showed the highest growth rates at higher pH levels; whereas, the strains isolated from sandstone exhibited two distinct growth responses with optima at pH 5 and 6, respectively. In contrast, the effective quantum yield of photosystem II was always down-regulated at lower pH values, probably due to dissolved inorganic carbon limitation. In general, we determined distinct ecophysiological differentiation among distantly and closely related lineages, thereby corroborating our hypothesis that the sympatric speciation of terrestrial algae is driven by ecological divergence. We clearly showed that pH is a critical ecological factor that influences the diversity of autotrophic protists in terrestrial habitats. PMID:27293301

  1. Artificial neural networks in models of specialization, guild evolution and sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Noél M A; Norrström, Niclas; Getz, Wayne M

    2007-03-29

    Sympatric speciation can arise as a result of disruptive selection with assortative mating as a pleiotropic by-product. Studies on host choice, employing artificial neural networks as models for the host recognition system in exploiters, illustrate how disruptive selection on host choice coupled with assortative mating can arise as a consequence of selection for specialization. Our studies demonstrate that a generalist exploiter population can evolve into a guild of specialists with an 'ideal free' frequency distribution across hosts. The ideal free distribution arises from variability in host suitability and density-dependent exploiter fitness on different host species. Specialists are less subject to inter-phenotypic competition than generalists and to harmful mutations that are common in generalists exploiting multiple hosts. When host signals used as cues by exploiters coevolve with exploiter recognition systems, our studies show that evolutionary changes may be continuous and cyclic. Selection changes back and forth between specialization and generalization in the exploiters, and weak and strong mimicry in the hosts, where non-defended hosts use the host investing in defence as a model. Thus, host signals and exploiter responses are engaged in a red-queen mimicry process that is ultimately cyclic rather then directional. In one phase, evolving signals of exploitable hosts mimic those of hosts less suitable for exploitation (i.e. the model). Signals in the model hosts also evolve through selection to escape the mimic and its exploiters. Response saturation constraints in the model hosts lead to the mimic hosts finally perfecting its mimicry, after which specialization in the exploiter guild is lost. This loss of exploiter specialization provides an opportunity for the model hosts to escape their mimics. Therefore, this cycle then repeats. We suggest that a species can readily evolve sympatrically when disruptive selection for specialization on hosts is the

  2. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    PubMed

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow. PMID:23859595

  3. Ecological speciation in anemone-associated snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus species complex).

    PubMed

    Hurt, C; Silliman, K; Anker, A; Knowlton, N

    2013-09-01

    Divergent natural selection driven by competition for limited resources can promote speciation, even in the presence of gene flow. Reproductive isolation is more likely to result from divergent selection when the partitioned resource is closely linked to mating. Obligate symbiosis and host fidelity (mating on or near the host) can provide this link, creating ideal conditions for speciation in the absence of physical barriers to dispersal. Symbiotic organisms often experience competition for hosts, and host fidelity ensures that divergent selection for a specific host or host habitat can lead to speciation and strengthen pre-existing reproductive barriers. Here, we present evidence that diversification of a sympatric species complex occurred despite the potential for gene flow and that partitioning of host resources (both by species and by host habitat) has contributed to this diversification. Four species of snapping shrimps (Alpheus armatus, A. immaculatus, A. polystictus and A. roquensis) are distributed mainly sympatrically in the Caribbean, while the fifth species (A. rudolphi) is restricted to Brazil. All five species are obligate commensals of sea anemones with a high degree of fidelity and ecological specificity for host species and habitat. We analysed sequence data from 10 nuclear genes and the mitochondrial COI gene in 11-16 individuals from each of the Caribbean taxa and from the only available specimen of the Brazilian taxon. Phylogenetic analyses support morphology-based species assignments and a well-supported Caribbean clade. The Brazilian A. rudolphi is recovered as an outgroup to the Caribbean taxa. Isolation-migration coalescent analysis provides evidence for historical gene flow among sympatric sister species. Our data suggest that both selection for a novel host and selection for host microhabitat may have promoted diversification of this complex despite gene flow.

  4. Experimental Swap of Anopheles gambiae's Assortative Mating Preferences Demonstrates Key Role of X-Chromosome Divergence Island in Incipient Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Alhafez, Nahla; Weedall, Gareth D.; Brothwood, Jessica; Kandola, Sharanjit; Paton, Doug; Fofana, Abrahamane; Olohan, Lisa; Betancourth, Mauro Pazmiño; Ekechukwu, Nkiru E.; Baeshen, Rowida; Traorè, Sékou F.; Diabate, Abdoulaye; Tripet, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Although many theoretical models of sympatric speciation propose that genes responsible for assortative mating amongst incipient species should be associated with genomic regions protected from recombination, there are few data to support this theory. The malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, is known for its sympatric cryptic species maintained by pre-mating reproductive isolation and its putative genomic islands of speciation, and is therefore an ideal model system for studying the genomic signature associated with incipient sympatric speciation. Here we selectively introgressed the island of divergence located in the pericentric region of the X chromosome of An. gambiae s.s. into its sister taxon An. coluzzii through 5 generations of backcrossing followed by two generations of crosses within the introgressed strains that resulted in An. coluzzii-like recombinant strains fixed for the M and S marker in the X chromosome island. The mating preference of recombinant strains was then tested by giving virgin recombinant individuals a choice of mates with X-islands matching and non-matching their own island type. We show through genetic analyses of transferred sperm that recombinant females consistently mated with matching island-type males thereby associating assortative mating genes with the X-island of divergence. Furthermore, full-genome sequencing confirmed that protein-coding differences between recombinant strains were limited to the experimentally swapped pericentromeric region. Finally, targeted-genome comparisons showed that a number of these unique differences were conserved in sympatric field populations, thereby revealing candidate speciation genes. The functional demonstration of a close association between speciation genes and the X-island of differentiation lends unprecedented support to island-of-speciation models of sympatric speciation facilitated by pericentric recombination suppression. PMID:25880677

  5. No sympatric speciation here: multiple data sources show that the ant Myrmica microrubra is not a separate species but an alternate reproductive morph of Myrmica rubra.

    PubMed

    Steiner, F M; Schlick-Steiner, B C; Konrad, H; Moder, K; Christian, E; Seifert, B; Crozier, R H; Stauffer, C; Buschinger, A

    2006-05-01

    No aspect of speciation is as controversial as the view that new species can evolve sympatrically, among populations in close physical contact. Social parasitism has been suggested to yield necessary disruptive selection for sympatric speciation. Recently, mitochondrial DNA phylogeography has shown that the ant Myrmica microrubra is closely related to its host, Myrmica rubra, leading to the suggestion that sympatric speciation has occurred. We investigated the relationships between the two ant forms using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences, microsatellite genotyping and morphometrics. Molecular phylogenetic and population structure analyses showed that M. microrubra does not evolve separately to its host but rather shares a gene pool with it. Probability analysis showed that mitochondrial DNA data previously adduced in favour of sympatric speciation do not in fact do so. Morphometrically, M. microrubra is most readily interpreted as a miniature queen form of M. rubra, not a separate species. Myrmica microrubra is not an example of speciation. The large (typical M. rubra) and small (M. microrubra) queen forms are alternative reproductive strategies of the same species. Myrmica microrubraSeifert 1993 is consequently synonymized here with M. rubra Linnaeus, 1758.

  6. The role of local ecology during hybridization at the initial stages of ecological speciation in a marine snail.

    PubMed

    Galindo, J; Martínez-Fernández, M; Rodríguez-Ramilo, S T; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2013-07-01

    Hybrid zones of ecologically divergent populations are ideal systems to study the interaction between natural selection and gene flow during the initial stages of speciation. Here, we perform an amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) genome scan in parallel hybrid zones between divergent ecotypes of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis, which is considered a model case for the study of ecological speciation. Ridged-Banded (RB) and Smooth-Unbanded (SU) ecotypes are adapted to different shore levels and microhabitats, although they present a sympatric distribution at the mid-shore where they meet and mate (partially assortatively). We used shell morphology, outlier and nonoutlier AFLP loci from RB, SU and hybrid specimens captured in sympatry to determine the level of phenotypic and genetic introgression. We found different levels of introgression at parallel hybrid zones and nonoutlier loci showed more gene flow with greater phenotypic introgression. These results were independent from the phylogeography of the studied populations, but not from the local ecological conditions. Genetic variation at outlier loci was highly correlated with phenotypic variation. In addition, we used the relationship between genetic and phenotypic variation to estimate the heritability of morphological traits and to identify potential Quantitative Trait Loci to be confirmed in future crosses. These results suggest that ecology (exogenous selection) plays an important role in this hybrid zone. Thus, ecologically based divergent natural selection is responsible, simultaneously, for both ecotype divergence and hybridization. On the other hand, genetic introgression occurs only at neutral loci (nonoutliers). In the future, genome-wide studies and controlled crosses would give more valuable information about this process of speciation in the face of gene flow. PMID:23663115

  7. Speciation, Ecological Opportunity, and Latitude (American Society of Naturalists Address).

    PubMed

    Schluter, Dolph

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses to explain the greater numbers of species in the tropics than the temperate zone include greater age and area, higher temperature and metabolic rates, and greater ecological opportunity. These ideas make contrasting predictions about the relationship between speciation processes and latitude, which I elaborate and evaluate. Available data suggest that per capita speciation rates are currently highest in the temperate zone and that diversification rates (speciation minus extinction) are similar between latitudes. In contrast, clades whose oldest analyzed dates precede the Eocene thermal maximum, when the extent of the tropics was much greater than today, tend to show highest speciation and diversification rates in the tropics. These findings are consistent with age and area, which is alone among hypotheses in predicting a time trend. Higher recent speciation rates in the temperate zone than the tropics suggest an additional response to high ecological opportunity associated with low species diversity. These broad patterns are compelling but provide limited insights into underlying mechanisms, arguing that studies of speciation processes along the latitudinal gradient will be vital. Using threespine stickleback in depauperate northern lakes as an example, I show how high ecological opportunity can lead to rapid speciation. The results support a role for ecological opportunity in speciation, but its importance in the evolution of the latitudinal gradient remains uncertain. I conclude that per capita evolutionary rates are no longer higher in the tropics than the temperate zone. Nevertheless, the vast numbers of species that have already accumulated in the tropics ensure that total rate of species production remains highest there. Thus, tropical evolutionary momentum helps to perpetuate the steep latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

  8. The role of genome and gene regulatory network canalization in the evolution of multi-trait polymorphisms and sympatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexual reproduction has classically been considered as a barrier to the buildup of discrete phenotypic differentiation. This notion has been confirmed by models of sympatric speciation in which a fixed genetic architecture and a linear genotype phenotype mapping were assumed. In this paper we study the influence of a flexible genetic architecture and non-linear genotype phenotype map on differentiation under sexual reproduction. We use an individual based model in which organisms have a genome containing genes and transcription factor binding sites. Mutations involve single genes or binding sites or stretches of genome. The genome codes for a regulatory network that determines the gene expression pattern and hence the phenotype of the organism, resulting in a non-linear genotype phenotype map. The organisms compete in a multi-niche environment, imposing selection for phenotypic differentiation. Results We find as a generic outcome the evolution of discrete clusters of organisms adapted to different niches, despite random mating. Organisms from different clusters are distinct on the genotypic, the network and the phenotypic level. However, the genome and network differences are constrained to a subset of the genome locations, a process we call genotypic canalization. We demonstrate how this canalization leads to an increased robustness to recombination and increasing hybrid fitness. Finally, in case of assortative mating, we explain how this canalization increases the effectiveness of assortativeness. Conclusion We conclude that in case of a flexible genetic architecture and a non-linear genotype phenotype mapping, sexual reproduction does not constrain phenotypic differentiation, but instead constrains the genotypic differences underlying it. We hypothesize that, as genotypic canalization enables differentiation despite random mating and increases the effectiveness of assortative mating, sympatric speciation is more likely than is commonly suggested

  9. Ecology: is speciation driven by species diversity?

    PubMed

    Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Ricklefs, Robert E; Jiménez, Iván; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2005-11-01

    Emerson and Kolm show that the proportion of species endemic to an island is positively related to its species richness and, assuming that endemism indexes speciation rate, they infer that greater species diversity accelerates diversification. Here we demonstrate that the same correlation between species richness and percentage endemism can arise even if within-island speciation is negligible, particularly when both endemism and species richness depend on attributes of islands (such as area) that influence the average age of resident populations. Island biogeography theory indicates that, where the average time to extinction is relatively long, diversity increases through colonization, irrespective of whether new species are formed; at the same time, islands on which populations persist for longer accumulate more endemic species as local populations differentiate and populations on neighbouring islands become extinct. We therefore suggest that species richness and endemism are correlated fortuitously owing to their mutual dependence on the life spans of populations on islands, which is unrelated to speciation itself.

  10. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation.

    PubMed

    Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J; Butlin, Roger K; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-08-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry.

  11. Evaluation of genetic isolation within an island flora reveals unusually widespread local adaptation and supports sympatric speciation

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Kaye, Maria; Devaux, Céline; Hipperson, Helen; Lighten, Jackie; Dunning, Luke T.; Hutton, Ian; Baker, William J.; Butlin, Roger K.; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    It is now recognized that speciation can proceed even when divergent natural selection is opposed by gene flow. Understanding the extent to which environmental gradients and geographical distance can limit gene flow within species can shed light on the relative roles of selection and dispersal limitation during the early stages of population divergence and speciation. On the remote Lord Howe Island (Australia), ecological speciation with gene flow is thought to have taken place in several plant genera. The aim of this study was to establish the contributions of isolation by environment (IBE) and isolation by community (IBC) to the genetic structure of 19 plant species, from a number of distantly related families, which have been subjected to similar environmental pressures over comparable time scales. We applied an individual-based, multivariate, model averaging approach to quantify IBE and IBC, while controlling for isolation by distance (IBD). Our analyses demonstrated that all species experienced some degree of ecologically driven isolation, whereas only 12 of 19 species were subjected to IBD. The prevalence of IBE within these plant species indicates that divergent selection in plants frequently produces local adaptation and supports hypotheses that ecological divergence can drive speciation in sympatry. PMID:24958917

  12. The role of gene expression in ecological speciation

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Scott A; Collin, Hélène; Nosil, Patrik; Rogers, Sean M

    2010-01-01

    Ecological speciation is the process by which barriers to gene flow between populations evolve due to adaptive divergence via natural selection. A relatively unexplored area in ecological speciation is the role of gene expression. Gene expression may be associated with ecologically important phenotypes not evident from morphology and play a role during colonization of new environments. Here we review two potential roles of gene expression in ecological speciation: (1) its indirect role in facilitating population persistence and (2) its direct role in contributing to genetically based reproductive isolation. We find indirect evidence that gene expression facilitates population persistence, but direct tests are lacking. We also find clear examples of gene expression having effects on phenotypic traits and adaptive genetic divergence, but links to the evolution of reproductive isolation itself remain indirect. Gene expression during adaptive divergence seems to often involve complex genetic architectures controlled by gene networks, regulatory regions, and “eQTL hotspots.” Nonetheless, we review how approaches for isolating the functional mutations contributing to adaptive divergence are proving to be successful. The study of gene expression has promise for increasing our understanding ecological speciation, particularly when integrative approaches are applied. PMID:20860685

  13. Ecological niche modeling of sympatric krill predators around Marguerite Bay, Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlaender, Ari S.; Johnston, David W.; Fraser, William R.; Burns, Jennifer; Halpin, Patrick N.; Costa, Daniel P.

    2011-07-01

    Adélie penguins ( Pygoscelis adeliae), carabeater seals ( Lobodon carcinophagus), humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae), and minke whales ( Balaenoptera bonaernsis) are found in the waters surrounding the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Each species relies primarily on Antarctic krill ( Euphausia superba) and has physiological constraints and foraging behaviors that dictate their ecological niches. Understanding the degree of ecological overlap between sympatric krill predators is critical to understanding and predicting the impacts on climate-driven changes to the Antarctic marine ecosystem. To explore ecological relationships amongst sympatric krill predators, we developed ecological niche models using a maximum entropy modeling approach (Maxent) that allows the integration of data collected by a variety of means (e.g. satellite-based locations and visual observations). We created spatially explicit probability distributions for the four krill predators in fall 2001 and 2002 in conjunction with a suite of environmental variables. We find areas within Marguerite Bay with high krill predator occurrence rates or biological hot spots. We find the modeled ecological niches for Adélie penguins and crabeater seals may be affected by their physiological needs to haul-out on substrate. Thus, their distributions may be less dictated by proximity to prey and more so by physical features that over time provide adequate access to prey. Humpback and minke whales, being fully marine and having greater energetic demands, occupy ecological niches more directly proximate to prey. We also find evidence to suggest that the amount of overlap between modeled niches is relatively low, even for species with similar energetic requirements. In a rapidly changing and variable environment, our modeling work shows little indication that krill predators maintain similar ecological niches across years around Marguerite Bay. Given the amount of variability in the marine environment around the

  14. Polymorphic butterfly reveals the missing link in ecological speciation

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Nicola L.; Hill, Ryan I.; Kapan, Durrell D.; Gilbert, Lawrence E.; Kronforst, Marcus R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecological speciation occurs when ecologically-based divergent selection causes the evolution of reproductive isolation. While there are many empirical examples of this process, there exists a poorly characterized stage during which the traits that distinguish species ecologically and reproductively segregate in a single population. Using a combination of genetic mapping, mate choice experiments, field observations, and population genetics, we studied a butterfly population with a mimetic wing color polymorphism and found that they exhibited partial color-based assortative mate preference. These traits represent the divergent, ecologically-based signal and preference components of sexual isolation that usually distinguish incipient and sibling species. The association between behavior and recognition trait in a single population may enhance the probability of speciation and provides an example for the missing link between an interbreeding population and isolated species. PMID:19892982

  15. Ecological speciation in postglacial European whitefish: rapid adaptive radiations into the littoral, pelagic, and profundal lake habitats

    PubMed Central

    Præbel, Kim; Knudsen, Rune; Siwertsson, Anna; Karhunen, Markku; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Ovaskainen, Otso; Østbye, Kjartan; Peruzzi, Stefano; Fevolden, Svein-Erik; Amundsen, Per-Arne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how a monophyletic lineage of a species diverges into several adaptive forms has received increased attention in recent years, but the underlying mechanisms in this process are still under debate. Postglacial fishes are excellent model organisms for exploring this process, especially the initial stages of ecological speciation, as postglacial lakes represent replicated discrete environments with variation in available niches. Here, we combine data of niche utilization, trophic morphology, and 17 microsatellite loci to investigate the diversification process of three sympatric European whitefish morphs from three northern Fennoscandian lakes. The morphological divergence in the gill raker number among the whitefish morphs was related to the utilization of different trophic niches and was associated with reproductive isolation within and across lakes. The intralacustrine comparison of whitefish morphs showed that these systems represent two levels of adaptive divergence: (1) a consistent littoral–pelagic resource axis; and (2) a more variable littoral–profundal resource axis. The results also indicate that the profundal whitefish morph has diverged repeatedly from the ancestral littoral whitefish morph in sympatry in two different watercourses. In contrast, all the analyses performed revealed clustering of the pelagic whitefish morphs across lakes suggesting parallel postglacial immigration with the littoral whitefish morph into each lake. Finally, the analyses strongly suggested that the trophic adaptive trait, number of gill rakers, was under diversifying selection in the different whitefish morphs. Together, the results support a complex evolutionary scenario where ecological speciation acts, but where both allopatric (colonization history) and sympatric (within watercourse divergence) processes are involved. PMID:24455129

  16. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Andrew D.; Newton, Jason; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Samaniego, Jose A.; Post, Klaas; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Niche variation owing to individual differences in ecology has been hypothesized to be an early stage of sympatric speciation. Yet to date, no study has tracked niche width over more than a few generations. In this study, we show the presence of isotopic niche variation over millennial timescales and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic ratios spanned a range similar to the difference in isotopic values of two known prey items, herring Clupea harengus and harbour seal Phoca vitulina. Two proxies of the stage of speciation, lineage sorting of mitogenomes and genotypic clustering, were both weak to intermediate indicating that speciation has made little progress. Thus, our study confirms that even with the necessary ecological conditions, i.e. among-individual variation in ecology, it is difficult for sympatric speciation to progress in the face of gene flow. In contrast to some theoretical models, our empirical results suggest that sympatric speciation driven by among-individual differences in ecological niche is a slow process and may not reach completion. We argue that sympatric speciation is constrained in this system owing to the plastic nature of the behavioural traits under selection when hunting either mammals or fish. PMID:23945688

  17. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Samaniego, Jose A; Post, Klaas; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-10-01

    Niche variation owing to individual differences in ecology has been hypothesized to be an early stage of sympatric speciation. Yet to date, no study has tracked niche width over more than a few generations. In this study, we show the presence of isotopic niche variation over millennial timescales and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic ratios spanned a range similar to the difference in isotopic values of two known prey items, herring Clupea harengus and harbour seal Phoca vitulina. Two proxies of the stage of speciation, lineage sorting of mitogenomes and genotypic clustering, were both weak to intermediate indicating that speciation has made little progress. Thus, our study confirms that even with the necessary ecological conditions, i.e. among-individual variation in ecology, it is difficult for sympatric speciation to progress in the face of gene flow. In contrast to some theoretical models, our empirical results suggest that sympatric speciation driven by among-individual differences in ecological niche is a slow process and may not reach completion. We argue that sympatric speciation is constrained in this system owing to the plastic nature of the behavioural traits under selection when hunting either mammals or fish.

  18. Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages.

    PubMed

    Foote, Andrew D; Newton, Jason; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; Samaniego, Jose A; Post, Klaas; Rosing-Asvid, Aqqalu; Sinding, Mikkel-Holger S; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-10-01

    Niche variation owing to individual differences in ecology has been hypothesized to be an early stage of sympatric speciation. Yet to date, no study has tracked niche width over more than a few generations. In this study, we show the presence of isotopic niche variation over millennial timescales and investigate the evolutionary outcomes. Isotopic ratios were measured from tissue samples of sympatric killer whale Orcinus orca lineages from the North Sea, spanning over 10 000 years. Isotopic ratios spanned a range similar to the difference in isotopic values of two known prey items, herring Clupea harengus and harbour seal Phoca vitulina. Two proxies of the stage of speciation, lineage sorting of mitogenomes and genotypic clustering, were both weak to intermediate indicating that speciation has made little progress. Thus, our study confirms that even with the necessary ecological conditions, i.e. among-individual variation in ecology, it is difficult for sympatric speciation to progress in the face of gene flow. In contrast to some theoretical models, our empirical results suggest that sympatric speciation driven by among-individual differences in ecological niche is a slow process and may not reach completion. We argue that sympatric speciation is constrained in this system owing to the plastic nature of the behavioural traits under selection when hunting either mammals or fish. PMID:23945688

  19. Ecology of Speciation in the Genus Bacillus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial ecologists and systematists are challenged to discover the early ecological changes that drive the splitting of one bacterial population into two ecologically distinct populations. We have aimed to identify newly divergent lineages (“ecotypes”) bearing the dynamic properties attributed to...

  20. A recombination suppressor contributes to ecological speciation in OSTRINIA moths.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C B; Li, X; Dopman, E B

    2015-06-01

    Despite unparalleled access to species' genomes in our post-genomic age, we often lack adequate biological explanations for a major hallmark of the speciation process-genetic divergence. In the presence of gene flow, chromosomal rearrangements such as inversions are thought to promote divergence and facilitate speciation by suppressing recombination. Using a combination of genetic crosses, phenotyping of a trait underlying ecological isolation, and population genetic analysis of wild populations, we set out to determine whether evidence supports a role for recombination suppressors during speciation between the Z and E strains of European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Our results are consistent with the presence of an inversion that has contributed to accumulation of ecologically adaptive alleles and genetic differentiation across roughly 20% of the Ostrinia sex chromosome (~4 Mb). Patterns in Ostrinia suggest that chromosomal divergence may involve two separate phases-one driving its transient origin through local adaptation and one determining its stable persistence through differential introgression. As the evolutionary rate of rearrangements in lepidopteran genomes appears to be one of the fastest among eukaryotes, structural mutations may have had a disproportionate role during adaptive divergence and speciation in Ostrinia and in other moths and butterflies. PMID:25626887

  1. Genomic Signatures of Speciation in Sympatric and Allopatric Hawaiian Picture-Winged Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Lin; Settlage, Robert; McMahon, Wyatt; Michalak, Katarzyna; Tae, Hongseok; Garner, Harold R.; Stacy, Elizabeth A.; Price, Donald K.; Michalak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    The Hawaiian archipelago provides a natural arena for understanding adaptive radiation and speciation. The Hawaiian Drosophila are one of the most diverse endemic groups in Hawaiì with up to 1,000 species. We sequenced and analyzed entire genomes of recently diverged species of Hawaiian picture-winged Drosophila, Drosophila silvestris and Drosophila heteroneura from Hawaiì Island, in comparison with Drosophila planitibia, their sister species from Maui, a neighboring island where a common ancestor of all three had likely occurred. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism patterns suggest the more recent origin of D. silvestris and D. heteroneura, as well as a pervasive influence of positive selection on divergence of the three species, with the signatures of positive selection more prominent in sympatry than allopatry. Positively selected genes were significantly enriched for functional terms related to sensory detection and mating, suggesting that sexual selection played an important role in speciation of these species. In particular, sequence variation in Olfactory receptor and Gustatory receptor genes seems to play a major role in adaptive radiation in Hawaiian pictured-winged Drosophila. PMID:27189993

  2. Nanoindentation of lemur enamel: an ecological investigation of mechanical property variations within and between sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sara E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Sponheimer, Matt; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2012-06-01

    The common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. However, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. Substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve suggests that their dental morphology, structure, and possibly their enamel are not adapted for their current fallback food (the mechanically challenging tamarind fruit). In this study, we investigate the nanomechanical properties, mineralization, and microstructure of the enamel of three sympatric lemur species to provide insight into their dietary functional adaptations. Mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation were compared to measurements of mineral content, prism orientation, prism size, and enamel thickness using electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of all species were similar near the enamel dentin junction and variations correlated with changes in microstructure (e.g., prism size) and mineral content. Severe wear and microcracking within L. catta's enamel were associated with up to a 43% reduction in nanomechanical properties in regions of cracking versus intact enamel. The mechanical and material properties of L. catta's enamel are similar to those of sympatric folivores and suggest that they are not uniquely mechanically adapted to consume the physically challenging tamarind fruit. An understanding of the material and mechanical properties of enamel is required to fully elucidate the functional and ecological adaptations of primate teeth.

  3. Nanoindentation of lemur enamel: an ecological investigation of mechanical property variations within and between sympatric species.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sara E; Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L; Sponheimer, Matt; Ferguson, Virginia L

    2012-06-01

    The common morphological metrics of size, shape, and enamel thickness of teeth are believed to reflect the functional requirements of a primate's diet. However, the mechanical and material properties of enamel also contribute to tooth function, yet are rarely studied. Substantial wear and tooth loss previously documented in Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve suggests that their dental morphology, structure, and possibly their enamel are not adapted for their current fallback food (the mechanically challenging tamarind fruit). In this study, we investigate the nanomechanical properties, mineralization, and microstructure of the enamel of three sympatric lemur species to provide insight into their dietary functional adaptations. Mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation were compared to measurements of mineral content, prism orientation, prism size, and enamel thickness using electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of all species were similar near the enamel dentin junction and variations correlated with changes in microstructure (e.g., prism size) and mineral content. Severe wear and microcracking within L. catta's enamel were associated with up to a 43% reduction in nanomechanical properties in regions of cracking versus intact enamel. The mechanical and material properties of L. catta's enamel are similar to those of sympatric folivores and suggest that they are not uniquely mechanically adapted to consume the physically challenging tamarind fruit. An understanding of the material and mechanical properties of enamel is required to fully elucidate the functional and ecological adaptations of primate teeth. PMID:22610894

  4. Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea

    PubMed Central

    DOUHAN, G. W.; SMITH, M. E.; HUYRN, K. L.; WESTBROOK, A.; Beerli, P.; FISHER, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of grasses and source of novel chemical compounds. Three groups within this species (G1, G2, and G3) have been recognized based on habitat association, sclerotia and conidia morphology, and alkaloid production. These groups have further been supported by RAPD and AFLP markers, suggesting this species may be more accurately described as a species complex. However, all divergent ecotypes can coexist in sympatric populations with no obvious physical barriers to prevent gene flow. In this study, we used both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to test for speciation within C. purpurea using DNA sequences from ITS, a RAS-like locus, and a portion of beta-tubulin. The G1 types are significantly divergent from the G2/G3 types based on each of the three loci and the combined dataset, whereas the G2/G3 types are more integrated with one another. Although the G2 and G3 lineages have not diverged as much as the G1 lineage based on DNA sequence data, the use of three DNA loci does reliably separate the G2 and G3 lineages. However, the population genetic analyses strongly suggest little to no gene flow occurring between the different ecotypes and we argue that this process is driven by adaptations to ecological habitats; G1 isolates are associated with terrestrial grasses, G2 isolates are found in wet and shady environments, and G3 isolates are found in salt marsh habitats. PMID:18373531

  5. Comparative landscape genetics of three closely related sympatric Hesperid butterflies with diverging ecological traits.

    PubMed

    Engler, Jan O; Balkenhol, Niko; Filz, Katharina J; Habel, Jan C; Rödder, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    To understand how landscape characteristics affect gene flow in species with diverging ecological traits, it is important to analyze taxonomically related sympatric species in the same landscape using identical methods. Here, we present such a comparative landscape genetic study involving three closely related Hesperid butterflies of the genus Thymelicus that represent a gradient of diverging ecological traits. We analyzed landscape effects on their gene flow by deriving inter-population connectivity estimates based on different species distribution models (SDMs), which were calculated from multiple landscape parameters. We then used SDM output maps to calculate circuit-theoretic connectivity estimates and statistically compared these estimates to actual genetic differentiation in each species. We based our inferences on two different analytical methods and two metrics of genetic differentiation. Results indicate that land use patterns influence population connectivity in the least mobile specialist T. acteon. In contrast, populations of the highly mobile generalist T. lineola were panmictic, lacking any landscape related effect on genetic differentiation. In the species with ecological traits in between those of the congeners, T. sylvestris, climate has a strong impact on inter-population connectivity. However, the relative importance of different landscape factors for connectivity varies when using different metrics of genetic differentiation in this species. Our results show that closely related species representing a gradient of ecological traits also show genetic structures and landscape genetic relationships that gradually change from a geographical macro- to micro-scale. Thus, the type and magnitude of landscape effects on gene flow can differ strongly even among closely related species inhabiting the same landscape, and depend on their relative degree of specialization. In addition, the use of different genetic differentiation metrics makes it possible to

  6. Comparative Landscape Genetics of Three Closely Related Sympatric Hesperid Butterflies with Diverging Ecological Traits

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Jan O.; Balkenhol, Niko; Filz, Katharina J.; Habel, Jan C.; Rödder, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    To understand how landscape characteristics affect gene flow in species with diverging ecological traits, it is important to analyze taxonomically related sympatric species in the same landscape using identical methods. Here, we present such a comparative landscape genetic study involving three closely related Hesperid butterflies of the genus Thymelicus that represent a gradient of diverging ecological traits. We analyzed landscape effects on their gene flow by deriving inter-population connectivity estimates based on different species distribution models (SDMs), which were calculated from multiple landscape parameters. We then used SDM output maps to calculate circuit-theoretic connectivity estimates and statistically compared these estimates to actual genetic differentiation in each species. We based our inferences on two different analytical methods and two metrics of genetic differentiation. Results indicate that land use patterns influence population connectivity in the least mobile specialist T. acteon. In contrast, populations of the highly mobile generalist T. lineola were panmictic, lacking any landscape related effect on genetic differentiation. In the species with ecological traits in between those of the congeners, T. sylvestris, climate has a strong impact on inter-population connectivity. However, the relative importance of different landscape factors for connectivity varies when using different metrics of genetic differentiation in this species. Our results show that closely related species representing a gradient of ecological traits also show genetic structures and landscape genetic relationships that gradually change from a geographical macro- to micro-scale. Thus, the type and magnitude of landscape effects on gene flow can differ strongly even among closely related species inhabiting the same landscape, and depend on their relative degree of specialization. In addition, the use of different genetic differentiation metrics makes it possible to

  7. Habitat and Burrow System Characteristics of the Blind Mole Rat Spalax galili in an Area of Supposed Sympatric Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Lövy, Matěj; Šklíba, Jan; Hrouzková, Ema; Dvořáková, Veronika; Nevo, Eviatar; Šumbera, Radim

    2015-01-01

    A costly search for food in subterranean rodents resulted in various adaptations improving their foraging success under given ecological conditions. In Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies, adaptations to local ecological conditions can promote speciation, which was recently supposed to occur even in sympatry at sites where two soil types of contrasting characteristics abut each other. Quantitative description of ecological conditions in such a site has been, nevertheless, missing. We measured characteristics of food supply and soil within 16 home ranges of blind mole rats Spalax galili in an area subdivided into two parts formed by basaltic soil and pale rendzina. We also mapped nine complete mole rat burrow systems to compare burrowing patterns between the soil types. Basaltic soil had a higher food supply and was harder than rendzina even under higher moisture content and lower bulk density. Population density of mole rats was five-times lower in rendzina, possibly due to the lower food supply and higher cover of Sarcopoterium shrubs which seem to be avoided by mole rats. A combination of food supply and soil parameters probably influences burrowing patterns resulting in shorter and more complex burrow systems in basaltic soil. PMID:26192762

  8. Assortative flocking in crossbills and implications for ecological speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julie W; Sjoberg, Stephanie M; Mueller, Matthew C; Benkman, Craig W

    2012-10-22

    How reproductive isolation is related to divergent natural selection is a central question in speciation. Here, we focus on several ecologically specialized taxa or 'call types' of red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra complex), one of the few groups of birds providing much evidence for ecological speciation. Call types differ in bill sizes and feeding capabilities, and also differ in vocalizations, such that contact calls provide information on crossbill phenotype. We found that two call types of red crossbills were more likely to approach playbacks of their own call type than those of heterotypics, and that their propensity to approach heterotypics decreased with increasing divergence in bill size. Although call similarity also decreased with increasing divergence in bill size, comparisons of responses to familiar versus unfamiliar call types indicate that the decrease in the propensity to approach heterotypics with increasing divergence in bill size was a learned response, and not a by-product of calls diverging pleiotropically as bill size diverged. Because crossbills choose mates while in flocks, assortative flocking could lead indirectly to assortative mating as a by-product. These patterns of association therefore provide a mechanism by which increasing divergent selection can lead to increasing reproductive isolation. PMID:22915674

  9. On the scent of standing variation for speciation: behavioral evidence for native sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the southern United States.

    PubMed

    Powell, Thomas H Q; Cha, Dong H; Linn, Charles E; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2012-09-01

    Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly's sympatric shift in the northeastern United States from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles generate prezygotic isolation. Apples emit volatiles that appear to be missing from gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection profiles for flies infesting downy hawthorns, raising the question of how R. pomonella evolved a preference for apple. In the southern United States, R. pomonella attacks several native hawthorns. Behaviorally active volatile blends for R. pomonella infesting southern hawthorns contain the missing apple volatiles, potentially explaining why downy hawthorn flies could have evolved to be sensitive to a blend of apple volatiles. Flight tunnel assays imply that southern hawthorn populations were not the antecedent of a preassembled apple race, as southern flies were not attracted to the apple volatile blend. Instead, behavioral evidence was found for southern host races on native hawthorns, complementing the story of the historical sympatric shift to introduced apple in the North and illustrating how R. pomonella may evolve novel combinations of agonist and antagonist responses to volatiles to use new fruit resources.

  10. Ecological and genetic factors influencing the transition between host-use strategies in sympatric Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Merrill, R M; Naisbit, R E; Mallet, J; Jiggins, C D

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in host-plant use by phytophagous insects have played a central role in their diversification. Evolving host-use strategies will reflect a trade-off between selection pressures. The ecological niche of herbivorous insects is partitioned along several dimensions, and if populations remain in contact, recombination will break down associations between relevant loci. As such, genetic architecture can profoundly affect the coordinated divergence of traits and subsequently the ability to exploit novel habitats. The closely related species Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene differ in mimetic colour pattern, habitat and host-plant use. We investigate the selection pressures and genetic basis underlying host-use differences in these two species. Host-plant surveys reveal that H. melpomene specializes on a single species of Passiflora. This is also true for the majority of other Heliconius species in secondary growth forest at our study site, as expected under a model of interspecific competition. In contrast, H. cydno, which uses closed-forest habitats where both Heliconius and Passiflora are less common, appears not to be restricted by competition and uses a broad selection of the available Passiflora. However, other selection pressures are likely involved, and field experiments reveal that early larval survival of both butterfly species is highest on Passiflora menispermifolia, but most markedly so for H. melpomene, the specialist on that host. Finally, we demonstrate an association between host-plant acceptance and colour pattern amongst interspecific hybrids, suggesting that major loci underlying these important ecological traits are physically linked in the genome. Together, our results reveal ecological and genetic associations between shifts in habitat, host use and mimetic colour pattern that have likely facilitated both speciation and coexistence.

  11. Ecological niche partitioning between Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in Cameroon: the ecological side of speciation

    PubMed Central

    Simard, Frédéric; Ayala, Diego; Kamdem, Guy Colince; Pombi, Marco; Etouna, Joachim; Ose, Kenji; Fotsing, Jean-Marie; Fontenille, Didier; Besansky, Nora J; Costantini, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Background Speciation among members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is thought to be promoted by disruptive selection and ecological divergence acting on sets of adaptation genes protected from recombination by polymorphic paracentric chromosomal inversions. However, shared chromosomal polymorphisms between the M and S molecular forms of An. gambiae and insufficient information about their relationship with ecological divergence challenge this view. We used Geographic Information Systems, Ecological Niche Factor Analysis, and Bayesian multilocus genetic clustering to explore the nature and extent of ecological and chromosomal differentiation of M and S across all the biogeographic domains of Cameroon in Central Africa, in order to understand the role of chromosomal arrangements in ecological specialisation within and among molecular forms. Results Species distribution modelling with presence-only data revealed differences in the ecological niche of both molecular forms and the sibling species, An. arabiensis. The fundamental environmental envelope of the two molecular forms, however, overlapped to a large extent in the rainforest, where they occurred in sympatry. The S form had the greatest niche breadth of all three taxa, whereas An. arabiensis and the M form had the smallest niche overlap. Correspondence analysis of M and S karyotypes confirmed that molecular forms shared similar combinations of chromosomal inversion arrangements in response to the eco-climatic gradient defining the main biogeographic domains occurring across Cameroon. Savanna karyotypes of M and S, however, segregated along the smaller-scale environmental gradient defined by the second ordination axis. Population structure analysis identified three chromosomal clusters, each containing a mixture of M and S specimens. In both M and S, alternative karyotypes were segregating in contrasted environments, in agreement with a strong ecological adaptive value of chromosomal inversions. Conclusion Our

  12. Genomic Consequences of Ecological Speciation in Astyanax Cavefish

    PubMed Central

    Borowsky, Richard; Cohen, Dana

    2013-01-01

    The cave environment is consistently radically different than the surface environment because it lacks light, and animals adapting to cave life are subject to strong selective forces much different than those experienced by their ancestors who evolved in the presence of light. As such, their divergence from surface ancestors and eventual speciation is likely to be driven by the shift in ecology. We report here that hybrids between cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus fishes produce offspring with allelic frequencies that differ significantly from Mendelian expectations both for transmission ratios and for independent assortment of unlinked markers. Comparison of allelic content of DNA from fin clips and sperm pools show that the transmission ratio distortion likely occurs during spermatogenesis. Departures from expectations of independent assortment are essentially epistatic phenomena generating linkage disequilibrium. A novel analysis of the epistatic interactions reveals an apparent network of interactions among genes known or suspected to be involved in cave adaptation, implying that the epistasis arose as a “by product” of the divergence due to cave adaptation. PMID:24260315

  13. Genomic consequences of ecological speciation in astyanax cavefish.

    PubMed

    Borowsky, Richard; Cohen, Dana

    2013-01-01

    The cave environment is consistently radically different than the surface environment because it lacks light, and animals adapting to cave life are subject to strong selective forces much different than those experienced by their ancestors who evolved in the presence of light. As such, their divergence from surface ancestors and eventual speciation is likely to be driven by the shift in ecology. We report here that hybrids between cave and surface Astyanax mexicanus fishes produce offspring with allelic frequencies that differ significantly from Mendelian expectations both for transmission ratios and for independent assortment of unlinked markers. Comparison of allelic content of DNA from fin clips and sperm pools show that the transmission ratio distortion likely occurs during spermatogenesis. Departures from expectations of independent assortment are essentially epistatic phenomena generating linkage disequilibrium. A novel analysis of the epistatic interactions reveals an apparent network of interactions among genes known or suspected to be involved in cave adaptation, implying that the epistasis arose as a "by product" of the divergence due to cave adaptation. PMID:24260315

  14. Using Ecological Niche Models and Niche Analyses to Understand Speciation Patterns: The Case of Sister Neotropical Orchid Bees

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Daniel P.; Vilela, Bruno; De Marco, Paulo; Nemésio, André

    2014-01-01

    The role of past connections between the two major South American forested biomes on current species distribution has been recognized a long time ago. Climatic oscillations that further separated these biomes have promoted parapatric speciation, in which many species had their continuous distribution split, giving rise to different but related species (i.e., different potential distributions and realized niche features). The distribution of many sister species of orchid bees follow this pattern. Here, using ecological niche models and niche analyses, we (1) tested the role of ecological niche differentiation on the divergence between sister orchid-bees (genera Eulaema and Eufriesea) from the Amazon and Atlantic forests, and (2) highlighted interesting areas for new surveys. Amazonian species occupied different realized niches than their Atlantic sister species. Conversely, species of sympatric but distantly related Eulaema bees occupied similar realized niches. Amazonian species had a wide potential distribution in South America, whereas Atlantic Forest species were more limited to the eastern coast of the continent. Additionally, we identified several areas in need of future surveys. Our results show that the realized niche of Atlantic-Amazonian sister species of orchid bees, which have been previously treated as allopatric populations of three species, had limited niche overlap and similarity. These findings agree with their current taxonomy, which treats each of those populations as distinct valid species. PMID:25422941

  15. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Beheregaray, Luciano B; Cooke, Georgina M; Chao, Ning L; Landguth, Erin L

    2014-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas.

  16. Ecological speciation in the tropics: insights from comparative genetic studies in Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Cooke, Georgina M.; Chao, Ning L.; Landguth, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Evolution creates and sustains biodiversity via adaptive changes in ecologically relevant traits. Ecologically mediated selection contributes to genetic divergence both in the presence or absence of geographic isolation between populations, and is considered an important driver of speciation. Indeed, the genetics of ecological speciation is becoming increasingly studied across a variety of taxa and environments. In this paper we review the literature of ecological speciation in the tropics. We report on low research productivity in tropical ecosystems and discuss reasons accounting for the rarity of studies. We argue for research programs that simultaneously address biogeographical and taxonomic questions in the tropics, while effectively assessing relationships between reproductive isolation and ecological divergence. To contribute toward this goal, we propose a new framework for ecological speciation that integrates information from phylogenetics, phylogeography, population genomics, and simulations in evolutionary landscape genetics (ELG). We introduce components of the framework, describe ELG simulations (a largely unexplored approach in ecological speciation), and discuss design and experimental feasibility within the context of tropical research. We then use published genetic datasets from populations of five codistributed Amazonian fish species to assess the performance of the framework in studies of tropical speciation. We suggest that these approaches can assist in distinguishing the relative contribution of natural selection from biogeographic history in the origin of biodiversity, even in complex ecosystems such as Amazonia. We also discuss on how to assess ecological speciation using ELG simulations that include selection. These integrative frameworks have considerable potential to enhance conservation management in biodiversity rich ecosystems and to complement historical biogeographic and evolutionary studies of tropical biotas. PMID:25653668

  17. Coexistence of three sympatric cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.); partitioning of time as an ecological resource.

    PubMed

    Mahendiran, Mylswamy

    2016-05-01

    Resource partitioning is well known along food and habitat for reducing competition among sympatric species, yet a study on temporal partitioning as a viable basis for reducing resource competition is not empirically investigated. Here, I attempt to identify the mechanism of temporal partitioning by intra- and interspecific diving analyses of three sympatric cormorant species at different freshwater wetlands around the Delhi region. Diving results indicated that cormorants opted for a shallow diving; consequently, they did not face any physiological stress. Moreover, diving durations were linked with seasons, foraging time and foraging habitats. Intraspecific comparison suggested that cormorants spent a longer time underwater in early hours of the day. Therefore, time spent for dive was higher in the forenoon than late afternoon, and the interspecific analysis also yielded a similar result. When Phalacrocorax niger and Phalacrocorax fuscicollis shared the same foraging habitat, they tended to differ in their foraging time (forenoon/afternoon). However, when P. niger and Phalacrocorax carbo shared the same foraging time, they tended to use different foraging habitats (lentic/lotic) leading to a mechanism of resource partitioning. Thus, sympatric cormorants effectively use time as a resource to exploit the food resources and successful coexistence. PMID:27293799

  18. Coexistence of three sympatric cormorants (Phalacrocorax spp.); partitioning of time as an ecological resource

    PubMed Central

    Mahendiran, Mylswamy

    2016-01-01

    Resource partitioning is well known along food and habitat for reducing competition among sympatric species, yet a study on temporal partitioning as a viable basis for reducing resource competition is not empirically investigated. Here, I attempt to identify the mechanism of temporal partitioning by intra- and interspecific diving analyses of three sympatric cormorant species at different freshwater wetlands around the Delhi region. Diving results indicated that cormorants opted for a shallow diving; consequently, they did not face any physiological stress. Moreover, diving durations were linked with seasons, foraging time and foraging habitats. Intraspecific comparison suggested that cormorants spent a longer time underwater in early hours of the day. Therefore, time spent for dive was higher in the forenoon than late afternoon, and the interspecific analysis also yielded a similar result. When Phalacrocorax niger and Phalacrocorax fuscicollis shared the same foraging habitat, they tended to differ in their foraging time (forenoon/afternoon). However, when P. niger and Phalacrocorax carbo shared the same foraging time, they tended to use different foraging habitats (lentic/lotic) leading to a mechanism of resource partitioning. Thus, sympatric cormorants effectively use time as a resource to exploit the food resources and successful coexistence. PMID:27293799

  19. Multivariate discrimination among cryptic mites of the genus Androlaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) parasitic of sympatric akodontine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in northeastern Argentina: possible evidence of host switch followed by speciation, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Lareschi, Marcela; Galliari, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Laelapids are among the most common ectoparasites of rodents. Currently, it is under discussion whether there is a single polixenous species that parasites a variety of hosts, or whether there are cryptic species highly host specific. Herein, multivariate morphometric analyses of cryptic sympatric laelapids of the genus Androlaelaps allowed us to identify different species. These species are specific of their akodontine hosts, Akodon montensis and Thaptomys nigrita, in localities situated in northeastern Argentina. In addition, we analyzed similar laelapids associated with the akodontines Deltamys kempi and Akodon cursor. Using principle component analyses we differentiated four laelapid species, each one host specific, independent of sympatry of the hosts, and without geographical variation. From these four species, we described two new species (Androlaelaps navonae n. sp. and Androlaelaps wingei n. sp.). We determined the four species based on a range of variations in several characters, mainly size. These four laelapid species belong to the Androlaelaps rotundus species group, specific to akodontines. These species are very similar among them but differ from the remainder species of the group by their small size, distance between j6 setae similar to the distance between the z5 setae, strong ventral setae, opisthogaster with 13 pairs of strong setae (one close to the distal margin of epigynal shield), and anal shield wider than long. Further studies will elucidate whether they constitute a new laelapid genus. Phylogenetic and ecological factors influencing host-specificity are discussed, and we propose that host colonization could have taken place by host switching of a single laelapid species among rodent species, followed by speciation. PMID:25039004

  20. Sexual dimorphism and speciation on two ecological coins: patterns from nature and theoretical predictions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Idelle A; Gilman, R Tucker; Boughman, Janette Wenrick

    2011-09-01

    Adaptive divergence of phenotypes, such as sexual dimorphism or adaptive speciation, can result from disruptive selection via competition for limited resources. Theory indicates that speciation and sexual dimorphism can result from identical ecological conditions, but co-occurrence is unlikely because whichever evolves first should dissipate the disruptive selection necessary to drive evolution of the other. Here, we consider ecological conditions in which disruptive selection can act along multiple ecological axes. Speciation in lake populations of threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) has been attributed to disruptive selection due to competition for resources. Head shape in sticklebacks is thought to reflect adaptation to different resource acquisition strategies. We measure sexual dimorphism and species variation in head shape and body size in stickleback populations in two lakes in British Columbia, Canada. We find that sexual dimorphism in head shape is greater than interspecific differences. Using a numerical simulation model that contains two axes of ecological variation, we show that speciation and sexual dimorphism can readily co-occur when the effects of loci underlying sexually dimorphic traits are orthogonal to those underlying sexually selected traits.

  1. Pollinator-driven ecological speciation in plants: new evidence and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Van der Niet, Timotheüs; Peakall, Rod; Johnson, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The hypothesis that pollinators have been important drivers of angiosperm diversity dates back to Darwin, and remains an important research topic today. Mounting evidence indicates that pollinators have the potential to drive diversification at several different stages of the evolutionary process. Microevolutionary studies have provided evidence for pollinator-mediated floral adaptation, while macroevolutionary evidence supports a general pattern of pollinator-driven diversification of angiosperms. However, the overarching issue of whether, and how, shifts in pollination system drive plant speciation represents a critical gap in knowledge. Bridging this gap is crucial to fully understand whether pollinator-driven microevolution accounts for the observed macroevolutionary patterns. Testable predictions about pollinator-driven speciation can be derived from the theory of ecological speciation, according to which adaptation (microevolution) and speciation (macroevolution) are directly linked. This theory is a particularly suitable framework for evaluating evidence for the processes underlying shifts in pollination systems and their potential consequences for the evolution of reproductive isolation and speciation. Scope This Viewpoint paper focuses on evidence for the four components of ecological speciation in the context of plant-pollinator interactions, namely (1) the role of pollinators as selective agents, (2) floral trait divergence, including the evolution of ‘pollination ecotypes‘, (3) the geographical context of selection on floral traits, and (4) the role of pollinators in the evolution of reproductive isolation. This Viewpoint also serves as the introduction to a Special Issue on Pollinator-Driven Speciation in Plants. The 13 papers in this Special Issue range from microevolutionary studies of ecotypes to macroevolutionary studies of historical ecological shifts, and span a wide range of geographical areas and plant families. These studies

  2. The role of ecology in speciation by sexual selection: a systematic empirical review.

    PubMed

    Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Mendelson, Tamra C; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research indicates that sexual selection interacts with the ecological context in which mate choice occurs, suggesting that sexual and natural selection act together during the evolution of premating reproductive isolation. However, the relative importance of natural and sexual selection to speciation remains poorly understood. Here, we applied a recent conceptual framework for examining interactions between mate choice divergence and ecological context to a review of the empirical literature on speciation by sexual selection. This framework defines two types of interactions between mate choice and ecology: internal interactions, wherein natural and sexual selection jointly influence divergence in sexual signal traits and preferences, and external interactions, wherein sexual selection alone acts on traits and preferences but ecological context shapes the transmission efficacy of sexual signals. The objectives of this synthesis were 3-fold: to summarize the traits, ecological factors, taxa, and geographic contexts involved in studies of mate choice divergence; to analyze patterns of association between these variables; and to identify the most common types of interactions between mate choice and ecological factors. Our analysis revealed that certain traits are consistently associated with certain ecological factors. Moreover, among studies that examined a divergent sexually selected trait and an ecological factor, internal interactions were more common than external interactions. Trait-preference associations may thus frequently be subject to both sexual and natural selection in cases of divergent mate choice. Our results highlight the importance of interactions between sexual selection and ecology in mate choice divergence and suggest areas for future research.

  3. Ecological comparison of sympatric populations of sand lizards (Cophosaurus texanus and Callisaurus draconoides)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.D.; Medica, P.A.; Sanborn, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    Sympatric populations of Cophosaurus texanus and Callisaurus draconoides were periodically sampled from March 1973 through April 1974 at Burro Creek, Mohave County, Arizona. Callisaurus were also sampled at Rock Valley, Nye County, Nevada. Sex ratios were skewed in favor of males in the adult Cophosaurus but were equal in both adult populations of Callisaurus. Both species became sexually mature as yearlings. Mean clutch sizes were 3.55 (+/- 0.83) for Cophosaurus, and 4.25 (+/- 1.08) and 5.07 (+/- 1.33) for Callisaurus at Burro Creek and Rock Valley respectively. Evidence of multiple clutches was exhibited by both species. Egg weight/body weight ratios for both species and clutch weight/body weight ratios for Cophosaurus were notably smaller than previously reported. At Burro Creek both species were highly insectivorus, with orthopterans comprising the largest food group of each. Niche overlap for food was high at the ordinal level, but at the familial level it is apparent that Callisaurus probably fed in the more xeric areas of the riparian habitat. No differences were found in the temperature responses of these two lizards. However, minor temporal separations and substantial spatial partitioning were observed. Callisaurus preferred sandy open areas, while Cophosaurus preferred the presence of some rocks and boulders. 31 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  4. Incipient post-zygotic barrier in a model system of ecological speciation with gene flow.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pinto, A; Martínez-Fernández, M; López-Fernández, C; Ferreira, Z; Pereira, R; Gosálvez, J; Rolán-Alvarez, E

    2013-12-01

    The role of post-zygotic isolation in nonallopatric ecological speciation is still mostly unknown and information on the nature and strength of these barriers in well-known speciation models is essential for a deeper understanding of such processes. The Galician ecotypes of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis represent one of the best studied cases of nonallopatric ecological speciation. Here, we test the existence of incipient post-zygotic isolation by comparing the fertility of male hybrids with that of both pure forms [ridged and banded (RB) and smooth and unbanded (SU) ecotypes]. We analysed the degree of sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) of individuals morphologically classified as RB, SU and hybrids, sampled from two locations. SDF analyses were chosen to study sperm quality because, in other animal species, SDF rates correlate with important parameters for speciation research, such as fertilization and abortion rates and viability of adult progeny. In the present work, hybrids showed significantly higher SDF rates than RB and SU males in one location and significantly higher variances in both locations. These results suggest the existence of an incipient post-zygotic barrier, the strength of which may vary across the Galician shore, and highlight the potential of SDF analyses for speciation research. PMID:24164692

  5. Genomic Heterogeneity and Ecological Speciation within One Subspecies of Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Kopac, Sarah; Wang, Zhang; Wiedenbeck, Jane; Sherry, Jessica; Wu, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Closely related bacterial genomes usually differ in gene content, suggesting that nearly every strain in nature may be ecologically unique. We have tested this hypothesis by sequencing the genomes of extremely close relatives within a recognized taxon and analyzing the genomes for evidence of ecological distinctness. We compared the genomes of four Death Valley isolates plus the laboratory strain W23, all previously classified as Bacillus subtilis subsp. spizizenii and hypothesized through multilocus analysis to be members of the same ecotype (an ecologically homogeneous population), named putative ecotype 15 (PE15). These strains showed a history of positive selection on amino acid sequences in 38 genes. Each of the strains was under a different regimen of positive selection, suggesting that each strain is ecologically unique and represents a distinct ecological speciation event. The rate of speciation appears to be much faster than can be resolved with multilocus sequencing. Each PE15 strain contained unique genes known to confer a function for bacteria. Remarkably, no unique gene conferred a metabolic system or subsystem function that was not already present in all the PE15 strains sampled. Thus, the origin of ecotypes within this clade shows no evidence of qualitative divergence in the set of resources utilized. Ecotype formation within this clade is consistent with the nanoniche model of bacterial speciation, in which ecotypes use the same set of resources but in different proportions, and genetic cohesion extends beyond a single ecotype to the set of ecotypes utilizing the same resources. PMID:24907327

  6. [Pollination ecology of three sympatric species of Oenocarpus (Arecaceae) in the Colombian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Núñez A, Luis Alberto; Isaza, Carolina; Galeano, Gloria

    2015-03-01

    The understanding of pollination mechanisms is vital for developing management and conservation actions of economically important species. In order to understand the pollination mechanisms of the promising palms in the genus Oenocarpus (Arecaceae), we studied floral morphology and biology, of three sympatric species in the Colombian Amazon: O. bataua, O. balickii and O. minor. During the period 2010-2012 we made direct and continuous observations of inflorescences (visitors, pollinators, and reproductive success) of the three species in every development phase. We determined the association of the palms with their floral visitors through a complex or interaction network, whereas specificity or preference of the insects for each individual palm was assessed through paired similarity analysis, similarity analysis (ANOSIM), and ordering analysis based on nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMSD). The three species flowered throughout the year; their inflorescences have long rachillae that hang close to each other from a short rachis, and they bear flowers in dyads or triads. Inflorescences are protandrous, thermogenic; anthesis takes place during daytime but pollination is nocturnal. We recorded 79 species of insects, mainly beetles, 33 of which visited O. balickii, 63 visited O. bataua, and 33 visited 0. minor. Although they shared some visitors, their abundance during the pistillate phase, as well as their pollen loads showed that only a few species of Curculionidae and Nitidulidae are the principal pollinators of the three studied species. Differences in network structure between staminate and pistillate phases, as well as difference in abundance found with the ANOSIM and NMSD similarity tests, suggest a high specificity of pollinators, leading to reproductive isolation among.the three species. Because all pollinating beetles were found to develop their life cycles within the inflorescences, we hypothesize the occurrence of a specialized system of mutual dependence

  7. Behavioral adaptations imply a direct link between ecological specialization and reproductive isolation in a sympatrically diverging ground beetle.

    PubMed

    Van Belleghem, Steven M; De Wolf, Katrien; Hendrickx, Frederik

    2016-08-01

    Adaptation to a previously unoccupied niche within a single population is one of the most contentious topics in evolutionary biology as it assumes the simultaneous evolution of ecologically selected and preference traits. Here, we demonstrate behavioral adaptation to contrasting hydrological regimes in a sympatric mosaic of Pogonus chalceus beetle populations, and argue that this adaptation may result in nonrandom gene flow. When exposed to experimental inundations, individuals from tidal marshes, which are naturally subjected to frequent but short floods, showed a higher propensity to remain submerged compared to individuals from seasonal marshes that are inundated for several months. This adaptive behavior is expected to decrease the probability that individuals will settle in the alternative habitat, resulting in spatial sorting and reproductive isolation of both ecotypes. Additionally, we show that this difference in behavior is induced by the environmental conditions experienced by the beetles during their nondispersive larval stages. Hence, accidental or forced ovipositioning in the alternative habitat may induce both an increased performance and preference to the natal habitat type. Such plastic traits could play an important role in the most incipient stages of divergence with gene flow. PMID:27405686

  8. Effects of Local Habitat Variation on the Behavioral Ecology of Two Sympatric Groups of Brown Howler Monkey (Alouatta clamitans)

    PubMed Central

    Grelle, Carlos E. V.; Strier, Karen B.; Boubli, Jean P.

    2015-01-01

    Although the brown howler monkey (Alouatta clamitans) is a relatively well-studied Neotropical primate, its behavioral and dietary flexibility at the intra-population level remains poorly documented. This study presents data collected on the behavior and ecology of two closely located groups of brown howlers during the same period at the RPPN Feliciano Miguel Abdala in southeastern Brazil. One group occupied a primary valley habitat, henceforth the Valley Group (VG), and the other group occupied a regenerating hillside habitat, the Hill Group (HG). We hypothesized differences in the behavior and ecological parameters between these sympatric groups due to the predicted harsher conditions on the hillside, compared to the valley. We measured several habitat parameters within the home range of both groups and collected data on the activity budget, diet and day range lengths, from August to November 2005, between dawn and dusk. In total, behavioral data were collected for 26 (318 h) and 28 (308 h) sampling days for VG and HG, respectively. As we predicted, HG spent significantly more time feeding and consumed less fruit and more leaves than VG, consistent with our finding that the hillside habitat was of lower quality. However, HG also spent less time resting and more time travelling than VG, suggesting that the monkeys had to expend more time and energy to obtain high-energy foods, such as fruits and flowers that were more widely spaced in their hill habitat. Our results revealed that different locations in this forest vary in quality and raise the question of how different groups secure their home ranges. Fine-grained comparisons such as this are important to prioritize conservation and management areas within a reserve. PMID:26147203

  9. Ecological segregation in space, time and trophic niche of sympatric planktivorous petrels.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Joan; Votier, Stephen C; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Chiesa, Juan J; Forero, Manuela G; Phillips, Richard A

    2013-01-01

    The principle of competitive exclusion postulates that ecologically-similar species are expected to partition their use of resources, leading to niche divergence. The most likely mechanisms allowing such coexistence are considered to be segregation in a horizontal, vertical or temporal dimension, or, where these overlap, a difference in trophic niche. Here, by combining information obtained from tracking devices (geolocator-immersion and time depth recorders), stable isotope analyses of blood, and conventional morphometry, we provide a detailed investigation of the ecological mechanisms that explain the coexistence of four species of abundant, zooplanktivorous seabirds in Southern Ocean ecosystems (blue petrel Halobaena caerulea, Antarctic prion Pachyptila desolata, common diving petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix and South Georgian diving petrel P. georgicus). The results revealed a combination of horizontal, vertical and temporal foraging segregation during the breeding season. The stable isotope and morphological analyses reinforced this conclusion, indicating that each species occupied a distinct trophic space, and that this appears to reflect adaptations in terms of flight performance. In conclusion, the present study indicated that although there was a degree of overlap in some measures of foraging behaviour, overall the four taxa operated in very different ecological space despite breeding in close proximity. We therefore provide important insight into the mechanisms allowing these very large populations of ecologically-similar predators to coexist. PMID:23646155

  10. Does early learning drive ecological divergence during speciation processes in parasitoid wasps?

    PubMed

    König, Kerstin; Krimmer, Elena; Brose, Sören; Gantert, Cornelia; Buschlüter, Ines; König, Christian; Klopfstein, Seraina; Wendt, Ingo; Baur, Hannes; Krogmann, Lars; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2015-01-22

    Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes new ecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group.

  11. Does early learning drive ecological divergence during speciation processes in parasitoid wasps?

    PubMed Central

    König, Kerstin; Krimmer, Elena; Brose, Sören; Gantert, Cornelia; Buschlüter, Ines; König, Christian; Klopfstein, Seraina; Wendt, Ingo; Baur, Hannes; Krogmann, Lars; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Central to the concept of ecological speciation is the evolution of ecotypes, i.e. groups of individuals occupying different ecological niches. However, the mechanisms behind the first step of separation, the switch of individuals into new niches, are unclear. One long-standing hypothesis, which was proposed for insects but never tested, is that early learning causes new ecological preferences, leading to a switch into a new niche within one generation. Here, we show that a host switch occurred within a parasitoid wasp, which is associated with the ability for early learning and the splitting into separate lineages during speciation. Lariophagus distinguendus consists of two genetically distinct lineages, most likely representing different species. One attacks drugstore beetle larvae (Stegobium paniceum (L.)), which were probably the ancestral host of both lineages. The drugstore beetle lineage has an innate host preference that cannot be altered by experience. In contrast, the second lineage is found on Sitophilus weevils as hosts and changes its preference by early learning. We conclude that a host switch has occurred in the ancestor of the second lineage, which must have been enabled by early learning. Because early learning is widespread in insects, it might have facilitated ecological divergence and associated speciation in this hyperdiverse group. PMID:25621331

  12. Hybridization, ecological races and the nature of species: empirical evidence for the ease of speciation.

    PubMed

    Mallet, James

    2008-09-27

    Species are generally viewed by evolutionists as 'real' distinct entities in nature, making speciation appear difficult. Charles Darwin had originally promoted a very different uniformitarian view that biological species were continuous with 'varieties' below the level of species and became distinguishable from them only when divergent natural selection led to gaps in the distribution of morphology. This Darwinian view on species came under immediate attack, and the consensus among evolutionary biologists today appears to side more with the ideas of Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky, who argued 70 years ago that Darwin was wrong about species. Here, I show how recent genetic studies of supposedly well-behaved animals, such as insects and vertebrates, including our own species, have supported the existence of the Darwinian continuum between varieties and species. Below the level of species, there are well-defined ecological races, while above the level of species, hybridization still occurs, and may often lead to introgression and, sometimes, hybrid speciation. This continuum is evident, not only across vast geographical regions, but also locally in sympatry. The existence of this continuum provides good evidence for gradual evolution of species from ecological races and biotypes, to hybridizing species and, ultimately, to species that no longer cross. Continuity between varieties and species not only provides an excellent argument against creationism, but also gives insight into the process of speciation. The lack of a hiatus between species and ecological races suggests that speciation may occur, perhaps frequently, in sympatry, and the abundant intermediate stages suggest that it is happening all around us. Speciation is easy! PMID:18579473

  13. Hybridization, ecological races and the nature of species: empirical evidence for the ease of speciation.

    PubMed

    Mallet, James

    2008-09-27

    Species are generally viewed by evolutionists as 'real' distinct entities in nature, making speciation appear difficult. Charles Darwin had originally promoted a very different uniformitarian view that biological species were continuous with 'varieties' below the level of species and became distinguishable from them only when divergent natural selection led to gaps in the distribution of morphology. This Darwinian view on species came under immediate attack, and the consensus among evolutionary biologists today appears to side more with the ideas of Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky, who argued 70 years ago that Darwin was wrong about species. Here, I show how recent genetic studies of supposedly well-behaved animals, such as insects and vertebrates, including our own species, have supported the existence of the Darwinian continuum between varieties and species. Below the level of species, there are well-defined ecological races, while above the level of species, hybridization still occurs, and may often lead to introgression and, sometimes, hybrid speciation. This continuum is evident, not only across vast geographical regions, but also locally in sympatry. The existence of this continuum provides good evidence for gradual evolution of species from ecological races and biotypes, to hybridizing species and, ultimately, to species that no longer cross. Continuity between varieties and species not only provides an excellent argument against creationism, but also gives insight into the process of speciation. The lack of a hiatus between species and ecological races suggests that speciation may occur, perhaps frequently, in sympatry, and the abundant intermediate stages suggest that it is happening all around us. Speciation is easy!

  14. Phylogenetic estimates of speciation and extinction rates for testing ecological and evolutionary hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Pyron, R Alexander; Burbrink, Frank T

    2013-12-01

    Phylogenies are used to estimate rates of speciation and extinction, reconstruct historical diversification scenarios, and link these to ecological and evolutionary factors, such as climate or organismal traits. Recent models can now estimate the effects of binary, multistate, continuous, and biogeographic characters on diversification rates. Others test for diversity dependence (DD) in speciation and extinction, which has become recognized as an important process in numerous clades. A third class incorporates flexible time-dependent functions, enabling reconstruction of major periods of both expanding and contracting diversity. Although there are some potential problems (particularly for estimating extinction), these methods hold promise for answering many classic questions in ecology and evolution, such as the origin of adaptive radiations, and the latitudinal gradient in species richness.

  15. Wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies of Sandhill Crane: Correlations between body size, site fidelity, and movement patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivey, Gary L.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Herziger, Caroline P.; Casazza, Michael L.; Fleskes, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Body size is known to correlate with many aspects of life history in birds, and this knowledge can be used to manage and conserve bird species. However, few studies have compared the wintering ecology of sympatric subspecies that vary significantly in body size. We used radiotelemetry to examine the relationship between body size and site fidelity, movements, and home range in 2 subspecies of Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) wintering in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta of California, USA. Both subspecies showed high interannual return rates to the Delta study area, but Greater Sandhill Cranes (G. c. tabida) showed stronger within-winter fidelity to landscapes in our study region and to roost complexes within landscapes than did Lesser Sandhill Cranes (G. c. canadensis). Foraging flights from roost sites were shorter for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.01 km vs. 4.5 ± 0.01 km, respectively) and, consequently, the mean size of 95% fixed-kernel winter home ranges was an order of magnitude smaller for G. c. tabida than for G. c. canadensis (1.9 ± 0.4 km2 vs. 21.9 ± 1.9 km2, respectively). Strong site fidelity indicates that conservation planning to manage for adequate food resources around traditional roost sites can be effective for meeting the habitat needs of these cranes, but the scale of conservation efforts should differ by subspecies. Analysis of movement patterns suggests that conservation planners and managers should consider all habitats within 5 km of a known G. c. tabida roost and within 10 km of a G. c. canadensis roost when planning for habitat management, mitigation, acquisition, and easements.

  16. Incipient sympatric speciation in Midas cichlid fish from the youngest and one of the smallest crater lakes in Nicaragua due to differential use of the benthic and limnetic habitats?

    PubMed

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Meyer, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how speciation can occur without geographic isolation remains a central objective in evolutionary biology. Generally, some form of disruptive selection and assortative mating are necessary for sympatric speciation to occur. Disruptive selection can arise from intraspecific competition for resources. If this competition leads to the differential use of habitats and variation in relevant traits is genetically determined, then assortative mating can be an automatic consequence (i.e., habitat isolation). In this study, we caught Midas cichlid fish from the limnetic (middle of the lake) and benthic (shore) habitats of Crater Lake Asososca Managua to test whether some of the necessary conditions for sympatric speciation due to intraspecific competition and habitat isolation are given. Lake As. Managua is very small (<900 m in diameter), extremely young (maximally 1245 years of age), and completely isolated. It is inhabited by, probably, only a single endemic species of Midas cichlids, Amphilophus tolteca. We found that fish from the limnetic habitat were more elongated than fish collected from the benthic habitat, as would be predicted from ecomorphological considerations. Stable isotope analyses confirmed that the former also exhibit a more limnetic lifestyle than the latter. Furthermore, split-brood design experiments in the laboratory suggest that phenotypic plasticity is unlikely to explain much of the observed differences in body elongation that we observed in the field. Yet, neutral markers (microsatellites) did not reveal any genetic clustering in the population. Interestingly, demographic inferences based on RAD-seq data suggest that the apparent lack of genetic differentiation at neutral markers could simply be due to a lack of time, as intraspecific competition may only have begun a few hundred generations ago. PMID:27551387

  17. Incipient sympatric speciation in Midas cichlid fish from the youngest and one of the smallest crater lakes in Nicaragua due to differential use of the benthic and limnetic habitats?

    PubMed

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Torres-Dowdall, Julian; Meyer, Axel

    2016-08-01

    Understanding how speciation can occur without geographic isolation remains a central objective in evolutionary biology. Generally, some form of disruptive selection and assortative mating are necessary for sympatric speciation to occur. Disruptive selection can arise from intraspecific competition for resources. If this competition leads to the differential use of habitats and variation in relevant traits is genetically determined, then assortative mating can be an automatic consequence (i.e., habitat isolation). In this study, we caught Midas cichlid fish from the limnetic (middle of the lake) and benthic (shore) habitats of Crater Lake Asososca Managua to test whether some of the necessary conditions for sympatric speciation due to intraspecific competition and habitat isolation are given. Lake As. Managua is very small (<900 m in diameter), extremely young (maximally 1245 years of age), and completely isolated. It is inhabited by, probably, only a single endemic species of Midas cichlids, Amphilophus tolteca. We found that fish from the limnetic habitat were more elongated than fish collected from the benthic habitat, as would be predicted from ecomorphological considerations. Stable isotope analyses confirmed that the former also exhibit a more limnetic lifestyle than the latter. Furthermore, split-brood design experiments in the laboratory suggest that phenotypic plasticity is unlikely to explain much of the observed differences in body elongation that we observed in the field. Yet, neutral markers (microsatellites) did not reveal any genetic clustering in the population. Interestingly, demographic inferences based on RAD-seq data suggest that the apparent lack of genetic differentiation at neutral markers could simply be due to a lack of time, as intraspecific competition may only have begun a few hundred generations ago.

  18. Comparative spring-staging ecology of sympatric arctic-nesting geese in south-central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Krapu, Gary L.; Cox, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    The Rainwater Basin in Nebraska has been a historic staging area for midcontinent greater white-fronted geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) since the 1950s and, in the mid-1990s, millions of midcontinent lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) expanded their spring migration route to include this region. In response to speculation that snow geese may be in direct competition with white-fronted geese, we compared staging ecology by quantifying diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and time budgets during springs 1998–1999. Collected white-fronted geese (n  =  190) and snow geese (n  =  203) consumed primarily corn (Zea mays; 97–98% aggregate dry mass) while staging in Nebraska; thus, diet overlap was nearly complete. Both species used cornfields most frequently during the morning (54–55%) and wetlands more during the afternoon (51–65%). When found grouped together, snow goose abundance was greater than white-fronted goose abundance by an average of 57 times (se  =  11, n  =  131 groups) in crop fields and 28 times (se  =  9, n  =  84 groups) in wetlands. Snow geese and white-fronted geese flew similar distances between roosting and feeding sites, leaving and returning to wetland roost sties at similar times in mornings and afternoons. Overlap in habitat-specific time budgets was high; resting was the most common behavior on wetlands, and foraging was a common behavior in fields. We observed 111 interspecific agonistic interactions while observing white-fronted and snow geese. White-fronted geese initiated and dominated more interactions with other waterfowl species than did snow geese (32 vs. 14%). Certain aspects of spring-staging niches (i.e., diet, habitat use, movement patterns, and habitat-specific behavior) of white-fronted and snow geese overlapped greatly at this mid-latitude staging site, creating opportunity for potential food- and habitat-based competition between species. Snow geese did not consistently dominate

  19. Functional ecology of the ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and comparison with the sympatric species Bromeliothrix metopoides.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4-9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides).

  20. Functional Ecology of the Ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and Comparison with the Sympatric Species Bromeliothrix metopoides

    PubMed Central

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4–9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides). PMID:23865693

  1. Functional ecology of the ciliate Glaucomides bromelicola, and comparison with the sympatric species Bromeliothrix metopoides.

    PubMed

    Weisse, Thomas; Scheffel, Ulrike; Stadler, Peter; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the ecology and life strategy of Glaucomides bromelicola (family Bromeliophryidae), a very common ciliate in the reservoirs (tanks) of bromeliads, assessing its response to food quality and quantity and pH. Further, we conducted competition experiments with the frequently coexisting species Bromeliothrix metopoides (family Colpodidae). In contrast to B. metopoides and many other colpodean ciliates, G. bromelicola does not form resting cysts, which jeopardizes this ciliate when its small aquatic habitats dry out. Both species form bactivorous microstomes and flagellate-feeding macrostomes. However, only G. bromelicola has a low feeding threshold and is able to adapt to different protist food. The higher affinity to the local bacterial and flagellate food renders it the superior competitor relative to B. metopoides. Continuous encystment and excystment of the latter may enable stable coexistence of both species in their natural habitat. Both are tolerant to a wide range of pH (4-9). These ciliates appear to be limited to tank bromeliads because they either lack resting cysts and vectors for long distance dispersal (G. bromelicola) and/or have highly specific food requirements (primarily B. metopoides). PMID:23865693

  2. Molecular ecology, speciation, and evolution of the reef fish genus Anisotremus.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Alva-Campbell, Yvette R; Gasparini, João L; Floeter, Sergio R

    2008-09-01

    Grunts (family Haemulidae) in the genus Anisotremus comprise 10 described species which occur predominantly on coral reefs and subtropical rocky reefs in the Neotropics of the Tropical Eastern Pacific the Caribbean and adjacent waters. In this study, the phylogenetic relationships for all described species were examined based on one mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) and one nuclear marker (the first intron of the ribosomal protein S7). Closely related species of the genus Haemulon and the single representative of the genus Genyatremus, G. luteus were also included in the analysis, following the suggestion, based on morphological data, that they may be closely related to, or possibly placed within, Anisotremus. Two sweetlips, genus Plectorhinchus, which belong to the recognized sister subfamily Plectorhynchinae, were used as outgroups. Two species pairs in the ingroup genus Anisotremus are geminate species, which presumably diverged after the rise of the Isthmus of Panama, thus providing an internal molecular clock calibration. This allowed for a comprehensive evolutionary scenario for the genus. Our data were consistent with two independent allopatric speciation events (geminate species), and one likely sympatric speciation event. Our data were also consistent with the placement of Genyatremus and Haemulon within the genus Anisotremus, thus breaking its monophyletic status. As proposed for other coral reef species, Anisotremus seems to have colonized coral reefs from non-coral reef habitats. In addition, ancestral species seem to have been widespread, since species that are currently found in Brazilian and Pacific waters are basal on the phylogenetic tree. Finally, this study adds to the hypothesis of a secondary evolutionary center in the New World. PMID:18667336

  3. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Bayha, Keith W; Graham, William M

    2016-01-01

    .e., different selective pressures) and evolved different strategies to cope with environmental variation. This study highlights the importance of using genetics and morphometric data to understand jellyfish ecology, evolution and systematics. PMID:27332545

  4. Niche divergence builds the case for ecological speciation in skinks of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wogan, Guinevere O.U.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to different thermal environments has the potential to cause evolutionary changes that are sufficient to drive ecological speciation. Here, we examine whether climate-based niche divergence in lizards of the Plestiodon skiltonianus species complex is consistent with the outcomes of such a process. Previous work on this group shows that a mechanical sexual barrier has evolved between species that differ mainly in body size and that the barrier may be a by-product of selection for increased body size in lineages that have invaded xeric environments; however, baseline information on niche divergence among members of the group is lacking. We quantified the climatic niche using mechanistic physiological and correlative niche models and then estimated niche differences among species using ordination techniques and tests of niche overlap and equivalency. Our results show that the thermal niches of size-divergent, reproductively isolated morphospecies are significantly differentiated and that precipitation may have been as important as temperature in causing increased shifts in body size in xeric habitats. While these findings alone do not demonstrate thermal adaptation or identify the cause of speciation, their integration with earlier genetic and behavioral studies provides a useful test of phenotype–environment associations that further support the case for ecological speciation in these lizards.

  5. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics

    PubMed Central

    Chiaverano, Luciano M.; Bayha, Keith W.; Graham, William M.

    2016-01-01

    .e., different selective pressures) and evolved different strategies to cope with environmental variation. This study highlights the importance of using genetics and morphometric data to understand jellyfish ecology, evolution and systematics. PMID:27332545

  6. The genomic bases of morphological divergence and reproductive isolation driven by ecological speciation in Senecio (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Chapman, M A; Hiscock, S J; Filatov, D A

    2016-01-01

    Ecological speciation, driven by adaptation to contrasting environments, provides an attractive opportunity to study the formation of distinct species, and the role of selection and genomic divergence in this process. Here, we focus on a particularly clear-cut case of ecological speciation to reveal the genomic bases of reproductive isolation and morphological differences between closely related Senecio species, whose recent divergence within the last ~200,000 years was likely driven by the uplift of Mt. Etna (Sicily). These species form a hybrid zone, yet remain morphologically and ecologically distinct, despite active gene exchange. Here, we report a high-density genetic map of the Senecio genome and map hybrid breakdown to one large and several small quantitative trait loci (QTL). Loci under diversifying selection cluster in three 5 cM regions which are characterized by a significant increase in relative (F(ST)), but not absolute (d(XY)), interspecific differentiation. They also correspond to some of the regions of greatest marker density, possibly corresponding to 'cold-spots' of recombination, such as centromeres or chromosomal inversions. Morphological QTL for leaf and floral traits overlap these clusters. We also detected three genomic regions with significant transmission ratio distortion (TRD), possibly indicating accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities between these recently diverged species. One of the TRD regions overlapped with a cluster of high species differentiation, and another overlaps the large QTL for hybrid breakdown, indicating that divergence of these species may have occurred due to a complex interplay of ecological divergence and accumulation of intrinsic genetic incompatibilities.

  7. Geological and ecological factors drive cryptic speciation of yews in a biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Möller, Michael; Provan, Jim; Gao, Lian-Ming; Poudel, Ram Chandra; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-09-01

    The interplay of orographic uplift and climatic changes in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region (HHM) have had a key role in speciation and population demography. To gain further insight into these processes, we investigated their effects on Taxus wallichiana by combining molecular phylogeography and species distribution modeling. Molecular data were obtained from 43 populations of T. wallichiana. Nineteen climatic variables were analyzed alongside genetic discontinuities. Species distribution modeling was carried out to predict potential past distribution ranges. Two distinct lineages were identified, which diverged c. 4.2 (2.0-6.5) million years ago (Ma), a timescale that corresponds well with the recent uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and subsequent climatic changes of the region. Correlations with climatic variables also suggest that ecological factors may have further reinforced the separation of the two lineages. Both lineages experienced population expansion during the last glaciation. The high genetic divergence, long-term isolation and ecological differentiation suggest a scenario of cryptic speciation in T. wallichiana associated with geological and climatic changes in the HHM. Our findings also challenge the notion of general population 'contraction' during the last glaciation in the HHM.

  8. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  9. Is ecological speciation a major trend in aphids? Insights from a molecular phylogeny of the conifer-feeding genus Cinara

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In the past decade ecological speciation has been recognized as having an important role in the diversification of plant-feeding insects. Aphids are host-specialised phytophagous insects that mate on their host plants and, as such, they are prone to experience reproductive isolation linked with host plant association that could ultimately lead to species formation. The generality of such a scenario remains to be tested through macroevolutionary studies. To explore the prevalence of host-driven speciation in the diversification of the aphid genus Cinara and to investigate alternative modes of speciation, we reconstructed a phylogeny of this genus based on mitochondrial, nuclear and Buchnera aphidicola DNA sequence fragments and applied a DNA-based method of species delimitation. Using a recent software (PhyloType), we explored evolutionary transitions in host-plant genera, feeding sites and geographic distributions in the diversification of Cinara and investigated how transitions in these characters have accompanied speciation events. Results The diversification of Cinara has been constrained by host fidelity to conifer genera sometimes followed by sequential colonization onto different host species and by feeding-site specialisation. Nevertheless, our analyses suggest that, at the most, only half of the speciation events were accompanied by ecological niche shifts. The contribution of geographical isolation in the speciation process is clearly apparent in the occurrence of species from two continents in the same clades in relatively terminal positions in our phylogeny. Furthermore, in agreement with predictions from scenarios in which geographic isolation accounts for speciation events, geographic overlap between species increased significantly with time elapsed since their separation. Conclusions The history of Cinara offers a different perspective on the mode of speciation of aphids than that provided by classic models such as the pea aphid. In this

  10. Phenotypic and genetic evidence for ecological speciation of Aquilegia japonica and A. oxysepala.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin-Feng; Wang, Hua-Ying; Pang, Di; Liu, Ying; Liu, Bao; Xiao, Hong-Xing

    2014-12-01

    Natural selection is thought to be a driving force that can cause the evolution of reproductive isolation. The genus Aquilegia is a model system to address how natural selection promotes the process of speciation. Morphological differences between A. oxysepala, A. japonica and their hybrids were quantified for two vegetative (plant height and leaf area) and three floral morphological (sepal area, corolla length and diameter) traits. We also evaluated the genetic variability of the two species and their hybrids based on two chloroplast (1225 bp), four nuclear (5811 bp) genes and 15 microsatellites. Our results revealed that differentiation of A. japonica and A. oxysepala at the ecological and morphological levels also involved divergence at the genetic level. In addition, the analysis of nucleotide variation patterns showed that the two species possessed numerous fixation sites at nuclear genes gAA4, gA7 and gAA12. Furthermore, we found that all of the phenotypic hybrids also showed a genetically admixed ancestry. These findings suggest that natural selection has indeed facilitated the formation of distinct genetic variation patterns in the two Aquilegia species and habitat adaptation has been driving the ecologically based evolution of reproductive isolation.

  11. Ongoing ecological speciation in Cotesia sesamiae, a biological control agent of cereal stem borers

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Laure; Le Ru, Bruno Pierre; Kaoula, Ferial; Paillusson, Corentin; Capdevielle-Dulac, Claire; Obonyo, Julius Ochieng; Herniou, Elisabeth A; Jancek, Severine; Branca, Antoine; Calatayud, Paul-André; Silvain, Jean-François; Dupas, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    To develop efficient and safe biological control, we need to reliably identify natural enemy species, determine their host range, and understand the mechanisms that drive host range evolution. We investigated these points in Cotesia sesamiae, an African parasitic wasp of cereal stem borers. Phylogenetic analyses of 74 individual wasps, based on six mitochondrial and nuclear genes, revealed three lineages. We then investigated the ecological status (host plant and host insect ranges in the field, and host insect suitability tests) and the biological status (cross-mating tests) of the three lineages. We found that one highly supported lineage showed all the hallmarks of a cryptic species. It is associated with one host insect, Sesamia nonagrioides, and is reproductively isolated from the other two lineages by pre- and postmating barriers. The other two lineages had a more variable phylogenetic support, depending on the set of genes; they exhibited an overlapping and diversified range of host species and are not reproductively isolated from one another. We discuss the ecological conditions and mechanisms that likely generated this ongoing speciation and the relevance of this new specialist taxon in the genus Cotesia for biological control. PMID:26366198

  12. Ecological Speciation in Nolina parviflora (Asparagaceae): Lacking Spatial Connectivity along of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Sanchez, Eduardo; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis of ecological speciation states that as populations diverge in different niches, reproductive isolation evolves as a by-product of adaptation to these different environments. In this context, we used Nolina parviflora as a model to test if this species evolved via ecological speciation and to explore current and historical gene flow among its populations. Nolina parviflora is a montane species endemic to Mexico with its geographical distribution restricted largely to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. This mountain range is one of the most complex geological regions in Mexico, having undergone volcanism from the mid-Miocene to the present. Ecologically, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt possesses different types of vegetation, including tropical dry forest; oak, pine, pine-oak, and pine-juniper forests; and xerophytic scrub - all of which maintain populations of N. parviflora. Using species distribution models, climatic analyses, spatial connectivity and morphological comparisons, we found significant differences in climatic and morphological variables between populations of N. parviflora in two distinct Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt regions (east vs. west). This could mean that the geographically isolated populations diverged from one another via niche divergence, indicating ecological speciation. Spatial connectivity analysis revealed no connectivity between these regions under the present or last glacial maximum climate models, indicating a lack of gene flow between the populations of the two regions. The results imply that these populations may encompass more than a single species. PMID:24905911

  13. A question of time: the land snail Murella muralis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) reveals constraints on past ecological speciation.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, V; Manganelli, G; Giusti, F; Tiedemann, R; Ketmaier, V

    2013-01-01

    The lively debate about speciation currently focuses on the relative importance of factors driving population differentiation. While many studies are increasingly producing results on the importance of selection, little is known about the interaction between drift and selection. Moreover, there is still little knowledge on the spatial-temporal scales at which speciation occurs, that is, arrangement of habitat patches, abruptness of habitat transitions, climate and habitat changes interacting with selective forces. To investigate these questions, we quantified variation on a fine geographical scale analysing morphological (shell) and genetic data sets coupled with environmental data in the land snail Murella muralis, endemic to the Mediterranean island of Sicily. Analysis of a fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I gene (COI) and eight nuclear microsatellite loci showed that genetic variation is highly structured at a very fine spatial scale by local palaeogeographical events and historical population dynamics. Molecular clock estimates, calibrated here specifically for Tyrrhenian land snails, provided a framework of palaeogeographical events responsible for the observed geographical variations and migration routes. Finally, we showed for the first time well-documented lines of evidence of selection in the past, which explains divergence of land snail shell shapes. We suggest that time and palaeogeographical history acted as constraints in the progress along the ecological speciation continuum. Our study shows that testing for correlation among palaeogeography, morphology and genetic data on a fine geographical scale provides information fundamental for a detailed understanding of ecological speciation processes.

  14. Ecological genetic divergence of the fungal pathogen Didymella rabiei on sympatric wild and domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea).

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L; Chilvers, Martin I; Ozkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes.

  15. Ecological Genetic Divergence of the Fungal Pathogen Didymella rabiei on Sympatric Wild and Domesticated Cicer spp. (Chickpea) ▿

    PubMed Central

    Frenkel, Omer; Peever, Tobin L.; Chilvers, Martin I.; Özkilinc, Hilal; Can, Canan; Abbo, Shahal; Shtienberg, Dani; Sherman, Amir

    2010-01-01

    For millennia, chickpea (Cicer arietinum) has been grown in the Levant sympatrically with wild Cicer species. Chickpea is traditionally spring-sown, while its wild relatives germinate in the autumn and develop in the winter. It has been hypothesized that the human-directed shift of domesticated chickpea to summer production was an attempt to escape the devastating Ascochyta disease caused by Didymella rabiei. We estimated genetic divergence between D. rabiei isolates sampled from wild Cicer judaicum and domesticated C. arietinum and the potential role of temperature adaptation in this divergence. Neutral genetic markers showed strong differentiation between pathogen samples from the two hosts. Isolates from domesticated chickpea demonstrated increased adaptation to higher temperatures when grown in vitro compared with isolates from the wild host. The distribution of temperature responses among progeny from crosses of isolates from C. judaicum with isolates from C. arietinum was continuous, suggesting polygenic control of this trait. In vivo inoculations of host plants indicated that pathogenic fitness of the native isolates was higher than that of their hybrid progeny. The results indicate that there is a potential for adaptation to higher temperatures; however, the chances for formation of hybrids which are capable of parasitizing both hosts over a broad temperature range are low. We hypothesize that this pathogenic fitness cost is due to breakdown of coadapted gene complexes controlling pathogenic fitness on each host and may be responsible for maintenance of genetic differentiation between the pathogen demes. PMID:19897759

  16. Recent Speciation in Three Closely Related Sympatric Specialists: Inferences Using Multi-Locus Sequence, Post-Mating Isolation and Endosymbiont Data

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Huai-Jun; Li, Wen-Zhu; Nie, Rui-E; Yang, Xing-Ke

    2011-01-01

    Shifting between unrelated host plants is relatively rare for phytophagous insects, and distinct host specificity may play crucial roles in reproductive isolation. However, the isolation status and the relationship between parental divergence and post-mating isolation among closely related sympatric specialists are still poorly understood. Here, multi-locus sequence were used to estimate the relationship among three host plant–specific closely related flea beetles, Altica cirsicola, A. fragariae and A. viridicyanea (abbreviated as AC, AF and AV respectively). The tree topologies were inconsistent using different gene or different combinations of gene fragments. The relationship of AF+(AC+AV) was supported, however, by both gene tree and species tree based on concatenated data. Post-mating reproductive data on the results of crossing these three species are best interpreted in the light of a well established phylogeny. Nuclear-induced but not Wolbachia-induced unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility, which was detected in AC-AF and AF-AV but not in AC-AV, may also suggest more close genetic affinity between AC and AV. Prevalence of Wolbachia in these three beetles, and the endosymbiont in most individuals of AV and AC sharing a same wsp haplotype may give another evidence of AF+(AC+AV). Our study also suggested that these three flea beetles diverged in a relative short time (0.94 My), which may be the result of shifting between unrelated host plants and distinct host specificity. Incomplete post-mating isolation while almost complete lineage sorting indicated that effective pre-mating isolation among these three species should have evolved. PMID:22110767

  17. Non-breeding habitat preference affects ecological speciation in migratory waders.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2008-04-01

    Models of ecological speciation predict that certain types of habitat should be more conducive to species diversification than others. In this study, I test this hypothesis in waders of the sub-order Charadrii using the number of morphological sub-species per species as an index of diversity. I classified all members of this clade as spending the non-breeding season either coastally or inland and argue that these represent fundamentally different environments. Coastal mudflats are characterised by high predictability and patchy worldwide distribution, whilst inland wetlands are widespread but unpredictable. The results show that migratory species that winter coastally are sub-divided into more sub-species than those that winter inland. This was not the case for non-migratory species. I argue that coastal environments select for more rigid migratory pathways, whilst inland wetlands favour more flexible movement patterns. Population sub-division could then result from the passive segregation of breeding sites or from the active selection for assortative mating of ecomorphs. PMID:18087687

  18. Non-breeding habitat preference affects ecological speciation in migratory waders.

    PubMed

    Kraaijeveld, Ken

    2008-04-01

    Models of ecological speciation predict that certain types of habitat should be more conducive to species diversification than others. In this study, I test this hypothesis in waders of the sub-order Charadrii using the number of morphological sub-species per species as an index of diversity. I classified all members of this clade as spending the non-breeding season either coastally or inland and argue that these represent fundamentally different environments. Coastal mudflats are characterised by high predictability and patchy worldwide distribution, whilst inland wetlands are widespread but unpredictable. The results show that migratory species that winter coastally are sub-divided into more sub-species than those that winter inland. This was not the case for non-migratory species. I argue that coastal environments select for more rigid migratory pathways, whilst inland wetlands favour more flexible movement patterns. Population sub-division could then result from the passive segregation of breeding sites or from the active selection for assortative mating of ecomorphs.

  19. Colour pattern as a single trait driving speciation in Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Puebla, Oscar; Bermingham, Eldredge; Guichard, Frédéric; Whiteman, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Theory shows that speciation in the presence of gene flow occurs only under narrow conditions. One of the most favourable scenarios for speciation with gene flow is established when a single trait is both under disruptive natural selection and used to cue assortative mating. Here, we demonstrate the potential for a single trait, colour pattern, to drive incipient speciation in the genus Hypoplectrus (Serranidae), coral reef fishes known for their striking colour polymorphism. We provide data demonstrating that sympatric Hypoplectrus colour morphs mate assortatively and are genetically distinct. Furthermore, we identify ecological conditions conducive to disruptive selection on colour pattern by presenting behavioural evidence of aggressive mimicry, whereby predatory Hypoplectrus colour morphs mimic the colour patterns of non-predatory reef fish species to increase their success approaching and attacking prey. We propose that colour-based assortative mating, combined with disruptive selection on colour pattern, is driving speciation in Hypoplectrus coral reef fishes. PMID:17360287

  20. Evidence for parallel ecological speciation in scincid lizards of the Eumeces skiltonianus species group (Squamata: Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jonathan Q; Reeder, Tod W

    2002-07-01

    We identify instances of parallel morphological evolution in North American scincid lizards of the Eumeces skiltonianus species group and provide evidence that this system is consistent with a model of ecological speciation. The group consists of three putative species divided among two morphotypes, the small-bodied and striped E. skiltonianus and E. lagunensis versus the large-bodied and typically uniform-colored E. gilberti. Members of the group pass through markedly similar phenotypic stages during early development, but differ with respect to where terminal morphology occurs along the developmental sequence. The morphotypes also differ in habitat preference, with the large-bodied gilberti form generally inhabiting lower elevations and drier environments than the smaller, striped morphs. We inferred the phylogenetic relationships of 53 skiltonianus group populations using mtDNA sequence data from the ND4 protein-coding gene and three flanking tRNAs (900 bp total). Sampling encompassed nearly the entire geographic range of the group, and all currently recognized species and subspecies were included. Our results provide strong evidence for parallel origins of three clades characterized by the gilberti morphotype, two of which are nested within the more geographically widespread E. skiltonianus. Eumeces lagunensis was also nested among populations of E. skiltonianus. Comparative analyses using independent contrasts show that evolutionary changes in body size are correlated with differences in adult color pattern. The independently derived association of gilberti morphology with warm, arid environments suggests that phenotypic divergence is the result of adaptation to contrasting selection regimes. We provide evidence that body size was likely the target of natural selection, and that divergences in color pattern and mate recognition are probable secondary consequences of evolving large body size.

  1. Erosive processes after tectonic uplift stimulate vicariant and adaptive speciation: evolution in an Afrotemperate-endemic paper daisy genus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of tectonic uplift in stimulating speciation in South Africa’s only alpine zone, the Drakensberg, has not been explicitly examined. Tectonic processes may influence speciation both through the creation of novel habitats and by physically isolating plant populations. We use the Afrotemperate endemic daisy genus Macowania to explore the timing and mode (geographic versus adaptive) of speciation in this region. Between sister species pairs we expect high morphological divergence where speciation has happened in sympatry (adaptive) while with geographic (vicariant) speciation we may expect to find less morphological divergence and a greater degree of allopatry. A dated molecular phylogenetic hypothesis for Macowania elucidates species’ relationships and is used to address the potential impact of uplift on diversification. Morphological divergence of a small sample of reproductive and vegetative characters, used as a proxy for adaptive divergence, is measured against species’ range distributions to estimate mode of speciation across two subclades in the genus. Results The Macowania crown age is consistent with the hypothesis of post-uplift diversification, and we find evidence for both vicariant and adaptive speciation between the two subclades within Macowania. Both subclades exhibit strong signals of range allopatry, suggesting that geographic isolation was important in speciation. One subclade, associated with dry, rocky environments at high altitudes, shows very little morphological and ecological differentiation but high range allopatry. The other subclade occupies a greater variety of habitats and exhibits far greater morphological differentiation, but contains species with overlapping distribution ranges. Conclusions Species in Macowania are likely to have diversified in response to tectonic uplift, and we invoke uplift and uplift-mediated erosion as the main drivers of speciation. The greater relative morphological divergence in

  2. Introgression and rapid species turnover in sympatric damselflies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Studying contemporary hybridization increases our understanding of introgression, adaptation and, ultimately, speciation. The sister species Ischnura elegans and I. graellsii (Odonata: Coenagrionidae) are ecologically, morphologically and genetically similar and hybridize. Recently, I. elegans has colonized northern Spain, creating a broad sympatric region with I. graellsii. Here, we review the distribution of both species in Iberia and evaluate the degree of introgression of I. graellsii into I. elegans using six microsatellite markers (442 individuals from 26 populations) and five mitochondrial genes in sympatric and allopatric localities. Furthermore, we quantify the effect of hybridization on the frequencies of the genetically controlled colour polymorphism in females of both species. Results In a principal component analysis of the microsatellite data, the first two principal components summarised almost half (41%) of the total genetic variation. The first axis revealed a clear separation of I. graellsii and I. elegans populations, while the second axis separated I. elegans populations. Admixture analyses showed extensive hybridization and introgression in I. elegans populations, consistent with I. elegans backcrosses and occasional F1-hybrids, suggesting hybridization is on-going. More specifically, approximately 58% of the 166 Spanish I. elegans individuals were assigned to the I. elegans backcross category, whereas not a single of those individuals was assigned to the backcross with I. graellsii. The mitochondrial genes held little genetic variation, and the most common haplotype was shared by the two species. Conclusions The results suggest rapid species turnover in sympatric regions in favour of I. elegans, corroborating previous findings that I. graellsii suffers a mating disadvantage in sympatry with I. elegans. Examination of morph frequency dynamics indicates that hybridization is likely to have important implications for the maintenance of

  3. Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, n. Madagascar. With notes on Sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Stewart, P D; Ramangason, G S; Denning, A M; Hutchings, M S

    1989-01-01

    Forests of Ankarana limestone massif in northern Madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of Crowned Lemurs, Lemur coronatus. This paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the Ankarana Special Reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. Crowned Lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the species. They also use more open habitats, including sparsely vegetated limestone and degraded forest. Sanford's Lemur, Lemur fulvus sanfordi, also inhabits the Ankarana forests but is most abundant in degraded habitats. Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs had similar patterns of activity, which included nocturnal travelling and feeding bouts. Crowned Lemurs proved to be unusual among Lemur species in displaying low spatial troop cohesion and a lack of obvious troop hierarchy. Stronglyoides-like enteric helminths infested about one third of Crowned Lemurs but were apparently not causing disease. Crowned Lemurs fall prey to the Fosa, Cryptoprocta ferox, and the young possibly also to the largest raptors. A total of seven living lemur species (including the very rare Propithecus diadema perrieri and Daubentonia madagascariensis) were confirmed at Ankarana by the authors, and three further species have been reported by other observers. In addition to these ten extant lemurs, four subfossil species have been discovered: three of them (Hapalemur simus, Palaeopropithecus and Mesopropithecus) by the authors. The possibility that all 14 lemurs were once sympatric is discussed. For the present, the lemurs of Ankarana are protected from hunting by local taboo. Nevertheless they are under severe threat from habitat destruction, despite Ankarana's Special Reserve status. Given the very restricted distributions of Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs, both must be considered as threatened with extinction

  4. Ecology and conservation of the crowned lemur, Lemur coronatus, at Ankarana, n. Madagascar. With notes on Sanford's lemur, other sympatrics and subfossil lemurs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J M; Stewart, P D; Ramangason, G S; Denning, A M; Hutchings, M S

    1989-01-01

    Forests of Ankarana limestone massif in northern Madagascar support one of the largest and least disturbed populations of Crowned Lemurs, Lemur coronatus. This paper reports a preliminary study of the ecology of this species in the Ankarana Special Reserve conducted at the end of the dry season in 1986, with additional information collected a year later. Crowned Lemurs occur in very high densities in the semi-deciduous canopy forest and this probably represents a dry season refuge for the species. They also use more open habitats, including sparsely vegetated limestone and degraded forest. Sanford's Lemur, Lemur fulvus sanfordi, also inhabits the Ankarana forests but is most abundant in degraded habitats. Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs had similar patterns of activity, which included nocturnal travelling and feeding bouts. Crowned Lemurs proved to be unusual among Lemur species in displaying low spatial troop cohesion and a lack of obvious troop hierarchy. Stronglyoides-like enteric helminths infested about one third of Crowned Lemurs but were apparently not causing disease. Crowned Lemurs fall prey to the Fosa, Cryptoprocta ferox, and the young possibly also to the largest raptors. A total of seven living lemur species (including the very rare Propithecus diadema perrieri and Daubentonia madagascariensis) were confirmed at Ankarana by the authors, and three further species have been reported by other observers. In addition to these ten extant lemurs, four subfossil species have been discovered: three of them (Hapalemur simus, Palaeopropithecus and Mesopropithecus) by the authors. The possibility that all 14 lemurs were once sympatric is discussed. For the present, the lemurs of Ankarana are protected from hunting by local taboo. Nevertheless they are under severe threat from habitat destruction, despite Ankarana's Special Reserve status. Given the very restricted distributions of Crowned and Sanford's Lemurs, both must be considered as threatened with extinction.

  5. On the ecology of two sympatric flounders of the genus Paralichthys in the Bay of Coquimbo, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acuña, Enzo; Cid, Luis

    The ecology of two flounders belonging to the genus Paralichthys was studied in the Bay of Coquimbo (29°57'S), Chile. P. adspersus grows larger than P. microps. In both species, the females were significantly larger than the males. The species differed in their reproductive cycles as revealed by their gonadosomatic indices. This difference was also reflected in larval abundance and spatial distribution of the species. No significant changes were found in the abundances of juveniles and adults in the Bay of Coquimbo either throughout the year or interannually. However, when the analysis included the proportion of specimens between the two species and sex by season, the differences were apparent in most cases. The results show that the environmental characteristics of the marine system which the Bay of Coquimbo is a part of provide good feeding, spawning and nursery grounds for these two species of flounder.

  6. Interplay between ecological, behavioural and historical factors in shaping the genetic structure of sympatric walleye populations (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pierre-Philippe; Bourret, Vincent; Bernatchez, Louis

    2007-03-01

    Disentangling ecological, behavioural and evolutionary factors responsible for the presence of stable population structure within wild populations has long been challenging to population geneticists. This study primarily aimed at decoding population structure of wild walleye (Sander vitreus) populations of Mistassini Lake (Québec, Canada) in order to define source populations to be used for the study of spatial partitioning using individual-based multilocus assignment methods, and decipher the dynamics of individual dispersal and resulting patterns of spatial resource partitioning and connectivity among populations. A second objective was to elucidate the relationships between biological characteristics (sex, size, age and population of origin) and an individual's probability to migrate and/or disperse. To do so, a total of 780 spawning individuals caught on five distinct spawning sites, and 1165 postspawning individuals, captured over two sampling seasons (2002-2003) were analysed by means of eight microsatellite loci. Four temporally stable walleye populations associated with distinct reproductive grounds were detected. These populations were differentially distributed among lake sectors during their feeding migration and their spatial distribution was stable over the two sampling seasons. Dispersing individuals were identified (n=61); these revealed asymmetrical patterns of dispersal between populations, which was also confirmed by divergent admixture proportions. Regression models underlined population of origin as the only factor explaining differential dispersal of individuals among populations. An analysis of covariance (ancova) indicated that larger individuals tended to migrate from their river of origin further away in the lake relative to smaller fish. In summary, this study underlined the relevance of using individual-based assignment methods for deciphering dynamics of connectivity among wild populations, especially regarding behavioural mechanisms

  7. Selection on a genetic polymorphism counteracts ecological speciation in a stick insect.

    PubMed

    Comeault, Aaron A; Flaxman, Samuel M; Riesch, Rüdiger; Curran, Emma; Soria-Carrasco, Víctor; Gompert, Zachariah; Farkas, Timothy E; Muschick, Moritz; Parchman, Thomas L; Schwander, Tanja; Slate, Jon; Nosil, Patrik

    2015-08-01

    The interplay between selection and aspects of the genetic architecture of traits (such as linkage, dominance, and epistasis) can either drive or constrain speciation [1-3]. Despite accumulating evidence that speciation can progress to "intermediate" stages-with populations evolving only partial reproductive isolation-studies describing selective mechanisms that impose constraints on speciation are more rare than those describing drivers. The stick insect Timema cristinae provides an example of a system in which partial reproductive isolation has evolved between populations adapted to different host plant environments, in part due to divergent selection acting on a pattern polymorphism [4, 5]. Here, we demonstrate how selection on a green/melanistic color polymorphism counteracts speciation in this system. Specifically, divergent selection between hosts does not occur on color phenotypes because melanistic T. cristinae are cryptic on the stems of both host species, are resistant to a fungal pathogen, and have a mating advantage. Using genetic crosses and genome-wide association mapping, we quantify the genetic architecture of both the pattern and color polymorphism, illustrating their simple genetic control. We use these empirical results to develop an individual-based model that shows how the melanistic phenotype acts as a "genetic bridge" that increases gene flow between populations living on different hosts. Our results demonstrate how variation in the nature of selection acting on traits, and aspects of trait genetic architecture, can impose constraints on both local adaptation and speciation.

  8. WEAK CROSSABILITY BARRIER BUT STRONG JUVENILE SELECTION SUPPORTS ECOLOGICAL SPECIATION OF THE HYBRID PINE PINUS DENSATA ON THE TIBETAN PLATEAU

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Meng, Jingxiang; Wang, Baosheng; Zhang, Lisha; Xu, Yulan; Zeng, Qing-Yin; Li, Yue; Mao, Jian-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Determining how a new hybrid lineage can achieve reproductive isolation is a key to understanding the process and mechanisms of homoploid hybrid speciation. Here, we evaluated the degree and nature of reproductive isolation between the ecologically successful hybrid species Pinus densata and its parental species P. tabuliformis and P. yunnanensis. We performed interspecific crosses among the three species to assess their crossability. We then conducted reciprocal transplantation experiments to evaluate their fitness differentiation, and to examine how natural populations representing different directions of introgression differ in adaptation. The crossing experiments revealed weak genetic barriers among the species. The transplantation trials showed manifest evidence of local adaptation as the three species all performed best in their native habitats. Pinus densata populations from the western edge of its distribution have evolved a strong local adaptation to the specific habitat in that range; populations representing different directions of introgressants with the two parental species all showed fitness disadvantages in this P. densata habitat. These observations illustrate that premating isolation through selection against immigrants from other habitat types or postzygotic isolation through selection against backcrosses between the three species is strong. Thus, ecological selection in combination with endogenous components and geographic isolation has likely played a significant role in the speciation of P. densata. PMID:25065387

  9. The phylogenetic pattern of speciation and wing pattern change in neotropical Ithomia butterflies (Lepidoptera: nymphalidae).

    PubMed

    Jiggins, Chris D; Mallarino, Ricardo; Willmott, Keith R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2006-07-01

    Species level phylogenetic hypotheses can be used to explore patterns of divergence and speciation. In the tropics, speciation is commonly attributed to either vicariance, perhaps within climate-induced forest refugia, or ecological speciation caused by niche adaptation. Mimetic butterflies have been used to identify forest refugia as well as in studies of ecological speciation, so they are ideal for discriminating between these two models. The genus Ithomia contains 24 species of warningly colored mimetic butterflies found in South and Central America, and here we use a phylogenetic hypothesis based on seven genes for 23 species to investigate speciation in this group. The history of wing color pattern evolution in the genus was reconstructed using both parsimony and likelihood. The ancestral pattern for the group was almost certainly a transparent butterfly, and there is strong evidence for convergent evolution due to mimicry. A punctuationist model of pattern evolution was a significantly better fit to the data than a gradualist model, demonstrating that pattern changes above the species level were associated with cladogenesis and supporting a model of ecological speciation driven by mimicry adaptation. However, there was only one case of sister species unambiguously differing in pattern, suggesting that some recent speciation events have occurred without pattern shifts. The pattern of geographic overlap between clades over time shows that closely related species are mostly sympatric or, in one case, parapatric. This is consistent with modes of speciation with ongoing gene flow, although rapid range changes following allopatric speciation could give a similar pattern. Patterns of lineage accumulation through time differed significantly from that expected at random, and show that most of the extant species were present by the beginning of the Pleistocene at the latest. Hence Pleistocene refugia are unlikely to have played a major role in Ithomia diversification.

  10. Hybrid zones and the speciation continuum in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Mallet, James; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K

    2012-12-01

    Tropical butterflies in the genus Heliconius have long been models in the study of the stages of speciation. Heliconius are unpalatable to predators, and many species are notable for multiple geographic populations with striking warning colour pattern differences associated with Müllerian mimicry. A speciation continuum is evident in Heliconius hybrid zones. Examples range from hybrid zones across which (a) there is little genetic differentiation other than at mimicry loci, but where hybrids are common, (b) to 'bimodal' hybrid zones with strong genetic divergence and few hybrids, (c) through to 'good' sympatric species, with hybridization extremely rare or absent. Now, in this issue of Molecular Ecology, Arias et al. (2012) have found an intermediate case in Colombian Heliconius cydno showing evidence for assortative mating and molecular differences, but where hybrids are abundant.

  11. Evidence of sympatric speciation of elderberry carlaviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five new carlavirus species infecting elderberry were characterized and tentatively named as elderberry virus A-E (EVA-EVE). The genome organization of the viruses ranges between 8,540-8,628 nucleotides, excluding the polyadenylated tail. EVA, EVB and EVD share a common ancestor as do EVC and EVE, i...

  12. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch.

    PubMed

    Faucci, Anuschka; Toonen, Robert J; Hadfield, Michael G

    2007-01-01

    While the role of host preference in ecological speciation has been investigated extensively in terrestrial systems, very little is known in marine environments. Host preference combined with mate choice on the preferred host can lead to population subdivision and adaptation leading to host shifts. We use a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial genetic markers to disentangle the taxonomic status and to investigate the role of host specificity in the speciation of the nudibranch genus Phestilla (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Guam, Palau and Hawaii. Species of the genus Phestilla complete their life cycle almost entirely on their specific host coral (species of Porites, Goniopora and Tubastrea). They reproduce on their host coral and their planktonic larvae require a host-specific chemical cue to metamorphose and settle onto their host. The phylogenetic trees of the combined cytochrome oxidase I and ribosomal 16S gene sequences clarify the relationship among species of Phestilla identifying most of the nominal species as monophyletic clades. We found a possible case of host shift from Porites to Goniopora and Tubastrea in sympatric Phestilla spp. This represents one of the first documented cases of host shift as a mechanism underlying speciation in a marine invertebrate. Furthermore, we found highly divergent clades within Phestilla sp. 1 and Phestilla minor (8.1-11.1%), suggesting cryptic speciation. The presence of a strong phylogenetic signal for the coral host confirms that the tight link between species of Phestilla and their host coral probably played an important role in speciation within this genus. PMID:17134995

  13. Theory and speciation.

    PubMed

    Turelli, M; Barton, N H.; Coyne, J A.

    2001-07-01

    The study of speciation has become one of the most active areas of evolutionary biology, and substantial progress has been made in documenting and understanding phenomena ranging from sympatric speciation and reinforcement to the evolutionary genetics of postzygotic isolation. This progress has been driven largely by empirical results, and most useful theoretical work has concentrated on making sense of empirical patterns. Given the complexity of speciation, mathematical theory is subordinate to verbal theory and generalizations about data. Nevertheless, mathematical theory can provide a useful classification of verbal theories; can help determine the biological plausibility of verbal theories; can determine whether alternative mechanisms of speciation are consistent with empirical patterns; and can occasionally provide predictions that go beyond empirical generalizations. We discuss recent examples of progress in each of these areas.

  14. Habitat selection and ecological speciation in Galápagos warbler finches (Certhidea olivacea and Certhidea fusca)

    PubMed Central

    Tonnis, Brandon; Grant, Peter R; Grant, B. Rosemary; Petren, Kenneth

    2005-01-01

    We investigated phylogeographic divergence among populations of Galápagos warbler finches. Their broad distribution, lack of phenotypic differentiation and low levels of genetic divergence make warbler finches an appropriate model to study speciation in allopatry. A positive relationship between genetic and geographical distances is expected for island taxa. Warbler finches actually showed a negative isolation by distance relationship, causing us to reject the hypothesis of distance‐limited dispersal. An alternative hypothesis, that dispersal is limited by habitat similarity, was supported. We found a positive correlation between genetic distances and differences in maximum elevation among islands, which is an indicator of ecological similarity. MtDNA sequence variation revealed monophyletic support for two distinct species. Certhidea olivacea have recently dispersed among larger central islands, while some Certhidea fusca have recently dispersed to small islands at opposite ends of the archipelago. We conclude that females have chosen to breed on islands with habitats similar to their natal environment. Habitat selection is implicated as an important component of speciation of warbler finches, which is the earliest known divergence of the adaptive radiation of Darwin's finches. These results suggest that small populations can harbour cryptic but biologically meaningful variation that may affect longer term evolutionary processes. PMID:15940826

  15. Molecular phylogeny of grunts (Teleostei, Haemulidae), with an emphasis on the ecology, evolution, and speciation history of New World species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The fish family Haemulidae is divided in two subfamilies, Haemulinae and Plectorhynchinae (sweetlips), including approximately 17 genera and 145 species. The family has a broad geographic distribution that encompasses contrasting ecological habitats resulting in a unique potential for evolutionary hypotheses testing. In the present work we have examined the phylogenetic relationships of the family using selected representatives of additional Percomorpha based on Bayesian and Maximum likelihood methods by means of three mitochondrial genes. We also developed a phylogenetic hypothesis of the New World species based on five molecular markers (three mitochondrial and two nuclear) as a framework to evaluate the evolutionary history, the ecological diversification and speciation patterns of this group. Results Mitochondrial genes and different reconstruction methods consistently recovered a monophyletic Haemulidae with the Sillaginidae as its sister clade (although with low support values). Previous studies proposed different relationships that were not recovered in this analysis. We also present a robust molecular phylogeny of Haemulinae based on the combined data of two nuclear and three mitochondrial genes. All topologies support the monophyly of both sub-families (Haemulinae, Plectorhinchinae). The genus Pomadasys was shown to be polyphyletic and Haemulon, Anisotremus, and Plectorhinchus were found to be paraphyletic. Four of seven presumed geminate pairs were indeed found to be sister species, however our data did not support a contemporaneous divergence. Analyses also revealed that differential use of habitat might have played an important role in the speciation dynamics of this group of fishes, in particular among New World species where extensive sample coverage was available. Conclusions This study provides a new hypothesis for the sister clade of Hamulidae and a robust phylogeny of the latter. The presence of para- and polyphyletic genera underscores

  16. Rapid evolution and selection inferred from the transcriptomes of sympatric crater lake cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Elmer, K R; Fan, S; Gunter, H M; Jones, J C; Boekhoff, S; Kuraku, S; Meyer, A

    2010-03-01

    Crater lakes provide a natural laboratory to study speciation of cichlid fishes by ecological divergence. Up to now, there has been a dearth of transcriptomic and genomic information that would aid in understanding the molecular basis of the phenotypic differentiation between young species. We used next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 massively parallel pyrosequencing) to characterize the diversity of expressed sequence tags between ecologically divergent, endemic and sympatric species of cichlid fishes from crater lake Apoyo, Nicaragua: benthic Amphilophus astorquii and limnetic Amphilophus zaliosus. We obtained 24 174 A. astorquii and 21 382 A. zaliosus high-quality expressed sequence tag contigs, of which 13 106 pairs are orthologous between species. Based on the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions, we identified six sequences exhibiting signals of strong diversifying selection (K(a)/K(s) > 1). These included genes involved in biosynthesis, metabolic processes and development. This transcriptome sequence variation may be reflective of natural selection acting on the genomes of these young, sympatric sister species. Based on Ks ratios and p-distances between 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) calibrated to previously published species divergence times, we estimated a neutral transcriptome-wide substitutional mutation rate of approximately 1.25 x 10(-6) per site per year. We conclude that next-generation sequencing technologies allow us to infer natural selection acting to diversify the genomes of young species, such as crater lake cichlids, with much greater scope than previously possible.

  17. Divergence hitchhiking and the spread of genomic isolation during ecological speciation-with-gene-flow

    PubMed Central

    Via, Sara

    2012-01-01

    In allopatric populations, geographical separation simultaneously isolates the entire genome, allowing genetic divergence to accumulate virtually anywhere in the genome. In sympatric populations, however, the strong divergent selection required to overcome migration produces a genetic mosaic of divergent and non-divergent genomic regions. In some recent genome scans, each divergent genomic region has been interpreted as an independent incidence of migration/selection balance, such that the reduction of gene exchange is restricted to a few kilobases around each divergently selected gene. I propose an alternative mechanism, ‘divergence hitchhiking’ (DH), in which divergent selection can reduce gene exchange for several megabases around a gene under strong divergent selection. Not all genes/markers within a DH region are divergently selected, yet the entire region is protected to some degree from gene exchange, permitting genetic divergence from mechanisms other than divergent selection to accumulate secondarily. After contrasting DH and multilocus migration/selection balance (MM/SB), I outline a model in which genomic isolation at a given genomic location is jointly determined by DH and genome-wide effects of the progressive reduction in realized migration, then illustrate DH using data from several pairs of incipient species in the wild. PMID:22201174

  18. Chemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of arsenic in marine sediments from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea).

    PubMed

    Gonul, L T

    2015-12-01

    Total arsenic, arsenic(III) and (V), Fe, and Mn were measured in 17 surface sediment samples from Izmir Bay. The concentrations and ecological risk of As were characterized in the sediment affected by urban and agricultural activities. Total As ranged from 8.87 to 28.3 μg g(-1) dry weight (96.5-99.9 % as inorganic As). Distribution of total As and total As/Fe followed a different trend in sediments at all sampling sites. Arsenite (As(III)) was the most dominant form followed by As(V), while organic arsenic represented a minor constituent (0.03 to 3.49 %). The highest concentration of total As was observed at Gediz River estuary and exceeded lower threshold value (threshold effects level (TEL)). Due to the biological reduction of As(V) and abundance of Fe (oxyhydr)oxides in the sediments, most inorganic As in the Izmir Bay was present as As(III). Besides, the levels of As were >TEL and ecologically dangerous impacts in the sedimentary environment of Izmir Bay. At all sampling sites in the Izmir Bay, nevertheless, natural sources of As need to be considered to explain the distribution patterns. This work highlights the need for arsenic speciation analysis to accurately assess potential toxicity of marine resources and provides a crucial baseline to assess the impact of future development within this region.

  19. Edaphic and light conditions of sympatric plant morphotypes in western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here I present a dataset of edaphic and light conditions associated with the occurrence of sympatric morphotypes of Geonoma macrostachys (Arecaceae/Palmae), a candidate case study from Amazonia hypothesized to have evolved under ecological speciation. Transects were established in three lowland rainforests in Peru, and the abundance of each local morphotype of this species was recorded in a total area of 4.95 hectares. Composite soil samples and hemispherical photographs were taken along the transects were the species occurred to obtain information on soil nutrients, soil texture, and indirect measurements of light availability. The raw and summary tables disclose the characteristics of each study site and habitats within them, which could be useful to soil scientists, ecologists, and conservationists engaged in similar research activities or meta-analyses in Amazonia. PMID:24891831

  20. Recent advances in ecological genomics: from phenotypic plasticity to convergent and adaptive evolution and speciation.

    PubMed

    Landry, Christian R; Aubin-Horth, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Biological diversity emerges from the interaction between genomes and their environment. Recent conceptual and technological developments allow dissecting these interactions over short and long time-scales. The 16 contributions to this book by leaders in the field cover major recent progresses in the field of Ecological Genomics. Altogether, they illustrate the interplay between the life-history and genomic architecture of organisms, how the interaction of the environment and the genome is shaping phenotypic variation through phenotypic plasticity, how the process of adaptation may be constrained and fueled by internal and external features of organisms and finally, how species formation is the result of intricate interactions between genomes and the ecological conditions. These contributions also show how fundamental questions in biology transcend the boundaries of kingdoms, species and environments and illustrate how integrative approaches are powerful means to answer the most important and challenging questions in ecology and evolution. PMID:24277292

  1. Speciation dynamics and biogeography of Neotropical spiral gingers (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    André, Thiago; Salzman, Shayla; Wendt, Tânia; Specht, Chelsea D

    2016-10-01

    Species can arise via the divisive effects of allopatry as well as due to ecological and/or reproductive character displacement within sympatric populations. Two separate lineages of Costaceae are native to the Neotropics; an early-diverging clade endemic to South America (consisting of ca. 16 species in the genera Monocostus, Dimerocostus and Chamaecostus); and the Neotropical Costus clade (ca. 50 species), a diverse assemblage of understory herbs comprising nearly half of total familial species richness. We use a robust dated molecular phylogeny containing most of currently known species to inform macroevolutionary reconstructions, enabling us to examine the context of speciation in Neotropical lineages. Analyses of speciation rate revealed a significant variation among clades, with a rate shift at the most recent common ancestor of the Neotropical Costus clade. There is an overall predominance of allopatric speciation in the South American clade, as most species display little range overlap. In contrast, sympatry is much higher within the Neotropical Costus clade, independent of node age. Our results show that speciation dynamics during the history of Costaceae is strongly heterogeneous, and we suggest that the Costus radiation in the Neotropics arose at varied geographic contexts. PMID:27400627

  2. Speciation dynamics and biogeography of Neotropical spiral gingers (Costaceae).

    PubMed

    André, Thiago; Salzman, Shayla; Wendt, Tânia; Specht, Chelsea D

    2016-10-01

    Species can arise via the divisive effects of allopatry as well as due to ecological and/or reproductive character displacement within sympatric populations. Two separate lineages of Costaceae are native to the Neotropics; an early-diverging clade endemic to South America (consisting of ca. 16 species in the genera Monocostus, Dimerocostus and Chamaecostus); and the Neotropical Costus clade (ca. 50 species), a diverse assemblage of understory herbs comprising nearly half of total familial species richness. We use a robust dated molecular phylogeny containing most of currently known species to inform macroevolutionary reconstructions, enabling us to examine the context of speciation in Neotropical lineages. Analyses of speciation rate revealed a significant variation among clades, with a rate shift at the most recent common ancestor of the Neotropical Costus clade. There is an overall predominance of allopatric speciation in the South American clade, as most species display little range overlap. In contrast, sympatry is much higher within the Neotropical Costus clade, independent of node age. Our results show that speciation dynamics during the history of Costaceae is strongly heterogeneous, and we suggest that the Costus radiation in the Neotropics arose at varied geographic contexts.

  3. Temporal, spatial and ecological dynamics of speciation among amphi-Beringian small mammals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hope, Andrew G.; Takebayashi, Naoki; Galbreath, Kurt E.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in promoting diversification across the Northern Hemisphere, although details of the mechanisms driving evolutionary change are still poorly resolved. In a comparative phylogeographical framework, we investigate temporal, spatial and ecological components of evolution within a suite of Holarctic small mammals. We test a hypothesis of simultaneous divergence among multiple taxon pairs, investigating time to coalescence and demographic change for each taxon in response to a combination of climate and geography.

  4. Genome sequencing of environmental Escherichia coli expands understanding of the ecology and speciation of the model bacterial species.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chengwei; Walk, Seth T; Gordon, David M; Feldgarden, Michael; Tiedje, James M; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2011-04-26

    Defining bacterial species remains a challenging problem even for the model bacterium Escherichia coli and has major practical consequences for reliable diagnosis of infectious disease agents and regulations for transport and possession of organisms of economic importance. E. coli traditionally is thought to live within the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other warm-blooded animals and not to survive for extended periods outside its host; this understanding is the basis for its widespread use as a fecal contamination indicator. Here, we report the genome sequences of nine environmentally adapted strains that are phenotypically and taxonomically indistinguishable from typical E. coli (commensal or pathogenic). We find, however, that the commensal genomes encode for more functions that are important for fitness in the human gut, do not exchange genetic material with their environmental counterparts, and hence do not evolve according to the recently proposed fragmented speciation model. These findings are consistent with a more stringent and ecologic definition for bacterial species than the current definition and provide means to start replacing traditional approaches of defining distinctive phenotypes for new species with omics-based procedures. They also have important implications for reliable diagnosis and regulation of pathogenic E. coli and for the coliform cell-counting test.

  5. Detecting the potential sympatric range and niche divergence between Asian endemic ungulates of Procapra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-07-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is increasingly used to reveal biogeographical relationships, for example the sympatric range for species coexistence, and fundamental questions about niche evolution between related species. We explored the sympatric ranges between three Procapra species ( Procapra przewalskii, Procapra Picticaudata, and Procapra gutturosa) via two methods of defining the study region (method 1, in which models were developed in a larger region including the whole geographic range of Procapra, and method 2 in which a smaller region surrounding focal species' localities was used and then projected to the larger region). We also quantified environmental niche divergence between gazelles across the whole range in Procapra. Models for gazelles generally performed well. Compared with method 2, method 1 led to larger predicted areas with high suitability and was less concentrated around known localities. Clamping, which deals with variables outside the training range, varied between gazelles and occurred primarily in regions unsuitable for respective species. For all gazelle pairs, models revealed an overlap zone where more than one species should occur, while the estimates varied between the two methods. Moreover, we found that the niche overlap was closely associated with geographic distance but not with phylogenetic distance among gazelles. Our findings indicate that SDM is a useful tool for testing whether related species tend to be in sympatry at large scales, with method 1 leading to more realistic predictions for Procapra. This study provides evidence of a distinct niche divergence among related species and supports the theory that ecological speciation plays a significant role in lineage generation.

  6. From Local Adaptation to Ecological Speciation in Copepod Populations from Neighboring Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Barrera-Moreno, Omar Alfredo; Ciros-Pérez, Jorge; Ortega-Mayagoitia, Elizabeth; Alcántara-Rodríguez, José Arturo; Piedra-Ibarra, Elías

    2015-01-01

    Continental copepods have been derived from several independent invasive events from the sea, but the subsequent evolutionary processes that account for the current diversity in lacustrine environments are virtually unknown. Salinity is highly variable among lakes and constitutes a source of divergent selection driving potential reproductive isolation. We studied four populations of the calanoid copepod Leptodiaptomus cf. sicilis inhabiting four neighboring lakes with a common history (since the Late Pleistocene) located in the Oriental Basin, Mexico; one lake is shallow and varies in salinity periodically (1.4–10 g L-1), while three are deep and permanent, with constant salinity (0.5, 1.1 and 6.5 g L-1, respectively). We hypothesized that (1) these populations belong to a different species than L. sicilis sensu stricto and (2) are experiencing ecologically based divergence due to salinity differences. We assessed morphological and molecular (mtDNA) COI variation, as well as fitness differences and tests of reproductive isolation. Although relationships of the Mexican populations with L. sicilis s.s. could not be elucidated, we identified a clear pattern of divergent selection driven by salinity conditions. The four populations can still be considered a single biological species (sexual recognition and hybridization are still possible in laboratory conditions), but they have diverged into at least three different phenotypes: two locally adapted, specialized in the lakes of constant salinity (saline vs. freshwater), and an intermediate generalist phenotype inhabiting the temporary lake with fluctuating salinity. The specialized phenotypes are poorly suited as migrants, so prezygotic isolation due to immigrant inviability is highly probable. This implication was supported by molecular evidence that showed restricted gene flow, persistence of founder events, and a pattern of allopatric fragmentation. This study showed how ecologically based divergent selection may

  7. Genomic signatures of divergent selection and speciation patterns in a 'natural experiment', the young parallel radiations of Nicaraguan crater lake cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Kautt, Andreas F; Elmer, Kathryn R; Meyer, Axel

    2012-10-01

    Divergent selection is the main driving force in sympatric ecological speciation and may also play a strong role in divergence between allopatric populations. Characterizing the genome-wide impact of divergent selection often constitutes a first step in unravelling the genetic bases underlying adaptation and ecological speciation. The Midas cichlid fish (Amphilophus citrinellus) species complex in Nicaragua is a powerful system for studying evolutionary processes. Independent colonizations of isolated young crater lakes by Midas cichlid populations from the older and great lakes of Nicaragua resulted in the repeated evolution of adaptive radiations by intralacustrine sympatric speciation. In this study we performed genome scans on two repeated radiations of crater lake species and their great lake source populations (1030 polymorphic AFLPs, n ∼ 30 individuals per species). We detected regions under divergent selection (0.3% in the crater lake Xiloá flock and 1.7% in the older crater lake Apoyo radiation) that might be responsible for the sympatric diversifications. We find no evidence that the same genomic regions have been involved in the repeated evolution of parallel adaptations across crater lake flocks. However, there is some genetic parallelism apparent (seven out of 51 crater lake to great lake outlier loci are shared; 13.7%) that is associated with the allopatric divergence of both crater lake flocks. Interestingly, our results suggest that the number of outlier loci involved in sympatric and allopatric divergence increases over time. A phylogeny based on the AFLP data clearly supports the monophyly of both crater lake species flocks and indicates a parallel branching order with a primary split along the limnetic-benthic axis in both radiations.

  8. Widespread horizontal genomic exchange does not erode species barriers among sympatric ducks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The study of speciation and maintenance of species barriers is at the core of evolutionary biology. During speciation the genome of one population becomes separated from other populations of the same species, which may lead to genomic incompatibility with time. This separation is complete when no fertile offspring is produced from inter-population matings, which is the basis of the biological species concept. Birds, in particular ducks, are recognised as a challenging and illustrative group of higher vertebrates for speciation studies. There are many sympatric and ecologically similar duck species, among which fertile hybrids occur relatively frequently in nature, yet these species remain distinct. Results We show that the degree of shared single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between five species of dabbling ducks (genus Anas) is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported between any pair of eukaryotic species with comparable evolutionary distances. We demonstrate that hybridisation has led to sustained exchange of genetic material between duck species on an evolutionary time scale without disintegrating species boundaries. Even though behavioural, genetic and ecological factors uphold species boundaries in ducks, we detect opposing forces allowing for viable interspecific hybrids, with long-term evolutionary implications. Based on the superspecies concept we here introduce the novel term "supra-population" to explain the persistence of SNPs identical by descent within the studied ducks despite their history as distinct species dating back millions of years. Conclusions By reviewing evidence from speciation theory, palaeogeography and palaeontology we propose a fundamentally new model of speciation to accommodate our genetic findings in dabbling ducks. This model, we argue, may also shed light on longstanding unresolved general speciation and hybridisation patterns in higher organisms, e.g. in other bird groups with unusually high

  9. Floral traits and pollination ecology of European Arum hybrids.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Marion; Liagre, Suzanne; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bozena; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Schönenberger, Jürg; Gibernau, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Hybridisation is common in plants and can affect the genetic diversity and ecology of sympatric parental populations. Hybrids may resemble the parental species in their ecology, leading to competition and/or gene introgression; alternatively, they may diverge from the parental phenotypes, possibly leading to the colonisation of new ecological niches and to speciation. Here, we describe inflorescence morphology, ploidy levels, pollinator attractive scents, and pollinator guilds of natural hybrids of Arum italicum and A. maculatum (Araceae) from a site with sympatric parental populations in southern France to determine how these traits affect the hybrid pollination ecology. Hybrids were characterised by inflorescences with a size and a number of flowers more similar to A. italicum than to A. maculatum. In most cases, hybrid stamens were purple, as in A. maculatum, and spadix appendices yellow, as in A. italicum. Hybrid floral scent was closer to that of A. italicum, but shared some compounds with A. maculatum and comprised unique compounds. Also, the pollinator guild of the hybrids was similar to that of A. italicum. Nevertheless, the hybrids attracted a high proportion of individuals of the main pollinator of A. maculatum. We discuss the effects of hybridisation in sympatric parental zones in which hybrids exhibit low levels of reproductive success, the establishment of reproductive barriers between parental species, the role of the composition of floral attractive scents in the differential attraction of pollinators and in the competition between hybrids and their parental species, and the potential of hybridisation to give rise to new independent lineages.

  10. Floral traits and pollination ecology of European Arum hybrids.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Marion; Liagre, Suzanne; Weiss-Schneeweiss, Hanna; Kolano, Bozena; Bessière, Jean-Marie; Schönenberger, Jürg; Gibernau, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Hybridisation is common in plants and can affect the genetic diversity and ecology of sympatric parental populations. Hybrids may resemble the parental species in their ecology, leading to competition and/or gene introgression; alternatively, they may diverge from the parental phenotypes, possibly leading to the colonisation of new ecological niches and to speciation. Here, we describe inflorescence morphology, ploidy levels, pollinator attractive scents, and pollinator guilds of natural hybrids of Arum italicum and A. maculatum (Araceae) from a site with sympatric parental populations in southern France to determine how these traits affect the hybrid pollination ecology. Hybrids were characterised by inflorescences with a size and a number of flowers more similar to A. italicum than to A. maculatum. In most cases, hybrid stamens were purple, as in A. maculatum, and spadix appendices yellow, as in A. italicum. Hybrid floral scent was closer to that of A. italicum, but shared some compounds with A. maculatum and comprised unique compounds. Also, the pollinator guild of the hybrids was similar to that of A. italicum. Nevertheless, the hybrids attracted a high proportion of individuals of the main pollinator of A. maculatum. We discuss the effects of hybridisation in sympatric parental zones in which hybrids exhibit low levels of reproductive success, the establishment of reproductive barriers between parental species, the role of the composition of floral attractive scents in the differential attraction of pollinators and in the competition between hybrids and their parental species, and the potential of hybridisation to give rise to new independent lineages. PMID:26552380

  11. Sensory ecology of predator-prey interactions: responses of the AN2 interneuron in the field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus to the echolocation calls of sympatric bats.

    PubMed

    Fullard, James H; Ratcliffe, John M; Guignion, Cassandra

    2005-07-01

    We observed the responses of the AN2 interneuron in the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, a cell implicated in eliciting avoidance flight away from bats, to acoustic stimuli representing the echolocation calls of bats as well as field recordings of search and gleaning attack calls of six species of insectivorous sympatric bats (West Australia, Australia: Tadarida australis, Chalinolobus goudii, Nyctophilus geoffroyi; Queensland, Australia: Vespadelus pumilus, Myotis adversus; Kaua'i, Hawai'i: Lasiurus cinereus). The broad frequency sensitivity of the AN2 cell indicates that T. oceanicus has evolved to detect a wide range of echolocation call frequencies. The reduced sensitivity of this cell at frequencies higher than 70 kHz suggests that some bats (e.g., the gleaning species, N. geoffroyi) may circumvent this insect's auditory defences by using frequency-mismatched (allotonic) calls. The calls of the freetail bat, T. australis evoked the strongest response in the AN2 cell but, ironically, this may allow this bat to prey upon T. oceanicus as previous studies report that under certain conditions, flying crickets exhibit ambiguous directional responses towards frequencies similar to those emitted by this bat. Short duration calls (1--2 ms) are sufficient to evoke AN2 responses with instantaneous spike periods capable of causing defensive flight behaviours; most bats tested emit calls of durations greater than this. The short calls of N. geoffroyi produced during gleaning attacks may reduce this species' acoustic conspicuousness to this cricket.

  12. Ecological and morphological patterns in communities of land snails of the genus Mandarina from the Bonin Islands.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The land snail genus Mandarina has undergone extensive radiation within the Bonin Islands in the west Pacific. The preferred above-ground vegetation heights of sympatric species were clearly different. They separated into arboreal, semi-arboreal, exposed ground and sheltered ground ecotypes. Shells of species with different ecotypes differ markedly, but shells of species with the same ecotype are very similar to each other. Shell morphologies of some phylogenetically distantly related species with the same ecotype were indistinguishable. Character evolution estimated parsimoniously using a phylogenetic tree suggests that the speciation among sympatric species is accompanied by ecological and morphological diversification. In addition, species coexistence of Mandarina is related to niche differentiation. The above findings suggest that ecological interactions among species contribute to the ecological and morphological diversification and radiation of these land snails in this depauperate environment. PMID:15000656

  13. Host shift and speciation in a coral-feeding nudibranch

    PubMed Central

    Faucci, Anuschka; Toonen, Robert J; Hadfield, Michael G

    2006-01-01

    While the role of host preference in ecological speciation has been investigated extensively in terrestrial systems, very little is known in marine environments. Host preference combined with mate choice on the preferred host can lead to population subdivision and adaptation leading to host shifts. We use a phylogenetic approach based on two mitochondrial genetic markers to disentangle the taxonomic status and to investigate the role of host specificity in the speciation of the nudibranch genus Phestilla (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia) from Guam, Palau and Hawaii. Species of the genus Phestilla complete their life cycle almost entirely on their specific host coral (species of Porites, Goniopora and Tubastrea). They reproduce on their host coral and their planktonic larvae require a host-specific chemical cue to metamorphose and settle onto their host. The phylogenetic trees of the combined cytochrome oxidase I and ribosomal 16S gene sequences clarify the relationship among species of Phestilla identifying most of the nominal species as monophyletic clades. We found a possible case of host shift from Porites to Goniopora and Tubastrea in sympatric Phestilla spp. This represents one of the first documented cases of host shift as a mechanism underlying speciation in a marine invertebrate. Furthermore, we found highly divergent clades within Phestilla sp. 1 and Phestilla minor (8.1–11.1%), suggesting cryptic speciation. The presence of a strong phylogenetic signal for the coral host confirms that the tight link between species of Phestilla and their host coral probably played an important role in speciation within this genus. PMID:17134995

  14. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation

    PubMed Central

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2–3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char. PMID:26356310

  15. Low levels of hybridization between sympatric Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden char (Salvelinus malma) highlights their genetic distinctiveness and ecological segregation.

    PubMed

    May-McNally, Shannan L; Quinn, Thomas P; Taylor, Eric B

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the extent of interspecific hybridization and how ecological segregation may influence hybridization requires comprehensively sampling different habitats over a range of life history stages. Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) and Dolly Varden (S. malma) are recently diverged salmonid fishes that come into contact in several areas of the North Pacific where they occasionally hybridize. To better quantify the degree of hybridization and ecological segregation between these taxa, we sampled over 700 fish from multiple lake (littoral and profundal) and stream sites in two large, interconnected southwestern Alaskan lakes. Individuals were genotyped at 12 microsatellite markers, and genetic admixture (Q) values generated through Bayesian-based clustering revealed hybridization levels generally lower than reported in a previous study (<0.6% to 5% of samples classified as late-generation hybrids). Dolly Varden and Arctic char tended to make different use of stream habitats with the latter apparently abandoning streams for lake habitats after 2-3 years of age. Our results support the distinct biological species status of Dolly Varden and Arctic char and suggest that ecological segregation may be an important factor limiting opportunities for hybridization and/or the ecological performance of hybrid char.

  16. A high frequency of allopolyploid speciation in the gymnospermous genus Ephedra and its possible association with some biological and ecological features.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Ma, Zhen; Wang, Ming-Ming; Qin, Ai-Li; Ran, Jin-Hua; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2016-03-01

    The origin and evolution of polyploids have been studied extensively in angiosperms and ferns but very rarely in gymnosperms. With the exception of three species of conifers, all natural polyploid species of gymnosperms belong to Ephedra, in which more than half of the species show polyploid cytotypes. Here, we investigated the origin and evolution of polyploids of Ephedra distributed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) and neighbouring areas. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to measure the ploidy levels of the sampled species that are represented by multiple individuals from different populations, and then, two single-copy nuclear genes (LFY and DDB2) and two chloroplast DNA fragments were used to unravel the possible origins and maternal donors of the polyploids. The results indicate that the studied polyploid species are allopolyploids, and suggest that allotetraploidy is a dominant mode of speciation in Ephedra. The high percentage of polyploids in the genus could be related to some of its biological attributes such as vegetative propagation, a relatively high rate of unreduced gamete formation, and a small genome size relative to most other gymnosperms. Significant ecological divergences between allotetraploids and their putative progenitors were detected by PCAs and anova and Tukey's tests, with the exception of E. saxatilis. The overlap of geographical distributions and ecological niches of some diploid species could have provided opportunities for interspecific hybridization and allopolyploid speciation. PMID:26800145

  17. Habitat preference and the marine-speciation paradox.

    PubMed Central

    Bierne, Nicolas; Bonhomme, François; David, Patrice

    2003-01-01

    Marine organisms challenge the classical theories of local adaptation and speciation because their planktonic larvae have the potential to maintain high gene flow. The marine-speciation paradox is illustrated by contact zones between incipient species that are so large that allopatric divergence seems unlikely. For this reason any mechanism preventing sympatric larvae of two incipient species from coexisting in the same habitats can be a powerful promoter of speciation. The contact zone between two hybridizing taxa of mussel, Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis, in Europe provides an excellent example. Although the zone itself extends over thousands of kilometres, the opportunities for interbreeding are considerably reduced by the small-scale mosaic structure of the zone, where local patches of each taxon alternate at scales of kilometres or less, in response to locally variable ecological factors. Habitat choice by settling larvae would be a less costly mechanism than post-settlement selection to maintain such a mosaic structure. Unfortunately the role of selective settlement has remained hypothetical because larvae could not be scored by classical genetic markers. PCR markers allowed us to study larvae and settlement in ecologically contrasting sites within the zone. We show that only a subset of the genotypes present in the plankton settle in some sites, and that the adults on these sites show the same genetic bias. Genetically based variation in pre-settlement processes therefore accounts for the ecological segregation observed, though it is not the only factor involved in limiting successful interbreeding. The present dataset also supports previous reports of partial spawning asynchrony. PMID:12965032

  18. The behavioural ecology of two sympatric talitrid species, Talitrus saltator (Montagu) and Orchestia gammarellus (Pallas) on a Tyrrhenian sandy beach dune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombini, Isabella; Fallaci, Mario; Gagnarli, Elena; Rossano, Claudia; Scapini, Felicita; Chelazzi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    The behavioural ecology of a sub-population of Talitrus saltator living on the sandy shore of the Maremma Regional Park (Italy) was compared with that of Orchestia gammarellus inhabiting the retrodunal dune slack area. Monthly monitoring over a year determined the mean distribution patterns, their changes and whether these overlapped. Standard pitfall traps were placed along transects across the beach-dune-dune slack area. Experiments analysed the diel activity rhythms during spring and the activity patterns of the different age classes and the two sexes were compared within and between species. Local environmental conditions were registered with a microclimatic station. During May and September, plant hummocks were monitored to see whether surface movements of O. gammarellus could be restricted to certain periods of the year and to estimate densities within the vegetation. The plant biomass and moisture conditions within the hummocks were also recorded and substratum samples were collected at the base of the shrubs for laboratory analysis. To test for visual cues, orientation experiments with and without landscape view were carried out on the beach during morning and afternoon hours and contemporaneously for each species. Experiments to test the diel variation of scototaxis to a black shape were also performed over a 24 h period of time under controlled conditions. There was a spatial partitioning of the two species, with T. saltator moving along a sea-land axis according to diel and seasonal changes and with some individuals reaching the back of the dune in particular environmental conditions. No spatial overlap with the zonation patterns of O. gammarellus was observed, which was restricted to the dune slack area. Nocturnal surface activity was observed for both species with juveniles peaking at dawn and with O. gammarellus being strictly more nocturnal than T. saltator. Orientation experiments showed a higher ability of T. saltator to orient towards the

  19. Population differentiation without speciation

    PubMed Central

    Magurran, A. E.

    1998-01-01

    Population differentiation is often viewed as an important step towards speciation, and part of the rationale for conserving variation at the intraspecific level is that the potential to generate more biological diversity should be retained. Yet, speciation is not an inevitable consequence of population divergence. This paper reviews recent work on the Trinidadian guppy, Poecilia reticulata, a species that is renowned for its capacity for population differentiation. Guppy populations evolve rapidly, within 101 to 102 generations, as a response to changes in selection exerted by predators. The rates of evolution involved can be up to seven orders of magnitude greater than those seen in the fossil record. Sexual selection, particuarly female choice, appears to reinforce the divergence that natural selection has generated. Perplexingly, however, there is no reproductive isolation (either prezygotic or postzygotic) between populations, even those that have been separated for at least 106 generations. Sexual conflict may be the key to explaining this absence of speciation. Male reproductive behaviour, particularly the high incidence of sneaky mating, may be instrumental in producing sufficient gene flow to prevent reproductive isolation. Sneaky mating has the potential to undermine female choice, and is known to be an important means of sperm transfer in wild populations. Sexual dimorphism, also a result of sexual conflict in guppies, may inhibit speciation in another way. Morphological differences between the sexes, that have arisen for reproductive reasons, mean that males and females are pre-adapted for different foraging niches. This, in turn, reduces the opportunity for the development of feeding polymorphisms, a mechanism that seems to have been important in the sympatric speciation of other fish species.

  20. Detecting the potential sympatric range and niche divergence between Asian endemic ungulates of Procapra.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-07-01

    Species distribution modeling (SDM) is increasingly used to reveal biogeographical relationships, for example the sympatric range for species coexistence, and fundamental questions about niche evolution between related species. We explored the sympatric ranges between three Procapra species (Procapra przewalskii, Procapra Picticaudata, and Procapra gutturosa) via two methods of defining the study region (method 1, in which models were developed in a larger region including the whole geographic range of Procapra, and method 2 in which a smaller region surrounding focal species' localities was used and then projected to the larger region). We also quantified environmental niche divergence between gazelles across the whole range in Procapra. Models for gazelles generally performed well. Compared with method 2, method 1 led to larger predicted areas with high suitability and was less concentrated around known localities. Clamping, which deals with variables outside the training range, varied between gazelles and occurred primarily in regions unsuitable for respective species. For all gazelle pairs, models revealed an overlap zone where more than one species should occur, while the estimates varied between the two methods. Moreover, we found that the niche overlap was closely associated with geographic distance but not with phylogenetic distance among gazelles. Our findings indicate that SDM is a useful tool for testing whether related species tend to be in sympatry at large scales, with method 1 leading to more realistic predictions for Procapra. This study provides evidence of a distinct niche divergence among related species and supports the theory that ecological speciation plays a significant role in lineage generation. PMID:22743804

  1. Individual-based modeling of ecological and evolutionary processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual-based models (IBMs) allow the explicit inclusion of individual variation in greater detail than do classical differential-equation and difference-equation models. Inclusion of such variation is important for continued progress in ecological and evolutionary theory. We provide a conceptual basis for IBMs by describing five major types of individual variation in IBMs: spatial, ontogenetic, phenotypic, cognitive, and genetic. IBMs are now used in almost all subfields of ecology and evolutionary biology. We map those subfields and look more closely at selected key papers on fish recruitment, forest dynamics, sympatric speciation, metapopulation dynamics, maintenance of diversity, and species conservation. Theorists are currently divided on whether IBMs represent only a practical tool for extending classical theory to more complex situations, or whether individual-based theory represents a radically new research program. We feel that the tension between these two poles of thinking can be a source of creativity in ecology and evolutionary theory.

  2. 'Becoming a species by becoming a pest' or how two maize pests of the genus Ostrinia possibly evolved through parallel ecological speciation events.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Denis; Ponsard, Sergine; Streiff, Rejane; Meusnier, Serge; Audiot, Philippe; Li, Jing; Wang, Zhen-Ying

    2014-02-01

    New agricultural pest species attacking introduced crops may evolve from pre-existing local herbivores by ecological speciation, thereby becoming a species by becoming a pest. We compare the evolutionary pathways by which two maize pests (the Asian and the European corn borers, ACB and ECB) in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) probably diverged from an ancestral species close to the current Adzuki bean borer (ABB). We typed larval Ostrinia populations collected on maize and dicotyledons across China and eastern Siberia, at microsatellite and mitochondrial loci. We found only two clusters: one on maize (as expected) and a single one on dicotyledons despite differences in male mid-tibia morphology, suggesting that all individuals from dicotyledons belonged to the ABB. We found evidence for migrants and hybrids on both host plant types. Hybrids suggest that field reproductive isolation is incomplete between ACB and ABB. Interestingly, a few individuals with an 'ABB-like' microsatellite profile collected on dicotyledons had 'ACB' mtDNA rather than 'ABB-like' mtDNA, whereas the reverse was never found on maize. This suggests asymmetrical gene flow directed from the ACB towards the ABB. Hybrids and backcrosses in all directions were obtained in no-choice tests. In laboratory conditions, they survived as well as parental strain individuals. In Xinjiang, we found ACB and ECB in sympatry, but no hybrids. Altogether, our results suggest that reproductive isolation between ACB and ABB is incomplete and mostly prezygotic. This points to ecological speciation as a possible evolutionary scenario, as previously found for ECB and ABB in Europe.

  3. Geochemical speciation and ecological risk assessment of selected metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf.

    PubMed

    Neyestani, Mahmoud Reza; Bastami, Kazem Darvish; Esmaeilzadeh, Marjan; Shemirani, Farzaneh; Khazaali, Aida; Molamohyeddin, Neda; Afkhami, Majid; Nourbakhsh, Shahram; Dehghani, Mohsen; Aghaei, Sina; Firouzbakht, Mohammad

    2016-08-15

    The present study aimed to geochemical speciation of metals in the surface sediments of the northern Persian Gulf. Metal contents in the sediment were observed in the order: Al>Fe>Cr>Ni>V>Zn>Cu>Co>As>Pb>Cd. The results of sequential extraction procedure revealed that all metals were predominantly associated with the residual fraction. Among the metals, Cu and As exhibited higher bioavailability. The risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that Cu, As and Cd had medium environmental risk at some sampling sites. Based on enrichment factor (EF), Cd and As had moderate to significant enrichment. PMID:27210564

  4. Low reproductive isolation and highly variable levels of gene flow reveal limited progress towards speciation between European river and brook lampreys.

    PubMed

    Rougemont, Q; Gaigher, A; Lasne, E; Côte, J; Coke, M; Besnard, A-L; Launey, S; Evanno, G

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically based divergent selection is a factor that could drive reproductive isolation even in the presence of gene flow. Population pairs arrayed along a continuum of divergence provide a good opportunity to address this issue. Here, we used a combination of mating trials, experimental crosses and population genetic analyses to investigate the evolution of reproductive isolation between two closely related species of lampreys with distinct life histories. We used microsatellite markers to genotype over 1000 individuals of the migratory parasitic river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) and freshwater-resident nonparasitic brook lamprey (Lampetra planeri) distributed in 10 sympatric and parapatric population pairs in France. Mating trials, parentage analyses and artificial fertilizations demonstrated a low level of reproductive isolation between species even though size-assortative mating may contribute to isolation. Most parapatric population pairs were strongly differentiated due to the joint effects of geographic distance and barriers to migration. In contrast, we found variable levels of gene flow between sympatric populations ranging from panmixia to moderate differentiation, which indicates a gradient of divergence with some population pairs that may correspond to alternative morphs or ecotypes of a single species and others that remain partially isolated. Ecologically based divergent selection may explain these variable levels of divergence among sympatric population pairs, but incomplete genome swamping following secondary contact could have also played a role. Overall, this study illustrates how highly differentiated phenotypes can be maintained despite high levels of gene flow that limit the progress towards speciation.

  5. Hawthorn-infesting populations of Rhagoletis pomonella in Mexico and speciation mode plurality.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xianfa; Rull, Juan; Michel, Andrew P; Velez, Sebastian; Forbes, Andrew A; Lobo, Neil F; Aluja, Martin; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2007-05-01

    species. For R. pomonella in the United States, the proximate selection pressures triggering race formation and speciation stem from sympatric host shifts. However, some of the phenological variation contributing to host-related ecological adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry at the present time appears to have an older history, having originated and become packaged into inversion polymorphism in allopatry.

  6. What Is Speciation?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, B Jesse; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, James

    2016-03-01

    Concepts and definitions of species have been debated by generations of biologists and remain controversial. Microbes pose a particular challenge because of their genetic diversity, asexual reproduction, and often promiscuous horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, microbes also present an opportunity to study and understand speciation because of their rapid evolution, both in nature and in the lab, and small, easily sequenced genomes. Here, we review how microbial population genomics has enabled us to catch speciation "in the act" and how the results have challenged and enriched our concepts of species, with implications for all domains of life. We describe how recombination (including HGT and introgression) has shaped the genomes of nascent microbial, animal, and plant species and argue for a prominent role of natural selection in initiating and maintaining speciation. We ask how universal is the process of speciation across the tree of life, and what lessons can be drawn from microbes? Comparative genomics showing the extent of HGT in natural populations certainly jeopardizes the relevance of vertical descent (i.e., the species tree) in speciation. Nevertheless, we conclude that species do indeed exist as clusters of genetic and ecological similarity and that speciation is driven primarily by natural selection, regardless of the balance between horizontal and vertical descent. PMID:27030977

  7. What Is Speciation?

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, B. Jesse; Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Mallet, James

    2016-01-01

    Concepts and definitions of species have been debated by generations of biologists and remain controversial. Microbes pose a particular challenge because of their genetic diversity, asexual reproduction, and often promiscuous horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, microbes also present an opportunity to study and understand speciation because of their rapid evolution, both in nature and in the lab, and small, easily sequenced genomes. Here, we review how microbial population genomics has enabled us to catch speciation “in the act” and how the results have challenged and enriched our concepts of species, with implications for all domains of life. We describe how recombination (including HGT and introgression) has shaped the genomes of nascent microbial, animal, and plant species and argue for a prominent role of natural selection in initiating and maintaining speciation. We ask how universal is the process of speciation across the tree of life, and what lessons can be drawn from microbes? Comparative genomics showing the extent of HGT in natural populations certainly jeopardizes the relevance of vertical descent (i.e., the species tree) in speciation. Nevertheless, we conclude that species do indeed exist as clusters of genetic and ecological similarity and that speciation is driven primarily by natural selection, regardless of the balance between horizontal and vertical descent. PMID:27030977

  8. The genetic structure of hawthorn-infesting Rhagoletis pomonella populations in Mexico: implications for sympatric host race formation.

    PubMed

    Michel, Andrew P; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2007-07-01

    The genetic origins of species may not all trace to the same time and place as the proximate cause(s) for population divergence. Moreover, inherent gene-flow barriers separating populations may not all have evolved under the same geographical circumstances. These considerations have lead to a greater appreciation of the plurality of speciation: that one geographical mode for divergence may not always be sufficient to describe a speciation event. The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, a model system for sympatric speciation via host-plant shifting, has been a surprising contributor to the concept of speciation mode plurality. Previous studies have suggested that past introgression of inversion polymorphism from a hawthorn-fly population in the trans-Mexican volcanic belt (EVTM) introduced diapause life-history variation into a more northern fly population that subsequently contributed to sympatric host race formation and speciation in the United States (US). Here, we report results from a microsatellite survey implying (i) that volcanic activity in the eastern EVTM may have been responsible for the initial geographical isolation of the Mexican and northern hawthorn-fly populations c. 1.57 mya; and (ii) that flies in the Sierra Madre Oriental Mountains (SMO) likely served as a conduit for past gene flow from the EVTM into the US. Indeed, the microsatellite data suggest that the current US population may represent a range expansion from the northern SMO. We discuss the implications of these findings for sympatric race formation in Rhagoletis and speciation theory.

  9. Reproductive Isolation among Sympatric Molecular Forms of An. gambiae from Inland Areas of South-Eastern Senegal

    PubMed Central

    Niang, El Hadji Amadou; Konaté, Lassana; Diallo, Mawlouth; Faye, Ousmane; Dia, Ibrahima

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species, one of which, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria across sub-Saharan Africa. Sympatric ecological diversification of An. gambiae s.s. is in progress within this complex, leading to the emergence of at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms now recognized as good species and named An. coluzzii and An. gambiae respectively) that show heterogeneous levels of divergence in most parts of Africa. However, this process seems to have broken down in coastal areas of West Africa at the extreme edge of the distribution. We undertook a longitudinal study to describe An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from two inland transects with different ecological characteristics in south-eastern Senegal. Analysis of samples collected from 20 sites across these two transects showed the M and S molecular forms coexisted at almost all sampled sites. Overall, similar hybridization rates (2.16% and 1.86%) were recorded in the two transects; sites with relatively high frequencies of M/S hybrids (up to 7%) were clustered toward the north-western part of both transects, often near urban settings. Estimated inbreeding indices for this putative speciation event varied spatially (range: 0.52–1), with hybridization rates being generally lower than expected under panmictic conditions. Such observations suggest substantial reproductive isolation between the M and S molecular forms, and further support the ongoing process of speciation in these inland areas. According to a recent reclassification of the An. gambiae complex, the M and S molecular forms from this zone correspond to An. coluzzii and An. gambiae, respectively. There is considerable evidence that these molecular forms differ in their behavioural and ecological characteristics. Detailed study of these characteristics will allow the development

  10. Speciation along a depth gradient in a marine adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Oceans are home to much of the world's biodiversity, but we know little about the processes driving speciation in marine ecosystems with few geographical barriers to gene flow. Ecological speciation resulting from divergent natural selection between ecological niches can occur in the face of gene flow. Sister species in the young and ecologically diverse rockfish genus Sebastes coexist in the northeast Pacific, implying that speciation may not require geographical isolation. Here, I use a novel phylogenetic comparative analysis to show that rockfish speciation is instead associated with divergence in habitat depth and depth-associated morphology, consistent with models of parapatric speciation. Using the same analysis, I find no support for alternative hypotheses that speciation involves divergence in diet or life history, or that speciation involves geographic isolation by latitude. These findings support the hypothesis that rockfishes undergo ecological speciation on an environmental gradient. PMID:20810434

  11. Geographic mode of speciation in a mountain specialist Avian family endemic to the Palearctic

    PubMed Central

    Drovetski, Sergei V; Semenov, Georgy; Drovetskaya, Sofya S; Fadeev, Igor V; Red'kin, Yaroslav A; Voelker, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Mountains host greater avian diversity than lowlands at the same latitude due to their greater diversity of habitats stratified along an elevation gradient. Here we test whether this greater ecological heterogeneity promotes sympatric speciation. We selected accentors (Prunellidae), an avian family associated with mountains of the Palearctic, as a model system. Accentors differ in their habitat/elevation preferences and south-central Siberia and Himalayan regions each host 6 of the 13 species in the family. We used sequences of the mtDNA ND2 gene and the intron 9 of the Z chromosome specific ACO1 gene to reconstruct a complete species-level phylogeny of Prunellidae. The tree based on joint analysis of both loci was used to reconstruct the family's biogeographic history and to date the diversification events. We also analyzed the relationship between the node age and sympatry, to determine the geographic mode of speciation in Prunellidae. Our data suggest a Miocene origin of Prunellidae in the Himalayan region. The major division between alpine species (subgenus Laiscopus) and species associated with shrubs (subgenus Prunella) and initial diversification events within the latter happened within the Himalayan region in the Miocene and Pliocene. Accentors colonized other parts of the Palearctic during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition. This spread across the Palearctic resulted in rapid diversification of accentors. With only a single exception dating to 0.91 Ma, lineages younger than 1.5 Ma are allopatric. In contrast, sympatry values for older nodes are >0. There was no relationship between node age and range symmetry. Allopatric speciation (not to include peripatric) is the predominant geographic mode of speciation in Prunellidae despite the favorable conditions for ecological diversification in the mountains and range overlaps among species. PMID:23789064

  12. Heavy metals in estuarine surface sediments of the Hai River Basin, variation characteristics, chemical speciation and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Lei, Pei; Zhang, Hong; Shan, Baoqing; Lv, Shucong; Tang, Wenzhong

    2016-04-01

    The Hai River Basin (HRB) is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to the high regional population density and rapid economic development. The estuaries of the HRB, which receive pollutants from terrestrial rivers, may subsequently suffer potential pollution and result in ecological risk of heavy metals. Six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were measured in estuarine surface sediments from 10 estuaries of the HRB to investigate their variation characteristics and ecological risks. The spatial difference of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediments was higher than that of the rest two elements. The Yongdingxin Estuary (YDX) and Ziyaxin Estuary (ZYX) in the Northern Hai River System (NHRS) were the most severe in terms of heavy metal contamination. According to the Risk Assessment Code (RAC) classification, Cd associated with the exchangeable and carbonate fraction (the average of 21.3 %) indicated medium risk to high risk. More than 50 % of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn on average were associated with the residual fraction. Based on the sum of the first three fractions (exchangeable and carbonate + reducible + oxidizable), the mobility order of these heavy metals was Cd >Pb > Zn ≈ Cu > Ni > Cr. Compared to the background values of cinnamon soil, the potential ecological risk index (RI) values ranged from 25.6 to 168, with an average of 91.2, indicating a low ecological risk in estuarine sites of the HRB. Cd and Pb were the dominant contributors to the toxic-response factor (45.8 and 25.5 %, respectively). The results give insight into the different control measures pertaining to heavy metal pollution and risk for both relatively clean estuaries and urban seriously polluted areas, respectively, for the formation of protect strategies of aquatic environment in the HRB. PMID:26758307

  13. Sympatric speciation: perfume preferences of orchid bee lineages.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Duncan E

    2008-12-01

    Female attraction to an environmentally derived mating signal released by male orchid bees may be tightly linked to shared olfactory preferences of both sexes. A change in perfume preference may have led to divergence of two morphologically distinct lineages.

  14. Chromosome speciation: Humans, Drosophila, and mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Francisco J.; Coluzzi, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Chromosome rearrangements (such as inversions, fusions, and fissions) may play significant roles in the speciation between parapatric (contiguous) or partly sympatric (geographically overlapping) populations. According to the “hybrid-dysfunction” model, speciation occurs because hybrids with heterozygous chromosome rearrangements produce dysfunctional gametes and thus have low reproductive fitness. Natural selection will, therefore, promote mutations that reduce the probability of intercrossing between populations carrying different rearrangements and thus promote their reproductive isolation. This model encounters a disabling difficulty: namely, how to account for the spread in a population of a chromosome rearrangement after it first arises as a mutation in a single individual. The “suppressed-recombination” model of speciation points out that chromosome rearrangements act as a genetic filter between populations. Mutations associated with the rearranged chromosomes cannot flow from one to another population, whereas genetic exchange will freely occur between colinear chromosomes. Mutations adaptive to local conditions will, therefore, accumulate differentially in the protected chromosome regions so that parapatric or partially sympatric populations will genetically differentiate, eventually evolving into different species. The speciation model of suppressed recombination has recently been tested by gene and DNA sequence comparisons between humans and chimpanzees, between Drosophila species, and between species related to Anopheles gambiae, the vector of malignant malaria in Africa. PMID:15851677

  15. Evidence for cryptic speciation in directly transmitted gyrodactylid parasites of Trinidadian guppies.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Raquel; Faria, Patricia J; Paladini, Giuseppe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Johnson, Mireille; Cable, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic species complexes are common among parasites, which tend to have large populations and are subject to rapid evolution. Such complexes may arise through host-parasite co-evolution and/or host switching. For parasites that reproduce directly on their host, there might be increased opportunities for sympatric speciation, either by exploiting different hosts or different micro-habitats within the same host. The genus Gyrodactylus is a specious group of viviparous monogeneans. These ectoparasites transfer between teleosts during social contact and cause significant host mortality. Their impact on the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an iconic evolutionary and ecological model species, is well established and yet the population genetics and phylogenetics of these parasites remains understudied. Using mtDNA sequencing of the host and its parasites, we provide evidence of cryptic speciation in Gyrodactylus bullatarudis, G. poeciliae and G. turnbulli. For the COII gene, genetic divergence of lineages within each parasite species ranged between 5.7 and 17.2%, which is typical of the divergence observed between described species in this genus. Different lineages of G. turnbulli and G. poeciliae appear geographically isolated, which could imply allopatric speciation. In addition, for G. poeciliae, co-evolution with a different host species cannot be discarded due to its host range. This parasite was originally described on P. caucana, but for the first time here it is also recorded on the guppy. The two cryptic lineages of G. bullatarudis showed considerable geographic overlap. G. bullatarudis has a known wide host range and it can also utilize a killifish (Anablepsoides hartii) as a temporary host. This killifish is capable of migrating overland and it could act as a transmission vector between otherwise isolated populations. Additional genetic markers are needed to confirm the presence of these cryptic Gyrodactylus species complexes, potentially leading to more in

  16. Evidence for Cryptic Speciation in Directly Transmitted Gyrodactylid Parasites of Trinidadian Guppies

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Raquel; Faria, Patricia J.; Paladini, Giuseppe; van Oosterhout, Cock; Johnson, Mireille; Cable, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Cryptic species complexes are common among parasites, which tend to have large populations and are subject to rapid evolution. Such complexes may arise through host-parasite co-evolution and/or host switching. For parasites that reproduce directly on their host, there might be increased opportunities for sympatric speciation, either by exploiting different hosts or different micro-habitats within the same host. The genus Gyrodactylus is a specious group of viviparous monogeneans. These ectoparasites transfer between teleosts during social contact and cause significant host mortality. Their impact on the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), an iconic evolutionary and ecological model species, is well established and yet the population genetics and phylogenetics of these parasites remains understudied. Using mtDNA sequencing of the host and its parasites, we provide evidence of cryptic speciation in Gyrodactylus bullatarudis, G. poeciliae and G. turnbulli. For the COII gene, genetic divergence of lineages within each parasite species ranged between 5.7 and 17.2%, which is typical of the divergence observed between described species in this genus. Different lineages of G. turnbulli and G. poeciliae appear geographically isolated, which could imply allopatric speciation. In addition, for G. poeciliae, co-evolution with a different host species cannot be discarded due to its host range. This parasite was originally described on P. caucana, but for the first time here it is also recorded on the guppy. The two cryptic lineages of G. bullatarudis showed considerable geographic overlap. G. bullatarudis has a known wide host range and it can also utilize a killifish (Anablepsoides hartii) as a temporary host. This killifish is capable of migrating overland and it could act as a transmission vector between otherwise isolated populations. Additional genetic markers are needed to confirm the presence of these cryptic Gyrodactylus species complexes, potentially leading to more in

  17. Support for a 'Center of Origin' in the Coral Triangle: cryptic diversity, recent speciation, and local endemism in a diverse lineage of reef fishes (Gobiidae: Eviota).

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Valdez, Samantha; Erdmann, Mark; Pezold, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The Coral Triangle is widely regarded as the richest marine biodiversity hot-spot in the world. One factor that has been proposed to explain elevated species-richness within the Coral Triangle is a high rate of in situ speciation within the region itself. Dwarfgobies (Gobiidae: Eviota) are a diverse genus of diminutive cryptobenthic reef fishes with limited dispersal ability, and life histories and ecologies that increase potential for speciation. We use molecular phylogenetic and biogeographic data from two clades of Eviota species to examine patterns, processes and timing associated with species origination within the Coral Triangle. Sequence data from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA were used to generate molecular phylogenies and median-joining haplotype networks for the genus Eviota, with emphasis on the E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes - two species groups with distributions centered in the Coral Triangle. The E. nigriventris and E. bifasciata complexes both contain multiple genetically distinct, geographically restricted color morphs indicative of recently-diverged species originating within the Coral Triangle. Relaxed molecular-clock dating estimates indicate that most speciation events occurred within the Pleistocene, and the geographic pattern of genetic breaks between species corresponds well with similar breaks in other marine fishes and sessile invertebrates. Regional isolation due to sea-level fluctuations may explain some speciation events in these species groups, yet other species formed with no evidence of physical isolation. The timing of diversification events and present day distributions of Eviota species within the Coral Triangle suggest that both allopatric speciation (driven by ephemeral and/or 'soft' physical barriers to gene flow) and sympatric speciation (driven by niche partitioning and assortative mating) may be driving diversification at local scales within the Coral Triangle. The presence of multiple young, highly

  18. Interspecific resource partitioning in sympatric ursids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belant, J.L.; Kielland, K.; Follmann, E.H.; Adams, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental niche of a species is rarely if ever realized because the presence of other species restricts it to a narrower range of ecological conditions. The effects of this narrower range of conditions define how resources are partitioned. Resource partitioning has been inferred but not demonstrated previously for sympatric ursids. We estimated assimilated diet in relation to body condition (body fat and lean and total body mass) and reproduction for sympatric brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in southcentral Alaska, 1998-2000. Based on isotopic analysis of blood and keratin in claws, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) predominated in brown bear diets (>53% annually) whereas black bears assimilated 0-25% salmon annually. Black bears did not exploit salmon during a year with below average spawning numbers, probably because brown bears deterred black bear access to salmon. Proportion of salmon in assimilated diet was consistent across years for brown bears and represented the major portion of their diet. Body size of brown bears in the study area approached mean body size of several coastal brown bear populations, demonstrating the importance of salmon availability to body condition. Black bears occurred at a comparable density (mass:mass), but body condition varied and was related directly to the amount of salmon assimilated in their diet. Both species gained most lean body mass during spring and all body fat during summer when salmon were present. Improved body condition (i.e., increased percentage body fat) from salmon consumption reduced catabolism of lean body mass during hibernation, resulting in better body condition the following spring. Further, black bear reproduction was directly related to body condition; reproductive rates were reduced when body condition was lower. High body fat content across years for brown bears was reflected in consistently high reproductive levels. We suggest that the fundamental niche of black bears

  19. Gamete compatibility and sperm competition affect paternity and hybridization between sympatric Asterias sea stars.

    PubMed

    Harper, F M; Hart, M W

    2005-10-01

    Gamete interactions may strongly influence speciation and hybridization in sympatric broadcast-spawning marine invertebrates. We examined the role of gamete compatibility in species integrity using cross-fertilization studies between sympatric Asterias sea stars from a secondary contact zone in the northwest Atlantic. In crosses between single males and single females, gametes of both species were compatible and produced viable, fertile hybrid offspring, but with considerable variation in the receptivity of eggs to heterospecific sperm. Differential compatibility of heterospecific gametes was detected in sperm competition studies in which we used a nuclear DNA marker to assign paternity to larval offspring. Several families showed conspecific sperm precedence in A. forbesi eggs, and one family showed competitive superiority of A. forbesi sperm fertilizing A. rubens eggs. Gametic interactions are an important component of prezygotic reproductive isolation in sympatric Asterias. The interaction between gametes of these closely related sea stars is consistent with the function of gamete recognition systems that are known to mediate fertilization success and speciation in other marine invertebrates.

  20. Ecological character displacement in the face of gene flow: Evidence from two species of nightingales

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ecological character displacement is a process of phenotypic differentiation of sympatric populations caused by interspecific competition. Such differentiation could facilitate speciation by enhancing reproductive isolation between incipient species, although empirical evidence for it at early stages of divergence when gene flow still occurs between the species is relatively scarce. Here we studied patterns of morphological variation in sympatric and allopatric populations of two hybridizing species of birds, the Common Nightingale (Luscinia megarhynchos) and the Thrush Nightingale (L. luscinia). Results We conducted principal component (PC) analysis of morphological traits and found that nightingale species converged in overall body size (PC1) and diverged in relative bill size (PC3) in sympatry. Closer analysis of morphological variation along geographical gradients revealed that the convergence in body size can be attributed largely to increasing body size with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule. In contrast, interspecific interactions contributed significantly to the observed divergence in relative bill size, even after controlling for the effects of geographical gradients. We suggest that the divergence in bill size most likely reflects segregation of feeding niches between the species in sympatry. Conclusions Our results suggest that interspecific competition for food resources can drive species divergence even in the face of ongoing hybridization. Such divergence may enhance reproductive isolation between the species and thus contribute to speciation. PMID:21609448

  1. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity. PMID:27393640

  2. Integrative analyses unveil speciation linked to host plant shift in Spialia butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Roldán, Juan L; Dapporto, Leonardo; Dincă, Vlad; Vicente, Juan C; Hornett, Emily A; Šíchová, Jindra; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A; Talavera, Gerard; Vila, Roger

    2016-09-01

    Discovering cryptic species in well-studied areas and taxonomic groups can have profound implications in understanding eco-evolutionary processes and in nature conservation because such groups often involve research models and act as flagship taxa for nature management. In this study, we use an array of techniques to study the butterflies in the Spialia sertorius species group (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae). The integration of genetic, chemical, cytogenetic, morphological, ecological and microbiological data indicates that the sertorius species complex includes at least five species that differentiated during the last three million years. As a result, we propose the restitution of the species status for two taxa often treated as subspecies, Spialia ali (Oberthür, 1881) stat. rest. and Spialia therapne (Rambur, 1832) stat. rest., and describe a new cryptic species Spialia rosae Hernández-Roldán, Dapporto, Dincă, Vicente & Vila sp. nov. Spialia sertorius (Hoffmannsegg, 1804) and S. rosae are sympatric and synmorphic, but show constant differences in mitochondrial DNA, chemical profiles and ecology, suggesting that S. rosae represents a case of ecological speciation involving larval host plant and altitudinal shift, and apparently associated with Wolbachia infection. This study exemplifies how a multidisciplinary approach can reveal elusive cases of hidden diversity.

  3. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates.

    PubMed

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-11-10

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  4. Kin discrimination between sympatric Bacillus subtilis isolates

    PubMed Central

    Stefanic, Polonca; Kraigher, Barbara; Lyons, Nicholas Anthony; Kolter, Roberto; Mandic-Mulec, Ines

    2015-01-01

    Kin discrimination, broadly defined as differential treatment of conspecifics according to their relatedness, could help biological systems direct cooperative behavior toward their relatives. Here we investigated the ability of the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis to discriminate kin from nonkin in the context of swarming, a cooperative multicellular behavior. We tested a collection of sympatric conspecifics from soil in pairwise combinations and found that despite their history of coexistence, the vast majority formed distinct boundaries when the swarms met. Some swarms did merge, and most interestingly, this behavior was only seen in the most highly related strain pairs. Overall the swarm interaction phenotype strongly correlated with phylogenetic relatedness, indicative of kin discrimination. Using a subset of strains, we examined cocolonization patterns on plant roots. Pairs of kin strains were able to cocolonize roots and formed a mixed-strain biofilm. In contrast, inoculating roots with pairs of nonkin strains resulted in biofilms consisting primarily of one strain, suggestive of an antagonistic interaction among nonkin strains. This study firmly establishes kin discrimination in a bacterial multicellular setting and suggests its potential effect on ecological interactions. PMID:26438858

  5. Special Speciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Countryman, Lyn L.; Maroo, Jill D.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable anecdotal evidence indicates that some of the most difficult concepts that both high school and undergraduate elementary-education students struggle with are those surrounding evolutionary principles, especially speciation. It's no wonder that entry-level biology students are confused, when biologists have multiple definitions of…

  6. Interspecific resource partitioning in sympatric ursids.

    PubMed

    Belant, Jerrold L; Kielland, Knut; Follmann, Erich H; Adams, Layne G

    2006-12-01

    The fundamental niche of a species is rarely if ever realized because the presence of other species restricts it to a narrower range of ecological conditions. The effects of this narrower range of conditions define how resources are partitioned. Resource partitioning has been inferred but not demonstrated previously for sympatric ursids. We estimated assimilated diet in relation to body condition (body fat and lean and total body mass) and reproduction for sympatric brown bears (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) in south-central Alaska, 1998-2000. Based on isotopic analysis of blood and keratin in claws, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) predominated in brown bear diets (> 53% annually) whereas black bears assimilated 0-25% salmon annually. Black bears did not exploit salmon during a year with below average spawning numbers, probably because brown bears deterred black bear access to salmon. Proportion of salmon in assimilated diet was consistent across years for brown bears and represented the major portion of their diet. Body size of brown bears in the study area approached mean body size of several coastal brown bear populations, demonstrating the importance of salmon availability to body condition. Black bears occurred at a comparable density (mass:mass), but body condition varied and was related directly to the amount of salmon assimilated in their diet. Both species gained most lean body mass during spring and all body fat during summer when salmon were present. Improved body condition (i.e., increased percentage body fat) from salmon consumption reduced catabolism of lean body mass during hibernation, resulting in better body condition the following spring. Further, black bear reproduction was directly related to body condition; reproductive rates were reduced when body condition was lower. High body fat content across years for brown bears was reflected in consistently high reproductive levels. We suggest that the fundamental niche of black

  7. Divergence in the calling songs between sympatric and allopatric populations of the southern wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae).

    PubMed

    Jang, Y; Gerhardt, H C

    2006-03-01

    In the eastern United States the wood cricket Gryllus fultoni (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) occurs in sympatry with G. vernalis in an area between eastern Kansas and west of the Appalachian Mountains. Calling songs were recorded from 13 sympatric and allopatric localities. Both field and laboratory recordings showed that chirp rate (CR) and pulse rate (PR) overlapped extensively between allopatric populations of G. fultoni and sympatric populations of G. vernalis; by contrast, there was little or no overlap in these variables between sympatric populations of these two species. Divergence in PR and CR between the two species was thus greater in areas of sympatry than in areas of allopatry. Our field and laboratory studies of G. fultoni calling songs thus demonstrate the pattern expected of character displacement and support the genetic assumptions of this hypothesis. Other possible explanations for the sympatric divergence such as ecological character displacement and clinal variation are discussed. PMID:16599922

  8. Sympatric genetic differentiation of a generalist pathogenic fungus, Botrytis cinerea, on two different host plants, grapevine and bramble.

    PubMed

    Fournier, E; Giraud, T

    2008-01-01

    Prime candidates for sympatric ecological divergence include parasites that differentiate via host shifts, because different host species exert strong disruptive selection and because both hosts and parasites are continually co-evolving. Sympatric divergence may be fostered even more strongly in phytopathogenic fungi, in particular those where sex must occur on the host, which allows adaptation alone to restrict gene flow between populations developing on different hosts. We sampled populations of Botrytis cinerea, a generalist ascomycete fungus, on sympatric grapes and brambles in six regions in France. Microsatellite data were analyzed using standard population genetics, a population graph analysis and a Bayesian approach. In addition to confirming that B. cinerea reproduces sexually, our results showed that the fungal populations on the two hosts were significantly differentiated, indicating restricted gene flow, even in sympatry. In contrast, only weak geographical differentiation could be detected. These results support the possibility of sympatric divergence associated with host use in generalist parasites. PMID:18028352

  9. Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: λ(d)). The λ(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria. PMID:22617953

  10. Correlation between nuptial colors and visual sensitivities tuned by opsins leads to species richness in sympatric Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Ryutaro; Terai, Yohey; Aibara, Mitsuto; Sugawara, Tohru; Imai, Hiroo; Tachida, Hidenori; Mzighani, Semvua Isa; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Okada, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive isolation that prevents interspecific hybridization between closely related coexisting species maintains sympatric species diversity. One of the reproductive isolations is mate choice based on color signals (breeding color perceived by color vision). This is well known in several animal taxa, yet little is known about its genetic and molecular mechanism. Lake Victoria cichlid fishes are thought to be an example of sympatric species diversity. In the species inhabiting different light environments in rocky shore, speciation by sensory drive through color signals has been proposed by analyses of the long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene and the male nuptial coloration. However, the genetic and molecular mechanism of how diversity of sympatric species occurring in the same habitat is maintained remains unknown. To address this issue, we determined nucleotide sequences of eight opsins of six sympatric species collected from a sandy-muddy shore--an ideal model system for studying sympatric species. Among eight opsins, the LWS and RH1 alleles were diversified and one particular allele is dominant or fixed in each species, and we propose that this is due to natural selection. The functions of their LWS alleles were also diversified as shown by absorption measurements of reconstituted visual pigments. To analyze the relationship between nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments, we systematically evaluated and defined nuptial coloration. We showed that the coloration was species specific with respect to hue and significantly differentiated by the index values of hue (dominant wavelength: λ(d)). The λ(d) value of the male nuptial coloration correlated with the absorption of LWS pigments from all the species, suggesting that reproductive isolation through mate choice using color signals may prevent sympatric interspecific hybridization, thereby maintaining the species diversity in sympatric species in Lake Victoria.

  11. The genetic architecture of reproductive isolation during speciation-with-gene-flow in lake whitefish species pairs assessed by RAD sequencing.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Pavey, Scott A; Normandeau, Eric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2013-09-01

    During speciation-with-gene-flow, effective migration varies across the genome as a function of several factors, including proximity of selected loci, recombination rate, strength of selection, and number of selected loci. Genome scans may provide better empirical understanding of the genome-wide patterns of genetic differentiation, especially if the variance due to the previously mentioned factors is partitioned. In North American lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), glacial lineages that diverged in allopatry about 60,000 years ago and came into contact 12,000 years ago have independently evolved in several lakes into two sympatric species pairs (a normal benthic and a dwarf limnetic). Variable degrees of reproductive isolation between species pairs across lakes offer a continuum of genetic and phenotypic divergence associated with adaptation to distinct ecological niches. To disentangle the complex array of genetically based barriers that locally reduce the effective migration rate between whitefish species pairs, we compared genome-wide patterns of divergence across five lakes distributed along this divergence continuum. Using restriction site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing, we combined genetic mapping and population genetics approaches to identify genomic regions resistant to introgression and derive empirical measures of the barrier strength as a function of recombination distance. We found that the size of the genomic islands of differentiation was influenced by the joint effects of linkage disequilibrium maintained by selection on many loci, the strength of ecological niche divergence, as well as demographic characteristics unique to each lake. Partial parallelism in divergent genomic regions likely reflected the combined effects of polygenic adaptation from standing variation and independent changes in the genetic architecture of postzygotic isolation. This study illustrates how integrating genetic mapping and population genomics of multiple sympatric

  12. Behavioural, ecological and genetic evidence confirm the occurrence of host-associated differentiation in goldenrod gall-midges.

    PubMed

    Dorchin, N; Scott, E R; Clarkin, C E; Luongo, M P; Jordan, S; Abrahamson, W G

    2009-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is considered a step towards ecological speciation and an important mechanism promoting diversification in phytophagous insects. Although the number of documented cases of HAD is increasing, these still represent only a small fraction of species and feeding guilds among phytophagous insects, and most reports are based on a single type of evidence. Here we employ a comprehensive approach to present behavioural, morphological, ecological and genetic evidence for the occurrence of HAD in the gall midge Dasineura folliculi (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on two sympatric species of goldenrods (Solidago rugosa and S. gigantea). Controlled experiments revealed assortative mating and strong oviposition fidelity for the natal-host species. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA showed an amount of genetic divergence between the two host-associated populations compatible with cryptic species rather than host races. Lower levels of within-host genetic divergence, gall development and natural-enemy attack in the S. gigantea population suggest this is the derived host.

  13. Genome differentiation in a species pair of coregonine fishes: an extremely rapid speciation driven by stress-activated retrotransposons mediating extensive ribosomal DNA multiplications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sympatric species pairs are particularly common in freshwater fishes associated with postglacial lakes in northern temperate environments. The nature of divergences between co-occurring sympatric species, factors contributing to reproductive isolation and modes of genome evolution is a much debated topic in evolutionary biology addressed by various experimental tools. To the best of our knowledge, nobody approached this field using molecular cytogenetics. We examined chromosomes and genomes of one postglacial species pair, sympatric European winter-spawning Coregonus albula and the local endemic dwarf-sized spring-spawning C. fontanae, both originating in Lake Stechlin. We have employed molecular cytogenetic tools to identify the genomic differences between the two species of the sympatric pair on the sub-chromosomal level of resolution. Results Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) experiments consistently revealed a distinct variation in the copy number of loci of the major ribosomal DNA (the 45S unit) between C. albula and C. fontanae genomes. In C. fontanae, up to 40 chromosomes were identified to bear a part of the major ribosomal DNA, while in C. albula only 8–10 chromosomes possessed these genes. To determine mechanisms how such extensive genome alternation might have arisen, a PCR screening for retrotransposons from genomic DNA of both species was performed. The amplified retrotransposon Rex1 was used as a probe for FISH mapping onto chromosomes of both species. These experiments showed a clear co-localization of the ribosomal DNA and the retrotransposon Rex1 in a pericentromeric region of one or two acrocentric chromosomes in both species. Conclusion We demonstrated genomic consequences of a rapid ecological speciation on the level undetectable by neither sequence nor karyotype analysis. We provide indirect evidence that ribosomal DNA probably utilized the spreading mechanism of retrotransposons subsequently affecting recombination rates

  14. Sub-decadal resolution in sediments of Late Miocene Lake Pannon reveals speciation of Cyprideis (Crustacea, Ostracoda).

    PubMed

    Gitter, Frank; Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E

    2015-01-01

    Late Miocene "Lake Pannon" (~11.3 Ma) was a remnant of the Central Paratethyan Sea. Successive freshening and constantly changing environmental conditions, like oxygenation, nutrition and substrate led to a well-documented radiation in molluscs and ostracods. Among ostracods (small crustaceans), Cyprideis is one of the most common genera in "Lake Pannon", as well as in several other ancient lakes, showing numerous adaptations and speciations. Here, we present high-resolution data from an early transgression of "Lake Pannon" in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria). Mataschen clay pit is in the focus of geologic and paleontologic research since 20 years and its geologic and paleoecologic evolution is well-documented. We drilled five cores covering a ~2.3 m long section and completely sampled it in 5-mm thick intervals to reconstruct minute changes in the ostracod fauna over a transgression of a brackish water body. The dominant genus, Cyprideis, is represented by three species C. mataschensis, C. kapfensteinensis and C. ex gr. pannonica. Through morphometric analyses we highlight the variance of each taxon and suggest that there is no direct ecologic control on size or shape. Furthermore, we found a second, co-occurring morphotype of C. kapfensteinensis which is directly related to an elevation of salinities above 13 psu. The presence of two intermediate specimens between the two morphotypes in the sample directly below the first appearance of C. kapfensteinensis B leads us to the conclusion that we are facing a speciation event leading to four sympatric species of Cyprideis.

  15. Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of nine Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on various ecological topics. The bulletins have these titles: Schoolyard Laboratories, Owls and Predators, The Forest Community, Life in Freshwater Marshes, Camouflage in the Animal World, Life in the Desert, The…

  16. Speciation genetics: current status and evolving approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Jochen B. W.; Lindell, Johan; Backström, Niclas

    2010-01-01

    The view of species as entities subjected to natural selection and amenable to change put forth by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace laid the conceptual foundation for understanding speciation. Initially marred by a rudimental understanding of hereditary principles, evolutionists gained appreciation of the mechanistic underpinnings of speciation following the merger of Mendelian genetic principles with Darwinian evolution. Only recently have we entered an era where deciphering the molecular basis of speciation is within reach. Much focus has been devoted to the genetic basis of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in model organisms and several hybrid incompatibility genes have been successfully identified. However, concomitant with the recent technological advancements in genome analysis and a newfound interest in the role of ecology in the differentiation process, speciation genetic research is becoming increasingly open to non-model organisms. This development will expand speciation research beyond the traditional boundaries and unveil the genetic basis of speciation from manifold perspectives and at various stages of the splitting process. This review aims at providing an extensive overview of speciation genetics. Starting from key historical developments and core concepts of speciation genetics, we focus much of our attention on evolving approaches and introduce promising methodological approaches for future research venues. PMID:20439277

  17. Speciation genetics: current status and evolving approaches.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Jochen B W; Lindell, Johan; Backström, Niclas

    2010-06-12

    The view of species as entities subjected to natural selection and amenable to change put forth by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace laid the conceptual foundation for understanding speciation. Initially marred by a rudimental understanding of hereditary principles, evolutionists gained appreciation of the mechanistic underpinnings of speciation following the merger of Mendelian genetic principles with Darwinian evolution. Only recently have we entered an era where deciphering the molecular basis of speciation is within reach. Much focus has been devoted to the genetic basis of intrinsic postzygotic isolation in model organisms and several hybrid incompatibility genes have been successfully identified. However, concomitant with the recent technological advancements in genome analysis and a newfound interest in the role of ecology in the differentiation process, speciation genetic research is becoming increasingly open to non-model organisms. This development will expand speciation research beyond the traditional boundaries and unveil the genetic basis of speciation from manifold perspectives and at various stages of the splitting process. This review aims at providing an extensive overview of speciation genetics. Starting from key historical developments and core concepts of speciation genetics, we focus much of our attention on evolving approaches and introduce promising methodological approaches for future research venues.

  18. Geographic variation in advertisement calls of a Microhylid frog - testing the role of drift and ecology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Huan; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Lin, Yen-Po; Lin, Si-Min

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic signals for mating are important traits that could drive population differentiation and speciation. Ecology may play a role in acoustic divergence through direct selection (e.g., local adaptation to abiotic environment), constraint of correlated traits (e.g., acoustic traits linked to another trait under selection), and/or interspecific competition (e.g., character displacement). However, genetic drift alone can also drive acoustic divergence. It is not always easy to differentiate the role of ecology versus drift in acoustic divergence. In this study, we tested the role of ecology and drift in shaping geographic variation in the advertisement calls of Microhyla fissipes. We examined three predictions based on ecological processes: (1) the correlation between temperature and call properties across M. fissipes populations; (2) the correlation between call properties and body size across M. fissipes populations; and (3) reproductive character displacement (RCD) in call properties between M. fissipes populations that are sympatric with and allopatric to a congener M. heymonsi. To test genetic drift, we examined correlations among call divergence, geographic distance, and genetic distance across M. fissipes populations. We recorded the advertisement calls from 11 populations of M. fissipes in Taiwan, five of which are sympatrically distributed with M. heymonsi. We found geographic variation in both temporal and spectral properties of the advertisement calls of M. fissipes. However, the call properties were not correlated with local temperature or the callers' body size. Furthermore, we did not detect RCD. By contrast, call divergence, geographic distance, and genetic distance between M. fissipes populations were all positively correlated. The comparisons between phenotypic Q st (P st) and F st values did not show significant differences, suggesting a role of drift. We concluded that genetic drift, rather than ecological processes, is the more likely

  19. Geographic variation in advertisement calls of a Microhylid frog - testing the role of drift and ecology.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Huan; Shaner, Pei-Jen L; Lin, Yen-Po; Lin, Si-Min

    2016-05-01

    Acoustic signals for mating are important traits that could drive population differentiation and speciation. Ecology may play a role in acoustic divergence through direct selection (e.g., local adaptation to abiotic environment), constraint of correlated traits (e.g., acoustic traits linked to another trait under selection), and/or interspecific competition (e.g., character displacement). However, genetic drift alone can also drive acoustic divergence. It is not always easy to differentiate the role of ecology versus drift in acoustic divergence. In this study, we tested the role of ecology and drift in shaping geographic variation in the advertisement calls of Microhyla fissipes. We examined three predictions based on ecological processes: (1) the correlation between temperature and call properties across M. fissipes populations; (2) the correlation between call properties and body size across M. fissipes populations; and (3) reproductive character displacement (RCD) in call properties between M. fissipes populations that are sympatric with and allopatric to a congener M. heymonsi. To test genetic drift, we examined correlations among call divergence, geographic distance, and genetic distance across M. fissipes populations. We recorded the advertisement calls from 11 populations of M. fissipes in Taiwan, five of which are sympatrically distributed with M. heymonsi. We found geographic variation in both temporal and spectral properties of the advertisement calls of M. fissipes. However, the call properties were not correlated with local temperature or the callers' body size. Furthermore, we did not detect RCD. By contrast, call divergence, geographic distance, and genetic distance between M. fissipes populations were all positively correlated. The comparisons between phenotypic Q st (P st) and F st values did not show significant differences, suggesting a role of drift. We concluded that genetic drift, rather than ecological processes, is the more likely

  20. Genetic architecture underlying host choice differentiation in the sympatric host races of Lochmaea capreae leaf beetles.

    PubMed

    Soudi, Shaghayegh; Reinhold, Klaus; Engqvist, Leif

    2016-04-01

    Speciation in herbivorous insects has received considerable attention during the last few decades. Much of this group's diversity originates from adaptive population divergence onto different host plants, which often involves the evolution of specialized patterns of host choice behaviour. Differences in host choice often translates directly into divergence in mating sites, and therefore positive assortative mating will be created which will act as a strong barrier to gene flow. In this study, we first explored whether host choice is a genetically determined trait in the sympatric willow and birch host races of the leaf feeding beetle Lochmaea capreae, or whether larval experience influences adult host choice. Once we had established that host choice is a genetically based trait we determined its genetic architecture. To achieve this, we employed a reciprocal transplant design in which offspring from pure willow and birch cross-types, F1, F2 and backcrosses were raised on each host plant and their preference was determined upon reaching adulthood. We then applied joint-scaling analysis to uncover the genetic architecture of host preference. Our results suggest that rearing host does not have a pronounced effect on adult's host choice; rather the segregation pattern implies the existence of genetic loci affecting host choice in these host races. The joint-scaling analysis revealed that population differences in host choice are mainly influenced by the contribution of additive genetic effects and also maternally inherited cytoplasmic effects. We explore the implications of our findings for evolutionary dynamics of sympatric host race formation and speciation.

  1. Evolution and Ecophysiology of the Industrial Producer Hypocrea jecorina (Anamorph Trichoderma reesei) and a New Sympatric Agamospecies Related to It

    PubMed Central

    Druzhinina, Irina S.; Komoń-Zelazowska, Monika; Atanasova, Lea; Seidl, Verena; Kubicek, Christian P.

    2010-01-01

    Background Trichoderma reesei, a mitosporic green mould, was recognized during the WW II based on a single isolate from the Solomon Islands and since then used in industry for production of cellulases. It is believed to be an anamorph (asexual stage) of the common pantropical ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina. Methodology/Principal Findings We combined molecular evolutionary analysis and multiple methods of phenotype profiling in order to reveal the genetic relationship of T. reesei to H. jecorina. The resulting data show that the isolates which were previously identified as H. jecorina by means of morphophysiology and ITS1 and 2 (rRNA gene cluster) barcode in fact comprise several species: i) H. jecorina/T. reesei sensu stricto which contains most of the teleomorphs (sexual stages) found on dead wood and the wild-type strain of T. reesei QM 6a; ii) T. parareesei nom. prov., which contains all strains isolated as anamorphs from soil; iii) and two other hypothetical new species for which only one or two isolates are available. In silico tests for recombination and in vitro mating experiments revealed a history of sexual reproduction for H. jecorina and confirmed clonality for T. parareesei nom. prov. Isolates of both species were consistently found worldwide in pantropical climatic zone. Ecophysiological comparison of H. jecorina and T. parareesei nom. prov. revealed striking differences in carbon source utilization, conidiation intensity, photosensitivity and mycoparasitism, thus suggesting adaptation to different ecological niches with the high opportunistic potential for T. parareesei nom. prov. Conclusions Our data prove that T. reesei belongs to a holomorph H. jecorina and displays a history of worldwide gene flow. We also show that its nearest genetic neighbour - T. parareesei nom. prov., is a cryptic phylogenetic agamospecies which inhabits the same biogeographic zone. These two species thus provide a so far rare example of sympatric speciation within saprotrophic

  2. Separation in flowering time contributes to the maintenance of sympatric cryptic plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Michalski, Stefan G; Durka, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Sympatric cryptic lineages are a challenge for the understanding of species coexistence and lineage diversification as well as for management, conservation, and utilization of plant genetic resources. In higher plants studies providing insights into the mechanisms creating and maintaining sympatric cryptic lineages are rare. Here, using microsatellites and chloroplast sequence data, morphometric analyses, and phenological observations, we ask whether sympatrically coexisting lineages in the common wetland plant Juncus effusus are ecologically differentiated and reproductively isolated. Our results show two genetically highly differentiated, homoploid lineages within J. effusus that are morphologically cryptic and have similar preference for soil moisture content. However, flowering time differed significantly between the lineages contributing to reproductive isolation and the maintenance of these lineages. Furthermore, the later flowering lineage suffered less from predispersal seed predation by a Coleophora moth species. Still, we detected viable and reproducing hybrids between both lineages and the earlier flowering lineage and J. conglomeratus, a coexisting close relative. Flowering time differentiation between the lineages can be explained by neutral divergence alone and together with a lack of postzygotic isolation mechanisms; the sympatric coexistence of these lineages is most likely the result of an allopatric origin with secondary contact. PMID:26078854

  3. Experimental evidence of competitive release in sympatric carnivores.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Iain D; Wilson, Gavin J; Delahay, Richard J; Walker, Neil; Young, Richard; Davison, John; Cheeseman, Chris; Robertson, Pete A; Gorman, Martyn L; McDonald, Robbie A

    2008-04-23

    Changes in the relative abundance of sympatric carnivores can have far-reaching ecological consequences, including the precipitation of trophic cascades and species declines. While such observations are compelling, experimental evaluations of interactions among carnivores remain scarce and are both logistically and ethically challenging. Carnivores are nonetheless a particular focus of management practices owing to their roles as predators of livestock and as vectors and reservoirs of zoonotic diseases. Here, we provide evidence from a replicated and controlled experiment that culling Eurasian badgers Meles meles for disease control was associated with increases in red fox Vulpes vulpes densities of 1.6-2.3 foxes km-2. This unique experiment demonstrates the importance of intraguild relations in determining species abundance and of assessing the wider consequences of intervention in predator populations. PMID:18089523

  4. Environmental harshness, latitude and incipient speciation.

    PubMed

    Weir, Jason T

    2014-02-01

    Are rates of evolution and speciation fastest where diversity is greatest - the tropics? A commonly accepted theory links the latitudinal diversity gradient to a speciation pump model whereby the tropics produce species at a faster rate than extra-tropical regions. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Botero et al. () test the speciation pump model using subspecies richness patterns for more than 9000 species of birds and mammals as a proxy for incipient speciation opportunity. Rather than using latitudinal centroids, the authors investigate the role of various environmental correlates of latitude as drivers of subspecies richness. Their key finding points to environmental harshness as a positive predictor of subspecies richness. The authors link high subspecies richness in environmental harsh areas to increased opportunities for geographic range fragmentation and/or faster rates of trait evolution as drivers of incipient speciation. Because environmental harshness generally increases with latitude, these results suggest that opportunity for incipient speciation is lowest where species richness is highest. The authors interpret this finding as incompatible with the view of the tropics as a cradle of diversity. Their results are consistent with a growing body of evidence that reproductive isolation and speciation occur fastest at high latitudes. PMID:26010836

  5. [Study on Speciation Analysis and Ecological Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia Sections of the Yellow River in Wet Season with HR-ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-ling; Liu, Jing-jun; Zuo, Hang; Huang, Fang; Liu, Ying

    2015-04-01

    In order to continuously study the contents, pollution condition and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River in wet seasons in different years, the speciation analysis of 9 kinds of heavy metals including Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cu, V, Co, Zn and Mn, pollution condition and potential ecological risk of heavy metals in surface sediments from 10 sampling sites like Baotoufuqiao (S2), Shizuishantaolezhen (S6) and Wujinxia (S9) in Gansu, Ningxia and Inner Mongolia sections of the Yellow River in 2012 wet season were studied with BCR sequential extraction and high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) based on our previous works. The results implied that the order of heavy metals average contents in the 10 sediment samples were the same: Mn>V> Zn>Cr>Cu>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. In the sediments, heavy metals mainly existed in the form of residual fraction, which indicated that the bioavailability or environmental impact was low. Results of geo-accumulation indices (Igeo) showed that Igeo(CD), was the largest among the heavy metals with the strongest pollution, while IGEO(Mn)was the smallest. Enrichment factor (EF) indicated that only Cd and Cu were enriched at some sampling sites. In S5, because EFcd reached 4. 69, Cd was affected by human activities obviously and the result was consistent with I. Potential ecological risk index (RI) implied that the RI values in S1, S2 and S5 were between 150 and 300, which belonged to moderate polluting degree, while others were less than 150, belonging to light pollution degree. The results of this paper could not only provide reliable experimental data and theoretical basis for the relevant departments, but also supply the technical support for constructing mathematics model of sediments-pollutants transport, systematically researching the migration and transformation rule of persistent toxic substances and environmental assessment in

  6. Speciation and the establishment of zonation in an intertidal barnacle: specific settlement vs. selection.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, L; Achituv, Y; Mokady, O

    2002-09-01

    The tropical barnacle Tetraclita forms a belt on hard substrates in the intertidal zone of the Red Sea. Based on morphological data, three distinct species were suggested to exist, occupying different vertical levels - T. barnesorum, T. rufotincta and T. achituvi. In this study we used molecular (12S mitochondrial ribosomal DNA) and ecological data to examine whether this morphological variability reflects genetic differences, or is a result of environmental factors. Adults and spats, collected from settlement plates, were censused and screened genotypically using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, and settlement dynamics was recorded. We provide evidence for the existence of only two distinct species, and point out both phenotypic plasticity and convergence within and between the proposed species. Cyprids of T. achituvi settle specifically at the lower part of the Tetraclita belt, and feature one phenotype. In contrast, T. rufotincta, occupying the upper and middle portions of the Tetraclita belt, settles throughout the range, shows phenotypic plasticity (three variants), and presumably undergoes selection at the lower part. Thus, the vertical zonation of Tetraclita is produced by the combination of pre-settlement and post-settlement factors, in T. achituvi and T. rufotincta, respectively. The examined system may offer a model in which to study the mechanisms underlying sympatric speciation.

  7. Selective maintenance of allozyme differences among sympatric host races of the apple maggot fly.

    PubMed

    Feder, J L; Roethele, J B; Wlazlo, B; Berlocher, S H

    1997-10-14

    Whether phytophagous insects can speciate in sympatry when they shift and adapt to new host plants is a controversial question. One essential requirement for sympatric speciation is that disruptive selection outweighs gene flow between insect populations using different host plants. Empirical support for host-related selection (i.e., fitness trade-offs) is scant, however. Here, we test for host-dependent selection acting on apple (Malus pumila)- and hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). In particular, we examine whether the earlier fruiting phenology of apple trees favors pupae in deeper states of diapause (or with slower metabolisms/development rates) in the apple fly race. By experimentally lengthening the time period preceding winter, we exposed hawthorn race pupae to environmental conditions typically faced by apple flies. This exposure induced a significant genetic response at six allozyme loci in surviving hawthorn fly adults toward allele frequencies found in the apple race. The sensitivity of hawthorn fly pupae to extended periods of warm weather therefore selects against hawthorn flies that infest apples and helps to maintain the genetic integrity of the apple race by counteracting gene flow from sympatric hawthorn populations. Our findings confirm that postzygotic reproductive isolation can evolve as a pleiotropic consequence of host-associated adaptation, a central tenet of nonallopatric speciation. They also suggest that one reason for the paucity of reported fitness trade-offs is a failure to consider adequately costs associated with coordinating an insect's life cycle with the phenology of its host plant.

  8. Do specialized flowers promote reproductive isolation? Realized pollination accuracy of three sympatric Pedicularis species

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, W. Scott; Shi, Xiao-Qing; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Interest in pollinator-mediated evolutionary divergence of flower phenotype and speciation in plants has been at the core of plant evolutionary studies since Darwin. Specialized pollination is predicted to lead to reproductive isolation and promote speciation among sympatric species by promoting partitioning of (1) the species of pollinators used, (2) when pollinators are used, or (3) the sites of pollen placement. Here this last mechanism is investigated by observing the pollination accuracy of sympatric Pedicularis species (Orobanchacae). Methods Pollinator behaviour was observed on three species of Pedicularis (P. densispica, P. tricolor and P. dichotoma) in the Hengduan Mountains, south-west China. Using fluorescent powder and dyed pollen, the accuracy was assessed of stigma contact with, and pollen deposition on, pollinating bumble-bees, respectively. Key Results All three species of Pedicularis were pollinated by bumble-bees. It was found that the adaptive accuracy of female function was much higher than that of male function in all three flower species. Although peak pollen deposition corresponded to the optimal location on the pollinator (i.e. the site of stigma contact) for each species, substantial amounts of pollen were scattered over much of the bees' bodies. Conclusions The Pedicularis species studied in the eastern Himalayan region did not conform with Grant's ‘Pedicularis Model’ of mechanical reproductive isolation. The specialized flowers of this diverse group of plants seem unlikely to have increased the potential for reproductive isolation or influenced rates of speciation. It is suggested instead that the extreme species richness of the Pedicularis clade was generated in other ways and that specialized flowers and substantial pollination accuracy evolved as a response to selection generated by the diversity of co-occurring congeners. PMID:24047714

  9. Homoploid hybrid speciation in animals.

    PubMed

    Mavárez, Jesús; Linares, Mauricio

    2008-10-01

    Among animals, evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation (HHS, i.e. the creation of a hybrid lineage without a change in chromosome number) was limited until recently to the virgin chub, Gila seminuda, and some controversial data in support of hybrid status for the red wolf, Canis rufus. This scarcity of evidence, together with pessimistic attitudes among zoologists about the evolutionary importance of hybridisation, prompted the view that HHS is extremely rare among animals, especially as compared with plants. However, in recent years, the literature on animal HHS has expanded to include several new putative examples in butterflies, ants, flies and fishes. We argue that this evidence suggests that HHS is far more common than previously thought and use it to provide insights into some of the genetic and ecological aspects associated with this type of speciation among animals.

  10. SPECIATE - EPA'S DATABASE OF SPECIATED EMISSION PROFILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) repository of total organic compound (TOC) and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles for emissions from air pollution sources. The data base has recently been updated and an associated report has recently been re...

  11. Competitive speciation in quantitative genetic models.

    PubMed

    Drossel, B; Mckane, A

    2000-06-01

    We study sympatric speciation due to competition in an environment with a broad distribution of resources. We assume that the trait under selection is a quantitative trait, and that mating is assortative with respect to this trait. Our model alternates selection according to Lotka-Volterra-type competition equations, with reproduction using the ideas of quantitative genetics. The recurrence relations defined by these equations are studied numerically and analytically. We find that when a population enters a new environment, with a broad distribution of unexploited food sources, the population distribution broadens under a variety of conditions, with peaks at the edge of the distribution indicating the formation of subpopulations. After a long enough time period, the population can split into several subpopulations with little gene flow between them. PMID:10816369

  12. Ecological opportunity and the evolution of habitat preferences in an arid-zone bird: implications for speciation in a climate-modified landscape.

    PubMed

    Norman, Janette A; Christidis, Les

    2016-01-20

    Bioclimatic models are widely used to investigate the impacts of climate change on species distributions. Range shifts are expected to occur as species track their current climate niche yet the potential for exploitation of new ecological opportunities that may arise as ecosystems and communities remodel is rarely considered. Here we show that grasswrens of the Amytornis textilis-modestus complex responded to new ecological opportunities in Australia's arid biome through shifts in habitat preference following the development of chenopod shrublands during the late Plio-Pleistocene. We find evidence of spatially explicit responses to climatically driven landscape changes including changes in niche width and patterns of population growth. Conservation of structural and functional aspects of the ancestral niche appear to have facilitated recent habitat shifts, while demographic responses to late Pleistocene climate change provide evidence for the greater resilience of populations inhabiting the recently evolved chenopod shrubland communities. Similar responses could occur under future climate change in species exposed to novel ecological conditions, or those already occupying spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Mechanistic models that consider structural and functional aspects of the niche along with regional hydro-dynamics may be better predictors of future climate responses in Australia's arid biome than bioclimatic models alone.

  13. Ecological opportunity and the evolution of habitat preferences in an arid-zone bird: implications for speciation in a climate-modified landscape

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Janette A.; Christidis, Les

    2016-01-01

    Bioclimatic models are widely used to investigate the impacts of climate change on species distributions. Range shifts are expected to occur as species track their current climate niche yet the potential for exploitation of new ecological opportunities that may arise as ecosystems and communities remodel is rarely considered. Here we show that grasswrens of the Amytornis textilis-modestus complex responded to new ecological opportunities in Australia’s arid biome through shifts in habitat preference following the development of chenopod shrublands during the late Plio-Pleistocene. We find evidence of spatially explicit responses to climatically driven landscape changes including changes in niche width and patterns of population growth. Conservation of structural and functional aspects of the ancestral niche appear to have facilitated recent habitat shifts, while demographic responses to late Pleistocene climate change provide evidence for the greater resilience of populations inhabiting the recently evolved chenopod shrubland communities. Similar responses could occur under future climate change in species exposed to novel ecological conditions, or those already occupying spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Mechanistic models that consider structural and functional aspects of the niche along with regional hydro-dynamics may be better predictors of future climate responses in Australia’s arid biome than bioclimatic models alone. PMID:26787111

  14. Daily Rhythm of Mutualistic Pollinator Activity and Scent Emission in Ficus septica: Ecological Differentiation between Co-Occurring Pollinators and Potential Consequences for Chemical Communication and Facilitation of Host Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Conchou, Lucie; Cabioch, Léa; Rodriguez, Lillian J. V.; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question. PMID:25105796

  15. Genomic islands of divergence are not affected by geography of speciation in sunflowers.

    PubMed

    Renaut, S; Grassa, C J; Yeaman, S; Moyers, B T; Lai, Z; Kane, N C; Bowers, J E; Burke, J M; Rieseberg, L H

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of speciation often report the presence of highly differentiated genomic regions interspersed within a milieu of weakly diverged loci. The formation of these speciation islands is generally attributed to reduced inter-population gene flow near loci under divergent selection, but few studies have critically evaluated this hypothesis. Here, we report on transcriptome scans among four recently diverged pairs of sunflower (Helianthus) species that vary in the geographical context of speciation. We find that genetic divergence is lower in sympatric and parapatric comparisons, consistent with a role for gene flow in eroding neutral differences. However, genomic islands of divergence are numerous and small in all comparisons, and contrary to expectations, island number and size are not significantly affected by levels of interspecific gene flow. Rather, island formation is strongly associated with reduced recombination rates. Overall, our results indicate that the functional architecture of genomes plays a larger role in shaping genomic divergence than does the geography of speciation.

  16. Dualism and conflicts in understanding speciation.

    PubMed

    Schilthuizen, M

    2000-12-01

    Speciation is a central but elusive issue in evolutionary biology. Over the past sixty years, the subject has been studied within a framework conceived by Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky and subsequently developed further by numerous other workers. In this "isolation" theory, the evolution of reproductive isolation is a key element of speciation; natural selection is given only secondary importance while gene flow is considered prohibitive to the process. In this paper, I argue that certain elements in this approach have produced confusion and irreconcilability among students of speciation. The more prominent debates in speciation (i.e., the species definition, sympatry/allopatry, and the role of reinforcement) all derive from an inherent conflict between the "isolation" theory and Darwin's "selection" view on species and speciation (in which disruptive selection is crucial). New data, mainly from field ecology, molecular population genetics, laboratory studies with Drosophila and computer analysis, all suggest that the isolation theory may no longer be the most desirable vantage point from which to explore speciation. Instead, environmental selection in large populations, often unimpeded by ongoing gene flow, appears to be the decisive element. The traditional preoccupation with reproductive isolation has created gaps in our knowledge of several crucial issues, mainly regarding the role of environmental selection and its connection with mate selection.

  17. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14 cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40 cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche. PMID:16928630

  18. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-09-22

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche. PMID:16928630

  19. Incipient speciation through niche expansion: an example from the Arctic charr in a subarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Rune; Klemetsen, Anders; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hermansen, Bjørn

    2006-09-22

    Two reproductive isolated morphs of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), termed profundal and littoral charr according to their different spawning habitats, co-occur in the postglacial lake Fjellfrøsvatn in North Norway. All profundal charr live in deep water their entire life and have a maximum size of 14cm, while the littoral charr grow to 40cm. Some small and young littoral charr move to the profundal zone in an ontogenetic habitat shift in the ice-free season and the rest of the population remains in epilimnic waters. The two morphs had different diet niches in the profundal zone: the profundal charr ate typical soft-bottom prey (chironomid larvae, pea mussels and benthic copepods), while the young littoral charr mainly consumed crustacean zooplankton. In four other lakes without a profundal morph (i.e. monomorphic populations), young charr also performed ontogenetic habitat shifts to the profundal zone and fed on zooplankton. The profundal morph of Fjellfrøsvatn therefore utilize a food resource niche that neither the littoral morph nor comparable monomorphic populations exploit. This suggests that intraspecific resource competition has driven incipient ecological speciation of the profundal charr of Fjellfrøsvatn. The exploitation of the soft-bottom resources by the profundal charr supports earlier experimental findings that the profundal morph is genetically different in trophic behaviour and morphology. The sympatric ecological divergence within the profundal habitat is possible because unexploited food resources (soft-bottom profundal prey) are available. Apparently, this represents a case of incipient segregation by expansion to new resource types (niche invasion), and not by subdivision of one broad ancestral niche.

  20. Alternative adaptations, speciation, and phylogeny (A Review)

    PubMed Central

    West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    1986-01-01

    Alternative adaptations—different adaptive phenotypes maintained in the same life stage and the same population but not necessarily simultaneously expressed in the same individual—represent contrasting character sets produced by the same genome, in effect allowing a single species to occupy more than one sympatric niche. Such alternatives are particularly likely to give rise to novel adaptations because of selection for extreme dissimilarity between them and because established traits buffer populations against extinction while independently expressed alternatives evolve in new directions. Particular alternatives can be suddenly fixed in populations with little or no genetic change, leading to a period of rapid evolution (especially, of morphology) exaggerating the characteristics of the newly fixed form. This burst of change would facilitate rapid speciation and could produce “punctuated” patterns of evolution. Evidence from a wide variety of organisms shows that alternative phenotypes are exceedingly common in nature and that they are probably important in speciation and macroevolution. Although many of these ideas and observations have been noted piecemeal by previous authors, bringing them together demonstrates the probable importance of alternative adaptations in the origin of major evolutionary novelties and calls for a revision of current and traditional ideas about the role of behavior and ontogeny in the genesis of organic diversity. PMID:16578790

  1. Widespread introgression does not leak into allotopy in a broad sympatric zone

    PubMed Central

    Johanet, A; Secondi, J; Lemaire, C

    2011-01-01

    Species that overlap over a large part of their range and habitat requirements are challenging for the study of speciation and hybridization. In this respect, the study of broadscale introgressive hybridization has raised recent interest. Here we studied hybridization between two closely related amphibians Lissotriton helveticus and Lissotriton vulgaris that reproduce over a wide sympatric zone. We used mitochondrial and microsatellite markers on 1272 individuals in 37 sites over Europe to detect hybrids at the individual-level and to analyse Hardy–Weinberg and linkage disequilibria at the population-level. Morphological traits showed a strong bimodal distribution. Consistently, hybrid frequency was low (1.7%). We found asymmetric introgression with five times more hybrids in L. vulgaris than in L. helveticus, a pattern probably explained by an unequal effective population size in a study part wherein L. helveticus numerically predominates. Strikingly, significant levels of introgression were detected in 73% of sites shared by both species. Our study showed that introgression is widespread but remains confined to the sites where the two species reproduce at the same time. This pattern may explain why these species remain genetically distinct over a broad sympatric zone. PMID:21081968

  2. Deep sympatric mtDNA divergence in the autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata)

    PubMed Central

    Kvie, Kjersti S; Hogner, Silje; Aarvik, Leif; Lifjeld, Jan T; Johnsen, Arild

    2013-01-01

    Deep sympatric intraspecific divergence in mtDNA may reflect cryptic species or formerly distinct lineages in the process of remerging. Preliminary results from DNA barcoding of Scandinavian butterflies and moths showed high intraspecific sequence variation in the autumnal moth, Epirrita autumnata. In this study, specimens from different localities in Norway and some samples from Finland and Scotland, with two congeneric species as outgroups, were sequenced with mitochondrial and nuclear markers to resolve the discrepancy found between mtDNA divergence and present species-level taxonomy. We found five COI sub-clades within the E. autumnata complex, most of which were sympatric and with little geographic structure. Nuclear markers (ITS2 and Wingless) showed little variation and gave no indications that E. autumnata comprises more than one species. The samples were screened with primers for Wolbachia outer surface gene (wsp) and 12% of the samples tested positive. Two Wolbachia strains were associated with different mtDNA sub-clades within E. autumnata, which may indicate indirect selection/selective sweeps on haplotypes. Our results demonstrate that deep mtDNA divergences are not synonymous with cryptic speciation and this has important implications for the use of mtDNA in species delimitation, like in DNA barcoding. PMID:23404314

  3. High inbreeding, limited recombination and divergent evolutionary patterns between two sympatric morel species in China

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xi-Hui; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Yang, Zhu L.

    2016-01-01

    As highly prized, popular mushrooms, morels are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, with China as a modern centre of speciation and diversity. Overharvesting of morels has caused concern over how to effectively preserve their biological and genetic diversity. However, little is known about their population biology and life cycle. In this study, we selected two sympatric phylogenetic species, Mel-13 (124 collections from 11 geographical locations) and Morchella eohespera (156 collections from 14 geographical locations), using fragments of 4 DNA sequences, to analyse their genetic structure. Our results indicated significant differentiation among geographic locations in both species, whereas no obvious correlation between genetic and geographic distance was identified in either species. M. eohespera exhibited a predominantly clonal population structure with limited recombination detected in only 1 of the 14 geographic locations. In contrast, relatively frequent recombination was identified in 6 of the 11 geographic locations of Mel-13. Our analysis indicated that the sympatric species Mel-13 and M. eohespera might have divergent evolutionary patterns, with the former showing signatures of recent population expansion and the latter being relatively stable. Interestingly, we found no heterozygosity but strong evidence for genealogical incongruence, indicating a high level of inbreeding and hybridisation among morel species. PMID:26928176

  4. High inbreeding, limited recombination and divergent evolutionary patterns between two sympatric morel species in China.

    PubMed

    Du, Xi-Hui; Zhao, Qi; Xu, Jianping; Yang, Zhu L

    2016-03-01

    As highly prized, popular mushrooms, morels are widely distributed in the northern hemisphere, with China as a modern centre of speciation and diversity. Overharvesting of morels has caused concern over how to effectively preserve their biological and genetic diversity. However, little is known about their population biology and life cycle. In this study, we selected two sympatric phylogenetic species, Mel-13 (124 collections from 11 geographical locations) and Morchella eohespera (156 collections from 14 geographical locations), using fragments of 4 DNA sequences, to analyse their genetic structure. Our results indicated significant differentiation among geographic locations in both species, whereas no obvious correlation between genetic and geographic distance was identified in either species. M. eohespera exhibited a predominantly clonal population structure with limited recombination detected in only 1 of the 14 geographic locations. In contrast, relatively frequent recombination was identified in 6 of the 11 geographic locations of Mel-13. Our analysis indicated that the sympatric species Mel-13 and M. eohespera might have divergent evolutionary patterns, with the former showing signatures of recent population expansion and the latter being relatively stable. Interestingly, we found no heterozygosity but strong evidence for genealogical incongruence, indicating a high level of inbreeding and hybridisation among morel species.

  5. Female Preference for Sympatric vs. Allopatric Male Throat Color Morphs in the Mesquite Lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C.; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation. PMID:24718297

  6. Female preference for sympatric vs. allopatric male throat color morphs in the mesquite lizard (Sceloporus grammicus) species complex.

    PubMed

    Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Bastiaans, Mary Jane; Morinaga, Gen; Castañeda Gaytán, José Gamaliel; Marshall, Jonathon C; Bane, Brendan; de la Cruz, Fausto Méndez; Sinervo, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Color polymorphic sexual signals are often associated with alternative reproductive behaviors within populations, and the number, frequency, or type of morphs present often vary among populations. When these differences lead to assortative mating by population, the study of such polymorphic taxa may shed light on speciation mechanisms. We studied two populations of a lizard with polymorphic throat color, an important sexual signal. Males in one population exhibit orange, yellow, or blue throats; whereas males in the other exhibit orange, yellow, or white throats. We assessed female behavior when choosing between allopatric and sympatric males. We asked whether females discriminated more when the allopatric male was of an unfamiliar morph than when the allopatric male was similar in coloration to the sympatric male. We found that female rejection of allopatric males relative to sympatric males was more pronounced when males in a pair were more different in throat color. Our findings may help illuminate how behavioral responses to color morph differences between populations with polymorphic sexual signals contribute to reproductive isolation.

  7. Ecological separation in a polymorphic terrestrial salamander.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Carl D; Venesky, Matthew D; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M

    2008-07-01

    1. When studying speciation, researchers commonly examine reproductive isolation in recently diverged populations. Polymorphic species provide an opportunity to examine the role of reproductive isolation in populations that may be in the process of divergence. 2. We examined a polymorphic population of Plethodon cinereus (red-backed salamanders) for evidence of sympatric ecological separation by colour morphology. Recent studies have correlated temperature and climate with colour morphology in this species, but no studies have looked at differences in diet or mate choice between colour morphs. We used artificial cover objects to assess salamander diet, mating preference and surface activity over a 2-year period at a field site in north-eastern Ohio. 3. We detected differences in diet between two colour morphs, striped and unstriped. The diets of striped individuals were significantly more diverse and were made up of more profitable prey than the diets of unstriped salamanders. 4. Opposite sex pairs were made up of individuals of the same colour morph and striped males were found more often with larger females than were unstriped males. 5. We corroborate findings of earlier studies suggesting that the unstriped form is adapted to warmer conditions. Unstriped individuals were the first to withdraw from the forest floor as temperatures fell in the late fall. We found no evidence that the colour morphs responded differently to abiotic factors such as soil moisture and relative humidity, and responses to surface temperatures were also equivocal. 6. We conclude that the two colour morphs exhibit some degree of ecological separation and tend to mate assortatively, but are unlikely to be undergoing divergence given the observed frequency of intermorph pairings.

  8. A comparative analysis of island floras challenges taxonomy-based biogeographical models of speciation.

    PubMed

    Igea, Javier; Bogarín, Diego; Papadopulos, Alexander S T; Savolainen, Vincent

    2015-02-01

    Speciation on islands, and particularly the divergence of species in situ, has long been debated. Here, we present one of the first, complete assessments of the geographic modes of speciation for the flora of a small oceanic island. Cocos Island (Costa Rica) is pristine; it is located 550 km off the Pacific coast of Central America. It harbors 189 native plant species, 33 of which are endemic. Using phylogenetic data from insular and mainland congeneric species, we show that all of the endemic species are derived from independent colonization events rather than in situ speciation. This is in sharp contrast to the results of a study carried out in a comparable system, Lord Howe Island (Australia), where as much as 8.2% of the plant species were the product of sympatric speciation. Differences in physiography and age between the islands may be responsible for the contrasting patterns of speciation observed. Importantly, comparing phylogenetic assessments of the modes of speciation with taxonomy-based measures shows that widely used island biogeography approaches overestimate rates of in situ speciation. PMID:25522772

  9. Speciation without Pre-Defined Fitness Functions

    PubMed Central

    Gras, Robin; Golestani, Abbas; Hendry, Andrew P.; Cristescu, Melania E.

    2015-01-01

    The forces promoting and constraining speciation are often studied in theoretical models because the process is hard to observe, replicate, and manipulate in real organisms. Most models analyzed to date include pre-defined functions influencing fitness, leaving open the question of how speciation might proceed without these built-in determinants. To consider the process of speciation without pre-defined functions, we employ the individual-based ecosystem simulation platform EcoSim. The environment is initially uniform across space, and an evolving behavioural model then determines how prey consume resources and how predators consume prey. Simulations including natural selection (i.e., an evolving behavioural model that influences survival and reproduction) frequently led to strong and distinct phenotypic/genotypic clusters between which hybridization was low. This speciation was the result of divergence between spatially-localized clusters in the behavioural model, an emergent property of evolving ecological interactions. By contrast, simulations without natural selection (i.e., behavioural model turned off) but with spatial isolation (i.e., limited dispersal) produced weaker and overlapping clusters. Simulations without natural selection or spatial isolation (i.e., behaviour model turned off and high dispersal) did not generate clusters. These results confirm the role of natural selection in speciation by showing its importance even in the absence of pre-defined fitness functions. PMID:26372462

  10. Comparative phylogeography of sympatric sister species, Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi (Teleostei, Gobiidae), across the California Transition Zone.

    PubMed

    Dawson, M N; Louie, K D; Barlow, M; Jacobs, D K; Swift, C C

    2002-06-01

    It is paradigmatic in marine species that greater dispersal ability often, but not always, results in greater gene flow and less population structure. Some of the exceptions may be attributable to studies confounded by comparison of species with dissimilar evolutionary histories, i.e. co-occurring species that are not closely related or species that are closely related but allopatric. Investigation of sympatric sister species, in contrast, should allow differences in phylogeographic structure to be attributed reliably to recently derived differences in dispersal ability. Here, using mitochondrial DNA control region sequence, we first confirm that Clevelandia ios and Eucyclogobius newberryi are sympatric sister taxa, then demonstrate considerably shallower phylogeographic structure in C. ios than in E. newberryi. This shallower phylogeographic structure is consistent with the higher dispersal ability of C. ios, which most likely results from the interaction of habitat and life-history differences between the species. We suggest that the paradigm will be investigated most rigorously by similar studies of other sympatric sister species, appended by thorough ecological studies, and by extending this sister-taxon approach to comparative phylogeographic studies of monophyletic clades of sympatric species. PMID:12030983

  11. Hybridization and speciation.

    PubMed

    Abbott, R; Albach, D; Ansell, S; Arntzen, J W; Baird, S J E; Bierne, N; Boughman, J; Brelsford, A; Buerkle, C A; Buggs, R; Butlin, R K; Dieckmann, U; Eroukhmanoff, F; Grill, A; Cahan, S H; Hermansen, J S; Hewitt, G; Hudson, A G; Jiggins, C; Jones, J; Keller, B; Marczewski, T; Mallet, J; Martinez-Rodriguez, P; Möst, M; Mullen, S; Nichols, R; Nolte, A W; Parisod, C; Pfennig, K; Rice, A M; Ritchie, M G; Seifert, B; Smadja, C M; Stelkens, R; Szymura, J M; Väinölä, R; Wolf, J B W; Zinner, D

    2013-02-01

    Hybridization has many and varied impacts on the process of speciation. Hybridization may slow or reverse differentiation by allowing gene flow and recombination. It may accelerate speciation via adaptive introgression or cause near-instantaneous speciation by allopolyploidization. It may have multiple effects at different stages and in different spatial contexts within a single speciation event. We offer a perspective on the context and evolutionary significance of hybridization during speciation, highlighting issues of current interest and debate. In secondary contact zones, it is uncertain if barriers to gene flow will be strengthened or broken down due to recombination and gene flow. Theory and empirical evidence suggest the latter is more likely, except within and around strongly selected genomic regions. Hybridization may contribute to speciation through the formation of new hybrid taxa, whereas introgression of a few loci may promote adaptive divergence and so facilitate speciation. Gene regulatory networks, epigenetic effects and the evolution of selfish genetic material in the genome suggest that the Dobzhansky-Muller model of hybrid incompatibilities requires a broader interpretation. Finally, although the incidence of reinforcement remains uncertain, this and other interactions in areas of sympatry may have knock-on effects on speciation both within and outside regions of hybridization.

  12. Aggression and Food Resource Competition between Sympatric Hermit Crab Species

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Mark V.; O’Grady, Matthew; Colborn, Jeremiah; Van Ness, Kimberly; Hill, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical zonation patterns of intertidal organisms have been topics of interest to marine ecologists for many years, with interspecific food competition being implicated as a contributing factor to intertidal community organization. In this study, we used behavioral bioassays to examine the potential roles that interspecific aggression and food competition have on the structuring of intertidal hermit crab assemblages. We studied two ecologically similar, sympatric hermit crab species, Clibanarius digueti [1] and Paguristes perrieri [2], which occupy adjacent zones within the intertidal region of the Gulf of California. During the search phase of foraging, C. digueti showed higher frequencies of aggressive behaviors than P. perrieri. In competition assays, C. digueti gained increased access to food resources compared to P. perrieri. The results suggest that food competition may play an important role in structuring intertidal hermit crab assemblages, and that the zonation patterns of Gulf of California hermit crab species may be the result of geographical displacement by the dominant food competitor (C. digueti). PMID:24632897

  13. SPECIATE 4.2: speciation Database Development Documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. Among the many uses of speciation data, these source profiles are used to: (1) create speciated emissions inve...

  14. SPECIATE 4.3: Addendum to SPECIATE 4.2--Speciation database development documentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. Among the many uses of speciation data, these source profiles are used to: (1) create speciated emissions inve...

  15. Sediment ingestion of two sympatric shorebird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Beyer, W.N.

    1998-01-01

    Black-bellied Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) have short bills and primarily peck while foraging whereas Willets (Catoptrophorus semipalmatus) have long bills and primarily probe with bills open in sediments. Intestinal digesta were collected from these species at sympatric overwintering sites in southern California near San Diego to relate sediment ingestion to bill length and feeding behavior. Plover digesta contained an estimated 29% sediment, and Willet digesta an estimated 3% sediment. Techniques based on acid insoluble ash and on the elemental markers of Al, Fe, and Ti in digesta provided similar results. High Ca concentrations in Willet digesta and our observations suggested that the willets in our sample fed primarily on molluscs and crustaceans. Sediment ingestion may be species specific, not necessarily linked to bill length or probing behaviors, and may greatly affect a bird?s exposure to environmental contaminants in sediment.

  16. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires. PMID:26233024

  17. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires.

  18. The coexistence of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia Town, Yunnan Province

    PubMed Central

    XIA, Ji; WU, Fei; HU, Wan-Zhao; FANG, Jian-Ling; YANG, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coexistence of ecologically similar species sharing sympatric areas is a central issue of community ecology. Niche differentiation is required at least in one dimension to avoid competitive exclusion. From 2012-2014, by adopting the methods of mist-nets and point counts to evaluate spatial niche partitioning and morphological differentiations, we explored the coexistence mechanisms of seven sympatric fulvettas in Ailao Mountains, Ejia town, Yunnan Province, China. The microhabitats of these seven fulvettas were significantly different in elevation, roost site height and vegetation coverage, indicating a spatial niche segregation in different levels. Approximately, 90.30% of the samples were correctly classified by linear discriminant analysis (LDA) with correct rates at 91.20%-100%, except the White-browed fulvetta (Alcippe vinipectus) (65.4%) and the Streak-throated fulvetta (A. cinereiceps) (74.6%). The seven fulvettas were classified into four guilds based on their specific morphological characters, suggesting that the species in each guild use their unique feeding ways to realize resource partitioning in the overlapped areas. These finding indicate that through multi-dimensional spatial niche segregation and divergence in resource utilizing, the inter-specific competition among these seven fulvettas is minimized, whereas, coexistence is promoted. PMID:25730457

  19. Speciation Reversal in European Whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) Caused by Competitor Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Shripathi; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Fevolden, Svein-Erik; Bernatchez, Louis; Præbel, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Invasion of exotic species has caused the loss of biodiversity and imparts evolutionary and ecological changes in the introduced systems. In northern Fennoscandia, European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus (L.)) is a highly polymorphic species displaying adaptive radiations into partially reproductively isolated and thus genetically differentiated sympatric morphs utilizing the planktivorous and benthivorous food niche in many lakes. In 1993, Lake Skrukkebukta was invaded by vendace (Coregonus albula (L.)) which is a zooplanktivorous specialist. The vendace displaced the densely rakered whitefish from its preferred pelagic niche to the benthic habitat harbouring the large sparsely rakered whitefish. In this study, we investigate the potential influence of the vendace invasion on the breakdown of reproductive isolation between the two whitefish morphs. We inferred the genotypic and phenotypic differentiation between the two morphs collected at the arrival (1993) and 15 years after (2008) the vendace invasion using 16 microsatellite loci and gill raker numbers, the most distinctive adaptive phenotypic trait between them. The comparison of gill raker number distributions revealed two modes growing closer over 15 years following the invasion. Bayesian analyses of genotypes revealed that the two genetically distinct whitefish morphs that existed in 1993 had collapsed into a single population in 2008. The decline in association between the gill raker numbers and admixture values over 15 years corroborates the findings from the Bayesian analysis. Our study thus suggests an apparent decrease of reproductive isolation in a morph-pair of European whitefish within 15 years (≃ 3 generations) following the invasion of a superior trophic competitor (vendace) in a subarctic lake, reflecting a situation of “speciation in reverse”. PMID:24626131

  20. Identity of two sympatric species of Orius (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related and sympatric in north Florida. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although the morphological stru...

  1. Determinants of the Sympatric Host-Pathogen Relationship in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    David, Susana; Mateus, A. R. A.; Duarte, Elsa L.; Albuquerque, José; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Lavinha, João; Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host–pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M. tuberculosis strains within the Euro-American lineage. We analyzed a total of 547 tuberculosis (TB) cases, from six year consecutive sampling in a setting with high TB-HIV coinfection (32.0%). Of these, 62.0% were caused by major circulating pathogen genotypes. The sympatric relationship was defined according to spoligotype in comparison to the international spoligotype database SpolDB4. While no significant association with Euro-American lineage was observed with any of the factors analyzed, increasing the resolution with spoligotyping evidenced a significant association of MDRTB with sympatric strains, regardless of the HIV status. Furthermore, distribution curves of the prevalence of sympatric and allopatric TB in relation to patients’ age showed an accentuation of the relevance of the age of onset in the allopatric relationship, as reflected in the trimodal distribution. On the contrary, sympatric TB was characterized by the tendency towards a typical (standard) distribution curve. Our results suggest that within the Euro-American lineage a greater degree of genotyping fine-tuning is necessary in modeling the biological processes behind the host-pathogen interplay. Furthermore, prevalence distribution of sympatric TB to age was suggestive of host genetic determinisms driven by more common variants. PMID:26529092

  2. Determinants of the Sympatric Host-Pathogen Relationship in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    David, Susana; Mateus, A R A; Duarte, Elsa L; Albuquerque, José; Portugal, Clara; Sancho, Luísa; Lavinha, João; Gonçalves, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host-pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M. tuberculosis strains within the Euro-American lineage. We analyzed a total of 547 tuberculosis (TB) cases, from six year consecutive sampling in a setting with high TB-HIV coinfection (32.0%). Of these, 62.0% were caused by major circulating pathogen genotypes. The sympatric relationship was defined according to spoligotype in comparison to the international spoligotype database SpolDB4. While no significant association with Euro-American lineage was observed with any of the factors analyzed, increasing the resolution with spoligotyping evidenced a significant association of MDRTB with sympatric strains, regardless of the HIV status. Furthermore, distribution curves of the prevalence of sympatric and allopatric TB in relation to patients' age showed an accentuation of the relevance of the age of onset in the allopatric relationship, as reflected in the trimodal distribution. On the contrary, sympatric TB was characterized by the tendency towards a typical (standard) distribution curve. Our results suggest that within the Euro-American lineage a greater degree of genotyping fine-tuning is necessary in modeling the biological processes behind the host-pathogen interplay. Furthermore, prevalence distribution of sympatric TB to age was suggestive of host genetic determinisms driven by more common variants.

  3. Mitonuclear Ecology

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Geoffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotes were born of a chimeric union between two prokaryotes—the progenitors of the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Early in eukaryote evolution, most mitochondrial genes were lost or transferred to the nucleus, but a core set of genes that code exclusively for products associated with the electron transport system remained in the mitochondrion. The products of these mitochondrial genes work in intimate association with the products of nuclear genes to enable oxidative phosphorylation and core energy production. The need for coadaptation, the challenge of cotransmission, and the possibility of genomic conflict between mitochondrial and nuclear genes have profound consequences for the ecology and evolution of eukaryotic life. An emerging interdisciplinary field that I call “mitonuclear ecology” is reassessing core concepts in evolutionary ecology including sexual reproduction, two sexes, sexual selection, adaptation, and speciation in light of the interactions of mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25931514

  4. Male competition fitness landscapes predict both forward and reverse speciation.

    PubMed

    Keagy, Jason; Lettieri, Liliana; Boughman, Janette W

    2016-01-01

    Speciation is facilitated when selection generates a rugged fitness landscape such that populations occupy different peaks separated by valleys. Competition for food resources is a strong ecological force that can generate such divergent selection. However, it is unclear whether intrasexual competition over resources that provide mating opportunities can generate rugged fitness landscapes that foster speciation. Here we use highly variable male F2 hybrids of benthic and limnetic threespine sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus Linnaeus, 1758, to quantify the male competition fitness landscape. We find that disruptive sexual selection generates two fitness peaks corresponding closely to the male phenotypes of the two parental species, favouring divergence. Most surprisingly, an additional region of high fitness favours novel hybrid phenotypes that correspond to those observed in a recent case of reverse speciation after anthropogenic disturbance. Our results reveal that sexual selection through male competition plays an integral role in both forward and reverse speciation.

  5. Evidence for Gene Flow between Two Sympatric Mealybug Species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species – the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of ‘hybrid females’ among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. ‘hybrid females’ from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects. PMID:24523894

  6. Evidence for gene flow between two sympatric mealybug species (Insecta; Coccoidea; Pseudococcidae).

    PubMed

    Kol-Maimon, Hofit; Ghanim, Murad; Franco, José Carlos; Mendel, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    Occurrence of inter-species hybrids in natural populations might be evidence of gene flow between species. In the present study we found evidence of gene flow between two sympatric, genetically related scale insect species--the citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso) and the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). These species can be distinguished by morphological, behavioral, and molecular traits. We employed the sex pheromones of the two respective species to study their different patterns of male attraction. We also used nuclear ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer 2) and mitochondrial COI (Cytochrome c oxidase sub unit 1) DNA sequences to characterize populations of the two species, in order to demonstrate the outcome of a possible gene flow between feral populations of the two species. Our results showed attraction to P. ficus pheromones of all tested populations of P. citri males but not vice versa. Furthermore, ITS2 sequences revealed the presence of 'hybrid females' among P. citri populations but not among those of P. ficus. 'hybrid females' from P. citri populations identified as P. citri females according to COI sequences. We offer two hypotheses for these results. 1) The occurrence of phenotypic and genotypic traits of P. ficus in P. citri populations may be attributed to both ancient and contemporary gene flow between their populations; and 2) we cannot rule out that an ancient sympatric speciation by which P. ficus emerged from P. citri might have led to the present situation of shared traits between these species. In light of these findings we also discuss the origin of the studied species and the importance of the pherotype phenomenon as a tool with which to study genetic relationships between congener scale insects.

  7. Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Simon H; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Nadeau, Nicola J; Salazar, Camilo; Walters, James R; Simpson, Fraser; Blaxter, Mark; Manica, Andrea; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D

    2013-11-01

    Most speciation events probably occur gradually, without complete and immediate reproductive isolation, but the full extent of gene flow between diverging species has rarely been characterized on a genome-wide scale. Documenting the extent and timing of admixture between diverging species can clarify the role of geographic isolation in speciation. Here we use new methodology to quantify admixture at different stages of divergence in Heliconius butterflies, based on whole-genome sequences of 31 individuals. Comparisons between sympatric and allopatric populations of H. melpomene, H. cydno, and H. timareta revealed a genome-wide trend of increased shared variation in sympatry, indicative of pervasive interspecific gene flow. Up to 40% of 100-kb genomic windows clustered by geography rather than by species, demonstrating that a very substantial fraction of the genome has been shared between sympatric species. Analyses of genetic variation shared over different time intervals suggested that admixture between these species has continued since early in speciation. Alleles shared between species during recent time intervals displayed higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than those shared over longer time intervals, suggesting that this admixture took place at multiple points during divergence and is probably ongoing. The signal of admixture was significantly reduced around loci controlling divergent wing patterns, as well as throughout the Z chromosome, consistent with strong selection for Müllerian mimicry and with known Z-linked hybrid incompatibility. Overall these results show that species divergence can occur in the face of persistent and genome-wide admixture over long periods of time.

  8. Speciation and bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Volkenstein, M V; Livshits, M A

    1989-01-01

    The interrelations of physics and biology are discussed. It is shown that Darwin can be considered as one of the founders of the important field of contemporary physics called physics of dissipative structures or synergetics. The theories of gradual and punctual evolution are presented. The contradiction between these theories can be solved on the basis of molecular theory of evolution and on the basis of the phenomenological physical treatment. The general physical properties of living systems, considered as open systems being far from equilibrium, are listed and simple non-linear mathematical models describing gradual and punctual speciation are suggested. The usual pictures which present these two kinds of speciation can possess physico-mathematical sense. Punctuated speciation means bifurcation, a kind of non-equilibrium phase transition.

  9. Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Charron, Guillaume; Eberlein, Chris; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Samani, Pedram; Sylvester, Kayla; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2016-01-11

    Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche.

  10. Speciation driven by hybridization and chromosomal plasticity in a wild yeast.

    PubMed

    Leducq, Jean-Baptiste; Nielly-Thibault, Lou; Charron, Guillaume; Eberlein, Chris; Verta, Jukka-Pekka; Samani, Pedram; Sylvester, Kayla; Hittinger, Chris Todd; Bell, Graham; Landry, Christian R

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is recognized as a powerful mechanism of speciation and a driving force in generating biodiversity. However, only few multicellular species, limited to a handful of plants and animals, have been shown to fulfil all the criteria of homoploid hybrid speciation. This lack of evidence could lead to the interpretation that speciation by hybridization has a limited role in eukaryotes, particularly in single-celled organisms. Laboratory experiments have revealed that fungi such as budding yeasts can rapidly develop reproductive isolation and novel phenotypes through hybridization, showing that in principle homoploid speciation could occur in nature. Here, we report a case of homoploid hybrid speciation in natural populations of the budding yeast Saccharomyces paradoxus inhabiting the North American forests. We show that the rapid evolution of chromosome architecture and an ecological context that led to secondary contact between nascent species drove the formation of an incipient hybrid species with a potentially unique ecological niche. PMID:27571751

  11. Sexual selection and speciation.

    PubMed

    Panhuis, T M.; Butlin, R; Zuk, M; Tregenza, T

    2001-07-01

    The power of sexual selection to drive changes in mate recognition traits gives it the potential to be a potent force in speciation. Much of the evidence to support this possibility comes from comparative studies that examine differences in the number of species between clades that apparently differ in the intensity of sexual selection. We argue that more detailed studies are needed, examining extinction rates and other sources of variation in species richness. Typically, investigations of extant natural populations have been too indirect to convincingly conclude speciation by sexual selection. Recent empirical work, however, is beginning to take a more direct approach and rule out confounding variables.

  12. Phylogenetics and speciation.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, T G.; Nee, S

    2001-07-01

    Species-level phylogenies derived from molecular data provide an indirect record of the speciation events that have led to extant species. This offers enormous potential for investigating the general causes and rates of speciation within clades. To make the most of this potential, we should ideally sample all the species in a higher group, such as a genus, ensure that those species reflect evolutionary entities within the group, and rule out the effects of other processes, such as extinction, as explanations for observed patterns. We discuss recent practical and theoretical advances in this area and outline how future work should benefit from incorporating data from genealogical and phylogeographical scales.

  13. Allopatric genetic origins for sympatric host-plant shifts and race formation in Rhagoletis.

    PubMed

    Feder, Jeffrey L; Berlocher, Stewart H; Roethele, Joseph B; Dambroski, Hattie; Smith, James J; Perry, William L; Gavrilovic, Vesna; Filchak, Kenneth E; Rull, Juan; Aluja, Martin

    2003-09-01

    Tephritid fruit flies belonging to the Rhagoletis pomonella sibling species complex are controversial because they have been proposed to diverge in sympatry (in the absence of geographic isolation) by shifting and adapting to new host plants. Here, we report evidence suggesting a surprising source of genetic variation contributing to sympatric host shifts for these flies. From DNA sequence data for three nuclear loci and mtDNA, we infer that an ancestral, hawthorn-infesting R. pomonella population became geographically subdivided into Mexican and North American isolates approximately 1.57 million years ago. Episodes of gene flow from Mexico subsequently infused the North American population with inversion polymorphism affecting key diapause traits, forming adaptive clines. Sometime later (perhaps +/-1 million years), diapause variation in the latitudinal clines appears to have aided North American flies in adapting to a variety of plants with differing fruiting times, helping to spawn several new taxa. Thus, important raw genetic material facilitating the adaptive radiation of R. pomonella originated in a different time and place than the proximate ecological host shifts triggering sympatric divergence.

  14. Can newts cope with the heat? Disparate thermoregulatory strategies of two sympatric species in water.

    PubMed

    Balogová, Monika; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Many ectotherms effectively reduce their exposure to low or high environmental temperatures using behavioral thermoregulation. In terrestrial ectotherms, thermoregulatory strategies range from accurate thermoregulation to thermoconformity according to the costs and limits of thermoregulation, while in aquatic taxa the quantification of behavioral thermoregulation have received limited attention. We examined thermoregulation in two sympatric newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris, exposed to elevated water temperatures under semi-natural conditions. According to a recent theory, we predicted that species for which elevated water temperatures pose a lower thermal quality habitat, would thermoregulate more effectively than species in thermally benign conditions. In the laboratory thermal gradient, L. vulgaris maintained higher body temperatures than I. alpestris. Semi-natural thermal conditions provided better thermal quality of habitat for L. vulgaris than for I. alpestris. Thermoregulatory indices indicated that I. alpestris actively thermoregulated its body temperature, whereas L. vulgaris remained passive to the thermal heterogeneity of aquatic environment. In the face of elevated water temperatures, sympatric newt species employed disparate thermoregulatory strategies according to the species-specific quality of the thermal habitat. Both strategies reduced newt exposure to suboptimal water temperatures with the same accuracy but with or without the costs of thermoregulation. The quantification of behavioral thermoregulation proves to be an important conceptual and methodological tool for thermal ecology studies not only in terrestrial but also in aquatic ectotherms. PMID:25993482

  15. Comparative phylogeography of two sympatric beeches in subtropical China: Species-specific geographic mosaic of lineages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Rong; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; López-Pujol, Jordi; Fan, Deng-Mei; Li, De-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    In subtropical China, large-scale phylogeographic comparisons among multiple sympatric plants with similar ecological preferences are scarce, making generalizations about common response to historical events necessarily tentative. A phylogeographic comparison of two sympatric Chinese beeches (Fagus lucida and F. longipetiolata, 21 and 28 populations, respectively) was conducted to test whether they have responded to historical events in a concerted fashion and to determine whether their phylogeographic structure is exclusively due to Quaternary events or it is also associated with pre-Quaternary events. Twenty-three haplotypes were recovered for F. lucida and F. longipetiolata (14 each one and five shared). Both species exhibited a species-specific mosaic distribution of haplotypes, with many of them being range-restricted and even private to populations. The two beeches had comparable total haplotype diversity but F. lucida had much higher within-population diversity than F. longipetiolata. Molecular dating showed that the time to most recent common ancestor of all haplotypes was 6.36 Ma, with most haplotypes differentiating during the Quaternary. [Correction added on 14 October 2013, after first online publication: the timeunit has been corrected to '6.36'.] Our results support a late Miocene origin and southwards colonization of Chinese beeches when the aridity in Central Asia intensified and the monsoon climate began to dominate the East Asia. During the Quaternary, long-term isolation in subtropical mountains of China coupled with limited gene flow would have lead to the current species-specific mosaic distribution of lineages. PMID:24340187

  16. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    PubMed Central

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km); (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area. PMID:27725734

  17. Sympatric metabolic diversification of experimentally evolved Escherichia coli in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Puentes-Téllez, Pilar Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Sympatric diversification in bacteria has been found to contravene initial evolutionary theories affirming the selection of the fittest type by competition for the same resource. Studies in unstructured (well-mixed) environments have discovered divergence of an ancestor strain into genomically and phenotypically divergent types growing both on single and mixed energy sources. This study addresses the metabolic diversification in an Escherichia coli population that evolved over ~1,000 generations under aerobic conditions in the nutritional complexity offered by Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. The medium lacked glucose but contained a variety of other resources. Two distinct metabolically-diverged types, coinciding with colony morphologies, were found to dominate the populations. One type was an avid carbohydrate consumer, which could quickly utilize the available (alternative) substrates feeding into glycolysis. The second type was a slow grower, which was able to specifically consume acetate. The capacity to utilize acetate might be providing an advantage to this second type, suggesting an increased capability to deal with adverse conditions that occur in the later stages of growth. The diverged metabolic preferences of the two forms suggested differential and interactive ecological roles within the population. We postulate that these types used different alternative metabolic strategies occupying different niches in a sympatric manner as an outcome of adaptation to the complex environment. PMID:25008542

  18. Can Newts Cope with the Heat? Disparate Thermoregulatory Strategies of Two Sympatric Species in Water

    PubMed Central

    Balogová, Monika; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Many ectotherms effectively reduce their exposure to low or high environmental temperatures using behavioral thermoregulation. In terrestrial ectotherms, thermoregulatory strategies range from accurate thermoregulation to thermoconformity according to the costs and limits of thermoregulation, while in aquatic taxa the quantification of behavioral thermoregulation have received limited attention. We examined thermoregulation in two sympatric newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris, exposed to elevated water temperatures under semi-natural conditions. According to a recent theory, we predicted that species for which elevated water temperatures pose a lower thermal quality habitat, would thermoregulate more effectively than species in thermally benign conditions. In the laboratory thermal gradient, L. vulgaris maintained higher body temperatures than I. alpestris. Semi-natural thermal conditions provided better thermal quality of habitat for L. vulgaris than for I. alpestris. Thermoregulatory indices indicated that I. alpestris actively thermoregulated its body temperature, whereas L. vulgaris remained passive to the thermal heterogeneity of aquatic environment. In the face of elevated water temperatures, sympatric newt species employed disparate thermoregulatory strategies according to the species-specific quality of the thermal habitat. Both strategies reduced newt exposure to suboptimal water temperatures with the same accuracy but with or without the costs of thermoregulation. The quantification of behavioral thermoregulation proves to be an important conceptual and methodological tool for thermal ecology studies not only in terrestrial but also in aquatic ectotherms. PMID:25993482

  19. Can newts cope with the heat? Disparate thermoregulatory strategies of two sympatric species in water.

    PubMed

    Balogová, Monika; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2015-01-01

    Many ectotherms effectively reduce their exposure to low or high environmental temperatures using behavioral thermoregulation. In terrestrial ectotherms, thermoregulatory strategies range from accurate thermoregulation to thermoconformity according to the costs and limits of thermoregulation, while in aquatic taxa the quantification of behavioral thermoregulation have received limited attention. We examined thermoregulation in two sympatric newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris, exposed to elevated water temperatures under semi-natural conditions. According to a recent theory, we predicted that species for which elevated water temperatures pose a lower thermal quality habitat, would thermoregulate more effectively than species in thermally benign conditions. In the laboratory thermal gradient, L. vulgaris maintained higher body temperatures than I. alpestris. Semi-natural thermal conditions provided better thermal quality of habitat for L. vulgaris than for I. alpestris. Thermoregulatory indices indicated that I. alpestris actively thermoregulated its body temperature, whereas L. vulgaris remained passive to the thermal heterogeneity of aquatic environment. In the face of elevated water temperatures, sympatric newt species employed disparate thermoregulatory strategies according to the species-specific quality of the thermal habitat. Both strategies reduced newt exposure to suboptimal water temperatures with the same accuracy but with or without the costs of thermoregulation. The quantification of behavioral thermoregulation proves to be an important conceptual and methodological tool for thermal ecology studies not only in terrestrial but also in aquatic ectotherms.

  20. Multidimensional differentiation in foraging resource use during breeding of two sympatric top predators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedemann, Guilad; Leshem, Yossi; Kerem, Lior; Shacham, Boaz; Bar-Massada, Avi; McClain, Krystaal M.; Bohrer, Gil; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-10-01

    Ecologically-similar species were found to develop specific strategies to partition their resources, leading to niche differentiation and divergence, in order to avoid interspecific competition. Our study determines multi-dimensional differentiation of two sympatric top-predators, long-legged buzzards (LLB) and short-toed eagles (STE), which recently became sympatric during their breeding season in the Judean Foothills, Israel. By combining information from comprehensive diet and movement analyses we found four dimensions of differentiation: (1) Geographic foraging area: LLB tended to forage relatively close to their nests (2.35 ± 0.62 km), while STE forage far from their nest (13.03 ± 2.20 km) (2) Foraging-habitat type: LLBs forage at low natural vegetation, avoiding cultivated fields, whereas STEs forage in cultivated fields, avoiding low natural vegetation; (3) Diurnal dynamics of foraging: LLBs are uniformly active during daytime, whereas STEs activity peaks in the early afternoon; and (4) Food-niche: while both species largely rely on reptiles (47.8% and 76.3% for LLB and STE, respectively), LLB had a more diverse diet and consumed significantly higher percentages of lizards, while STE consumed significantly higher percentages of snakes. Our results suggest that this multidimensional differentiation allows the spatial coexistence of these two dense populations in the study area.

  1. Sympatric metabolic diversification of experimentally evolved Escherichia coli in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Puentes-Téllez, Pilar Eliana; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Sympatric diversification in bacteria has been found to contravene initial evolutionary theories affirming the selection of the fittest type by competition for the same resource. Studies in unstructured (well-mixed) environments have discovered divergence of an ancestor strain into genomically and phenotypically divergent types growing both on single and mixed energy sources. This study addresses the metabolic diversification in an Escherichia coli population that evolved over ~1,000 generations under aerobic conditions in the nutritional complexity offered by Luria-Bertani (LB) broth. The medium lacked glucose but contained a variety of other resources. Two distinct metabolically-diverged types, coinciding with colony morphologies, were found to dominate the populations. One type was an avid carbohydrate consumer, which could quickly utilize the available (alternative) substrates feeding into glycolysis. The second type was a slow grower, which was able to specifically consume acetate. The capacity to utilize acetate might be providing an advantage to this second type, suggesting an increased capability to deal with adverse conditions that occur in the later stages of growth. The diverged metabolic preferences of the two forms suggested differential and interactive ecological roles within the population. We postulate that these types used different alternative metabolic strategies occupying different niches in a sympatric manner as an outcome of adaptation to the complex environment.

  2. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents.

    PubMed

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-05-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents.

  3. DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric vs sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, C M; De Barba, M; Boyer, F; Mercier, C; da Silva Filho, P J S; Heidtmann, L M; Galiano, D; Kubiak, B B; Langone, P; Garcias, F M; Gielly, L; Coissac, E; de Freitas, T R O; Taberlet, P

    2015-01-01

    Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented by Poaceae, Araliaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae, were identified in the diet of C. minutus. For C. flamarioni, 10 families were recovered, with a predominance of Poaceae, Araliaceae and Asteraceae. A significant correlation between diet composition and geographical distance was detected in C. minutus, whereas the diet of C. flamarioni was quite homogeneous throughout its geographical distribution. No significant differences were observed between males and females of each species. However, differences in diet composition between species were evident according to multivariate analysis. Our results suggest some level of diet partitioning between C. flamarioni and C. minutus in the sympatric region. While the first species is more specialized on few plant items, the second showed a more varied and heterogeneous diet pattern among individuals. These differences might have been developed to avoid competition in the region of co-occurrence. Resource availability in the environment also seems to influence food choices. Our data indicate that C. minutus and C. flamarioni are generalist species, but that some preference for Poaceae, Asteraceae and Araliaceae families can be suggested for both rodents. PMID:25649502

  4. Hybridization, natural selection, and evolution of reproductive isolation: a 25-years survey of an artificial sympatric area between two mosquito sibling species of the Aedes mariae complex.

    PubMed

    Urbanelli, Sandra; Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Bellini, Romeo; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Romoli, Riccardo; Crasta, Graziano; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Natural selection can act against maladaptive hybridization between co-occurring divergent populations leading to evolution of reproductive isolation among them. A critical unanswered question about this process that provides a basis for the theory of speciation by reinforcement, is whether natural selection can cause hybridization rates to evolve to zero. Here, we investigated this issue in two sibling mosquitoes species, Aedes mariae and Aedes zammitii, that show postmating reproductive isolation (F1 males sterile) and partial premating isolation (different height of mating swarms) that could be reinforced by natural selection against hybridization. In 1986, we created an artificial sympatric area between the two species and sampled about 20,000 individuals over the following 25 years. Between 1986 and 2011, the composition of mating swarms and the hybridization rate between the two species were investigated across time in the sympatric area. Our results showed that A. mariae and A. zammitii have not completed reproductive isolation since their first contact in the artificial sympatric area. We have discussed the relative role of factors such as time of contact, gene flow, strength of natural selection, and biological mechanisms causing prezygotic isolation to explain the observed results.

  5. Role of demographic stochasticity in a speciation model with sexual reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuerza, Luis F.; McKane, Alan J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that demographic stochasticity can greatly increase the tendency of asexually reproducing phenotypically diverse organisms to spontaneously evolve into localized clusters, suggesting a simple mechanism for sympatric speciation. Here we study the role of demographic stochasticity in a model of competing organisms subject to assortative mating. We find that in models with sexual reproduction, noise can also lead to the formation of phenotypic clusters in parameter ranges where deterministic models would lead to a homogeneous distribution. In some cases, noise can have a sizable effect, rendering the deterministic modeling insufficient to understand the phenotypic distribution.

  6. ORGANIC SPECIATION SAMPLING ARTIFACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling artifacts for molecular markers from organic speciation of particulate matter were investigated by analyzing forty-one samples collected in Philadelphia as a part of the Northeast Oxidant and Particulate Study (NEOPS). Samples were collected using a high volume sampler ...

  7. Speciation in birds: Genes, geography, and sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Scott V.; Kingan, Sarah B.; Calkins, Jennifer D.; Balakrishnan, Christopher N.; Jennings, W. Bryan; Swanson, Willie J.; Sorenson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Molecular studies of speciation in birds over the last three decades have been dominated by a focus on the geography, ecology, and timing of speciation, a tradition traceable to Mayr's Systematics and the Origin of Species. However, in the recent years, interest in the behavioral and molecular mechanisms of speciation in birds has increased, building in part on the older traditions and observations from domesticated species. The result is that many of the same mechanisms proffered for model lineages such as Drosophila—mechanisms such as genetic incompatibilities, reinforcement, and sexual selection—are now being seriously entertained for birds, albeit with much lower resolution. The recent completion of a draft sequence of the chicken genome, and an abundance of single-nucleotide polymorphisms on the autosomes and sex chromosomes, will dramatically accelerate research on the molecular mechanisms of avian speciation over the next few years. The challenge for ornithologists is now to inform well studied examples of speciation in nature with increased molecular resolution—to clone speciation genes if they exist—and thereby evaluate the relative roles of extrinsic, intrinsic, deterministic, and stochastic causes for avian diversification. PMID:15851678

  8. Interaction between Digestive Strategy and Niche Specialization Predicts Speciation Rates across Herbivorous Mammals.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lucy A P

    2016-04-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors often are treated as mutually exclusive drivers of diversification processes. In this framework, ecological specialists are expected to have higher speciation rates than generalists if abiotic factors are the primary controls on species diversity but lower rates if biotic interactions are more important. Speciation rate is therefore predicted to positively correlate with ecological specialization in the purely abiotic model but negatively correlate in the biotic model. In this study, I show that the positive relationship between ecological specialization and speciation expected from the purely abiotic model is recovered only when a species-specific trait, digestive strategy, is modeled in the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals (Mammalia). This result suggests a more nuanced model in which the response of specialized lineages to abiotic factors is dependent on a biological trait. I also demonstrate that the effect of digestive strategy on the ecological specialization-speciation rate relationship is not due to a difference in either the degree of ecological specialization or the speciation rate between foregut- and hindgut-fermenting mammals. Together, these findings suggest that a biological trait, alongside historical abiotic events, played an important role in shaping mammal speciation at long temporal and large geographic scales.

  9. Responses of sympatric Karenia brevis, Prorocentrum minimum, and Heterosigma akashiwo to the exposure of crude oil.

    PubMed

    Ozhan, Koray; Bargu, Sibel

    2014-10-01

    Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on phytoplankton, particularly, the tolerability and changes to the toxin profiles of harmful toxic algal species remain unknown. The degree to which oil-affected sympatric Karenia brevis, Prorocentrum minimum, and Heterosigma akashiwo, all of which are ecologically important species in the Gulf of Mexico, was investigated. Comparison of their tolerability to that of non-toxic species showed that the toxin-production potential of harmful species does not provide a selective advantage. Investigated toxin profiles for K. brevis and P. minimum demonstrated an increase in toxin productivity at the lowest crude oil concentration (0.66 mg L(-1)) tested in this study. Higher crude oil concentrations led to significant growth inhibition and a decrease in toxin production. Findings from this study could assist in the assessment of shellfish bed closures due to high risk of increased toxin potential of these phytoplankton species, especially during times of stressed conditions. PMID:25009015

  10. [Prey selection by tiger frog larvae (Hoplobatrachus chinensis) of two sympatric anuran species' tadpoles].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Lin, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Ren-You; Chen, Shi-Tong

    2013-06-01

    We examined the prey selection and behavioral responses of tiger frog Hoplobatrachus chinensis larvae exposed to unpalatable and palatable sympatric prey tadpoles, Bufo melanostictus and Pelophylax nigromaculatus. We found that after a short exposure to the toxic toad tadpoles B. melanostictus, predators may learn to decrease going after unpalatable prey, subsequently it seems they may express short-term behavioral memory in order to avoid the toxic prey. In general, H. chinensis showed no preference for either any of the two prey species, which may be the result of P. nigromaculatus using behavioral performance and chemical defense as antipredatation strategies. These results facilitate further investigation of other aspects of the behavioral ecology of these three anuran species and hint at some potentially interesting possibilities of memory in choice of prey which may suggest further study.

  11. Pollen competition as a unilateral reproductive barrier between sympatric diploid and tetraploid Chamerion angustifolium.

    PubMed

    Husband, Brian C; Schemske, Douglas W; Burton, Tracy L; Goodwillie, Carol

    2002-12-22

    Speciation requires the evolution of barriers to gene exchange between descendant and progenitor populations. Cryptic reproductive barriers in plants arise after pollination but before fertilization as a result of pollen competition and interactions between male gametophytes and female reproductive tissues. We tested for such gametic isolation between the polyploid Chamerion angustifolium and its diploid progenitor by conducting single (diploid or tetraploid) and mixed ploidy (1 : 1 diploid and tetraploid) pollinations on both cytotypes and inferring siring success from paternity analysis and pollen-tube counts. In mixed pollinations, polyploids sired most (79%) of their own seeds as well as those of diploids (61%) (correcting for triploid block, siring success was 70% and 83%, respectively). In single donor pollinations, pollen tubes from tetraploids were more numerous than those from diploids at four different positions in each style and for both diploid and tetraploid pollen recipients. The lack of a pollen donor x recipient interaction indicates that the tetraploid siring advantage is a result of pollen competition rather than pollen-pistil interactions. Such unilateral pollen precedence results in an asymmetrical pattern of isolation, with tetraploids experiencing less gene flow than diploids. It also enhances tetraploid establishment in sympatric populations, by maximizing tetraploid success and simultaneously diminishing that of diploids through the production of inviable triploid offspring. PMID:12573071

  12. Speciation within Columnea section Angustiflora (Gesneriaceae): islands, pollinators and climate.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Lacie J; Clark, John L; Novak, Stephen J; Jeffries, Shandra K; Smith, James F

    2015-03-01

    Despite many advances in evolutionary biology, understanding the proximate mechanisms that lead to speciation for many taxonomic groups remains elusive. Phylogenetic analyses provide a means to generate well-supported estimates of species relationships. Understanding how genetic isolation (restricted gene flow) occurred in the past requires not only a well-supported molecular phylogenetic analysis, but also an understanding of when character states that define species may have changed. In this study, phylogenetic trees resolve species level relationships for fourteen of the fifteen species within Columnea section Angustiflorae (Gesneriaceae). The distributions of sister species pairs are compared and ancestral character states are reconstructed using Bayesian stochastic mapping. Climate variables were also assessed and shifts in ancestral climate conditions were mapped using SEEVA. The relationships between morphological character states and climate variables were assessed with correlation analyses. These results indicate that species in section Angustiflorae have likely diverged as a result of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation, with both biotic and abiotic forces driving morphological and phenological divergence. PMID:25582068

  13. Ecological barriers to gene flow between riparian and forest species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Mitsui, Yuki; Nomura, Naofumi; Isagi, Yuji; Tobe, Hiroshi; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the role of habitat-associated adaptation in reducing gene flow resulting in population differentiation and speciation is a major issue in evolutionary biology. We demonstrate a significant role for habitat divergence in species isolation between two naturally hybridizing riparian and nonriparian plants, Ainsliaea faurieana and A. apiculata (Asteraceae), on Yakushima Island, Japan. By analyzing the fine-scale population structure at six sympatric sites, we found that variations in leaf shape, geography, light conditions, and genotype were strongly correlated across riverbank-forest transitions. No evidence of effective gene flow was found between the two species across the majority of the transition zones, although the NewHybrid clustering analysis confirmed interspecific hybridization. However, a relatively high level of gene flow was observed across one zone with a more diffuse ecotone and intermediate flooding and light conditions, possibly generated by human disturbances. These results suggest that the barriers to gene flow between the riparian and forest species are primarily ecological. Additional common garden experiments indicated that the two species are adaptively differentiated to contrasting flooding and light environments. Overall, our study suggests that adaptations to different habitats can lead to the formation of reproductive isolating barriers and the maintenance of distinct species boundaries.

  14. The evolutionary genetics of speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J A; Orr, H A

    1998-01-01

    The last decade has brought renewed interest in the genetics of speciation, yielding a number of new models and empirical results. Defining speciation as 'the origin of reproductive isolation between two taxa', we review recent theoretical studies and relevant data, emphasizing the regular patterns seen among genetic analyses. Finally, we point out some important and tractable questions about speciation that have been neglected. PMID:9533126

  15. Arsenic Speciation in Groundwater: Role of Thioanions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavior of arsenic in groundwater environments is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Understanding arsenic speciation is important because chemical speciation impacts reactivity, bioavailability, toxicity, and transport and fate processes. In aerobic environments arsen...

  16. Accelerated Diversification of Nonhuman Primate Malarias in Southeast Asia: Adaptive Radiation or Geographic Speciation?

    PubMed Central

    Muehlenbein, Michael P.; Pacheco, M. Andreína; Taylor, Jesse E.; Prall, Sean P.; Ambu, Laurentius; Nathan, Senthilvel; Alsisto, Sylvia; Ramirez, Diana; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2015-01-01

    Although parasitic organisms are found worldwide, the relative importance of host specificity and geographic isolation for parasite speciation has been explored in only a few systems. Here, we study Plasmodium parasites known to infect Asian nonhuman primates, a monophyletic group that includes the lineage leading to the human parasite Plasmodium vivax and several species used as laboratory models in malaria research. We analyze the available data together with new samples from three sympatric primate species from Borneo: The Bornean orangutan and the long-tailed and the pig-tailed macaques. We find several species of malaria parasites, including three putatively new species in this biodiversity hotspot. Among those newly discovered lineages, we report two sympatric parasites in orangutans. We find no differences in the sets of malaria species infecting each macaque species indicating that these species show no host specificity. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of these data suggests that the malaria parasites infecting Southeast Asian macaques and their relatives are speciating three to four times more rapidly than those with other mammalian hosts such as lemurs and African apes. We estimate that these events took place in approximately a 3–4-Ma period. Based on the genetic and phenotypic diversity of the macaque malarias, we hypothesize that the diversification of this group of parasites has been facilitated by the diversity, geographic distributions, and demographic histories of their primate hosts. PMID:25389206

  17. SPECIATE--EPA'S DATABASE OF SPECIATED EMISSION PROFILES

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is EPA's repository of Total Organic Compound and Particulate Matter speciated profiles for a wide variety of sources. The profiles in this system are provided for air quality dispersion modeling and as a library for source-receptor and source apportionment type models. ...

  18. Reproductive character displacement and speciation in periodical cicadas, with description of new species, 13-year Magicicada neotredecem.

    PubMed

    Marshall, D C; Cooley, J R

    2000-08-01

    Acoustic mate-attracting signals of related sympatric, synchronic species are always distinguishable, but those of related allopatric species sometimes are not, thus suggesting that such signals may evolve to "reinforce" premating species isolation when similar species become sympatric. This hypothesis predicts divergences restricted to regions of sympatry in partially overlapping species, but such "reproductive character displacement" has rarely been confirmed. We report such a case in the acoustic signals of a previously unrecognized 13-year periodical cicada species, Magicicada neotredecim, described here as a new species (see Appendix). Where M. neotredecim overlaps M. tredecim in the central United States, the dominant male call pitch (frequency) of M. neotredecim increases from approximately 1.4 kHz to 1.7 kHz, whereas that of M. tredecim remains comparatively stable. The average preferences of female M. neotredecim for call pitch show a similar geographic pattern, changing with the call pitch of conspecific males. Magicicada neotredecim differs from 13-year M. tredecim in abdomen coloration, mitochondrial DNA, and call pitch, but is not consistently distinguishable from 17-year M. septendecim; thus, like other Magicicada species, M. neotredecim appears most closely related to a geographically adjacent counterpart with the alternative life cycle. Speciation in Magicicada may be facilitated by life-cycle changes that create temporal isolation, and reinforcement could play a role by fostering divergence in premating signals prior to speciation. We present two theories of Magicicada speciation by life-cycle evolution: "nurse-brood facilitation" and "life-cycle canalization."

  19. Speciation with gene flow on Lord Howe Island

    PubMed Central

    Papadopulos, Alexander S. T.; Baker, William J.; Crayn, Darren; Butlin, Roger K.; Kynast, Ralf G.; Hutton, Ian; Savolainen, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the processes underlying the origin of species is a fundamental goal of biology. It is widely accepted that speciation requires an interruption of gene flow between populations: ongoing gene exchange is considered a major hindrance to population divergence and, ultimately, to the evolution of new species. Where a geographic barrier to reproductive isolation is lacking, a biological mechanism for speciation is required to counterbalance the homogenizing effect of gene flow. Speciation with initially strong gene flow is thought to be extremely rare, and few convincing empirical examples have been published. However, using phylogenetic, karyological, and ecological data for the flora of a minute oceanic island (Lord Howe Island, LHI), we demonstrate that speciation with gene flow may, in fact, be frequent in some instances and could account for one in five of the endemic plant species of LHI. We present 11 potential instances of species divergence with gene flow, including an in situ radiation of five species of Coprosma (Rubiaceae, the coffee family). These results, together with the speciation of Howea palms on LHI, challenge current views on the origin of species diversity. PMID:21730151

  20. Speciation in granitic melts

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, C.W.; Nekvasil, H.

    1985-01-01

    Refinement of the cryoscopic equations for the major granitic melt components, NaAlSi/sub 3/O/sub 8/(ab), CaAl/sub 2/O/sub 8/(an), KAlSi/sub 3/O/sub 8/(or), and Si/sub 4/O/sub 8/(qz), has led to the recognition of several major speciation reactions in anhydrous and hydrous melts of the system Ab-An-Or-Qz-H/sub 2/O. These reactions involve either dissociation of the feldspar-like components, as in incongruent melting, or interaction between them and qz. In all cases of interaction, one of the speciation products has the stoichiometry of dpy or py (pyrophyllite) (Al/sub 1.455/Si/sub 2.91/O/sub 8/ +/- 0.73H/sub 2/O), in which Al is presumed to be in either fivefold (dpy) or sixfold (py) coordination. The py component also is a major product of speciation by interaction between sil (Al/sub 3.2/Si/sub 1.6/O/sub 8/) and qz in peraluminous melts of the system Ab-Or-Qz-Sil-H/sub 2/O; as a consequence, the quartz liquidus field boundary is shifted to lower temperatures and toward qz. There is no evidence in peraluminous haplogranite melts for the existence of a muscovite-like species. Application of the refined thermodynamic model to the system Ab-Qz-Eu - H/sub 2/O at 2.0 kbar predicts the occurrence of a eu and qz-consuming reaction that produces a petalite-like species and a consequent dramatic shift in liquidus field boundaries. Higher pressures favor conversion of pe to qz + sp. In the spodumene-like species, sp, Al presumably is six-coordinated.

  1. Speciation and introgression between Mimulus nasutus and Mimulus guttatus.

    PubMed

    Brandvain, Yaniv; Kenney, Amanda M; Flagel, Lex; Coop, Graham; Sweigart, Andrea L

    2014-06-01

    Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus are an evolutionary and ecological model sister species pair differentiated by ecology, mating system, and partial reproductive isolation. Despite extensive research on this system, the history of divergence and differentiation in this sister pair is unclear. We present and analyze a population genomic data set which shows that M. nasutus budded from a central Californian M. guttatus population within the last 200 to 500 thousand years. In this time, the M. nasutus genome has accrued genomic signatures of the transition to predominant selfing, including an elevated proportion of nonsynonymous variants, an accumulation of premature stop codons, and extended levels of linkage disequilibrium. Despite clear biological differentiation, we document genomic signatures of ongoing, bidirectional introgression. We observe a negative relationship between the recombination rate and divergence between M. nasutus and sympatric M. guttatus samples, suggesting that selection acts against M. nasutus ancestry in M. guttatus. PMID:24967630

  2. Speciation and Introgression between Mimulus nasutus and Mimulus guttatus

    PubMed Central

    Flagel, Lex; Coop, Graham; Sweigart, Andrea L.

    2014-01-01

    Mimulus guttatus and M. nasutus are an evolutionary and ecological model sister species pair differentiated by ecology, mating system, and partial reproductive isolation. Despite extensive research on this system, the history of divergence and differentiation in this sister pair is unclear. We present and analyze a population genomic data set which shows that M. nasutus budded from a central Californian M. guttatus population within the last 200 to 500 thousand years. In this time, the M. nasutus genome has accrued genomic signatures of the transition to predominant selfing, including an elevated proportion of nonsynonymous variants, an accumulation of premature stop codons, and extended levels of linkage disequilibrium. Despite clear biological differentiation, we document genomic signatures of ongoing, bidirectional introgression. We observe a negative relationship between the recombination rate and divergence between M. nasutus and sympatric M. guttatus samples, suggesting that selection acts against M. nasutus ancestry in M. guttatus. PMID:24967630

  3. The drivers of tropical speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; McCormack, John E; Cuervo, Andrés M; Hickerson, Michael J; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Burney, Curtis W; Xie, Xiaoou; Harvey, Michael G; Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Prejean, Jesse; Fields, Samantha; Brumfield, Robb T

    2014-11-20

    Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological diversification. This process is referred to in biogeography as vicariance. In the most species-rich region of the world, the Neotropics, the sundering of populations associated with the Andean uplift is ascribed this principal role in speciation. An alternative model posits that rather than being directly linked to landscape change, allopatric speciation is initiated to a greater extent by dispersal events, with the principal drivers of speciation being organism-specific abilities to persist and disperse in the landscape. Landscape change is not a necessity for speciation in this model. Here we show that spatial and temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in Neotropical birds are highly discordant across lineages and are not reconcilable with a model linking speciation solely to landscape change. Instead, the strongest predictors of speciation are the amount of time a lineage has persisted in the landscape and the ability of birds to move through the landscape matrix. These results, augmented by the observation that most species-level diversity originated after episodes of major Andean uplift in the Neogene period, suggest that dispersal and differentiation on a matrix previously shaped by large-scale landscape events was a major driver of avian speciation in lowland Neotropical rainforests.

  4. The drivers of tropical speciation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian Tilston; McCormack, John E; Cuervo, Andrés M; Hickerson, Michael J; Aleixo, Alexandre; Cadena, Carlos Daniel; Pérez-Emán, Jorge; Burney, Curtis W; Xie, Xiaoou; Harvey, Michael G; Faircloth, Brant C; Glenn, Travis C; Derryberry, Elizabeth P; Prejean, Jesse; Fields, Samantha; Brumfield, Robb T

    2014-11-20

    Since the recognition that allopatric speciation can be induced by large-scale reconfigurations of the landscape that isolate formerly continuous populations, such as the separation of continents by plate tectonics, the uplift of mountains or the formation of large rivers, landscape change has been viewed as a primary driver of biological diversification. This process is referred to in biogeography as vicariance. In the most species-rich region of the world, the Neotropics, the sundering of populations associated with the Andean uplift is ascribed this principal role in speciation. An alternative model posits that rather than being directly linked to landscape change, allopatric speciation is initiated to a greater extent by dispersal events, with the principal drivers of speciation being organism-specific abilities to persist and disperse in the landscape. Landscape change is not a necessity for speciation in this model. Here we show that spatial and temporal patterns of genetic differentiation in Neotropical birds are highly discordant across lineages and are not reconcilable with a model linking speciation solely to landscape change. Instead, the strongest predictors of speciation are the amount of time a lineage has persisted in the landscape and the ability of birds to move through the landscape matrix. These results, augmented by the observation that most species-level diversity originated after episodes of major Andean uplift in the Neogene period, suggest that dispersal and differentiation on a matrix previously shaped by large-scale landscape events was a major driver of avian speciation in lowland Neotropical rainforests. PMID:25209666

  5. Darwin's finches and their diet niches: the sympatric coexistence of imperfect generalists.

    PubMed

    De León, L F; Podos, J; Gardezi, T; Herrel, A; Hendry, A P

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive radiation can be strongly influenced by interspecific competition for resources, which can lead to diverse outcomes ranging from competitive exclusion to character displacement. In each case, sympatric species are expected to evolve into distinct ecological niches, such as different food types, yet this expectation is not always met when such species are examined in nature. The most common hypotheses to account for the coexistence of species with substantial diet overlap rest on temporal variation in niches (often diets). Yet spatial variation in niche overlap might also be important, pointing to the need for spatiotemporal analyses of diet and diet overlap between closely related species persisting in sympatry. We here perform such an analysis by characterizing the diets of, and diet overlap among, four sympatric Darwin's ground finch species at three sites and over 5 years on a single Galápagos island (Santa Cruz). We find that the different species have broadly similar and overlapping diets - they are to some extent generalists and opportunists - yet we also find that each species retains some 'private' resources for which their morphologies are best suited. Importantly, use of these private resources increased considerably, and diet overlap decreased accordingly, when the availability of preferred shared foods, such as arthropods, was reduced during drought conditions. Spatial variation in food resources was also important. These results together suggest that the ground finches are 'imperfect generalists' that use overlapping resources under benign conditions (in space or time), but then retreat to resources for which they are best adapted during periods of food limitation. These conditions likely promote local and regional coexistence. PMID:24750315

  6. Dietary response of sympatric deer to fire using stable isotope analysis of liver tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, W. David; Zimmerman, T.J.; Leslie, David M.; Jenks, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Carbon (??13C) and nitrogen (??15N) isotopes in biological samples from large herbivores identify photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4) of plants they consumed and can elucidate potential nutritional characteristics of dietary selection. Because large herbivores consume a diversity of forage types, ??13C and ??15N in their tissue can index ingested and assimilated diets through time. We assessed ??13C and ??15N in metabolically active liver tissue of sympatric mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and white-tailed deer (O. virginianus) to identify dietary disparity resulting from use of burned and unburned areas in a largely forested landscape. Interspecific variation in dietary disparity of deer was documented 2-3 years post-fire in response to lag-time effects of vegetative response to burning and seasonal (i.e., summer, winter) differences in forage type. Liver ??13C for mule deer were lower during winter and higher during summer 2 years post-fire on burned habitat compared to unburned habitat suggesting different forages were consumed by mule deer in response to fire. Liver ??15N for both species were higher on burned than unburned habitat during winter and summer suggesting deer consumed more nutritious forage on burned habitat during both seasons 2 and 3 years post-fire. Unlike traditional methods of dietary assessment that do not measure uptake of carbon and nitrogen from dietary components, analyses of stable isotopes in liver or similar tissue elucidated ??13C and ??15N assimilation from seasonal dietary components and resulting differences in the foraging ecology of sympatric species in response to fire.

  7. Pollination, breeding system, and genetic structure in two sympatric Delphinium (Ranunculaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Williams, C F; Ruvinsky, J; Scott, P E; Hews, D K

    2001-09-01

    Two sympatric Delphinium species, D. barbeyi and D. nuttallianum, are ecologically and morphologically similar. However, D. barbeyi has multiple, large inflorescences while D. nuttallianum has a single, small inflorescence. These differences in floral display should result in greater intraplant pollen transfer in D. barbeyi, leading to higher rates of self-pollination through geitonogamy. Reduced gene flow by pollen should in turn produce greater population differentiation among populations of D. barbeyi relative to D. nuttallianum. We tested these predictions by comparing pollinator behavior, breeding systems, outcrossing rates, and population genetic structure of sympatric populations of the two species in Colorado. Bumble bee and hummingbird pollinators visit more flowers and inflorescences per foraging bout in D. barbeyi than in D. nuttallianum. The species differed in breeding system; D. barbeyi produced more seeds by autogamy (9 vs. 2%) than D. nuttallianum and suffered no reduction in seed set in hand-self vs. outcross pollinations, in contrast to a 41% decline in D. nuttallianum. The outcrossing rate in one D. barbeyi population was 55%, but ranged from 87 to 97% in four D. nuttallianum populations. Genetic differentiation among population subdivisions estimated by hierarchical F statistics was >10 times greater in D. barbeyi ( = 0.055-0.126) than D. nuttallianum ( = 0.004-0.009) at spatial scales ranging from metres to 3.5 km. Spatial autocorrelation analysis also indicated more pronounced local genetic structure in D. barbeyi than D. nuttallianum populations. Fixation indices (F(IS)) of D. barbeyi adults were much lower than expected based on mating system equilibrium and suggest that differences in the degree of self-compatibility and/or the timing of postpollination selection/inbreeding depression between the two species further contribute to the genetic differences between them. PMID:21669696

  8. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gero, Shane; Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-06-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide.

  9. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Gero, Shane; Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

    2016-06-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  10. Socially segregated, sympatric sperm whale clans in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bøttcher, Anne; Whitehead, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are unusual in that there is good evidence for sympatric populations with distinct culturally determined behaviour, including potential acoustic markers of the population division. In the Pacific, socially segregated, vocal clans with distinct dialects coexist; by contrast, geographical variation in vocal repertoire in the Atlantic has been attributed to drift. We examine networks of acoustic repertoire similarity and social interactions for 11 social units in the Eastern Caribbean. We find the presence of two socially segregated, sympatric vocal clans whose dialects differ significantly both in terms of categorical coda types produced by each clan (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.256; p ≤ 0.001) and when using classification-free similarity which ignores defined types (Mantel test between clans: matrix correlation = 0.180; p ≤ 0.001). The more common of the two clans makes a characteristic 1 + 1 + 3 coda, while the other less often sighted clan makes predominantly regular codas. Units were only observed associating with other units within their vocal clan. This study demonstrates that sympatric vocal clans do exist in the Atlantic, that they define a higher order level of social organization as they do in the Pacific, and suggests that cultural identity at the clan level is probably important in this species worldwide. PMID:27429766

  11. SPECIATE 4.0: SPECIATION DATABASE DEVELOPMENT DOCUMENTATION--FINAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. EPA's repository of total organic compounds (TOC) and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. This report documents how EPA developed the SPECIATE 4.0 database that replaces the prior version, SPECIATE 3.2. SPECIATE 4.0 includes ...

  12. Sympatric Masticophis flagellum and Coluber constrictor select vertebrate prey at different levels of taxonomy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Mushinsky, H.R.; McCoy, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Masticophis flagellum (Coachwhip) and Coluber constrictor (Eastern Racer) are widespread North American snakes with similar foraging modes and habits. Little is known about the selection of prey by either species, and despite their apparently similar foraging habits, comparative studies of the foraging ecology of sympatric M. flagellum and C. constrictor are lacking. We examined the foraging ecology and prey selection of these actively foraging snakes in xeric, open-canopied Florida scrub habitat by defining prey availability separately for each snake to elucidate mechanisms underlying geographic, temporal, and interspecific variation in predator diets. Nineteen percent of M. flagellum and 28% of C. constrictor contained stomach contents, and most snakes contained only one prey item. Mean relative prey mass for both species was less than 10%. Larger C. constrictor consumed larger prey than small individuals, but this relationship disappeared when prey size was scaled to snake size. Masticophis flagellum was selective at the prey category level, and positively selected lizards and mammals; however, within these categories it consumed prey species in proportion to their availability. In contrast, C. constrictor preyed upon prey categories opportunistically, but was selective with regard to species. Specifically, C. constrictor positively selected Hyla femoralis (Pine Woods Treefrog) and negatively selected Bufo querclcus (Oak Toad), B. terrestris (Southern Toad), and Gastrophryne carolinensis (Eastern Narrowmouth Toad). Thus, despite their similar foraging habits, M. flagellum and C. constrictor select different prey and are selective of prey at different levels of taxonomy. ?? 2008 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  13. Evidence of unique and generalist microbes in distantly related sympatric intertidal marine sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (~81%), Spirochaetes (~7%) and Chloroflexi (~3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges.

  14. Genome-wide evidence for speciation with gene flow in Heliconius butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Simon H.; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K.; Nadeau, Nicola J.; Salazar, Camilo; Walters, James R.; Simpson, Fraser; Blaxter, Mark; Manica, Andrea; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2013-01-01

    Most speciation events probably occur gradually, without complete and immediate reproductive isolation, but the full extent of gene flow between diverging species has rarely been characterized on a genome-wide scale. Documenting the extent and timing of admixture between diverging species can clarify the role of geographic isolation in speciation. Here we use new methodology to quantify admixture at different stages of divergence in Heliconius butterflies, based on whole-genome sequences of 31 individuals. Comparisons between sympatric and allopatric populations of H. melpomene, H. cydno, and H. timareta revealed a genome-wide trend of increased shared variation in sympatry, indicative of pervasive interspecific gene flow. Up to 40% of 100-kb genomic windows clustered by geography rather than by species, demonstrating that a very substantial fraction of the genome has been shared between sympatric species. Analyses of genetic variation shared over different time intervals suggested that admixture between these species has continued since early in speciation. Alleles shared between species during recent time intervals displayed higher levels of linkage disequilibrium than those shared over longer time intervals, suggesting that this admixture took place at multiple points during divergence and is probably ongoing. The signal of admixture was significantly reduced around loci controlling divergent wing patterns, as well as throughout the Z chromosome, consistent with strong selection for Müllerian mimicry and with known Z-linked hybrid incompatibility. Overall these results show that species divergence can occur in the face of persistent and genome-wide admixture over long periods of time. PMID:24045163

  15. Environmental speciation of actinides.

    PubMed

    Maher, Kate; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2013-04-01

    Although minor in abundance in Earth's crust (U, 2-4 ppm; Th, 10-15 ppm) and in seawater (U, 0.003 ppm; Th, 0.0007 ppm), light actinides (Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are important environmental contaminants associated with anthropogenic activities such as the mining and milling of uranium ores, generation of nuclear energy, and storage of legacy waste resulting from the manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. In this review, we discuss the abundance, production, and environmental sources of naturally occurring and some man-made light actinides. As is the case with other environmental contaminants, the solubility, transport properties, bioavailability, and toxicity of actinides are dependent on their speciation (composition, oxidation state, molecular-level structure, and nature of the phase in which the contaminant element or molecule occurs). We review the aqueous speciation of U, Np, and Pu as a function of pH and Eh, their interaction with common inorganic and organic ligands in natural waters, and some of the common U-containing minerals. We also discuss the interaction of U, Np, Pu, and Am solution complexes with common Earth materials, including minerals, colloids, gels, natural organic matter (NOM), and microbial organisms, based on simplified model system studies. These surface interactions can inhibit (e.g., sorption to mineral surfaces, formation of insoluble biominerals) or enhance (e.g., colloid-facilitated transport) the dispersal of light actinides in the biosphere and in some cases (e.g., interaction with dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, NOM, or Mn- and Fe-containing minerals) can modify the oxidation states and, consequently, the behavior of redox-sensitive light actinides (U, Np, and Pu). Finally, we review the speciation of U and Pu, their chemical transformations, and cleanup histories at several U.S. Department of Energy field sites that have been used to mill U ores, produce fissile materials for reactors and weapons, and store

  16. Environmental speciation of actinides.

    PubMed

    Maher, Kate; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2013-04-01

    Although minor in abundance in Earth's crust (U, 2-4 ppm; Th, 10-15 ppm) and in seawater (U, 0.003 ppm; Th, 0.0007 ppm), light actinides (Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu, Am, and Cm) are important environmental contaminants associated with anthropogenic activities such as the mining and milling of uranium ores, generation of nuclear energy, and storage of legacy waste resulting from the manufacturing and testing of nuclear weapons. In this review, we discuss the abundance, production, and environmental sources of naturally occurring and some man-made light actinides. As is the case with other environmental contaminants, the solubility, transport properties, bioavailability, and toxicity of actinides are dependent on their speciation (composition, oxidation state, molecular-level structure, and nature of the phase in which the contaminant element or molecule occurs). We review the aqueous speciation of U, Np, and Pu as a function of pH and Eh, their interaction with common inorganic and organic ligands in natural waters, and some of the common U-containing minerals. We also discuss the interaction of U, Np, Pu, and Am solution complexes with common Earth materials, including minerals, colloids, gels, natural organic matter (NOM), and microbial organisms, based on simplified model system studies. These surface interactions can inhibit (e.g., sorption to mineral surfaces, formation of insoluble biominerals) or enhance (e.g., colloid-facilitated transport) the dispersal of light actinides in the biosphere and in some cases (e.g., interaction with dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria, NOM, or Mn- and Fe-containing minerals) can modify the oxidation states and, consequently, the behavior of redox-sensitive light actinides (U, Np, and Pu). Finally, we review the speciation of U and Pu, their chemical transformations, and cleanup histories at several U.S. Department of Energy field sites that have been used to mill U ores, produce fissile materials for reactors and weapons, and store

  17. Deep sympatric mitochondrial divergence without reproductive isolation in the common redstart Phoenicurus phoenicurus

    PubMed Central

    Hogner, Silje; Laskemoen, Terje; Lifjeld, Jan T; Porkert, Jiri; Kleven, Oddmund; Albayrak, Tamer; Kabasakal, Bekir; Johnsen, Arild

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA usually shows low sequence variation within and high sequence divergence among species, which makes it a useful marker for phylogenetic inference and DNA barcoding. A previous study on the common redstart (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) revealed two very different mtDNA haplogroups (5% K2P distance). This divergence is comparable to that among many sister species; however, both haplogroups coexist and interbreed in Europe today. Herein, we describe the phylogeographic pattern of these lineages and test hypotheses for how such high diversity in mtDNA has evolved. We found no evidence for mitochondrial pseudogenes confirming that both haplotypes are of mitochondrial origin. When testing for possible reproductive barriers, we found no evidence for lineage-specific assortative mating and no difference in sperm morphology, indicating that they are not examples of cryptic species, nor likely to reflect the early stages of speciation. A gene tree based on a short fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 from the common redstart and 10 other Phoenicurus species, showed no introgression from any of the extant congenerics. However, introgression from an extinct congeneric cannot be excluded. Sequences from two nuclear introns did not show a similar differentiation into two distinct groups. Mismatch distributions indicated that the lineages have undergone similar demographic changes. Taken together, these results confirm that deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages can coexist in biological species. Sympatric mtDNA divergences are relatively rare in birds, but the fact that they occur argues against the use of threshold mtDNA divergences in species delineation. PMID:23301165

  18. Pleistocene speciation in the genus Populus (salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Levsen, Nicholas D; Tiffin, Peter; Olson, Matthew S

    2012-05-01

    The macroevolutionary consequences of recent climate change remain controversial, and there is little paleobotanical or morphological evidence that Pleistocene (1.8-0.12 Ma) glacial cycles acted as drivers of speciation, especially among lineages with long generation times, such as trees. We combined genetic and ecogeographic data from 2 closely related North American tree species, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicacaeae), to determine if their divergence coincided with and was possibly caused by Pleistocene climatic events. We analyzed 32 nuclear loci from individuals of P. balsamifera and P. trichocarpa to produce coalescent-based estimates of the divergence time between the 2 species. We coupled the coalescent analyses with paleodistribution models to assess the influence of climate change on species' range. Furthermore, measures of niche overlap were used to investigate patterns of ecological differentiation between species. We estimated the divergence date of P. balsamifera and P. trichocarpa at approximately 75 Ka, which corresponds closely with the onset of Marine Isotope Stage 4 (∼76 Ka) and a rapid increase in global ice volume. Significance tests of niche overlap, in conjunction with genetic estimates of migration, suggested that speciation occurred in allopatry, possibly resulting from the environmental effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles. Our results indicate that the divergence of keystone tree species, which have shaped community diversity in northern North American ecosystems, was recent and may have been a consequence of Pleistocene-era glaciation and climate change.

  19. Pleistocene Speciation in the Genus Populus (Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Levsen, Nicholas D.; Tiffin, Peter; Olson, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    The macroevolutionary consequences of recent climate change remain controversial, and there is little paleobotanical or morphological evidence that Pleistocene (1.8–0.12 Ma) glacial cycles acted as drivers of speciation, especially among lineages with long generation times, such as trees. We combined genetic and ecogeographic data from 2 closely related North American tree species, Populus balsamifera and P. trichocarpa (Salicacaeae), to determine if their divergence coincided with and was possibly caused by Pleistocene climatic events. We analyzed 32 nuclear loci from individuals of P. balsamifera and P. trichocarpa to produce coalescent-based estimates of the divergence time between the 2 species. We coupled the coalescent analyses with paleodistribution models to assess the influence of climate change on species' range. Furthermore, measures of niche overlap were used to investigate patterns of ecological differentiation between species. We estimated the divergence date of P. balsamifera and P. trichocarpa at approximately 75 Ka, which corresponds closely with the onset of Marine Isotope Stage 4 (∼76 Ka) and a rapid increase in global ice volume. Significance tests of niche overlap, in conjunction with genetic estimates of migration, suggested that speciation occurred in allopatry, possibly resulting from the environmental effects of Pleistocene glacial cycles. Our results indicate that the divergence of keystone tree species, which have shaped community diversity in northern North American ecosystems, was recent and may have been a consequence of Pleistocene-era glaciation and climate change. PMID:22213709

  20. Influence of Environment and Mitochondrial Heritage on the Ecological Characteristics of Fish in a Hybrid Zone

    PubMed Central

    Stolzenberg, Nicolas; Nguyen The, Bénédicte; Salducci, Marie Dominique; Cavalli, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    Background Ecological characteristics (growth, morphology, reproduction) arise from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Genetic analysis of individuals' life history traits might be used to improve our understanding of mechanisms that form and maintain a hybrid zone. Methodology/Principal Findings A fish hybrid zone was used to characterize the process of natural selection. Data were collected during two reproductive periods (2001 and 2002) and 1117 individuals (nase, Chondrostama nasus nasus, sofie C. toxostoma toxostoma and hybrids) were sampled. Reproductive dates of the two parental species overlapped at sympatric sites. The nase had an earlier reproductive period than the sofie; males had longer reproductive periods for both species. Hybridisation between female nase and male sofie was the most likely. Hybrids had a reproductive period similar to the inherited parental mitochondrial type. Growth and reproductive information from different environments has been synthesised following a bayesian approach of the von Bertalanffy model. Hybrid life history traits appear to link with maternal heritage. Hybrid size from the age of two and size at first maturity appeared to be closer to the size of the maternal origin species (nase or sofie). Median growth rates for hybrids were similar and intermediate between those of the parental species. We observed variable life history traits for hybrids and pure forms in the different parts of the hybrid zone. Geometrical analysis of the hybrid fish shape gave evidence of two main morphologies with a link to maternal heritage. Conclusions/Significance Selective mating seemed to be the underlying process which, with mitochondrial heritage, could explain the evolution of the studied hybrid zone. More generally, we showed the importance of studies on hybrid zones and specifically the study of individuals' ecological characteristics, to improve our understanding of speciation. PMID:19536286

  1. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  2. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten--Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  3. Spatial Niche Segregation of Sympatric Stone Marten and Pine Marten – Avoidance of Competition or Selection of Optimal Habitat?

    PubMed Central

    Wereszczuk, Anna; Zalewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of ecologically similar species relies on differences in one or more dimensions of their ecological niches, such as space, time and resources in diel and/or seasonal scales. However, niche differentiation may result from other mechanisms such as avoidance of high predation pressure, different adaptations or requirements of ecologically similar species. Stone marten (Martes foina) and pine marten (Martes martes) occur sympatrically over a large area in Central Europe and utilize similar habitats and food, therefore it is expected that their coexistence requires differentiation in at least one of their niche dimensions or the mechanisms through which these dimensions are used. To test this hypothesis, we used differences in the species activity patterns and habitat selection, estimated with a resource selection function (RSF), to predict the relative probability of occurrence of the two species within a large forest complex in the northern geographic range of the stone marten. Stone martens were significantly heavier, have a longer body and a better body condition than pine martens. We found weak evidence for temporal niche segregation between the species. Stone and pine martens were both primarily nocturnal, but pine martens were active more frequently during the day and significantly reduced the duration of activity during autumn-winter. Stone and pine martens utilized different habitats and almost completely separated their habitat niches. Stone marten strongly preferred developed areas and avoided meadows and coniferous or deciduous forests. Pine marten preferred deciduous forest and small patches covered by trees, and avoided developed areas and meadows. We conclude that complete habitat segregation of the two marten species facilitates sympatric coexistence in this area. However, spatial niche segregation between these species was more likely due to differences in adaptation to cold climate, avoidance of high predator pressure and/or food

  4. CORRELATING METAL SPECIATION IN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding bioavailability of metals from exposure to contaminated soils is a challenging aspect of environmental research. This presentation will examine three areas of research with respect to metal speciation in soils as it relates to bioavailability: 1) Pb immobilization a...

  5. Community Genetics Reveal Elevated Levels of Sympatric Gene Flow among Morphologically Similar but Not among Morphologically Dissimilar Species of Lake Victoria Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Konijnendijk, N.; Joyce, D. A.; Mrosso, H. D. J.; Egas, M.; Seehausen, O.

    2011-01-01

    We examined genetic structure among five species of Lake Victoria haplochromine cichlids in four island communities, using a full factorial sampling design that compared genetic differentiation between pairs of species and populations of varying morphological similarity and geographical proximity. We found that allopatric conspecific populations were on average significantly more strongly differentiated than sympatric heterospecific populations of morphologically similar species. Allopatric heterospecific populations of morphologically dissimilar species were most differentiated. Our work demonstrates that phenotypic divergence can be maintained and perhaps even evolve in sympatry despite considerable gene flow between species. Conversely, phenotypic resemblance among conspecific populations can be maintained despite geographical isolation. Additionally we show that anthropogenically increased hybridization does not affect all sympatric species evenly but predominantly affects morphologically similar and closely related species. This has important implications for the evolution of reproductive isolation between species These findings are also consistent with the hypothesis of speciation reversal due to weakening of divergent selection and reproductive isolation as a consequence of habitat homogenization and offers an evolutionary mechanistic explanation for the observation that species poor assemblages in turbid areas of the lake are characterized by just one or two species in each of a few morphologically distinct genera. PMID:22164342

  6. The sympatric occurrence of two genetically divergent lineages of sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis (Phthiraptera: Anoplura), on the four-striped mouse genus, Rhabdomys (Rodentia: Muridae).

    PubMed

    du Toit, Nina; Matthee, Sonja; Matthee, Conrad A

    2013-04-01

    Within southern Africa, the widely distributed four-striped mouse genus (Rhabdomys) is parasitized by, amongst others, the specific ectoparasitic sucking louse, Polyplax arvicanthis. Given the presence of significant geographically structured genetic divergence in Rhabdomys, and the propensity of parasites to harbour cryptic diversity, the molecular systematics of P. arvicanthis was investigated. Representatives of P. arvicanthis were sampled from Rhabdomys at 16 localities throughout southern Africa. Parsimony and Bayesian gene trees were constructed for the mitochondrial COI, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and nuclear CAD genes. Our findings support the existence of 2 genetic groups within P. arvicanthis separated by at least 25% COI sequence divergence, which is comparable to that observed among recognized Polyplax species. We therefore propose that these 2 genetic lineages probably represent distinct species and that the apparent absence of clear morphological differences may point to cryptic speciation. The 2 taxa have sympatric distributions throughout most of the sampled host range and also occasionally occur sympatrically on the same host individual. The co-occurrence of these genetically distinct lineages probably resulted from parasite duplication via host-associated allopatric divergence and subsequent reciprocal range expansions of the 2 parasite taxa throughout southern Africa.

  7. Model inadequacy and mistaken inferences of trait-dependent speciation.

    PubMed

    Rabosky, Daniel L; Goldberg, Emma E

    2015-03-01

    Species richness varies widely across the tree of life, and there is great interest in identifying ecological, geographic, and other factors that affect rates of species proliferation. Recent methods for explicitly modeling the relationships among character states, speciation rates, and extinction rates on phylogenetic trees- BiSSE, QuaSSE, GeoSSE, and related models-have been widely used to test hypotheses about character state-dependent diversification rates. Here, we document the disconcerting ease with which neutral traits are inferred to have statistically significant associations with speciation rate. We first demonstrate this unfortunate effect for a known model assumption violation: shifts in speciation rate associated with a character not included in the model. We further show that for many empirical phylogenies, characters simulated in the absence of state-dependent diversification exhibit an even higher Type I error rate, indicating that the method is susceptible to additional, unknown model inadequacies. For traits that evolve slowly, the root cause appears to be a statistical framework that does not require replicated shifts in character state and diversification. However, spurious associations between character state and speciation rate arise even for traits that lack phylogenetic signal, suggesting that phylogenetic pseudoreplication alone cannot fully explain the problem. The surprising severity of this phenomenon suggests that many trait-diversification relationships reported in the literature may not be real. More generally, we highlight the need for diagnosing and understanding the consequences of model inadequacy in phylogenetic comparative methods. PMID:25601943

  8. The secondary contact phase of allopatric speciation in Darwin's finches

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Peter R.; Grant, B. Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    Speciation, the process by which two species form from one, involves the development of reproductive isolation of two divergent lineages. Here, we report the establishment and persistence of a reproductively isolated population of Darwin's finches on the small Galápagos Island of Daphne Major in the secondary contact phase of speciation. In 1981, an immigrant medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis) arrived on the island. It was unusually large, especially in beak width, sang an unusual song, and carried some Geospiza scandens alleles. We followed the fate of this individual and its descendants for seven generations over a period of 28 years. In the fourth generation, after a severe drought, the lineage was reduced to a single brother and sister, who bred with each other. From then on this lineage, inheriting unusual song, morphology, and a uniquely homozygous marker allele, was reproductively isolated, because their own descendants bred with each other and with no other member of the resident G. fortis population. These observations agree with some expectations of an ecological theory of speciation in that a barrier to interbreeding arises as a correlated effect of adaptive divergence in morphology. However, the important, culturally transmitted, song component of the barrier appears to have arisen by chance through an initial imperfect copying of local song by the immigrant. The study reveals additional stochastic elements of speciation, in which divergence is initiated in allopatry; immigration to a new area of a single male hybrid and initial breeding with a rare hybrid female. PMID:19918081

  9. Sexual conflict and speciation.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G A; Partridge, L

    1998-01-01

    We review the significance of two forms of sexual conflict (different evolutionary interests of the two sexes) for genetic differentiation of populations and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Conflicting selection on the alleles at a single locus can occur in males and females if the sexes have different optima for a trait, and there are pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes for it. There will then be selection for sex limitation and hence sexual dimorphism. This sex limitation could break down in hybrids and reduce their fitness. Pleiotropic genetic correlations between the sexes could also affect the likelihood of mating in interpopulation encounters. Conflict can also occur between (sex-limited) loci that determine behaviour in males and those that determine behaviour in females. Reproductive isolation may occur by rapid coevolution of male trait and female mating preference. This would tend to generate assortative mating on secondary contact, hence promoting speciation. Sexual conflict resulting from sensory exploitation, polyspermy and the cost of mating could result in high levels of interpopulation mating. If females evolve resistance to make pre- and postmating manipulation, males from one population could be more successful with females from the other, because females would have evolved resistance to their own (but not to the allopatric) males. Between-locus sexual conflict could also occur as a result of conflict between males and females of different populations over the production of unfit hybrids. We develop models which show that females are in general selected to resist such matings and males to persist, and this could have a bearing on both the initial level of interpopulation matings and the likelihood that reinforcement will occur. In effect, selection on males usually acts to promote gene flow and to restrict premating isolation, whereas selection on females usually acts in the reverse direction. We review theoretical models

  10. Coevolution is linked with phenotypic diversification but not speciation in avian brood parasites.

    PubMed

    Medina, Iliana; Langmore, Naomi E

    2015-12-22

    Coevolution is often invoked as an engine of biological diversity. Avian brood parasites and their hosts provide one of the best-known examples of coevolution. Brood parasites lay their eggs in the nests of other species, selecting for host defences and reciprocal counteradaptations in parasites. In theory, this arms race should promote increased rates of speciation and phenotypic evolution. Here, we use recently developed methods to test whether the three largest avian brood parasitic lineages show changes in rates of phenotypic diversity and speciation relative to non-parasitic lineages. Our results challenge the accepted paradigm, and show that there is little consistent evidence that lineages of brood parasites have higher speciation or extinction rates than non-parasitic species. However, we provide the first evidence that the evolution of brood parasitic behaviour may affect rates of evolution in morphological traits associated with parasitism. Specifically, egg size and the colour and pattern of plumage have evolved up to nine times faster in parasitic than in non-parasitic cuckoos. Moreover, cuckoo clades of parasitic species that are sympatric (and share similar host genera) exhibit higher rates of phenotypic evolution. This supports the idea that competition for hosts may be linked to the high phenotypic diversity found in parasitic cuckoos. PMID:26702044

  11. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes.

  12. Phylogeny and evolution of the Sulidae (Aves:Pelecaniformes): a test of alternative modes of speciation.

    PubMed

    Friesen, V L; Anderson, D J

    1997-04-01

    Although the allopatric model of speciation is widely accepted, it does not provide a satisfactory explanation for many evolutionary phenomena. Several alternative models exist, but they remain largely untested for vertebrate animals. In the present paper, a molecular phylogeny was used to test competing models of speciation in a seabird family, the Sulidae. A segment including 807 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was sequenced from all extant sulid species, and phylogenetic methods were used to test model-specific predictions regarding tree topologies, distributions of sister taxa, timing of vicariant events, and comparative biology. Both the neighbor-joining and parsimony analyses placed sequences of gannets (Morus spp.) and boobies of the genus Sula in separate, monophyletic lineages. Sequences of Cape (M. capensis) and Australasian (M. serrator) gannets clustered together, and the sequence of Abbott's booby (Papasula abbotti) was basal to those of the gannets. Sequences of blue-footed (S. nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies were sisters and formed a monophyletic group with the masked booby (S. dactylatra). The red-footed booby (S. sula) sequence was the most divergent of the Sula boobies. All relationships received strong support from standard-error tests and bootstrap analysis. Substitution rates were similar to those suggested for mammals and suggested that most lineages arose within the last 3 million years. Lineage divergence events for which the mode of speciation could be deduced did not fit the predictions of either allopatric or sympatric models, but apparently involved either peripatric or parapatric processes. PMID:9126567

  13. Explosive speciation in the New World Dendroica warblers

    PubMed Central

    Lovette, I. J.; Bermingham, E.

    1999-01-01

    The 27 species of Dendroica wood-warblers represent North America's most spectacular avian adaptive radiation. Dendroica species exhibit high levels of local sympatry and differ in plumage and song, but the group contrasts with other well-known avian adaptive radiations such as the Hawaiian honeycreepers and Galapagos finches in that Dendroica species have differentiated modestly in morphometric traits related to foraging. Instead, sympatric Dendroica tend to partition resources behaviourally and they have become a widely cited example of competitive exclusion. We explored the temporal structure of Dendroica diversification via a phylogeny based on 3639 nucleotides of protein-coding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The taxa sampled included 60 individuals representing 24 Dendroica species and a variety of other paruline warbler and outgroup species. Mitochondrial divergences among Dendroica species were generally large (mean pairwise interspecific distances, 10.0%) and many species were rooted in a basal polytomy. The prevalence of long terminal branches indicates that these species have evolved efficient isolating mechanisms that have prevented mtDNA introgression despite the many opportunities for hybridization resulting from local sympatry. Comparisons with a null model of random bifurcation–extinction demonstrate that cladogenesis in Dendroica has been clustered non-randomly with respect to time, with a significant burst of speciation occurring early in the history of the genus, possibly as long ago as the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene periods. Although this non-random clustering of speciation is consistent with the pattern expected of an adaptive radiation, the age of the Dendroica radiation suggests it is an 'ancient species flock' in which most extant species represent lineages that have long been evolutionarily independent.

  14. To speciate, or not to speciate? Resource heterogeneity, the subjectivity of similarity, and the macroevolutionary consequences of niche-width shifts in plant-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Tommi

    2010-05-01

    Coevolutionary studies on plants and plant-feeding insects have significantly improved our understanding of the role of niche shifts in the generation of new species. Evolving plant lineages essentially constitute moving islands and archipelagoes in resource space, and host shifts by insects are usually preceded by colonizations of novel resources. Critical to hypotheses concerning ecological speciation is what happens immediately before and after colonization attempts: if an available plant is too similar to the current host(s), it simply will be incorporated into the existing diet, but if it is too different, it will not be colonized in the first place. It thus seems that the probability of speciation is maximized when alternative hosts are at an 'intermediate' distance in resource space. In this review, I wish to highlight the possibility that resource similarity and, thus, the definition of 'intermediate', are subjective concepts that depend on the herbivore lineage's tolerance to dietary variation. This subjectivity of similarity means that changes in tolerance can either decrease or increase speciation probabilities depending on the distribution of plants in resource space: insect lineages with narrow tolerances are likely to speciate by 'island-hopping' on young, species-rich plant groups, whereas more generalized lineages could speciate by shifting among resource archipelagoes formed by higher plant taxa. Repeated and convergent origins of traits known to broaden or to restrict host-plant use in multiple different insect groups provide opportunities for studying how tolerance and resource heterogeneity may interact to determine speciation rates. PMID:20002390

  15. To speciate, or not to speciate? Resource heterogeneity, the subjectivity of similarity, and the macroevolutionary consequences of niche-width shifts in plant-feeding insects.

    PubMed

    Nyman, Tommi

    2010-05-01

    Coevolutionary studies on plants and plant-feeding insects have significantly improved our understanding of the role of niche shifts in the generation of new species. Evolving plant lineages essentially constitute moving islands and archipelagoes in resource space, and host shifts by insects are usually preceded by colonizations of novel resources. Critical to hypotheses concerning ecological speciation is what happens immediately before and after colonization attempts: if an available plant is too similar to the current host(s), it simply will be incorporated into the existing diet, but if it is too different, it will not be colonized in the first place. It thus seems that the probability of speciation is maximized when alternative hosts are at an 'intermediate' distance in resource space. In this review, I wish to highlight the possibility that resource similarity and, thus, the definition of 'intermediate', are subjective concepts that depend on the herbivore lineage's tolerance to dietary variation. This subjectivity of similarity means that changes in tolerance can either decrease or increase speciation probabilities depending on the distribution of plants in resource space: insect lineages with narrow tolerances are likely to speciate by 'island-hopping' on young, species-rich plant groups, whereas more generalized lineages could speciate by shifting among resource archipelagoes formed by higher plant taxa. Repeated and convergent origins of traits known to broaden or to restrict host-plant use in multiple different insect groups provide opportunities for studying how tolerance and resource heterogeneity may interact to determine speciation rates.

  16. Molecular characterization and mitochondrial sequence variation in two sympatric species of Proechimys (Rodentia: Echimyidae) in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Steiner; Sourrouille; Catzeflis

    2000-12-01

    Variations in mitochondrial DNA characters were used to characterize two morphologically similar and sympatric species of Neotropical terrestrial rodents of the genus Proechimys (Mammalia: Echimyidae). We sequenced both cytochrome b (1140pb) and part of the control region (445pb) from four individuals of P. cuvieri and five of P. cayennensis from French Guiana, which allowed us to depict intra- and inter-specific patterns of variation. The phylogenetic relationships between the nine sequences evidence the monophyly of each species, and illustrate that more polymorphism might exist within P. cuvieri than within P. cayennensis. By developing species-specific primers to amplify a fragment of the cytochrome b gene, we were able to identify 50 individuals of Proechimys spp. caught in two localities of French Guiana. In both sites of primary rainforests, we showed that the two species live in syntopy, and this observation emphasizes the need to document ecological differences which should exist in order to diminish inter-specific competition.

  17. Distinct genetic subdivision in sympatric and sibling species of the genus Littorina (Gastropoda: Littorinidae).

    PubMed

    Rolán-Alvarez, E; Zapata, C; Alvarez, G

    1995-01-01

    The genetic structure of two sibling and sympatric species of the genus Littorina was compared using allozymic loci. The two species are biologically and ecologically well-known and mostly show similar life history characteristics. Three populations of L. mariae Sacchi & Rastelli and L. obstusata (L.) were studied in the Muros-Noya Ria (Galicia, NW Spain). In addition, four microgeographical subsamples taken from one of the populations were analysed for each species. Age, sex and genotypes for nine polymorphic loci were studied in 1250 snails of both species. L. mariae showed larger genetic population subdivision and lower heterozygosity levels for the loci studied than did L. obtusata. Heterozygote deficiencies were found in only a few cases in natural populations of both species, usually affecting the Lap-1 locus. No significant genetic differences among age or sex classes were found. These results may be explained by the lower effective population size in L. mariae than in L. obtusata. Known differences between these species in generation interval and population density during the winter can cause the different effective population sizes suggested. These life history characteristics appear to provide the most likely explanations for the differences in genetic differentiation and heterozygosity between the two species. A previously unknown L. mariae morph from exposed shores is tentatively suggested to be conspecific. PMID:7852095

  18. Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species.

    PubMed

    Siemers, Björn M; Schnitzler, Hans-Ulrich

    2004-06-10

    Echolocating bats can be divided into guilds according to their preferred habitat and foraging behaviour, which coincide with distinct adaptations in wing morphology and structure of echolocation signals. Although coarse structuring of niche space between different guilds is generally accepted, it is not clear how niches differ within guilds, or whether there is fine-grained niche differentiation reflected in echolocation signal structure. Using a standardized performance test, here we show clutter-dependent differences in prey-capture success for bats from five species of European Myotis. These species are morphologically similar, sympatric, and all belong to the guild labelled "edge space aerial/trawling foragers". We further demonstrate a strong correlation between the prey-detection ability of the species and the respective search-call bandwidth. Our findings indicate that differences in echolocation signals contribute to within-guild niche differentiation. This is the first study relating sensory abilities of a set of potentially competing animal species to a direct measure of their respective foraging performance, suggesting an important role of sensory ecology in the structuring of animal communities.

  19. Spawning segregation and philopatry are major prezygotic barriers in sympatric cryptic Mugil cephalus species.

    PubMed

    Shen, Kang-Ning; Chang, Chih-Wei; Durand, Jean-Dominique

    2015-12-01

    The flathead mullet, Mugil cephalus, is a commercially vital fish in fisheries and aquaculture worldwide. Genetic analyses have recently revealed three cryptic species of M. cephalus in the Northwest Pacific. These species are sympatric in Taiwanese waters and specific reproductive behaviors have been suggested to be a major prezygotic barrier. Species composition was evaluated in samples of M. cephalus at different growth stages collected from various habitats (offshore spawning ground, estuarine nursery and feeding areas) over several months or years. The gonadosomatic index of adults and the body length of juveniles were recorded to determine the reproductive season and recruitment periods in estuaries. The results revealed partially temporal spawning isolation between species pairs, spatial segregation on specific spawning grounds and strong philopatry preclude hybridization. Thus, the results imply that traditional fisheries of mature fish in the Taiwan Strait target only one species, whereas aquaculture in Taiwan contain juveniles of all three species collected in estuaries. The ecological niche and demography of these species must be investigated further to estimate the impact of juvenile sources on aquaculture.

  20. Does population size affect genetic diversity? A test with sympatric lizard species.

    PubMed

    Hague, M T J; Routman, E J

    2016-01-01

    Genetic diversity is a fundamental requirement for evolution and adaptation. Nonetheless, the forces that maintain patterns of genetic variation in wild populations are not completely understood. Neutral theory posits that genetic diversity will increase with a larger effective population size and the decreasing effects of drift. However, the lack of compelling evidence for a relationship between genetic diversity and population size in comparative studies has generated some skepticism over the degree that neutral sequence evolution drives overall patterns of diversity. The goal of this study was to measure genetic diversity among sympatric populations of related lizard species that differ in population size and other ecological factors. By sampling related species from a single geographic location, we aimed to reduce nuisance variance in genetic diversity owing to species differences, for example, in mutation rates or historical biogeography. We compared populations of zebra-tailed lizards and western banded geckos, which are abundant and short-lived, to chuckwallas and desert iguanas, which are less common and long-lived. We assessed population genetic diversity at three protein-coding loci for each species. Our results were consistent with the predictions of neutral theory, as the abundant species almost always had higher levels of haplotype diversity than the less common species. Higher population genetic diversity in the abundant species is likely due to a combination of demographic factors, including larger local population sizes (and presumably effective population sizes), faster generation times and high rates of gene flow with other populations.

  1. Contrasting energy allocation strategies of two sympatric Merluccius species in an upwelling system.

    PubMed

    Rey, J; Fernandez-Peralta, L; Quintanilla, L F; Hidalgo, M; Presas, C; Salmeron, F; Puerto, M A

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the somatic growth and energy allocation strategy of two sympatric hake species (Merluccius polli and Merluccius senegalensis), coexisting under the strong influence of the Mauritanian upwelling. The results revealed that ontogeny, bathymetry, geography and reproduction shaped the differences found between the condition dynamics of the two species. Aside from species-specific differences, individuals were observed in better condition in the northernmost area (more influenced by the permanent upwelling) and in the deepest waters, probably the most favourable habitat for Merluccius spp. Both species also displayed contrasting trade-offs in energy allocation probably due to the dissimilarity of their habitats, which favours the existence of divergent adaptive strategies in response to different ontogenic requirements. It was hypothesized that M. polli invests in mass and energy reserves while sacrificing growth, as larger sizes may not provide an ecological advantage in a deeper and more stable environment. Moreover, M. senegalensis capitalizes on a steady growth without major disruptions, enabling earlier spawning at the expense of a lower somatic mass, which is fitting to a less stable shallower environment. This study sheds new light on differences in the biological traits and life strategies of Merluccius spp., which permit their overlap in a complex upwelling system and may contribute to the long-lasting scientific-based management of these species.

  2. Host-specific microbial communities in three sympatric North Sea sponges.

    PubMed

    Naim, Mohd Azrul; Morillo, Jose A; Sørensen, Søren J; Waleed, Abu Al-Soud; Smidt, Hauke; Sipkema, Detmer

    2014-11-01

    The establishment of next-generation technology sequencing has deepened our knowledge of marine sponge-associated microbiota with the identification of at least 32 phyla of Bacteria and Archaea from a large number of sponge species. In this study, we assessed the diversity of the microbial communities hosted by three sympatric sponges living in a semi-enclosed North Sea environment using pyrosequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S ribosomal RNA gene fragments. The three sponges harbor species-specific communities each dominated by a different class of Proteobacteria. An α-proteobacterial Rhodobacter-like phylotype was confirmed as the predominant symbiont of Halichondria panicea. The microbial communities of Haliclona xena and H. oculata are described for the first time in this study and are dominated by Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, respectively. Several common phylotypes belonging to Chlamydiae, TM6, Actinobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were detected in all sponge samples. A number of phylotypes of the phylum Chlamydiae were present at an unprecedentedly high relative abundance of up to 14.4 ± 1.4% of the total reads, which suggests an important ecological role in North Sea sponges. These Chlamydiae-affiliated operational taxonomic units may represent novel lineages at least at the genus level as they are only 86-92% similar to known sequences.

  3. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats.

  4. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Laguardia, Alice; Wang, Jun; Shi, Fang-Lei; Shi, Kun; Riordan, Philip

    2015-03-18

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species' scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  5. Species identification refined by molecular scatology in a community of sympatric carnivores in Xinjiang, China

    PubMed Central

    LAGUARDIA, Alice; WANG, Jun; SHI, Fang-Lei; SHI, Kun; RIORDAN, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Many ecological studies and conservation management plans employ noninvasive scat sampling based on the assumption that species’ scats can be correctly identified in the field. However, in habitats with sympatric similarly sized carnivores, misidentification of scats is frequent and can lead to bias in research results. To address the scat identification dilemma, molecular scatology techniques have been developed to extract DNA from the donor cells present on the outer lining of the scat samples. A total of 100 samples were collected in the winter of 2009 and 2011 in Taxkorgan region of Xinjiang, China. DNA was extracted successfully from 88% of samples and genetic species identification showed that more than half the scats identified in the field as snow leopard (Panthera uncia) actually belonged to fox (Vulpes vulpes). Correlation between scat characteristics and species were investigated, showing that diameter and dry weight of the scat were significantly different between the species. However it was not possible to define a precise range of values for each species because of extensive overlap between the morphological values. This preliminary study confirms that identification of snow leopard feces in the field is misleading. Research that relies upon scat samples to assess distribution or diet of the snow leopard should therefore employ molecular scatology techniques. These methods are financially accessible and employ relatively simple laboratory procedures that can give an indisputable response to species identification from scats. PMID:25855225

  6. Iron Speciation in Urban Dust

    SciTech Connect

    E Elzinga; Y Gao; J Fitts; R Tappero

    2011-12-31

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {micro}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity.

  7. Genetic differentiation among sympatric cuckoo host races: males matter.

    PubMed

    Fossøy, Frode; Antonov, Anton; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Vikan, Johan R; Møller, Anders P; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Stokke, Bård G

    2011-06-01

    Generalist parasites regularly evolve host-specific races that each specialize on one particular host species. Many host-specific races originate from geographically structured populations where local adaptations to different host species drive the differentiation of distinct races. However, in sympatric populations where several host races coexist, gene flow could potentially disrupt such host-specific adaptations. Here, we analyse genetic differentiation among three sympatrically breeding host races of the brood-parasitic common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus. In this species, host-specific adaptations are assumed to be controlled by females only, possibly via the female-specific W-chromosome, thereby avoiding that gene flow via males disrupts local adaptations. Although males were more likely to have offspring in two different host species (43% versus 7%), they did not have significantly more descendants being raised outside their putative foster species than females (9% versus 2%). We found significant genetic differentiation for both biparentally inherited microsatellite DNA markers and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA markers. To our knowledge, this is the first study that finds significant genetic differentiation in biparentally inherited markers among cuckoo host-specific races. Our results imply that males also may contribute to the evolution and maintenance of the different races, and hence that the genes responsible for egg phenotype may be found on autosomal chromosomes rather than the female-specific W-chromosome as previously assumed.

  8. Iron speciation in urban dust

    SciTech Connect

    Elzinga, E.J.; Fitts, J.; Gao, Y.; Tappero, R.

    2011-08-01

    An improved understanding of anthropogenic impacts on ocean fertility requires knowledge of anthropogenic dust mineralogy and associated Fe speciation as a critical step toward developing Fe solubility models constrained by mineralogical composition. This study explored the utility of micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy ({mu}-XAS) in characterizing the speciation of Fe in urban dust samples. A micro-focused beam of 10 x 7 {mu}m made possible the measurement of the Fe K edge XAS spectra of individual dust particles in the PM5.6 size fraction collected in Newark, New Jersey, USA. Spectral analysis indicated the presence of mixtures of Fe-containing minerals within individual dust particles; we observed significant magnetite content along with other Fe(III)-(hydr)oxide minerals which could not be conclusively identified. Our data indicate that detailed quantitative determination of Fe speciation requires extended energy scans to constrain the types and relative abundance of Fe species present. We observe heterogeneity in Fe speciation at the dust particle level, which underscores the importance of analyzing a statistically adequate number of particles within each dust sample. Where possible, {mu}-XAS measurements should be complemented with additional characterization techniques such as {mu}-XRD and bulk XAS to obtain a comprehensive picture of the Fe speciation in dust materials. X-ray microprobes should be used to complement bulk methods used to determine particle composition, methods that fail to record particle heterogeneity. Keywords - Urban dust; Iron; Speciation; Micro-focused X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  9. Regional, seasonal and interspecific variation in 15N and 13C in sympatric mouse lemurs.

    PubMed

    Rakotondranary, S Jacques; Struck, Ulrich; Knoblauch, Christian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U

    2011-11-01

    Madagascar provides some of the rare examples where two or more primate species of the same genus and with seemingly identical niche requirements occur in sympatry. If congeneric primate species co-occur in other parts of the world, they differ in size in a way that is consistent with Hutchinson's rule for coexisting species, or they occupy different ecological niches. In some areas of Madagascar, mouse lemurs do not follow these "rules" and thus seem to violate one of the principles of community ecology. In order to understand the mechanisms that allow coexistence of sympatric congeneric species without obvious niche differentiation, we studied food composition of two identical sized omnivorous mouse lemur species, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus with the help of stable isotope analyses (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). The two species are closely related sister species. During the rich season, when food seems abundant, the two species do not differ in their nitrogen isotope composition, indicating that the two species occupy the same trophic level. But they differ in their δ(13)C values, indicating that M. griseorufus feeds more on C(4) and CAM (Crassulacean-acid-metabolism) plants than M. murinus. During the lean season, M. murinus has lower δ(15)N values, indicating that the two species feed at different trophic levels during times of food shortage. Hybrids between the two species showed intermediate food composition. The results reflect subtle differences in foraging or metabolic adaptations that are difficult to quantify by traditional observations but that represent possibilities to allow coexistence of species. PMID:21881908

  10. Evidence of Unique and Generalist Microbes in Distantly Related Sympatric Intertidal Marine Sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae)

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Anoop; Silva, Vitor; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2013-01-01

    The diversity and specificity of microbial communities in marine environments is a key aspect of the ecology and evolution of both the eukaryotic hosts and their associated prokaryotes. Marine sponges harbor phylogenetically diverse and complex microbial lineages. Here, we investigated the sponge bacterial community and distribution patterns of microbes in three sympatric intertidal marine demosponges, Hymeniacidon perlevis, Ophlitaspongia papilla and Polymastia penicillus, from the Atlantic coast of Portugal using classical isolation techniques and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Microbial composition assessment, with nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences (ca. 1400 bp) from the isolates (n = 31) and partial sequences (ca. 280 bp) from clone libraries (n = 349), revealed diverse bacterial communities and other sponge-associated microbes. The majority of the bacterial isolates were members of the order Vibrionales and other symbiotic bacteria like Pseudovibrio ascidiaceiocola, Roseobacter sp., Hahellaceae sp. and Cobetia sp. Extended analyses using ecological metrics comprising 142 OTUs supported the clear differentiation of bacterial community profiles among the sponge hosts and their ambient seawater. Phylogenetic analyses were insightful in defining clades representing shared bacterial communities, particularly between H. perlevis and the geographically distantly-related H. heliophila, but also among other sponges. Furthermore, we also observed three distinct and unique bacterial groups, Betaproteobactria (∼81%), Spirochaetes (∼7%) and Chloroflexi (∼3%), which are strictly maintained in low-microbial-abundance host species O. papilla and P. penicillus. Our study revealed the largely generalist nature of microbial associations among these co-occurring intertidal marine sponges. PMID:24265835

  11. Regional, seasonal and interspecific variation in 15N and 13C in sympatric mouse lemurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakotondranary, S. Jacques; Struck, Ulrich; Knoblauch, Christian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U.

    2011-11-01

    Madagascar provides some of the rare examples where two or more primate species of the same genus and with seemingly identical niche requirements occur in sympatry. If congeneric primate species co-occur in other parts of the world, they differ in size in a way that is consistent with Hutchinson's rule for coexisting species, or they occupy different ecological niches. In some areas of Madagascar, mouse lemurs do not follow these "rules" and thus seem to violate one of the principles of community ecology. In order to understand the mechanisms that allow coexistence of sympatric congeneric species without obvious niche differentiation, we studied food composition of two identical sized omnivorous mouse lemur species, Microcebus griseorufus and M. murinus with the help of stable isotope analyses ( δ 15N and δ 13C). The two species are closely related sister species. During the rich season, when food seems abundant, the two species do not differ in their nitrogen isotope composition, indicating that the two species occupy the same trophic level. But they differ in their δ 13C values, indicating that M. griseorufus feeds more on C4 and CAM (Crassulacean-acid-metabolism) plants than M. murinus. During the lean season, M. murinus has lower δ 15N values, indicating that the two species feed at different trophic levels during times of food shortage. Hybrids between the two species showed intermediate food composition. The results reflect subtle differences in foraging or metabolic adaptations that are difficult to quantify by traditional observations but that represent possibilities to allow coexistence of species.

  12. Mimicry on the QT(L): genetics of speciation in Mimulus.

    PubMed

    Bleiweiss, R

    2001-08-01

    Ecological studies suggest that hummingbird-pollinated plants in North America mimic each other to increase visitation by birds. Published quantitative trait locus (QTL) data for two Mimulus species indicate that floral traits associated with hummingbird versus bee pollination results from a few loci with major effects on morphology, as predicted by classical models for the evolution of mimicry. Thus, the architecture of genetic divergence associated with speciation may depend on the ecological context.

  13. [Speciation and Risk Characteristics of Heavy Metals in the Sediments of the Yangtze Estuary].

    PubMed

    Yin, Su; Feng, Cheng-hong; Li, Yang-yang; Yin, Li-feng; Shen, Zhen-yao

    2016-03-15

    Based on the investigation on the distribution of total contents and speciation of 8 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn) in the surface sediments at 14 typical sites of the Yangtze Estuary during three hydrological seasons ( wet, normal, and dry seasons) , this study applied equilibrium partitioning approach to build the sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) of the Yangtze Estuary, and assessed ecological risks of the heavy metals. The relationship between ecological risk and speciation of heavy metals was also revealed. The results showed that, except for Cd, the residual fraction was the main speciation of heavy metals, especially for As, Cr and Hg, their residual fraction proportions were all over 90%. The sediment quality guidelines of the Yangtze Estuary for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Zn were 43.29, 0.672, 79.65, 19.08, 0.569, 339.09, 30.87, 411.36 µg · g⁻¹, respectively. Cu had the highest ecological risk to aquatic organisms. The upstream of Yangtze Estuary was mainly affected by Yangtze River runoff, where the risks were relatively high in wet season and relatively low in normal and dry seasons. However, the downstream of the estuary was mainly affected by municipal sewage of cities like Shanghai, where the risks were relatively high, especially in normal and dry seasons. There were three different relationships between the ecological risks and speciation of the eight heavy metals. PMID:27337882

  14. Speciation through temporal segregation of Madeiran storm petrel (Oceanodroma castro) populations in the Azores?

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, L. R.

    1998-01-01

    Madeiran storm petrels Oceanodroma castro breed on three small islets in the Azores: Vila, off Santa Maria, and Praia and Baixo, off Graciosa. Analysis of data on brood patch, incubation periods, chick body size and recaptures of adults provides evidence of the existence of two distinct populations (hot- and cool-season) breeding annually on Baixo and Praia, out of phase by four to five months and overlapping in colony attendance during August and early September; on Vila only the cool-season population is present. Analyses of adult morphology indicate highly significant phenotypic differentiation between the sympatric hot- and cool-season breeders, whereas an almost complete phenotypic uniformity characterizes allopatric breeders within the same season. The hot-season birds are 10% smaller in egg and body mass but have longer wings and tails than cool-season birds. The two groups were readily separated by discriminant analysis. The preference to breed in the cooler season is interpreted as a consequence of greater food availability in that period. Morphological differentiation between seasonal populations is interpreted as an adaptative response to different environmental conditions in the two seasons. The hypothesis is given that the hot-season population has evolved from the cool-season population owing to density-dependent constraints on crowded colonies, forcing birds to time-share nest sites. These populations may represent a case of sympatric speciation through temporal partitioning of reproduction and may be better treated as sibling species.

  15. Mimicry: developmental genes that contribute to speciation.

    PubMed

    Naisbit, Russell E; Jiggins, Chris D; Mallet, James

    2003-01-01

    Despite renewed interest in the role of natural selection as a catalyst for the origin of species, the developmental and genetic basis of speciation remains poorly understood. Here we describe the genetics of Müllerian mimicry in Heliconius cydno and H. melpomene (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae), sister species that recently diverged to mimic other Heliconius. This mimetic shift was a key step in their speciation, leading to pre- and postmating isolation. We identify 10 autosomal loci, half of which have major effects. At least eight appear to be homologous with genes known to control pattern differences within each species. Dominance has evolved under the influence of identifiable "modifier" loci rather than being a fixed characteristic of each locus. Epistasis is found at many levels: phenotypic interaction between specific pairs of genes, developmental canalization due to polygenic modifiers so that patterns are less sharply defined in hybrids, and overall fitness through ecological selection against nonmimetic hybrid genotypes. Most of the loci are clustered into two genomic regions or "supergenes," suggesting color pattern evolution is constrained by preexisting linked elements that may have arisen via tandem duplication rather than having been assembled by natural selection. Linkage, modifiers, and epistasis affect the strength of mimicry as a barrier to gene flow between these naturally hybridizing species and may permit introgression in genomic regions unlinked to those under disruptive selection. Müllerian mimics in Heliconius use different genetic architectures to achieve the same mimetic patterns, implying few developmental constraints. Therefore, although developmental and genomic constraints undoubtedly influence the evolutionary process, their effects are probably not strong in comparison with natural selection.

  16. Thermoregulation of two sympatric species of horned lizards in the Chihuahuan Desert and their local extinction risk.

    PubMed

    Lara-Reséndiz, Rafael A; Gadsden, Héctor; Rosen, Philip C; Sinervo, Barry; Méndez-De la Cruz, Fausto R

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulatory studies of ectothermic organisms are an important tool for ecological physiology, evolutionary ecology and behavior, and recently have become central for evaluating and predicting global climate change impacts. Here, we present a novel combination of field, laboratory, and modeling approaches to examine body temperature regulation, habitat thermal quality, and hours of thermal restriction on the activity of two sympatric, aridlands horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum and Phrynosoma modestum) at three contrasting Chihuahuan Desert sites in Mexico. Using these physiological data, we estimate local extinction risk under predicted climate change within their current geographical distribution. We followed the Hertz et al. (1993, Am. Nat., 142, 796-818) protocol for evaluating thermoregulation and the Sinervo et al. (2010, Science, 328, 894-899) eco-physiological model of extinction under climatic warming. Thermoregulatory indices suggest that both species thermoregulate effectively despite living in habitats of low thermal quality, although high environmental temperatures restrict the activity period of both species. Based on our measurements, if air temperature rises as predicted by climate models, the extinction model projects that P. cornutum will become locally extinct at 6% of sites by 2050 and 18% by 2080 and P. modestum will become extinct at 32% of sites by 2050 and 60% by 2080. The method we apply, using widely available or readily acquired thermal data, along with the modeling, appeared to identify several unique ecological traits that seemingly exacerbate climate sensitivity of P. modestum.

  17. Thermoregulation of two sympatric species of horned lizards in the Chihuahuan Desert and their local extinction risk.

    PubMed

    Lara-Reséndiz, Rafael A; Gadsden, Héctor; Rosen, Philip C; Sinervo, Barry; Méndez-De la Cruz, Fausto R

    2015-02-01

    Thermoregulatory studies of ectothermic organisms are an important tool for ecological physiology, evolutionary ecology and behavior, and recently have become central for evaluating and predicting global climate change impacts. Here, we present a novel combination of field, laboratory, and modeling approaches to examine body temperature regulation, habitat thermal quality, and hours of thermal restriction on the activity of two sympatric, aridlands horned lizards (Phrynosoma cornutum and Phrynosoma modestum) at three contrasting Chihuahuan Desert sites in Mexico. Using these physiological data, we estimate local extinction risk under predicted climate change within their current geographical distribution. We followed the Hertz et al. (1993, Am. Nat., 142, 796-818) protocol for evaluating thermoregulation and the Sinervo et al. (2010, Science, 328, 894-899) eco-physiological model of extinction under climatic warming. Thermoregulatory indices suggest that both species thermoregulate effectively despite living in habitats of low thermal quality, although high environmental temperatures restrict the activity period of both species. Based on our measurements, if air temperature rises as predicted by climate models, the extinction model projects that P. cornutum will become locally extinct at 6% of sites by 2050 and 18% by 2080 and P. modestum will become extinct at 32% of sites by 2050 and 60% by 2080. The method we apply, using widely available or readily acquired thermal data, along with the modeling, appeared to identify several unique ecological traits that seemingly exacerbate climate sensitivity of P. modestum. PMID:25660624

  18. How common is homoploid hybrid speciation?

    PubMed

    Schumer, Molly; Rosenthal, Gil G; Andolfatto, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization has long been considered a process that prevents divergence between species. In contrast to this historical view, an increasing number of empirical studies claim to show evidence for hybrid speciation without a ploidy change. However, the importance of hybridization as a route to speciation is poorly understood, and many claims have been made with insufficient evidence that hybridization played a role in the speciation process. We propose criteria to determine the strength of evidence for homoploid hybrid speciation. Based on an evaluation of the literature using this framework, we conclude that although hybridization appears to be common, evidence for an important role of hybridization in homoploid speciation is more circumscribed.

  19. [Ecology and ecologies].

    PubMed

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  20. Understanding host switching through ecological fitting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the fact that parasites are highly specialized to their hosts, extensive empirical evidence demonstrates that host switching rather than co-speciation is the most important factor influencing the origin of host-parasite associations. Ecological fitting in sloppy fitness space has been propos...

  1. Ecological adaptation and species recognition drives vocal evolution in neotropical suboscine birds.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Given that evolutionary divergence in mating signals leads to reproductive isolation in numerous animal taxa, understanding what drives signal divergence is fundamental to our understanding of speciation. Mating signals are thought to diverge via several processes, including (1) as a by-product of morphological adaptation, (2) through direct adaptation to the signaling environment, or (3) to facilitate species recognition. According to the first two hypotheses, birdsongs diversify in different foraging niches and habitats as a product of selection for optimal morphology and efficient sound transmission, respectively. According to the third hypothesis, they diversify as a result of selection against maladaptive hybridization. In this study I test all three hypotheses by examining the influence of morphology, acoustic environment, and the presence of closely related congeners on song structure in 163 species of antbird (Thamnophilidae). Unlike oscine passerines, these Neotropical suboscines make ideal subjects because they develop their songs without learning. In other words, patterns of vocal divergence are not complicated by cultural evolution. In support of the morphological adaptation hypothesis, body mass correlates with the acoustic frequency of songs, and bill size with temporal patterning. These relationships were robust, even when controlling for phylogenetic inertia using independent contrasts, suggesting that there has been correlated evolution between morphological and acoustic traits. The results also support the acoustic adaptation hypothesis: birds which habitually sing in the understory and canopy produce higher-pitched songs than those that sing in the midstory, suggesting that song structure is related to the sound transmission properties of different habitat strata. Finally, the songs of sympatric pairs of closely related species are more divergent than those of allopatric pairs, as predicted by the species recognition hypothesis. To my knowledge

  2. Ecological adaptation and species recognition drives vocal evolution in neotropical suboscine birds.

    PubMed

    Seddon, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Given that evolutionary divergence in mating signals leads to reproductive isolation in numerous animal taxa, understanding what drives signal divergence is fundamental to our understanding of speciation. Mating signals are thought to diverge via several processes, including (1) as a by-product of morphological adaptation, (2) through direct adaptation to the signaling environment, or (3) to facilitate species recognition. According to the first two hypotheses, birdsongs diversify in different foraging niches and habitats as a product of selection for optimal morphology and efficient sound transmission, respectively. According to the third hypothesis, they diversify as a result of selection against maladaptive hybridization. In this study I test all three hypotheses by examining the influence of morphology, acoustic environment, and the presence of closely related congeners on song structure in 163 species of antbird (Thamnophilidae). Unlike oscine passerines, these Neotropical suboscines make ideal subjects because they develop their songs without learning. In other words, patterns of vocal divergence are not complicated by cultural evolution. In support of the morphological adaptation hypothesis, body mass correlates with the acoustic frequency of songs, and bill size with temporal patterning. These relationships were robust, even when controlling for phylogenetic inertia using independent contrasts, suggesting that there has been correlated evolution between morphological and acoustic traits. The results also support the acoustic adaptation hypothesis: birds which habitually sing in the understory and canopy produce higher-pitched songs than those that sing in the midstory, suggesting that song structure is related to the sound transmission properties of different habitat strata. Finally, the songs of sympatric pairs of closely related species are more divergent than those of allopatric pairs, as predicted by the species recognition hypothesis. To my knowledge

  3. Sexual isolation between sympatric and allopatric populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Wyatt W; Kim, Yong-Kyu

    2005-05-01

    According to reinforcement theory, sexual isolation between species in sympatry is strengthened by natural selection against maladaptive hybrids. Drosophila pseudoobscura and D. persimilis from four locations where these species are sympatric, and from three locations where only D. pseudoobscura has been found, were utilized in studies of sexual isolation. Multiple-choice observation chambers were used to record matings between sympatric and allopatric strains of the two species. There was a wide variation in sexual isolation between the two species in the four localities we studied. The average isolation index for sympatric strains of the species was not significantly different from the average index for allopatric strains. There were no meaningful differences between the isolation indices in sympatric and allopatric strains of the species. The failure to find a relationship is likely the result of gene flow among populations within the two species.

  4. Tree of Life Reveals Clock-Like Speciation and Diversification

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, S. Blair; Marin, Julie; Suleski, Michael; Paymer, Madeline; Kumar, Sudhir

    2015-01-01

    Genomic data are rapidly resolving the tree of living species calibrated to time, the timetree of life, which will provide a framework for research in diverse fields of science. Previous analyses of taxonomically restricted timetrees have found a decline in the rate of diversification in many groups of organisms, often attributed to ecological interactions among species. Here, we have synthesized a global timetree of life from 2,274 studies representing 50,632 species and examined the pattern and rate of diversification as well as the timing of speciation. We found that species diversity has been mostly expanding overall and in many smaller groups of species, and that the rate of diversification in eukaryotes has been mostly constant. We also identified, and avoided, potential biases that may have influenced previous analyses of diversification including low levels of taxon sampling, small clade size, and the inclusion of stem branches in clade analyses. We found consistency in time-to-speciation among plants and animals, ∼2 My, as measured by intervals of crown and stem species times. Together, this clock-like change at different levels suggests that speciation and diversification are processes dominated by random events and that adaptive change is largely a separate process. PMID:25739733

  5. Tree of life reveals clock-like speciation and diversification.

    PubMed

    Hedges, S Blair; Marin, Julie; Suleski, Michael; Paymer, Madeline; Kumar, Sudhir

    2015-04-01

    Genomic data are rapidly resolving the tree of living species calibrated to time, the timetree of life, which will provide a framework for research in diverse fields of science. Previous analyses of taxonomically restricted timetrees have found a decline in the rate of diversification in many groups of organisms, often attributed to ecological interactions among species. Here, we have synthesized a global timetree of life from 2,274 studies representing 50,632 species and examined the pattern and rate of diversification as well as the timing of speciation. We found that species diversity has been mostly expanding overall and in many smaller groups of species, and that the rate of diversification in eukaryotes has been mostly constant. We also identified, and avoided, potential biases that may have influenced previous analyses of diversification including low levels of taxon sampling, small clade size, and the inclusion of stem branches in clade analyses. We found consistency in time-to-speciation among plants and animals, ∼2 My, as measured by intervals of crown and stem species times. Together, this clock-like change at different levels suggests that speciation and diversification are processes dominated by random events and that adaptive change is largely a separate process.

  6. Comparative reproductive biology of sympatric species: nest and chick survival of American avocets and black-necked stilts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Takekawa, John Y.; Hartman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying differences in reproductive success rates of closely related and sympatrically breeding species can be useful for understanding limitations to population growth. We simultaneously examined the reproductive ecology of American avocets Recurvirostra americana and black-necked stilts Himantopus mexicanus using 1274 monitored nests and 240 radio-marked chicks in San Francisco Bay, California. Although there were 1.8 times more avocet nests than stilt nests, stilts nonetheless fledged 3.3 times more chicks. Greater production by stilts than avocets was the result of greater chick survival from hatching to fledging (avocet: 6%; stilt: 40%), and not because of differences in clutch size (avocet: 3.84; stilt: 3.77), nest survival (avocet: 44%; stilt: 35%), or egg hatching success (avocet: 90%; stilt: 92%). We reviewed the literature and confirmed that nest survival and hatching success are generally similar when avocets and stilts breed sympatrically. In addition to species, chick survival was strongly influenced by age, site, and year. In particular, daily survival rates increased rapidly with chick age, with 70% of mortalities occurring ≤ 1 week after hatch. California gulls Larus californicus caused 55% of avocet, but only 15% of stilt, chick deaths. Differential use of micro-habitats likely reduced stilt chick’s vulnerability to gull predation, particularly during the first week after hatch, because stilts nested in vegetation 2.7 times more often than avocets and vegetation height was 65% taller at stilt nests compared with avocet nests. Our results demonstrate that two co-occurring and closely related species with similar life history strategies can differ markedly in reproductive success, and simultaneous studies of such species can identify differences that limit productivity.

  7. Patterns of morphological changes and hybridization between sympatric whitefish morphs (Coregonus spp.) in a Swiss lake: a role for eutrophication?

    PubMed

    Bittner, D; Excoffier, L; Largiadèr, C R

    2010-05-01

    Whitefish, genus Coregonus, show exceptional levels of phenotypic diversity with sympatric morphs occurring in numerous postglacial lakes in the northern hemisphere. Here, we studied the effects of human-induced eutrophication on sympatric whitefish morphs in the Swiss lake, Lake Thun. In particular, we addressed the questions whether eutrophication (i) induced hybridization between two ecologically divergent summer-spawning morphs through a loss of environmental heterogeneity, and (ii) induced rapid adaptive morphological changes through changes in the food web structure. Genetic analysis based on 11 microsatellite loci of 282 spawners revealed that the pelagic and the benthic morph represent highly distinct gene pools occurring at different relative proportions on all seven known spawning sites. Gill raker counts, a highly heritable trait, showed nearly discrete distributions for the two morphs. Multilocus genotypes characteristic of the pelagic morph had more gill rakers than genotypes characteristic of benthic morph. Using Bayesian methods, we found indications of recent but limited introgressive hybridization. Comparisons with historical gill raker data yielded median evolutionary rates of 0.24 haldanes and median selection intensities of 0.27 for this trait in both morphs for 1948-2004 suggesting rapid evolution through directional selection at this trait. However, phenotypic plasticity as an alternative explanation for this phenotypic change cannot be discarded. We hypothesize that both the temporal shifts in mean gill raker counts and the recent hybridization reflect responses to changes in the trophic state of the lake induced by pollution in the 1960s, which created novel selection pressures with respect to feeding niches and spawning site preferences.

  8. Dynamics of evolutionary radiation under ecological neutrality.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takanori Mizuno; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-10-01

    The most spectacular phenomenon of evolutionary biota is the explosive radiation that occurs in depauperate environments in which there are fewer competitors and predators, such as oceanic islands and crater lakes. Adaptation to divergent niches has been proposed as a major cause for this accelerated speciation. Here, we show that neutral mutation, genetic drift, and neutral community dynamics are sufficient to lead to radiation. In addition, these processes yield overshooting dynamics with a decline in species richness in the later stages of radiation. We constructed an ecologically neutral model for a community on an island with a uniform environment. For the speciation process, we introduced a null model with minimal assumptions in which the incompatibilities between alleles in different lineages evolve by a random accumulation of mutations via genetic drift. Our simulations showed that the speciation rate, extinction rate and genetic variation of the species colonizing the island rapidly increased to a sharp peak followed by a decrease that approached zero. Because the extinction rate reached a peak later than the speciation rate, the species richness initially increased, but declined in the later stage, exhibiting "overshooting". The highest species richness was found for the largest island at the largest initial population size. Accordingly, speciation is accelerated by the large population size of depauperate biota, whereas it is decelerated with increasing species richness from the decreasing population size. Explosive radiation without ecological divergence can occur in depauperate environments via neutral stochastic processes. PMID:27297287

  9. Sympatric species of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) vary in dormancy break and germination requirements: implications for classifying morphophysiological dormancy in Mediterranean biomes

    PubMed Central

    Hidayati, Siti N.; Walck, Jeffrey L.; Merritt, David J.; Turner, Shane R.; Turner, David W.; Dixon, Kingsley W.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Several ecologically important plant families in Mediterranean biomes have seeds with morphophysiological dormancy (MPD) but have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to understand the seed ecology of these species by focusing on the prominent, yet intractably dormant Australian genus Hibbertia. It was hypothesized that the slow germination in species of this genus is caused by a requirement for embryo growth inside the seed before germination, and that initiation of embryo growth is reliant upon a complex sequence of environmental cues including seasonal fluctuations in temperature and moisture, and an interplay with light and smoke. Using the results, the classification of the MPD level in species of Hibbertia is considered. Methods Four species of Hibbertia in winter rainfall south-western Australia were selected. These species, whilst differing in geographic distributions, are variously sympatric, and all are important understorey components of plant communities. The following aspects related to dormancy break, embryo growth and germination were investigated: temperature and moisture requirements; effects of karrikinolide, gibberellic acid and aerosol smoke; and phenology. Key Results Following exposure to wet/dry cycles at low or high temperatures, embryo growth and germination occurred, albeit slowly in all species at low temperatures when moisture was unlimited, corresponding to winter in south-west Australia. Photo regime influenced germination only in H. racemosa. Aerosol smoke triggered substantial germination during the 1st germination season in H. huegelii and H. hypericoides. Conclusions Although the study species are con-generic, sympatric and produce seeds of identical morphology, they possessed different dormancy-break and germination requirements. The physiological component of MPD was non-deep in H. racemosa but varied in the other three species where more deeply dormant seeds required >1 summer to overcome dormancy

  10. Striking Phenotypic Variation yet Low Genetic Differentiation in Sympatric Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    PubMed Central

    Coon, Andrew; Carson, Robert; Debes, Paul V.

    2016-01-01

    The study of population differentiation in the context of ecological speciation is commonly assessed using populations with obvious discreteness. Fewer studies have examined diversifying populations with occasional adaptive variation and minor reproductive isolation, so factors impeding or facilitating the progress of early stage differentiation are less understood. We detected non-random genetic structuring in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) inhabiting a large, pristine, postglacial lake (Mistassini Lake, Canada), with up to five discernible genetic clusters having distinctions in body shape, size, colouration and head shape. However, genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.017) and genetic clustering was largely incongruent between several population- and individual-based clustering approaches. Genotype- and phenotype-environment associations with spatial habitat, depth and fish community structure (competitors and prey) were either inconsistent or weak. Striking morphological variation was often more continuous within than among defined genetic clusters. Low genetic differentiation was a consequence of relatively high contemporary gene flow despite large effective population sizes, not migration-drift disequilibrium. Our results suggest a highly plastic propensity for occupying multiple habitat niches in lake trout and a low cost of morphological plasticity, which may constrain the speed and extent of adaptive divergence. We discuss how factors relating to niche conservatism in this species may also influence how plasticity affects adaptive divergence, even where ample ecological opportunity apparently exists. PMID:27680019

  11. MODELING MONOMETHYLMERCURY AND TRIBUTYLTIN SPECIATION WITH EPA'S GEOCHEMICAL SPECIATION MODEL MINTEQA2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Given the complexity of the various, simultaneous (and competing) equilibrium reactions governing the speciation of ionic species in aquatic systems, EPA has developed and distributed the geochemical speciation model MINTEQA2 (Brown and Allison, 1987, Allison et al., 1991; Hydrog...

  12. Contrasting patterns of structural host specificity of two species of Heligmosomoides nematodes in sympatric rodents.

    PubMed

    Clough, Dagmar; Råberg, Lars

    2014-12-01

    Host specificity is a fundamental property of parasites. Whereas most studies focus on measures of specificity on host range, only few studies have considered quantitative aspects such as infection intensity or prevalence. The relative importance of these quantitative aspects is still unclear, mainly because of methodological constraints, yet central to a precise assessment of host specificity. Here, we assessed simultaneously two quantitative measures of host specificity of Heligmosomoides glareoli and Heligmosomoides polygyrus polygyrus infections in sympatric rodent hosts. We used standard morphological techniques as well as real-time quantitative PCR and sequencing of the rDNA ITS2 fragment to analyse parasite infection via faecal sample remains. Although both parasite species are thought to be strictly species-specific, we found morphologically and molecularly validated co- and cross-infections. We also detected contrasting patterns within and between host species with regard to specificity for prevalence and intensity of infection. H. glareoli intensities were twofold higher in bank voles than in yellow-necked mice, but prevalence did not differ significantly between species (33 vs. 18%). We found the opposite pattern in H. polygyrus infections with similar intensity levels between host species but significantly higher prevalence in mouse hosts (56 vs. 10%). Detection rates were higher with molecular tools than morphological methods. Our results emphasize the necessity to consider quantitative aspects of specificity for a full view of a parasites' capacity to replicate and transmit in hosts and present a worked example of how modern molecular tools help to advance our understanding of selective forces in host-parasite ecology and evolution. PMID:25273630

  13. Water temperature, not fish morph, determines parasite infections of sympatric Icelandic threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

    PubMed Central

    Karvonen, Anssi; Kristjánsson, Bjarni K; Skúlason, Skúli; Lanki, Maiju; Rellstab, Christian; Jokela, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Parasite communities of fishes are known to respond directly to the abiotic environment of the host, for example, to water quality and water temperature. Biotic factors are also important as they affect the exposure profile through heterogeneities in parasite distribution in the environment. Parasites in a particular environment may pose a strong selection on fish. For example, ecological differences in selection by parasites have been hypothesized to facilitate evolutionary differentiation of freshwater fish morphs specializing on different food types. However, as parasites may also respond directly to abiotic environment the parasite risk does not depend only on biotic features of the host environment. It is possible that different morphs experience specific selection gradients by parasites but it is not clear how consistent the selection is when abiotic factors change. We examined parasite pressure in sympatric morphs of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) across a temperature gradient in two large Icelandic lakes, Myvatn and Thingvallavatn. Habitat-specific temperature gradients in these lakes are opposite. Myvatn lava rock morph lives in a warm environment, while the mud morph lives in the cold. In Thingvallavatn, the lava rock morph lives in a cold environment and the mud morph in a warm habitat. We found more parasites in fish living in higher temperature in both lakes, independent of the fish morph, and this pattern was similar for the two dominating parasite taxa, trematodes and cestodes. However, at the same time, we also found higher parasite abundance in a third morph living in deep cold–water habitat in Thingvallavatn compared to the cold-water lava morph, indicating strong effect of habitat-specific biotic factors. Our results suggest complex interactions between water temperature and biotic factors in determining the parasite community structure, a pattern that may have implications for differentiation of stickleback morphs. PMID

  14. Maintenance of strong morphological differentiation despite ongoing natural hybridization between sympatric species of Lomatia (Proteaceae)

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, Emma J.; Rossetto, Maurizio; Weston, Peter H.; Wardle, Glenda M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims When species cohesion is maintained despite ongoing natural hybridization, many questions are raised about the evolutionary processes operating in the species complex. This study examined the extensive natural hybridization between the Australian native shrubs Lomatia myricoides and L. silaifolia (Proteaceae). These species exhibit striking differences in morphology and ecological preferences, exceeding those found in most studies of hybridization to date. Methods Nuclear microsatellite markers (nSSRs), genotyping methods and morphometric analyses were used to uncover patterns of hybridization and the role of gene flow in morphological differentiation between sympatric species. Key Results The complexity of hybridization patterns differed markedly between sites, however, signals of introgression were present at all sites. One site provided evidence of a large hybrid swarm and the likely presence of multiple hybrid generations and backcrosses, another site a handful of early generational hybrids and a third site only traces of admixture from a past hybridization event. The presence of cryptic hybrids and a pattern of morphological bimodality amongst hybrids often disguised the extent of underlying genetic admixture. Conclusions Distinct parental habitats and phenotypes are expected to form barriers that contribute to the rapid reversion of hybrid populations to their parental character state, due to limited opportunities for hybrid/intermediate advantage. Furthermore, strong genomic filters may facilitate continued gene flow between species without the danger of assimilation. Stochastic fire events facilitate temporal phenological isolation between species and may partly explain the bi-directional and site-specific patterns of hybridization observed. Furthermore, the findings suggest that F1 hybrids are rare, and backcrosses may occur rapidly following these initial hybridization events. PMID:24489011

  15. Alpine Crossroads or Origin of Genetic Diversity? Comparative Phylogeography of Two Sympatric Microgastropod Species

    PubMed Central

    Weigand, Alexander M.; Pfenninger, Markus; Jochum, Adrienne; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The Alpine Region, constituting the Alps and the Dinaric Alps, has played a major role in the formation of current patterns of biodiversity either as a contact zone of postglacial expanding lineages or as the origin of genetic diversity. In our study, we tested these hypotheses for two widespread, sympatric microgastropod taxa – Carychium minimum O.F. Müller, 1774 and Carychium tridentatum (Risso, 1826) (Gastropoda, Eupulmonata, Carychiidae) – by using COI sequence data and species potential distribution models analyzed in a statistical phylogeographical framework. Additionally, we examined disjunct transatlantic populations of those taxa from the Azores and North America. In general, both Carychium taxa demonstrate a genetic structure composed of several differentiated haplotype lineages most likely resulting from allopatric diversification in isolated refugial areas during the Pleistocene glacial periods. However, the genetic structure of Carychium minimum is more pronounced, which can be attributed to ecological constraints relating to habitat proximity to permanent bodies of water. For most of the Carychium lineages, the broader Alpine Region was identified as the likely origin of genetic diversity. Several lineages are endemic to the broader Alpine Region whereas a single lineage per species underwent a postglacial expansion to (re)colonize previously unsuitable habitats, e.g. in Northern Europe. The source populations of those expanding lineages can be traced back to the Eastern and Western Alps. Consequently, we identify the Alpine Region as a significant ‘hot-spot’ for the formation of genetic diversity within European Carychium lineages. Passive dispersal via anthropogenic means best explains the presence of transatlantic European Carychium populations on the Azores and in North America. We conclude that passive (anthropogenic) transport could mislead the interpretation of observed phylogeographical patterns in general. PMID:22606334

  16. On the Sympatric Evolution and Evolutionary Stability of Coexistence by Relative Nonlinearity of Competition

    PubMed Central

    Hartig, Florian; Münkemüller, Tamara; Johst, Karin; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    If two species exhibit different nonlinear responses to a single shared resource, and if each species modifies the resource dynamics such that this favors its competitor, they may stably coexist. This coexistence mechanism, known as relative nonlinearity of competition, is well understood theoretically, but less is known about its evolutionary properties and its prevalence in real communities. We address this challenge by using adaptive dynamics theory and individual-based simulations to compare community stabilization and evolutionary stability of species that coexist by relative nonlinearity. In our analysis, evolution operates on the species' density-compensation strategies, and we consider a trade-off between population growth rates at high and low resource availability. We confirm previous findings that, irrespective of the particular model of density dependence, there are many combinations of overcompensating and undercompensating density-compensation strategies that allow stable coexistence by relative nonlinearity. However, our analysis also shows that most of these strategy combinations are not evolutionarily stable and will be outcompeted by an intermediate density-compensation strategy. Only very specific trade-offs lead to evolutionarily stable coexistence by relative nonlinearity. As we find no reason why these particular trade-offs should be common in nature, we conclude that the sympatric evolution and evolutionary stability of relative nonlinearity, while possible in principle, seems rather unlikely. We speculate that this may, at least in part, explain why empirical demonstrations of this coexistence mechanism are rare, noting, however, that the difficulty to detect relative nonlinearity in the field is an equally likely explanation for the current lack of empirical observations, and that our results are limited to communities with non-overlapping generations and constant resource supply. Our study highlights the need for combining ecological and

  17. Difference in flowering time can initiate speciation of nocturnally flowering species.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomotaka; Yasumoto, Akiko A; Nitta, Kozue; Hirota, Shun K; Yahara, Tetsukazu; Tachida, Hidenori

    2015-04-01

    Isolation mechanisms that prevent gene flow between populations prezygotically play important roles in achieving speciation. In flowering plants, the nighttime flowering system provides a mechanism for isolation from diurnally flowering species. Although this system has long been of interest in evolutionary biology, the evolutionary process leading to this system has yet to be elucidated because of the lack of good model species. However, the genetic mechanisms underlying the differences in flowering times and the traits that attract pollinators between a pair of diurnally and nocturnally flowering species have recently been identified in a few cases. This identification enables us to build a realistic model for theoretically studying the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species. In this study, based on previous experimental data, we assumed a model in which two loci control the flowering time and one locus determines a trait that attracts pollinators. Using this model, we evaluated the possibility of the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering ancestor through simulations. We found that a newly emerging nighttime flowering flower exhibited a sufficiently high fitness, and the evolution of a nocturnally flowering species from a diurnally flowering species could be achieved when hybrid viability was intermediate to low, even in a completely sympatric situation. Our results suggest that the difference in flowering time can act as a magic trait that induces both natural selection and assortative mating and would play an important role in speciation between diurnally and nocturnally flowering species pairs. PMID:25665720

  18. Arsenic Speciation of Terrestrial Invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, M.M.; Koch, I.; Gordon, R.A.; Reimer, K.J. ); )

    2009-07-01

    The distribution and chemical form (speciation) of arsenic in terrestrial food chains determines both the amount of arsenic available to higher organisms, and the toxicity of this metalloid in affected ecosystems. Invertebrates are part of complex terrestrial food webs. This paper provides arsenic concentrations and arsenic speciation profiles for eight orders of terrestrial invertebrates collected at three historical gold mine sites and one background site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Total arsenic concentrations, determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), were dependent upon the classification of invertebrate. Arsenic species were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) ICP-MS and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Invertebrates were found by HPLC ICP-MS to contain predominantly arsenite and arsenate in methanol/water extracts, while XAS revealed that most arsenic is bound to sulfur in vivo. Examination of the spatial distribution of arsenic within an ant tissue highlighted the differences between exogenous and endogenous arsenic, as well as the extent to which arsenic is transformed upon ingestion. Similar arsenic speciation patterns for invertebrate groups were observed across sites. Trace amounts of arsenobetaine and arsenocholine were identified in slugs, ants, and spiders.

  19. How could sympatric megaherbivores coexist? Example of niche partitioning within a proboscidean community from the Miocene of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calandra, Ivan; Göhlich, Ursula B.; Merceron, Gildas

    2008-09-01

    Although low in diversity, megaherbivores (mammals weighting over 103 kg) and especially proboscideans have a powerful impact on the structure and dynamics of present-day ecosystems. During the Neogene (23 to 2.6 Ma) of Europe, the diversity and geographic distribution of these megaherbivores was much greater. Nonetheless, their role in past ecosystems is unclear. Nutrition is one of the main bonds between organisms and their environment. Therefore, the ecology of organisms can be inferred from their dietary habits. The present study is aimed at characterizing the feeding habits of diverse megaherbivores through dental microwear analyses. This method was applied on cheek teeth of three sympatric species of proboscideans from the middle/late Miocene of the Molasse Basin in Southern Germany: Gomphotherium subtapiroideum, Gomphotherium steinheimense, and Deinotherium giganteum. The microwear signatures are significantly different between these taxa, suggesting differences in feeding habits and ecological niches within a woodland environment. D. giganteum probably browsed on dicotyledonous foliages whereas the two species of gomphotheres were neither strict grazers nor strict browsers and instead probably fed on a large spectrum of vegetal resources. The differences of occlusal molar morphology between the two gomphotheres are supported by the dental microwear pattern. Indeed, G. subtapiroideum probably ingested more abrasive material than G. steinheimense. Thus, our results suggest that these proboscideans did not compete for food resources.

  20. Gene transfer in bacteria: speciation without species?

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Jeffrey G

    2002-06-01

    Although Bacteria and Archaea reproduce by binary fission, exchange of genes among lineages has shaped the diversity of their populations and the diversification of their lineages. Gene exchange can occur by two distinct routes, each differentially impacting the recipient genome. First, homologous recombination mediates the exchange of DNA between closely related individuals (those whose sequences are sufficient similarly to allow efficient integration). As a result, homologous recombination mediates the dispersal of advantageous alleles that may rise to high frequency among genetically related individuals via periodic selection events. Second, lateral gene transfer can introduce novel DNA into a genome from completely unrelated lineages via illegitimate recombination. Gene exchange by this route serves to distribute genes throughout distantly related clades and therefore may confer complex abilities--not otherwise found among closely related lineages--onto the recipient organisms. These two mechanisms of gene exchange play complementary roles in the diversification of microbial populations into independent, ecologically distinct lineages. Although the delineation of microbial "species" then becomes difficult--if not impossible--to achieve, a cogent process of speciation can be predicted.

  1. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Leafloor, James O; Karasov, William H; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Allometric constraints associated with digesting leaves require relatively small avian herbivores to consume high-quality forage. How such constraints are overcome during ontogeny when energy and nutrient requirements are relatively high has not been adequately explored. We compared growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets that differed in protein (10%, 14% or 18%) and fibre (30% or 45%) with those of free-living goslings on Akimiski Island, Canada. This common-garden experiment allowed us to test the hypotheses that (i) smaller-bodied geese are more negatively affected by reduced forage quality than larger-bodied geese, and (ii) goslings from subarctic brood-rearing areas have a limited capacity to slow growth in response to reduced forage quality. Canada goose goslings fed low-protein (10%) diets were on average 44% lighter in body mass, had slower growth rates and were delayed >20 days in reaching 90% of asymptotic size compared with Canada goose goslings fed 18% protein. In contrast, snow goose goslings were unable to survive on the low-protein diets, and those fed high- or medium-protein diets grew at a similar rate and achieved similar asymptotic size. Canada and snow goose goslings fed low-protein diets had reduced growth rates of the tarsus and delayed emergence of the 9th primary. Free-ranging Canada goslings on Akimiski Island were similar in mass and structural size to captive-reared goslings fed low-protein diets. In contrast, snow goslings were similar in mass and structural size to the captive-reared goslings fed the high- and medium-protein diets. This suggests that degraded habitats with mostly low-protein forage may be able to support Canada goslings better than snow goslings which require higher-quality forage to survive. Size-related differences in gosling growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality may influence population size when available food reaches a lower threshold in protein content. However, goslings can avoid such density-dependent population regulation if they are able to move their broods and find adequate quality and quantity of forage. PMID:25081822

  2. Reproductive ecology of five sympatric Agave Littaea (Agavaceae) species in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Martha; Valera, Aldo; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2005-08-01

    We studied a community of Agave species that coexist in the Metztitlán Canyon in Central Mexico. During 2001, 2002, and 2003, we analyzed floral traits and rosette allometry in five species belonging to the subgenus Littaea: A. celsii albicans, A. xylonacantha, A. difformis, A. striata, and Agave sp.; and observed floral visitors for each species. We report the first evidence of bat visitation in the subgenus Littaea and find that bats (Leptonycteris curasoae, Choeronycteris mexicana, and Glossophaga sp.) are the primary pollinators in four species. Honeybees, hummingbirds, bumblebees and hawkmoths were also common visitors. We propose that the presence of diurnal pollinators may increase the reproductive success of the plant when offering pollinator services additional to the coadapted pollinator. We also found evidence of selection pressures toward semelparity because pollinators are selecting for taller inflorescences in three of the five species. There is phenological complementarity in this community because the flowering periods of the five species span the entire year, although there are some periods when pairs of species overlap. Additionally, we found evidence for character displacement in rosette sizes and separation of spatial and temporal resource use in pollinator composition among species.

  3. Ecological implications of reduced forage quality on growth and survival of sympatric geese.

    PubMed

    Richman, Samantha E; Leafloor, James O; Karasov, William H; McWilliams, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Allometric constraints associated with digesting leaves require relatively small avian herbivores to consume high-quality forage. How such constraints are overcome during ontogeny when energy and nutrient requirements are relatively high has not been adequately explored. We compared growth trajectories of Canada and lesser snow goose goslings raised on grass-based diets that differed in protein (10%, 14% or 18%) and fibre (30% or 45%) with those of free-living goslings on Akimiski Island, Canada. This common-garden experiment allowed us to test the hypotheses that (i) smaller-bodied geese are more negatively affected by reduced forage quality than larger-bodied geese, and (ii) goslings from subarctic brood-rearing areas have a limited capacity to slow growth in response to reduced forage quality. Canada goose goslings fed low-protein (10%) diets were on average 44% lighter in body mass, had slower growth rates and were delayed >20 days in reaching 90% of asymptotic size compared with Canada goose goslings fed 18% protein. In contrast, snow goose goslings were unable to survive on the low-protein diets, and those fed high- or medium-protein diets grew at a similar rate and achieved similar asymptotic size. Canada and snow goose goslings fed low-protein diets had reduced growth rates of the tarsus and delayed emergence of the 9th primary. Free-ranging Canada goslings on Akimiski Island were similar in mass and structural size to captive-reared goslings fed low-protein diets. In contrast, snow goslings were similar in mass and structural size to the captive-reared goslings fed the high- and medium-protein diets. This suggests that degraded habitats with mostly low-protein forage may be able to support Canada goslings better than snow goslings which require higher-quality forage to survive. Size-related differences in gosling growth and survival in response to diminished diet quality may influence population size when available food reaches a lower threshold in protein content. However, goslings can avoid such density-dependent population regulation if they are able to move their broods and find adequate quality and quantity of forage.

  4. Molecular Differentiation of the African Yellow Fever Vector Aedes bromeliae (Diptera: Culicidae) from Its Sympatric Non-vector Sister Species, Aedes lilii

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kelly Louise; Linton, Yvonne-Marie; Shija, Fortunate; Kaddumukasa, Martha; Djouaka, Rousseau; Misinzo, Gerald; Lutwama, Julius; Huang, Yiau-Min; Mitchell, Luke B.; Richards, Miriam; Tossou, Eric; Walton, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Yellow fever continues to be a problem in sub-Saharan Africa with repeated epidemics occurring. The mosquito Aedes bromeliae is a major vector of yellow fever, but it cannot be readily differentiated from its non-vector zoophilic sister species Ae. lilii using morphological characters. Genetic differences have been reported between anthropophilic Ae. bromeliae and zoophilic Ae. lilii and between forest and domestic populations. However, due to the application of different molecular markers and non-overlapping populations employed in previous studies, interpretation of species delimitation is unclear. Methodology/Principle Findings DNA sequences were generated from specimens of Ae. simpsoni s.l. from the Republic of Benin, Tanzania and Uganda for two nuclear genes apolipophorin 2 (apoLp2) and cytochrome p450 (CYPJ92), the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COI) barcoding region. Nuclear genes apoLp2 and CYPJ92 were unable to differentiate between species Ae. bromeliae and Ae. lilii due to ancestral lineage sorting, while ITS sequence data provided clear topological separation on a phylogeny. The standard COI barcoding region was shown to be subject to species introgression and unable to clearly distinguish the two taxa. Here we present a reliable direct PCR-based method for differentiation of the vector species Ae. bromeliae from its isomorphic, sympatric and non-biomedically important sister taxon, Ae. lilii, based on the ITS region. Using molecular species verification, we describe novel immature habitats for Ae. lilii and report both sympatric and allopatric populations. Whereas only Ae. lilii is found in the Republic of Benin and only Ae. bromeliae in Tanzania, both species are sympatric in Uganda. Conclusions/Significance Our accurate identification method will allow informed distribution and detailed ecological studies that will facilitate assessment of arboviral disease risk and

  5. Sexual behaviour: rapid speciation in an arthropod.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamra C; Shaw, Kerry L

    2005-01-27

    Theory predicts that sexual behaviour in animals can evolve rapidly, accelerating the rate of species formation. Here we estimate the rate of speciation in Laupala, a group of forest-dwelling Hawaiian crickets that is characterized primarily through differences in male courtship song. We find that Laupala has the highest rate of speciation so far recorded in arthropods, supporting the idea that divergence in courtship or sexual behaviour drives rapid speciation in animals.

  6. Administrative Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  7. Chemical niche differentiation among sympatric species of orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Yvonne; Ramírez, Santiago R; Eltz, Thomas

    2009-11-01

    Male Neotropical orchid bees (Euglossini) collect volatile substances (fragrances) from flowers and other sources (e.g., decaying wood) and store them in specialized hind tibial pockets. The accumulated chemicals are later emitted during courtship display, presumably to lure conspecific females for mating. We analyzed tibial fragrances of males of 15 sympatric Panamanian species in the genus Euglossa to test whether communities of euglossine bees are chemically structured, and to elucidate whether male fragrance signals evolve to convey premating isolation. Our analysis revealed substantial chemical disparity among all lineages. Disparity was mediated by compounds that were exclusive to certain species but also by differences in relative quantity of shared compounds. We mapped tibial fragrance compounds present in each species on a DNA-based phylogeny (reconstructed using partial sequences of COI, EF1-alpha, ArgK, and Pol-II) and found that most dominant compounds were highly homoplasious. In an analysis of chemical differentiation in relation to phylogenetic divergence through time, disparity was greater than expected from a null model at any point during evolutionary history, suggesting that diversifying selection has shaped fragrance phenotypes. Notably, chemical disparity was greater within recently diverged lineages than among them, suggesting that chemical preferences in orchid bees evolved rapidly in the early stages of species divergence. We postulate communication interference as the possible mechanism behind the observed fragrance differentiation, which may be the product of reproductive character (fragrance) displacement. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that male fragrance signals evolve to convey premating isolation.

  8. Molecular characterization of iridoviruses isolated from sympatric amphibians and fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mao, J.; Green, D.E.; Fellers, G.; Chinchar, V.G.

    1999-01-01

    Iridoviruses infect invertebrates (primarily insects and crustaceans) and ectothermic vertebrates (fish, amphibians, and reptiles). Identical, or nearly identical viruses, have been isolated from different animals within the same taxonomic class, indicating that infection by a given virus is not limited to a single species. Although inter-class infections have been documented following experimental infection with vertebrate iridoviruses, it is not clear whether such infections occur in nature. Here we report the isolation of apparently identical iridoviruses from wild sympatric fish (the threespine stickleback, Gasterostelus aculeatus) and amphibians (the red-legged frog, Rana aurora). Viruses isolated from sticklebacks (stickleback virus, SBV) and from a red-legged frog tadpole (tadpole virus 2, TV2) replicated in fathead minnow (FHM) cells and synthesized proteins which co-migrated with those of frog virus 3 (FV3). Following restriction endonuclease digestion of viral DNA with Hind III and Xba I, gel analysis showed that the profiles of SBV and TV2 were identical to each other and distinct from FV3. Using oligonucleotide primers specific for a highly conserved region of the iridovirus major capsid protein, an not, vert, ~500 nucleotide DNA fragment was amplified from SBV and TV2. Sequence analysis showed that within this 500 nucleotide region SBV and TV2 were identical to each other and to FV3. Taken together these results provide the first evidence that iridoviruses naturally infect animals belonging to different taxonomic classes, and strengthen the suggestion that fish may serve as a reservoir for amphibian viruses or vice versa.

  9. Variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric amphibians.

    PubMed

    Podhajský, Luděk; Gvoždík, Lumír

    2016-11-01

    Distribution and abundance of temperate ectotherms is determined, in part, by the depletion of their limited caloric reserves during wintering. The magnitude of winter energy drain depends on the species-specific capacity to seasonally modify the minimal maintenance costs. We examined seasonal variation of minimum oxygen consumption between two newt species, Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris. Oxygen consumption was measured in both species during their active season (daily temperature range=12-22°C) and wintering period (4°C) at 4°C and 8°C. The seasonal reduction in metabolic rates differed between species and experimental temperatures. Wintering newts reduced their metabolic rates at 4°C and 8°C in I. alpestris, but only at 8°C in L. vulgaris. Both species reduced the thermal sensitivity of oxygen consumption during wintering. Theoretical calculations of winter depletion of caloric reserves under various thermal conditions revealed that seasonal metabolic reduction is more effective in I. alpestris than in L. vulgaris, and its effectiveness will increase with the proportion of warmer days during wintering period. The variation in winter metabolic reduction between sympatric newt species potentially contributes to their distribution patterns and population dynamics under climate change. PMID:27418441

  10. Breakdown in the Process of Incipient Speciation in Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    Nwakanma, Davis C.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Jawara, Musa; Adiamoh, Majidah; Lund, Emily; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Loua, Kovana M.; Konate, Lassana; Sy, Ngayo; Dia, Ibrahima; Awolola, T. Samson; Muskavitch, Marc A. T.; Conway, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding genetic causes and effects of speciation in sympatric populations of sexually reproducing eukaryotes is challenging, controversial, and of practical importance for controlling rapidly evolving pests and pathogens. The major African malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) is considered to contain two incipient species with strong reproductive isolation, hybrids between the M and S molecular forms being very rare. Following recent observations of higher proportions of hybrid forms at a few sites in West Africa, we conducted new surveys of 12 sites in four contiguous countries (The Gambia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, and Republic of Guinea). Identification and genotyping of 3499 A. gambiae s.s. revealed high frequencies of M/S hybrid forms at each site, ranging from 5 to 42%, and a large spectrum of inbreeding coefficient values from 0.11 to 0.76, spanning most of the range expected between the alternative extremes of panmixia and assortative mating. Year-round sampling over 2 years at one of the sites in The Gambia showed that M/S hybrid forms had similar relative frequencies throughout periods of marked seasonal variation in mosquito breeding and abundance. Genome-wide scans with an Affymetrix high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray enabled replicate comparisons of pools of different molecular forms, in three separate populations. These showed strong differentiation between M and S forms only in the pericentromeric region of the X chromosome that contains the molecular form-specific marker locus, with only a few other loci showing minor differences. In the X chromosome, the M/S hybrid forms were more differentiated from M than from S forms, supporting a hypothesis of asymmetric introgression and backcrossing. PMID:23335339

  11. Testing Local Host Adaptation and Phenotypic Plasticity in a Herbivore When Alternative Related Host Plants Occur Sympatrically

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Montoya, Lorena; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Host race formation in phytophagous insects can be an early stage of adaptive speciation. However, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in host use is another possible outcome. Using a reciprocal transplant experiment we tested the hypothesis of local adaptation in the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae. Aphid genotypes derived from two sympatric host plants, Brassica oleracea and B. campestris, were assessed in order to measure the extent of phenotypic plasticity in morphological and life history traits in relation to the host plants. We obtained an index of phenotypic plasticity for each genotype. Morphological variation of aphids was summarized by principal components analysis. Significant effects of recipient host on morphological variation and life history traits (establishment, age at first reproduction, number of nymphs, and intrinsic growth rate) were detected. We did not detected genotype × host plant interaction; in general the genotypes developed better on B. campestris, independent of the host plant species from which they were collected. Therefore, there was no evidence to suggest local adaptation. Regarding plasticity, significant differences among genotypes in the index of plasticity were detected. Furthermore, significant selection on PC1 (general aphid body size) on B. campestris, and on PC1 and PC2 (body length relative to body size) on B. oleracea was detected. The elevation of the reaction norm of PC1 and the slope of the reaction norm for PC2 (i.e., plasticity) were under directional selection. Thus, host plant species constitute distinct selective environments for B. brassicae. Aphid genotypes expressed different phenotypes in response to the host plant with low or nil fitness costs. Phenotypic plasticity and gene flow limits natural selection for host specialization promoting the maintenance of genetic variation in host exploitation. PMID:24265743

  12. [Caucasian cryptic species of rodents as models for studying the problem of species and speciation].

    PubMed

    Baskevich, M I; Potapov, S G; Mironova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of species and speciation is considered using as a model the cryptic species of rodents inhabiting the Caucasus, the mountain chain with prominent altitude environmental gradient and insular pattern of mountain habitats. These circumstances open additional possibilities for the choice of species conception (biological or phylogenetic), exploration of ancestry pathways (sympatric or allopatric speciation) of model cryptic species groups, and testing the 'refuge' hypothesis. As model species, sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' (a group of unstriped birch mice) and representatives of the vole subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae) were used. Based on the new data on karyology, nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial gene cytb, multivariate statistical analysis of odontologic traits, and biogeography of sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' and voles from subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae), their evolutionary history is reconstructed and applicable species concepts are examined. For the present sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' the allopatric dispersion is typical, which agrees with the hypothesis of speciation in refuges. The sympatry of Terricola sibling-species in the Caucasus is considered as being secondary, and their phenotypic likeness--as an adaptation to similar environmental conditions. Affirmed coexistence of sibling-species Microtus (Terricola) majori and Microtus (Terricola) daghestanicus in the Caucasus (without their hybridization) supports the biological conception of species. The existence of Sicista allospecies from the group of Caucasian unstriped birch mice is best conformed to the phylogenetic conception. However, the high level of chromosomal differences between sibling-species and, in particular, between extreme variants of common evolutionary line (Sicista kazbegica, Sicista kluchorica) does not contradict the biological conception of species. PMID:26353399

  13. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  14. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N.; Lappin, Michael R.; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Alldredge, Mathew W.; Logan, Kenneth A.; Sweanor, Linda L.; Riley, Seth P.D.; Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Fisher, Robert N.; Vickers, T. Winston; Boyce, Walter M.; McBride, Roy; Cunnigham, Mark C.; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse S.; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R.; VandeWoude, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened >1,000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus) and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure-providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban landuse predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest inter-specific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey. Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intra

  15. Pathogen exposure varies widely among sympatric populations of wild and domestic felids across the United States.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Bevins, Sarah N; Lappin, Michael R; Boydston, Erin E; Lyren, Lisa M; Alldredge, Mathew; Logan, Kenneth A; Sweanor, Linda L; Riley, Seth P D; Serieys, Laurel E K; Fisher, Robert N; Vickers, T Winston; Boyce, Walter; Mcbride, Roy; Cunningham, Mark C; Jennings, Megan; Lewis, Jesse; Lunn, Tamika; Crooks, Kevin R; Vandewoude, Sue

    2016-03-01

    Understanding how landscape, host, and pathogen traits contribute to disease exposure requires systematic evaluations of pathogens within and among host species and geographic regions. The relative importance of these attributes is critical for management of wildlife and mitigating domestic animal and human disease, particularly given rapid ecological changes, such as urbanization. We screened > 1000 samples from sympatric populations of puma (Puma concolor), bobcat (Lynx rufus), and domestic cat (Felis catus) across urban gradients in six sites, representing three regions, in North America for exposure to a representative suite of bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens (Bartonella sp., Toxoplasma gondii, feline herpesvirus-1, feline panleukopenea virus, feline calicivirus, and feline immunodeficiency virus). We evaluated prevalence within each species, and examined host trait and land cover determinants of exposure; providing an unprecedented analysis of factors relating to potential for infections in domesticated and wild felids. Prevalence differed among host species (highest for puma and lowest for domestic cat) and was greater for indirectly transmitted pathogens. Sex was inconsistently predictive of exposure to directly transmitted pathogens only, and age infrequently predictive of both direct and indirectly transmitted pathogens. Determinants of pathogen exposure were widely divergent between the wild felid species. For puma, suburban land use predicted increased exposure to Bartonella sp. in southern California, and FHV-1 exposure increased near urban edges in Florida. This may suggest interspecific transmission with domestic cats via flea vectors (California) and direct contact (Florida) around urban boundaries. Bobcats captured near urban areas had increased exposure to T. gondii in Florida, suggesting an urban source of prey Bobcats captured near urban areas in Colorado and Florida had higher FIV exposure, possibly suggesting increased intraspecific

  16. Ecological Schoolyards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  17. Divergence between sympatric rice- and soybean-infecting populations of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group-1 IA.

    PubMed

    Bernardes de Assis, Joana; Peyer, Patrik; Rush, Milton C; Zala, Marcello; McDonald, Bruce A; Ceresini, Paulo C

    2008-12-01

    Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG)-1 IA causes soybean foliar blighting (aerial blight) and rice sheath blight diseases. Although taxonomically related within the AG-1 complex, sister populations of R. solani AG-1 IA infecting Poaceae (rice) and Fabaceae (soybean) are genetically distinct based on internal transcribed spacer rDNA. However, there is currently no information available regarding the extent of genetic differentiation and host specialization between rice- and soybean-infecting populations of R. solani AG-1 IA. We used 10 microsatellite loci to compare sympatric R. solani AG-1 IA populations infecting rice and soybeans in Louisiana and one allopatric rice-infecting population from Texas. None of the 154 multilocus genotypes found among the 223 isolates were shared among the three populations. Partitioning of genetic diversity showed significant differentiation among sympatric populations from different host species (Phi(ST) = 0.39 to 0.41). Historical migration patterns between sympatric rice- and soybean-infecting populations from Louisiana were asymmetrical. Rice- and soybean-derived isolates of R. solani AG-1 IA were able to infect both rice and soybean, but were significantly more aggressive on their host of origin, consistent with host specialization. The soybean-infecting population from Louisiana was more clonal than the sympatric rice-infecting population. Most of the loci in the soybean-infecting populations were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), but the sympatric rice-infecting population from Louisiana was mainly in HWE. All populations presented evidence for a mixed reproductive system.

  18. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Arsenic speciation in edible mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Nearing, Michelle M; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J

    2014-12-16

    The fruiting bodies, or mushrooms, of terrestrial fungi have been found to contain a high proportion of the nontoxic arsenic compound arsenobetaine (AB), but data gaps include a limited phylogenetic diversity of the fungi for which arsenic speciation is available, a focus on mushrooms with higher total arsenic concentrations, and the unknown formation and role of AB in mushrooms. To address these, the mushrooms of 46 different fungus species (73 samples) over a diverse range of phylogenetic groups were collected from Canadian grocery stores and background and arsenic-contaminated areas. Total arsenic was determined using ICP-MS, and arsenic speciation was determined using HPLC-ICP-MS and complementary X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The major arsenic compounds in mushrooms were found to be similar among phylogenetic groups, and AB was found to be the major compound in the Lycoperdaceae and Agaricaceae families but generally absent in log-growing mushrooms, suggesting the microbial community may influence arsenic speciation in mushrooms. The high proportion of AB in mushrooms with puffball or gilled morphologies may suggest that AB acts as an osmolyte in certain mushrooms to help maintain fruiting body structure. The presence of an As(III)-sulfur compound, for the first time in mushrooms, was identified in the XAS analysis. Except for Agaricus sp. (with predominantly AB), inorganic arsenic predominated in most of the store-bought mushrooms (albeit with low total arsenic concentrations). Should inorganic arsenic predominate in these mushrooms from contaminated areas, the risk to consumers under these circumstances should be considered.

  20. Speciation through the lens of biomechanics: locomotion, prey capture and reproductive isolation

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Sean M.; Langerhans, R. Brian; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Lauder, George V.; Stewart, William J.; Martin, Christopher H.; Reznick, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Speciation is a multifaceted process that involves numerous aspects of the biological sciences and occurs for multiple reasons. Ecology plays a major role, including both abiotic and biotic factors. Whether populations experience similar or divergent ecological environments, they often adapt to local conditions through divergence in biomechanical traits. We investigate the role of biomechanics in speciation using fish predator–prey interactions, a primary driver of fitness for both predators and prey. We highlight specific groups of fishes, or specific species, that have been particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic interactions and offer the best opportunities for future studies that link genetic architecture to biomechanics and reproductive isolation (RI). In addition to emphasizing the key biomechanical techniques that will be instrumental, we also propose that the movement towards linking biomechanics and speciation will include (i) establishing the genetic basis of biomechanical traits, (ii) testing whether similar and divergent selection lead to biomechanical divergence, and (iii) testing whether/how biomechanical traits affect RI. Future investigations that examine speciation through the lens of biomechanics will propel our understanding of this key process. PMID:27629033

  1. Speciation through the lens of biomechanics: locomotion, prey capture and reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Higham, Timothy E; Rogers, Sean M; Langerhans, R Brian; Jamniczky, Heather A; Lauder, George V; Stewart, William J; Martin, Christopher H; Reznick, David N

    2016-09-14

    Speciation is a multifaceted process that involves numerous aspects of the biological sciences and occurs for multiple reasons. Ecology plays a major role, including both abiotic and biotic factors. Whether populations experience similar or divergent ecological environments, they often adapt to local conditions through divergence in biomechanical traits. We investigate the role of biomechanics in speciation using fish predator-prey interactions, a primary driver of fitness for both predators and prey. We highlight specific groups of fishes, or specific species, that have been particularly valuable for understanding these dynamic interactions and offer the best opportunities for future studies that link genetic architecture to biomechanics and reproductive isolation (RI). In addition to emphasizing the key biomechanical techniques that will be instrumental, we also propose that the movement towards linking biomechanics and speciation will include (i) establishing the genetic basis of biomechanical traits, (ii) testing whether similar and divergent selection lead to biomechanical divergence, and (iii) testing whether/how biomechanical traits affect RI. Future investigations that examine speciation through the lens of biomechanics will propel our understanding of this key process. PMID:27629033

  2. Speciation in fungal and oomycete plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of speciation by definition involves evolution of one or more reproductive isolating mechanisms that split a single species into two that can no longer interbreed. Determination of which processes are responsible for speciation is important yet challenging. Several studies have proposed ...

  3. Ecological opportunity and the adaptive diversification of lineages

    PubMed Central

    Wellborn, Gary A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    The tenet that ecological opportunity drives adaptive diversification has been central to theories of speciation since Darwin, yet no widely accepted definition or mechanistic framework for the concept currently exists. We propose a definition for ecological opportunity that provides an explicit mechanism for its action. In our formulation, ecological opportunity refers to environmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage. Thus, ecological opportunity arises from two fundamental elements: (1) niche availability, the ability of a population with a phenotype previously absent from a community to persist within that community and (2) niche discordance, the diversifying selection generated by the adaptive mismatch between a population's niche-related traits and the newly encountered ecological conditions. Evolutionary response to ecological opportunity is primarily governed by (1) spatiotemporal structure of ecological opportunity, which influences dynamics of selection and development of reproductive isolation and (2) diversification potential, the biological properties of a lineage that determine its capacity to diversify. Diversification under ecological opportunity proceeds as an increase in niche breadth, development of intraspecific ecotypes, speciation, and additional cycles of diversification that may themselves be triggered by speciation. Extensive ecological opportunity may exist in depauperate communities, but it is unclear whether ecological opportunity abates in species-rich communities. Because ecological opportunity should generally increase during times of rapid and multifarious environmental change, human activities may currently be generating elevated ecological opportunity – but so far little work has directly addressed this topic. Our framework highlights the need for greater synthesis of community ecology and evolutionary biology, unifying

  4. Divergent host plant specialization as the critical driving force in speciation between populations of a phytophagous ladybird beetle.

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, K W; Kahono, S; Katakura, H

    2011-07-01

    Detecting the isolating barrier that arises earliest in speciation is critically important to understanding the mechanism of species formation. We tested isolating barriers between host races of a phytophagous ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna diekei (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae: Epilachnine), that occur sympatrically on distinct host plants. We conducted field surveys for the distribution of the beetles and host plants, rearing experiments to measure six potential isolating factors (adult host preference, adult and larval host performance, sexual isolation, egg hatchability, F(1) hybrid inviability, and sexual selection against F(1) hybrids), and molecular analyses of mitochondrial ND2 and the nuclear ITS2 sequences. We found significant genetic divergence between the host races, and extremely divergent host preference (i.e. habitat isolation) and host performance (i.e. immigrant inviability), but no other isolating barriers. The fidelity to particular host plants arises first and alone can prevent gene flow between differentiating populations of phytophagous specialists.

  5. Rates of speciation in the fossil record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Data from palaeontology and biodiversity suggest that the global biota should produce an average of three new species per year. However, the fossil record shows large variation around this mean. Rates of origination have declined through the Phanerozoic. This appears to have been largely a function of sorting among higher taxa (especially classes), which exhibit characteristic rates of speciation (and extinction) that differ among them by nearly an order of magnitude. Secular decline of origination rates is hardly constant, however; many positive deviations reflect accelerated speciation during rebounds from mass extinctions. There has also been general decline in rates of speciation within major taxa through their histories, although rates have tended to remain higher among members in tropical regions. Finally, pulses of speciation appear sometimes to be associated with climate change, although moderate oscillations of climate do not necessarily promote speciation despite forcing changes in species' geographical ranges.

  6. Rates of speciation in the fossil record.

    PubMed Central

    Sepkoski, J J

    1998-01-01

    Data from palaeontology and biodiversity suggest that the global biota should produce an average of three new species per year. However, the fossil record shows large variation around this mean. Rates of origination have declined through the Phanerozoic. This appears to have been largely a function of sorting among higher taxa (especially classes), which exhibit characteristic rates of speciation (and extinction) that differ among them by nearly an order of magnitude. Secular decline of origination rates is hardly constant, however; many positive deviations reflect accelerated speciation during rebounds from mass extinctions. There has also been general decline in rates of speciation within major taxa through their histories, although rates have tended to remain higher among members in tropical regions. Finally, pulses of speciation appear sometimes to be associated with climate change, although moderate oscillations of climate do not necessarily promote speciation despite forcing changes in species' geographical ranges. PMID:11541734

  7. Identity of Two Sympatric Species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P.; Shirk, Paul D.; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M.; Horton, David R.

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  8. Foraging Behaviour Patterns of Four Sympatric Demersal Fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labropoulou, M.; Papadopoulou-Smith, K.-N.

    1999-08-01

    The trophic relationships of four sympatric demersal fish species (Mullus barbatus, Mullus surmuletus, Pagrus pagrus and Gobius niger) which dominate the shallow coastal areas (25-30 m) of Iraklion Bay (S Aegean, NE Mediterranean) were investigated from samples collected on a monthly basis (August 1990-August 1992). Stomach content analysis revealed that all four species were carnivorous, feeding mainly on benthic invertebrates. Although these species displayed different feeding modes based on principal prey type utilization, they all consumed a considerable number of polychaetes. In order to understand any underlying patterns of predation on polychaetes, prey items were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level. The polychaete species were further classified into groups according to their microhabitat (surface or burrowing) and feeding (feeding mode, motility and morphology) guilds. Comparisons of the feeding habits were made using the percentage contribution by number of each prey species in the diet of the predators. Similarities in the diets between the fish species were calculated and cluster analysis was used to describe interspecific variations in food selection, concerning polychaetes. The predatory preferences of each fish species were related to the microhabitat distribution of prey species in the sediment. The differential exploitation of polychaete species was a good indicator of disparate foraging behaviour among the fish species examined, since it reflects a transition from a non-selective to a specialized feeding method. The effects of predator size and morphology of feeding apparatus and the availability of polychaete species in the environment are also discussed to explain the differential exploitation of polychaetes exhibited by the fish.

  9. Sympatric shift in a male sexual ornament in the damselfly Calopteryx splendens.

    PubMed

    Honkavaara, J; Dunn, D W; Ilvonen, S; Suhonen, J

    2011-01-01

    Character displacement is a process by which interactions between two species that exhibit similar traits, results in geographical patterns of trait divergence in one or both species. These traits evolve to reduce costs of interspecific interactions in sympatry and thus differ from their condition in allopatry. In male damselflies Calopteryx splendens, large wing spots are sexually selected. However, in sympatric populations with Calopteryx virgo, wing spot size decreases as C. virgo abundance increases. The stability of this pattern is unclear, because previous studies have focused on sympatric populations with potentially fluctuating relative abundances. We studied the wing spot sizes of C. splendens in both sympatric and allopatric populations. Our data show that male C. splendens' wing spots are larger in allopatry than in sympatry with C. virgo. We suggest that both interspecific aggression and avoidance of interspecific reproductive interactions may result in this pattern, although their relative importance remains unclear.

  10. Absence of a prezygotic behavioural barrier to gene flow between the two sympatric morphs of the squat lobster Munida gregaria (Fabricius, 1793) (Decapoda: Anomura: Galatheidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Barros, Patricia; Calcagno, Javier A.; Lovrich, Gustavo A.

    2011-12-01

    Munida gregaria and M. subrugosa have been considered two different species for more than a century; however, after a recent molecular phylogenetic study, they are considered a single polymorphic species. Yet, the use of markers to diagnose species may be misleading when divergence between species is recent, since a speciation event may be obscured by the retention and stochastic sorting of ancestral polymorphisms. The morphs gregaria and subrugosa of Munida gregaria constitute an interesting case for the study of behavioural isolation since they are sympatric, breed at the same time of the year, and might have experienced a recent speciation. Mating behaviour observations and mate choice mating trials were conducted in order to investigate the potential existence of a behavioural prezygotic barrier to gene flow between these two morphs. Since factors involved in mate choice in galatheids are unknown, the four possible combinations of the two different morphs in trios were used to test for the existence of mate choice. Video recordings of all the possible trio combinations revealed that there was cross-attraction between males and females of different morphs. Females bearing partial broods participated in encounters as well as non-ovigerous females. The frequency and duration of homo- and heterotypic encounters were registered, and a reproductive isolation index was calculated for each variable for each trio. The isolation indexes calculated were not different from zero indicating random mating, and were not affected by the composition of the trio or the partial ovigerous condition of females. These results provided evidence of the absence of behavioural prezygotic barriers to gene flow between the morphs gregaria and subrugosa of M. gregaria.

  11. US EPA's SPECIATE 4.4 Database: Development and Uses

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPECIATE is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) repository of volatile organic gas and particulate matter (PM) speciation profiles of air pollution sources. EPA released SPECIATE 4.4 in early 2014 and, in total, the SPECIATE 4.4 database includes 5,728 PM, volatile o...

  12. Genomic divergence during speciation: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Speciation is a fundamental process responsible for the diversity of life. Progress has been made in detecting individual ‘speciation genes’ that cause reproductive isolation. In contrast, until recently, less attention has been given to genome-wide patterns of divergence during speciation. Thus, major questions remain concerning how individual speciation genes are arrayed within the genome, and how this affects speciation. This theme issue is dedicated to exploring this genomic perspective of speciation. Given recent sequencing and computational advances that now allow genomic analyses in most organisms, the goal is to help move the field towards a more integrative approach. This issue draws upon empirical studies in plants and animals, and theoretical work, to review and further document patterns of genomic divergence. In turn, these studies begin to disentangle the role that different processes, such as natural selection, gene flow and recombination rate, play in generating observed patterns. These factors are considered in the context of how genomes diverge as speciation unfolds, from beginning to end. The collective results point to how experimental work is now required, in conjunction with theory and sequencing studies, to move the field from descriptive studies of patterns of divergence towards a predictive framework that tackles the causes and consequences of genome-wide patterns. PMID:22201163

  13. Drift promotes speciation by sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Uyeda, Josef C; Arnold, Stevan J; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Mead, Louise S

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative genetic models of sexual selection have generally failed to provide a direct connection to speciation and to explore the consequences of finite population size. The connection to speciation has been indirect because the models have treated only the evolution of male and female traits and have stopped short of modeling the evolution of sexual isolation. In this article we extend Lande's (1981) model of sexual selection to quantify predictions about the evolution of sexual isolation and speciation. Our results, based on computer simulations, support and extend Lande's claim that drift along a line of equilibria can rapidly lead to sexual isolation and speciation. Furthermore, we show that rapid speciation can occur by drift in populations of appreciable size (N(e) >or= 1000). These results are in sharp contrast to the opinion of many researchers and textbook writers who have argued that drift does not play an important role in speciation. We argue that drift may be a powerful amplifier of speciation under a wide variety of modeling assumptions, even when selection acts directly on female mating preferences.

  14. Allopatric divergence and speciation in coral reef fish: the three-spot dascyllus, Dascyllus trimaculatus, species complex.

    PubMed

    Leray, Matthieu; Beldade, Ricardo; Holbrook, Sally J; Schmitt, Russell J; Planes, Serge; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2010-05-01

    Long pelagic larval phases and the absence of physical barriers impede rapid speciation and contrast the high diversity observed in marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. In this study, we used the three-spot dascyllus (Dascyllus trimaculatus) species complex to evaluate speciation modes at the spatial scale of the Indo-Pacific. The complex includes four recognized species and four main color morphs that differ in distribution. Previous studies of the group using mitochondrial DNA revealed a noncongruence between color morphs and genetic groupings; with two of the color morphs grouped together and one color morph separated into three clades. Using extensive geographic sampling of 563 individuals and a combination of mitochondrial DNA sequences and 13 nuclear microsatellites, we defined population/species boundaries and inferred different speciation modes. The complex is composed of seven genetically distinct entities, some of which are distinct morphologically. Despite extensive dispersal abilities and an apparent lack of barriers, observed genetic partitions are consistent with allopatric speciation. However, ecological pressure, assortative mating, and sexual selection, were likely important during periods of geographical isolation. This study therefore suggests that primarily historical factors later followed by ecological factors caused divergence and speciation in this group of coral reef fish.

  15. Speciation and phylogeography in the cosmopolitan marine moon jelly, Aurelia sp

    PubMed Central

    Schroth, Werner; Jarms, Gerhard; Streit, Bruno; Schierwater, Bernd

    2002-01-01

    Background The cosmopolitan moon jelly Aurelia is characterized by high degrees of morphological and ecological plasticity, and subsequently by an unclear taxonomic status. The latter has been revised repeatedly over the last century, dividing the genus Aurelia in as many as 12 or as little as two species. We used molecular data and phenotypic traits to unravel speciation processes and phylogeographic patterns in Aurelia. Results Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data (16S and ITS-1/5.8S rDNA) from 66 world-wide sampled specimens reveal star-like tree topologies, unambiguously differentiating 7 (mtDNA) and 8 (ncDNA) genetic entities with sequence divergences ranging from 7.8 to 14% (mtDNA) and 5 to 32% (ncDNA), respectively. Phylogenetic patterns strongly suggest historic speciation events and the reconstruction of at least 7 different species within Aurelia. Both genetic divergences and life history traits showed associations to environmental factors, suggesting ecological differentiation forced by divergent selection. Hybridization and introgression between Aurelia lineages likely occurred due to secondary contacts, which, however, did not disrupt the unambiguousness of genetic separation. Conclusions Our findings recommend Aurelia as a model system for using the combined power of organismic, ecological, and molecular data to unravel speciation processes in cosmopolitan marine organisms. PMID:11801181

  16. Increased noise levels have different impacts on the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species.

    PubMed

    Voellmy, Irene K; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator-prey relationships. Anthropogenic noise has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional noise (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship noise), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-noise playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-noise playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated noise levels have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world noise sources, and to determine survival and population consequences. PMID:25058618

  17. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn. PMID:22694601

  18. Contrasting effects of geographical separation on the genetic population structure of sympatric species of mites in avocado orchards.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Valencia, S; Santillán-Galicia, M T; Guzmán-Franco, A W; González-Hernández, H; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Suárez-Espinoza, J

    2014-10-01

    Oligonychus punicae and Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae) are the most important mite species affecting avocado orchards in Mexico. Here we used nucleotide sequence data from segments of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes to assess the phylogenetic relationships between both sympatric mite species and, using only ITS sequence data, examine genetic variation and population structure in both species, to test the hypothesis that, although both species co-occur, their genetic population structures are different in both Michoacan state (main producer) and Mexico state. Phylogenetic analysis showed a clear separation between both species using ITS and COI sequence information. Haplotype network analysis done on 24 samples of O. punicae revealed low genetic diversity with only three haplotypes found but a significant geographical population structure confirmed by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Kimura-2-parameter (K2P) analyses. In addition, a Mantel test revealed that geographical isolation was a factor responsible for the genetic differentiation. In contrast, analyses of 22 samples of O. perseae revealed high genetic diversity with 15 haplotypes found but no geographical structure confirmed by the AMOVA, K2P and Mantel test analyses. We have suggested that geographical separation is one of the most important factors driving genetic variation, but that it affected each species differently. The role of the ecology of these species on our results, and the importance of our findings in the development of monitoring and control strategies are discussed.

  19. An integrative approach to detect subtle trophic niche differentiation in the sympatric trawling bat species Myotis dasycneme and Myotis daubentonii.

    PubMed

    Krüger, F; Clare, E L; Greif, S; Siemers, B M; Symondson, W O C; Sommer, R S

    2014-08-01

    Bats are well known for species richness and ecological diversity, and thus, they provide a good opportunity to study relationships and interaction between species. To assess interactions, we consider distinct traits that are probably to be triggered by niche shape and evolutionary processes. We present data on the trophic niche differentiation between two sympatric European trawling bat species, Myotis dasycneme and Myotis daubentonii, incorporating a wide spectrum of methodological approaches. We measure morphological traits involved in foraging and prey handling performance including bite force, weightlifting capacity and wing morphology. We then measure resulting prey consumption using both morphological and molecular diet analyses. These species closely resemble each other in morphological traits, however, subtle but significant differences were apparent in bite force and lift capacity, which are related to differences in basic body and head size. Both morphological and molecular diet analyses show strong niche overlap. We detected subtle differences in less frequent prey items, as well as differences in the exploitation of terrestrial and aquatic-based prey groups. Myotis dasycneme feeds more on aquatic prey, like Chironomidae and their pupal stages, or on the aquatic moth Acentria ephemerella. Myotis daubentonii feeds more on terrestrial prey, like Brachycera, or Coleoptera. This suggests that these bats use different microhabitats within the habitat where they co-occur. PMID:24164379

  20. Increased Noise Levels Have Different Impacts on the Anti-Predator Behaviour of Two Sympatric Fish Species

    PubMed Central

    Voellmy, Irene K.; Purser, Julia; Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals must avoid predation to survive and reproduce, and there is increasing evidence that man-made (anthropogenic) factors can influence predator−prey relationships. Anthropogenic noise has been shown to have a variety of effects on many species, but work investigating the impact on anti-predator behaviour is rare. In this laboratory study, we examined how additional noise (playback of field recordings of a ship passing through a harbour), compared with control conditions (playback of recordings from the same harbours without ship noise), affected responses to a visual predatory stimulus. We compared the anti-predator behaviour of two sympatric fish species, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and the European minnow (Phoxinus phoxinus), which share similar feeding and predator ecologies, but differ in their body armour. Effects of additional-noise playbacks differed between species: sticklebacks responded significantly more quickly to the visual predatory stimulus during additional-noise playbacks than during control conditions, while minnows exhibited no significant change in their response latency. Our results suggest that elevated noise levels have the potential to affect anti-predator behaviour of different species in different ways. Future field-based experiments are needed to confirm whether this effect and the interspecific difference exist in relation to real-world noise sources, and to determine survival and population consequences. PMID:25058618

  1. Demography and Life Histories of Sympatric Patas Monkeys, Erythrocebus patas, and Vervets, Cercopithecus aethiops, in Laikipia, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Young, Truman P.; Jaffe, Karin Enstam; Carlson, Anne A.; Chancellor, Rebecca L.

    2009-01-01

    Mortality patterns are thought to be strong selective forces on life history traits, with high adult mortality and low immature mortality favoring early and rapid reproduction. Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) have the highest potential rates of population increase for their body size of any haplorhine primate because they reproduce both earlier and more often. We report here 10 yr of comparative demographic data on a population of patas monkeys and a sympatric population of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), a closely related species differing in aspects of social system, ecology, and life history. The data reveal that 1) adult female patas monkeys have significantly higher mortality than adult female vervets; 2) infant mortality in patas monkeys is relatively low compared to the norm for mammals because it is not significantly different from that of adult female patas monkeys; and 3) infant mortality is significantly higher than adult female mortality in vervets. For both species, much of the mortality could be attributed to predation. An epidemic illness was also a major contributor to the mortality of adult female patas monkeys whereas chronic exposure to pathogens in a cold and damp microenvironment may have contributed to the mortality of infant vervets. Both populations experienced large fluctuations during the study period. Our results support the prediction from demographic models of life history evolution that high adult mortality relative to immature mortality selects for early maturation. PMID:20976285

  2. Reproductive resource partitioning in two sympatric Goniothalamus species (Annonaceae) from Borneo: floral biology, pollinator trapping and plant breeding system

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jenny Y. Y.; Pang, Chun-Chiu; Ramsden, Lawrence; Saunders, Richard M. K.

    2016-01-01

    The floral phenology, pollination ecology and breeding systems of two sympatric early-divergent angiosperms, Goniothalamus tapisoides and G. suaveolens (Annonaceae) are compared. The flowers are protogynous and morphologically similar, with anthesis over 23–25 h. Both species are predominantly xenogamous and pollinated by small beetles: G. tapisoides mainly by Curculionidae and G. suaveolens mainly by Nitidulidae. Coevolution and reproductive resource partitioning, reducing interspecific pollen transfer, is achieved by temporal isolation, due to contrasting floral phenologies; and ethological isolation, due to contrasting floral scents that contain attractants specific to the two beetle families. Analysis of floral scents revealed three volatiles (3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and 2-phenylethanol) that are known to be nitidulid attractants in the floral scent of G. suaveolens, but absent from that of G. tapisoides. An effective pollinator trapping mechanism is demonstrated for both species, representing the first such report for the family. Trapping is achieved by the compression of the outer petals against the apertures between the inner petals. This trapping mechanism is likely to be a key evolutionary innovation for Goniothalamus, increasing pollination efficiency by increasing pollen loading on beetles during the staminate phase, promoting effective interfloral pollinator movements, and increasing seed-set by enabling rapid turn-over of flowers. PMID:27767040

  3. Morphology, Molecular Genetics, and Bioacoustics Support Two New Sympatric Xenophrys Toads (Amphibia: Anura: Megophryidae) in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingyong; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Jianhuan; Zhou, Zhixin; Chen, Guoling; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Given their recent worldwide declines and extinctions, characterization of species-level diversity is of critical importance for large-scale biodiversity assessments and conservation of amphibians. This task is made difficult by the existence of cryptic species complexes, species groups comprising closely related and morphologically analogous species. The combination of morphology, genetic, and bioacoustic analyses permits robust and accurate species identification. Using these methods, we discovered two undescribed Xenophrys species, namely Xenophrys lini sp. nov. and Xenophrys cheni sp. nov. from the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains, southeast China. These two new species can be reliably distinguished from other known congeners by morphological and morphometric differences, distinctness in male advertisement calls, and substantial genetic distances (>3.6%) based on the mitochondrial 16s and 12s rRNA genes. The two new species, together with X. jinggangensis, are sympatric in the middle range of Luoxiao Mountains but may be isolated altitudinally and ecologically. Our study provides a first step to help resolve previously unrecognized cryptic biodiversity and provides insights into the understanding of Xenophrys diversification in the mountain complexes of southeast China. PMID:24714161

  4. Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2014-08-01

    Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa. PMID:24792083

  5. Contrasting patterns of gene flow between sister plant species in the understorey of African moist forests - the case of sympatric and parapatric Marantaceae species.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Hardy, O J

    2014-08-01

    Gene flow within and between species is a fundamental process shaping the evolutionary history of taxa. However, the extent of hybridization and reinforcement is little documented in the tropics. Here we explore the pattern of gene flow between three sister species from the herbaceous genus Marantochloa (Marantaceae), sympatrically distributed in the understorey of the African rainforest, using data from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes (DNA sequences and AFLP). We found highly contrasting patterns: while there was no evidence of gene flow between M. congensis and M. monophylla, species identity between M. monophylla and M. incertifolia was maintained despite considerable gene flow. We hypothesize that M. incertifolia originated from an ancient hybridization event between M. congensis and M. monophylla, considering the current absence of hybridization between the two assumed parent species, the rare presence of shared haplotypes between all three species and the high percentage of haplotypes shared by M. incertifolia with each of the two parent species. This example is contrasted with two parapatrically distributed species from the same family in the genus Haumania forming a hybrid zone restricted to the area of overlap. This work illustrates the diversity of speciation/introgression patterns that can potentially occur in the flora of tropical Africa.

  6. Climate change exacerbates interspecific interactions in sympatric coastal fishes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Mirto, Simone; Domenici, Paolo; Gristina, Michele

    2013-03-01

    Biological responses to warming are presently based on the assumption that species will remain within their bioclimatic envelope as environmental conditions change. As a result, changes in the relative abundance of several marine species have been documented over the last decades. This suggests that warming may drive novel interspecific interactions to occur (i.e. invasive vs. native species) or may intensify the strength of pre-existing ones (i.e. warm vs. cold adapted). For mobile species, habitat relocation is a viable solution to track tolerable conditions and reduce competitive costs, resulting in 'winner' species dominating the best quality habitat at the expense of 'loser' species. Here, we focus on the importance of warming in exacerbating interspecific interactions between two sympatric fishes. We assessed the relocation response of the cool-water fish Coris julis (a potential 'loser' species in warming scenarios) at increasing relative dominance of the warm-water fish Thalassoma pavo (a 'winner' species). These wrasses are widespread in the Mediterranean nearshore waters. C. julis tolerates cooler waters and is found throughout the basin. T. pavo is common along southern coasts, although the species range is expanding northwards as the Mediterranean warms. We surveyed habitat patterns along a thermo-latitudinal gradient in the Western Mediterranean Sea and manipulated seawater temperature under two scenarios (present day vs. projected) in outdoor arenas. Our results show that the cool-water species relocates to a less-preferred seagrass habitat and undergoes lower behavioural performance in warmer environments, provided the relative dominance of its warm-water antagonist is high. The results suggest that expected warming will act synergistically with increased relative dominance of a warm-water species to cause a cool-water fish to relocate in a less-preferred habitat within the same thermal environment. Our study highlights the complexity of climate

  7. Climate change exacerbates interspecific interactions in sympatric coastal fishes.

    PubMed

    Milazzo, Marco; Mirto, Simone; Domenici, Paolo; Gristina, Michele

    2013-03-01

    Biological responses to warming are presently based on the assumption that species will remain within their bioclimatic envelope as environmental conditions change. As a result, changes in the relative abundance of several marine species have been documented over the last decades. This suggests that warming may drive novel interspecific interactions to occur (i.e. invasive vs. native species) or may intensify the strength of pre-existing ones (i.e. warm vs. cold adapted). For mobile species, habitat relocation is a viable solution to track tolerable conditions and reduce competitive costs, resulting in 'winner' species dominating the best quality habitat at the expense of 'loser' species. Here, we focus on the importance of warming in exacerbating interspecific interactions between two sympatric fishes. We assessed the relocation response of the cool-water fish Coris julis (a potential 'loser' species in warming scenarios) at increasing relative dominance of the warm-water fish Thalassoma pavo (a 'winner' species). These wrasses are widespread in the Mediterranean nearshore waters. C. julis tolerates cooler waters and is found throughout the basin. T. pavo is common along southern coasts, although the species range is expanding northwards as the Mediterranean warms. We surveyed habitat patterns along a thermo-latitudinal gradient in the Western Mediterranean Sea and manipulated seawater temperature under two scenarios (present day vs. projected) in outdoor arenas. Our results show that the cool-water species relocates to a less-preferred seagrass habitat and undergoes lower behavioural performance in warmer environments, provided the relative dominance of its warm-water antagonist is high. The results suggest that expected warming will act synergistically with increased relative dominance of a warm-water species to cause a cool-water fish to relocate in a less-preferred habitat within the same thermal environment. Our study highlights the complexity of climate

  8. Rapid biological speciation driven by tectonic evolution in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, Dave; Upton, Phaedra; Burridge, Christopher P.; Wallis, Graham P.; Waters, Jonathan M.

    2016-02-01

    Collisions between tectonic plates lead to the rise of new mountain ranges that can separate biological populations and ultimately result in new species. However, the identification of links between tectonic mountain-building and biological speciation is confounded by environmental and ecological factors. Thus, there are surprisingly few well-documented examples of direct tectonic controls on terrestrial biological speciation. Here we present examples from New Zealand, where the rapid evolution of 18 species of freshwater fishes has resulted from parallel tectonic landscape evolution. We use numerical models to reconstruct changes in the deep crustal structure and surface drainage catchments of the southern island of New Zealand over the past 25 million years. We show that the island and mountain topography evolved in six principal tectonic zones, which have distinct drainage catchments that separated fish populations. We use new and existing phylogenetic analyses of freshwater fish populations, based on over 1,000 specimens from more than 400 localities, to show that fish genomes can retain evidence of this tectonic landscape development, with a clear correlation between geologic age and extent of DNA sequence divergence. We conclude that landscape evolution has controlled on-going biological diversification over the past 25 million years.

  9. Juxtaposition between host population structures: implications for disease transmission in a sympatric cervid community

    PubMed Central

    Vander Wal, Eric; Edye, Iain; Paquet, Paul C; Coltman, David W; Bayne, Erin; Brook, Ryan K; Andrés, José A

    2013-01-01

    Sympatric populations of phylogenetically related species are often vulnerable to similar communicable diseases. Although some host populations may exhibit spatial structure, other hosts within the community may have unstructured populations. Thus, individuals from unstructured host populations may act as interspecific vectors among discrete subpopulations of sympatric alternate hosts. We used a cervid-bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) system to investigate the landscape-scale potential for bovine tuberculosis transmission within a nonmigratory white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and elk (Cervus canadensis) community. Using landscape population genetics, we tested for genetic and spatial structure in white-tailed deer. We then compared these findings with the sympatric elk population that is structured and which has structure that correlates spatially and genetically to physiognomic landscape features. Despite genetic structure that indicates the white-tailed deer population forms three sympatric clusters, the absence of spatial structure suggested that intraspecific pathogen transmission is not likely to be limited by physiognomic landscape features. The potential for intraspecific transmission among subpopulations of elk is low due to spatial population structure. Given that white-tailed deer are abundant, widely distributed, and exhibit a distinct lack of spatial population structure, white-tailed deer likely pose a greater threat as bovine tuberculosis vectors among elk subpopulations than elk. PMID:24187583

  10. Molecular characterization of cryptic and sympatric lymnaeid species from the Galba/Fossaria group in Mendoza Province, Northern Patagonia, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Freshwater lymnaeid snails can act as the intermediate hosts for trematode parasites such as the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, that cause significant economic and biomedical burden worldwide, particularly through bovine fascioliasis. Transmission potential is tightly coupled to local compatibility with snail hosts, so accurate identification of lymnaeid species is crucial for understanding disease risk, especially when invasive species are encountered. Mendoza Province, in Argentina, is a center of livestock production and also an area of endemic fascioliasis transmission. However, the distribution of lymnaeid species in the region is not well known. Methods This study examined lymnaeid snails from seven localities in the Department of Malarguë, Mendoza Province, using morphological and molecular analyses and also describing ecological variables associated with snail presence. Results While morphological characters identified two species of lymnaeid, Galba truncatula and G. viatrix, molecular data revealed a third, cryptic species, G. neotropica, which was sympatric with G. viatrix. G. truncatula was exclusively found in high altitude (>1900 meters above sea level [masl]) sites, whereas mixed G. neotropica/G. viatrix localities were at middle elevations (1300–1900 masl), and G. viatrix was found alone at the lowest altitude sites (<1300 masl). Phylogenetic analysis using two mitochondrial markers revealed G. neotropica and G. viatrix to be closely related, and given their morphological similarities, their validities as separate taxonomic entities should be questioned. Conclusions This study highlights the need of a robust taxonomic framework for the identification of lymnaeid snails, incorporating molecular, morphological and ecological variables while avoiding nomenclature redundancy. As the three species observed here, including one alien invasive species, are considered hosts of varying susceptibility to Fasciola parasites, and given the economic

  11. Coexistence of sympatric carnivores in relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscapes: functional importance of habitat segregation at the fine-scale level.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carolina; Palomares, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    One of the main objectives of community ecology is to understand the conditions allowing species to coexist. However, few studies have investigated the role of fine-scale habitat use segregation in the functioning of guild communities in relatively homogeneous landscapes where opportunities for coexistence are likely to be the most restrictive. We investigate how the process of habitat use differentiation at the home range level according to the degree of specialism/generalism of species can lead to coexistence between guild species. We examine differences in fine-scale habitat use and niche separation as potential mechanisms explaining the coexistence of five sympatric carnivore species that differ in life history traits (Iberian lynx, Eurasian badger, Egyptian mongoose, common genet and red fox) by collecting data from systematic track censuses in a relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscape. We found that a higher degree of specialism determines the segregation of species among the fine-scale ecological niche dimensions defined using quantitative elements associated with vegetation, landscape, prey availability and human disturbance. The species with the lowest total performance over the set of variables did not exhibit segregation in the use of habitat at this level. Our study indicates that in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there exist subtle patterns of habitat partitioning over small-scale gradients of habitat determinants as a function of the degree of specialism of carnivore species within a guild. Our results also suggest that coexistence between generalist species may be permitted by fine-scale spatial-temporal segregation of activity patterns or trophic resource consumption, but not fine-scale habitat use differentiation.

  12. The Shared Preference Niche of Sympatric Asiatic Black Bears and Sun Bears in a Tropical Forest Mosaic

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Robert; Garshelis, David L.; Chutipong, Wanlop; Seuaturien, Naret

    2011-01-01

    Background Ecologically similar species often coexist by partitioning use of habitats or resources. Such partitioning can occur through divergent or shared niches. We investigated overlap in habitat use and spatial co-occurrence by sympatric Asiatic black bears and sun bears in three habitats in Thailand, and thereby assessed which niche model best accounts for their coexistence. Methods/Principal Findings We used density of species-specific signs to assess habitat use. Signs of both bear species occurred in all three habitats, and on >60% of sampling transects. Both species fed mostly on fruit; insect feeding signs were uncommon, and were mostly from sun bears. Significant differences in habitat use occurred only in montane forest, the habitat in which fruit was most abundant; incidence of black bear sign there was six times higher than that of sun bears. Habitat use was similar between the two species in the other habitats, which comprised 85% of the area. Of 10 habitat attributes examined, fruiting tree density was the best predictor of occurrence for both species. Models that included interspecific competition (fresh foraging activity of the other species) were less supported than the top models without competition. Conclusions/Significance Bear species co-occurrence at both coarse and fine spatial scales and use of the same resources (fruit trees) indicated common niche preferences. However, their habitat use differed in ways expected from their physical differences: larger black bears dominated in the most fruit-rich habitat, and smaller sun bears used less-preferred insects. These results indicate broadly overlapping fundamental niches combined with asymmetric competition—features consistent with the concept of shared preference niches. This model of the niche has received little attention in ecology, but appears to be relatively common in nature. PMID:21283792

  13. Coexistence of sympatric carnivores in relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscapes: functional importance of habitat segregation at the fine-scale level.

    PubMed

    Soto, Carolina; Palomares, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    One of the main objectives of community ecology is to understand the conditions allowing species to coexist. However, few studies have investigated the role of fine-scale habitat use segregation in the functioning of guild communities in relatively homogeneous landscapes where opportunities for coexistence are likely to be the most restrictive. We investigate how the process of habitat use differentiation at the home range level according to the degree of specialism/generalism of species can lead to coexistence between guild species. We examine differences in fine-scale habitat use and niche separation as potential mechanisms explaining the coexistence of five sympatric carnivore species that differ in life history traits (Iberian lynx, Eurasian badger, Egyptian mongoose, common genet and red fox) by collecting data from systematic track censuses in a relatively homogeneous Mediterranean landscape. We found that a higher degree of specialism determines the segregation of species among the fine-scale ecological niche dimensions defined using quantitative elements associated with vegetation, landscape, prey availability and human disturbance. The species with the lowest total performance over the set of variables did not exhibit segregation in the use of habitat at this level. Our study indicates that in relatively homogeneous landscapes, there exist subtle patterns of habitat partitioning over small-scale gradients of habitat determinants as a function of the degree of specialism of carnivore species within a guild. Our results also suggest that coexistence between generalist species may be permitted by fine-scale spatial-temporal segregation of activity patterns or trophic resource consumption, but not fine-scale habitat use differentiation. PMID:25933639

  14. Speciation: Genomic Archipelagos in a Crater Lake.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Fabrizia; Salzburger, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The opening stages of speciation remain poorly understood, especially from a genomic perspective. The genomes of newly discovered crater-lake cichlid fish shed light on the early phases of diversification and suggest that selection acts on multiple genomic regions.

  15. CORRELATING METAL SPECIATION IN SOILS TO RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding bioavailability of metals from exposure to contaminated soils is a challenging aspect of environmental research. This presentation will examine three areas of research with respect to metal speciation in soils as it relates to bioavailability: 1) Pb immobilization a...

  16. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Richard M.; Wallbank, Richard W. R.; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C. A.; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D.

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such ‘magic’ or ‘multiple-effect’ traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue. PMID:23075843

  17. Disruptive ecological selection on a mating cue.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Richard M; Wallbank, Richard W R; Bull, Vanessa; Salazar, Patricio C A; Mallet, James; Stevens, Martin; Jiggins, Chris D

    2012-12-22

    Adaptation to divergent ecological niches can result in speciation. Traits subject to disruptive selection that also contribute to non-random mating will facilitate speciation with gene flow. Such 'magic' or 'multiple-effect' traits may be widespread and important for generating biodiversity, but strong empirical evidence is still lacking. Although there is evidence that putative ecological traits are indeed involved in assortative mating, evidence that these same traits are under divergent selection is considerably weaker. Heliconius butterfly wing patterns are subject to positive frequency-dependent selection by predators, owing to aposematism and Müllerian mimicry, and divergent colour patterns are used by closely related species to recognize potential mates. The amenability of colour patterns to experimental manipulation, independent of other traits, presents an excellent opportunity to test their role during speciation. We conducted field experiments with artificial butterflies, designed to match natural butterflies with respect to avian vision. These were complemented with enclosure trials with live birds and real butterflies. Our experiments showed that hybrid colour-pattern phenotypes are attacked more frequently than parental forms. For the first time, we demonstrate disruptive ecological selection on a trait that also acts as a mating cue.

  18. Backyard Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elser, Monica; Musheno, Birgit; Saltz, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Ecology Explorers, the community education component of Arizona State University's Central Arizona Phoenix Long-Term Ecological Research project, which offers teacher internship programs that link university researchers, K-12 teachers, and students in studying urban ecology. Explains that student neighborhoods are dynamic ecosystems…

  19. Genomic Divergence during Speciation Driven by Adaptation to Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Mark A.; Hiscock, Simon J.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    Even though Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species” implied selection being the main driver of species formation, the role of natural selection in speciation remains poorly understood. In particular, it remains unclear how selection at a few genes can lead to genomewide divergence and the formation of distinct species. We used a particularly attractive clear-cut case of recent plant ecological speciation to investigate the demography and genomic bases of species formation driven by adaptation to contrasting conditions. High-altitude Senecio aethnensis and low-altitude S. chrysanthemifolius live at the extremes of a mountain slope on Mt. Etna, Sicily, and form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes but remain morphologically distinct. Genetic differentiation of these species was analyzed at the DNA polymorphism and gene expression levels by high-throughput sequencing of transcriptomes from multiple individuals. Out of ∼18,000 genes analyzed, only a small number (90) displayed differential expression between the two species. These genes showed significantly elevated species differentiation (FST and Dxy), consistent with diversifying selection acting on these genes. Genomewide genetic differentiation of the species is surprisingly low (FST = 0.19), while ∼200 genes showed significantly higher (false discovery rate < 1%; mean outlier FST > 0.6) interspecific differentiation and evidence for local adaptation. Diversifying selection at only a handful of loci may be enough for the formation and maintenance of taxonomically well-defined species, despite ongoing gene flow. This provides an explanation of why many closely related species (in plants, in particular) remain phenotypically and ecologically distinct despite ongoing hybridization, a question that has long puzzled naturalists and geneticists alike. PMID:24077768

  20. Genomic divergence during speciation driven by adaptation to altitude.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mark A; Hiscock, Simon J; Filatov, Dmitry A

    2013-12-01

    Even though Darwin's "On the Origin of Species" implied selection being the main driver of species formation, the role of natural selection in speciation remains poorly understood. In particular, it remains unclear how selection at a few genes can lead to genomewide divergence and the formation of distinct species. We used a particularly attractive clear-cut case of recent plant ecological speciation to investigate the demography and genomic bases of species formation driven by adaptation to contrasting conditions. High-altitude Senecio aethnensis and low-altitude S. chrysanthemifolius live at the extremes of a mountain slope on Mt. Etna, Sicily, and form a hybrid zone at intermediate altitudes but remain morphologically distinct. Genetic differentiation of these species was analyzed at the DNA polymorphism and gene expression levels by high-throughput sequencing of transcriptomes from multiple individuals. Out of ≈ 18,000 genes analyzed, only a small number (90) displayed differential expression between the two species. These genes showed significantly elevated species differentiation (FST and Dxy), consistent with diversifying selection acting on these genes. Genomewide genetic differentiation of the species is surprisingly low (FST = 0.19), while ≈ 200 genes showed significantly higher (false discovery rate < 1%; mean outlier FST > 0.6) interspecific differentiation and evidence for local adaptation. Diversifying selection at only a handful of loci may be enough for the formation and maintenance of taxonomically well-defined species, despite ongoing gene flow. This provides an explanation of why many closely related species (in plants, in particular) remain phenotypically and ecologically distinct despite ongoing hybridization, a question that has long puzzled naturalists and geneticists alike.

  1. The genetic signature of recent speciation in manta rays (Manta alfredi and M. birostris).

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Tom; Marshall, Andrea D; Bennett, Michael B; Ovenden, Jennifer R

    2012-07-01

    Manta rays have been taxonomically revised as two species, Manta alfredi and M. birostris, on the basis of morphological and meristic data, yet the two species occur in extensive mosaic sympatry. We analysed the genetic signatures of the species boundary using a portion of the nuclear RAG1 (681 base pairs), mitochondrial CO1 (574 bp) and ND5 genes (1188 bp). The assay with CO1 sequences, widely used in DNA barcoding, failed to distinguish the two species. The two species were clearly distinguishable, however, with no shared RAG1 or ND5 haplotypes. The species were reciprocally monophyletic for RAG1, but paraphyletic for ND5 sequences. Qualitative evidence and statistical inferences using the 'Isolation-with-Migration models' indicated that these results were better explained with post-divergence gene flow in the recent past rather than incomplete lineage sorting with zero gene flow since speciation. An estimate of divergence time was less than 0.5 Ma with an upper confidence limit of within 1 Ma. Recent speciation of highly mobile species in the marine environment is of great interest, as it suggests that speciation may have occurred in the absence of long-term physical barriers to gene flow. We propose that the ecologically driven forces such as habitat choice played a significant role in speciation in manta rays.

  2. Demographic history of speciation in a Senecio altitudinal hybrid zone on Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Dmitry A; Osborne, Owen G; Papadopulos, Alexander S T

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically form as a result of species coming into secondary contact, but can also be established in situ as an ecotonal hybrid zone, a situation which has been reported far less frequently. An altitudinal hybrid zone on Mount Etna between two ragwort species (the low elevation Senecio chrysanthemifolius and high elevation S. aethnensis) could potentially represent either of these possibilities. However, a scenario of secondary contact vs. speciation with gene flow has not been explicitly tested. Here, we test these alternatives and demonstrate that the data do not support secondary contact. Furthermore, we report that the previous analyses of speciation history of these species were based on admixed populations, which has led to inflated estimates of ongoing, interspecific gene flow. Our new analyses, based on 'pure' S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius populations, reveal gene exchange of less than one effective migrant per generation, a level low enough to allow the species to accumulate neutral, genomewide differences. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario of speciation with gene flow and a divergence time which coincides with the rise of Mt. Etna to altitudes above 2000 m (~150 KY). Further work to quantify the role of adaptation to contrasting environments of high and low altitudes will be needed to support the scenario of recent ecological speciation in this system. PMID:26994342

  3. Demographic history of speciation in a Senecio altitudinal hybrid zone on Mt. Etna.

    PubMed

    Filatov, Dmitry A; Osborne, Owen G; Papadopulos, Alexander S T

    2016-06-01

    Hybrid zones typically form as a result of species coming into secondary contact, but can also be established in situ as an ecotonal hybrid zone, a situation which has been reported far less frequently. An altitudinal hybrid zone on Mount Etna between two ragwort species (the low elevation Senecio chrysanthemifolius and high elevation S. aethnensis) could potentially represent either of these possibilities. However, a scenario of secondary contact vs. speciation with gene flow has not been explicitly tested. Here, we test these alternatives and demonstrate that the data do not support secondary contact. Furthermore, we report that the previous analyses of speciation history of these species were based on admixed populations, which has led to inflated estimates of ongoing, interspecific gene flow. Our new analyses, based on 'pure' S. aethnensis and S. chrysanthemifolius populations, reveal gene exchange of less than one effective migrant per generation, a level low enough to allow the species to accumulate neutral, genomewide differences. Overall, our results are consistent with a scenario of speciation with gene flow and a divergence time which coincides with the rise of Mt. Etna to altitudes above 2000 m (~150 KY). Further work to quantify the role of adaptation to contrasting environments of high and low altitudes will be needed to support the scenario of recent ecological speciation in this system.

  4. Mimetic Divergence and the Speciation Continuum in the Mimic Poison Frog Ranitomeya imitator.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Evan; Vestergaard, Jacob S; Venegas, Pablo J; Summers, Kyle

    2016-02-01

    While divergent ecological adaptation can drive speciation, understanding the factors that facilitate or constrain this process remains a major goal in speciation research. Here, we study two mimetic transition zones in the poison frog Ranitomeya imitator, a species that has undergone a Müllerian mimetic radiation to establish four morphs in Peru. We find that mimetic morphs are strongly phenotypically differentiated, producing geographic clines with varying widths. However, distinct morphs show little neutral genetic divergence, and landscape genetic analyses implicate isolation by distance as the primary determinant of among-population genetic differentiation. Mate choice experiments suggest random mating at the transition zones, although certain allopatric populations show a preference for their own morph. We present evidence that this preference may be mediated by color pattern specifically. These results contrast with an earlier study of a third transition zone, in which a mimetic shift was associated with reproductive isolation. Overall, our results suggest that the three known mimetic transition zones in R. imitator reflect a speciation continuum, which we have characterized at the geographic, phenotypic, behavioral, and genetic levels. We discuss possible explanations for variable progress toward speciation, suggesting that multifarious selection on both mimetic color pattern and body size may be responsible for generating reproductive isolation.

  5. Taxonomic consequences of cryptic speciation in the Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis complex in mainland southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leo; Nyári, Árpád S; Andersen, Michael J

    2014-12-22

    The Golden Whistler (Aves: Passeriformes: Pachycephalidae) Pachycephala pectoralis sensu lato has long played a key role in the development of the theory of allopatric speciation (Mayr 1932a, b; Mayr 1942; Galbraith 1956). The P. pectoralis species complex formerly comprised 60-70 nominal subspecies and so had a distribution spanning the Indo-Pacific (Boles 2007). More recent taxonomic treatments consider the complex as multiple species-level taxa largely circumscribed by geography (Dickinson and Christidis 2014; Gill and Donsker 2014). In Australia, the endemic species P. pectoralis sensu stricto is sympatric with the closely related Mangrove Golden Whistler P. melanura. However, as the latter's English name suggests, P. melanura is closely tied to mangroves in Australia, southeast New Guinea, and islets in the Bismarck Archipelago. Diagnostic plumage traits separating the two species are subtle: males of P. melanura have more extensively black tails and a greyer upper surface to the remiges, and females are usually yellower ventrally. All Pachycephala species, especially those in the P. pectoralis-melanura species complex, have recently become the focus of DNA sequence-based studies (Jønsson et al. 2008, 2014; Andersen et al. 2014). Data from most populations have now been analysed phylogenetically to better understand relationships and thus the history of evolution and speciation processes within and between both species. This has also been used in studies of the group's historical biogeography to provide information as to the age of taxa and their spread across oceanic archipelagos and continents (Jønsson et al. 2014). Here we discuss the taxonomic implications of a result that has emerged consistently and independently in these studies, concerning the systematics of the southern Australian populations in south-eastern and south-western Australia, both of which have been ascribed to P. p. fuliginosa since Galbraith (1956), and we show that the name P

  6. A personal particle speciation sampler.

    PubMed

    Hering, Susanne; Kreisberg, Nathan; John, Walter

    2003-02-01

    Fuller understanding of personal exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 2.5 microm (PM2.5*) requires a personal sampler suitable for assaying not only PM2.5 mass but also its major chemical constituents: elemental carbon, organic carbon, sulfates, and nitrates. The goal to measure these constituents simultaneously imposes several constraints on personal sampler design. The aim of this project was to develop a sampler within these constraints that would be suitable for personal monitoring over 8 hours. In addition, with the intent to improve the precision of mass measurements, we investigated offline use of beta attenuation. The personal particle speciation sampler (PPSS) includes an inlet to remove particles larger than 2.5 microm, 2 sampling channels, and a pump with flow control. One channel serves for measuring particle mass and inorganic ions; the other, for measuring organic carbon and elemental carbon. Denuders can be placed in either channel or both channels. A backup filter can be placed on the denuded channel to collect volatilized particulate nitrate. Two prototype PPSS units were built and tested. The results of both laboratory testing of key PPSS components and a limited field study of the prototype in comparison to an AIHL (Air and Industrial Hygiene Laboratory) cyclone-based sampler are reported. PMID:12670062

  7. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, R. Tucker; Kozak, Genevieve M.

    2015-01-01

    Bursts of rapid repeated speciation called adaptive radiations have generated much of Earth's biodiversity and fascinated biologists since Darwin, but we still do not know why some lineages radiate and others do not. Understanding what causes assortative mating to evolve rapidly and repeatedly in the same lineage is key to understanding adaptive radiation. Many species that have undergone adaptive radiations exhibit mate preference learning, where individuals acquire mate preferences by observing the phenotypes of other members of their populations. Mate preference learning can be biased if individuals also learn phenotypes to avoid in mates, and shift their preferences away from these avoided phenotypes. We used individual‐based computational simulations to study whether biased and unbiased mate preference learning promotes ecological speciation and adaptive radiation. We found that ecological speciation can be rapid and repeated when mate preferences are biased, but is inhibited when mate preferences are learned without bias. Our results suggest that biased mate preference learning may play an important role in generating animal biodiversity through adaptive radiation. PMID:26459795

  8. Learning to speciate: The biased learning of mate preferences promotes adaptive radiation.

    PubMed

    Gilm