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Sample records for synaptic potentiation induced

  1. Spine Calcium Transients Induced by Synaptically-Evoked Action Potentials Can Predict Synapse Location and Establish Synaptic Democracy

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Rhiannon M.; van Ooyen, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    CA1 pyramidal neurons receive hundreds of synaptic inputs at different distances from the soma. Distance-dependent synaptic scaling enables distal and proximal synapses to influence the somatic membrane equally, a phenomenon called “synaptic democracy”. How this is established is unclear. The backpropagating action potential (BAP) is hypothesised to provide distance-dependent information to synapses, allowing synaptic strengths to scale accordingly. Experimental measurements show that a BAP evoked by current injection at the soma causes calcium currents in the apical shaft whose amplitudes decay with distance from the soma. However, in vivo action potentials are not induced by somatic current injection but by synaptic inputs along the dendrites, which creates a different excitable state of the dendrites. Due to technical limitations, it is not possible to study experimentally whether distance information can also be provided by synaptically-evoked BAPs. Therefore we adapted a realistic morphological and electrophysiological model to measure BAP-induced voltage and calcium signals in spines after Schaffer collateral synapse stimulation. We show that peak calcium concentration is highly correlated with soma-synapse distance under a number of physiologically-realistic suprathreshold stimulation regimes and for a range of dendritic morphologies. Peak calcium levels also predicted the attenuation of the EPSP across the dendritic tree. Furthermore, we show that peak calcium can be used to set up a synaptic democracy in a homeostatic manner, whereby synapses regulate their synaptic strength on the basis of the difference between peak calcium and a uniform target value. We conclude that information derived from synaptically-generated BAPs can indicate synapse location and can subsequently be utilised to implement a synaptic democracy. PMID:22719238

  2. [Involvement of stress-induced hippocampal synaptic potentiation in the novelty acquisition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Xing, Hua; Jiang, Shan-Xiang

    2011-04-25

    To study the influence of behavioral stress on hippocampal spatial learning and memory, we used the freely moving rats that had undergone chronic implantation of a recording electrode in the hippocampus CA1 region and a bipolar stimulating electrode in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway. The field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the absence of exogenous induction of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) or low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and reflected the effect of stress on the hippocampal spatial learning. And we also investigated the change of hippocampal synaptic plasticity when rats were re-exposed to the same environment at 24 h after novelty acquisition. We found that exploration of a novel environment induced the hippocampal synaptic depression in the rats with stress-adaption, whereas exposure to the novel environment induced the hippocampal synaptic potentiation in the behavioral stress rats. Furthermore, re-exposure to the same environment no longer elicited the hippocampal synaptic potentiation or depression at 24 h after the first novel acquisition in the behavioral stress rats. These results demonstrate that behavioral stress induces the hippocampal synaptic potentiation under novelty acquisition and further damages the hippocampal spatial learning and memory. However, the stress can be adapted by re-exposure to the novelty and thus does not further damage the hippocampal spatial learning and memory.

  3. WASP-1, a canonical Wnt signaling potentiator, rescues hippocampal synaptic impairments induced by Aβ oligomers.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jessica Y; Ahumada, Juan; Arrázola, Macarena S; Fuenzalida, Marco; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers are a key factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated synaptic dysfunction. Aβ oligomers block the induction of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in rodents. The activation of Wnt signaling prevents Aβ oligomer-induced neurotoxic effects. The compound WASP-1 (Wnt-activating small molecule potentiator-1), has been described as a synergist of the ligand Wnt-3a, enhancing the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Herein, we report that WASP-1 administration successfully rescued Aβ-induced synaptic impairments both in vitro and in vivo. The activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling by WASP-1 increased synaptic transmission and rescued hippocampal LTP impairments induced by Aβ oligomers. Additionally, intra-hippocampal administration of WASP-1 to the double transgenic APPswe/PS1dE9 mouse model of AD prevented synaptic protein loss and reduced tau phosphorylation levels. Moreover, we found that WASP-1 blocked Aβ aggregation in vitro and reduced pathological tau phosphorylation in vivo. These results indicate that targeting canonical Wnt signaling with WASP-1 could have value for treating AD.

  4. Long-lasting synaptic potentiation induced by depolarization under conditions that eliminate detectable Ca2+ signals.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Fredy D; Walters, Edgar T

    2010-03-01

    Activity-dependent alterations of synaptic transmission important for learning and memory are often induced by Ca(2+) signals generated by depolarization. While it is widely assumed that Ca(2+) is the essential transducer of depolarization into cellular plasticity, little effort has been made to test whether Ca(2+)-independent responses to depolarization might also induce memory-like alterations. It was recently discovered that peripheral axons of nociceptive sensory neurons in Aplysia display long-lasting hyperexcitability triggered by conditioning depolarization in the absence of Ca(2+) entry (using nominally Ca(2+)-free solutions containing EGTA, "0Ca/EGTA") or the absence of detectable Ca(2+) transients (adding BAPTA-AM, "0Ca/EGTA/BAPTA-AM"). The current study reports that depolarization of central ganglia to approximately 0 mV for 2 min in these same solutions induced hyperexcitability lasting >1 h in sensory neuron processes near their synapses onto motor neurons. Furthermore, conditioning depolarization in these solutions produced a 2.5-fold increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude 1-3 h afterward despite a drop in motor neuron input resistance. Depolarization in 0 Ca/EGTA produced long-term potentiation (LTP) of the EPSP lasting > or = 1 days without changing postsynaptic input resistance. When re-exposed to extracellular Ca(2+) during synaptic tests, prior exposure to 0Ca/EGTA or to 0Ca/EGTA/BAPTA-AM decreased sensory neuron survival. However, differential effects on neuronal health are unlikely to explain the observed potentiation because conditioning depolarization in these solutions did not alter survival rates. These findings suggest that unrecognized Ca(2+)-independent signals can transduce depolarization into long-lasting synaptic potentiation, perhaps contributing to persistent synaptic alterations following large, sustained depolarizations that occur during learning, neural injury, or seizures.

  5. Orexin A induces bidirectional modulation of synaptic plasticity: Inhibiting long-term potentiation and preventing depotentiation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guan-Ling; Lee, Chia-Hsu; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2016-08-01

    The orexin system consists of two peptides, orexin A and B and two receptors, OX1R and OX2R. It is implicated in learning and memory regulation while controversy remains on its role in modulating hippocampal synaptic plasticity in vivo and in vitro. Here, we investigated effects of orexin A on two forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs), at the Schaffer Collateral-CA1 synapse of mouse hippocampal slices. Orexin A (≧30 nM) attenuated LTP induced by theta burst stimulation (TBS) in a manner antagonized by an OX1R (SB-334867), but not OX2R (EMPA), antagonist. Conversely, at 1 pM, co-application of orexin A prevented the induction of depotentiation induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS), i.e. restoring LTP. This re-potentiation effect of sub-nanomolar orexin A occurred at LFS of 1 Hz, but not 2 Hz, and with LTP induced by either TBS or tetanic stimulation. It was significantly antagonized by SB-334867, EMPA and TCS-1102, selective OX1R, OX2R and dual OXR antagonists, respectively, and prevented by D609, SQ22536 and H89, inhibitors of phospholipase C (PLC), adenylyl cyclase (AC) and protein kinase A (PKA), respectively. LFS-induced depotentiation was antagonized by blockers of NMDA, A1-adenosine and type 1/5 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu1/5) receptors, respectively. However, orexin A (1 pM) did not affect chemical-induced depotentiation by agonists of these receptors. These results suggest that orexin A bidirectionally modulates hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity, inhibiting LTP via OX1Rs at moderate concentrations while inducing re-potentiation via OX1Rs and OX2Rs, possibly through PLC and AC-PKA signaling at sub-nanomolar concentrations.

  6. Reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic potentiation resets drug-induced adaptive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Turiault, Marc; Lüscher, Christian

    2011-12-07

    Drug-evoked synaptic plasticity is observed at many synapses and may underlie behavioural adaptations in addiction. Mechanistic investigations start with the identification of the molecular drug targets. Cocaine, for example, exerts its reinforcing and early neuroadaptive effects by inhibiting the dopamine transporter, thus causing a strong increase in mesolimbic dopamine. Among the many signalling pathways subsequently engaged, phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the nucleus accumbens is of particular interest because it has been implicated in NMDA-receptor and type 1 dopamine (D1)-receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation as well as in several behavioural adaptations. A causal link between drug-evoked plasticity at identified synapses and behavioural adaptations, however, is missing, and the benefits of restoring baseline transmission have yet to be demonstrated. Here we find that cocaine potentiates excitatory transmission in D1-receptor-expressing medium-sized spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) in mice via ERK signalling with a time course that parallels locomotor sensitization. Depotentiation of cortical nucleus accumbens inputs by optogenetic stimulation in vivo efficiently restored normal transmission and abolished cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. These findings establish synaptic potentiation selectively in D1R-MSNs as a mechanism underlying a core component of addiction, probably by creating an imbalance between distinct populations of MSNs in the nucleus accumbens. Our data also provide proof of principle that reversal of cocaine-evoked synaptic plasticity can treat behavioural alterations caused by addictive drugs and may inspire novel therapeutic approaches involving deep brain stimulation or transcranial magnetic stimulation.

  7. Properties of GABA-mediated synaptic potentials induced by zinc in adult rat hippocampal pyramidal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, X; Smart, T G

    1993-01-01

    1. Intracellular recording techniques were used to study the actions of the transition ion, zinc, on CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurones in adult rat hippocampal slices. 2. Zinc (300 microM) hyperpolarized pyramidal neurones, increased the membrane excitability and also induced periodic, spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials associated with a conductance increase mechanism. 3. The occurrence of spontaneous giant depolarizations was dependent on the zinc concentration (10 microM-1 mM) with an apparent dissociation constant of 98 microM. The frequency of zinc-induced depolarizations was unaffected by the membrane potential from -50 to -100 mV. 4. Stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals or mossy fibre pathways evoked an excitatory and inhibitory synaptic potential complex. In the presence of zinc, nerve fibre stimulation evoked, in an all-or-none fashion, a giant depolarizing potential with an increased membrane conductance. Both spontaneous and evoked depolarizations were inhibited by 1 microM tetrodotoxin. 5. Evoked giant depolarizations were labile with too frequent stimulation resulting in a failure of generation. A minimum time of 140 s was required between stimuli to ensure successive giant depolarizations. 6. Spontaneous and evoked zinc-induced depolarizing potentials were inhibited by bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (40 microM) and enhanced by pentobarbitone (100 microM) or flurazepam (10 microM), suggesting that these potentials are mediated by activation of gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) receptors. 7. Ionophoretic application of GABA produced biphasic responses at -60 mV membrane potential. The reversal potentials for the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing GABA responses were -56 +/- 5 and -66 +/- 8 mV respectively. The giant depolarizations induced by zinc reversed at -57 +/- 4 mV. This suggests a dendritic location for the generation of these potentials. 8. Excitatory amino acid antagonists, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV, 40 microM) or 6-cyano-7

  8. Astrocytes Potentiate Synaptic Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadkarni, Suhita

    2005-03-01

    A recent experimental study shows that astrocytes, a subtype of glia, are able to influence the spontaneous activity in the brain via calcium dependent glutamate release. We model the coupling mechanism between an astrocyte and a neuron based on experimental data. This coupling is dynamic and bi-directional, such that the modulations in intracellular calcium concentrations in astrocytes affect neuronal excitability and vice versa via a glutamatergic pathway. We demonstrate through simple neural-glial circuits that increases in the intracellular calcium concentration in astrocytes nearby can enhance spontaneous activity in a neuron, a significant mechanism said to be involved in plasticity and learning. The pattern of this marked increase in spontaneous firing rate in our model quantitatively follows that observed in the experiment. Further, depending on the type of synaptic connections diverging from the neuron, it can either inhibit or excite the ensuing dynamics and potentiate synaptic transmission, thus reinstating the integral role played by astrocytes in normal neuronal dynamics.

  9. Population synaptic potentials evoked in lumbar motoneurons following stimulation of the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis during carbachol-induced atonia.

    PubMed

    Yamuy, J; Jiménez, I; Morales, F; Rudomin, P; Chase, M

    1994-03-14

    The effect of electrical stimulation of the medullary nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis (NRGc) on lumbar spinal cord motoneurons was studied in the decerebrate cat using sucrose-gap recordings from ventral roots. The NRGc was stimulated ipsi- and contralaterally before and during atonia elicited by the microinjection of carbachol into the pontine reticular formation. Prior to carbachol administration, the NRGc-induced response recorded from the sucrose-gap consisted of two consecutive excitatory population synaptic potentials followed by a long-lasting, small amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential. Following carbachol injection, the same NRGc stimulus evoked a distinct, large amplitude inhibitory population synaptic potential, whereas the excitatory population synaptic potentials decreased in amplitude. In addition, after carbachol administration, the amplitude of the monosynaptic excitatory population synaptic potential, which was evoked by stimulation of group Ia afferents in hindlimb nerves, was reduced by 18 to 43%. When evoked at the peak of the NRGc-induced inhibitory response, this potential was further decreased in amplitude. Systemic strychnine administration (0.07-0.1 mg/kg, i.v.) blocked the NRGc-induced inhibitory population synaptic potential and promoted an increase in the amplitude of the excitatory population synaptic potentials induced by stimulation of the NRGc and group Ia afferents. These data indicate that during the state of carbachol-induced atonia, the NRGc effects on ipsi- and contralateral spinal cord motoneurons are predominantly inhibitory and that glycine is likely to be involved in this inhibitory process. These results support the hypothesis that the nucleus reticularis gigantocellularis is part of the system responsible for state-dependent somatomotor inhibition that occurs during active sleep.

  10. Post-anesthesia AMPA receptor potentiation prevents anesthesia-induced learning and synaptic deficits

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lianyan; Cichon, Joseph; Ninan, Ipe; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has shown that repeated exposure to general anesthesia during critical stages of brain development results in long-lasting behavioral deficits later in life. To date, there has been no effective treatment to mitigate the neurotoxic effects of anesthesia on brain development. By performing calcium imaging in the mouse motor cortex, we show that ketamine anesthesia causes a marked and prolonged reduction in neuronal activity during the period of post-anesthesia recovery. Administration of the AMPAkine drug CX546 [1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine] to potentiate AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor activity during emergence from anesthesia in mice enhances neuronal activity and prevents long-term motor learning deficits induced by repeated neonatal anesthesia. In addition, we show that CX546 administration also ameliorates various synaptic deficits induced by anesthesia, including reductions in synaptic expression of NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) and AMPA receptor subunits, motor training-evoked neuronal activity, and dendritic spine remodeling associated with motor learning. Together, our results indicate that pharmacologically enhancing neuronal activity during the post-anesthesia recovery period could effectively reduce the adverse effects of early-life anesthesia. PMID:27334260

  11. Learning-induced synaptic potentiation in implanted neural precursor cell-derived neurons

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyungjoon; Heo, Hwon; Han, Ma Eum; Choi, Kyuhyun; Yi, Jee Hyun; Kang, Shin Jung; Kwon, Yunhee Kim; Shin, Ki Soon

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal loss caused by neurodegenerative diseases, traumatic brain injury and stroke results in cognitive dysfunctioning. Implantation of neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) can improve the brain function by replacing lost neurons. Proper synaptic integration following neuronal differentiation of implanted cells is believed to be a prerequisite for the functional recovery. In the present study, we characterized the functional properties of immortalized neural progenitor HiB5 cells implanted into the rat hippocampus with chemically induced lesion. The implanted HiB5 cells migrated toward CA1 pyramidal layer and differentiated into vGluT1-positive glutamatergic neurons with morphological and electrophysiological properties of endogenous CA1 pyramidal cells. Functional synaptic integration of HiB5 cell-derived neurons was also evidenced by immunohistochemical and electrophysiological data. Lesion-caused memory deficit was significantly recovered after the implantation when assessed by inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning. Remarkably, IA learning preferentially produced long-term potentiation (LTP) at the synapses onto HiB5 cell-derived neurons, which occluded paring protocol-induced LTP ex vivo. We conclude that the implanted HiB5 cell-derived neurons actively participate in learning process through LTP formation, thereby counteracting lesion-mediated memory impairment. PMID:26634434

  12. Action potential broadening induced by lithium may cause a presynaptic enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Colino, A; García-Seoane, J J; Valentín, A

    1998-07-01

    Lithium enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrates that lithium enhances the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated components of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). Lithium decreased the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation and presented an inverse correlation between the lithium-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission and initial paired-pulse facilitation, which is consistent with a presynaptic mode of action. The enhancement of synaptic strength is likely to act, at least in part, by increasing the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient. One mechanism which could account for this change of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient is an increase in the duration of the action potential. We investigated action potential in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and found that lithium (0.5-6 mM) increased the half-amplitude duration and reduced the rate of repolarization, whereas the rate of depolarization remained similar. To find out whether the lithium synaptic effects might be explained by spike broadening, we investigated the field recording of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in hippocampal slices and found three lines of evidence. First, the prolongation of the presynaptic action potential with 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium blocked or reduced the synaptic effects of lithium. Second, the lithium-induced synaptic enhancement was modulated when presynaptic Ca2+ influx was varied by changing the external Ca2+ concentration. Finally, both effects, the synaptic transmission increment and the action potential broadening, were independent of inositol depletion. These results suggest that lithium enhances synaptic transmission in the hippocampus via a presynaptic site of action: the mechanism underlying the potentiating effect may be attributable to an increased Ca2+ influx consequent

  13. Interaction between gustatory depolarizing receptor potential and efferent-induced slow depolarizing synaptic potential in frog taste cell.

    PubMed

    Sato, Toshihide; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okada, Yukio; Toda, Kazuo

    2009-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of parasympathetic nerve (PSN) efferent fibers in the glossopharyngeal nerve induced a slow depolarizing synaptic potential (DSP) in frog taste cells under hypoxia. The objective of this study is to examine the interaction between a gustatory depolarizing receptor potential (GDRP) and a slow DSP. The amplitude of slow DSP added to a tastant-induced GDRP of 10 mV was suppressed to 60% of control slow DSPs for NaCl and acetic acid stimulations, but to 20-30% for quinine-HCl (Q-HCl) and sucrose stimulations. On the other hand, when a GDRP was induced during a prolonged slow DSP, the amplitude of GDRPs induced by 1 M NaCl and 1 M sucrose was suppressed to 50% of controls, but that by 1 mM acetic acid and 10 mM Q-HCl unchanged. It is concluded that the interaction between GDRPs and efferent-induced slow DSPs in frog taste cells under hypoxia derives from the crosstalk between a gustatory receptor current across the receptive membrane and a slow depolarizing synaptic current across the proximal subsynaptic membrane of taste cells.

  14. Relapse induced by cues predicting cocaine depends on rapid, transient synaptic potentiation.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Cassandra D; Kupchik, Yonatan M; Shen, Haowei; Reissner, Kathryn J; Thomas, Charles A; Kalivas, Peter W

    2013-03-06

    Cocaine addiction is characterized by long-lasting vulnerability to relapse arising because neutral environmental stimuli become associated with drug use and then act as cues that induce relapse. It is not known how cues elicit cocaine seeking, and why cocaine seeking is more difficult to regulate than seeking a natural reward. We found that cocaine-associated cues initiate cocaine seeking by inducing a rapid, transient increase in dendritic spine size and synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens. These changes required neural activity in the prefrontal cortex. This is not the case when identical cues were associated with obtaining sucrose, which did not elicit changes in spine size or synaptic strength. The marked cue-induced synaptic changes in the accumbens were correlated with the intensity of cocaine, but not sucrose seeking, and may explain the difficulty addicts experience in managing relapse to cocaine use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Taurine-induced synaptic potentiation and the late phase of long-term potentiation are related mechanistically.

    PubMed

    del Olmo, N; Handler, A; Alvarez, L; Bustamante, J; Martín del Río, R; Solís, J M

    2003-01-01

    The application of taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) induces a long-lasting increase of synaptic efficacy and axon excitability (LLP-TAU) in rat hippocampal CA1 area. After taurine withdrawal, LLP-TAU lasted at least 3 h. This fact prompted us to assess whether the mechanisms involved in the maintenance of this particular potentiation were similar to those implicated in the late phase of long-term potentiation (L-LTP). In the presence of KN-62, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, taurine perfusion (10 mM, 30 min) did not affect the induction of LLP-TAU. However, LLP-TAU maintenance was completely suppressed by KT5720, an inhibitor of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). Moreover, the late phase of LLP-TAU was blocked by inhibiting protein synthesis with anisomycin. In addition, taurine perfusion increased the phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), although did not affect cAMP levels. These features of LLP-TAU do not appear to be caused by the activation of D1/D5 dopamine receptors, as taurine also induced synaptic potentiation in the presence of SCH23390, an antagonist of this type of receptors. Finally, the late phase of both L-LTP and LLP-TAU occluded mutually. These results suggest that taurine triggers the sequence of some of the molecular events involved in the induction of L-LTP.

  16. Menthol-induced Ca2+ release from presynaptic Ca2+ stores potentiates sensory synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Kenzo; Xing, Hong; Ling, Jennifer; Gu, Jianguo G

    2004-01-21

    Menthol and many of its derivatives produce profound sensory and mental effects. The receptor for menthol has been cloned and named cold- and menthol-sensitive receptor-1 (CMR1) or transient receptor potential channel M8 (TRPM8) receptor. Using a dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and dorsal horn (DH) coculture system as a model for the first sensory synapse in the CNS, we studied menthol effects on sensory synaptic transmission and the underlying mechanisms. We found that menthol increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs). The effects persisted under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition but were abolished by intracellular BAPTA and pretreatment with thapsigargin. Menthol-induced increases of mEPSC frequency were blocked by 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborane (2-APB) but not affected by the phospholipase C inhibitor U73122 [GenBank] or by the cADP receptor inhibitor 8-bromo-cADPR (8Br-cADPR). Double-patch recordings from DRG-DH pairs showed that menthol could potentiate evoked EPSCs (eEPSCs) and change the paired-pulse ratio of eEPSCs. A Ca2+ imaging study on DRG neurons demonstrated that menthol could directly release Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores. Menthol-induced Ca2+ release was abolished by 2-APB but not affected by U73122 [GenBank] or 8Br-cADPR. Taken together, our results indicate that menthol can act directly on presynaptic Ca2+ stores of sensory neurons to release Ca2+, resulting in a facilitation of glutamate release and a modulation of neuronal transmission at sensory synapses. Expression of TRPM8 receptor on presynaptic Ca2+ stores, a novel localization for this ligand-gated ion channel, is also strongly suggested.

  17. Effect of the Initial Synaptic State on the Probability to Induce Long-Term Potentiation and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, Michele; De Simone, Giada; Migliore, Rosanna

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are the two major forms of long-lasting synaptic plasticity in the mammalian neurons, and are directly related to higher brain functions such as learning and memory. Experimentally, they are characterized by a change in the strength of a synaptic connection induced by repetitive and properly patterned stimulation protocols. Although many important details of the molecular events leading to LTP and LTD are known, experimenters often report problems in using standard induction protocols to obtain consistent results, especially for LTD in vivo. We hypothesize that a possible source of confusion in interpreting the results, from any given experiment on synaptic plasticity, can be the intrinsic limitation of the experimental techniques, which cannot take into account the actual state and peak conductance of the synapses before the conditioning protocol. In this article, we investigate the possibility that the same experimental protocol may result in different consequences (e.g., LTD instead of LTP), according to the initial conditions of the stimulated synapses, and can generate confusing results. Using biophysical models of synaptic plasticity and hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, we study how, why, and to what extent the phenomena observed at the soma after induction of LTP/LTD reflects the actual (local) synaptic state. The model and the results suggest a physiologically plausible explanation for why LTD induction is experimentally difficult to obtain. They also suggest experimentally testable predictions on the stimulation protocols that may be more effective. PMID:25762316

  18. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons.

  19. Succinate increases neuronal post-synaptic excitatory potentials in vitro and induces convulsive behavior through N-methyl-d-aspartate-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Roehrs, C; Garrido-Sanabria, E R; Da Silva, A C; Faria, L C; Sinhorin, V D G; Marques, R H; Priel, M R; Rubin, M A; Cavalheiro, E A; Mello, C F

    2004-01-01

    Succinate is a dicarboxylic acid that accumulates due to succinate dehydrogenase inhibition by malonate and methylmalonate exposure. These neurotoxins cause increased excitability and excitotoxic damage, which can be prevented by administering high amounts of succinate. In the present study we investigated whether succinate alters hippocampal field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. Bath application of succinate at intermediate concentrations (0.3-1 mM) increased the slope of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices, and at high concentrations (above 1 mM) did not alter or decrease field excitatory post-synaptic potentials slope. Succinate-induced enhancement of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials slope was abolished by the addition of d-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (50 microM) to the perfusate, supporting the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the excitatory effect of this organic acid. Accordingly, succinate (0.8-7.5 micromol) i.c.v. administration caused dose-dependent convulsive behavior in mice. The i.c.v. co-administration of MK-801 (7 nmol) fully prevented succinate-induced convulsions, further suggesting the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors in the convulsant action of succinate. Our data indicate that accumulation of moderate amounts of succinate may contribute to the excitotoxicity induced by succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors, through the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors.

  20. Optogenetic inhibition of cortical afferents in the nucleus accumbens simultaneously prevents cue-induced transient synaptic potentiation and cocaine-seeking behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stefanik, Michael T.; Kupchik, Yonatan M.; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of relapse reveal that the motivation to seek drug is regulated by enduring morphological and physiological changes in the nucleus accumbens, as well as transient synaptic potentiation in the accumbens core (NAcore) that parallels drug-seeking behavior. The current study sought to examine the link between the behavioral and synaptic consequences of cue-induced cocaine seeking by optically silencing glutamatergic afferents to the NAcore from the prelimbic cortex (PL). Adeno-associated virus coding for the inhibitory opsin archaerhodopsin was microinjected into PL, and optical fibers were targeted to NAcore. Animals were trained to self-administer cocaine followed by extinction training, and then underwent cue-induced reinstatement in the presence or absence of 15 min of optically-induced inhibition of PL fibers in NAcore. Inhibiting the PL-to-NAcore projection blocked reinstated behavior and was paralleled by decreased dendritic spine head diameter and AMPA/NMDA ratio relative to sham-laser control rats. Interestingly, while spine density was elevated after extinction training, no further effects were observed by cued reinstatement or optical inhibition. These findings validate the critical role for PL afferents to the NAcore in simultaneously regulating both reinstated behavior and the associated transient synaptic potentiation. PMID:25663648

  1. Optogenetic inhibition of cortical afferents in the nucleus accumbens simultaneously prevents cue-induced transient synaptic potentiation and cocaine-seeking behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanik, Michael T; Kupchik, Yonatan M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2016-04-01

    Animal models of relapse reveal that the motivation to seek drug is regulated by enduring morphological and physiological changes in the nucleus accumbens, as well as transient synaptic potentiation in the accumbens core (NAcore) that parallels drug-seeking behavior. The current study sought to examine the link between the behavioral and synaptic consequences of cue-induced cocaine seeking by optically silencing glutamatergic afferents to the NAcore from the prelimbic cortex (PL). Adeno-associated virus coding for the inhibitory opsin archaerhodopsin was microinjected into PL, and optical fibers were targeted to NAcore. Animals were trained to self-administer cocaine followed by extinction training, and then underwent cue-induced reinstatement in the presence or absence of 15 min of optically induced inhibition of PL fibers in NAcore. Inhibiting the PL-to-NAcore projection blocked reinstated behavior and was paralleled by decreased dendritic spine head diameter and AMPA/NMDA ratio relative to sham-laser control rats. Interestingly, while spine density was elevated after extinction training, no further effects were observed by cued reinstatement or optical inhibition. These findings validate the critical role for PL afferents to the NAcore in simultaneously regulating both reinstated behavior and the associated transient synaptic potentiation.

  2. Precise Synaptic Efficacy Alignment Suggests Potentiation Dominated Learning.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Christoph; Miner, Daniel C; Triesch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that parallel synapses from the same axonal branch onto the same dendritic branch have almost identical strength. It has been proposed that this alignment is only possible through learning rules that integrate activity over long time spans. However, learning mechanisms such as spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) are commonly assumed to be temporally local. Here, we propose that the combination of temporally local STDP and a multiplicative synaptic normalization mechanism is sufficient to explain the alignment of parallel synapses. To address this issue, we introduce three increasingly complex models: First, we model the idealized interaction of STDP and synaptic normalization in a single neuron as a simple stochastic process and derive analytically that the alignment effect can be described by a so-called Kesten process. From this we can derive that synaptic efficacy alignment requires potentiation-dominated learning regimes. We verify these conditions in a single-neuron model with independent spiking activities but more realistic synapses. As expected, we only observe synaptic efficacy alignment for long-term potentiation-biased STDP. Finally, we explore how well the findings transfer to recurrent neural networks where the learning mechanisms interact with the correlated activity of the network. We find that due to the self-reinforcing correlations in recurrent circuits under STDP, alignment occurs for both long-term potentiation- and depression-biased STDP, because the learning will be potentiation dominated in both cases due to the potentiating events induced by correlated activity. This is in line with recent results demonstrating a dominance of potentiation over depression during waking and normalization during sleep. This leads us to predict that individual spine pairs will be more similar after sleep compared to after sleep deprivation. In conclusion, we show that synaptic normalization in conjunction with coordinated

  3. Berberine chloride improved synaptic plasticity in STZ induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Hamid Kalalian; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Roghani, Mehrdad; Goshadrou, Fatemeh; Ronaghi, Abdolaziz

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that diabetes affects synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, leading to impairments of synaptic plasticity and defects in learning and memory. Although berberine treatment ameliorates memory impairment and improves synaptic plasticity in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats, it is not clear if the effects are pre- or post-synaptic or both. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of berberine chloride on short-term plasticity in inhibitory interneurons in the dentate gyrus of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Experimental groups included: The control, control berberine treated (100 mg/kg), diabetic and diabetic berberine treated (50,100 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks) groups. The paired pulse paradigm was used to stimulate the perforant pathway and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were recorded in dentate gyrus (DG). In comparison with control, paired pulse facilitation in the diabetic group was significantly increased (P < 0.01) and this effect prevented by chronic berberine treatment (50,100 mg/kg). However, there were no differences between responses of the control berberine 100 mg/kg treated and diabetes berberine treated (50 and 100 mg/kg) groups as compared to the control group. The present results suggest that the pre-synaptic component of synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus is affected under diabetic conditions and that berberine prevents this effect.

  4. Ketones prevent synaptic dysfunction induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Young; Vallejo, Johana; Rho, Jong M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Ketones have previously shown beneficial effects in models of neurodegenerative disorders, particularly against associated mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive impairment. However, evidence of a synaptic protective effect of ketones remains lacking. We tested the effects of ketones on synaptic impairment induced by mitochondrial respiratory complex (MRC) inhibitors using electrophysiological, reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging and biochemical techniques. MRC inhibitors dose-dependently suppressed both population spike (PS) and field potential amplitudes in the CA1 hippocampus. Pre-treatment with ketones strongly prevented changes in the PS, whereas partial protection was seen in the field potential. Rotenone (Rot; 100 nmol/L), a MRC I inhibitor, suppressed synaptic function without altering ROS levels and PS depression by Rot was unaffected by antioxidants. In contrast, antioxidant-induced PS recovery against the MRC II inhibitor 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP; 1 mmol/L) was similar to the synaptic protective effects of ketones. Ketones also suppressed ROS generation induced by 3-NP. Finally, ketones reversed the decreases in ATP levels caused by Rot and 3-NP. In summary, our data demonstrate that ketones can preserve synaptic function in CA1 hippocampus induced by MRC dysfunction, likely through an antioxidant action and enhanced ATP generation. PMID:20374433

  5. Rescue of tau-induced synaptic transmission pathology by paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Erez, Hadas; Shemesh, Or A.; Spira, Micha E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other tauopathies have revealed that the onset of cognitive decline correlates better with synaptic dysfunctions than with hallmark pathologies such as extracellular amyloid-β plaques, intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau or neuronal loss. Recent experiments have also demonstrated that anti-cancer microtubule (MT)-stabilizing drugs can rescue tau-induced behavioral decline and hallmark neuron pathologies. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying tau-induced synaptic dysfunction as well as those involved in the rescue of cognitive decline by MTs-stabilizing drugs remain unclear. Here we began to study these mechanisms using the glutaminergic sensory-motoneuron synapse derived from Aplysia ganglia, electrophysiological methods, the expression of mutant-human tau (mt-htau) either pre or postsynaptically and the antimitotic drug paclitaxel. Expression of mt-htau in the presynaptic neurons led to reduced excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude generated by rested synapses within 3 days of mt-htau expression, and to deeper levels of homosynaptic depression. mt-htau-induced synaptic weakening correlated with reduced releasable presynaptic vesicle pools as revealed by the induction of asynchronous neurotransmitter release by hypertonic sucrose solution. Paclitaxel totally rescued tau-induced synaptic weakening by maintaining the availability of the presynaptic vesicle stores. Postsynaptic expression of mt-htau did not impair the above described synaptic-transmission parameters for up to 5 days. Along with earlier confocal microscope observations from our laboratory, these findings suggest that tau-induced synaptic dysfunction is the outcome of impaired axoplasmic transport and the ensuing reduction in the releasable presynaptic vesicle stores rather than the direct effects of mt-htau or paclitaxel on the synaptic release mechanisms. PMID:24574970

  6. Synaptic Mechanisms of Blast-Induced Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Przekwas, Andrzej; Somayaji, Mahadevabharath R.; Gupta, Raj K.

    2016-01-01

    Blast wave-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common injuries to military personnel. Brain tissue compression/tension due to blast-induced cranial deformations and shear waves due to head rotation may generate diffuse micro-damage to neuro-axonal structures and trigger a cascade of neurobiological events culminating in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. Although diffuse axonal injury is regarded as a signature wound of mild TBI (mTBI), blast loads may also cause synaptic injury wherein neuronal synapses are stretched and sheared. This synaptic injury may result in temporary disconnect of the neural circuitry and transient loss in neuronal communication. We hypothesize that mTBI symptoms such as loss of consciousness or dizziness, which start immediately after the insult, could be attributed to synaptic injury. Although empirical evidence is beginning to emerge; the detailed mechanisms underlying synaptic injury are still elusive. Coordinated in vitro–in vivo experiments and mathematical modeling studies can shed light into the synaptic injury mechanisms and their role in the potentiation of mTBI symptoms. PMID:26834697

  7. Cell-specific synaptic plasticity induced by network oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Zarnadze, Shota; Bäuerle, Peter; Santos-Torres, Julio; Böhm, Claudia; Schmitz, Dietmar; Geiger, Jörg RP

    2016-01-01

    Gamma rhythms are known to contribute to the process of memory encoding. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and network levels. Using local field potential recording in awake behaving mice and concomitant field potential and whole-cell recordings in slice preparations we found that gamma rhythms lead to activity-dependent modification of hippocampal networks, including alterations in sharp wave-ripple complexes. Network plasticity, expressed as long-lasting increases in sharp wave-associated synaptic currents, exhibits enhanced excitatory synaptic strength in pyramidal cells that is induced postsynaptically and depends on metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 activation. In sharp contrast, alteration of inhibitory synaptic strength is independent of postsynaptic activation and less pronounced. Further, we found a cell type-specific, directionally biased synaptic plasticity of two major types of GABAergic cells, parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing interneurons. Thus, we propose that gamma frequency oscillations represent a network state that introduces long-lasting synaptic plasticity in a cell-specific manner. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14912.001 PMID:27218453

  8. Trans-synaptic (GABA-dopamine) modulation of cocaine induced dopamine release: A potential therapeutic strategy for cocaine abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Straughter-Moore, R.; Chen, R.

    1995-05-01

    We recently developed a new experimental strategy for measuring interactions between functionally-linked neurotransmitter systems in the primate and human brain with PET. As part of this research, we demonstrated that increases in endogenous GABA concentrations significantly reduced striatal dopamine concentrations in the primate brain. We report here the application of the neurotransmitter interaction paradigm with PET and with microdialysis to the investigation of a novel therapeutic strategy for treating cocaine abuse based on the ability of GABA to inhibit cocaine induced increases in striatal dopamine. Using gamma-vinyl GABA (GVG, a suicide inhibitor of GABA transaminase), we performed a series of PET studies where animals received a baseline PET scan with labeled raclopride injection, animals received cocaine (2.0 mg/kg). Normally, a cocaine challenge significantly reduces the striatal binding of {sup 11}C-raclopride. However, in animals pretreated with GVG, {sup 11}C-raclopride binding was less affected by a cocaine challenge compared to control studies. Furthermore, microdialysis studies in freely moving rats demonstrate that GVG (300 mg/kg) significantly inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine release. GVG also attenuated cocaine-induced increases in locomotor activity. However, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, GVG had no effect. Similar findings were obtained with alcohol. Alcohol pretreatment dose dependantly (1-4 g/kg) inhibited cocaine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine concentrations in freely moving rats. Taken together, these studies suggest that therapeutic strategies targeted at increasing central GABA concentrations may be beneficial for the treatment of cocaine abuse.

  9. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge Blocks Ethanol-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction through Regulation of NMDA Receptor-Dependent Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Jin; Lee, Seungheon; Jung, Ji Wook; Lee, Young Choon; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of high doses of ethanol can lead to amnesia, which often manifests as a blackout. These blackouts experienced by ethanol consumers may be a major cause of the social problems associated with excess ethanol consumption. However, there is currently no established treatment for preventing these ethanol-induced blackouts. In this study, we tested the ethanol extract of the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) for its ability to mitigate ethanol-induced behavioral and synaptic deficits. To test behavioral deficits, an object recognition test was conducted in mouse. In this test, ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.) impaired object recognition memory, but SM (200 mg/kg) prevented this impairment. To evaluate synaptic deficits, NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mouse hippocampal slices were tested, as they are known to be vulnerable to ethanol and are associated with ethanol-induced amnesia. SM (10 and 100 μg/ml) significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced long-term potentiation and NMDA receptor-mediated EPSP deficits in the hippocampal slices. Therefore, these results suggest that SM prevents ethanol-induced amnesia by protecting the hippocampus from NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:27257009

  10. NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation comprises a family of temporally overlapping forms of synaptic plasticity that are induced by different patterns of stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Park, Pojeong; Volianskis, Arturas; Sanderson, Thomas M.; Bortolotto, Zuner A.; Jane, David E.; Zhuo, Min; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Collingridge, Graham L.

    2014-01-01

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) is extensively studied since it is believed to use the same molecular mechanisms that are required for many forms of learning and memory. Unfortunately, many controversies exist, not least the seemingly simple issue concerning the locus of expression of LTP. Here, we review our recent work and some of the extensive literature on this topic and present new data that collectively suggest that LTP can be explained, during its first few hours, by the coexistence of at least three mechanistically distinct processes that are all triggered by the synaptic activation of NMDARs. PMID:24298134

  11. Two Distinct Mechanisms Mediate Potentiating Effects of Depolarization on Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ludwar, Bjoern Ch.; Evans, Colin G.; Jing, Jian; Cropper, Elizabeth C.

    2009-01-01

    Two distinct mechanisms mediate potentiating effects of depolarization on synaptic transmission. Recently there has been renewed interest in a type of plasticity in which a neuron's somatic membrane potential influences synaptic transmission. We study mechanisms that mediate this type of control at a synapse between a mechanoafferent, B21, and B8, a motor neuron that receives chemical synaptic input. Previously we demonstrated that the somatic membrane potential determines spike propagation within B21. Namely, B21 must be centrally depolarized if spikes are to propagate to an output process. We now demonstrate that this will occur with central depolarizations that are only a few millivolts. Depolarizations of this magnitude are not, however, sufficient to induce synaptic transmission to B8. B21-induced postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) are only observed if B21 is centrally depolarized by ≥10 mV. Larger depolarizations have a second impact on B21. They induce graded changes in the baseline intracellular calcium concentration that are virtually essential for the induction of chemical synaptic transmission. During motor programs, subthreshold depolarizations that increase calcium concentrations are observed during one of the two antagonistic phases of rhythmic activity. Chemical synaptic transmission from B21 to B8 is, therefore, likely to occur in a phase-dependent manner. Other neurons that receive mechanoafferent input are electrically coupled to B21. Differential control of spike propagation and chemical synaptic transmission may, therefore, represent a mechanism that permits selective control of afferent transmission to different types of neurons contacted by B21. Afferent transmission to neurons receiving chemical synaptic input will be phase specific, whereas transmission to electrically coupled followers will be phase independent. PMID:19605611

  12. Acute suppression of spontaneous neurotransmission drives synaptic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Nosyreva, Elena; Szabla, Kristen; Autry, Anita E.; Ryazanov, Alexey G.; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Kavalali, Ege T.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of spontaneous neurotransmission on neuronal plasticity remains poorly understood. Here, we show that acute suppression of spontaneous N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated neurotransmission potentiates synaptic responses in the CA1 regions of rat and mouse hippocampus. This potentiation requires protein synthesis, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF2K) function and increased surface expression of 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propanoic acid (AMPA) receptors. Our behavioral studies link this same synaptic signaling pathway to the fast-acting antidepressant responses elicited by ketamine. We also show that selective neurotransmitter depletion from spontaneously recycling vesicles triggers synaptic potentiation via the same pathway as NMDA receptor blockade, demonstrating that presynaptic impairment of spontaneous release, without manipulation of evoked neurotransmission, is sufficient to elicit postsynaptic plasticity. These findings uncover an unexpectedly dynamic impact of spontaneous glutamate release on synaptic efficacy and provide new insight into a key synaptic substrate for rapid antidepressant action. PMID:23595756

  13. Post-tetanic potentiation, habituation and facilitation of synaptic potentials in reticulospinal neurones of lamprey.

    PubMed

    Wickelgren, W O

    1977-08-01

    1. Synaptic potentials evoked by electrical stimulation of cranial nerves were recorded in giant reticulospinal neurones (Müller cells) of lamprey. A variety of patterns of stimulation was employed to explore further the functional properties of the pathways intervening between the cranial nerve fibres and Müller cells.2. Simultaneous low intensity stimulation of two different cranial nerves produced excitatory short-latency synaptic potentials whose amplitudes summed linearly.3. Tetanic (10/sec) stimulation of a cranial nerve depressed the evoked short-latency synaptic response, but following the tetanus the synaptic response was potentiated above control amplitude for several minutes. Tetanic stimulation of one cranial nerve had no effect upon the synaptic responses evoked by stimulation of other cranial nerves.4. Low-frequency stimulation (1/sec to 1/20 sec) of a cranial nerve produced a progressive decrease in the amplitude of the evoked short-latency synaptic response. This phenomenon was termed synaptic habituation because its characteristics were functionally similar to behavioural habituation in animals.5. Habituation of the synaptic response to stimulation of one cranial nerve had no effect on the synaptic responses produced by stimulation of other cranial nerves.6. Synaptic afterdischarges lasting from several seconds to several minutes were recorded in Müller cells. They occurred both spontaneously and in response to strong electrical stimulation of cranial nerves. For several minutes following an afterdischarge the amplitudes of short-latency synaptic potentials produced by stimulation of any one of the cranial nerves were increased as much as twofold. This facilitation occurred equally well whether the short-latency synaptic responses had been habituated or not.7. A theoretical cell-wiring diagram is proposed to account for the properties of short-latency evoked synaptic responses and synaptic afterdischarges and for the facilitation of short

  14. Synaptic potentials in locus coeruleus neurons in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Williams, J T; Bobker, D H; Harris, G C

    1991-01-01

    Neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC) fire action potentials spontaneously in vitro in the absence of any stimulation. This spontaneous activity is thought to arise from intrinsic membrane properties that include a balance between at least two ion conductances. One is a persistent inward sodium current that is active near the threshold for action potential generation. The second is a calcium-dependent potassium current that is activated following the entry of calcium during the action potential, is responsible for the after-hyperpolarization following the action potential, and decays over a period of 1-2 sec following the action potential. The spontaneous activity of LC neurons can be altered by both excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. One excitatory input has been described that is mediated by glutamate receptors of both the non-NMDA and NMDA subtypes. Inhibitory synaptic potentials include those mediated by GABA (acting on GABAA-receptors), glycine (acting on a strychnine-sensitive receptor) and noradrenaline (acting on alpha 2-adrenoceptors). The presence of synaptic potentials mediated by these transmitters, studied in vitro, correlate with studies made in vivo and with histochemical identification of synaptic inputs to the locus coeruleus.

  15. The impact of synaptic conductance on action potential waveform: evoking realistic action potentials with a simulated synaptic conductance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Postlethwaite, Michael; Forsythe, Ian D

    2009-10-15

    Most current clamp studies trigger action potentials (APs) by step current injection through the recording electrode and assume that the resulting APs are essentially identical to those triggered by orthodromic synaptic inputs. However this assumption is not always valid, particularly when the synaptic conductance is of large magnitude and of close proximity to the axon initial segment. We addressed this question of similarity using the Calyx of Held/MNTB synapse; we compared APs evoked by long duration step current injections, short step current injections and orthodromic synaptic stimuli. Neither injected current protocol evoked APs that matched the evoked orthodromic AP waveform, showing differences in AP height, half-width and after-hyperpolarization. We postulated that this 'error' could arise from changes in the instantaneous conductance during the combined synaptic and AP waveforms, since the driving forces for the respective ionic currents are integrating and continually evolving over this time-course. We demonstrate that a simple Ohm's law manipulation of the EPSC waveform, which accounts for the evolving driving force on the synaptic conductance during the AP, produces waveforms that closely mimic those generated by physiological synaptic stimulation. This stimulation paradigm allows supra-threshold physiological stimulation (single stimuli or trains) without the variability caused by quantal fluctuation in transmitter release, and can be implemented without a specialised dynamic clamp system. Combined with pharmacological tools this method provides a reliable means to assess the physiological roles of postsynaptic ion channels without confounding affects from the presynaptic input.

  16. Addiction-like Synaptic Impairments in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robyn Mary; Kupchik, Yonatan Michael; Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core considered hallmarks of addiction. Sprague Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO-prone and DIO-resistant subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed ratio 1, 3, and 5 and progressive ratio schedules. Subsequently, nucleus accumbens brain slices were prepared, and we tested for changes in the ratio between α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate currents and the ability to exhibit long-term depression. We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in DIO-prone rats, including 1) heightened motivation for palatable food; 2) excessive intake; and 3) increased food seeking when food was unavailable. Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  17. Finite Post Synaptic Potentials Cause a Fast Neuronal Response

    PubMed Central

    Helias, Moritz; Deger, Moritz; Rotter, Stefan; Diesmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    A generic property of the communication between neurons is the exchange of pulses at discrete time points, the action potentials. However, the prevalent theory of spiking neuronal networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons relies on two assumptions: the superposition of many afferent synaptic impulses is approximated by Gaussian white noise, equivalent to a vanishing magnitude of the synaptic impulses, and the transfer of time varying signals by neurons is assessable by linearization. Going beyond both approximations, we find that in the presence of synaptic impulses the response to transient inputs differs qualitatively from previous predictions. It is instantaneous rather than exhibiting low-pass characteristics, depends non-linearly on the amplitude of the impulse, is asymmetric for excitation and inhibition and is promoted by a characteristic level of synaptic background noise. These findings resolve contradictions between the earlier theory and experimental observations. Here we review the recent theoretical progress that enabled these insights. We explain why the membrane potential near threshold is sensitive to properties of the afferent noise and show how this shapes the neural response. A further extension of the theory to time evolution in discrete steps quantifies simulation artifacts and yields improved methods to cross check results. PMID:21427776

  18. Leptin potentiates GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing rodent hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, Damien; Diabira, Diabe; Porcher, Christophe; Bader, Francesca; Ferrand, Nadine; Zhu, Mingyan; Appleyard, Suzanne M.; Wayman, Gary A.; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that leptin is not only a hormone regulating energy homeostasis but also a neurotrophic factor impacting a number of brain regions, including the hippocampus. Although leptin promotes the development of GABAergic transmission in the hypothalamus, little is known about its action on the GABAergic system in the hippocampus. Here we show that leptin modulates GABAergic transmission onto developing CA3 pyramidal cells of newborn rats. Specifically, leptin induces a long-lasting potentiation (LLP-GABAA) of miniature GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic current (GABAA-PSC) frequency. Leptin also increases the amplitude of evoked GABAA-PSCs in a subset of neurons along with a decrease in the coefficient of variation and no change in the paired-pulse ratio, pointing to an increased recruitment of functional synapses. Adding pharmacological blockers to the recording pipette showed that the leptin-induced LLP-GABAA requires postsynaptic calcium released from internal stores, as well as postsynaptic MAPK/ERK kinases 1 and/or 2 (MEK1/2), phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K) and calcium-calmodulin kinase kinase (CaMKK). Finally, study of CA3 pyramidal cells in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice revealed a reduction in the basal frequency of miniature GABAA-PSCs compared to wild type littermates. In addition, presynaptic GAD65 immunostaining was reduced in the CA3 stratum pyramidale of mutant animals, both results converging to suggest a decreased number of functional GABAergic synapses in ob/ob mice. Overall, these results show that leptin potentiates and promotes the development of GABAergic synaptic transmission in the developing hippocampus likely via an increase in the number of functional synapses, and provide insights into the intracellular pathways mediating this effect. This study further extends the scope of leptin's neurotrophic action to a key regulator of hippocampal development and function, namely GABAergic transmission. PMID:25177272

  19. Activity-dependent synaptic GRIP1 accumulation drives synaptic scaling up in response to action potential blockade.

    PubMed

    Gainey, Melanie A; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Nahmani, Marc; Lin, Heather; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2015-07-07

    Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to changes in synapse number and strength. Scaling up in response to action-potential blockade is accomplished through increased synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR), but the receptor trafficking steps that drive this process remain largely obscure. Here, we show that the AMPAR-binding protein glutamate receptor-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is essential for regulated synaptic AMPAR accumulation during scaling up. Synaptic abundance of GRIP1 was enhanced by activity deprivation, directly increasing synaptic GRIP1 abundance through overexpression increased the amplitude of AMPA miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and shRNA-mediated GRIP1 knockdown prevented scaling up of AMPA mEPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown and replace experiments targeting either GRIP1 or GluA2 revealed that scaling up requires the interaction between GRIP1 and GluA2. Finally, GRIP1 synaptic accumulation during scaling up did not require GluA2 binding. Taken together, our data support a model in which activity-dependent trafficking of GRIP1 to synaptic sites drives the forward trafficking and enhanced synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPAR during synaptic scaling up.

  20. Pro-BDNF-induced synaptic depression and retraction at developing neuromuscular synapses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feng; Je, Hyun-Soo; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara; Lu, Bai

    2009-05-18

    Postsynaptic cells generate positive and negative signals that retrogradely modulate presynaptic function. At developing neuromuscular synapses, prolonged stimulation of muscle cells induces sustained synaptic depression. We provide evidence that pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a negative retrograde signal that can be converted into a positive signal by metalloproteases at the synaptic junctions. Application of pro-BDNF induces a dramatic decrease in synaptic efficacy followed by a retraction of presynaptic terminals, and these effects are mediated by presynaptic pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75(NTR)), the pro-BDNF receptor. A brief stimulation of myocytes expressing cleavable or uncleavable pro-BDNF elicits synaptic potentiation or depression, respectively. Extracellular application of metalloprotease inhibitors, which inhibits the cleavage of endogenous pro-BDNF, facilitates the muscle stimulation-induced synaptic depression. Inhibition of presynaptic p75(NTR) or postsynaptic BDNF expression also blocks the activity-dependent synaptic depression and retraction. These results support a model in which postsynaptic secretion of a single molecule, pro-BDNF, may stabilize or eliminate presynaptic terminals depending on its proteolytic conversion at the synapses.

  1. Pro-BDNF–induced synaptic depression and retraction at developing neuromuscular synapses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; Je, Hyun-Soo; Ji, Yuanyuan; Nagappan, Guhan; Hempstead, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Postsynaptic cells generate positive and negative signals that retrogradely modulate presynaptic function. At developing neuromuscular synapses, prolonged stimulation of muscle cells induces sustained synaptic depression. We provide evidence that pro–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a negative retrograde signal that can be converted into a positive signal by metalloproteases at the synaptic junctions. Application of pro-BDNF induces a dramatic decrease in synaptic efficacy followed by a retraction of presynaptic terminals, and these effects are mediated by presynaptic pan-neurotrophin receptor p75 (p75NTR), the pro-BDNF receptor. A brief stimulation of myocytes expressing cleavable or uncleavable pro-BDNF elicits synaptic potentiation or depression, respectively. Extracellular application of metalloprotease inhibitors, which inhibits the cleavage of endogenous pro-BDNF, facilitates the muscle stimulation–induced synaptic depression. Inhibition of presynaptic p75NTR or postsynaptic BDNF expression also blocks the activity-dependent synaptic depression and retraction. These results support a model in which postsynaptic secretion of a single molecule, pro-BDNF, may stabilize or eliminate presynaptic terminals depending on its proteolytic conversion at the synapses. PMID:19451278

  2. Activity-Induced Synaptic Structural Modifications by an Activator of Integrin Signaling at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yeun; Geng, Junhua; Lee, Juhyun; Wang, Andrew R; Chang, Karen T

    2017-03-22

    Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled (Shv) regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance. Consequently, loss of Shv prevents activity-induced synapse maturation and abolishes post-tetanic potentiation, a form of synaptic plasticity. Our data identify Shv as a novel trans-synaptic signal secreted upon intense neuronal activity to promote synapse remodeling through integrin receptor signaling.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The ability of neurons to rapidly modify synaptic structure in response to neuronal activity, a process called activity-induced structural remodeling, is crucial for neuronal development and complex brain functions. The molecular players that are important for this fundamental biological process are not well understood. Here we show that the Shriveled (Shv) protein is required during development to maintain normal synaptic growth. We further demonstrate that Shv is selectively released during intense neuronal activity, but not mild neuronal activity, to acutely activate integrin signaling and trigger structural modifications at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. This work identifies Shv as a key modulator of activity-induced structural remodeling and suggests that neurons use distinct molecular cues to differentially modulate synaptic growth and remodeling to meet synaptic demand. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/373246-18$15.00/0.

  3. Brief environmental enrichment elicits metaplasticity of hippocampal synaptic potentiation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Buschler, Arne; Manahan-Vaughan, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Long-term environmental enrichment (EE) elicits enduring effects on the adult brain, including altered synaptic plasticity. Synaptic plasticity may underlie memory formation and includes robust (>24 h) and weak (<2 h) forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Most studies of the effect of EE on synaptic efficacy have examined the consequences of very prolonged EE-exposure. It is unclear whether brief exposure to EE can alter synaptic plasticity. Clarifying this issue could help develop strategies to address cognitive deficits arising from neglect in children or adults. We assessed whether short-term EE elicits alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and if social context may play a role. Adult mice were exposed to EE for 14 consecutive days. We found that robust late-LTP (>24 h) and short-term depression (<2 h) at Schaffer-collateral-CA1 synapses in freely behaving mice were unaltered, whereas early-LTP (E-LTP, <2 h) was significantly enhanced by EE. Effects were transient: E-LTP returned to control levels 1 week after cessation of EE. Six weeks later, animals were re-exposed to EE for 14 days. Under these conditions, E-LTP was facilitated into L-LTP (>24 h), suggesting that metaplasticity was induced during the first EE experience and that EE-mediated modifications are cumulative. Effects were absent in mice that underwent solitary enrichment or were group-housed without EE. These data suggest that EE in naïve animals strengthens E-LTP, and also promotes L-LTP in animals that underwent EE in the past. This indicates that brief exposure to EE, particularly under social conditions can elicit lasting positive effects on synaptic strength that may have beneficial consequences for cognition that depends on synaptic plasticity. PMID:23248592

  4. Short-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic inputs to vasopressin and oxytocin neurones.

    PubMed

    Morton, Linda A; Popescu, Ion R; Haam, Juhee; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2014-10-01

    The magnocellular vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurones undergo long-term synaptic plasticity to accommodate prolonged hormone demand. By contrast, rapidly induced,transient synaptic plasticity in response to brief stimuli could enable the activation of magnocellular neurones in response to acute challenges. Here, we report a robust short-term potentiation of asynchronous GABAergic synaptic inputs (STP(GABA)) to VP and OT neurones of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus elicited by repetitive extracellular electrical stimulation.The STP(GABA) required extracellular Ca2+, but did not require activation of glutamate, VP or OT receptors or nitric oxide synthesis. Presynaptic action potential generation was necessary for the induction, but not the maintenance, of STP(GABA). The STP(GABA) led to a minutes-long GABA(A)receptor-dependent increase in spike frequency in VP neurones, but not in OT neurones,consistent with an excitatory function of GABA in only VP neurones and with the generation of prolonged bursts of action potentials in VP neurones. Therefore, this short-term plasticity of GABAergic synaptic inputs is likely to play very different roles in the regulation of OT and VP neurones and their distinct patterns of physiological activation.

  5. Short-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic inputs to vasopressin and oxytocin neurones

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Linda A; Popescu, Ion R; Haam, Juhee; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The magnocellular vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurones undergo long-term synaptic plasticity to accommodate prolonged hormone demand. By contrast, rapidly induced, transient synaptic plasticity in response to brief stimuli could enable the activation of magnocellular neurones in response to acute challenges. Here, we report a robust short-term potentiation of asynchronous GABAergic synaptic inputs (STPGABA) to VP and OT neurones of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus elicited by repetitive extracellular electrical stimulation. The STPGABA required extracellular Ca2+, but did not require activation of glutamate, VP or OT receptors or nitric oxide synthesis. Presynaptic action potential generation was necessary for the induction, but not the maintenance, of STPGABA. The STPGABA led to a minutes-long GABAA receptor-dependent increase in spike frequency in VP neurones, but not in OT neurones, consistent with an excitatory function of GABA in only VP neurones and with the generation of prolonged bursts of action potentials in VP neurones. Therefore, this short-term plasticity of GABAergic synaptic inputs is likely to play very different roles in the regulation of OT and VP neurones and their distinct patterns of physiological activation. PMID:25063825

  6. Cocaine Promotes Coincidence Detection and Lowers Induction Threshold during Hebbian Associative Synaptic Potentiation in Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongyu; Yao, Wei-Dong

    2017-01-25

    Addictive drugs usurp neural plasticity mechanisms that normally serve reward-related learning and memory, primarily by evoking changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine circuitry. Here, we show that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo does not alter synaptic strength in the mouse prefrontal cortex during an early period of withdrawal, but instead modifies a Hebbian quantitative synaptic learning rule by broadening the temporal window and lowers the induction threshold for spike-timing-dependent LTP (t-LTP). After repeated, but not single, daily cocaine injections, t-LTP in layer V pyramidal neurons is induced at +30 ms, a normally ineffective timing interval for t-LTP induction in saline-exposed mice. This cocaine-induced, extended-timing t-LTP lasts for ∼1 week after terminating cocaine and is accompanied by an increased susceptibility to potentiation by fewer pre-post spike pairs, indicating a reduced t-LTP induction threshold. Basal synaptic strength and the maximal attainable t-LTP magnitude remain unchanged after cocaine exposure. We further show that the cocaine facilitation of t-LTP induction is caused by sensitized D1-cAMP/protein kinase A dopamine signaling in pyramidal neurons, which then pathologically recruits voltage-gated l-type Ca(2+) channels that synergize with GluN2A-containing NMDA receptors to drive t-LTP at extended timing. Our results illustrate a mechanism by which cocaine, acting on a key neuromodulation pathway, modifies the coincidence detection window during Hebbian plasticity to facilitate associative synaptic potentiation in prefrontal excitatory circuits. By modifying rules that govern activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, addictive drugs can derail the experience-driven neural circuit remodeling process important for executive control of reward and addiction. It is believed that addictive drugs often render an addict's brain reward system hypersensitive, leaving the individual more susceptible to

  7. Post-ischaemic long-term synaptic potentiation in the striatum: a putative mechanism for cell type-specific vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Calabresi, Paolo; Saulle, Emilia; Centonze, Diego; Pisani, Antonio; Marfia, Girolama A; Bernardi, Giorgio

    2002-04-01

    In the present in vitro study of rat brain, we report that transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (in vitro ischaemia) induced a post-ischaemic long-term synaptic potentiation (i-LTP) at corticostriatal synapses. We compared the physiological and pharmacological characteristics of this pathological form of synaptic plasticity with those of LTP induced by tetanic stimulation of corticostriatal fibres (t-LTP), which is thought to represent a cellular substrate of learning and memory. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was required for the induction of both forms of synaptic plasticity. The intraneuronal injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA [bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate] and inhibitors of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway blocked both forms of synaptic plasticity. However, while t-LTP showed input specificity, i-LTP occurred also at synaptic pathways inactive during the ischaemic period. In addition, scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, prevented the induction of t-LTP but not of i-LTP, indicating that endogenous acetylcholine is required for physiological but not for pathological synaptic potentiation. Finally, we found that striatal cholinergic interneurones, which are resistant to in vivo ischaemia, do not express i-LTP while they express t-LTP. We suggest that i-LTP represents a pathological form of synaptic plasticity that may account for the cell type-specific vulnerability observed in striatal spiny neurones following ischaemia and energy deprivation.

  8. A pathologic cascade leading to synaptic dysfunction in α-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Tabarean, Iustin; Tang, Yong; Cartier, Anna; Masliah, Eliezer; Roy, Subhojit

    2010-01-01

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are typified by intra-neuronal α-synuclein deposits, synaptic dysfunction and dementia. While even modest α-synuclein elevations can be pathologic, the precise cascade of events induced by excessive α-synuclein and eventually culminating in synaptotoxicity is unclear. Towards this, we developed a quantitative model-system to evaluate evolving α-synuclein-induced pathologic events with high spatial and temporal resolution, using cultured neurons from brains of transgenic mice over-expressing fluorescent-human-α-synuclein. Transgenic α-synuclein was pathologically altered over time and over-expressing neurons showed striking neurotransmitter release deficits and enlarged synaptic vesicles; a phenotype reminiscent of previous animal-models lacking critical presynaptic proteins. Indeed several endogenous presynaptic proteins involved in exo- and endo-cytosis were undetectable in a subset of transgenic boutons (‘vacant synapses’) with diminished levels in the remainder; suggesting that such diminutions were triggering the overall synaptic pathology. Similar synaptic protein alterations were also retrospectively seen in human pathologic brains, highlighting potential relevance to human disease. Collectively the data suggest a previously unknown cascade of events where pathologic α-synuclein leads to a loss of a number of critical presynaptic proteins, thereby inducing functional synaptic deficits. PMID:20554859

  9. A pathologic cascade leading to synaptic dysfunction in alpha-synuclein-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Scott, David A; Tabarean, Iustin; Tang, Yong; Cartier, Anna; Masliah, Eliezer; Roy, Subhojit

    2010-06-16

    Several neurodegenerative diseases are typified by intraneuronal alpha-synuclein deposits, synaptic dysfunction, and dementia. While even modest alpha-synuclein elevations can be pathologic, the precise cascade of events induced by excessive alpha-synuclein and eventually culminating in synaptotoxicity is unclear. To elucidate this, we developed a quantitative model system to evaluate evolving alpha-synuclein-induced pathologic events with high spatial and temporal resolution, using cultured neurons from brains of transgenic mice overexpressing fluorescent-human-alpha-synuclein. Transgenic alpha-synuclein was pathologically altered over time and overexpressing neurons showed striking neurotransmitter release deficits and enlarged synaptic vesicles; a phenotype reminiscent of previous animal models lacking critical presynaptic proteins. Indeed, several endogenous presynaptic proteins involved in exocytosis and endocytosis were undetectable in a subset of transgenic boutons ("vacant synapses") with diminished levels in the remainder, suggesting that such diminutions were triggering the overall synaptic pathology. Similar synaptic protein alterations were also retrospectively seen in human pathologic brains, highlighting potential relevance to human disease. Collectively the data suggest a previously unknown cascade of events where pathologic alpha-synuclein leads to a loss of a number of critical presynaptic proteins, thereby inducing functional synaptic deficits.

  10. Action-potential-independent GABAergic tone mediated by nicotinic stimulation of immature striatal miniature synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Otsu, Yo; Vasuta, Cristina; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Murphy, Timothy H

    2007-08-01

    Stimulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases the frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic activity (mEPSCs) to a point where they can promote cell firing in hippocampal CA3 neurons. We have evaluated whether nicotine regulation of miniature synaptic activity can be extended to inhibitory transmission onto striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in acute brain slices. Bath application of micromolar nicotine typically induced 12-fold increases in the frequency of miniature inhibitory synaptic currents (mIPSCs). Little effect was observed on the amplitude of mIPSCs or mEPSCs under these conditions. Nicotine stimulation of mIPSCs was dependent on entry of extracellular calcium because removal of calcium from perfusate was able to block its action. To assess the potential physiological significance of the nicotine-stimulated increase in mIPSC frequency, we also examined the nicotine effect on evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs). eIPSCs were markedly attenuated by nicotine. This effect could be attributed to two potential mechanisms: transmitter depletion due to extremely high mIPSC rates and/or a reduction in presynaptic excitability associated with nicotinic depolarization. Treatment with low concentrations of K(+) was able to in part mimic nicotine's stimulatory effect on mIPSCs and inhibitory effect on eIPSCs. Current-clamp recordings confirmed a direct depolarizing action of nicotine that could dampen eIPSC activity leading to a switch to striatal inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by tonic mIPSCs.

  11. Ginkgolic Acid Protects against Aβ-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mango, Dalila; Weisz, Filippo; Nisticò, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo leaf is the most used form of supplement for cognitive ailments. The standardized extract formulation EGb 761 is a dietary supplement with proven benefit in several neurological and psychiatric conditions including memory decline in Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a component of this extract which shows pleiotropic effects including antitumoral and anti-HIV action; however, its effect on memory is still unknown. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological analysis to investigate the effects of GA on long term potentiation and synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses. We also evaluated the potential rescuing effect of GA on the synaptic dysfunction following in vitro application of Aβ. Data obtained indicate that GA exerts neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced impairment of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity. PMID:27833555

  12. Ginkgolic Acid Protects against Aβ-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mango, Dalila; Weisz, Filippo; Nisticò, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Ginkgo leaf is the most used form of supplement for cognitive ailments. The standardized extract formulation EGb 761 is a dietary supplement with proven benefit in several neurological and psychiatric conditions including memory decline in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia and dementia. Ginkgolic acid (GA) is a component of this extract which shows pleiotropic effects including antitumoral and anti-HIV action; however, its effect on memory is still unknown. Here, we carried out an electrophysiological analysis to investigate the effects of GA on long term potentiation and synaptic transmission at CA1 hippocampal synapses. We also evaluated the potential rescuing effect of GA on the synaptic dysfunction following in vitro application of Aβ. Data obtained indicate that GA exerts neuroprotective effects against Aβ-induced impairment of neurotransmitter release and synaptic plasticity.

  13. Synaptic basis for whisker deprivation-induced synaptic depression in rat somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Bender, Kevin J; Allen, Cara B; Bender, Vanessa A; Feldman, Daniel E

    2006-04-19

    Whisker deprivation weakens excitatory layer 4 (L4) inputs to L2/3 pyramidal cells in rat primary somatosensory (S1) cortex, which is likely to contribute to whisker map plasticity. This weakening has been proposed to represent long-term depression (LTD) induced by sensory deprivation in vivo. Here, we studied the synaptic expression mechanisms for deprivation-induced weakening of L4-L2/3 inputs and assessed its similarity to LTD, which is known to be expressed presynaptically at L4-L2/3 synapses. Whisker deprivation increased the paired pulse ratio at L4-L2/3 synapses and slowed the use-dependent block of NMDA receptor currents by MK-801 [(5S,10R)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate], indicating that deprivation reduced transmitter release probability at these synapses. In contrast, deprivation did not alter either miniature EPSC amplitude in L2/3 neurons or the amplitude of quantal L4-L2/3 synaptic responses measured in strontium, indicating that postsynaptic responsiveness was unchanged. In young postnatal day 12 (P12) rats, at least 4 d of deprivation were required to significantly weaken L4-L2/3 synapses. Similar weakening occurred when deprivation began at older ages (P20), when synapses are mostly mature, indicating that weakening is unlikely to represent a failure of synaptic maturation but instead represents a reduction in the strength of existing synapses. Thus, whisker deprivation weakens L4-L2/3 synapses by decreasing presynaptic function, similar to known LTD mechanisms at this synapse.

  14. X Irradiation Induces Acute Cognitive Decline via Transient Synaptic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Puspitasari, Anggraeini; Koganezawa, Noriko; Ishizuka, Yuta; Kojima, Nobuhiko; Tanaka, Natsume; Nakano, Takashi; Shirao, Tomoaki

    2016-04-01

    Cranial X irradiation can severely impair higher brain function, resulting in neurocognitive deficits. Radiation-induced brain injury is characterized by acute, early and late delayed changes, and morbidity is evident more than 6 months after irradiation. While the acute effects of radiation exposure on the brain are known, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we examined the acute effect of X radiation on synaptic function using behavioral analysis and immunohistochemistry. We found that 10 Gy whole-brain irradiation immediately after conditioning (within 30 min) impaired the formation of fear memory, whereas irradiation 24 h prior to conditioning did not. To investigate the mechanisms underlying these behavioral changes, we irradiated one hemisphere of the brain and analyzed synaptic function and adult neurogenesis immunohistochemically. We focused on drebrin, whose loss from dendritic spines is a surrogate marker of synaptopathy. The intensity of drebrin immunoreactivity started to decrease in the irradiated hemisphere 2 h after exposure. The immunostaining intensity recovered to preirradiation levels by 24 h, indicating that X radiation induced transient synaptic dysfunction. Interestingly, the number of newly generated neurons was not changed at 2 h postirradiation, whereas it was significantly decreased at 8 and 24 h postirradiation. Because irradiation 24 h prior to conditioning had no effect on fear memory, our findings suggest that radiation-induced death of newly-generated neurons does not substantially impact fear memory formation. The radiation-induced synaptic dysfunction likely caused a transient memory deficit during the critical period for fear memory formation (approximately 1-3 h after conditioning), which coincides with a change in drebrin immunostaining in the hippocampus, a structure critical for fear memory formation.

  15. Comparison of carbon monoxide and nitrogen induced effects on synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampal slice.

    PubMed

    Doolette, D J; Kerr, D I

    1992-04-13

    A comparison has been made of the effects of carbon monoxide (CO) or nitrogen (N2) exposure on synaptic transmission in the hippocampal slice. CA1 field potentials, evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation, were unaffected by superfusion of slices with artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF) equilibrated with either 15% CO or 15% N2 for 120 min. However, superfusion with hypoxic ACSF equilibrated with either 85% CO or 85% N2 caused a rapid depression of synaptic transmission. Reperfusion with control ACSF following 30 min hypoxia led to recovery of evoked responses and a slight hyperexcitability. In the hippocampal slice, synaptic transmission, as assessed by input/output curves, was not different during or following hypoxia induced by exposure to CO or N2. In the short term, CO is not toxic.

  16. Treatment with Piribedil and Memantine Reduces Noise-Induced Loss of Inner Hair Cell Synaptic Ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Altschuler, Richard A.; Wys, Noel; Prieskorn, Diane; Martin, Cathy; DeRemer, Susan; Bledsoe, Sanford; Miller, Josef M.

    2016-01-01

    Noise overstimulation can induce loss of synaptic ribbons associated with loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. This study examined if systemic administration of Piribedil, a dopamine agonist that reduces the sound evoked auditory nerve compound action potential and/or Memantine, an NMDA receptor open channel blocker, would reduce noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell ribbons. Rats received systemic Memantine and/or Piribedil for 3 days before and 3 days after a 3 hour 4 kHz octave band noise at 117 dB (SPL). At 21 days following the noise there was a 26% and 38% loss of synaptic ribbons in regions 5.5 and 6.5 mm from apex, respectively, elevations in 4-, 8- and 20 kHz tonal ABR thresholds and reduced dynamic output at higher intensities of stimulation. Combined treatment with Piribedil and Memantine produced a significant reduction in the noise-induced loss of ribbons in both regions and changes in ABR sensitivity and dynamic responsiveness. Piribedil alone gave significant reduction in only the 5.5 mm region and Memantine alone did not reach significance in either region. Results identify treatments that could prevent the hearing loss and hearing disorders that result from noise-induced loss of Inner Hair Cell – Auditory Nerve synaptic connections. PMID:27686418

  17. Environmental Enrichment Ameliorates Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure-Induced Cognitive and Synaptic Plasticity Impairments.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mu-huo; Wang, Xing-ming; Sun, Xiao-ru; Zhang, Hui; Ju, Ling-sha; Qiu, Li-li; Yang, Jiao-jiao; Jia, Min; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-11-01

    Early exposure to sevoflurane, an inhalation anesthetic, induces neurodegeneration in the developing brain and subsequent long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities. Here, we investigated whether an enriched environment could mitigate neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced long-term cognitive and synaptic plasticity impairments. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3 % sevoflurane 2 h daily for 3 days from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P8. The exposed mice were randomly allocated to an enriched environment for 2 h daily between P8 and P42 or to a standard environment. Their behavior and cognition were assessed using open field (P35) and fear conditioning tests (P41-P42). Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to study morphological changes in pyramidal neurons of hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. Synaptic plasticity alternations were assessed using western blotting, Golgi staining, and electrophysiological recording. We found that sevoflurane-exposed mice housed in a standard environment exhibited a reduced freezing response in the contextual test, decreased number of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons and synaptic plasticity-related proteins in the hippocampus, and impaired long-term potentiation. However, in an enriched environment, some of these abnormities induced by repeated sevoflurane exposure. In conclusion, neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive and synaptic plasticity impairments are ameliorated by an enriched environment.

  18. Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I.

    PubMed

    Guire, Eric S; Oh, Michael C; Soderling, Thomas R; Derkach, Victor A

    2008-06-04

    Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) at central glutamatergic synapses are of special interest because of their unique biophysical and signaling properties that contribute to synaptic plasticity and their roles in multiple neuropathologies. However, intracellular signaling pathways that recruit synaptic CP-AMPARs are unknown, and involvement of CP-AMPARs in hippocampal region CA1 synaptic plasticity is controversial. Here, we report that intracellular infusion of active CaM-kinase I (CaMKI) into cultured hippocampal neurons enhances miniature EPSC amplitude because of recruitment of CP-AMPARs, likely from an extrasynaptic pool. The ability of CaMKI, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton, to recruit synaptic CP-AMPARs was blocked by inhibiting actin polymerization with latrunculin A. CaMK regulation of CP-AMPARs was also confirmed in hippocampal slices. CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) after theta bursts, but not high-frequency tetani, produced a rapid, transient expression of synaptic CP-AMPARs that facilitated LTP. This component of TBS LTP was blocked by inhibition of CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK), the upstream activator of CaMKI. Our calculations show that adding CP-AMPARs numbering <5% of existing synaptic AMPARs is sufficient to account for the potentiation observed in LTP. Thus, synaptic expression of CP-AMPARs is a very efficient mechanism for rapid enhancement of synaptic strength that depends on CaMKK/CaMKI signaling, actin dynamics, and the pattern of synaptic activity used to induce CA1 LTP.

  19. Synaptic impairment induced by paroxysmal ionic conditions in neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Seigneur, Josée; Timofeev, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Summary Purpose Seizures are associated with a reduction in extracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o) and an increase in extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o). The long-range synchrony observed between distant electrodes during seizures is weak. We hypothesized that changes in extracellular ionic conditions during seizures are sufficient to alter synaptic neuronal responses and synchrony in the neocortex. Methods We obtained in vivo and in vitro electrophysiologic recordings combined with microstimulation from cat/rat neocortical neurons during seizures and seizure-like ionic conditions. In vitro the [K+]o was 2.8, 6.25, 8.0, and 12 mM and the [Ca2+]o was 1.2 and 0.6 mM. Key Findings During seizures recorded in vivo, we observed abolition of evoked synaptic responses. In vitro, the membrane potential of both regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons was depolarized in high [K+]o conditions and hyperpolarized in high [Ca2+]o conditions. During high [K+]o conditions, changes in [Ca2+]o did not affect membrane potential. The synaptic responsiveness of both regular-spiking and fast-spiking neurons was reduced during seizure-like ionic conditions. A reduction in [Ca2+]o to 0.6 mM increased failure rates but did not abolish responses. However, an increase in [K+]o to 12 mM abolished postsynaptic responses, which depended on a blockade in axonal spike propagation. Significance We conclude that concomitant changes in [K+]o and [Ca2+]o observed during seizures contribute largely to the alterations of synaptic neuronal responses and to the decrease in long-range synchrony during neocortical seizures. PMID:21126243

  20. Gastrodin protects against chronic inflammatory pain by inhibiting spinal synaptic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Yu-Qi; Wang, Wen-Ting; Han, Wen-Juan; Lin, Zhen; Xie, Rou-Gang; Cao, Zhi; Lu, Na; Hu, San-Jue; Wu, Sheng-Xi; Dong, Hui; Luo, Ceng

    2016-01-01

    Tissue injury is known to produce inflammation and pain. Synaptic potentiation between peripheral nociceptors and spinal lamina I neurons has been proposed to serve as a trigger for chronic inflammatory pain. Gastrodin is a main bioactive constituent of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, which has been widely used as an analgesic since ancient times. However, its underlying cellular mechanisms have remained elusive. The present study demonstrated for the first time that gastrodin exhibits an analgesic effect at the spinal level on spontaneous pain, mechanical and thermal pain hypersensitivity induced by peripheral inflammation, which is not dependent on opioid receptors and without tolerance. This analgesia by gastrodin is at least in part mediated by depressing spinal synaptic potentiation via blockade of acid-sensing ion channels. Further studies with miniature EPSCs and paired-pulse ratio analysis revealed the presynaptic origin of the action of gastrodin, which involves a decrease in transmitter release probability. In contrast, neither basal nociception nor basal synaptic transmission was altered. This study revealed a dramatic analgesic action of gastrodin on inflammatory pain and uncovered a novel spinal mechanism that could underlie the analgesia by gastrodin, pointing the way to a new analgesic for treating chronic inflammatory pain. PMID:27853254

  1. Molecular constraints on synaptic tagging and maintenance of long-term potentiation: a predictive model.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2012-01-01

    Protein synthesis-dependent, late long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) at glutamatergic hippocampal synapses are well characterized examples of long-term synaptic plasticity. Persistent increased activity of protein kinase M ζ (PKMζ) is thought essential for maintaining LTP. Additional spatial and temporal features that govern LTP and LTD induction are embodied in the synaptic tagging and capture (STC) and cross capture hypotheses. Only synapses that have been "tagged" by a stimulus sufficient for LTP and learning can "capture" PKMζ. A model was developed to simulate the dynamics of key molecules required for LTP and LTD. The model concisely represents relationships between tagging, capture, LTD, and LTP maintenance. The model successfully simulated LTP maintained by persistent synaptic PKMζ, STC, LTD, and cross capture, and makes testable predictions concerning the dynamics of PKMζ. The maintenance of LTP, and consequently of at least some forms of long-term memory, is predicted to require continual positive feedback in which PKMζ enhances its own synthesis only at potentiated synapses. This feedback underlies bistability in the activity of PKMζ. Second, cross capture requires the induction of LTD to induce dendritic PKMζ synthesis, although this may require tagging of a nearby synapse for LTP. The model also simulates the effects of PKMζ inhibition, and makes additional predictions for the dynamics of CaM kinases. Experiments testing the above predictions would significantly advance the understanding of memory maintenance.

  2. NMDA receptors in the midbrain play a critical role in dopamine-mediated hippocampal synaptic potentiation caused by morphine.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Cui, Cai-Lian; Xing, Guo-Gang; Zhu, Bing

    2014-05-01

    A single exposure to drugs of abuse produces an NMDAR (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor)-dependent synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain. All addictive drugs can increase DA concentrations in projection areas of the midbrain, including the hippocampus. Hippocampal DA release subsequently modulates hippocampal plasticity and drug-associated memories. Using in vivo electrophysiological recording techniques in anesthetized rats, we show that systemic injection of morphine induced hippocampal synaptic potentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Intra-VTA but not intra-hippocampus injection of morphine evoked this potentiation. Local hippocampal dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) are required in the morphine-induced synaptic potentiation and conditioned place preference (CPP). Moreover, both NMDAR activation in the VTA and VTA/hippocampus dopaminergic connections are essential for the morphine-evoked potentiation and CPP. These findings suggest that NMDAR signalings in the midbrain play a key role in regulating dopamine-mediated hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying drug-induced associative memory.

  3. Acetylcholine Mediates a Slow Synaptic Potential in Hippocampal Pyramidal Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. E.; Nicoll, R. A.

    1983-09-01

    The hippocampal slice preparation was used to study the role of acetylcholine as a synaptic transmitter. Bath-applied acetylcholine had three actions on pyramidal cells: (i) depolarization associated with increased input resistance, (ii) blockade of calcium-activated potassium responses, and (iii) blockade of accommodation of cell discharge. All these actions were reversed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. Stimulation of sites in the slice known to contain cholinergic fibers mimicked all the actions. Furthermore, these evoked synaptic responses were enhanced by the cholinesterase inhibitor eserine and were blocked by atropine. These findings provide electrophysiological support for the role of acetylcholine as a synaptic transmitter in the brain and demonstrate that nonclassical synaptic responses involving the blockade of membrane conductances exist in the brain.

  4. Differential Dendritic Integration of Synaptic Potentials and Calcium in Cerebellar Interneurons.

    PubMed

    Tran-Van-Minh, Alexandra; Abrahamsson, Therése; Cathala, Laurence; DiGregorio, David A

    2016-08-17

    Dendritic voltage integration determines the transformation of synaptic inputs into output firing, while synaptic calcium integration drives plasticity mechanisms thought to underlie memory storage. Dendritic calcium integration has been shown to follow the same synaptic input-output relationship as dendritic voltage, but whether similar operations apply to neurons exhibiting sublinear voltage integration is unknown. We examined the properties and cellular mechanisms of these dendritic operations in cerebellar molecular layer interneurons using dendritic voltage and calcium imaging, in combination with synaptic stimulation or glutamate uncaging. We show that, while synaptic potentials summate sublinearly, concomitant dendritic calcium signals summate either linearly or supralinearly depending on the number of synapses activated. The supralinear dendritic calcium triggers a branch-specific, short-term suppression of neurotransmitter release that alters the pattern of synaptic activation. Thus, differential voltage and calcium integration permits dynamic regulation of neuronal input-output transformations without altering intrinsic nonlinear integration mechanisms.

  5. Thrombin induces ischemic LTP (iLTP): implications for synaptic plasticity in the acute phase of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Efrat Shavit; Itsekson-Hayosh, Zeev; Aronovich, Anna; Reisner, Yair; Bushi, Doron; Pick, Chaim G.; Tanne, David; Chapman, Joab; Vlachos, Andreas; Maggio, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Acute brain ischemia modifies synaptic plasticity by inducing ischemic long-term potentiation (iLTP) of synaptic transmission through the activation of N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Thrombin, a blood coagulation factor, affects synaptic plasticity in an NMDAR dependent manner. Since its activity and concentration is increased in brain tissue upon acute stroke, we sought to clarify whether thrombin could mediate iLTP through the activation of its receptor Protease-Activated receptor 1 (PAR1). Extracellular recordings were obtained in CA1 region of hippocampal slices from C57BL/6 mice. In vitro ischemia was induced by acute (3 minutes) oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). A specific ex vivo enzymatic assay was employed to assess thrombin activity in hippocampal slices, while OGD-induced changes in prothrombin mRNA levels were assessed by (RT)qPCR. Upon OGD, thrombin activity increased in hippocampal slices. A robust potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength was detected, which occluded the ability to induce further LTP. Inhibition of either thrombin or its receptor PAR1 blocked iLTP and restored the physiological, stimulus induced LTP. Our study provides important insights on the early changes occurring at excitatory synapses after ischemia and indicates the thrombin/PAR1 pathway as a novel target for developing therapeutic strategies to restore synaptic function in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. PMID:25604482

  6. Enhancement of synaptic transmission induced by BDNF in cultured cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jun; Gong, Hui; Zeng, Shaoqun; Li, Yanling; Luo, Qingming

    2005-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), like other neurotrophins, has long-term effects on neuronal survival and differentiation; furthermore, BDNF has been reported to exert an acute potentiation of synaptic activity and are critically involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). We found that BDNF rapidly induced potentiation of synaptic activity and an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in cultured cortical neurons. Within minutes of BDNF application to cultured cortical neurons, spontaneous firing rate was dramatically increased as were the frequency and amplitude of excitatory spontaneous postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Fura-2 recordings showed that BDNF acutely elicited an increase in intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]c). This effect was partially dependent on [Ca2+]o; The BDNF-induced increase in [Ca2+]c can not be completely blocked by Ca2+-free solution. It was completely blocked by K252a and partially blocked by Cd2+ and TTX. The results demonstrate that BDNF can enhances synaptic transmission and that this effect is accompanied by a rise in [Ca2+]c that requires two route: the release of Ca2+ from intracellular calcium stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels in cultured cortical neurons.

  7. Curcumin improves synaptic plasticity impairment induced by HIV-1gp120 V3 loop

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Ling-ling; Jiang, Ming-liang; Liu, Si-si; Cai, Min-chun; Hong, Zhong-qiu; Lin, Li-qing; Xing, Yan-yan; Chen, Gui-lin; Pan, Rui; Yang, Li-juan; Xu, Ying; Dong, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has been shown to significantly improve spatial memory impairment induced by HIV-1 gp120 V3 in rats, but the electrophysiological mechanism remains unknown. Using extracellular microelectrode recording techniques, this study confirmed that the gp120 V3 loop could suppress long-term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region and synaptic plasticity, and that curcumin could antagonize these inhibitory effects. Using a Fura-2/AM calcium ion probe, we found that curcumin resisted the effects of the gp120 V3 loop on hippocampal synaptosomes and decreased Ca2+ concentration in synaptosomes. This effect of curcumin was identical to nimodipine, suggesting that curcumin improved the inhibitory effects of gp120 on synaptic plasticity, ameliorated damage caused to the central nervous system, and might be a potential neuroprotective drug. PMID:26199609

  8. Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential Mimicked in Indium-Zinc-Oxide Synaptic Transistors Gated by Methyl Cellulose Solid Electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Liqiang; Wen, Juan; Ding, Jianning; Wan, Changjin; Cheng, Guanggui

    2016-12-01

    The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of biological synapses is mimicked in indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors gated by methyl cellulose solid electrolyte. These synaptic transistors show excellent electrical performance at an operating voltage of 0.8 V, Ion/off ratio of 2.5 × 106, and mobility of 38.4 cm2/Vs. After this device is connected to a resistance of 4 MΩ in series, it exhibits excellent characteristics as an inverter. A threshold potential of 0.3 V is achieved by changing the gate pulse amplitude, width, or number, which is analogous to biological EPSP.

  9. Excitatory Post-Synaptic Potential Mimicked in Indium-Zinc-Oxide Synaptic Transistors Gated by Methyl Cellulose Solid Electrolyte

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liqiang; Wen, Juan; Ding, Jianning; Wan, Changjin; Cheng, Guanggui

    2016-01-01

    The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) of biological synapses is mimicked in indium-zinc-oxide synaptic transistors gated by methyl cellulose solid electrolyte. These synaptic transistors show excellent electrical performance at an operating voltage of 0.8 V, Ion/off ratio of 2.5 × 106, and mobility of 38.4 cm2/Vs. After this device is connected to a resistance of 4 MΩ in series, it exhibits excellent characteristics as an inverter. A threshold potential of 0.3 V is achieved by changing the gate pulse amplitude, width, or number, which is analogous to biological EPSP. PMID:27924838

  10. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Facilitates Massed Pattern-Induced Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Kiran; Sharma, Kaushik P.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Massed training is less effective for long-term memory formation than the spaced training. The role of acetylation in synaptic plasticity and memory is now well established. However, the role of this important protein modification in synaptic plasticity induced by massed pattern of stimulation or memory induced by massed training is not well…

  11. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Facilitates Massed Pattern-Induced Synaptic Plasticity and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Kiran; Sharma, Kaushik P.; Sharma, Shiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Massed training is less effective for long-term memory formation than the spaced training. The role of acetylation in synaptic plasticity and memory is now well established. However, the role of this important protein modification in synaptic plasticity induced by massed pattern of stimulation or memory induced by massed training is not well…

  12. Synaptic potentiation of dual-component excitatory postsynaptic currents in the rat hippocampus.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, K A; Collingridge, G L

    1995-01-01

    1. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording has been used to study tetanus-induced synaptic potentiation of dual-component excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, following blockade of GABAA and GABAB receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition. 2. At a holding potential of -60 mV, the initial slope of the EPSC (between 10 and 60% of maximum amplitude) provided an accurate measurement of the AMPA receptor-mediated component, and the amplitude of the EPSC at a latency of 100 ms provided the best estimate of the size of the NMDA receptor-mediated component. 3. Neurons were voltage clamped for at least 45 min prior to delivery of a tetanus (test intensity, 100 Hz, 1 s). Measurements at 10 and 30 min following the tetanus were used as indications of short-term potentiation (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP), respectively. One set of neurons were voltage clamped at -60 mV throughout. These neurons could be subdivided into two populations on the basis of whether or not there was LTP (n = 9), or only STP (n = 6), of the AMPA receptor-mediated component. A second set of neurons were voltage clamped at -60 mV for 30 min and then at -50 mV for 15 min before, during and for 30 min following tetanization. In these experiments there was STP but not LTP (n = 8). 4. In all neurons (n = 23), the time course of the potentiation of the NMDA receptor-mediated component paralleled that of the AMPA receptor-mediated component. In addition, potentiation of the NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated components were of a similar magnitude. 5. These data demonstrate that it is possible to induce LTP by high frequency stimulation after 45 min of whole-cell recording. Under these conditions, there is a parallel potentiation of the AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated components of dual-component EPSCs. This constitutes the first evidence, from studies of dual-component synaptic responses, which is consistent with a presynaptic locus of expression of tetanus-induced

  13. Prolonged modification of action potential shape by synaptic inputs in molluscan neurones.

    PubMed

    Winlow, W

    1985-01-01

    1. Somatic action potentials of Lymnaea neurons are modified by excitatory or inhibitory synaptic inputs and have been studied using phase-plane techniques and an action potential duration monitor. 2. Excitatory synaptic inputs increase the rate of neuronal discharge, cause action potential broadening, a decrease in the maximum rate of depolarization (Vd) and a decrease in the maximum rate of repolarization (Vr). 3. Inhibitory synaptic inputs decrease the discharge rate and cause narrowing of action potentials, an increase in Vd and an increase in Vr. 4. The effects reported above outlast the original synaptic inputs by many seconds and, if the somatic action potentials are similar to those in the axon terminals, they may have far-reaching effects on transmitter release.

  14. Dietary obesity reversibly induces synaptic stripping by microglia and impairs hippocampal plasticity.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuai; Dey, Aditi; Yu, Xiaolin; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases risk of age-related cognitive decline and is accompanied by peripheral inflammation. Studies in rodent models of obesity have demonstrated that impaired hippocampal function correlates with microglial activation, but the possibility that neuron/microglia interactions might be perturbed in obesity has never been directly examined. The goal of this study was to determine whether high fat diet-induced obesity promotes synaptic stripping by microglia, and whether any potential changes might be reversible by a return to low-fat diet (LFD). Time course experiments revealed that hippocampal inflammatory cytokine induction and loss of synaptic protein expression were detectable after three months of HFD, therefore subsequent groups of mice were maintained on HFD for three months before being switched to LFD for an additional two months on LFD (HFD/LFD). Additional HFD mice continued to receive HFD during this period (HFD/HFD), while another group of mice were maintained on LFD throughout the experiment (LFD/LFD). Dietary obesity impaired hippocampus-dependent memory, reduced long-term potentiation (LTP), and induced expression of the activation marker major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) in hippocampal microglia. Diet reversal only partially attenuated increases in adiposity in HFD/LFD mice, but plasticity deficits and MHCII induction were normalized to within the range of LFD/LFD mice. Microglial activation and deficits in hippocampal function were accompanied by perturbation of spatial relationships between microglial processes and synaptic puncta. Analysis of primary microglia isolated from HFD/HFD mice revealed selective increases in internalization of synaptosomes labeled with a pH-sensitive fluorophore. Taken together, these findings indicate that dietary obesity reversibly impairs hippocampal function, and that deficits may be attributable to synaptic stripping by microglia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Modulation of presynaptic action potential kinetics underlies synaptic facilitation of type B photoreceptors after associative conditioning in Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, C C; Matzel, L D

    2000-03-01

    -cell action potential by a reduction of I(A) was sufficient to account for the observed synaptic facilitation. The occlusion of the effects of 4-AP by paired training was not attributable to a saturation of the capacity of the B-cell for transmitter exocytosis, because it was observed that tetraethylammonium (TEA)-induced inhibition of the delayed voltage-dependent K(+) current induced both spike broadening and synaptic facilitation regardless of training history. Collectively, these results demonstrate that training-induced facilitation at B-cell synapses is attributable to the effects of a reduction of a presynaptic K(+) conductance on action potential kinetics and suggest another critical similarity between the cellular basis for learning in Hermissenda and other invertebrate systems.

  16. Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission and its relationship to long-term potentiation.

    PubMed

    Artola, A; Singer, W

    1993-11-01

    In many brain areas, including the cerebellar cortex, neocortex, hippocampus, striatum and nucleus accumbens, brief activation of an excitatory pathway can produce long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. In most preparations, induction of LTD has been shown to require a minimum level of postsynaptic depolarization and a rise in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i in the postsynaptic neurone. Thus, induction conditions resemble those described for the initiation of associative long-term potentiation (LTP). However, data from structures susceptible to both LTD and LTP suggest that a stronger depolarization and a greater increase in [Ca2+]i are required to induce LTP than to initiate LTD. The source of Ca2+ appears to be less critical for the differential induction of LTP and LTD than the amplitude of the Ca2+ surge, since the activation of voltage- and ligand-gated Ca2+ conductances as well as the release from intracellular stores have all been shown to contribute to both LTD and LTP induction. LTD is induceable even at inactive synapses if [Ca2+]i is raised to the appropriate level by antidromic or heterosynaptic activation, or by raising the extracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]o. These conditions suggest a rule (called here the ABS rule) for activity-dependent synaptic modifications that differs from the classical Hebb rule and that can account for both homosynaptic LTD and LTP as well as for heterosynaptic competition and associativity.

  17. GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Chub, Nikolai; Garcia-Bereguiain, Miguel Angel; Wenner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity ensures that networks maintain specific levels of activity by regulating synaptic strength in a compensatory manner. When spontaneous network activity (SNA) was blocked in vivo in the embryonic spinal cord, compensatory increases in excitatory GABAergic synaptic inputs were observed. This homeostatic synaptic strengthening was observed as an increase in the amplitude of GABAergic miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs). We find that this process is mediated by an increase in chloride accumulation which produces a depolarizing shift in the GABAergic reversal potential (EGABA). The findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism underlying homeostatic synaptic scaling. Similar shifts in EGABA have been described following various forms of neuronal injury, introducing the possibility that these shifts in EGABA represent a homeostatic response. PMID:20881119

  18. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A

    PubMed Central

    Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Tohda, Chihiro; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether withanolide A (WL-A), isolated from the Indian herbal drug Ashwagandha (root of Withania somnifera), could regenerate neurites and reconstruct synapses in severely damaged neurons. We also investigated the effect of WL-A on memory-deficient mice showing neuronal atrophy and synaptic loss in the brain. Axons, dendrites, presynapses, and postsynapses were visualized by immunostaining for phosphorylated neurofilament-H (NF-H), microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), synaptophysin, and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95), respectively. Treatment with Aβ(25–35) (10 μM) induced axonal and dendritic atrophy, and pre- and postsynaptic loss in cultured rat cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with WL-A (1 μM) induced significant regeneration of both axons and dendrites, in addition to the reconstruction of pre- and postsynapses in the neurons. WL-A (10 μmol kg−1 day−1, for 13 days, p.o.) recovered Aβ(25–35)-induced memory deficit in mice. At that time, the decline of axons, dendrites, and synapses in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus was almost recovered. WL-A is therefore an important candidate for the therapeutic treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as it is able to reconstruct neuronal networks. PMID:15711595

  19. Magnesium Protects Cognitive Functions and Synaptic Plasticity in Streptozotocin-Induced Sporadic Alzheimer’s Model

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Jian; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Zeng, Juan; Liu, En-Jie; Li, Xiao-Guang; Huang, Rong-Xi; Gao, Di; Li, Meng-Zhu; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Gong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by profound synapse loss and impairments of learning and memory. Magnesium affects many biochemical mechanisms that are vital for neuronal properties and synaptic plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated that the serum and brain magnesium levels are decreased in AD patients; however, the exact role of magnesium in AD pathogenesis remains unclear. Here, we found that the intraperitoneal administration of magnesium sulfate increased the brain magnesium levels and protected learning and memory capacities in streptozotocin-induced sporadic AD model rats. We also found that magnesium sulfate reversed impairments in long-term potentiation (LTP), dendritic abnormalities, and the impaired recruitment of synaptic proteins. Magnesium sulfate treatment also decreased tau hyperphosphorylation by increasing the inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β at serine 9, thereby increasing the activity of Akt at Ser473 and PI3K at Tyr458/199, and improving insulin sensitivity. We conclude that magnesium treatment protects cognitive function and synaptic plasticity by inhibiting GSK-3β in sporadic AD model rats, which suggests a potential role for magnesium in AD therapy. PMID:25268773

  20. Calcium-induced calcium release supports recruitment of synaptic vesicles in auditory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Schnee, Michael E.; Ricci, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells from auditory and vestibular systems transmit continuous sound and balance information to the central nervous system through the release of synaptic vesicles at ribbon synapses. The high activity experienced by hair cells requires a unique mechanism to sustain recruitment and replenishment of synaptic vesicles for continuous release. Using pre- and postsynaptic electrophysiological recordings, we explored the potential contribution of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in modulating the recruitment of vesicles to auditory hair cell ribbon synapses. Pharmacological manipulation of CICR with agents targeting endoplasmic reticulum calcium stores reduced both spontaneous postsynaptic multiunit activity and the frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Pharmacological treatments had no effect on hair cell resting potential or activation curves for calcium and potassium channels. However, these drugs exerted a reduction in vesicle release measured by dual-sine capacitance methods. In addition, calcium substitution by barium reduced release efficacy by delaying release onset and diminishing vesicle recruitment. Together these results demonstrate a role for calcium stores in hair cell ribbon synaptic transmission and suggest a novel contribution of CICR in hair cell vesicle recruitment. We hypothesize that calcium entry via calcium channels is tightly regulated to control timing of vesicle fusion at the synapse, whereas CICR is used to maintain a tonic calcium signal to modulate vesicle trafficking. PMID:26510758

  1. Action potentials and amphetamine release antipsychotic drug from dopamine neuron synaptic VMAT vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Kristal R.; Block, Ethan R.; Levitan, Edwin S.

    2015-01-01

    Based on lysotracker red imaging in cultured hippocampal neurons, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) were proposed to accumulate in synaptic vesicles by acidic trapping and to be released in response to action potentials. Because many APDs are dopamine (DA) D2 receptor (D2R) antagonists, such a mechanism would be particularly interesting if it operated in midbrain DA neurons. Here, the APD cyamemazine (CYAM) is visualized directly by two-photon microscopy in substantia nigra and striatum brain slices. CYAM accumulated slowly into puncta based on vacuolar H+-ATPase activity and dispersed rapidly upon dissipating organelle pH gradients. Thus, CYAM is subject to acidic trapping and released upon deprotonation. In the striatum, Ca2+-dependent reduction of the CYAM punctate signal was induced by depolarization or action potentials. Striatal CYAM overlapped with the dopamine transporter (DAT). Furthermore, parachloroamphetamine (pCA), acting via vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT), and a charged VMAT, substrate 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), reduced striatal CYAM. In vivo CYAM administration and in vitro experiments confirmed that clinically relevant CYAM concentrations result in vesicular accumulation and pCA-dependent release. These results show that some CYAM is in DA neuron VMAT vesicles and suggests a new drug interaction in which amphetamine induces CYAM deprotonation and release as a consequence of the H+ countertransport by VMAT that accompanies vesicular uptake, but not by inducing exchange or acting as a weak base. Therefore, in the striatum, APDs are released with DA in response to action potentials and an amphetamine. This synaptic corelease is expected to enhance APD antagonism of D2Rs where and when dopaminergic transmission occurs. PMID:26216995

  2. Endocannabinoid-Dependent Long-Term Potentiation of Synaptic Transmission at Rat Barrel Cortex.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Laura Eva; Noriega-Prieto, José Antonio; Maraver, Maria Jesús; Fernández de Sevilla, David

    2017-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a critical role in modulating plasticity in sensory cortices. Indeed, a BDNF-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at distal basal excitatory synapses of Layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs) has been demonstrated in disinhibited rat barrel cortex slices. Although it is well established that this LTP requires the pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) with Ca2+ spikes, its induction when synaptic inhibition is working remains unexplored. Here we show that low-frequency stimulation at basal dendrites of L5PNs is able to trigger a PSP followed by an action potential (AP) and a slow depolarization (termed PSP-Ca2+ response) in thalamocortical slices without blocking synaptic inhibition. We demonstrate that AP barrage-mediated release of endocannabinoids (eCBs) from the recorded L5PNs induces PSP-Ca2+ response facilitation and BDNF-dependent LTP. Indeed, this LTP requires the type 1 cannabinoid receptors activation, is prevented by postsynaptic intracellular 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N,N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) or the anandamide membrane transporter inhibitor AM404, and only occurs in L5PNs neurons showing depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition. Additionally, electrical stimulation at the posteromedial thalamic nucleus induced similar response and LTP. These results reveal a novel form of eCB-dependent LTP at L5PNs that could be relevant in the processing of sensory information in the barrel cortex. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Hippocampal long-term potentiation is not accompanied by presynaptic spike broadening, unlike synaptic potentiation by K+ channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Laerum, H; Storm, J F

    1994-02-21

    The expression of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) is thought to be at least partly due to increased transmitter release. To test whether this increase is due to a broadening of the presynaptic action potential, we have compared the presynaptic fibre volley before and after LTP induction, or application of K+ channel blockers, in CA1 of rat hippocampal slices. Tetraethylammonium (TEA; 1 mM) induced a parallel increase in the fibre volley duration of the slope of the field EPSP, indicating that a presynaptic spike broadening underlying synaptic potentiation can be detected. In contrast, induction of LTP did not produce any measurable change in the fibre volley, although the average increase in the EPSP slope was larger than with TEA. These results indicate that LTP expression is not primarily due to a presynaptic spike broadening.

  4. Long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Caillard, O; Ben-Ari, Y; Gaiarsa, J L

    1999-07-01

    1. The plasticity of GABAergic synapses was investigated in neonatal rat hippocampal slices obtained between postnatal days 3 and 6 using intracellular recording techniques. Ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists were present throughout the experiments to isolate GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic potentials (GABAA PSPs) or currents (GABAA PSCs). 2. Repetitive depolarizing pulses (20 pulses, 0.5 s duration, at 0.1 Hz, each pulse generating 4-6 action potentials) induced a long-term potentiation in the slope and amplitude of the evoked GABAA PSPs and GABAA PSCs. 3. Long-term potentiation was prevented by intracellular injection of the calcium chelator BAPTA (50 mM), or when the voltage-dependent calcium channels blockers Ni2+ (50 microM) and nimodipine (10 microM) were bath applied. 4. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a persistent (over 1 h) increase in the frequency of spontaneous GABAA PSCs. 5. Repetitive depolarizing pulses induced a long-lasting increase in the frequency of miniature GABAA PSCs, without altering their amplitude or decay-time constant. 6. It is concluded that the postsynaptic activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels leads to a long-term potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus. This form of plasticity is expressed as an increase in the probability of GABA release or in the number of functional synapses, rather than as an upregulation of postsynaptic GABAA receptor numbers or conductance at functional synapses.

  5. Endocytic Trafficking and Recycling Maintain a Pool of Mobile Surface AMPA Receptors Required for Synaptic Potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Enrica Maria; Lu, Jiuyi; Cognet, Laurent; Lounis, Brahim; Ehlers, Michael D.; Choquet, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY At excitatory glutamatergic synapses, postsynaptic endocytic zones (EZs), which are adjacent to the postsynaptic density (PSD), mediate clathrin-dependent endocytosis of surface AMPA Receptors (AMPAR) as a first step to receptor recycling or degradation. However, it remains unknown if receptor recycling influences AMPARs lateral diffusion, and if EZs are important for the expression of synaptic potentiation. Here we demonstrate that the presence of both EZs and AMPAR recycling maintain a large pool of mobile AMPARs at synapses. In addition, we find that synaptic potentiation is accompanied by an accumulation and immobilization of AMPARs at synapses resulting from both their exocytosis and stabilization at the PSD. Displacement of EZs from the postsynaptic region impairs the expression of synaptic potentiation by blocking AMPAR recycling. Thus receptor recycling is crucial for maintaining a mobile population of surface AMPARs which can be delivered to synapses for increases in synaptic strength. PMID:19607795

  6. Imidazoleacetic acid-ribotide induces depression of synaptic responses in hippocampus through activation of imidazoline receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bozdagi, O.; Wang, X. B.; Martinelli, G. P.; Prell, G.; Friedrich, V. L.; Huntley, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    Imidazole-4-acetic acid-ribotide (IAA-RP), an endogenous agonist at imidazoline receptors (I-Rs), is a putative neurotransmitter/regulator in mammalian brain. We studied the effects of IAA-RP on excitatory transmission by performing extracellular and whole cell recordings at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in rat hippocampal slices. Bath-applied IAA-RP induced a concentration-dependent depression of synaptic transmission that, after washout, returned to baseline within 20 min. Maximal decrease occurred with 10 μM IAA-RP, which reduced the slope of field extracellular postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) to 51.2 ± 5.7% of baseline at 20 min of exposure. Imidazole-4-acetic acid-riboside (IAA-R; 10 μM), the endogenous dephosphorylated metabolite of IAA-RP, also produced inhibition of fEPSPs. This effect was smaller than that produced by IAA-RP (to 65.9 ± 3.8% of baseline) and occurred after a further 5- to 8-min delay. The frequency, but not the amplitude, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents was decreased, and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was increased after application of IAA-RP, suggesting a principally presynaptic site of action. Since IAA-RP also has low affinity for α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs), we tested synaptic depression induced by IAA-RP in the presence of α2-ARs, I1-R, or I3-R antagonists. The α2-AR antagonist rauwolscine (100 nM), which blocked the actions of the α2-AR agonist clonidine, did not affect either the IAA-RP-induced synaptic depression or the increase in PPF. In contrast, efaroxan (50 μM), a mixed I1-R and α2-AR antagonist, abolished the synaptic depression induced by IAA-RP and abolished the related increase in PPF. KU-14R, an I3-R antagonist, partially attenuated responses to IAA-RP. Taken together, these data support a role for IAA-RP in modulating synaptic transmission in the hippocampus through activation of I-Rs. PMID:21228308

  7. BDNF interacts with endocannabinoids to regulate cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in mouse midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Peng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Ying; Wang, Tong; Zhao, Yong-ping; Liu, Qing-song

    2015-03-11

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) have been individually implicated in behavioral effects of cocaine. The present study examined how BDNF-eCB interaction regulates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area and behavioral effects. We report that BDNF and selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) activated the TrkB receptor to facilitate two forms of eCB-mediated synaptic depression, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and long-term depression (I-LTD) of IPSCs in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in mouse midbrain slices. The facilitation appears to be mediated by an increase in eCB production via phospholipase Cγ pathway, but not by an increase in CB1 receptor responsiveness or a decrease in eCB hydrolysis. Using Cre-loxP technology to specifically delete BDNF in dopamine neurons, we showed that eCB-mediated I-LTD, cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition, and potentiation of glutamatergic excitation remained intact in wild-type control mice, but were impaired in BDNF conditional knock-out mice. We also showed that cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was attenuated in BDNF conditional knock-out mice, in vivo pretreatments with DHF before place conditioning restored cocaine conditioned place preference in these mice, and the behavioral effect of DHF was blocked by a CB₁ receptor antagonist. Together, these results suggest that BDNF in dopamine neurons regulates eCB responses, cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity, and associative learning. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354469-13$15.00/0.

  8. BDNF Interacts with Endocannabinoids to Regulate Cocaine-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in Mouse Midbrain Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Peng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Ying; Wang, Tong; Zhao, Yong-ping

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and endocannabinoids (eCBs) have been individually implicated in behavioral effects of cocaine. The present study examined how BDNF-eCB interaction regulates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity in the ventral tegmental area and behavioral effects. We report that BDNF and selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) activated the TrkB receptor to facilitate two forms of eCB-mediated synaptic depression, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and long-term depression (I-LTD) of IPSCs in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in mouse midbrain slices. The facilitation appears to be mediated by an increase in eCB production via phospholipase Cγ pathway, but not by an increase in CB1 receptor responsiveness or a decrease in eCB hydrolysis. Using Cre-loxP technology to specifically delete BDNF in dopamine neurons, we showed that eCB-mediated I-LTD, cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition, and potentiation of glutamatergic excitation remained intact in wild-type control mice, but were impaired in BDNF conditional knock-out mice. We also showed that cocaine-induced conditioned place preference was attenuated in BDNF conditional knock-out mice, in vivo pretreatments with DHF before place conditioning restored cocaine conditioned place preference in these mice, and the behavioral effect of DHF was blocked by a CB1 receptor antagonist. Together, these results suggest that BDNF in dopamine neurons regulates eCB responses, cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity, and associative learning. PMID:25762688

  9. The potential role of postsynaptic phospholipase C activity in synaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Daniel; Condro, Michael C; Pearce, Kaycey; Glanzman, David L

    2008-07-01

    Previous findings indicate that synaptic facilitation, a cellular mechanism underlying sensitization of the siphon withdrawal response (SWR) in Aplysia, depends on a cascade of postsynaptic events, including activation of inositol triphosphate (IP3) receptors and release of Ca2+ from postsynaptic intracellular stores. These findings suggest that phospholipase C (PLC), the enzyme that catalyzes IP3 formation, may play an important role in postsynaptic signaling during facilitation and learning in Aplysia. Using the PLC inhibitor U73122, we found that PLC activity is required for synaptic facilitation following a 10-min treatment with 5-HT, as measured at 20 min after 5-HT washout. Prior work has indicated that facilitation at this time is supported primarily by postsynaptic processes. To determine whether postsynaptic PLC activity is involved in 5-HT-mediated facilitatory actions, we examined the effect of U73122 on enhancement of the response of motor neurons isolated in cell culture to glutamate, the sensory neuron transmitter. A 10-min application of 5-HT induced persistent (>40 min) enhancement of glutamate-evoked potentials (Glu-EPs) recorded from isolated motor neurons, and this enhancement was blocked by U73122. Finally, we showed that injecting U73122 into intact animals before behavioral training impaired intermediate-term sensitization, indicating that PLC activity contributes to this form of nonassociative learning.

  10. Millisecond Coupling of Local Field Potentials to Synaptic Currents in the Awake Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Haider, Bilal; Schulz, David P.A.; Häusser, Michael; Carandini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Summary The cortical local field potential (LFP) is a common measure of population activity, but its relationship to synaptic activity in individual neurons is not fully established. This relationship has been typically studied during anesthesia and is obscured by shared slow fluctuations. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings in visual cortex of anesthetized and awake mice to measure intracellular activity; we then applied a simple method to reveal its coupling to the simultaneously recorded LFP. LFP predicted membrane potential as accurately as synaptic currents, indicating a major role for synaptic currents in the relationship between cortical LFP and intracellular activity. During anesthesia, cortical LFP predicted excitation far better than inhibition; during wakefulness, it predicted them equally well, and visual stimulation further enhanced predictions of inhibition. These findings reveal a central role for synaptic currents, and especially inhibition, in the relationship between the subthreshold activity of individual neurons and the cortical LFP during wakefulness. PMID:27021173

  11. Enhancement of Synaptic Potentials in Rabbit CA1 Pyramidal Neurons Following Classical Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loturco, Joseph J.; Coulter, Douglas A.; Alkon, Daniel L.

    1988-03-01

    A synaptic potential elicited by high-frequency stimulation of the Schaffer collaterals was enhanced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells from rabbits that were classically conditioned relative to cells from control rabbits. In addition, confirming previous reports, the after-hyperpolarization was reduced in cells from conditioned animals. We suggest that reduced after-hyperpolarization and enhanced synaptic responsiveness in cells from conditioned animals work in concert to contribute to the functioning of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells during classical conditioning.

  12. Synaptic block of a transmitter-induced potassium conductance in Aplysia neurones.

    PubMed

    Kehoe, J

    1985-12-01

    A voltage-clamp study was made of a slow excitatory post-synaptic potential (slow e.p.s.p.) that can be elicited in the medial cells of the left pleural ganglion of Aplysia californica by the firing of at least three different presynaptic neurones (labelled I, II and III). Each of these three neurones elicits other permeability changes in addition to the slow e.p.s.p., and all elements of these synaptic responses were shown to be mediated monosynaptically. The slow e.p.s.p., associated with an increase in membrane resistance, was shown to be due to a decrease in K permeability. When the slow e.p.s.p. was present spontaneously, it could be blocked by three compounds (tetraethylammonium (TEA), phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), or methylxylocholine (beta-TM 10], all previously shown to block the cholinergic receptor that mediates an increase in K conductance in the medial cells (see Kehoe, 1972b). Furthermore, in ganglia in which no slow e.p.s.p. was seen in response to firing of the neurones I, II, and III, such a response became manifest when agonists capable of activating the cholinergic receptor were applied (e.g. acetylcholine (ACh), carbachol, arecoline, or F2268). The slow e.p.s.p. thus appears to result from the reduction, induced by any one of three 'blocking neurones', of a cholinergically controlled K conductance. Finally, when presynaptic neurone I (the only neurone tested) was fired shortly before or during the activation of presynaptic neurone IV, previously shown to be cholinergic (Kehoe, 1972b), the K component of the cholinergic post-synaptic inhibitory potential was markedly reduced. The concentration at which a given agonist caused the manifestation of the synaptic diminution in K conductance (i.e. the slow e.p.s.p.) was found to be the same as that at which it caused a reduction in the synaptically activated, cholinergic, K-dependent conductance elicited by presynaptic neurone IV. Intracellularly injected adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic

  13. Excitatory GABAergic synaptic potentials in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus of adult rat in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yokomizo, Y; Murai, Y; Tanaka, E; Inokuchi, H; Kusukawa, J; Higashi, H

    2005-04-01

    The mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MesV) contains the somata of primary afferent neurons innervating masticatory muscle spindles and the periodontal membrane. MesV afferent somata are unique in receiving synaptic inputs. Intracellular recordings in coronal pontine slices from adult rats were made from MesV neurons identified by having Cs-sensitive inward rectification and pseudounipolar morphology. Stimuli near the MesV evoked either a cluster of action potentials superimposed on a postsynaptic potential (PSP) or an antidromic spike at resting membrane potential (RMP). Membrane hyperpolarization revealed that each cluster of action potentials consisted of an antidromic spike and a subsequent PSP. Evoked PSPs in slices and miniature postsynaptic currents (mPSCs) recorded using whole-cell patch in dissociated MesV neurons were resistant to glutamate antagonists and strychnine but were reversibly abolished by 40 microM bicuculline. Superfusion of 1-10 mM GABA decreased input resistance and depolarized the membrane. Reversal potentials for evoked PSPs and GABA-induced depolarizations were similar and close to that for mPSCs which matched the Cl- equilibrium potential. Thus activation of synapses on MesV somata evokes GABAergic PSPs that generate action potentials at RMP in the adult. These data also indicate that primary afferent MesV neurons can act as interneurons in the central control of mastication.

  14. Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epileptiform Activity Affects Basal Synaptic Transmission and Short-Term Plasticity in Monosynaptic Connections

    PubMed Central

    Giachello, Carlo Natale Giuseppe; Premoselli, Federica; Montarolo, Pier Giorgio; Ghirardi, Mirella

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic activity is generally induced in experimental models by local application of epileptogenic drugs, including pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), widely used on both vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. Despite the high prevalence of this neurological disorder and the extensive research on it, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis still remain unclear. In this work, we examined PTZ-induced neuronal changes in Helix monosynaptic circuits formed in vitro, as a simpler experimental model to investigate the effects of epileptiform activity on both basal release and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP), a form of short-term plasticity. We observed a significant enhancement of basal synaptic strength, with kinetics resembling those of previously described use-dependent forms of plasticity, determined by changes in estimated quantal parameters, such as the readily releasable pool and the release probability. Moreover, these neurons exhibited a strong reduction in PTP expression and in its decay time constant, suggesting an impairment in the dynamic reorganization of synaptic vesicle pools following prolonged stimulation of synaptic transmission. In order to explain this imbalance, we determined whether epileptic activity is related to the phosphorylation level of synapsin, which is known to modulate synaptic plasticity. Using western blot and immunocytochemical staining we found a PTZ-dependent increase in synapsin phosphorylation at both PKA/CaMKI/IV and MAPK/Erk sites, both of which are important for modulating synaptic plasticity. Taken together, our findings suggest that prolonged epileptiform activity leads to an increase in the synapsin phosphorylation status, thereby contributing to an alteration of synaptic strength in both basal condition and tetanus-induced potentiation. PMID:23437283

  15. Aβ-Induced Synaptic Alterations Require the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Nedd4-1.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elizabeth M; Scudder, Samantha L; Goo, Marisa S; Patrick, Gentry N

    2016-02-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which patients experience progressive cognitive decline. A wealth of evidence suggests that this cognitive impairment results from synaptic dysfunction in affected brain regions caused by cleavage of amyloid precursor protein into the pathogenic peptide amyloid-β (Aβ). Specifically, it has been shown that Aβ decreases surface AMPARs, dendritic spine density, and synaptic strength, and also alters synaptic plasticity. The precise molecular mechanisms by which this occurs remain unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for ubiquitination in Aβ-induced synaptic dysfunction in cultured rat neurons. We find that Aβ promotes the ubiquitination of AMPARs, as well as the redistribution and recruitment of Nedd4-1, a HECT E3 ubiquitin ligase we previously demonstrated to target AMPARs for ubiquitination and degradation. Strikingly, we show that Nedd4-1 is required for Aβ-induced reductions in surface AMPARs, synaptic strength, and dendritic spine density. Our findings, therefore, indicate an important role for Nedd4-1 and ubiquitin in the synaptic alterations induced by Aβ. Synaptic changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include surface AMPAR loss, which can weaken synapses. In a cell culture model of AD, we found that AMPAR loss correlates with increased AMPAR ubiquitination. In addition, the ubiquitin ligase Nedd4-1, known to ubiquitinate AMPARs, is recruited to synapses in response to Aβ. Strikingly, reducing Nedd4-1 levels in this model prevented surface AMPAR loss and synaptic weakening. These findings suggest that, in AD, Nedd4-1 may ubiquitinate AMPARs to promote their internalization and weaken synaptic strength, similar to what occurs in Nedd4-1's established role in homeostatic synaptic scaling. This is the first demonstration of Aβ-mediated control of a ubiquitin ligase to regulate surface AMPAR expression. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361590-06$15.00/0.

  16. Strontium supports synaptic transmission and long-lasting potentiation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Wigström, H; Swann, J W

    1980-07-21

    (1) Synaptic transmission was studied in isolated transverse hippocampal slices from guinea pigs. Extracellular evoked potentials were recorded in the region CA1. (2) Changing the normal perfusion solution (containing 2 mM Ca2+) to calcium-free Ringer abolished synaptic transmission which was again restored by adding strontium. A synaptic efficacy of 25--50% ofn normal was obtained for 10 mM Sr2+. (3) Two different synaptic inputs to CA1 pyramidal cells were tested with respect to their ability to produce long-lasting synaptic potentiation after tetanization in strontium Ringer. Following a brief tetanus the field EPSP and, especially, the population spike were greatly enhanced. (4) The potentiation so produced was similar to the long-lasting potentiation seen in the normal slice, because it (i) had a very long duration (hours), (ii) was specific for the tetanized pathway, (iii) showed potentiation of both 'volley-EPSP' and 'EPSP-spike' relations, and (iv) was accompanied by short-lasting (less than 5 min) generalized depression.

  17. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-09-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  18. Giant synaptic potentials in immature rat CA3 hippocampal neurones.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Cherubini, E; Corradetti, R; Gaiarsa, J L

    1989-01-01

    1. Intracellular recordings were made from rat CA3 hippocampal neurones in vitro during the first eighteen days of postnatal life. The cells had resting membrane potentials more negative than -51 mV, action potentials greater than 55 mV and membrane input resistances of 117 +/- 12 M omega. An unusual characteristic of these cells was the presence of spontaneous giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) which were observed during the first eight postnatal (P) days in over 85% of neurones. They were less frequent between P9 and P12 (48%) and disappeared after P12. 2. The GDPs were synchronously generated by a population of neurones; they reversed polarity at -27 mV when recorded with KCl-containing electrodes and at -51 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes. 3. The GDPs were blocked by bath application of bicuculline (10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM). Exogenously applied gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.2-1 mM) induced at resting membrane potential a bicuculline-sensitive membrane depolarization which reversed polarity at -25 and -51 mV when recorded with KCl- or potassium methylsulphate-filled electrodes respectively. 4. The GDPs were reduced in frequency or blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists DL-2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (AP-7; 50 microM), D(-)2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (AP-5, 10-50 microM) and (+-)3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10-50 microM) or NMDA channel blockers phencyclidine (2 microM) and ketamine (20 microM). 5. Stimulation of the hilus during the first week of life evoked a GDP followed by a hyperpolarization. The GDPs were generated by a population of synchronized neurones and reversed polarity at -27 mV with KCl-filled electrodes and at -52 mV with potassium acetate- or potassium methylsulphate-containing electrodes. 6. Bath application of bicuculline (1-10 microM) or picrotoxin (100-200 microM) reversibly blocked the evoked GDPs in the majority of cells

  19. Synaptic Impairment in Layer 1 of the Prefrontal Cortex Induced by Repeated Stress During Adolescence is Reversed in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Muñoz Carvajal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, some of which involve dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). There is a higher prevalence of these chronic stress-related psychiatric disorders during adolescence, when the PFC has not yet fully matured. In the present work we studied the effect of repeated stress during adolescence on synaptic function in the PFC in adolescence and adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to seven consecutive days of restraint stress. Afterward, both synaptic transmission and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were evaluated in layer 1 of medial-PFC (mPFC) slices from adolescent and adult rats. We found that repeated stress significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mPFC. Isolation of excitatory transmission reveled that lower-amplitude fEPSPs were associated with a reduction in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated transmission. We also found that repeated stress significantly decreased long-term depression (LTD). Interestingly, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission and LTD were recovered in adult animals that experienced a three-week stress-free recovery period. The data indicates that the changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mPFC induced by repeated stress during adolescence are reversed in adulthood after a stress-free period. PMID:26617490

  20. Synaptic Impairment in Layer 1 of the Prefrontal Cortex Induced by Repeated Stress During Adolescence is Reversed in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Negrón-Oyarzo, Ignacio; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Muñoz Carvajal, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders, some of which involve dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). There is a higher prevalence of these chronic stress-related psychiatric disorders during adolescence, when the PFC has not yet fully matured. In the present work we studied the effect of repeated stress during adolescence on synaptic function in the PFC in adolescence and adulthood. To this end, adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to seven consecutive days of restraint stress. Afterward, both synaptic transmission and short- and long-term synaptic plasticity were evaluated in layer 1 of medial-PFC (mPFC) slices from adolescent and adult rats. We found that repeated stress significantly reduced the amplitude of evoked field excitatory post-synaptic potential (fEPSP) in the mPFC. Isolation of excitatory transmission reveled that lower-amplitude fEPSPs were associated with a reduction in α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated transmission. We also found that repeated stress significantly decreased long-term depression (LTD). Interestingly, AMPA/kainate receptor-mediated transmission and LTD were recovered in adult animals that experienced a three-week stress-free recovery period. The data indicates that the changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the mPFC induced by repeated stress during adolescence are reversed in adulthood after a stress-free period.

  1. Medial prefrontal cortex inversely regulates toluene-induced changes in markers of synaptic plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Evins, Caitlin E.; Fedarovich, Hleb; Gilstrap, Meghin J.; Woodward, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Toluene is a volatile solvent that is intentionally inhaled by children, adolescents and adults for its intoxicating effects. While voluntary use of toluene suggests that it possesses rewarding properties and abuse potential, it is unknown whether toluene alters excitatory synaptic transmission in reward sensitive dopamine neurons like other drugs of abuse. Here, using a combination of retrograde labeling and slice electrophysiology, we show that a brief in vivo exposure of rats to a behaviorally relevant concentration of toluene vapor enhances glutamatergic synaptic strength of dopamine (DA) neurons projecting to nucleus accumbens core and medial shell neurons. This effect persisted for up to 3 days in mesoaccumbens core DA neurons and for at least 21 days in those projecting to the medial shell. In contrast, toluene vapor exposure had no effect on synaptic strength of DA neurons that project to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Furthermore, infusion of GABAergic modulators into the mPFC prior to vapor exposure to pharmacologically manipulate output, inhibited or potentiated toluene's action on mesoaccumbens DA neurons. Taken together, the results of these studies indicate that toluene induces a target-selective increase in mesolimbic DA neuron synaptic transmission and strongly implicates the mPFC as an important regulator of drug-induced plasticity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. PMID:23303956

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in the ventral tegmental area mediates cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and rewarding effects.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bin; Zhong, Peng; Sun, Dalong; Liu, Qing-song

    2011-08-03

    Drugs of abuse such as cocaine induce long-term synaptic plasticity in the reward circuitry, which underlies the formation of drug-associated memories and addictive behavior. We reported previously that repeated cocaine exposure in vivo facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) in dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) by reducing the strength of GABAergic inhibition and that endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression at inhibitory synapses (I-LTD) constitutes a mechanism for cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition. The present study investigated the downstream signaling mechanisms and functional consequences of I-LTD in the VTA in the rat. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling has been implicated in long-term synaptic plasticity, associative learning, and drug addiction. We tested the hypothesis that VTA ERK activity is required for I-LTD and cocaine-induced long-term synaptic plasticity and behavioral effects. We show that the activation of receptors required for I-LTD increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibitors of ERK activation blocked I-LTD. We further demonstrate that ERK mediates cocaine-induced reduction of GABAergic inhibition and facilitation of LTP induction. Finally, we show that cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training (15 mg/kg; four pairings) increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the VTA, while bilateral intra-VTA injections of a CB(1) antagonist or an inhibitor of ERK activation attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and the acquisition, but not the expression, of CPP to cocaine. Our study has identified the CB(1) and ERK signaling cascade as a key mediator of several forms of cocaine-induced synaptic plasticity and provided evidence linking long-term synaptic plasticity in the VTA to rewarding effects of cocaine.

  3. Apomorphine-induced changes in synaptic dopamine levels: positron emission tomography evidence for presynaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    de La Fuente-Fernández, R; Lim, A S; Sossi, V; Holden, J E; Calne, D B; Ruth, T J; Stoessl, A J

    2001-10-01

    The authors developed a novel positron emission tomography method to estimate changes in the synaptic level of dopamine ([DA]) induced by direct dopamine agonists (for example, apomorphine) in patients with Parkinson disease. The method is based on the typical asymmetry of the nigrostriatal lesion that often occurs in Parkinson disease. Using the between-side difference (ipsilateral (I) and contralateral (C) putamen to the more affected body side) of the inverse of the putamen [11C]raclopride binding potential (BP), the authors obtained [equation: see text] at baseline (that is, before apomorphine administration) and [equation: see text] after apomorphine administration (assuming the concentration of apomorphine is equal in both putamina). The between-side difference in the estimated synaptic concentration of dopamine (diff[DA]) should remain constant unless apomorphine affects dopamine release differently between the two sides. The authors found that apomorphine given subcutaneously at doses of 0.03 and 0.06 mg/kg induced significant changes in their estimate of diff[DA] (P < 0.05). Such changes were more pronounced when only patients with a stable response to levodopa were considered (P < 0.01). These findings provide in vivo evidence that direct dopamine agonists can inhibit the release of endogenous dopamine. The authors propose that this effect is mainly mediated by the activation of presynaptic D2/D3 dopamine receptors.

  4. Muscarinic M1 receptors modulate endotoxemia-induced loss of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zivkovic, Aleksandar R; Sedlaczek, Oliver; von Haken, Rebecca; Schmidt, Karsten; Brenner, Thorsten; Weigand, Markus A; Bading, Hilmar; Bengtson, C Peter; Hofer, Stefan

    2015-11-04

    Septic encephalopathy is associated with rapid deterioration of cortical functions. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we detected functional abnormalities in the hippocampal formation of patients with septic delirium. Hippocampal dysfunction was further investigated in an animal model for sepsis using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injections to induce endotoxemia in rats, followed by electrophysiological recordings in brain slices. Endotoxemia induced a deficit in long term potentiation which was completely reversed by apamin, a blocker of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels, and partly restored by treatment with physostigmine (eserine), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or TBPB, a selective M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. These results suggest a novel role for SK channels in the etiology of endotoxemia and explain why boosting cholinergic function restores deficits in synaptic plasticity. Drugs which enhance cholinergic or M1 activity in the brain may prove beneficial in treatment of septic delirium in the intensive care unit.

  5. Microbial reconstitution reverses maternal diet-induced social and synaptic deficits in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Buffington, Shelly A.; Viana Di Prisco, Gonzalo; Auchtung, Thomas A.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Maternal obesity during pregnancy has been associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in offspring. Here we report that maternal high fat diet (MHFD) induces a shift in microbial ecology that negatively impacts offspring social behavior. Social deficits and gut microbiota dysbiosis in MHFD offspring are prevented by co-housing with offspring of mothers on a regular diet (MRD) and transferable to germ-free mice. In addition, social interaction induces synaptic potentiation (LTP) in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of MRD, but not MHFD offspring. Moreover, MHFD offspring had fewer oxytocin immunoreactive neurons in the hypothalamus. Using metagenomics and precision microbiota reconstitution, we identified a single commensal strain that corrects oxytocin levels, LTP, and social deficits in MHFD offspring. Our findings causally link maternal diet, gut microbial imbalance, VTA plasticity and behavior, and suggest that probiotic treatment may relieve specific behavioral abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27315483

  6. Phosphorylation of AMPA receptors is required for sensory deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubhuti; Xu, Linda W; Snyder, Kevin P; Song, Lihua; Goenaga-Vazquez, Yamila; Megill, Andrea; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2011-03-31

    Sensory experience, and the lack thereof, can alter the function of excitatory synapses in the primary sensory cortices. Recent evidence suggests that changes in sensory experience can regulate the synaptic level of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such a process have not been determined. We found that binocular visual deprivation, which is a well-established in vivo model to produce multiplicative synaptic scaling in visual cortex of juvenile rodents, is accompanied by an increase in the phosphorylation of AMPAR GluR1 (or GluA1) subunit at the serine 845 (S845) site and the appearance of CP-AMPARs at synapses. To address the role of GluR1-S845 in visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity, we used mice lacking key phosphorylation sites on the GluR1 subunit. We found that mice specifically lacking the GluR1-S845 site (GluR1-S845A mutants), which is a substrate of cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), show abnormal basal excitatory synaptic transmission and lack visual deprivation-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity. We also found evidence that increasing GluR1-S845 phosphorylation alone is not sufficient to produce normal multiplicative synaptic scaling. Our study provides concrete evidence that a GluR1 dependent mechanism, especially S845 phosphorylation, is a necessary pre-requisite step for in vivo homeostatic synaptic plasticity.

  7. Nanoscale Molecular Reorganization of the Inhibitory Postsynaptic Density Is a Determinant of GABAergic Synaptic Potentiation.

    PubMed

    Pennacchietti, Francesca; Vascon, Sebastiano; Nieus, Thierry; Rosillo, Christian; Das, Sabyasachi; Tyagarajan, Shiva K; Diaspro, Alberto; Del Bue, Alessio; Petrini, Enrica Maria; Barberis, Andrea; Cella Zanacchi, Francesca

    2017-02-15

    Gephyrin is a key scaffold protein mediating the anchoring of GABAA receptors at inhibitory synapses. Here, we exploited superresolution techniques combined with proximity-based clustering analysis and model simulations to investigate the single-molecule gephyrin reorganization during plasticity of inhibitory synapses in mouse hippocampal cultured neurons. This approach revealed that, during the expression of inhibitory LTP, the increase of gephyrin density at postsynaptic sites is associated with the promoted formation of gephyrin nanodomains. We demonstrate that the gephyrin rearrangement in nanodomains stabilizes the amplitude of postsynaptic currents, indicating that, in addition to the number of synaptic GABAA receptors, the nanoscale distribution of GABAA receptors in the postsynaptic area is a crucial determinant for the expression of inhibitory synaptic plasticity. In addition, the methodology implemented here clears the way to the application of the graph-based theory to single-molecule data for the description and quantification of the spatial organization of the synapse at the single-molecule level.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The mechanisms of inhibitory synaptic plasticity are poorly understood, mainly because the size of the synapse is below the diffraction limit, thus reducing the effectiveness of conventional optical and imaging techniques. Here, we exploited superresolution approaches combined with clustering analysis to study at unprecedented resolution the distribution of the inhibitory scaffold protein gephyrin in response to protocols inducing LTP of inhibitory synaptic responses (iLTP). We found that, during the expression of iLTP, the increase of synaptic gephyrin is associated with the fragmentation of gephyrin in subsynaptic nanodomains. We demonstrate that such synaptic gephyrin nanodomains stabilize the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic responses, thus identifying the nanoscale gephyrin rearrangement as a key determinant for inhibitory

  8. Anandamide-CB1 Receptor Signaling Contributes to Postnatal Ethanol-Induced Neonatal Neurodegeneration, Adult Synaptic and Memory Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Subbanna, Shivakumar; Shivakumar, Madhu; Psychoyos, Delphine; Xie, Shan; Basavarajappa, Balapal S.

    2013-01-01

    The transient exposure of immature rodents to ethanol during postnatal day 7 (P7), which is comparable to the third trimester human pregnancy, induces synaptic dysfunctions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these dysfunctions are still poorly understood. Although the endocannabinoid system has been shown to be an important modulator of ethanol sensitivity in adult mice, its potential role in synaptic dysfunctions in mice exposed to ethanol during early brain development is not examined. In this study, we investigated the potential role of endocannabinoids and the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1R) in neonatal neurodegeneration and adult synaptic dysfunctions in mice exposed to ethanol at P7. Ethanol treatment at P7, which induces neurodegeneration, increased anandamide (AEA) but not 2-arachidonylglycerol biosynthesis and CB1R protein expression in the hippocampus and cortex, two brain areas that are important for memory formation and storage, respectively. N-arachidonoyl phosphatidylethanolamine-phospholipase D (NAPE-PLD), glycerophosphodiesterase (GDE1) and CB1Rs protein expression were enhanced by transcriptional activation of the genes encoding NAPE-PLD, GDE1 and CB1R proteins respectively. In addition, ethanol inhibited ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. The blockade of CB1Rs prior to ethanol treatment at P7 relieved ERK1/2 but not AKT phosphorylation and prevented neurodegeneration. CB1R knockout mice exhibited no ethanol-induced neurodegeneration and inhibition of ERK1/2-phosphorylation. The protective effects of CB1R blockade through pharmacological or genetic deletion resulted in normal adult synaptic plasticity and novel object recognition memory in mice exposed to ethanol at P7. The AEA/CB1R/pERK1/2 signaling pathway may be directly responsible for the synaptic and memory deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. PMID:23575834

  9. Repolarization of the presynaptic action potential and short-term synaptic plasticity in the chick ciliary ganglion.

    PubMed

    Poage, Robert E; Zengel, Janet E

    2002-12-01

    Stimulation-induced increases in synaptic efficacy have been described as being composed of multiple independent processes that arise from the activation of distinct mechanisms at the presynaptic terminal. In the chick ciliary ganglion, four components of short-term synaptic plasticity have been described: F1 and F2 components of facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation. In the present study, intracellular recording from the presynaptic calyciform nerve terminal of the chick ciliary ganglion revealed that the late repolarization and afterhypolarization (AHP) phases of the presynaptic action potential are affected by repetitive stimulation and that the time course of these effects parallel that of facilitation. The effects of these changes in the presynaptic action potential time course on calcium influx were tested by using the recorded action potential waveforms as voltage command stimuli during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from acutely isolated chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The "facilitated" action potential waveform (slowed repolarization, decreased AHP amplitude) evoked calcium current with slightly but significantly greater total calcium influx. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that activity-dependent changes in the presynaptic action potential are one of several mechanisms contributing to the facilitation phase of stimulation-induced increases in transmitter release in this preparation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Apolipoprotein E in Synaptic Plasticity and Alzheimer’s Disease: Potential Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaekwang; Yoon, Hyejin; Basak, Jacob; Kim, Jungsu

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is clinically characterized with progressive memory loss and cognitive decline. Synaptic dysfunction is an early pathological feature that occurs prior to neurodegeneration and memory dysfunction. Mounting evidence suggests that aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau leads to synaptic deficits and neurodegeneration, thereby to memory loss. Among the established genetic risk factors for AD, the ɛ4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the strongest genetic risk factor. We and others previously demonstrated that apoE regulates Aβ aggregation and clearance in an isoform-dependent manner. While the effect of apoE on Aβ may explain how apoE isoforms differentially affect AD pathogenesis, there are also other underexplored pathogenic mechanisms. They include differential effects of apoE on cerebral energy metabolism, neuroinflammation, neurovascular function, neurogenesis, and synaptic plasticity. ApoE is a major carrier of cholesterols that are required for neuronal activity and injury repair in the brain. Although there are a few conflicting findings and the underlying mechanism is still unclear, several lines of studies demonstrated that apoE4 leads to synaptic deficits and impairment in long-term potentiation, memory and cognition. In this review, we summarize current understanding of apoE function in the brain, with a particular emphasis on its role in synaptic plasticity and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, involving low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), syndecan, and LRP8/ApoER2. PMID:25358504

  11. Potential Role of Synaptic Activity to Inhibit LTD Induction in Rat Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD), a widely studied form of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, is typically induced by prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS). Interestingly, LFS is highly effective in eliciting LTD in vitro, but much less so under in vivo conditions; the reasons for the resistance of the intact brain to express LTD are not well understood. We examined if levels of background electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity influence LTD induction in the thalamocortical visual system of rats under very deep urethane anesthesia, inducing a brain state of reduced spontaneous cortical activity. Under these conditions, LFS applied to the lateral geniculate nucleus resulted in LTD of field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) recorded in the primary visual cortex (V1). Pairing LFS with stimulation of the brainstem (pedunculopontine) reticular formation resulted in the appearance of faster, more complex activity in V1 and prevented LTD induction, an effect that did not require muscarinic or nicotinic receptors. Reticular stimulation alone (without LFS) had no effect on cortical fPSPs. These results show that excitation of the brainstem activating system blocks the induction of LTD in V1. Thus, higher levels of neural activity may inhibit depression at cortical synapses, a hypothesis that could explain discrepancies regarding LTD induction in previous in vivo and in vitro work. PMID:28050286

  12. Changes in Synaptic Transmission and Long-term Potentiation Induction as a Possible Mechanism for Learning Disability in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. It has been shown that memory deficits is common in patients with MS. Recent studies using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as an animal model of MS have shown that indicated that EAE causes hippocampal-dependent impairment in learning and memory. Thus far, there have been no in vivo electrophysiological reports describing synaptic transmission in EAE animals. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the synaptic changes in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats. Methods: To evaluate changes in synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the hippocampus of EAE rats, field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) from the stratum radiatum of CA1 neurons, were recorded following Schaffer collateral stimulation. Results: The results showed that EAE causes deficits in synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. In addition, paired-pulse index with a 120 msec interstimulus interval was decreased in the EAE group. These findings indicate that EAE might induce suppression in synaptic transmission and LTP by increasing the inhibitory effect of GABAB receptors on the glutamate-mediated EPSP. Conclusions: In conclusion, influence of inflammation-triggered mechanisms on synaptic transmission may explain the negative effect of EAE on learning abilities in rats. PMID:27032554

  13. Bacopa monnieri extract enhances learning-dependent hippocampal long-term synaptic potentiation.

    PubMed

    Promsuban, Charkriya; Limsuvan, Suveerawan; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Tilokskulchai, Kanokwan; Tapechum, Sompol; Pakaprot, Narawut

    2017-11-08

    Bacopa monnieri has been used in Ayurvedic medicine as a memory enhancer for a long time; however, its direct effect on synaptic plasticity has not been investigated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the effect of B. monnieri on long-term synaptic potentiation in acute hippocampal slices. Adult male Wistar rats were orally administered either sterile water or the ethanolic extract of B. monnieri for 60 days. The extracellular recording was performed to measure the field excitatory postsynaptic potential in the acute hippocampal slices of these rats. Our results showed that B. monnieri extract significantly increased long-term potentiation magnitude compared with the control group, whereas there was no change in basal synaptic transmission. The data support the beneficial mnemonic effect of B. monnieri, and suggest that this effect might be because of the increase of learning-associated synaptic machinery, resulting in the long-term potentiation enhancement and strengthening of hippocampal synapses, which plays a critical role in learning and memory formation.

  14. Timing is Essential for Rapid Effects of Corticosterone on Synaptic Potentiation in the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Marian; Krugers, Harm; Wiegert, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Stress facilitates memory formation, but only when the stressor is closely linked to the learning context. These effects are, at least in part, mediated by corticosteroid hormones. Here we demonstrate that corticosterone rapidly facilitates synaptic potentiation in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area when high levels of the hormone and high-frequency…

  15. Timing is Essential for Rapid Effects of Corticosterone on Synaptic Potentiation in the Mouse Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joels, Marian; Krugers, Harm; Wiegert, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Stress facilitates memory formation, but only when the stressor is closely linked to the learning context. These effects are, at least in part, mediated by corticosteroid hormones. Here we demonstrate that corticosterone rapidly facilitates synaptic potentiation in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area when high levels of the hormone and high-frequency…

  16. Deletion of CB2 cannabinoid receptors reduces synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Kim, Jimok

    2016-03-01

    The effects of cannabinoids are mostly mediated by two types of cannabinoid receptors--CB1 receptors in the nervous system and CB2 receptors in the immune system. However, CB2 cannabinoid receptors have recently been discovered in the brain and also implicated in neurophysiological functions. The deletion of CB2 receptors in mice induces long-term memory deficits and schizophrenia-like behaviors, implying that endogenous activity of CB2 receptors might be involved in neuropsychiatric effects. Little is known about the cellular mechanisms by which physiological activation of CB2 receptors modulates neuronal functions. We aimed to determine how deletion of CB2 receptors in mice affects synaptic transmission and plasticity. Electrophysiological and morphological studies indicated that CB2 receptor knockout resulted in decreases in excitatory synaptic transmission, long-term potentiation, and dendritic spine density in the hippocampus. Our data imply that endogenous activity of CB2 receptors might contribute to the maintenance of synaptic functions and the expression of normal long-term potentiation. This study provides insights into the role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors in regulating cognitive functions such as long-term memory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Imperfect traveling chimera states induced by local synaptic gradient coupling.

    PubMed

    Bera, Bidesh K; Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the occurrence of chimera patterns in a network of neuronal oscillators, which are coupled through local, synaptic gradient coupling. We discover a new chimera pattern, namely the imperfect traveling chimera state, where the incoherent traveling domain spreads into the coherent domain of the network. Remarkably, we also find that chimera states arise even for one-way local coupling, which is in contrast to the earlier belief that only nonlocal, global, or nearest-neighbor local coupling can give rise to chimera state; this find further relaxes the essential connectivity requirement of getting a chimera state. We choose a network of identical bursting Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal oscillators, and we show that depending upon the relative strength of the synaptic and gradient coupling, several chimera patterns emerge. We map all the spatiotemporal behaviors in parameter space and identify the transitions among several chimera patterns, an in-phase synchronized state, and a global amplitude death state.

  18. Imperfect traveling chimera states induced by local synaptic gradient coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Bidesh K.; Ghosh, Dibakar; Banerjee, Tanmoy

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we report the occurrence of chimera patterns in a network of neuronal oscillators, which are coupled through local, synaptic gradient coupling. We discover a new chimera pattern, namely the imperfect traveling chimera state, where the incoherent traveling domain spreads into the coherent domain of the network. Remarkably, we also find that chimera states arise even for one-way local coupling, which is in contrast to the earlier belief that only nonlocal, global, or nearest-neighbor local coupling can give rise to chimera state; this find further relaxes the essential connectivity requirement of getting a chimera state. We choose a network of identical bursting Hindmarsh-Rose neuronal oscillators, and we show that depending upon the relative strength of the synaptic and gradient coupling, several chimera patterns emerge. We map all the spatiotemporal behaviors in parameter space and identify the transitions among several chimera patterns, an in-phase synchronized state, and a global amplitude death state.

  19. Neurotrophin-3 potentiates excitatory GABAergic synaptic transmission in cultured developing hypothalamic neurones of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Bing; van den Pol, A N

    1999-01-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) supports the survival and differentiation of neurones in the central and peripheral nervous systems through a number of mechanisms that occur in a matter of hours or days. NT-3 may also have a more rapid mode of action that influences synaptic activity in mature neurones. In the present study, the effect of NT-3 on developing GABAergic synapses was investigated in 3- to 7-day-old cultures of rat hypothalamic neurones with whole-cell patch-clamp recording. NT-3 induced a substantial dose-dependent potentiation of the frequency of spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs; 160 %) in developing neurones during a period when GABA evoked inward (depolarizing) current, as determined with gramicidin-perforated patch recordings. The NT-3 effect was long lasting; continued enhancement was found > 30 min after NT-3 wash-out. NT-3 evoked a substantial 202 % increase in total GABA-mediated inward current, measured as the time-current integral. Action potential frequency was also increased by NT-3 (to 220 %). The frequency of GABA-mediated miniature postsynaptic currents in developing neurones in the presence of tetrodotoxin was potentiated (to 140 %) by NT-3 with no change in the mean amplitude, suggesting a presynaptic locus of the effect. In striking contrast to immature neurones, when more mature neurones were studied, NT-3 did not enhance the frequency of GABA-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (sPSCs), but instead evoked a slight (16 %) decrease. The frequency of miniature post-synaptic currents was also slightly decreased (16 %) by the NT-3, with no change in amplitude. These results were recorded during a later period of neuronal maturity when GABA would evoke outward (hyperpolarizing) currents. NT-3 had no effect on the mean amplitude of GABA-evoked postsynaptic currents in either developing or mature neurones. Intracellular application of K252a, a non-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, did not block the NT-3 effect postsynaptically. In

  20. Presynaptically Localized Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 1 Is a Key Determinant of Spinal Synaptic Potentiation and Pain Hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ceng; Gangadharan, Vijayan; Bali, Kiran Kumar; Xie, Rou-Gang; Agarwal, Nitin; Kurejova, Martina; Tappe-Theodor, Anke; Tegeder, Irmgard; Feil, Susanne; Lewin, Gary; Polgar, Erika; Todd, Andrew J.; Schlossmann, Jens; Hofmann, Franz; Liu, Da-Lu; Hu, San-Jue; Feil, Robert; Kuner, Thomas; Kuner, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) at spinal neurons directly communicating pain-specific inputs from the periphery to the brain has been proposed to serve as a trigger for pain hypersensitivity in pathological states. Previous studies have functionally implicated the NMDA receptor-NO pathway and the downstream second messenger, cGMP, in these processes. Because cGMP can broadly influence diverse ion-channels, kinases, and phosphodiesterases, pre- as well as post-synaptically, the precise identity of cGMP targets mediating spinal LTP, their mechanisms of action, and their locus in the spinal circuitry are still unclear. Here, we found that Protein Kinase G1 (PKG-I) localized presynaptically in nociceptor terminals plays an essential role in the expression of spinal LTP. Using the Cre-lox P system, we generated nociceptor-specific knockout mice lacking PKG-I specifically in presynaptic terminals of nociceptors in the spinal cord, but not in post-synaptic neurons or elsewhere (SNS-PKG-I−/− mice). Patch clamp recordings showed that activity-induced LTP at identified synapses between nociceptors and spinal neurons projecting to the periaqueductal grey (PAG) was completely abolished in SNS-PKG-I−/− mice, although basal synaptic transmission was not affected. Analyses of synaptic failure rates and paired-pulse ratios indicated a role for presynaptic PKG-I in regulating the probability of neurotransmitter release. Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor 1 and myosin light chain kinase were recruited as key phosphorylation targets of presynaptic PKG-I in nociceptive neurons. Finally, behavioural analyses in vivo showed marked defects in SNS-PKG-I−/− mice in several models of activity-induced nociceptive hypersensitivity, and pharmacological studies identified a clear contribution of PKG-I expressed in spinal terminals of nociceptors. Our results thus indicate that presynaptic mechanisms involving an increase in release probability from nociceptors are

  1. Reduced synaptic vesicle protein degradation at lysosomes curbs TBC1D24/sky-induced neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Clara; Uytterhoeven, Valerie; Kuenen, Sabine; Wang, Yu-Chun; Slabbaert, Jan R; Swerts, Jef; Kasprowicz, Jaroslaw; Aerts, Stein; Verstreken, Patrik

    2014-11-24

    Synaptic demise and accumulation of dysfunctional proteins are thought of as common features in neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms by which synaptic proteins turn over remain elusive. In this paper, we study Drosophila melanogaster lacking active TBC1D24/Skywalker (Sky), a protein that in humans causes severe neurodegeneration, epilepsy, and DOOR (deafness, onychdystrophy, osteodystrophy, and mental retardation) syndrome, and identify endosome-to-lysosome trafficking as a mechanism for degradation of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins. In fly sky mutants, synaptic vesicles traveled excessively to endosomes. Using chimeric fluorescent timers, we show that synaptic vesicle-associated proteins were younger on average, suggesting that older proteins are more efficiently degraded. Using a genetic screen, we find that reducing endosomal-to-lysosomal trafficking, controlled by the homotypic fusion and vacuole protein sorting (HOPS) complex, rescued the neurotransmission and neurodegeneration defects in sky mutants. Consistently, synaptic vesicle proteins were older in HOPS complex mutants, and these mutants also showed reduced neurotransmission. Our findings define a mechanism in which synaptic transmission is facilitated by efficient protein turnover at lysosomes and identify a potential strategy to suppress defects arising from TBC1D24 mutations in humans.

  2. Geniposide Alleviates Amyloid-Induced Synaptic Injury by Protecting Axonal Mitochondrial Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haijing; Zhao, Chunhui; Lv, Cui; Liu, Xiaoli; Du, Shijing; Li, Zhi; Wang, Yongyan; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Synaptic and mitochondrial pathologies are early events in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Normal axonal mitochondrial function and transport play crucial roles in maintaining synaptic function by producing high levels of adenosine triphosphate and buffering calcium. However, there can be abnormal axonal mitochondrial trafficking, distribution, and fragmentation, which are strongly correlated with amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced synaptic loss and dysfunction. The present study examined the neuroprotective effect of geniposide, a compound extracted from gardenia fruit in Aβ-treated neurons and an AD mouse model. Geniposide alleviated Aβ-induced axonal mitochondrial abnormalities by increasing axonal mitochondrial density and length and improving mitochondrial motility and trafficking in cultured hippocampal neurons, consequently ameliorating synaptic damage by reversing synaptic loss, addressing spine density and morphology abnormalities, and ameliorating the decreases in synapse-related proteins in neurons and APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. These findings provide new insights into the effects of geniposide administration on neuronal and synaptic functions under conditions of Aβ enrichment. PMID:28179878

  3. Artificially imposed electrical potentials drive L-glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles of bovine cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Shioi, J; Ueda, T

    1990-01-01

    L-Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. MgATP-dependent glutamate uptake and H(+)-pumping ATPase activity were reported in highly purified synaptic vesicles [Naito & Ueda (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 696-699; Shioi, Naito & Ueda (1989) Biochem. J. 258, 499-504], and it is hypothesized that an electrochemical H+ gradient across the vesicle membrane, the so-called protonmotive force, elicits the neurotransmitter uptake. An inside-positive diffusion potential across the vesicle membrane was established with valinomycin plus Rb+. This artificial electrical potential promoted the uptake of glutamate, but not aspartate, in the synaptic vesicles prepared from bovine cerebral cortex. The uptake was inhibited by the protonmotive-force dissipators carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoro-methoxyphenylhydrazone or nigericin, and was enhanced by concomitant imposition of a pH jump (alkalinization) in the external medium. Subcellular and subvesicular distributions showed the uptake system to be predominantly associated with small synaptic vesicles. The results support the hypothesis that glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles is coupled with a H+ efflux down the electrochemical potential gradient, which is generated by H(+)-pumping ATPase. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1970243

  4. Chronic Caffeine Treatment Prevents Sleep Deprivation-Induced Impairment of Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A.; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M.; Tran, Trinh T.; Alzoubi, Karem H.; Alkadhi, Karim A.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: This study was undertaken to provide a detailed account of the effect of chronic treatment with a small dose of caffeine on the deleterious effects of sleep loss on brain function in rats. Experimental Design: We investigated the effects of chronic (4 weeks) caffeine treatment (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on memory impairment in acutely (24 h) sleep-deprived adult male Wistar rats. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform model. The effects of caffeine on sleep deprivation-induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits were studied by 3 approaches: learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze task, electrophysiological recording of early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus, and levels of memory- and synaptic plasticity-related signaling molecules after E-LTP induction. Measurement and Results: The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning, short-term memory and E-LTP of area CA1 in the sleep-deprived rats. In correlation, chronic caffeine treatment prevented sleep deprivation-associated decrease in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) during expression of E-LTP. Conclusions: The results suggest that long-term use of a low dose of caffeine prevents impairment of short-term memory and E-LTP in acutely sleep-deprived rats. Citation: Alhaider IA; Aleisa AM; Tran TT; Alzoubi KH; Alkadhi KA. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents sleep deprivation-induced impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. SLEEP 2010;33(4):437-444. PMID:20394312

  5. Influence of Glucose Deprivation on Membrane Potentials of Plasma Membranes, Mitochondria and Synaptic Vesicles in Rat Brain Synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Pekun, Tatyana G; Waseem, Tatyana V; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2015-06-01

    Hypoglycemia can cause neuronal cell death similar to that of glutamate-induced cell death. In the present paper, we investigated the effect of glucose removal from incubation medium on changes of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials in rat brain synaptosomes using the fluorescent dyes DiSC3(5) and JC-1. We also monitored pH gradients in synaptic vesicles and their recycling by the fluorescent dye acridine orange. Glucose deprivation was found to cause an inhibition of K(+)-induced Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis and a shift of mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials to more positive values. The sensitivity of these parameters to the energy deficit caused by the removal of glucose showed the following order: mitochondrial membrane potential > plasma membrane potential > pH gradient in synaptic vesicles. The latter was almost unaffected by deprivation compared with the control. The pH-dependent dye acridine orange was used to investigate synaptic vesicle recycling. However, the compound's fluorescence was shown to be enhanced also by the mixture of mitochondrial toxins rotenone (10 µM) and oligomycin (5 µg/mL). This means that acridine orange can presumably be partially distributed in the intermembrane space of mitochondria. Glucose removal from the incubation medium resulted in a 3.7-fold raise of acridine orange response to rotenone + oligomycin suggesting a dramatic increase in the mitochondrial pH gradient. Our results suggest that the biophysical characteristics of neuronal presynaptic endings do not favor excessive non-controlled neurotransmitter release in case of hypoglycemia. The inhibition of exocytosis and the increase of the mitochondrial pH gradient, while preserving the vesicular pH gradient, are proposed as compensatory mechanisms.

  6. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kole, Maarten H P; Letzkus, Johannes J; Stuart, Greg J

    2007-08-16

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma. Cell-attached recordings revealed a 10-fold increase in Kv1 channel density over the first 50 microm of the AIS. Inactivation of AIS and proximal axonal Kv1 channels, as occurs during slow subthreshold somatodendritic depolarizations, led to a distance-dependent broadening of axonal action potentials, as well as an increase in synaptic strength at proximal axonal terminals. Thus, Kv1 channels are strategically positioned to integrate slow subthreshold signals, providing control of the presynaptic action potential waveform and synaptic coupling in local cortical circuits.

  7. A caged Ab reveals an immediate/instructive effect of BDNF during hippocampal synaptic potentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kossel, Albrecht H.; Cambridge, Sidney B.; Wagner, Uta; Bonhoeffer, Tobias

    2001-01-01

    Neurotrophins have been shown to be involved in functional strengthening of central nervous system synapses. Although their general importance in this process is undisputed, it remains unresolved whether neurotrophins are truly mediators of synaptic strengthening or merely important cofactors. To address this question, we have devised a method to inactivate endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) with high time resolution by “caging” a function-blocking mAb against BDNF with a photosensitive protecting compound. Different assays were used to show that this inactivation of the Ab is reversible by UV light. Synaptic potentiation after τ-burst stimulation in the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices was significantly less when applying the unmodified Ab compared with the caged Ab. Importantly, photoactivation of the caged Ab during the time of induction of synaptic enhancement led to a marked decrease in potentiation. Our experiments therefore strengthen the view that endogenous BDNF has fast effects during induction of synaptic plasticity. The results additionally show that caged Abs can provide a tool for precise spatiotemporal control over endogenous protein levels. PMID:11724927

  8. High-fat diet induces hepatic insulin resistance and impairment of synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhigang; Patil, Ishan Y; Jiang, Tianyi; Sancheti, Harsh; Walsh, John P; Stiles, Bangyan L; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with insulin resistance, which may affect brain synaptic plasticity through impairment of insulin-sensitive processes underlying neuronal survival, learning, and memory. The experimental model consisted of 3 month-old C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet (control group) or a HFD (60% of calorie from fat; HFD group) for 12 weeks. This model was characterized as a function of time in terms of body weight, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, and plasma triglycerides. IRS-1/Akt pathway was assessed in primary hepatocytes and brain homogenates. The effect of HFD in brain was assessed by electrophysiology, input/output responses and long-term potentiation. HFD-fed mice exhibited a significant increase in body weight, higher fasting glucose- and insulin levels in plasma, lower glucose tolerance, and higher HOMA-IR values. In liver, HFD elicited (a) a significant decrease of insulin receptor substrate (IRS-1) phosphorylation on Tyr608 and increase of Ser307 phosphorylation, indicative of IRS-1 inactivation; (b) these changes were accompanied by inflammatory responses in terms of increases in the expression of NFκB and iNOS and activation of the MAP kinases p38 and JNK; (c) primary hepatocytes from mice fed a HFD showed decreased cellular oxygen consumption rates (indicative of mitochondrial functional impairment); this can be ascribed partly to a decreased expression of PGC1α and mitochondrial biogenesis. In brain, HFD feeding elicited (a) an inactivation of the IRS-1 and, consequentially, (b) a decreased expression and plasma membrane localization of the insulin-sensitive neuronal glucose transporters GLUT3/GLUT4; (c) a suppression of the ERK/CREB pathway, and (d) a substantial decrease in long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of hippocampus (indicative of impaired synaptic plasticity). It may be surmised that 12 weeks fed with HFD induce a systemic insulin resistance that impacts

  9. Long-Term Potentiation of Excitatory Synaptic Strength in Spinothalamic Tract Neurons of the Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Sung Won

    2013-01-01

    Spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons have been shown to undergo long-term synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Here, we focused on the spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons that are the main nociceptive neurons projecting from the spinal cord to the thalamus. Optical technique using fluorescent dye has made it possible to identify the STT neurons in the spinal cord. Evoked fast mono-synaptic, excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were measured in the STT neurons. Time-based tetanic stimulation (TBS) was employed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the STT neurons. Coincident stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons using TBS showed immediate and persistent increase in AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs. LTP can also be induced by postsynaptic spiking together with pharmacological stimulation using chemical NMDA. TBS-induced LTP observed in STT neurons was blocked by internal BAPTA, or Ni2+, a T-type VOCC blocker. However, LTP was intact in the presence of L-type VOCC blocker. These results suggest that long-term plastic change of STT neurons requires NMDA receptor activation and postsynaptic calcium but is differentially sensitive to T-type VOCCs. PMID:24381506

  10. Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Hur, Sung Won; Park, Joo Min

    2013-12-01

    Spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons have been shown to undergo long-term synaptic plasticity, including long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Here, we focused on the spinothalamic tract (STT) neurons that are the main nociceptive neurons projecting from the spinal cord to the thalamus. Optical technique using fluorescent dye has made it possible to identify the STT neurons in the spinal cord. Evoked fast mono-synaptic, excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) were measured in the STT neurons. Time-based tetanic stimulation (TBS) was employed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP) in the STT neurons. Coincident stimulation of both pre- and postsynaptic neurons using TBS showed immediate and persistent increase in AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs. LTP can also be induced by postsynaptic spiking together with pharmacological stimulation using chemical NMDA. TBS-induced LTP observed in STT neurons was blocked by internal BAPTA, or Ni(2+), a T-type VOCC blocker. However, LTP was intact in the presence of L-type VOCC blocker. These results suggest that long-term plastic change of STT neurons requires NMDA receptor activation and postsynaptic calcium but is differentially sensitive to T-type VOCCs.

  11. Electrotonic profile and passive propagation of synaptic potentials in three subpopulations of hippocampal CA1 interneurons.

    PubMed

    Emri, Z; Antal, K; Gulyás, A I; Megías, M; Freund, T F

    2001-01-01

    To elucidate the role of dendritic morphology in signal transfer, the passive propagation of somatic and dendritic potentials was compared in multi-compartment models of three interneuron subpopulations in the CA1 region. Nine calbindin-, 15 calretinin- and 10 parvalbumin-containing cells were modelled incorporating the detailed geometry, the currents of the action potentials in the soma, and the AMPA, N-methyl-D-aspartate and GABA-B receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in the dendrites. The cable properties show characteristic differences among the subpopulations. The morphotonic length of calbindin and calretinin cell dendrites is larger than of parvalbumin cells. Thus parvalbumin cells are more compact than calbindin or calretinin cells unless the ratio of their axial and membrane resistivities exceeds the ratios of the other two cell types by more than 33%. In calbindin cells, the distal parts of the extremely long dendrites that invade the alveus are virtually isolated from the soma for passively propagating signals. The synaptic potentials evoked at a given morphotonic distance from the soma show larger differences locally on the dendrites than on the soma in all subpopulations. Both the somatic and dendritic amplitude ratios are the smallest in PV cells. In calbindin cells the somatic amplitude of synaptic potentials evoked at the same morphotonic distance from the soma is similar regardless of the number of branchpoints along their path. In calretinin and parvalbumin cells, from dendrites with long primary segments synaptic potentials reach the soma with larger amplitude than from dendrites that are branching close to the soma. The dendrites with the larger impact on somatic membrane potential are usually the dendrites that enter the stratum lacunosum-moleculare. These results indicate that dendritic morphology plays a role in changing the effectiveness of synaptic potentials evoked at different dendritic locations, and in this way is likely to be an

  12. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Spatial Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Impairment Is Preventable by Captopril

    PubMed Central

    Abareshi, Azam; Anaeigoudari, Akbar; Norouzi, Fatemeh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Khazaei, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Renin-angiotensin system has a role in inflammation and also is involved in many brain functions such as learning, memory, and emotion. Neuroimmune factors have been proposed as the contributors to the pathogenesis of memory impairments. In the present study, the effect of captopril on spatial memory and synaptic plasticity impairments induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. Methods. The rats were divided and treated into control (saline), LPS (1 mg/kg), LPS-captopril (LPS-Capto; 50 mg/kg captopril before LPS), and captopril groups (50 mg/kg) before saline. Morris water maze was done. Long-term potentiation (LTP) from CA1 area of hippocampus was assessed by 100 Hz stimulation in the ipsilateral Schaffer collateral pathway. Results. In the LPS group, the spent time and traveled path to reach the platform were longer than those in the control, while, in the LPS-Capto group, they were shorter than those in the LPS group. Moreover, the slope and amplitude of field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) decreased in the LPS group, as compared to the control group, whereas, in the LPS-Capto group, they increased compared to the LPS group. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that captopril improved the LPS-induced memory and LTP impairments induced by LPS in rats. Further investigations are required in order to better understand the exact responsible mechanism(s). PMID:27830176

  13. Age-induced disruption of selective olfactory bulb synaptic circuits

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Marion B.; Taylor, Seth R.; Greer, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about how normal aging affects the brain. Recent evidence suggests that neuronal loss is not ubiquitous in aging neocortex. Instead, subtle and still controversial, region- and layer-specific alterations of neuron morphology and synapses are reported during aging, leading to the notion that discrete changes in neural circuitry may underlie age-related cognitive deficits. Although deficits in sensory function suggest that primary sensory cortices are affected by aging, our understanding of the age-related cellular and molecular changes is sparse. To assess the effect of aging on the organization of olfactory bulb (OB) circuitry, we carried out quantitative morphometric analyses in the mouse OB at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Our data establish that the volumes of the major OB layers do not change during aging. Parallel to this, we are unique in demonstrating that the stereotypic glomerular convergence of M72-GFP OSN axons in the OB is preserved during aging. We then provide unique evidence of the stability of projection neurons and interneurons subpopulations in the aging mouse OB, arguing against the notion of an age-dependent widespread loss of neurons. Finally, we show ultrastructurally a significant layer-specific loss of synapses; synaptic density is reduced in the glomerular layer but not the external plexiform layer, leading to an imbalance in OB circuitry. These results suggest that reduction of afferent synaptic input and local modulatory circuit synapses in OB glomeruli may contribute to specific age-related alterations of the olfactory function. PMID:20679234

  14. Synaptic Potentiation Facilitates Memory-like Attractor Dynamics in Cultured In Vitro Hippocampal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Conant, Katherine; Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    Collective rhythmic dynamics from neurons is vital for cognitive functions such as memory formation but how neurons self-organize to produce such activity is not well understood. Attractor-based computational models have been successfully implemented as a theoretical framework for memory storage in networks of neurons. Additionally, activity-dependent modification of synaptic transmission is thought to be the physiological basis of learning and memory. The goal of this study is to demonstrate that using a pharmacological treatment that has been shown to increase synaptic strength within in vitro networks of hippocampal neurons follows the dynamical postulates theorized by attractor models. We use a grid of extracellular electrodes to study changes in network activity after this perturbation and show that there is a persistent increase in overall spiking and bursting activity after treatment. This increase in activity appears to recruit more “errant” spikes into bursts. Phase plots indicate a conserved activity pattern suggesting that a synaptic potentiation perturbation to the attractor leaves it unchanged. Lastly, we construct a computational model to demonstrate that these synaptic perturbations can account for the dynamical changes seen within the network. PMID:23526935

  15. CNQX and AMPA inhibit electrical synaptic transmission: a potential interaction between electrical and glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qin; Burrell, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical synapses play an important role in signaling between neurons and the synaptic connections between many neurons possess both electrical and chemical components. Although modulation of electrical synapses is frequently observed, the cellular processes that mediate such changes have not been studied as thoroughly as plasticity in chemical synapses. In the leech (Hirudo sp), the competitive AMPA receptor antagonist CNQX inhibited transmission at the rectifying electrical synapse of a mixed glutamatergic/electrical synaptic connection. This CNQX-mediated inhibition of the electrical synapse was blocked by concanavalin A (Con A) and dynamin inhibitory peptide (DIP), both of which are known to inhibit endocytosis of neurotransmitter receptors. CNQX-mediated inhibition was also blocked by pep2-SVKI (SVKI), a synthetic peptide that prevents internalization of AMPA-type glutamate receptor. AMPA itself also inhibited electrical synaptic transmission and this AMPA-mediated inhibition was partially blocked by Con A, DIP and SVKI. Low frequency stimulation induced long-term depression (LTD) in both the electrical and chemical components of these synapses and this LTD was blocked by SVKI. GYKI 52466, a selective non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, did not affect the electrical EPSP, although it did block the chemical component of these synapses. CNQX did not affect non-rectifying electrical synapses in two different pairs of neurons. These results suggest an interaction between AMPA-type glutamate receptors and the gap junction proteins that mediate electrical synaptic transmission. This putative interaction between glutamate receptors and gap junction proteins represents a novel mechanism for regulating the strength of synaptic transmission. PMID:18601913

  16. PINK1 heterozygous mutations induce subtle alterations in dopamine-dependent synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, G.; Schirinzi, T.; Martella, G.; Latagliata, E.C.; Puglisi, F.; Shen, J.; Valente, E.M.; Federici, M.; Mercuri, N.B.; Puglisi-Allegra, S.; Bonsi, P.; Pisani, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) gene are causative of autosomal recessive, early onset PD. Single heterozygous mutations have been repeatedly detected in a subset of patients as well as in non-affected subjects, and their significance has long been debated. Several neurophysiological studies from non-manifesting PINK1 heterozygotes have shown the existence of neural plasticity abnormalities, indicating the presence of specific endophenotypic traits in the heterozygous state. Methods In the present study, we performed a functional analysis of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in heterozygous PINK1 knock-out (PINK1+/−) mice by a multidisciplinary approach. Results We found that, despite a normal motor behavior, repetitive activation of cortical inputs to striatal neurons failed to induce long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas long-term depression (LTD) was normal. Although nigral dopaminergic neurons exhibited normal morphological and electrophysiological properties with normal responses to dopamine receptor activation, we measured a significantly lower dopamine release in the striatum of PINK1+/−, compared to control mice, suggesting that a decrease in stimulus-evoked dopamine overflow acts as a major determinant for the LTP deficit. Accordingly, pharmacological agents capable of increasing the availability of dopamine in the synaptic cleft restored a normal LTP in heterozygous mice. Moreover, MAO-B inhibitors rescued a physiological LTP and a normal dopamine release. Conclusions Our results provide novel evidence for striatal plasticity abnormalities even in the heterozygous disease state. These alterations might be considered an endophenotype to this monogenic form of PD, and a valid tool to characterize early disease stage and design possible disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24167038

  17. Activity-Dependent Calpain Activation Plays a Critical Role in Synaptic Facilitation and Post-Tetanic Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoutorsky, Arkady; Spira, Micha E.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) are believed to necessitate active regeneration of the release machinery and supply of synaptic vesicles to a ready-releasable site. The prevailing hypothesis assumes that synapsins play pivotal roles in these processes. Using a cholinergic synapse formed between cultured "Aplysia" neurons…

  18. Activity-Dependent Calpain Activation Plays a Critical Role in Synaptic Facilitation and Post-Tetanic Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoutorsky, Arkady; Spira, Micha E.

    2009-01-01

    Synaptic facilitation and post-tetanic potentiation (PTP) are believed to necessitate active regeneration of the release machinery and supply of synaptic vesicles to a ready-releasable site. The prevailing hypothesis assumes that synapsins play pivotal roles in these processes. Using a cholinergic synapse formed between cultured "Aplysia" neurons…

  19. Chronic ciguatoxin treatment induces synaptic scaling through voltage gated sodium channels in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Martín, Víctor; Vale, Carmen; Rubiolo, Juan A; Roel, Maria; Hirama, Masahiro; Yamashita, Shuji; Vieytes, Mercedes R; Botana, Luís M

    2015-06-15

    Ciguatoxins are sodium channels activators that cause ciguatera, one of the most widespread nonbacterial forms of food poisoning, which presents with long-term neurological alterations. In central neurons, chronic perturbations in activity induce homeostatic synaptic mechanisms that adjust the strength of excitatory synapses and modulate glutamate receptor expression in order to stabilize the overall activity. Immediate early genes, such as Arc and Egr1, are induced in response to activity changes and underlie the trafficking of glutamate receptors during neuronal homeostasis. To better understand the long lasting neurological consequences of ciguatera, it is important to establish the role that chronic changes in activity produced by ciguatoxins represent to central neurons. Here, the effect of a 30 min exposure of 10-13 days in vitro (DIV) cortical neurons to the synthetic ciguatoxin CTX 3C on Arc and Egr1 expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction approaches. Since the toxin increased the mRNA levels of both Arc and Egr1, the effect of CTX 3C in NaV channels, membrane potential, firing activity, miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and glutamate receptors expression in cortical neurons after a 24 h exposure was evaluated using electrophysiological and western blot approaches. The data presented here show that CTX 3C induced an upregulation of Arc and Egr1 that was prevented by previous coincubation of the neurons with the NaV channel blocker tetrodotoxin. In addition, chronic CTX 3C caused a concentration-dependent shift in the activation voltage of NaV channels to more negative potentials and produced membrane potential depolarization. Moreover, 24 h treatment of cortical neurons with 5 nM CTX 3C decreased neuronal firing and induced synaptic scaling mechanisms, as evidenced by a decrease in the amplitude of mEPSCs and downregulation in the protein level of glutamate receptors that was also prevented by tetrodotoxin

  20. Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; Song, Xueying; Zhu, Dexiao; Wang, Xiaochen; Hao, Aijun; Nadler, J. Victor; Zhan, Ren-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the potential role of enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) in the development of epilepsy, we quantitatively analyzed the geometry of apical dendrites, synaptic transmission, and activation levels of normotopically distributed mature newborn granule cells in the rat. SE in male Sprague-Dawley rats (between 6 and 7 weeks old) lasting for more than 2 h was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine. The complexity, spine density, miniature post-synaptic currents, and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) expression of granule cells born 5 days after SE were studied between 10 and 17 weeks after CAG-GFP retroviral vector-mediated labeling. Mature granule cells born after SE had dendritic complexity similar to that of granule cells born naturally, but with denser mushroom-like spines in dendritic segments located in the outer molecular layer. Miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) were similar between the controls and rats subjected to SE; however, smaller miniature excitatory post-synaptic current (mEPSC) amplitude with a trend toward less frequent was found in mature granule cells born after SE. After maturation, granule cells born after SE did not show denser Arc expression in the resting condition or 2 h after being activated by pentylenetetrazol-induced transient seizure activity than vicinal GFP-unlabeled granule cells. Thus our results suggest that normotopic granule cells born after pilocarpine-induced SE are no more active when mature than age-matched, naturally born granule cells. PMID:26500490

  1. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  2. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  3. Chelation of hippocampal zinc enhances long-term potentiation and synaptic tagging/capture in CA1 pyramidal neurons of aged rats: implications to aging and memory.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Mahesh Shivarama; Sharma, Mahima; Sajikumar, Sreedharan

    2017-02-01

    Aging is associated with decline in cognitive functions, prominently in the memory consolidation and association capabilities. Hippocampus plays a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of long-term associative memories, and a significant body of evidence shows that impairments in hippocampal function correlate with aging-related memory loss. A number of studies have implicated alterations in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP), in age-related cognitive decline although exact mechanisms underlying are not completely clear. Zinc deficiency and the resultant adverse effects on cognition have been well studied. However, the role of excess of zinc in synaptic plasticity, especially in aging, is not addressed well. Here, we have investigated the hippocampal zinc levels and the impairments in synaptic plasticity, such as LTP and synaptic tagging and capture (STC), in the CA1 region of acute hippocampal slices from 82- to 84-week-old male Wistar rats. We report increased zinc levels in the hippocampus of aged rats and also deficits in the tetani-induced and dopaminergic agonist-induced late-LTP and STC. The observed deficits in synaptic plasticity were restored upon chelation of zinc using a cell-permeable chelator. These data suggest that functional plasticity and associativity can be successfully established in aged neural networks by chelating zinc with cell-permeable chelating agents.

  4. Distinctive PSA-NCAM and NCAM hallmarks in glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy and synaptic disassembly.

    PubMed

    Podestá, María Fernanda; Yam, Patricia; Codagnone, Martín Gabriel; Uccelli, Nonthué Alejandra; Colman, David; Reinés, Analía

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic and synapse remodeling are forms of structural plasticity that play a critical role in normal hippocampal function. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) participate in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation and plasticity. However, it remains unclear whether they contribute to dendritic retraction and synaptic disassembly. Cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to glutamate (5 µM) showed a reduced MAP-2 (+) area in the absence of neuronal death 24 h after the insult. Concomitantly, synapse loss, revealed by decreased synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 cluster number and area, together with changes in NCAM and PSA-NCAM levels were found. Dendritic atrophy and PSA-NCAM reduction proved NMDA-receptor dependent. Live-imaging experiments evidenced dendritic atrophy 4 h after the insult; this effect was preceded by smaller NCAM clusters (1 h) and decreased surface and total PSA-NCAM levels (3 h). Simultaneously, total NCAM cluster number and area remained unchanged. The subsequent synapse disassembly (6 h) was accompanied by reductions in total NCAM cluster number and area. A PSA mimetic peptide prevented both the dendritic atrophy and the subsequent synaptic changes (6 h) but had no effect on the earliest synaptic remodeling (3 h). Thus, NCAM-synaptic reorganization and PSA-NCAM level decrease precede glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy, whereas the NCAM level reduction is a delayed event related to synapse loss. Consequently, distinctive stages in PSA-NCAM/NCAM balance seem to accompany glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy and synapse loss.

  5. Tau Deletion Prevents Stress-Induced Dendritic Atrophy in Prefrontal Cortex: Role of Synaptic Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Sofia; Teplytska, Larysa; Vaz-Silva, Joao; Dioli, Chrysoula; Trindade, Rita; Morais, Monica; Webhofer, Christian; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Almeida, Osborne F X; Turck, Christoph W; Sousa, Nuno; Sotiropoulos, Ioannis; Filiou, Michaela D

    2016-04-12

    Tau protein in dendrites and synapses has been recently implicated in synaptic degeneration and neuronal malfunction. Chronic stress, a well-known inducer of neuronal/synaptic atrophy, triggers hyperphosphorylation of Tau protein and cognitive deficits. However, the cause-effect relationship between these events remains to be established. To test the involvement of Tau in stress-induced impairments of cognition, we investigated the impact of stress on cognitive behavior, neuronal structure, and the synaptic proteome in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of Tau knock-out (Tau-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Whereas exposure to chronic stress resulted in atrophy of apical dendrites and spine loss in PFC neurons as well as significant impairments in working memory in WT mice, such changes were absent in Tau-KO animals. Quantitative proteomic analysis of PFC synaptosomal fractions, combined with transmission electron microscopy analysis, suggested a prominent role for mitochondria in the regulation of the effects of stress. Specifically, chronically stressed animals exhibit Tau-dependent alterations in the levels of proteins involved in mitochondrial transport and oxidative phosphorylation as well as in the synaptic localization of mitochondria in PFC. These findings provide evidence for a causal role of Tau in mediating stress-elicited neuronal atrophy and cognitive impairment and indicate that Tau may exert its effects through synaptic mitochondria.

  6. Chondroitin Sulfate Induces Depression of Synaptic Transmission and Modulation of Neuronal Plasticity in Rat Hippocampal Slices.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, Elisa; Gutierrez-Luengo, Javier; Hernández-Juarez, Natalia; Baraibar, Andrés M; Montell, Eulalia; Vergés, Josep; García, Antonio G; Hernández-Guijo, Jesus M

    2015-01-01

    It is currently known that in CNS the extracellular matrix is involved in synaptic stabilization and limitation of synaptic plasticity. However, it has been reported that the treatment with chondroitinase following injury allows the formation of new synapses and increased plasticity and functional recovery. So, we hypothesize that some components of extracellular matrix may modulate synaptic transmission. To test this hypothesis we evaluated the effects of chondroitin sulphate (CS) on excitatory synaptic transmission, cellular excitability, and neuronal plasticity using extracellular recordings in the CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices. CS caused a reversible depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials in a concentration-dependent manner. CS also reduced the population spike amplitude evoked after orthodromic stimulation but not when the population spikes were antidromically evoked; in this last case a potentiation was observed. CS also enhanced paired-pulse facilitation and long-term potentiation. Our study provides evidence that CS, a major component of the brain perineuronal net and extracellular matrix, has a function beyond the structural one, namely, the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus.

  7. Learning of Precise Spike Times with Homeostatic Membrane Potential Dependent Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Christian; Westkott, Maren; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Precise spatio-temporal patterns of neuronal action potentials underly e.g. sensory representations and control of muscle activities. However, it is not known how the synaptic efficacies in the neuronal networks of the brain adapt such that they can reliably generate spikes at specific points in time. Existing activity-dependent plasticity rules like Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity are agnostic to the goal of learning spike times. On the other hand, the existing formal and supervised learning algorithms perform a temporally precise comparison of projected activity with the target, but there is no known biologically plausible implementation of this comparison. Here, we propose a simple and local unsupervised synaptic plasticity mechanism that is derived from the requirement of a balanced membrane potential. Since the relevant signal for synaptic change is the postsynaptic voltage rather than spike times, we call the plasticity rule Membrane Potential Dependent Plasticity (MPDP). Combining our plasticity mechanism with spike after-hyperpolarization causes a sensitivity of synaptic change to pre- and postsynaptic spike times which can reproduce Hebbian spike timing dependent plasticity for inhibitory synapses as was found in experiments. In addition, the sensitivity of MPDP to the time course of the voltage when generating a spike allows MPDP to distinguish between weak (spurious) and strong (teacher) spikes, which therefore provides a neuronal basis for the comparison of actual and target activity. For spatio-temporal input spike patterns our conceptually simple plasticity rule achieves a surprisingly high storage capacity for spike associations. The sensitivity of the MPDP to the subthreshold membrane potential during training allows robust memory retrieval after learning even in the presence of activity corrupted by noise. We propose that MPDP represents a biophysically plausible mechanism to learn temporal target activity patterns. PMID:26900845

  8. Potentiation of Schaffer-Collateral CA1 Synaptic Transmission by eEF2K and p38 MAPK Mediated Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Weiguang; Chen, Ying; Wang, Man; Zhuang, Yinghan; Behnisch, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), likewise known as CaMKIII, has been demonstrated to be involved in antidepressant responses of NMDA receptor antagonists. Even so, it remains open whether direct inhibition of eEF2K without altering up-stream or other signaling pathways affects hippocampal synaptic transmission and neuronal network synchrony. Inhibition of eEF2K by the selective and potent eEF2K inhibitor A-484954 induced a fast pre-synaptically mediated enhancement of synaptic transmission and synchronization of neural network activity. The eEF2K-inhibition mediated potentiation of synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA1 neurons is most notably independent of protein synthesis and does not rely on protein kinase C, protein kinase A or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2. Moreover, the strengthening of synaptic transmission in the response to the inhibition of eEF2K was strongly attenuated by the inhibition of p38 MAPK. In addition, we show the involvement of barium-sensitive and more specific the TWIK-related potassium-1 (TREK-1) channels in the eEF2K-inhibition mediated potentiation of synaptic transmission. These findings reveal a novel pathway of eEF2K mediated regulation of hippocampal synaptic transmission. Further research is required to study whether such compounds could be beneficial for the development of mood disorder treatments with a fast-acting antidepressant response. PMID:27826228

  9. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  10. Odor-Specific Habituation Arises from Interaction of Afferent Synaptic Adaptation and Intrinsic Synaptic Potentiation in Olfactory Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…

  11. Leptin inhibits 4-aminopyridine- and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in rodents.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Rensing, Nicholas; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hai Xia; Thio, Liu Lin; Rothman, Steven M; Weisenfeld, Aryan E; Wong, Michael; Yamada, Kelvin A

    2008-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptin's anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices but failed to inhibit synaptic responses in slices from leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. JAK2 and PI3K antagonists prevented leptin inhibition of AMPAergic synaptic transmission. We conclude that leptin receptor activation and JAK2/PI3K signaling may be novel targets for anticonvulsant treatments. Intranasal leptin administration may have potential as an acute abortive treatment for convulsive seizures in emergency situations.

  12. Leptin inhibits 4-aminopyridine– and pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures and AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Rensing, Nicholas; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Hai Xia; Thio, Liu Lin; Rothman, Steven M.; Weisenfeld, Aryan E.; Wong, Michael; Yamada, Kelvin A.

    2007-01-01

    Leptin is a hormone that reduces excitability in some hypothalamic neurons via leptin receptor activation of the JAK2 and PI3K intracellular signaling pathways. We hypothesized that leptin receptor activation in other neuronal subtypes would have anticonvulsant activity and that intranasal leptin delivery would be an effective route of administration. We tested leptin’s anticonvulsant action in 2 rodent seizure models by directly injecting it into the cortex or by administering it intranasally. Focal seizures in rats were induced by neocortical injections of 4-aminopyridine, an inhibitor of voltage-gated K+ channels. These seizures were briefer and less frequent upon coinjection of 4-aminopyridine and leptin. In mice, intranasal administration of leptin produced elevated brain and serum leptin levels and delayed the onset of chemical convulsant pentylenetetrazole-induced generalized convulsive seizures. Leptin also reduced neuronal spiking in an in vitro seizure model. Leptin inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole proprionic acid (AMPA) receptor–mediated synaptic transmission in mouse hippocampal slices but failed to inhibit synaptic responses in slices from leptin receptor–deficient db/db mice. JAK2 and PI3K antagonists prevented leptin inhibition of AMPAergic synaptic transmission. We conclude that leptin receptor activation and JAK2/PI3K signaling may be novel targets for anticonvulsant treatments. Intranasal leptin administration may have potential as an acute abortive treatment for convulsive seizures in emergency situations. PMID:18097472

  13. Levetiracetam mitigates doxorubicin-induced DNA and synaptic damage in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Manchon, Jose Felix Moruno; Dabaghian, Yuri; Uzor, Ndidi-Ese; Kesler, Shelli R.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Tsvetkov, Andrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity may occur in cancer patients and survivors during or after chemotherapy. Cognitive deficits associated with neurotoxicity can be subtle or disabling and frequently include disturbances in memory, attention, executive function and processing speed. Searching for pathways altered by anti-cancer treatments in cultured primary neurons, we discovered that doxorubicin, a commonly used anti-neoplastic drug, significantly decreased neuronal survival. The drug promoted the formation of DNA double-strand breaks in primary neurons and reduced synaptic and neurite density. Pretreatment of neurons with levetiracetam, an FDA-approved anti-epileptic drug, enhanced survival of chemotherapy drug-treated neurons, reduced doxorubicin-induced formation of DNA double-strand breaks, and mitigated synaptic and neurite loss. Thus, levetiracetam might be part of a valuable new approach for mitigating synaptic damage and, perhaps, for treating cognitive disturbances in cancer patients and survivors. PMID:27168474

  14. Depotentiation from Potentiated Synaptic Strength in a Tristable System of Coupled Phosphatase and Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mengjiao; Ren, Wei; Wang, Xingang

    2016-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength is strongly implicated in learning and memory. On the other hand, depotentiation, the reversal of synaptic strength from potentiated LTP state to the pre-LTP level, is required in extinction of the obsolete memory. A generic tristable system, which couples the phosphatase and kinase switches, exclusively explains how moderate and high elevation of intracellular calcium concentration triggers long-term depression (LTD) and LTP, respectively. The present study, introducing calcium influx and calcium release from internal store into the tristable system, further show that significant elevation of cytoplasmic calcium concentration switches activation of both kinase and phosphatase to their basal states, thereby depotentiate the synaptic strength. A phase-plane analysis of the combined model was employed to explain the previously reported depotentiation in experiments and predict a threshold-like effect with calcium concentration. The results not only reveal a mechanism of NMDAR- and mGluR-dependent depotentiation, but also predict further experiments about the role of internal calcium store in induction of depotentiation and extinction of established memories. PMID:27807414

  15. Dendritic attenuation of synaptic potentials and currents: the role of passive membrane properties.

    PubMed

    Spruston, N; Jaffe, D B; Johnston, D

    1994-04-01

    The dendritic trees of neurons are structurally and functionally complex integrative units receiving thousands of synaptic inputs that have excitatory and inhibitory, fast and slow, and electrical and biochemical effects. The pattern of activation of these synaptic inputs determines if the neuron will fire an action potential at any given point in time and how it will respond to similar inputs in the future. Two critical factors affect the integrative function of dendrites: the distribution of voltage-gated ion channels in the dendritic tree and the passive electrical properties, or 'electrotonic structure', upon which these active channels are superimposed. The authors review recent data from patch-clamp recordings that provide new estimates of the passive membrane properties of hippocampal neurons, and show, with examples, how these properties affect the shaping and attenuation of synaptic potentials as they propagate in the dendrites, as well as how they affect the measurement of current from synapses located in the dendrites. Voltage-gated channels might influence the measurement of 'passive' membrane properties and, reciprocally, passive membrane properties might affect the activation of voltage-gated channels in dendrites.

  16. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Segundo J; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states.

  17. Synaptic disinhibition during maintenance of long-term potentiation in the CA1 hippocampal subfield.

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, A; Simon, G; Kovacs, G; Rai, R

    1994-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP. Images PMID:8159706

  18. Synaptic Disinhibition During Maintenance of Long-Term Potentiation in the CA1 Hippocampal Subfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelzer, Armin; Simon, Gabor; Kovacs, Gabor; Rai, Rabindra

    1994-04-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is widely believed to occur through a strengthening of efficacy of excitatory synapses between afferent fibers and pyramidal cells. An alternative mechanism of LTP, reduction of efficacy of synaptic inhibition, was examined in the present report. The present study demonstrates that the maintenance of LTP in the CA1 hippocampal subfield of guinea pigs is accompanied by impairment of type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor function, particularly at apical dendritic sites of CA1 pyramidal cells. Enhanced excitability of GABAergic interneurons during LTP represents a strengthening of inhibitory efficacy. The net effect of opposite modifications of synaptic inhibition during LTP of CA1 pyramidal cells is an overall impairment of the strength of GABAergic inhibition, and disinhibition could contribute importantly to CA1 pyramidal cell LTP.

  19. P2Y Receptors in Synaptic Transmission and Plasticity: Therapeutic Potential in Cognitive Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Segundo J.; Gerevich, Zoltan

    2016-01-01

    ATP released from neurons and astrocytes during neuronal activity or under pathophysiological circumstances is able to influence information flow in neuronal circuits by activation of ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptors and subsequent modulation of cellular excitability, synaptic strength, and plasticity. In the present paper we review cellular and network effects of P2Y receptors in the brain. We show that P2Y receptors inhibit the release of neurotransmitters, modulate voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, and differentially influence the induction of synaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. The findings discussed here may explain how P2Y1 receptor activation during brain injury, hypoxia, inflammation, schizophrenia, or Alzheimer's disease leads to an impairment of cognitive processes. Hence, it is suggested that the blockade of P2Y1 receptors may have therapeutic potential against cognitive disturbances in these states. PMID:27069691

  20. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  1. Acetyl-l-carnitine restores synaptic transmission and enhances the inducibility of stable LTP after oxygen-glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Kitti; Frank, Rita; Szabó, József; Knapp, Levente; Kis, Zsolt; Farkas, Tamás; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József

    2016-09-22

    Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion. In the present study, we investigated whether ALC can be protective in an OGD model. We are not aware of any earlier study in which the long-term potentiation (LTP) function on hippocampal slices was measured after OGD. Therefore, we set out to determine whether an effective ALC concentration has an effect on synaptic plasticity after OGD in the hippocampal CA1 subfield of rats. A further aim was to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effect of this compound. The experiments revealed that ALC is neuroprotective against OGD in a dose-dependent manner, which is manifested not only in the regeneration of the impaired synaptic transmission after the OGD, but also in the inducibility and stability of the LTP. In the case of the most effective concentration of ALC (500μM), use of a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002) revealed that the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway has a key role in the restoration of the synaptic transmission and plasticity reached by ALC treatment.

  2. Electrochemical-reaction-induced synaptic plasticity in MoOx-based solid state electrochemical cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chuan-Sen; Shang, Da-Shan; Chai, Yi-Sheng; Yan, Li-Qin; Shen, Bao-Gen; Sun, Young

    2017-02-08

    Solid state electrochemical cells with synaptic functions have important applications in building smart-terminal networks. Here, the essential synaptic functions including potentiation and depression of synaptic weight, transition from short- to long-term plasticity, spike-rate-dependent plasticity, and spike-timing-dependent plasticity behavior were successfully realized in an Ag/MoOx/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) cell with continual resistance switching. The synaptic plasticity underlying these functions was controlled by tuning the excitatory post-synaptic current (EPSC) decay, which is determined by the applied voltage pulse number, width, frequency, and intervals between the pre- and post-spikes. The physical mechanism of the artificial synapse operation is attributed to the interfacial electrochemical reaction processes of the MoOx films with the adsorbed water, where protons generated by water decomposition under an electric field diffused into the MoOx films and intercalated into the lattice, leading to the short- and long-term retention of cell resistance, respectively. These results indicate the possibility of achieving advanced artificial synapses with solid state electrochemical cells and will contribute to the development of smart-terminal networking systems.

  3. 1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium induces synaptic dysfunction through a pathway involving caspase and PKCdelta enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Serulle, Yafell; Morfini, Gerardo; Pigino, Gustavo; Moreira, Jorge E; Sugimori, Mutsuyuki; Brady, Scott T; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2007-02-13

    1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine administration has been used, in various mammalian species, as an experimental model of Parkinson's disease. The pathogenesis for such pharmacologically induced Parkinson's disease involves 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the active metabolite of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. This metabolite produces rapid degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, which causes the parkinsonian syndrome. In this work, we show that injection of MPP+ into the presynaptic terminal of the squid giant synapse blocks synaptic transmission without affecting the presynaptic action potential or the presynaptic calcium currents. These effects of MPP+ were mimicked by the injection of an active form of caspase-3 and prevented by inhibitors of caspase-3 and protein kinase C delta. Ultrastructurally, MPP+-injected synapses showed a dramatic reduction in the number of neurotransmitter vesicles at the presynaptic active zone, as compared with control synapses. Otherwise, normal docking and clathrin-coated vesicles were observed, albeit at much reduced numbers. These results indicate that MPP+ acutely reduces presynaptic vesicular availability, not release, and that MPP+-induced pathogenesis results from presynaptic dysfunction that leads, secondarily, to dying-back neuropathy in affected neurons.

  4. Chronic caffeine treatment prevents sleep deprivation-induced impairment of cognitive function and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Alhaider, Ibrahim A; Aleisa, Abdulaziz M; Tran, Trinh T; Alzoubi, Karem H; Alkadhi, Karim A

    2010-04-01

    This study was undertaken to provide a detailed account of the effect of chronic treatment with a small dose of caffeine on the deleterious effects of sleep loss on brain function in rats. We investigated the effects of chronic (4 weeks) caffeine treatment (0.3 g/L in drinking water) on memory impairment in acutely (24 h) sleep-deprived adult male Wistar rats. Sleep deprivation was induced using the modified multiple platform model. The effects of caffeine on sleep deprivation-induced hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficits were studied by 3 approaches: learning and memory performance in the radial arm water maze task, electrophysiological recording of early long-term potentiation (E-LTP) in area CA1 of the hippocampus, and levels of memory- and synaptic plasticity-related signaling molecules after E-LTP induction. The results showed that chronic caffeine treatment prevented impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning, shortterm memory and E-LTP of area CA1 in the sleep-deprived rats. In correlation, chronic caffeine treatment prevented sleep deprivation-associated decrease in the levels of phosphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (P-CaMKII) during expression of E-LTP. The results suggest that long-term use of a low dose of caffeine prevents impairment of short-term memory and E-LTP in acutely sleep-deprived rats.

  5. Synaptic Input Correlations Leading to Membrane Potential Decorrelation of Spontaneous Activity in Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Alex D.

    2013-01-01

    Correlations in the spiking activity of neurons have been found in many regions of the cortex under multiple experimental conditions and are postulated to have important consequences for neural population coding. While there is a large body of extracellular data reporting correlations of various strengths, the subthreshold events underlying the origin and magnitude of signal-independent correlations (called noise or spike count correlations) are unknown. Here we investigate, using intracellular recordings, how synaptic input correlations from shared presynaptic neurons translate into membrane potential and spike-output correlations. Using a pharmacologically activated thalamocortical slice preparation, we perform simultaneous recordings from pairs of layer IV neurons in the auditory cortex of mice and measure synaptic potentials/currents, membrane potentials, and spiking outputs. We calculate cross-correlations between excitatory and inhibitory inputs to investigate correlations emerging from the network. We furthermore evaluate membrane potential correlations near resting potential to study how excitation and inhibition combine and affect spike-output correlations. We demonstrate directly that excitation is correlated with inhibition thereby partially canceling each other and resulting in weak membrane potential and spiking correlations between neurons. Our data suggest that cortical networks are set up to partially cancel correlations emerging from the connections between neurons. This active decorrelation is achieved because excitation and inhibition closely track each other. Our results suggest that the numerous shared presynaptic inputs do not automatically lead to increased spiking correlations. PMID:24048838

  6. Identification of Kalirin-7 as a Potential Post-Synaptic Density Signaling Hub

    PubMed Central

    Kiraly, Drew D.; Stone, Kathy L.; Colangelo, Chris M.; Abbott, Tom; Wang, Yanping; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A.

    2011-01-01

    Kalirin-7 (Kal7), a multi-functional Rho GDP/GTP exchange factor (GEF) for Rac1 and RhoG, is embedded in the post-synaptic density at excitatory synapses, where it participates in the formation and maintenance of dendritic spines. Kal7 has been implicated in long-term potentiation, fear memories and addiction-like behaviors. Using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy, we identified sites phosphorylated by six PSD-localized kinases implicated in synaptic plasticity and behavior, sites phosphorylated when myc-Kal7 was expressed in non-neuronal cells and sites phosphorylated in mouse brain Kal7. A site in the Sec14p domain phosphorylated by calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A and protein kinase C, was phosphorylated in mouse brain, but not in non-neuronal cells. Phosphorylation in the spectrin-like repeat region was more extensive in mouse brain than in non-neuronal cells, with a total of 20 sites identified. Sites in the pleckstrin homology domain and in the linker region connecting the GEF domain to the PDZ binding motif were heavily phosphorylated in both non-neuronal cells and in mouse brain and affected GEF activity. We postulate that the kinase convergence and divergence observed in Kal7 identify it as a key player in integration of the multiple inputs that regulate synaptic structure and function. PMID:21488700

  7. A potential role for pro-inflammatory cytokines in regulating synaptic plasticity in major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khairova, Rushaniya A.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Du, Jing; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of data suggests that hyperactivation of the immune system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Several pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) have been found to be significantly increased in patients with MDD. This review focuses on these two cytokines based on multiple lines of evidence from genetic, animal behaviour, and clinical studies showing that altered levels of serum TNF-α and IL-1 are associated with increased risk of depression, cognitive impairments, and reduced responsiveness to treatment. In addition, recent findings have shown that centrally expressed TNF-α and IL-1 play a dual role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. In this paper, we review and critically appraise the mechanisms by which cytokines regulate synaptic and neural plasticity, and their implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of MDD. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory-based approaches for treating patients with severe mood disorders. This is a promising field for increasing our understanding of the mechanistic interaction between the immune system, synaptic plasticity, and antidepressants, and for the ultimate development of novel and improved therapeutics for severe mood disorders. PMID:19224657

  8. Sex differences in high-fat diet-induced obesity, metabolic alterations and learning, and synaptic plasticity deficits in mice.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ling-Ling; Wang, Chien-Hua; Li, Tzu-Ling; Chang, Shih-Dar; Lin, Li-Chun; Chen, Ching-Ping; Chen, Chiung-Tong; Liang, Keng-Chen; Ho, Ing-Kang; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Chiou, Lih-Chu

    2010-03-01

    Obesity is a potential risk factor for cognitive deficits in the elder humans. Using a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model, we investigated the impacts of HFD on obesity, metabolic and stress hormones, learning performance, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Both male and female C57BL/6J mice fed with HFD (3 weeks to 9-12 months) gained significantly more weights than the sex-specific control groups. Compared with the obese female mice, the obese males had similar energy intake but developed more weight gains. The obese male mice developed hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, and hyperleptinemia, but not hypertriglyceridemia. The obese females had less hyperinsulinemia and hypercholesterolemia than the obese males, and no hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. In the contextual fear conditioning and step-down passive avoidance tasks, the obese male, but not female, mice showed poorer learning performance than their normal counterparts. These learning deficits were not due to sensorimotor impairment as verified by the open-field and hot-plate tests. Although, basal synaptic transmission characteristics (input-output transfer and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio) were not significantly different between normal and HFD groups, the magnitudes of synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD)) were lower at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampal slices isolated from the obese male, but not female, mice, as compared with their sex-specific controls. Our results suggest that male mice are more vulnerable than the females to the impacts of HFD on weight gains, metabolic alterations and deficits of learning, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

  9. Melatonin attenuates scopolamine-induced memory/synaptic disorder by rescuing EPACs/miR-124/Egr1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Hui; Tan, Lu; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Xin-Ya; Xiong, Yan-Si; Liu, Dan; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Zhu, Ling-Qiang

    2013-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent type of dementia in elderly people. There are decreased melatonin levels in the serum of AD patients, and melatonin supplements are able to reverse AD pathology and memory deficits in many animal experiments and clinical trials. However, the underlying mechanism regarding how melatonin rescues the AD-like memory/synaptic disorder remains unknown. Here, we use the Morris water maze, step-down inhibitory avoidance task, in vivo long-term potentiation recording, and Golgi staining and report that intraperitoneal injection of melatonin (1 mg/kg/day) for 14 days in rats effectively reverses the memory and synaptic impairment in scopolamine-induced amnesia, a well-recognized dementia animal model. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting experiments, we further determined that melatonin rescues the EPACs/miR-124/Egr1 signal pathway, which is important in learning and memory, as reported recently. Our studies provide a novel underlying epigenetic mechanism for melatonin to attenuate the synaptic disorder and could benefit drug discovery in neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Iron Mediates N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptor-dependent Stimulation of Calcium-induced Pathways and Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Pablo; Humeres, Alexis; Elgueta, Claudio; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Núñez, Marco T.

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency hinders hippocampus-dependent learning processes and impairs cognitive performance, but current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique role of iron in neuronal function is sparse. Here, we investigated the participation of iron on calcium signal generation and ERK1/2 stimulation induced by the glutamate agonist N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), and the effects of iron addition/chelation on hippocampal basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). Addition of NMDA to primary hippocampal cultures elicited persistent calcium signals that required functional NMDA receptors and were independent of calcium influx through L-type calcium channels or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors; NMDA also promoted ERK1/2 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. Iron chelation with desferrioxamine or inhibition of ryanodine receptor (RyR)-mediated calcium release with ryanodine-reduced calcium signal duration and prevented NMDA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Iron addition to hippocampal neurons readily increased the intracellular labile iron pool and stimulated reactive oxygen species production; the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine or the hydroxyl radical trapper MCI-186 prevented these responses. Iron addition to primary hippocampal cultures kept in calcium-free medium elicited calcium signals and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation; RyR inhibition abolished these effects. Iron chelation decreased basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices, inhibited iron-induced synaptic stimulation, and impaired sustained LTP in hippocampal CA1 neurons induced by strong stimulation. In contrast, iron addition facilitated sustained LTP induction after suboptimal tetanic stimulation. Together, these results suggest that hippocampal neurons require iron to generate RyR-mediated calcium signals after NMDA receptor stimulation, which in turn promotes ERK1/2 activation, an essential step of sustained LTP. PMID:21296883

  11. Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yepes, M; Wu, F; Torre, E; Cuellar-Giraldo, D; Jia, D; Cheng, L

    2016-04-05

    The release of the serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons plays a central role in the development of synaptic plasticity, adaptation to metabolic stress and neuronal survival. Our earlier studies indicate that by inducing the recruitment of the cytoskeletal protein βII-spectrin and voltage-gated calcium channels to the active zone, tPA promotes Ca(2+)-dependent translocation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the synaptic release site where they release their load of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate whether this effect leads to depletion of SVs in the presynaptic terminal. Our data indicate that tPA promotes SV endocytosis via a mechanism that does not require the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. Instead, we show that tPA induces calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation, which is followed by dynamin I-induced recruitment of the actin-binding protein profilin II to the presynaptic membrane, and profilin II-induced F-actin formation. We report that this tPA-induced sequence of events leads to the association of newly formed SVs with F-actin clusters in the endocytic zone. In summary, the data presented here indicate that following the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters tPA activates the mechanism whereby SVs are retrieved from the presynaptic membrane and endocytosed to replenish the pool of vesicles available for a new cycle of exocytosis. Together, these results indicate that in murine cerebral cortical neurons tPA plays a central role coupling SVs exocytosis and endocytosis.

  12. Distinctive PSA-NCAM and NCAM Hallmarks in Glutamate-Induced Dendritic Atrophy and Synaptic Disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Podestá, María Fernanda; Yam, Patricia; Codagnone, Martín Gabriel; Uccelli, Nonthué Alejandra; Colman, David; Reinés, Analía

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic and synapse remodeling are forms of structural plasticity that play a critical role in normal hippocampal function. Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and its polysialylated form (PSA-NCAM) participate in neurite outgrowth and synapse formation and plasticity. However, it remains unclear whether they contribute to dendritic retraction and synaptic disassembly. Cultured hippocampal neurons exposed to glutamate (5 µM) showed a reduced MAP-2 (+) area in the absence of neuronal death 24 h after the insult. Concomitantly, synapse loss, revealed by decreased synaptophysin and post-synaptic density-95 cluster number and area, together with changes in NCAM and PSA-NCAM levels were found. Dendritic atrophy and PSA-NCAM reduction proved NMDA-receptor dependent. Live-imaging experiments evidenced dendritic atrophy 4 h after the insult; this effect was preceded by smaller NCAM clusters (1 h) and decreased surface and total PSA-NCAM levels (3 h). Simultaneously, total NCAM cluster number and area remained unchanged. The subsequent synapse disassembly (6 h) was accompanied by reductions in total NCAM cluster number and area. A PSA mimetic peptide prevented both the dendritic atrophy and the subsequent synaptic changes (6 h) but had no effect on the earliest synaptic remodeling (3 h). Thus, NCAM-synaptic reorganization and PSA-NCAM level decrease precede glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy, whereas the NCAM level reduction is a delayed event related to synapse loss. Consequently, distinctive stages in PSA-NCAM/NCAM balance seem to accompany glutamate-induced dendritic atrophy and synapse loss. PMID:25279838

  13. Fear Conditioning Potentiates Synaptic Transmission onto Long-Range Projection Neurons in the Lateral Subdivision of Central Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Penzo, Mario A.; Robert, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM+) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM+ CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM. PMID:24523533

  14. Fear conditioning potentiates synaptic transmission onto long-range projection neurons in the lateral subdivision of central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Penzo, Mario A; Robert, Vincent; Li, Bo

    2014-02-12

    Recent studies indicate that the lateral subdivision of the central amygdala (CeL) is essential for fear learning. Specifically, fear conditioning induces cell-type-specific synaptic plasticity in CeL neurons that is required for the storage of fear memories. The CeL also controls fear expression by gating the activity of the medial subdivision of the central amygdala (CeM), the canonical amygdala output to areas that mediate defensive responses. In addition to the connection with CeM, the CeL sends long-range projections to innervate extra-amygdala areas. However, the long-range projection CeL neurons have not been well characterized, and their role in fear regulation is unknown. Here we show in mice that a subset of CeL neurons directly project to the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, two brain areas implicated in defensive behavior. These long-range projection CeL neurons are predominantly somatostatin-positive (SOM(+)) neurons, which can directly inhibit PAG neurons, and some of which innervate both the PAG and paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus. Notably, fear conditioning potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission onto these long-range projection CeL neurons. Thus, our study identifies a subpopulation of SOM(+) CeL neurons that may contribute to fear learning and regulate fear expression independent of CeM.

  15. Early β-Amyloid-induced Synaptic Dysfunction Is Counteracted by Estrogen in Organotypic Hippocampal Cultures.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Sara; Spampinato, Simona Federica; Capani, Francisco; Sortino, Maria Angela

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we set up a model of slow progression of neuronal injury by exposing organotypic hippocampal cultures to a low concentration of Amyloid β (25-35) peptide (Aβ, 2 μM) to analyze the time-related effects of 17-β estradiol (17β-E2, 10 nM). Neuronal death occurs after 7 d and is prevented by addition of 17β-E2 24 h prior to, together with or 48 h after exposure to Aβ. This effect is mimicked by selective ERα agonist PPT (100 nM). Treatment with Aβ leads to early and transient (16-72 h) increase of pre- and post-synaptic proteins synaptophysin and PSD95, followed by a decrease coincident with neuronal death (7d), all prevented by 17β-E2. At 72 h of Aβ exposure, synaptic activity is increased, as by higher levels of glutamate and increased loading and unloading of FM 1-43-labeled synaptic vesicles. All these effects are also prevented by 17β-E2. These data point out beneficial effects of estrogen on early Aβ-induced synaptic disruption.

  16. Particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure season-dependently induces neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Minjun; Li, Ben; Sang, Nan

    2017-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) not only increases the incidence of cardiopulmonary illnesses but also relates to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Considering that PM2.5 is highly heterogeneous with regional disparity and seasonal variation, we investigated whether PM2.5 exposure induced neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries in a season-dependent manner. The results indicated that PM2.5 altered the expression of apoptosis-related proteins (mainly bax and bcl-2), activated caspase-3 and caused neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, PM2.5 decreased the levels of synaptic structural protein postsynaptic density (PSD-95) and synaptic functional protein N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit (NR2B) expression. These effects occurred in a season-dependent manner, and PM2.5 collected from the winter showed the strongest changes. Furthermore, the effect was coupled with the inhibition of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (p-CREB). Based on the findings, we analyzed the correlations between the chemical composition of PM2.5 samples and the biological effects, and confirmed that winter PM2.5 played a major role in causing neuronal apoptosis and synaptic injuries among different season samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Photolysis of postsynaptic caged Ca2+ can potentiate and depress mossy fiber synaptic responses in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yeckel, Mark F; Johnston, Daniel; Zucker, Robert S

    2004-04-01

    The induction of mossy fiber-CA3 long-term potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) has been variously described as being dependent on either pre- or postsynaptic factors. Some of the postsynaptic factors for LTP induction include ephrin-B receptor tyrosine kinases and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i). Ca2+ is also believed to be involved in the induction of the various forms of LTD at this synapse. We used photolysis of caged Ca2+ compounds to test whether a postsynaptic rise in [Ca2+]i is sufficient to induce changes in synaptic transmission at mossy fiber synapses onto rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. We were able to elevate postsynaptic [Ca2+]i to approximately 1 microm for a few seconds in pyramidal cell somata and dendrites. We estimate that CA3 pyramidal neurons have approximately fivefold greater endogenous Ca2+ buffer capacity than CA1 neurons, limiting the rise in [Ca2+]i achievable by photolysis. This [Ca2+]i rise induced either a potentiation or a depression at mossy fiber synapses in different preparations. Neither the potentiation nor the depression was accompanied by consistent changes in paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting that these forms of plasticity may be distinct from synaptically induced LTP and LTD at this synapse. Our results are consistent with a postsynaptic locus for the induction of at least some forms of synaptic plasticity at mossy fiber synapses.

  18. Rapamycin Effectively Impedes Melamine-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Yu, Mei; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Zhuo; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-01

    Our previous investigation demonstrated that autophagy significantly reduced melamine-induced cell death in PC12 cells via inhibiting the excessive generation of ROS. In the present study, we further examine if rapamycin, used as an autophagy activator, can play a significant role in protecting neurons and alleviating the impairment of spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in melamine-treated rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control, melamine-treated, and melamine-treated + rapamycin. The animal model was established by administering melamine at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks. Rapamycin was intraperitoneally given at a dose of 1 mg/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. The Morris water maze test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in melamine-treated rats were considerably damaged, whereas rapamycin significantly impeded the cognitive function impairment. Rapamycin efficiently alleviated the melamine-induced impairments of both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation, which were damaged in melamine rats. Rapamycin further increased the expression level of autophagy markers, which were significantly enhanced in melamine rats. Moreover, rapamycin noticeably decreased the reactive oxygen species level, while the superoxide dismutase activity was remarkably increased by rapamycin in melamine rats. Malondialdehyde assay exhibited that rapamycin prominently reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) level of hippocampal neurons in melamine-treated rats. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased the caspase-3 activity, which was elevated by melamine. Consequently, our results suggest that regulating autophagy may become a new targeted therapy to relieve the damage induced by melamine.

  19. Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels (CaCCs) Regulate Action Potential and Synaptic Response in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wendy C.; Xiao, Shaohua; Huang, Fen; Harfe, Brian D.; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Central neurons respond to synaptic inputs from other neurons by generating synaptic potentials. Once the summated synaptic potentials reach threshold for action potential firing, the signal propagates leading to transmitter release at the synapse. The calcium influx accompanying such signaling opens calcium-activated ion channels for feedback regulation. Here we report a novel mechanism for modulating hippocampal neuronal signaling that involves calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs). We present the first evidence that CaCCs reside in hippocampal neurons and are in close proximity of calcium channels and NMDA receptors to shorten action potential duration, dampen excitatory synaptic potentials, impede temporal summation, and raise the threshold for action potential generation by synaptic potential. Having recently identified TMEM16A and TMEM16B as CaCCs, we further show that TMEM16B but not TMEM16A is important for hippocampal CaCC, laying the groundwork for deciphering the dynamic CaCC modulation of neuronal signaling in neurons important for learning and memory. PMID:22500639

  20. High-Frequency Stimulation-Induced Synaptic Potentiation in Dorsal and Ventral CA1 Hippocampal Synapses: The Involvement of NMDA Receptors, mGluR5, and (L-Type) Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kouvaros, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the ventral hippocampus (VH) for long-lasting long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms underlying its lower ability for shortlasting LTP compared with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) are unknown. Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that…

  1. High-Frequency Stimulation-Induced Synaptic Potentiation in Dorsal and Ventral CA1 Hippocampal Synapses: The Involvement of NMDA Receptors, mGluR5, and (L-Type) Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papatheodoropoulos, Costas; Kouvaros, Stylianos

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the ventral hippocampus (VH) for long-lasting long-term potentiation (LTP) and the mechanisms underlying its lower ability for shortlasting LTP compared with the dorsal hippocampus (DH) are unknown. Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices, we found that…

  2. GLP-1 analogue CJC-1131 prevents amyloid β protein-induced impirments of spatial memory and synaptic plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng-Xiao; Cai, Hong-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Wen; Yuan, Li; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhao-Jun; Li, Yu-Feng; Qi, Jin-Shun

    2017-03-15

    Although amyloid β protein (Aβ) has been recognized as one of the main pathological characteristics in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the effective strategies against Aβ neurotoxicity are still deficient up to now. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a natural gut hormone, was found to be effective in modulating insulin signaling and neural protection, but short half-life limited its clinical application in AD treatment. CJC-1131, a newly designed GLP-1 analogue with very longer half-life, has shown good effectiveness in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, it is unclear whether CJC-1131 could alleviate Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in cognitive behavior and electrophysiological property. The present study investigated the effects of CJC-1131 on the Aβ-induced impairments in spatial memory and synaptic plasticity of rats by using Morris water maze test and in vivo field potential recording. The results showed that Aβ1-42-induced increase in the escape latency of rats in hidden platform test and decrease in swimming time percent in target quadrant were effectively reversed by CJC-1131 pretreatment. Further, CJC-1131 prevented against Aβ1-42-induced suppression of hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP). In addition, Aβ1-42 injection resulted in a significant decrease of p-PKA in the hippocampus, which was effectively prevented by CJC-1131 treatment. These results indicated that CJC-1131 protected the cognitive function and synaptic plasticity of rats against Aβ-induced impairments, suggesting that GLP-1 analogue CJC-1131 might be potentially beneficial to the prevention and treatment of AD, especially those with T2DM or blood glucose abnormality.

  3. Influence of stretch-evoked synaptic potentials on firing probability of cat spinal motoneurones.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; McCrea, D

    1984-02-01

    Shapes of post-synaptic potentials (p.s.p.s) in cat motoneurones were compared with the time course of correlated changes in firing probability during repetitive firing. Excitatory and inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (e.p.s.p.s. and i.p.s.p.s) were evoked by brief triangular stretches of the triceps surae-plantaris muscles. Depolarizing current was injected through the recording micro-electrode to evoke repetitive firing and the post-stimulus time histogram of motoneurone spikes was obtained. E.p.s.p.s (n = 80) of different sizes (30-1040 microV) and rise times (1.1-8.2 ms) were investigated in fifty-nine motoneurones. The majority of the e.p.s.p.s were recorded in triceps surae-plantaris motoneurones with high levels of synaptic noise (estimated peak-to-peak fluctuations of 1.5-3.5 mV). This noise was generated by keeping the triceps surae-plantaris muscles stretched to a near maximal degree. The remaining e.p.s.p.s were recorded in motoneurones to other hind-limb muscles with a low level of synaptic noise. The height of the primary peak of the correlogram with respect to base-line firing rate increased in proportion to both amplitude and rising slope of the e.p.s.p.s. Using normalization procedures or using e.p.s.p.s of constant amplitude but different slopes and vice versa, the relative peak height increased with e.p.s.p. peak derivative with a slope of around 6/mV per millisecond and with e.p.s.p peak amplitude with a slope of about 1/mV. The shape of the correlogram (peak and trough) seemed well described by a linear combination of the shape of the e.p.s.p. derivative and that of the e.p.s.p. itself. The relative e.p.s.p. contribution (e.p.s.p.:e.p.s.p. derivative ratio) varied with e.p.s.p. amplitude and noise level, being largest (mostly 0.25-1.0) for small e.p.s.p.s (100-300 microV) in high levels of synaptic noise and smaller (0-0.25) for larger e.p.s.p.s and for e.p.s.p.s in a low noise background. In conformity with the above finding, a leaky

  4. Synaptic potentiation onto habenula neurons in the learned helplessness model of depression

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.; Schulz, D.; Li, B; Piriz, J.; Mirrione, M.; Chung, C.H.; Proulx, C.D.; Schulz, D.; Henn, F.; Malinow, R.

    2011-02-24

    The cellular basis of depressive disorders is poorly understood. Recent studies in monkeys indicate that neurons in the lateral habenula (LHb), a nucleus that mediates communication between forebrain and midbrain structures, can increase their activity when an animal fails to receive an expected positive reward or receives a stimulus that predicts aversive conditions (that is, disappointment or anticipation of a negative outcome). LHb neurons project to, and modulate, dopamine-rich regions, such as the ventral tegmental area (VTA), that control reward-seeking behaviour and participate in depressive disorders. Here we show that in two learned helplessness models of depression, excitatory synapses onto LHb neurons projecting to the VTA are potentiated. Synaptic potentiation correlates with an animal's helplessness behaviour and is due to an enhanced presynaptic release probability. Depleting transmitter release by repeated electrical stimulation of LHb afferents, using a protocol that can be effective for patients who are depressed, markedly suppresses synaptic drive onto VTA-projecting LHb neurons in brain slices and can significantly reduce learned helplessness behaviour in rats. Our results indicate that increased presynaptic action onto LHb neurons contributes to the rodent learned helplessness model of depression.

  5. Military blast-induced synaptic changes with distinct vulnerability may explain behavioral alterations in the absence of obvious brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Parisian, Catherine M.; Georgevitch, Gregory; Bahr, Ben A.

    2017-01-01

    Sadly many military veterans, who left home to serve their country honorably, return from service with permanent life-changing injuries. It is easy to remember our debt to those who have incurred such visible injuries, and all too easy to forget the invisible wounds that afflict so many of our military servicemen and women. Brain injuries can be invisible during initial medical evaluations and are often caused by military explosives that create blast shockwaves of varying intensity. One of the most common types of traumatic brain injury (TBI) linked to military service is blast-induced neurotrauma. To better understand this type of injury, a recently published study subjected rat brain slice cultures to detonations of RDX military explosives, resulting in reduced levels of specific synaptic markers. Such alterations have in fact been linked to depressive behavior, anxiety, and cognitive rigidity, and the blast-induced synaptic modifications may underlie the behavioral changes in those TBI sufferers who do not exhibit measurable brain damage. This research has the potential to improve diagnoses by identifying indicators of synapse integrity for the assessment of subtle synaptopathogenesis linked to blast-induced neurotrauma. PMID:28824962

  6. Long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of rat CA3 hippocampal neurones induced by kainic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Ari, Y; Gho, M

    1988-01-01

    1. The action of a short bath application of kainic acid (KA, 200-250 nM, 3-5 min) on the CA3 region of rat hippocampal slices has been studied with intracellular and extracellular recording techniques. 2. KA evoked bursts which persisted for 10-15 min. In addition, after KA, electrical stimulation of various inputs to CA3 which elicited an EPSP-IPSP sequence in control conditions evoked an EPSP followed by a burst. This evoked response persisted for several hours after removal of KA suggesting the occurrence of a long-lasting modification of the synaptic properties of CA3 neurones. 3. Intracellular recordings showed the spontaneous and evoked bursts to consist of five to ten action potentials riding on a depolarizing shift 10-25 mV in amplitude and 40-100 ms in duration. Both spontaneous and evoked bursts were followed by a long-lasting hyperpolarization 15-25 mV in amplitude and 1-1.5 s in duration. 4. We propose that both spontaneous and evoked synchronized bursts are generated by a polysynaptic network since: (a) intracellularly recorded bursts were synchronized with the bursts in extracellular field recording; (b) bursts disappeared when synaptic transmission or Na+ action potential were blocked by cobalt (1 mM) or TTX (1 microM) respectively; (c) bursts were suppressed by elevated divalent cation concentration; (d) burst occurrence was independent of the membrane potential of the cell; (e) the depolarization shift that underlies the bursts was a linear function of the membrane potential and reversed in polarity at 0 mV. In addition, the evoked bursts were all-or-none events with a variable latency. 5. Laminar profile analysis of the spontaneous and evoked bursts suggests that they were generated by synapses located on the distal apical segments of the dendrites of CA3 pyramidal cells. 7. The persistence of the evoked bursts was neither due to a persistent change in cell excitability nor to a long-lasting reduction in GABAergic synaptic inhibition. 8. Bath

  7. Maladaptive Synaptic Plasticity in L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Wangming

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) could be due to maladaptive plasticity of corticostriatal synapses in response to L-DOPA treatment. A series of recent studies has revealed that LID is associated with marked morphological plasticity of striatal dendritic spines, particularly cell type-specific structural plasticity of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum. In addition, evidence demonstrating the occurrence of plastic adaptations, including aberrant morphological and functional features, in multiple components of cortico-basal ganglionic circuitry, such as primary motor cortex (M1) and basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei. These adaptations have been implicated in the pathophysiology of LID. Here, we briefly review recent studies that have addressed maladaptive plastic changes within the cortico-BG loop in dyskinetic animal models of PD and patients with PD. PMID:28066191

  8. Seizure induced synaptic plasticity alteration in hippocampus is mediated by IL-1β receptor through PI3K/Akt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Tao; Qin, Yanyu; Mou, Chenzhi; Wang, Min; Jiang, Meng; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Seizures, which result from synchronized aberrant firing of neuronal populations, can cause long-term sequelae, such as epilepsy, cognitive and behavioral issues, in which the synaptic plasticity alteration may play an important role. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is a persistent increase in synaptic strength and is essential for learning and memory. In the present study, we first examined the alteration of cognitive impairments and synaptic plasticity in mice with seizures, then explored the underlying mechanism involving pro-inflammatory factors and PI3K/Akt pathway. The results demonstrated that: (1) PTZ-induced seizure impairs learning and memory in mice, indicated by Morris water maze test; (2) PTZ-induced seizure decreased LTP; (3) the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the hippocampus were increased in mice with seizures; (4) LTP was increased by IL-1β receptor antagonist anakinra, but not inhibitors of IL-6 or TNF-α receptor; (5) Antagonist of IL-1β receptor rescues deficits in learning and memory of mice with seizures through PI3K/Akt pathway. It is concluded that the IL-1β induced by PTZ-induced seizures may impair the synaptic plasticity alteration in hippocampus as well as learning and memory ability by PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. PMID:27830035

  9. Biphasic cholinergic synaptic transmission controls action potential activity in thalamic reticular nucleus neurons.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan-Gang; Pita-Almenar, Juan D; Wu, Chia-Shan; Renger, John J; Uebele, Victor N; Lu, Hui-Chen; Beierlein, Michael

    2013-01-30

    Cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and the brainstem form extensive projections to a number of thalamic nuclei. Activation of cholinergic afferents during distinct behavioral states can regulate neuronal firing, transmitter release at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses, and synchrony in thalamic networks, thereby controlling the flow of sensory information. These effects are thought to be mediated by slow and persistent increases in extracellular ACh levels, resulting in the modulation of populations of thalamic neurons over large temporal and spatial scales. However, the synaptic mechanisms underlying cholinergic signaling in the thalamus are not well understood. Here, we demonstrate highly reliable cholinergic transmission in the mouse thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a brain structure essential for sensory processing, arousal, and attention. We find that ACh release evoked by low-frequency stimulation leads to biphasic excitatory-inhibitory (E-I) postsynaptic responses, mediated by the activation of postsynaptic α4β2 nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs) and M2 muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs), respectively. In addition, ACh can bind to mAChRs expressed near cholinergic release sites, resulting in autoinhibition of release. We show that the activation of postsynaptic nAChRs by transmitter release from only a small number of individual axons is sufficient to trigger action potentials in TRN neurons. Furthermore, short trains of cholinergic synaptic inputs can powerfully entrain ongoing TRN neuronal activity. Our study demonstrates fast and precise synaptic E-I signaling mediated by ACh, suggesting novel computational mechanisms for the cholinergic control of neuronal activity in thalamic circuits.

  10. Regional differences in GABAergic modulation for TEA-induced synaptic plasticity in rat hippocampal CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Etsuko; Okada, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA), a K(+)-channel blocker, reportedly induces long-term potentiation (LTP) of hippocampal CA1 synaptic responses, but at CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG), the characteristics of TEA-induced plasticity and modulation by inhibitory interneurons remain unclear. This study recorded field EPSPs from CA1, CA3 and DG to examine the involvement of GABAergic modulation in TEA-induced synaptic plasticity for each region. In Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses and associational fiber (AF)-CA3 synapses, bath application of TEA-induced LTP in the presence and absence of picrotoxin (PTX), a GABA(A) receptor blocker, whereas TEA-induced LTP at mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses was detected only in the absence of GABA(A) receptor blockers. MF-CA3 LTP showed sensitivity to Ni(2+), but not to nifedipine. In DG, synaptic plasticity was modulated by GABAergic inputs, but characteristics differed between the afferent lateral perforant path (LPP) and medial perforant path (MPP). LPP-DG synapses showed TEA-induced LTP during PTX application, whereas at MPP-DG synapses, TEA-induced long-term depression (LTD) was seen in the absence of PTX. This series of results demonstrates that TEA-induced DG and CA3 plasticity displays afferent specificity and is exposed to GABAergic modulation in an opposite manner.

  11. Cocaine-Induced Changes of Synaptic Transmission in the Striatum are Modulated by Adenosine A2A Receptors and Involve the Tyrosine Phosphatase STEP

    PubMed Central

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine. PMID:23989619

  12. Cocaine-induced changes of synaptic transmission in the striatum are modulated by adenosine A2A receptors and involve the tyrosine phosphatase STEP.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Valentina; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Ferrante, Antonella; Chen, Jiang F; Lombroso, Paul J; Di Stasi, Anna Maria Michela; Popoli, Patrizia; Domenici, Maria Rosaria

    2014-02-01

    The striatum is a brain area implicated in the pharmacological action of drugs of abuse. Adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) are highly expressed in the striatum and mediate, at least in part, cocaine-induced psychomotor effects in vivo. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms implicated in the pharmacological action of cocaine in the striatum and investigated the influence of A2ARs. We found that synaptic transmission was depressed in corticostriatal slices after perfusion with cocaine (10 μM). This effect was reduced by the A2AR antagonist ZM241385 and almost abolished in striatal A2AR-knockout mice (mice lacking A2ARs in striatal neurons, stA2ARKO). The effect of cocaine on synaptic transmission was also prevented by the protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) inhibitor sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4). In synaptosomes prepared from striatal slices, we found that the activity of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) was upregulated by cocaine, prevented by ZM241385, and absent in synaptosomes from stA2ARKO. The role played by STEP in cocaine modulation of synaptic transmission was investigated in whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from medium spiny neurons of the striatum. We found that TAT-STEP, a peptide that renders STEP enzymatically inactive, prevented cocaine-induced reduction in AMPA- and NMDA-mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents, whereas the control peptide, TAT-myc, had no effect. These results demonstrate that striatal A2ARs modulate cocaine-induced synaptic depression in the striatum and highlight the potential role of PTPs and specifically STEP in the effects of cocaine.

  13. Tau oligomers impair memory and induce synaptic and mitochondrial dysfunction in wild-type mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The correlation between neurofibrillary tangles of tau and disease progression in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients remains an area of contention. Innovative data are emerging from biochemical, cell-based and transgenic mouse studies that suggest that tau oligomers, a pre-filament form of tau, may be the most toxic and pathologically significant tau aggregate. Results Here we report that oligomers of recombinant full-length human tau protein are neurotoxic in vivo after subcortical stereotaxic injection into mice. Tau oligomers impaired memory consolidation, whereas tau fibrils and monomers did not. Additionally, tau oligomers induced synaptic dysfunction by reducing the levels of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins synaptophysin and septin-11. Tau oligomers produced mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing the levels of NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (electron transport chain complex I), and activated caspase-9, which is related to the apoptotic mitochondrial pathway. Conclusions This study identifies tau oligomers as an acutely toxic tau species in vivo, and suggests that tau oligomers induce neurodegeneration by affecting mitochondrial and synaptic function, both of which are early hallmarks in AD and other tauopathies. These results open new avenues for neuroprotective intervention strategies of tauopathies by targeting tau oligomers. PMID:21645391

  14. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V.; Hippler, Joerg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krueger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krueger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krueger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mu{beta}hoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA{sup V}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA{sup V} had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA{sup III} strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 25 {mu}mol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 {mu}mol/l (adult rats) and 10 {mu}mol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 {mu}mol/l MMA{sup III} led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at

  15. Effects of monomethylarsonic and monomethylarsonous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of adult and young rats.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Katharina; Straub, Heidrun; Hirner, Alfred V; Hippler, Jörg; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Arsenite and its metabolites, dimethylarsinic or dimethylarsinous acid, have previously been shown to disturb synaptic transmission in hippocampal slices of rats (Krüger, K., Gruner, J., Madeja, M., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2006a. Blockade and enhancement of glutamate receptor responses in Xenopus oocytes by methylated arsenicals. Arch. Toxicol. 80, 492-501, Krüger, K., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2006b. Effects of arsenite on long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices from adult and young rats. Toxicol. Lett. 165, 167-173, Krüger, K., Repges, H., Hippler, J., Hartmann, L.M., Hirner, A.V., Straub, H., Binding, N., Mubetahoff, U., 2007. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 225, 40-46). The present experiments investigate, whether the important arsenic metabolites monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) also influence the synaptic functions of the hippocampus. In hippocampal slices of young (14-21 days-old) and adult (2-4 months-old) rats, evoked synaptic field potentials from the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were measured under control conditions and during and after 30 and 60 min of application of the arsenic compounds. MMA(V) had no effect on the synapse functions neither in slices of adult nor in those from young rats. However, MMA(III) strongly influenced the synaptic transmission: it totally depressed the amplitudes of fEPSPs at concentrations of 50 micromol/l (adult rats) and 25 micromol/l (young rats) and LTP amplitudes at concentrations of 25 micromol/l (adult rats) and 10 micromol/l (young rats), respectively. In contrast, application of 1 micromol/l MMA(III) led to an enhancement of the LTP amplitude in young rats, which is interpretable by an enhancing effect on NMDA receptors and a lack of the blocking effect on AMPA receptors at this concentration (Kr

  16. Taurine-Induced Long-Lasting Enhancement of Synaptic Transmission in Mice: Role of Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Sergeeva, O A; Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Eriksson, K S; Poelchen, W; Mönnighoff, I; Heller-Stilb, B; Warskulat, U; Häussinger, D; Haas, H L

    2003-01-01

    Taurine, a major osmolyte in the brain evokes a long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of synaptic transmission in hippocampal and cortico-striatal slices. Hippocampal LLETAU was abolished by the GABA uptake blocker nipecotic acid (NPA) but not by the taurine-uptake inhibitor guanidinoethyl sulphonate (GES). Striatal LLETAU was sensitive to GES but not to NPA. Semiquantitative PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry revealed that taurine transporter expression is significantly higher in the striatum than in the hippocampus. Taurine transporter-deficient mice displayed very low taurine levels in both structures and a low ability to develop LLETAU in the striatum, but not in the hippocampus. The different mechanisms of taurine-induced synaptic plasticity may reflect the different vulnerabilities of these brain regions under pathological conditions that are accompanied by osmotic changes such as hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:12824447

  17. [Memory and synaptic plasticity].

    PubMed

    Maitre, M

    1996-01-01

    Short term memory traces are probably induced by a sustained and specific functional activation of some sensory and/or motor circuits in brain. These modifications, which could concern a large proportion of the brain but especially the limbic areas, are constituted primarily by ionic mechanisms and second messengers cascades induced by the activation of glutamatergic receptors (namely NMDA). In the invertebrate (Drosophilia melanogaster, aplysia), the role of serotonergic receptors seems to be more important. The activated cAMP-dependent and calcium dependent protein kinases target several proteins which are reversibly phosphorylated modifying the synaptic functions which in turn induce potentiated (PLT) or depressed (DLT) post-synaptic responses. These phenomena are at the basis of specific protein neosynthesis which is initiated by several early genes or trancription factor (cfos, zif 268, jun, CREB). Specific mRNA migrate to the potentiated synapse or dendritic spine where activated polyribosomes synthesize trophic factor, adhesion molecules and synaptic constituents. The building of new synaptic contacts and/or the plastic evolution of existing synapses could explain long-term LTP and long-term memory traces.

  18. Melatonin attenuates hLRRK2-induced sleep disturbances and synaptic dysfunction in a Drosophila model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicui; Ran, Dongzhi; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Huang, Yi; Long, Simei; Liang, Fengyin; Guo, Wenyuan; Nucifora, Frederick C; Gu, Huaiyu; Lu, Xilin; Chen, Ling; Zeng, Jinsheng; Ross, Christopher A; Pei, Zhong

    2016-05-01

    Sleep problems are the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD), and are more difficult to treat than the motor symptoms. In the current study, the role of human leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (hLRRK2), the most common genetic cause of PD, was investigated with regards to sleep problems, and the therapeutic potential of melatonin in hLRRK2‑associated sleep problems was explored in Drosophila. hLRRK2 was selectively expressed in the mushroom bodies (MBs) in Drosophila and sleep patterns were measured using the Drosophila Activity Monitoring System. MB expression of hLRRK2 resulted in sleep problems, presynaptic dysfunction as evidenced by reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) and excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) frequency, and excessive synaptic plasticity such as increased axon bouton density. Treatment with melatonin at 4 mM significantly attenuated the sleep problems and rescued the reduction in mEPSC and EPSP frequency in the hLRRK2 transgenic flies. The present study demonstrates that MB expression of hLRRK2 in flies recapitulates the clinical features of the sleep disturbances in PD, and that melatonin attenuates hLRRK2-induced sleep disorders and synaptic dysfunction, suggesting the therapeutic potential of melatonin in PD patients carrying LRRK2 mutations.

  19. Heterophilic Type II Cadherins Are Required for High-Magnitude Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Basu, Raunak; Duan, Xin; Taylor, Matthew R; Martin, E Anne; Muralidhar, Shruti; Wang, Yueqi; Gangi-Wellman, Luke; Das, Sujan C; Yamagata, Masahito; West, Peter J; Sanes, Joshua R; Williams, Megan E

    2017-09-27

    Hippocampal CA3 neurons form synapses with CA1 neurons in two layers, stratum oriens (SO) and stratum radiatum (SR). Each layer develops unique synaptic properties but molecular mechanisms that mediate these differences are unknown. Here, we show that SO synapses normally have significantly more mushroom spines and higher-magnitude long-term potentiation (LTP) than SR synapses. Further, we discovered that these differences require the Type II classic cadherins, cadherins-6, -9, and -10. Though cadherins typically function via trans-cellular homophilic interactions, our results suggest presynaptic cadherin-9 binds postsynaptic cadherins-6 and -10 to regulate mushroom spine density and high-magnitude LTP in the SO layer. Loss of these cadherins has no effect on the lower-magnitude LTP typically observed in the SR layer, demonstrating that cadherins-6, -9, and -10 are gatekeepers for high-magnitude LTP. Thus, Type II cadherins may uniquely contribute to the specificity and strength of synaptic changes associated with learning and memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Effect of calcium deficiency and addition of calcium antagonists on motoneuron synaptic potentials of isolated Emys orbicularis turtle spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Batueva, I V

    1980-01-01

    In experiments carried out on the isolated spinal cord of the tortoise Emys orbicularis postsynaptic potentials produced in spinal motoneurons by stimulation of the descending tracts and dorsal roots were investigated by means of the intracellular recording technique. Postsynaptic potentials were completely and reversibly blocked in Ca2+-free solutions containing 5.0 mM Mg2+ or 2.0 mM Mn2+. The amplitude and frequency of spontaneous synaptic potentials were also reduced under these conditions. The effect of Ca2+-free medium indicates that the synaptic transmission in these synapses is mediated by chemical mechanism.

  1. Effects of neonatal exposure to the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, aluminum diethylphosphinate or zinc stannate on long-term potentiation and synaptic protein levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Hester S; Koolen, Lucas A E; Dingemans, Milou M L; Viberg, Henrik; Lee, Iwa; Leonards, Pim E G; Ramakers, Geert M J; Westerink, Remco H S

    2015-12-01

    Brominated flame retardants such as tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) may exert (developmental) neurotoxic effects. However, data on (neuro)toxicity of halogen-free flame retardants (HFFRs) are scarce. Recent in vitro studies indicated a high neurotoxic potential for some HFFRs, e.g., zinc stannate (ZS), whereas the neurotoxic potential of other HFFRs, such as aluminum diethylphosphinate (Alpi), appears low. However, the in vivo (neuro)toxicity of these compounds is largely unknown. We therefore investigated effects of neonatal exposure to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on synaptic plasticity in mouse hippocampus. Male C57bl/6 mice received a single oral dose of 211 µmol/kg bw TBBPA, Alpi or ZS on postnatal day (PND) 10. On PND 17-19, effects on hippocampal synaptic plasticity were investigated using ex vivo extracellular field recordings. Additionally, we measured levels of postsynaptic proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as flame retardant concentrations in brain, muscle and liver tissues. All three flame retardants induced minor, but insignificant, effects on LTP. Additionally, TBBPA induced a minor decrease in post-tetanic potentiation. Despite these minor effects, expression of selected synaptic proteins involved in LTP was not affected. The flame retardants could not be measured in significant amounts in the brains, suggesting low bioavailability and/or rapid elimination/metabolism. We therefore conclude that a single neonatal exposure on PND 10 to TBBPA, Alpi or ZS does affect neurodevelopment and synaptic plasticity only to a small extent in mice. Additional data, in particular on persistence, bioaccumulation and (in vivo) toxicity, following prolonged (developmental) exposure are required for further (human) risk assessment.

  2. Subclinical Doses of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Modulators Prevent Alterations in Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Induced by Amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Puga, Karla; Rodríguez-Colorado, Javier; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A; Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2017-02-10

    In addition to coupling cell metabolism and excitability, ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP) are involved in neural function and plasticity. Moreover, alterations in KATP activity and expression have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and during amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced pathology. Thus, we tested whether KATP modulators can influence Aβ-induced deleterious effects on memory, hippocampal network function, and plasticity. We found that treating animals with subclinical doses (those that did not change glycemia) of a KATP blocker (Tolbutamide) or a KATP opener (Diazoxide) differentially restrained Aβ-induced memory deficit, hippocampal network activity inhibition, and long-term synaptic plasticity unbalance (i.e., inhibition of LTP and promotion of LTD). We found that the protective effect of Tolbutamide against Aβ-induced memory deficit was strong and correlated with the reestablishment of synaptic plasticity balance, whereas Diazoxide treatment produced a mild protection against Aβ-induced memory deficit, which was not related to a complete reestablishment of synaptic plasticity balance. Interestingly, treatment with both KATP modulators renders the hippocampus resistant to Aβ-induced inhibition of hippocampal network activity. These findings indicate that KATP are involved in Aβ-induced pathology and they heighten the potential role of KATP modulation as a plausible therapeutic strategy against AD.

  3. Entorhinal denervation induces homeostatic synaptic scaling of excitatory postsynapses of dentate granule cells in mouse organotypic slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Vlachos, Andreas; Becker, Denise; Jedlicka, Peter; Winkels, Raphael; Roeper, Jochen; Deller, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Denervation-induced changes in excitatory synaptic strength were studied following entorhinal deafferentation of hippocampal granule cells in mature (≥ 3 weeks old) mouse organotypic entorhino-hippocampal slice cultures. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings revealed an increase in excitatory synaptic strength in response to denervation during the first week after denervation. By the end of the second week synaptic strength had returned to baseline. Because these adaptations occurred in response to the loss of excitatory afferents, they appeared to be in line with a homeostatic adjustment of excitatory synaptic strength. To test whether denervation-induced changes in synaptic strength exploit similar mechanisms as homeostatic synaptic scaling following pharmacological activity blockade, we treated denervated cultures at 2 days post lesion for 2 days with tetrodotoxin. In these cultures, the effects of denervation and activity blockade were not additive, suggesting that similar mechanisms are involved. Finally, we investigated whether entorhinal denervation, which removes afferents from the distal dendrites of granule cells while leaving the associational afferents to the proximal dendrites of granule cells intact, results in a global or a local up-scaling of granule cell synapses. By using computational modeling and local electrical stimulations in Strontium (Sr(2+))-containing bath solution, we found evidence for a lamina-specific increase in excitatory synaptic strength in the denervated outer molecular layer at 3-4 days post lesion. Taken together, our data show that entorhinal denervation results in homeostatic functional changes of excitatory postsynapses of denervated dentate granule cells in vitro.

  4. Involvement of ryanodine receptors in neurotrophin-induced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Adasme, Tatiana; Haeger, Paola; Paula-Lima, Andrea C.; Espinoza, Italo; Casas-Alarcón, M. Mercedes; Carrasco, M. Angélica; Hidalgo, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    Ryanodine receptors (RyR) amplify activity-dependent calcium influx via calcium-induced calcium release. Calcium signals trigger postsynaptic pathways in hippocampal neurons that underlie synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Recent evidence supports a role of the RyR2 and RyR3 isoforms in these processes. Along with calcium signals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a key signaling molecule for hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Upon binding to specific TrkB receptors, BDNF initiates complex signaling pathways that modify synaptic structure and function. Here, we show that BDNF-induced remodeling of hippocampal dendritic spines required functional RyR. Additionally, incubation with BDNF enhanced the expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ, an atypical protein kinase C isoform with key roles in hippocampal memory consolidation. Consistent with their increased RyR protein content, BDNF-treated neurons generated larger RyR-mediated calcium signals than controls. Selective inhibition of RyR-mediated calcium release with inhibitory ryanodine concentrations prevented the PKMζ, RyR2, and RyR3 protein content enhancement induced by BDNF. Intrahippocampal injection of BDNF or training rats in a spatial memory task enhanced PKMζ, RyR2, RyR3, and BDNF hippocampal protein content, while injection of ryanodine at concentrations that stimulate RyR-mediated calcium release improved spatial memory learning and enhanced memory consolidation. We propose that RyR-generated calcium signals are key features of the complex neuronal plasticity processes induced by BDNF, which include increased expression of RyR2, RyR3, and PKMζ and the spine remodeling required for spatial memory formation. PMID:21282625

  5. Adult-like action potential properties and abundant GABAergic synaptic responses in amygdala neurons from newborn marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisuke; Miyajima, Moeko; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Wada, Keiji; Seki, Kazuhiko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala plays an important role in the processing of emotional events. This information processing is altered by development, but little is known about the development of electrophysiological properties of neurons in the amygdala. We studied the postnatal development of electrophysiological properties of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from BLA pyramidal neurons in brain slices prepared from developing and adult marmosets, and electrophysiological properties known to change during development in rats were analysed. Two passive electrical properties of the neuronal membrane – the input resistance (Rin) and the membrane time constant (τ) – significantly decreased with postnatal development. In contrast, the action potential only showed a slight decrease in duration during the first month of life, whereas the amplitude did not change after birth. Passive electrical properties and action potentials in neurons of 4-week-old marmosets were similar to those in neurons of 4-year-old marmosets. The development of the action potential duration was not correlated with the development of Rin or τ, whereas the development of Rin and τ was correlated with each other. Abundant spontaneous and noradrenaline-induced GABAergic currents were present immediately after birth and did not change during postnatal development. These results suggest that newborn infant marmoset BLA pyramidal neurons possess relatively mature action potentials and receive vigorous GABAergic synaptic inputs, and that they acquire adult-like electrophysiological properties by the fourth week of life. PMID:22966158

  6. FMRP regulates neurotransmitter release and synaptic information transmission by modulating action potential duration via BK channels.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Rotman, Ziv; Blundon, Jay A; Cho, Yongcheol; Cui, Jianmin; Cavalli, Valeria; Zakharenko, Stanislav S; Klyachko, Vitaly A

    2013-02-20

    Loss of FMRP causes fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the physiological functions of FMRP remain highly debatable. Here we show that FMRP regulates neurotransmitter release in CA3 pyramidal neurons by modulating action potential (AP) duration. Loss of FMRP leads to excessive AP broadening during repetitive activity, enhanced presynaptic calcium influx, and elevated neurotransmitter release. The AP broadening defects caused by FMRP loss have a cell-autonomous presynaptic origin and can be acutely rescued in postnatal neurons. These presynaptic actions of FMRP are translation independent and are mediated selectively by BK channels via interaction of FMRP with BK channel's regulatory β4 subunits. Information-theoretical analysis demonstrates that loss of these FMRP functions causes marked dysregulation of synaptic information transmission. FMRP-dependent AP broadening is not limited to the hippocampus, but also occurs in cortical pyramidal neurons. Our results thus suggest major translation-independent presynaptic functions of FMRP that may have important implications for understanding FXS neuropathology.

  7. Spike-timing control by dendritic plateau potentials in the presence of synaptic barrages

    PubMed Central

    Shai, Adam S.; Koch, Christof; Anastassiou, Costas A.

    2014-01-01

    Apical and tuft dendrites of pyramidal neurons support regenerative electrical potentials, giving rise to long-lasting (approximately hundreds of milliseconds) and strong (~50 mV from rest) depolarizations. Such plateau events rely on clustered glutamatergic input, can be mediated by calcium or by NMDA currents, and often generate somatic depolarizations that last for the time course of the dendritic plateau event. We address the computational significance of such single-neuron processing via reduced but biophysically realistic modeling. We introduce a model based on two discrete integration zones, a somatic and a dendritic one, that communicate from the dendritic to the somatic compartment via a long plateau-conductance. We show principled differences in the way dendritic vs. somatic inhibition controls spike timing, and demonstrate how this could implement spike time control in the face of barrages of synaptic inputs. PMID:25177288

  8. Inferring trial-to-trial excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from membrane potential using Gaussian mixture Kalman filtering.

    PubMed

    Lankarany, M; Zhu, W-P; Swamy, M N S; Toyoizumi, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Time-varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs govern activity of neurons and process information in the brain. The importance of trial-to-trial fluctuations of synaptic inputs has recently been investigated in neuroscience. Such fluctuations are ignored in the most conventional techniques because they are removed when trials are averaged during linear regression techniques. Here, we propose a novel recursive algorithm based on Gaussian mixture Kalman filtering (GMKF) for estimating time-varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs from single trials of noisy membrane potential in current clamp recordings. The KF is followed by an expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to infer the statistical parameters (time-varying mean and variance) of the synaptic inputs in a non-parametric manner. As our proposed algorithm is repeated recursively, the inferred parameters of the mixtures are used to initiate the next iteration. Unlike other recent algorithms, our algorithm does not assume an a priori distribution from which the synaptic inputs are generated. Instead, the algorithm recursively estimates such a distribution by fitting a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The performance of the proposed algorithms is compared to a previously proposed PF-based algorithm (Paninski et al., 2012) with several illustrative examples, assuming that the distribution of synaptic input is unknown. If noise is small, the performance of our algorithms is similar to that of the previous one. However, if noise is large, they can significantly outperform the previous proposal. These promising results suggest that our algorithm is a robust and efficient technique for estimating time varying excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances from single trials of membrane potential recordings.

  9. A Dynamical Role for Acetylcholine in Synaptic Renormalization

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Christian G.; Murphy, Geoffrey G.; Zochowski, Michal; Booth, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Although sleep is a fundamental behavior observed in virtually all animal species, its functions remain unclear. One leading proposal, known as the synaptic renormalization hypothesis, suggests that sleep is necessary to counteract a global strengthening of synapses that occurs during wakefulness. Evidence for sleep-dependent synaptic downscaling (or synaptic renormalization) has been observed experimentally, but the physiological mechanisms which generate this phenomenon are unknown. In this study, we propose that changes in neuronal membrane excitability induced by acetylcholine may provide a dynamical mechanism for both wake-dependent synaptic upscaling and sleep-dependent downscaling. We show in silico that cholinergically-induced changes in network firing patterns alter overall network synaptic potentiation when synaptic strengths evolve through spike-timing dependent plasticity mechanisms. Specifically, network synaptic potentiation increases dramatically with high cholinergic concentration and decreases dramatically with low levels of acetylcholine. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is robust across variation of many different network parameters. PMID:23516342

  10. THE EFFECT OF NITRIC OXIDE ON SYNAPTIC VESICLE PROTON GRADIENT AND MITOCHONDRIAL POTENTIAL OF BRAIN NERVE TERMINALS.

    PubMed

    Tarasenko, A S

    2015-01-01

    The effect of nitric oxide on synaptic vesicle proton gradient and membrane potential of rat brain nerve terminals was studied. It has been shown that nitric oxide in the form of S-nitrosothiols at nanomolar concentrations had no effect on the studied parameters, but caused a rapid dissipation of synaptic vesicle proton gradient and depolarization of mitochondrial membrane in the presence of a SH-reducing compound such as dithiothreitol. Both processes were reversible and the rate of H(+)-gradient restoration depended on the redox potential of nerve terminals, namely the molar ratio of reductant/oxidant. This facts, as well as insensitivity of the studied processes to the inhibitor of NO-sensitive guanylate cyclase such as ODQ, allow suggesting that post-translational modification of thiol residues of the mitochondrial and synaptic vesicle proteins underlies the effect of nitric oxide on the key functional parameters ofpresynaptic nerve terminals.

  11. Potentiation and depotentiation of DNQX-sensitive fast excitatory synaptic transmission in telencephalone of the quail chick.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, T; Aoki, K

    1995-02-13

    Whole-cell perforated-patch recording in slices revealed synaptic organization of the intermediate medial hyperstriatum ventrale, a telencephalic region intimately involved in the early learning processes in chicks. Local electrical stimuli elicited excitatory post-synaptic current (EPSC) mediated by monosynaptic activation of glutamate receptors of the non-N-methyl-D-aspartate type, which was followed by a late GABAA-ergic inhibition. The initial EPSC was potentiated at least for 60 min, when a tetanic stimulation (5 Hz x 60 s) was combined with post-synaptic depolarization at or above -30 mV. In some of these neurons, the potentiated responses underwent a subsequent depression when a second tetanus was accompanied by hyperpolarization at -80 mV or below.

  12. Synaptic enhancement induced by gintonin via lysophosphatidic acid receptor activation in central synapses.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoyong; Kim, Sungmin; Rhee, Jeehae; Kim, Hyeon-Joong; Han, Jung-Soo; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Chung, ChiHye

    2015-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is one of the well-characterized, ubiquitous phospholipid molecules. LPA exerts its effect by activating G protein-coupled receptors known as LPA receptors (LPARs). So far, LPAR signaling has been critically implicated during early development stages, including the regulation of synapse formation and the morphology of cortical and hippocampal neurons. In adult brains, LPARs seem to participate in cognitive as well as emotional learning and memory. Recent studies using LPAR1-deficient mice reported impaired performances in a number of behavioral tasks, including the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and fear conditioning tests. Nevertheless, the effect of LPAR activation in the synaptic transmission of central synapses after the completion of embryonic development has not been investigated. In this study, we took advantage of a novel extracellular agonist for LPARs called gintonin to activate LPARs in adult brain systems. Gintonin, a recently identified active ingredient in ginseng, has been shown to activate LPARs and mobilize Ca(2+) in an artificial cell system. We found that the activation of LPARs by application of gintonin acutely enhanced both excitatory and inhibitory transmission in central synapses, albeit through tentatively distinct mechanisms. Gintonin-mediated LPAR activation primarily resulted in synaptic enhancement and an increase in neuronal excitability in a phospholipase C-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that LPARs are able to directly potentiate synaptic transmission in central synapses when stimulated exogenously. Therefore, LPARs could serve as a useful target to modulate synaptic activity under pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Stochastic resonance in Hodgkin-Huxley neuron induced by unreliable synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Guo, Daqing; Li, Chunguang

    2012-09-07

    We systematically investigate the stochastic dynamics of a single Hodgkin-Huxley neuron driven by stochastic excitatory and inhibitory input spikes via unreliable synapses in this paper. Based on the mean-filed theory, a novel intrinsic neuronal noise regulation mechanism stemming from unreliable synapses is presented. Our simulation results show that, under certain conditions, the stochastic resonance phenomenon is able to be induced by the unreliable synaptic transmission, which can be well explained by the theoretical prediction. To a certain degree, the results presented here provide insights into the functional roles of unreliable synapses in neural information processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of 5-HT-induced short-term facilitation at Aplysia sensorimotor synapse during bursts: increased synaptic gain that does not require ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Phares, Gregg A; Byrne, John H

    2005-07-01

    The 5-HT-induced synaptic plasticity of Aplysia sensorimotor synapses has typically been probed by firing a single presynaptic spike. In this study, 5-HT-induced synaptic plasticity was probed with brief bursts of spikes (10 Hz, 1 s), which are more behaviorally relevant stimuli. Because such bursts provide a greater challenge to the release machinery than single spikes, their use may reveal additional aspects of synaptic modulation, and, in particular, the role of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), which has recently been implicated in several examples of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity. Excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were characterized by their amplitudes. In addition, two kinetic measurements, time to peak and decay time constant, were determined for the initial and last EPSCs of each burst. Application of 5-HT produced a uniform increase in gain by facilitating each EPSC elicited during a burst of spikes without affecting the kinetics of the initial or last EPSC. These data suggest that short-term facilitation during a burst is mediated largely by processes such as those that affect the size of the releasable pool or rate of vesicle mobilization rather than by an increase in the duration of the presynaptic action potential. An ERK cascade inhibitor (U0126) had no effect on the 5-HT-mediated facilitation of either the initial EPSC or EPSCs elicited late in the burst.

  15. Synaptic GABAA activation induces Ca2+ rise in pyramidal cells and interneurons from rat neonatal hippocampal slices.

    PubMed Central

    Leinekugel, X; Tseeb, V; Ben-Ari, Y; Bregestovski, P

    1995-01-01

    1. Changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) induced by activation of GABAA receptors (synaptic stimulation or application of the GABAA agonist isoguvacine) were studied on pyramidal cells and interneurons from hippocampal slices of rats from two age groups (postnatal days (P) 2-5 and P12-13) using the fluorescent dye fluo-3 and a confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells were loaded with the dye either intracellularly, using patch pipettes containing fluo-3 in the internal solution, or extracellularly, using pressure pulses applied to an extracellular pipette containing the permeant dye fluo-3 AM. 2. Interneurons and pyramidal cells from P2-5 slices loaded with fluo-3 AM responded by an increase in [Ca2+]i to isoguvacine and to glutamate, in contrast to cells from P12-13 slices which responded to glutamate but not to isoguvacine. 3. The isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bath application of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (20 microM), suggesting the specific involvement of GABAA receptors. The sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX, 1 microM in the bath) did not prevent the isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i. 4. The isoguvacine-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bath application of the calcium channel blocker D600 (50 microM) suggesting the involvement of voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels. 5. Electrical stimulation of afferent fibres induced a transient increase in [Ca2+]i in neonatal pyramidal cells and interneurons (P5) loaded non-invasively with fluo-3 AM. This elevation of [Ca2+]i was reversibly blocked by bicuculline (20 microM) but not by APV (50 microM) and CNQX (10 microM). 6. During simultaneous electrophysiological recording in the current-clamp mode and [Ca2+]i monitoring from P5 pyramidal cells, electrical stimulation of afferent fibres, in the presence of APV (50 microM) and CNQX (10 microM), caused synaptic depolarization accompanied by a few action potentials and a transient increase

  16. Hippocampal chromatin-modifying enzymes are pivotal for scopolamine-induced synaptic plasticity gene expression changes and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Padmanabh; Konar, Arpita; Kumar, Ashish; Srivas, Sweta; Thakur, Mahendra K

    2015-08-01

    The amnesic potential of scopolamine is well manifested through synaptic plasticity gene expression changes and behavioral paradigms of memory impairment. However, the underlying mechanism remains obscure and consequently ideal therapeutic target is lacking. In this context, chromatin-modifying enzymes, which regulate memory gene expression changes, deserve major attention. Therefore, we analyzed the expression of chromatin-modifying enzymes and recovery potential of enzyme modulators in scopolamine-induced amnesia. Scopolamine administration drastically up-regulated DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1) and HDAC2 expression while CREB-binding protein (CBP), DNMT3a and DNMT3b remained unaffected. HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate and DNMT inhibitor Aza-2'deoxycytidine recovered scopolamine-impaired hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation with concomitant increase in the expression of synaptic plasticity genes Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Arc and level of histone H3K9 and H3K14 acetylation and decrease in DNA methylation level. Sodium butyrate showed more pronounced effect than Aza-2'deoxycytidine and their co-administration did not exhibit synergistic effect on gene expression. Taken together, we showed for the first time that scopolamine-induced up-regulation of chromatin-modifying enzymes, HDAC2 and DNMT1, leads to gene expression changes and consequent decline in memory consolidation. Our findings on the action of scopolamine as an epigenetic modulator can pave a path for ideal therapeutic targets. We propose the following putative pathway for scopolamine-mediated memory impairment; scopolamine up-regulates hippocampal DNMT1 and HDAC2 expression, induces methylation and deacetylation of BDNF and Arc promoter, represses gene expression and eventually impairs memory consolidation. On the other hand, Aza-2 and NaB inhibit DNMT1 and HDAC2 respectively, up-regulate BDNF and Arc expression and recover memory consolidation. We elucidate the action of

  17. Archaerhodopsin Voltage Imaging: Synaptic Calcium and BK Channels Stabilize Action Potential Repolarization at the Drosophila Neuromuscular Junction

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The strength and dynamics of synaptic transmission are determined, in part, by the presynaptic action potential (AP) waveform at the nerve terminal. The ion channels that shape the synaptic AP waveform remain essentially unknown for all but a few large synapses amenable to electrophysiological interrogation. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for studying synaptic biology, but it is not amenable to presynaptic electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that Archaerhodopsin can be used to quantitatively image AP waveforms at the Drosophila NMJ without disrupting baseline synaptic transmission or neuromuscular development. It is established that Shaker mutations cause a dramatic increase in neurotransmitter release, suggesting that Shaker is predominantly responsible for AP repolarization. Here we demonstrate that this effect is caused by a concomitant loss of both Shaker and slowpoke (slo) channel activity because of the low extracellular calcium concentrations (0.2–0.5 mm) used typically to assess synaptic transmission in Shaker. In contrast, at physiological extracellular calcium (1.5 mm), the role of Shaker during AP repolarization is limited. We then provide evidence that calcium influx through synaptic CaV2.1 channels and subsequent recruitment of Slo channel activity is important, in concert with Shaker, to ensure proper AP repolarization. Finally, we show that Slo assumes a dominant repolarizing role during repetitive nerve stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Slo effectively compensates for Shaker channel inactivation, stabilizing AP repolarization and limiting neurotransmitter release. Thus, we have defined an essential role for Slo channels during synaptic AP repolarization and have revised our understanding of Shaker channels at this model synapse. PMID:25355206

  18. Archaerhodopsin voltage imaging: synaptic calcium and BK channels stabilize action potential repolarization at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    PubMed

    Ford, Kevin J; Davis, Graeme W

    2014-10-29

    The strength and dynamics of synaptic transmission are determined, in part, by the presynaptic action potential (AP) waveform at the nerve terminal. The ion channels that shape the synaptic AP waveform remain essentially unknown for all but a few large synapses amenable to electrophysiological interrogation. The Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a powerful system for studying synaptic biology, but it is not amenable to presynaptic electrophysiology. Here, we demonstrate that Archaerhodopsin can be used to quantitatively image AP waveforms at the Drosophila NMJ without disrupting baseline synaptic transmission or neuromuscular development. It is established that Shaker mutations cause a dramatic increase in neurotransmitter release, suggesting that Shaker is predominantly responsible for AP repolarization. Here we demonstrate that this effect is caused by a concomitant loss of both Shaker and slowpoke (slo) channel activity because of the low extracellular calcium concentrations (0.2-0.5 mM) used typically to assess synaptic transmission in Shaker. In contrast, at physiological extracellular calcium (1.5 mM), the role of Shaker during AP repolarization is limited. We then provide evidence that calcium influx through synaptic CaV2.1 channels and subsequent recruitment of Slo channel activity is important, in concert with Shaker, to ensure proper AP repolarization. Finally, we show that Slo assumes a dominant repolarizing role during repetitive nerve stimulation. During repetitive stimulation, Slo effectively compensates for Shaker channel inactivation, stabilizing AP repolarization and limiting neurotransmitter release. Thus, we have defined an essential role for Slo channels during synaptic AP repolarization and have revised our understanding of Shaker channels at this model synapse.

  19. Nonlinear Dynamic Modeling of Neuron Action Potential Threshold During Synaptically Driven Broadband Intracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Shane M.; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W.

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent variation of neuronal thresholds for action potential (AP) generation is one of the key determinants of spike-train temporal-pattern transformations from presynaptic to postsynaptic spike trains. In this study, we model the nonlinear dynamics of the threshold variation during synaptically driven broadband intracellular activity. First, membrane potentials of single CA1 pyramidal cells were recorded under physiologically plausible broadband stimulation conditions. Second, a method was developed to measure AP thresholds from the continuous recordings of membrane potentials. It involves measuring the turning points of APs by analyzing the third-order derivatives of the membrane potentials. Four stimulation paradigms with different temporal patterns were applied to validate this method by comparing the measured AP turning points and the actual AP thresholds estimated with varying stimulation intensities. Results show that the AP turning points provide consistent measurement of the AP thresholds, except for a constant offset. It indicates that 1) the variation of AP turning points represents the nonlinearities of threshold dynamics; and 2) an optimization of the constant offset is required to achieve accurate spike prediction. Third, a nonlinear dynamical third-order Volterra model was built to describe the relations between the threshold dynamics and the AP activities. Results show that the model can predict threshold accurately based on the preceding APs. Finally, the dynamic threshold model was integrated into a previously developed single neuron model and resulted in a 33% improvement in spike prediction. PMID:22156947

  20. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations123

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lily M. Y.; Wintzer, Marie E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures. PMID:27022627

  1. CA3 Synaptic Silencing Attenuates Kainic Acid-Induced Seizures and Hippocampal Network Oscillations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lily M Y; Polygalov, Denis; Wintzer, Marie E; Chiang, Ming-Ching; McHugh, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder defined by the presence of seizure activity, manifest both behaviorally and as abnormal activity in neuronal networks. An established model to study the disorder in rodents is the systemic injection of kainic acid, an excitatory neurotoxin that at low doses quickly induces behavioral and electrophysiological seizures. Although the CA3 region of the hippocampus has been suggested to be crucial for kainic acid-induced seizure, because of its strong expression of kainate glutamate receptors and its high degree of recurrent connectivity, the precise role of excitatory transmission in CA3 in the generation of seizure and the accompanying increase in neuronal oscillations remains largely untested. Here we use transgenic mice in which CA3 pyramidal cell synaptic transmission can be inducibly silenced in the adult to demonstrate CA3 excitatory output is required for both the generation of epileptiform oscillatory activity and the progression of behavioral seizures.

  2. Pesticides induce spatial memory deficits with synaptic impairments and an imbalanced tau phosphorylation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ning-Ning; Luo, Dan-Ju; Yao, Xiu-Qing; Yu, Cong; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and epidemiological studies suggest that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanisms are elusive. Here, we studied the effects of pesticide exposure on the cognitive ability and the underlying mechanisms in rats. Deltamethrin and carbofuran were administered respectively into the rats once a day for 28 days by gavage. We found that pesticide exposure induced spatial learning and memory deficits with a simultaneous decrease of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1, synaptophysin, and synapsin I, all of which are memory-related synaptic proteins. Pesticide exposure also induced tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related phosphorylation sites with activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and inhibition of protein phosphatase-2A. Additionally, neuron loss in the hippocampus and cortex was observed upon administration of the pesticides. These results indicate that the pesticides exposure could induce AD-like pathology and cognitive abnormality in rats.

  3. Neuroprotective effects of hypothermia on synaptic actin cytoskeletal changes induced by perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Muñiz, Javier; Romero, Juan; Holubiec, Mariana; Barreto, George; González, Janneth; Saint-Martin, Madeleine; Blanco, Eduardo; Carlos Cavicchia, Juan; Castilla, Rocío; Capani, Francisco

    2014-05-14

    Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia damages synaptic proteins, resulting in cytoskeletal alterations, protein aggregation and neuronal death. In the previous works, we have shown neuronal and synaptic changes in rat neostriatum subjected to hypoxia that leads to ubi-protein accumulation. Recently, we also showed that, changes in F-actin organization could be related to early alterations induced by hypoxia in the Central Nervous System. However, little is known about effective treatment to diminish the damage. The main aim of this work is to study the effects of birth hypothermia on the actin cytoskeleton of neostriatal post-synaptic densities (PSD) in 60 days olds rats by immunohistochemistry, photooxidation and western blot. We used 2 different protocols of hypothermia: (a) intrahypoxic hypothermia at 15°C and (b) post-hypoxia hypothermia at 32°C. Consistent with previous data at 30 days, staining with phalloidin-Alexa(488) followed by confocal microscopy analysis showed an increase of F-actin fluorescent staining in the neostriatum of hypoxic animals. Correlative photooxidation electron microscopy confirmed these observations showing an increment in the number of mushroom-shaped F-actin staining spines in neostriatal excitatory synapses in rats subjected to hypoxia. In addition, western blot revealed β-actin increase in PSDs in hypoxic animals. The optic relative density measurement showed a significant difference between controls and hypoxic animals. When hypoxia was induced under hypothermic conditions, the changes observed in actin cytoskeleton were blocked. Post-hypoxic hypothermia showed similar answer but actin cytoskeleton modifications were not totally reverted as we observed at 15°C. These data suggest that the decrease of the body temperature decreases the actin modifications in dendritic spines preventing the neuronal death. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. (28)Silicon radiation-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus of naïve and cognitively tested mice.

    PubMed

    Raber, Jacob; Rudobeck, Emil; Campbell-Beachler, Mary; Allen, Antiño R; Allen, Barrett; Rosi, Susanna; Nelson, Gregory A; Ramachandran, Shaila; Turner, Jennifer; Fike, John R; Vlkolinsky, Roman

    2014-04-01

    The space radiation environment consists of multiple species of high-energy charge particles (HZE), including (56)Fe and (28)Si nuclei, that may impact neuronal cells, but their damaging effects on the central nervous system (CNS) have been poorly defined. Hippocampus-dependent memory functions have been shown to be highly sensitive to (56)Fe HZE particles, which poses a significant risk to the cognitive performance of astronauts during space missions. While low doses of (56)Fe radiation do not induce cell death of mature neurons, they affect synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region, the principal neuronal output of the hippocampal formation involved in memory formation. The effects of (28)Si on the CNS have not been defined. Compared to behaviorally naïve mice, cognitive testing might affect synaptic plasticity and the effects of (28)Si radiation on synaptic plasticity might be modulated by prior cognitive testing. Therefore, in the current study, we quantified the effects of whole-body (28)Si radiation (600 MeV/n, 0.25 and 1 Gy) on hippocampus-dependent contextual freezing and synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of animals not exposed (behaviorally naïve mice) and animals exposed to the contextual freezing test (cognitively tested mice). In behaviorally naïve mice exposed to 0.25 and 1 Gy of (28)Si radiation, the magnitude of long-term potentiation (LTP) was enhanced. However, in mice irradiated with 0.25 Gy contextual fear conditioning was enhanced and was associated with a further enhancement of the LTP magnitude. Such increase in synaptic plasticity was not seen in cognitively tested mice irradiated with 1 Gy. Thus, low dose (28)Si radiation has effects on synaptic plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and these effects are modulated by cognitive testing in a contextual fear-conditioning test.

  5. Activation of the anti-inflammatory reflex blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in synaptic inhibition in the temporal cortex of the rat.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Peña, David; Housini, Mohammad; Cheng, Derek; Lopez, Diego; Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Saderi, Nadia; Salgado Delgado, Roberto; Galindo Charles, Luis; Salgado Burgos, Humberto; Rose-John, Stefan; Flores, Gonzalo; Kilgard, Michael P; Atzori, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Stress is a potential trigger for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions, including anxiety syndromes and schizophrenic psychoses. The temporal neocortex is a stress-sensitive area involved in the development of such conditions. We have recently shown that aseptic inflammation and mild electric shock shift the balance between synaptic excitation and synaptic inhibition in favor of the former in this brain area (Garcia-Oscos et al., 2012), as well as in the prefrontal cortex (Garcia-Oscos et al., 2014). Given the potential clinical importance of this phenomenon in the etiology of hyperexcitable neuropsychiatric illness, this study investigates whether inactivation of the peripheral immune system by the "anti-inflammatory reflex" would reduce the central response to aseptic inflammation. For a model of aseptic inflammation, this study used i.p. injections of the bacterial toxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 5 µM) and activated the anti-inflammatory reflex either pharmacologically by i.p. injections of the nicotinic α7 receptor agonist PHA543613 or physiologically through electrical stimulation of the left vagal nerve (VNS). Patch-clamp recording was used to monitor synaptic function. Recordings from LPS-injected Sprague Dawley rats show that activation of the anti-inflammatory reflex either pharmacologically or by VNS blocks or greatly reduces the LPS-induced decrease of the synaptic inhibitory-to-excitatory ratio and the saturation level of inhibitory current input-output curves. Given the ample variety of pharmacologically available α7 nicotinic receptor agonists as well as the relative safety of clinical VNS already approved by the FDA for the treatment of epilepsy and depression, our findings suggest a new therapeutic avenue in the treatment of stress-induced hyperexcitable conditions mediated by a decrease in synaptic inhibition in the temporal cortex. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Aminopyridines potentiate synaptic and neuromuscular transmission by targeting the voltage-activated calcium channel beta subunit.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zi-Zhen; Li, De-Pei; Chen, Shao-Rui; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2009-12-25

    Aminopyridines such as 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) are widely used as voltage-activated K(+) (Kv) channel blockers and can improve neuromuscular function in patients with spinal cord injury, myasthenia gravis, or multiple sclerosis. Here, we present novel evidence that 4-AP and several of its analogs directly stimulate high voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels (HVACCs) in acutely dissociated neurons. 4-AP, 4-(aminomethyl)pyridine, 4-(methylamino)pyridine, and 4-di(methylamino)pyridine profoundly increased HVACC, but not T-type, currents in dissociated neurons from the rat dorsal root ganglion, superior cervical ganglion, and hippocampus. The widely used Kv channel blockers, including tetraethylammonium, alpha-dendrotoxin, phrixotoxin-2, and BDS-I, did not mimic or alter the effect of 4-AP on HVACCs. In HEK293 cells expressing various combinations of N-type (Cav2.2) channel subunits, 4-AP potentiated Ca(2+) currents primarily through the intracellular beta(3) subunit. In contrast, 4-AP had no effect on Cav3.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. Furthermore, blocking Kv channels did not mimic or change the potentiating effects of 4-AP on neurotransmitter release from sensory and motor nerve terminals. Thus, our findings challenge the conventional view that 4-AP facilitates synaptic and neuromuscular transmission by blocking Kv channels. Aminopyridines can directly target presynaptic HVACCs to potentiate neurotransmitter release independent of Kv channels.

  7. Synaptic long-term potentiation realized in Pavlov's dog model based on a NiOx-based memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, S. G.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Chen, T. P.; Yu, Q.; Deng, L. J.; Yin, Y.; Hosaka, Sumio

    2014-12-01

    Synaptic Long-Term Potentiation (LTP), which is a long-lasting enhancement in signal transmission between neurons, is widely considered as the major cellular mechanism during learning and memorization. In this work, a NiOx-based memristor is found to be able to emulate the synaptic LTP. Electrical conductance of the memristor is increased by electrical pulse stimulation and then spontaneously decays towards its initial state, which resembles the synaptic LTP. The lasting time of the LTP in the memristor can be estimated with the relaxation equation, which well describes the conductance decay behavior. The LTP effect of the memristor has a dependence on the stimulation parameters, including pulse height, width, interval, and number of pulses. An artificial network consisting of three neurons and two synapses is constructed to demonstrate the associative learning and LTP behavior in extinction of association in Pavlov's dog experiment.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced mitochondrial motility arrest and presynaptic docking contribute to BDNF-enhanced synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Su, Bo; Ji, Yun-Song; Sun, Xu-lu; Liu, Xiang-Hua; Chen, Zhe-Yu

    2014-01-17

    Appropriate mitochondrial transport and distribution are essential for neurons because of the high energy and Ca(2+) buffering requirements at synapses. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in regulating synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, whether and how BDNF can regulate mitochondrial transport and distribution are still unclear. Here, we find that in cultured hippocampal neurons, application of BDNF for 15 min decreased the percentage of moving mitochondria in axons, a process dependent on the activation of the TrkB receptor and its downstream PI3K and phospholipase-Cγ signaling pathways. Moreover, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping requires the activation of transient receptor potential canonical 3 and 6 (TRPC3 and TRPC6) channels and elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. The Ca(2+) sensor Miro1 plays an important role in this process. Finally, the BDNF-induced mitochondrial stopping leads to the accumulation of more mitochondria at presynaptic sites. Mutant Miro1 lacking the ability to bind Ca(2+) prevents BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic accumulation and synaptic transmission, suggesting that Miro1-mediated mitochondrial motility is involved in BDNF-induced mitochondrial presynaptic docking and neurotransmission. Together, these data suggest that mitochondrial transport and distribution play essential roles in BDNF-mediated synaptic transmission.

  9. EPO induces changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of rats.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Melian, William; Mercerón-Martínez, Daymara; Delgado-Ocaña, Susana; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Ledón, Nuris; Bergado, Jorge A

    2016-06-01

    Erythropoietin has shown wide physiological effects on the central nervous system in animal models of disease, and in healthy animals. We have recently shown that systemic EPO administration 15 min, but not 5 h, after daily training in a water maze is able to induce the recovery of spatial memory in fimbria-fornix chronic-lesioned animals, suggesting that acute EPO triggers mechanisms which can modulate the active neural plasticity mechanism involved in spatial memory acquisition in lesioned animals. Additionally, this EPO effect is accompanied by the up-regulation of plasticity-related early genes. More remarkably, this time-dependent effects on learning recovery could signify that EPO in nerve system modulate specific living-cellular processes. In the present article, we focus on the question if EPO could modulate the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity like LTP and LTD, which presumably could support our previous published data. Our results show that acute EPO peripheral administration 15 min before the induction of synaptic plasticity is able to increase the magnitude of the LTP (more prominent in PSA than fEPSP-Slope) to facilitate the induction of LTD, and to protect LTP from depotentiation. These findings showing that EPO modulates in vivo synaptic plasticity sustain the assumption that EPO can act not only as a neuroprotective substance, but is also able to modulate transient neural plasticity mechanisms and therefore to promote the recovery of nerve function after an established chronic brain lesion. According to these results, EPO could be use as a molecular tool for neurorestaurative treatments.

  10. Persistent CaMKII activation mediates learning-induced long-lasting enhancement of synaptic inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sourav; Reuveni, Iris; Lamprecht, Raphael; Barkai, Edi

    2015-01-07

    Training rats in a particularly difficult olfactory-discrimination task results in acquisition of high skill to perform the task superbly, termed "rule learning" or "learning set." Such complex learning results in enhanced intrinsic neuronal excitability of piriform cortex pyramidal neurons, and in their excitatory synaptic interconnections. These changes, while subserving memory maintenance, must be counterbalanced by modifications that prevent overspreading of activity and uncontrolled synaptic strengthening. Indeed, we have previously shown that the average amplitude of GABAA-mediated miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in these neurons is enhanced for several days after learning, an enhancement mediated via a postsynaptic mechanism. To unravel the molecular mechanism of this long-term inhibition enhancement, we tested the role of key second-messenger systems in maintaining such long-lasting modulation. The calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) blocker, KN93, significantly reduced the average mIPSC amplitude in neurons from trained rats only to the average pretraining level. A similar effect was obtained by the CaMKII peptide inhibitor, tatCN21. Such reduction resulted from decreased single-channel conductance and not in the number of activated channels. The PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, reduced the average mIPSC amplitude in neurons from naive, pseudo-trained, and trained animals, and the difference between the trained and control groups remained. Such reduction resulted from a decrease in the number of activated channels. The PKA inhibitor H89 dihydrochloride did not affect the average mIPSC amplitude in neurons from any of the three groups. We conclude that learning-induced enhancement of GABAA-mediated synaptic inhibition is maintained by persistent CaMKII activation.

  11. Back-propagating action potentials in pyramidal neurons: a putative signaling mechanism for the induction of Hebbian synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Colbert, C M

    2001-01-01

    A hallmark of synaptic plasticity is the associative, or Hebbian, nature of its induction. By associative, we mean that the timing relationships between activity of the pre- and postsynaptic elements of a synapse determine whether synaptic strengths are modified. lt is well-established that associativity results, in large part, from the dual requirements for activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-ionophore, namely presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic depolarization. However, the specific dendritic events that provide the postsynaptic depolarization have been relatively unexplored. Increasing evidence suggests that back-propagating (i.e., antidromic) Na(+) action potentials provide the necessary postsynaptic depolarization to allow induction of associative synaptic plasticities. In hippocampal CAI and neocortical layer V pyramidal neurons, these action potentials provide much greater levels of dendritic depolarization than would be expected from synaptic currents alone. Moreover, they provide a relatively brief and synchronous depolarization throughout the dendritic arbor, allowing timing relationships to more directly reflect pre- and postsynaptic cell firing. Interestingly, certain properties of the back-propagating actions potentials differ from axonal or somatic action potentials in ways that seem to reflect their function. For example, the all-or-none property of action potential amplitude does not hold in the dendrites. In this review we discuss the back-propagating action potential as a dendritic signal that provides information to synapses about the firing state of the postsynaptic neuron. First, we consider the evidence that action potentials propagate back from the axon. Second, we describe the characteristics of the back-propagating action potential in terms of interactions of its underlying ionic currents. Third, we describe how these properties contribute to the timing aspects of the induction of long-term potentiation. Finally

  12. Fluoxetine suppresses synaptically induced [Ca²⁺]i spikes and excitotoxicity in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Tae Hyeong; Choi, Se Joon; Hong, Yi Jae; Yang, Ji Seon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Rhie, Duck-Joo; Hahn, Sang June; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2013-01-15

    Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant with an action that is primarily attributed to the inhibition of serotonin re-uptake into the synaptic terminals of the central nervous system. Fluoxetine also has blocking effects on various ion channels, including Ca(2+) channels. It remains unclear, however, how fluoxetine may affect synaptically induced [Ca(2+)](i) spikes. We investigated the effects of fluoxetine on [Ca(2+)](i) spikes, along with the subsequent neurotoxicity that is synaptically evoked by lowering extracellular Mg(2+) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Fluoxetine inhibited the synaptically induced [Ca(2+)](i) spikes in p-chloroamphetamine-treated and non-treated neurons, in a concentration-dependent manner. However, other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, such as paroxetine and citalopram, did not significantly affect the spikes. Pretreatment with fluoxetine for 5 min inhibited [Ca(2+)](i) increases induced by glutamate, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid, and N-methyl-d-aspartate. Fluoxetine also inhibited α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-induced currents. In addition, fluoxetine decreased the [Ca(2+)](i) responses induced by the metabotrophic glutamate receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine or the ryanodine receptor agonist caffeine. Fluoxetine inhibited [Ca(2+)](i) responses induced by 20mM KCl. Fluoxetine decreased the release of FM1-43 induced by electric field stimulation. Furthermore, fluoxetine inhibited 0.1mM [Mg(2+)](o)-induced cell death. Collectively, our results suggest that fluoxetine suppresses the spikes and protects neurons against excitotoxicity, particularly in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, presumably due to both direct inhibition of presynaptic glutamate release and postsynaptic glutamate receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) signaling. In addition to an indirect inhibitory effect via 5-HT levels, these data suggest a new, possibly direct inhibitory action of fluoxetine on

  13. Activity-Dependent p25 Generation Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Aβ-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jinsoo; Giusti-Rodríguez, Paola; Zhou, Ying; Rudenko, Andrii; Cho, Sukhee; Ota, Kristie T.; Park, Christine; Patzke, Holger; Madabhushi, Ram; Pan, Ling; Mungenast, Alison E.; Guan, Ji-Song; Delalle, Ivana; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulates numerous neuronal functions with its activator, p35. Under neurotoxic conditions, p35 undergoes proteolytic cleavage to liberate p25, which has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we show that p25 is generated following neuronal activity under physiological conditions in a GluN2B- and CaMKIIα-dependent manner. Moreover, we developed a knockin mouse model in which endogenous p35 is replaced with a calpain-resistant mutant p35 (Δp35KI) to prevent p25 generation. The Δp35KI mice exhibit impaired long-term depression and defective memory extinction, likely mediated through persistent GluA1 phosphorylation at Ser845. Finally, crossing the Δp35KI mice with the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) resulted in an amelioration of β-amyloid (Aβ)-induced synaptic depression and cognitive impairment. Together, these results reveal a physiological role of p25 production in synaptic plasticity and memory and provide new insights into the function of p25 in Aβ-associated neurotoxicity and AD-like pathology. PMID:24725413

  14. Synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system predicts diet-induced hypothalamic reactive gliosis and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Tamas L.; Sarman, Beatrix; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Enriori, Pablo J.; Sotonyi, Peter; Shanabrough, Marya; Borok, Erzsebet; Argente, Jesus; Chowen, Julie A.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Pfluger, Paul T.; Brönneke, Hella S.; Levin, Barry E.; Diano, Sabrina; Cowley, Michael A.; Tschöp, Matthias H.

    2010-01-01

    The neuronal circuits involved in the regulation of feeding behavior and energy expenditure are soft-wired, reflecting the relative activity of the postsynaptic neuronal system, including the anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells of the arcuate nucleus. We analyzed the synaptic input organization of the melanocortin system in lean rats that were vulnerable (DIO) or resistant (DR) to diet-induced obesity. We found a distinct difference in the quantitative and qualitative synaptology of POMC cells between DIO and DR animals, with a significantly greater number of inhibitory inputs in the POMC neurons in DIO rats compared with DR rats. When exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD), the POMC cells of DIO animals lost synapses, whereas those of DR rats recruited connections. In both DIO rats and mice, the HFD-triggered loss of synapses on POMC neurons was associated with increased glial ensheathment of the POMC perikarya. The altered synaptic organization of HFD-fed animals promoted increased POMC tone and a decrease in the stimulatory connections onto the neighboring neuropeptide Y (NPY) cells. Exposure to HFD was associated with reactive gliosis, and this affected the structure of the blood-brain barrier such that the POMC and NPY cell bodies and dendrites became less accessible to blood vessels. Taken together, these data suggest that consumption of an HFD has a major impact on the cytoarchitecture of the arcuate nucleus in vulnerable subjects, with changes that might be irreversible due to reactive gliosis. PMID:20679202

  15. Intrinsic variability in Pv, RRP size, Ca(2+) channel repertoire, and presynaptic potentiation in individual synaptic boutons.

    PubMed

    Ariel, Pablo; Hoppa, Michael B; Ryan, Timothy A

    2012-01-01

    The strength of individual synaptic contacts is considered a key modulator of information flow across circuits. Presynaptically the strength can be parsed into two key parameters: the size of the readily releasable pool (RRP) and the probability that a vesicle in that pool will undergo exocytosis when an action potential fires (Pv). How these variables are controlled and the degree to which they vary across individual nerve terminals is crucial to understand synaptic plasticity within neural circuits. Here we report robust measurements of these parameters in rat hippocampal neurons and their variability across populations of individual synapses. We explore the diversity of presynaptic Ca(2+) channel repertoires and evaluate their effect on synaptic strength at single boutons. Finally, we study the degree to which synapses can be differentially modified by a known potentiator of presynaptic function, forskolin. Our experiments revealed that both Pv and RRP spanned a large range, even for synapses made by the same axon, demonstrating that presynaptic efficacy is governed locally at the single synapse level. Synapses varied greatly in their dependence on N or P/Q type Ca(2+) channels for neurotransmission, but there was no association between specific channel repertoires and synaptic efficacy. Increasing cAMP concentration using forskolin enhanced synaptic transmission in a Ca(2+)-independent manner that was inversely related with a synapse's initial Pv, and independent of its RRP size. We propose a simple model based on the relationship between Pv and calcium entry that can account for the variable potentiation of synapses based on initial probability of vesicle fusion.

  16. Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K+ on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. The crayfish abdominal extensor muscles are in groupings with some being tonic (slow) and others phasic (fast) in their biochemical and physiological phenotypes, as well as in their structure; the motor neurons that innervate these muscles are correspondingly different in functional characteristics. We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation as well as the influence of neuromodulators on certain aspects of the circuit. With the techniques obtained in this exercise, one can begin to answer many questions remaining in other experimental preparations as well as in physiological applications related to medicine and health. We have demonstrated the usefulness of model invertebrate preparations to address fundamental questions pertinent to all animals. PMID:21304459

  17. FMRP Regulates Neurotransmitter Release and Synaptic Information Transmission by Modulating Action Potential Duration via BK channels

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Pan-Yue; Rotman, Ziv; Blundon, Jay A.; Cho, Yongcheol; Cui, Jianmin; Cavalli, Valeria; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Klyachko, Vitaly A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Loss of FMRP causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), but the physiological functions of FMRP remain highly debatable. Here we show that FMRP regulates neurotransmitter release in CA3 pyramidal neurons by modulating action potential (AP) duration. Loss of FMRP leads to excessive AP broadening during repetitive activity, enhanced presynaptic calcium influx and elevated neurotransmitter release. The AP broadening defects caused by FMRP loss have a cell-autonomous presynaptic origin and can be acutely rescued in postnatal neurons. These presynaptic actions of FMRP are translation-independent and are mediated selectively by BK channels via interaction of FMRP with BK channel’s regulatory β4 subunits. Information-theoretical analysis demonstrates that loss of these FMRP functions causes marked dysregulation of synaptic information transmission. FMRP-dependent AP broadening is not limited to the hippocampus, but also occurs in cortical pyramidal neurons. Our results thus suggest major translation-independent presynaptic functions of FMRP that may have important implications for understanding FXS neuropathology. PMID:23439122

  18. Paired-pulse depression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic potentials in the amygdala.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C C; Gean, P W

    1994-01-01

    1. An in vitro slice preparation of rat amygdala was used to study the paired-pulse depression of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic potential e.p.s.p.NMDA. 2. The e.p.s.p.NMDA was isolated pharmacologically by applying a solution containing the non-NMDA receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and the gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABAA) blocker picrotoxin and increasing the stimulus intensity. 3. When two stimuli of identical strength were applied in close succession, the second e.p.s.p.NMDA was depressed. This paired-pulse depression was seen with interstimulus intervals of between 100 ms and 2000 ms; the maximal depression was observed at interval of 200 ms. 4. Superfusion of phaclofen or 2-hydroxy-saclofen inhibited the paired-pulse depression indicating the involvement of GABAB receptors. 5. Bath applications of Ba2+ or intracellular injection of Cs+ to block post- but not presynaptic GABAB receptors failed to inhibit the paired-pulse depression (PPD). 6. Incubation of slices with pertussis toxin prevented the postsynaptic hyperpolarization induced by baclofen. The PPD of e.p.s.p.NMDA, however, was not affected by pertussis toxin treatment. 7. These results suggest that GABA released by the first stimulus acts on GABAB receptors to suppress the second e.p.s.p.NMDA via mechanisms other than activation of a postsynaptic GABAB receptor-coupled K+ conductance. PMID:7858845

  19. Synthetic Aβ oligomers (Aβ(1-42) globulomer) modulate presynaptic calcium currents: prevention of Aβ-induced synaptic deficits by calcium channel blockers.

    PubMed

    Hermann, David; Mezler, Mario; Müller, Michaela K; Wicke, Karsten; Gross, Gerhard; Draguhn, Andreas; Bruehl, Claus; Nimmrich, Volker

    2013-02-28

    Alzheimer's disease is accompanied by increased brain levels of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers. It has been suggested that oligomers directly impair synaptic function, thereby causing cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease patients. Recently, it has been shown that synthetic Aβ oligomers directly modulate P/Q-type calcium channels, possibly leading to excitotoxic cascades and subsequent synaptic decline. Using whole-cell recordings we studied the modulation of recombinant presynaptic calcium channels in HEK293 cells after application of a stable Aβ oligomer preparation (Aβ1-42 globulomer). Aβ globulomer shifted the half-activation voltage of P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels to more hyperpolarized values (by 11.5 and 7.5 mV). Application of non-aggregated Aβ peptides had no effect. We then analyzed the potential of calcium channel blockers to prevent Aβ globulomer-induced synaptic decline in hippocampal slice cultures. Specific block of P/Q-type or N-type calcium channels with peptide toxins completely reversed Aβ globulomer-induced deficits in glutamatergic neurotransmission. Two state-dependent low molecular weight P/Q-type and N-type calcium channel blockers also protected neurons from Aβ-induced alterations. On the contrary, inhibition of L-type calcium channels failed to reverse the deficit. Our data show that Aβ globulomer directly modulates recombinant P/Q-type and N-type calcium channels in HEK293 cells. Block of presynaptic calcium channels with both state-dependent and state-independent modulators can reverse Aβ-induced functional deficits in synaptic transmission. These findings indicate that presynaptic calcium channel blockers may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  20. Computational identification of potential multitarget treatments for ameliorating the adverse effects of amyloid-β on synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Anastasio, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    The leading hypothesis on Alzheimer Disease (AD) is that it is caused by buildup of the peptide amyloid-β (Aβ), which initially causes dysregulation of synaptic plasticity and eventually causes destruction of synapses and neurons. Pharmacological efforts to limit Aβ buildup have proven ineffective, and this raises the twin challenges of understanding the adverse effects of Aβ on synapses and of suggesting pharmacological means to prevent them. The purpose of this paper is to initiate a computational approach to understanding the dysregulation by Aβ of synaptic plasticity and to offer suggestions whereby combinations of various chemical compounds could be arrayed against it. This data-driven approach confronts the complexity of synaptic plasticity by representing findings from the literature in a course-grained manner, and focuses on understanding the aggregate behavior of many molecular interactions. The same set of interactions is modeled by two different computer programs, each written using a different programming modality: one imperative, the other declarative. Both programs compute the same results over an extensive test battery, providing an essential crosscheck. Then the imperative program is used for the computationally intensive purpose of determining the effects on the model of every combination of ten different compounds, while the declarative program is used to analyze model behavior using temporal logic. Together these two model implementations offer new insights into the mechanisms by which Aβ dysregulates synaptic plasticity and suggest many drug combinations that potentially may reduce or prevent it. PMID:24847263

  1. Glutaminase C overexpression in the brain induces learning deficits, synaptic dysfunctions, and neuroinflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Li, Yuju; Zhao, Runze; Wu, Beiqing; Lanoha, Blaise; Tong, Zenghan; Peer, Justin; Liu, Jianhui; Xiong, Huangui; Huang, Yunlong; Zheng, Jialin

    2017-06-15

    Glutaminolysis, a metabolic process that converts glutamine to glutamate, is particularly important for the central nervous system since glutamate is the major transmitter of excitatory synapses. Glutaminase is the mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the first step of glutaminolysis. Two genes encode at least four isoforms of glutaminase in humans. Gls1 gene encodes isoforms kidney-type glutaminase (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) through alternative splicing, whereas Gls2 gene encodes liver-type glutaminase isoforms. KGA and GAC have been associated with several neurological diseases. However, it remains unclear whether changes in their expressions can directly cause brain abnormalities. Using a transgenic approach, we generated mice that overexpressed GAC in the brain. The resulting transgenic mice had severe impairments in spatial and fear learning compared with littermate controls. The learning deficits were consistent with diminished hippocampal long-term potentiation in the hippocampal slices of the GAC transgenic mice. Furthermore, we found increases in astrocyte and microglia markers, inflammatory factors, and a decrease in synapse marker synaptophysin, suggesting neuroinflammation and synaptic changes in the GAC transgenic mouse brains. In conclusion, these findings provide the first evidence that GAC overexpression in the brain has deleterious effects on learning and synaptic integrity in vivo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Sleep-Dependent Potentiation in the Visual System Is at Odds with the Synaptic Homeostasis Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Durkin, Jaclyn; Aton, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    Two commentaries recently published in SLEEP came to very different conclusions regarding how data from a mouse model of sleep-dependent neural plasticity (orientation-specific response potentiation; OSRP) fit with the synaptic homeostasis hypothesis (SHY). To assess whether SHY offers an explanatory mechanism for OSRP, we present new data on how cortical neuron firing rates are modulated as a function of novel sensory experience and subsequent sleep in this model system. We carried out longitudinal extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity in the primary visual cortex across a period of novel visual experience and subsequent sleep or sleep deprivation. Spontaneous neuronal firing rates and visual responses were recorded from the same population of visual cortex neurons before control (blank screen) or novel (oriented grating) stimulus presentation, immediately after stimulus presentation, and after a period of subsequent ad lib sleep or sleep deprivation. Firing rate responses to visual stimuli were unchanged across waking experience, regardless of whether a blank screen or an oriented grating stimulus was presented. Firing rate responses to stimuli of the presented stimulus orientation were selectively enhanced across post-stimulus sleep, but these changes were blocked by sleep deprivation. Neuronal firing increased significantly across bouts of post-stimulus rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS), but not across bouts of wake. The current data suggest that following novel visual experience, potentiation of a subset of V1 synapses occurs across periods of sleep. This finding cannot be explained parsimoniously by SHY. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. Mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 reduce mutant huntingtin-induced mitochondrial toxicity and synaptic damage in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiangling; Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of the mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 in striatal neurons that stably express mutant huntingtin (Htt) (STHDhQ111/Q111) in Huntington's disease (HD). We studied mitochondrial and synaptic activities by measuring mRNA and the protein levels of mitochondrial and synaptic genes, mitochondrial function, and ultra-structural changes in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons relative to untreated mutant Htt neurons. We used gene expression analysis, biochemical methods, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and confocal microscopy methods. In the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons, fission genes Drp1 and Fis1 were down-regulated, and fusion genes Mfn1, Mfn2 and Opa1 were up-regulated relative to untreated neurons, suggesting that mitochondria-targeted molecules reduce fission activity. Interestingly, the mitochondrial biogenesis genes PGC1α, PGC1β, Nrf1, Nrf2 and TFAM were up-regulated in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. The synaptic genes synaptophysin and PSD95 were up-regulated, and mitochondrial function was normal in the MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. Immunoblotting findings of mitochondrial and synaptic proteins agreed with the mRNA findings. TEM studies revealed decreased numbers of structurally intact mitochondria in MitoQ- and SS31-treated mutant Htt neurons. These findings suggest that mitochondria-targeted molecules MitoQ and SS31 are protective against mutant Htt-induced mitochondrial and synaptic damage in HD neurons, and these mitochondria-targeted molecules are potential therapeutic molecules for the treatment of HD neurons.

  4. Propofol prevents electroconvulsive-shock-induced memory impairment through regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity in a rat model of depression

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Min, Su; Wei, Ke; Cao, Jun; Wang, Bin; Li, Ping; Dong, Jun; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Background Although a rapid and efficient psychiatric treatment, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) induces memory impairment. Modified ECT requires anesthesia for safety purposes. Although traditionally found to exert amnesic effects in general anesthesia, which is an inherent part of modified ECT, some anesthetics have been found to protect against ECT-induced cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the effects of propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) on memory in depressed rats undergoing electroconvulsive shock (ECS), the analog of ECT in animals, under anesthesia as well as its mechanisms. Methods Chronic unpredictable mild stresses were adopted to reproduce depression in a rodent model. Rats underwent ECS (or sham ECS) with anesthesia with propofol or normal saline. Behavior was assessed in sucrose preference, open field and Morris water maze tests. Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was measured using electrophysiological techniques. PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB protein expression was assayed with Western blotting. Results Depression induced memory damage, and downregulated LTP, PSD-95, CREB, and p-CREB; these effects were exacerbated in depressed rats by ECS; propofol did not reverse the depression-induced changes, but when administered in modified ECS, propofol improved memory and reversed the downregulation of LTP and the proteins. Conclusion These findings suggest that propofol prevents ECS-induced memory impairment, and modified ECS under anesthesia with propofol improves memory in depressed rats, possibly by reversing the excessive changes in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. These observations provide a novel insight into potential targets for optimizing the clinical use of ECT for psychiatric disorders. PMID:25285008

  5. A Novel Egr-1-Agrin Pathway and Potential Implications for Regulation of Synaptic Physiology and Homeostasis at the Neuromuscular Junction.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Ryen; Barbat-Artigas, Sebastien; Cho, Chulmin; Peng, Huashan; Shang, Jijun; Moustaine, Ayman; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Robitaille, Richard; Chalifour, Lorraine E; Paudel, Hemant

    2017-01-01

    evidence for the potential involvement of a novel Egr-1-agrin pathway in synaptic homeostatic and compensatory mechanisms at the NMJ. Synaptic homeostasis is greatly affected by the process of aging. These and other data suggest that changes in Egr-1 expression may directly or indirectly promote age-related pathologies.

  6. Modulation of neurosteroid potentiation by protein kinases at synaptic- and extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Joanna M.; Thomas, Philip; Smart, Trevor G.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors are important for inhibition in the CNS where neurosteroids and protein kinases are potent endogenous modulators. Acting individually, these can either enhance or depress receptor function, dependent upon the type of neurosteroid or kinase and the receptor subunit combination. However, in vivo, these modulators probably act in concert to fine-tune GABAA receptor activity and thus inhibition, although how this is achieved remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between these modulators at synaptic-type α1β3γ2L and extrasynaptic-type α4β3δ GABAA receptors using electrophysiology. For α1β3γ2L, potentiation of GABA responses by tetrahydro-deoxycorticosterone was reduced after inhibiting protein kinase C, and enhanced following its activation, suggesting this kinase regulates neurosteroid modulation. In comparison, neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at α1β3S408A,S409Aγ2L receptors, and unaltered by PKC inhibitors or activators, indicating that phosphorylation of β3 subunits is important for regulating neurosteroid activity. To determine whether extrasynaptic-type GABAA receptors were similarly modulated, α4β3δ and α4β3S408A,S409Aδ receptors were investigated. Neurosteroid potentiation was reduced at both receptors by the kinase inhibitor staurosporine. By contrast, neurosteroid-mediated potentiation at α4S443Aβ3S408A,S409Aδ receptors was unaffected by protein kinase inhibition, strongly suggesting that phosphorylation of α4 and β3 subunits is required for regulating neurosteroid activity at extrasynaptic receptors. Western blot analyses revealed that neurosteroids increased phosphorylation of β3S408,S409 implying that a reciprocal pathway exists for neurosteroids to modulate phosphorylation of GABAA receptors. Overall, these findings provide important insight into the regulation of GABAA receptors in vivo, and into the mechanisms by which GABAergic inhibitory transmission may be simultaneously tuned by

  7. Theta-frequency synaptic potentiation in CA1 in vitro distinguishes cognitively impaired from unimpaired aged Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tombaugh, Geoffrey C; Rowe, Wayne B; Chow, Ana R; Michael, Timothy H; Rose, Gregory M

    2002-11-15

    Hippocampal-dependent learning and memory deficits have been well documented in aging rodents. The results of several recent studies have suggested that these deficits arise from weakened synaptic plasticity within the hippocampus. In the present study, we examined the relationship between hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and spatial learning in aged (24-26 months) Fischer 344 rats. We found that LTP induced in the CA1 region using theta-frequency stimulation (5 Hz) is selectively impaired in slices from a subpopulation of aged rats that had shown poor spatial learning in the Morris water maze. LTP at 5 Hz in aged rats that did not show learning deficits was similar to that seen in young (4-6 months) controls. We also found that 5 Hz LTP amplitude strongly correlated with individual learning performance among aged rats. The difference in 5 Hz LTP magnitude among aged rats was not attributable to an altered response to 5 Hz stimulation or to differences in the NMDA receptor-mediated field EPSP. In addition, no performance-related differences in LTP were seen when LTP was induced with 30 or 70 Hz stimulation protocols. Finally, both 5 Hz LTP and spatial learning in learning-impaired rats were enhanced with the selective muscarinic M2 antagonist BIBN-99 (5,11-dihydro-8-chloro-11-[[4-[3-[(2,2-dimethyl-1-oxopentyl)ethylamino]propyl]-1-piperidinyl]acetyl]-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepin-6-one). These findings reinforce the idea that distinct types of hippocampal LTP offer mechanistic insight into age-associated cognitive decline.

  8. Determining the True Polarity and Amplitude of Synaptic Currents Underlying Gamma Oscillations of Local Field Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Valeri A.; Herreras, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate afferent from

  9. Determining the true polarity and amplitude of synaptic currents underlying gamma oscillations of local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate afferent from

  10. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    PubMed Central

    van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2015-01-01

    Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behavior, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioral symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodeling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:25653591

  11. Cholesterol supports the retinoic acid-induced synaptic vesicle formation in differentiating human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkanen, Jertta-Riina; Nykky, Jonna; Siikanen, Jutta; Selinummi, Jyrki; Ylikomi, Timo; Jalonen, Tuula O

    2007-09-01

    Synaptic vesicle formation, vesicle activation and exo/endocytosis in the pre-synaptic area are central steps in neuronal communication. The formation and localization of synaptic vesicles in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, differentiated with 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) and cholesterol, was studied by fluorescence microscopy and immunocytochemical methods. RA alone or together with cholesterol, produced significant neurite extension and formation of cell-to-cell contacts. Synaptic vesicle formation was followed by anti-synaptophysin (SypI) and AM1-43 staining. SypI was only weakly detected, mainly in cell somata, before 7 days in vitro, after which it was found in neurites. Depolarization of the differentiated cells with high potassium solution increased the number of fluorescent puncta, as well as SypI and AM1-43 co-localization. In addition to increase in the number of synaptic vesicles, RA and cholesterol also increased the number and distribution of lysosome-associated membrane protein 2 labeled lysosomes. RA-induced Golgi apparatus fragmentation was partly avoided by co-treatment with cholesterol. The SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line, differentiated by RA and cholesterol and with good viability in culture, is a valuable tool for basic studies of neuronal metabolism, specifically as a model for dopaminergic neurons.

  12. Modulation of serotonergic transmission by eltoprazine in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia: Behavioral, molecular, and synaptic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ghiglieri, Veronica; Mineo, Desiree; Vannelli, Anna; Cacace, Fabrizio; Mancini, Maria; Pendolino, Valentina; Napolitano, Francesco; di Maio, Anna; Mellone, Manuela; Stanic, Jennifer; Tronci, Elisabetta; Fidalgo, Camino; Stancampiano, Roberto; Carta, Manolo; Calabresi, Paolo; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Usiello, Alessandro; Picconi, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the main side effect of Parkinson's Disease (PD) therapy. Among the various pharmacological targets for novel therapeutic approaches, the serotonergic system represents a promising one. In experimental models of PD and in PD patients the development of abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) and LIDs, respectively, is accompanied by the impairment of bidirectional synaptic plasticity in key structures such as striatum. Recently, it has been shown that the 5-HT1A/1B receptor agonist, eltoprazine, significantly decreased LIDs in experimental PD and human patients. Despite the fact that several papers have tested this and other serotonergic drugs, nothing is known about the electrophysiological consequences on this combined serotonin receptors modulation at striatal neurons. The present study demonstrates that activation of 5-HT1A/1B receptors reduces AIMs via the restoration of Long-Term Potentiation (LTP) and synaptic depotentiation in a sub-set of striatal spiny projection neurons (SPNs). This recovery is associated with the normalization of D1 receptor-dependent cAMP/PKA and ERK/mTORC signaling pathways, and the recovery of NMDA receptor subunits balance, indicating these events as key elements in AIMs induction. Moreover, we analyzed whether the manipulation of the serotonergic system might affect motor behavior and cognitive performances. We found that a defect in locomotor activity in parkinsonian and L-DOPA-treated rats was reversed by eltoprazine treatment. Conversely, the impairment in the striatal-dependent learning was found exacerbated in L-DOPA-treated rats and eltoprazine failed to recover it.

  13. Impaired contextual fear extinction and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult rats induced by prenatal morphine exposure.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ji-Wei; Duan, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Ding, Ze-Yang; Jing, Liang; Cao, Jun; Wang, Li-Ping; Mao, Rong-Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-07-01

    Prenatal opiate exposure causes a series of neurobehavioral disturbances by affecting brain development. However, the question of whether prenatal opiate exposure increases vulnerability to memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adult offspring remains largely unknown. Here, we found that rats prenatally exposed to morphine (PM) showed impaired acquisition but enhanced maintenance of contextual fear memory compared with control animals that were prenatally exposed to saline (PS). The impairment of acquisition was rescued by increasing the intensity of footshocks (1.2 mA rather than 0.8 mA). Meanwhile, we also found that PM rats exhibited impaired extinction of contextual fear, which is associated with enhanced maintenance of fear memory. The impaired extinction lasted for 1 week following extinction training. Furthermore, PM rats exhibited reduced anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze and light/dark box test without differences in locomotor activity. These alterations in PM rats were mirrored by abnormalities in synaptic plasticity in the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses of the hippocampus in vivo. PS rats showed blocked long-term potentiation and enabled long-term depression in CA1 synapses following contextual fear conditioning, while prenatal morphine exposure restricted synaptic plasticity in CA1 synapses. The smaller long-term potentiation in PM rats was not further blocked by contextual fear conditioning, and the long-term depression enabled by contextual fear conditioning was abolished. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence suggesting that prenatal morphine exposure may increase vulnerability to fear memory-related neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood.

  14. Spaceflight-induced synaptic modifications within hair cells of the mammalian utricle.

    PubMed

    Sultemeier, David R; Choy, Kristel R; Schweizer, Felix E; Hoffman, Larry F

    2017-02-22

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography. To achieve systematic and broader sampling of the epithelium than previously conducted we used immunohistochemistry and volumetric image analyses to quantify synapse distributions across representative utricular regions in specimens from mice exposed to spaceflight (a 15-day mission of the space shuttle Discovery). These measures were compared to similarly-sampled Earth-bound controls. Following paraformaldehyde fixation and microdissection, immunohistochemistry was performed on intact specimens to label presynaptic ribbons (anti-CtBP2) and postsynaptic receptor complexes (anti-Shank1A). Synapses were identified as closely-apposed pre- and postsynaptic puncta. Epithelia from horizontal semicircular canal cristae served as 'within specimen' controls, while utricles and cristae from Earth-bound cohorts served as experimental controls. We found that synapse densities decreased in the medial extrastriolae of Microgravity specimens compared to experimental Controls, while they were unchanged in the striolae and horizontal cristae from the two conditions. These data demonstrate that structural plasticity was topographically localized to the utricular region that encodes very low frequency and static changes in linear acceleration, and illuminates the remarkable capabilities of utricular hair cells for synaptic plasticity in adapting to novel gravitational environments.

  15. Longitudinal testing of hippocampal plasticity reveals the onset and maintenance of endogenous human Aß-induced synaptic dysfunction in individual freely behaving pre-plaque transgenic rats: rapid reversal by anti-Aß agents.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yingjie; Klyubin, Igor; Harney, Sarah C; Hu, NengWei; Cullen, William K; Grant, Marianne K; Steffen, Julia; Wilson, Edward N; Do Carmo, Sonia; Remy, Stefan; Fuhrmann, Martin; Ashe, Karen H; Cuello, A Claudio; Rowan, Michael J

    2014-12-24

    Long before synaptic loss occurs in Alzheimer's disease significant harbingers of disease may be detected at the functional level. Here we examined if synaptic long-term potentiation is selectively disrupted prior to extracellular deposition of Aß in a very complete model of Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis, the McGill-R-Thy1-APP transgenic rat. Longitudinal studies in freely behaving animals revealed an age-dependent, relatively rapid-onset and persistent inhibition of long-term potentiation without a change in baseline synaptic transmission in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Thus the ability of a standard 200 Hz conditioning protocol to induce significant NMDA receptor-dependent short- and long-term potentiation was lost at about 3.5 months of age and this deficit persisted for at least another 2-3 months, when plaques start to appear. Consistent with in vitro evidence for a causal role of a selective reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents, the deficit in synaptic plasticity in vivo was associated with a reduction in the synaptic burst response to the conditioning stimulation and was overcome using stronger 400 Hz stimulation. Moreover, intracerebroventricular treatment for 3 days with an N-terminally directed monoclonal anti- human Aß antibody, McSA1, transiently reversed the impairment of synaptic plasticity. Similar brief treatment with the BACE1 inhibitor LY2886721 or the γ-secretase inhibitor MRK-560 was found to have a comparable short-lived ameliorative effect when tracked in individual rats. These findings provide strong evidence that endogenously generated human Aß selectively disrupts the induction of long-term potentiation in a manner that enables potential therapeutic options to be assessed longitudinally at the pre-plaque stage of Alzheimer's disease amyloidosis.

  16. Selective cholinergic depletion in medial septum leads to impaired long term potentiation and glutamatergic synaptic currents in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kanju, Patrick M; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Uthayathas, Subramaniam; Josephson, Eleanor M; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Dhanasekaran, Muralikrishnan; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic depletion in the medial septum (MS) is associated with impaired hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Here we investigated whether long term potentiation (LTP) and synaptic currents, mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the CA1 hippocampal region, are affected following cholinergic lesions of the MS. Stereotaxic intra-medioseptal infusions of a selective immunotoxin, 192-saporin, against cholinergic neurons or sterile saline were made in adult rats. Four days after infusions, hippocampal slices were made and LTP, whole cell, and single channel (AMPA or NMDA receptor) currents were recorded. Results demonstrated impairment in the induction and expression of LTP in lesioned rats. Lesioned rats also showed decreases in synaptic currents from CA1 pyramidal cells and synaptosomal single channels of AMPA and NMDA receptors. Our results suggest that MS cholinergic afferents modulate LTP and glutamatergic currents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, providing a potential synaptic mechanism for the learning and memory deficits observed in the rodent model of selective MS cholinergic lesioning.

  17. Cholinergic receptor activation induces a relative facilitation of synaptic responses in the entorhinal cortex during theta- and gamma-frequency stimulation of parasubicular inputs.

    PubMed

    Sparks, D W; Chapman, C A

    2013-01-29

    The parasubiculum sends its single major output to layer II of the entorhinal cortex, and it may therefore interact with inputs to the entorhinal cortex from other cortical areas, and help to shape the activity of layer II entorhinal cells that project to the hippocampal formation. Cholinergic inputs are thought to contribute to the generation of theta- and gamma-frequency activities in the parasubiculum and entorhinal cortex, and the present study assessed how cholinergic receptor activation affects synaptic responses of the entorhinal cortex to theta- and gamma-frequency stimulation. Depth profiles of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in acute brain slices showed a short-latency negative fEPSP in layer II, consistent with the activation of excitatory synaptic inputs to layer II. Application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh) suppressed synaptic responses and enhanced paired-pulse facilitation. CCh also resulted in a marked relative facilitation of synaptic responses evoked during short 5-pulse trains of stimulation at both theta- and gamma-frequencies. Application of the M(1) antagonist pirenzepine, but not the M(2) antagonist methoctramine, blocked the facilitation of responses. Inhibition of the M-current or block of GABA(B) receptors had no effect, but the facilitation effect was partially blocked by the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist APV, indicating that NMDA receptors play a role. Application of ZD7288, a selective inhibitor of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current I(h), almost completely blocked the relative facilitation of responses, and the less potent I(h)-blocker Cs(+) also resulted in a partial block. The relative facilitation of synaptic responses induced by CCh is therefore likely mediated by multiple mechanisms including the cholinergic suppression of transmitter release that enhances transmitter availability during repetitive stimulation, NMDA receptor-mediated effects on pre- or postsynaptic function, and

  18. Vitamins C and E reverse melamine-induced deficits in spatial cognition and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in rats.

    PubMed

    An, Lei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-09-01

    Albeit the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment after exposure to melamine has not been fully elucidated, factors such as oxidative stress is thought to play potential roles. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treatment with vitamin C (150mg/kg) and vitamin E (200mg/kg) on the impairment induced by melamine. Three-week-old male Wistar rats were submitted to oral gavage with 300mg/kg melamine in 1% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) for 28 days (MEL-SAL group). After treatment with melamine, animals received administration of a combination of vitamin C and vitamin E once a day for 7 days (MEL-VIT group). Both control (CT-SAL) group and pair-fed (CT-VIT) group received the same dosage of CMC and vitamin complex, respectively. Melamine-treated rats presented a marked decrease in learning and memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) as well as a reduced efficiency to find the platform in the reversal learning task. The rats treated with vitamins E and C had part of the above effects rescued in MWM tests, with mitigating the melamine-induced deficit in the learning and memory but slightly improving the reversal learning ability. The vitamins C plus E regimen mitigated melamine-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. It showed that the modulation of oxidative stress with vitamins E and C reduced melamine-induced damage. The data suggested that there was a novel therapeutic strategy to the cognitive dysfunction observed in melamine-induced neuropathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Synaptic GluN2B/CaMKII-α Signaling Induces Synapto-Nuclear Transport of ERK and Jacob

    PubMed Central

    Melgarejo da Rosa, Michelle; Yuanxiang, PingAn; Brambilla, Riccardo; Kreutz, Michael R.; Karpova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    A central pathway in synaptic plasticity couples N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-receptor (NMDAR)-signaling to the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) cascade. ERK-dependency has been demonstrated for several forms of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory and includes local synaptic processes but also long-distance signaling to the nucleus. It is, however, controversial how NMDAR signals are connected to ERK activation in dendritic spines and nuclear import of ERK. The synapto-nuclear messenger Jacob couples NMDAR-dependent Ca2+-signaling to CREB-mediated gene expression. Protein transport of Jacob from synapse to nucleus essentially requires activation of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Subsequent phosphorylation and binding of ERK1/2 to and ERK-dependent phosphorylation of serine 180 in Jacob encodes synaptic but not extrasynaptic NMDAR activation. In this study we show that stimulation of synaptic NMDAR in hippocampal primary neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in acute slices results in GluN2B-dependent activation of CaMKII-α and subsequent nuclear import of active ERK and serine 180 phosphorylated Jacob. On the contrary, no evidence was found that either GluN2A-containing NMDAR or RasGRF2 are upstream of ERK activation and nuclear import of Jacob and ERK. PMID:27559307

  20. NMDA receptor dysfunction contributes to impaired brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission in a Tau transgenic model.

    PubMed

    Burnouf, Sylvie; Martire, Alberto; Derisbourg, Maxime; Laurent, Cyril; Belarbi, Karim; Leboucher, Antoine; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco J; Troquier, Laetitia; Eddarkaoui, Sabiha; Grosjean, Marie-Eve; Demeyer, Dominique; Muhr-Tailleux, Anne; Buisson, Alain; Sergeant, Nicolas; Hamdane, Malika; Humez, Sandrine; Popoli, Patrizia; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2013-02-01

    While the spatiotemporal development of Tau pathology has been correlated with occurrence of cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's patients, mechanisms underlying these deficits remain unclear. Both brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB play a critical role in hippocampus-dependent synaptic plasticity and memory. When applied on hippocampal slices, BDNF is able to enhance AMPA receptor-dependent hippocampal basal synaptic transmission through a mechanism involving TrkB and N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Using THY-Tau22 transgenic mice, we demonstrated that hippocampal Tau pathology is associated with loss of synaptic enhancement normally induced by exogenous BDNF. This defective response was concomitant to significant memory impairments. We show here that loss of BDNF response was due to impaired NMDAR function. Indeed, we observed a significant reduction of NMDA-induced field excitatory postsynaptic potential depression in the hippocampus of Tau mice together with a reduced phosphorylation of NR2B at the Y1472, known to be critical for NMDAR function. Interestingly, we found that both NR2B and Src, one of the NR2B main kinases, interact with Tau and are mislocalized to the insoluble protein fraction rich in pathological Tau species. Defective response to BDNF was thus likely related to abnormal interaction of Src and NR2B with Tau in THY-Tau22 animals. These are the first data demonstrating a relationship between Tau pathology and synaptic effects of BDNF and supporting a contribution of defective BDNF response and impaired NMDAR function to the cognitive deficits associated with Tauopathies.

  1. Changes in synaptic effectiveness of myelinated joint afferents during capsaicin-induced inflammation of the footpad in the anesthetized cat.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Hernández, E

    2008-05-01

    The present series of experiments was designed to examine, in the anesthetized cat, the extent to which the synaptic efficacy of knee joint afferents is modified during the state of central sensitization produced by the injection of capsaicin into the hindlimb plantar cushion. We found that the intradermic injection of capsaicin increased the N2 and N3 components of the focal potentials produced by stimulation of intermediate and high threshold myelinated fibers in the posterior articular nerve (PAN), respectively. This facilitation lasted several hours, had about the same time course as the paw inflammation and was more evident for the N2 and N3 potentials recorded within the intermediate zone in the L6 than in the L7 spinal segments. The capsaicin-induced facilitation of the N2 focal potentials, which are assumed to be generated by activation of fibers signaling joint position, suggests that nociception may affect the processing of proprioceptive and somato-sensory information and, probably also, movement. In addition, the increased effectiveness of these afferents could activate, besides neurons in the intermediate region, neurons located in the more superficial layers of the dorsal horn. As a consequence, normal joint movements could produce pain representing a secondary hyperalgesia. The capsaicin-induced increased efficacy of the PAN afferents producing the N3 focal potentials, together with the reduced post-activation depression that follows high frequency autogenetic stimulation of these afferents, could further contribute to the pain sensation from non-inflamed joints during skin inflammation in humans. The persistence, after capsaicin, of the inhibitory effects produced by stimulation of cutaneous nerves innervating non-inflamed skin regions may account for the reported reduction of the articular pain sensations produced by trans-cutaneous stimulation.

  2. Postsynaptic SDC2 induces transsynaptic signaling via FGF22 for bidirectional synaptic formation

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hsiao-Tang; Umemori, Hisashi; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Functional synapse formation requires tight coordination between pre- and post-synaptic termini. Previous studies have shown that postsynaptic expression of heparan sulfate proteoglycan syndecan-2 (SDC2) induces dendritic spinogenesis. Those SDC2-induced dendritic spines are frequently associated with presynaptic termini. However, how postsynaptic SDC2 accelerates maturation of corresponding presynaptic termini is unknown. Because fibroblast growth factor 22 (FGF22), a heparan sulfate binding growth factor, has been shown to act as a presynaptic organizer released from the postsynaptic site, it seems possible that postsynaptic SDC2 presents FGF22 to the presynaptic FGF receptor to promote presynaptic differentiation. Here, we show that postsynaptic SDC2 uses its ectodomain to interact with and facilitate dendritic filopodial targeting of FGF22, triggering presynaptic maturation. Since SDC2 also enhances filopodial targeting of NMDAR via interaction with the CASK-mLIN7-MINT1 adaptor complex, presynaptic maturation promoted by FGF22 further feeds back to activate NMDAR at corresponding postsynaptic sites through increased neurotransmitter release and, consequently, promotes the dendritic filopodia-spines (F-S) transition. Meanwhile, via regulation of the KIF17 motor, CaMKII (activated by the NMDAR pathway) may further facilitate FGF22 targeting to dendritic filopodia that receive presynaptic stimulation. Our study suggests a positive feedback that promotes the coordination of postsynaptic and presynaptic differentiation. PMID:27627962

  3. Persistent ERK Activation Maintains Learning-Induced Long-Lasting Modulation of Synaptic Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Matsliah, Sivan Ida; Seroussi, Yaron; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2008-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination (OD) trained rats undergo synaptic modifications that last for days after learning. A particularly intriguing modification is reduced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the synapses interconnecting these cells; a phenomenon thought to reflect enhanced synaptic release. The…

  4. Persistent ERK Activation Maintains Learning-Induced Long-Lasting Modulation of Synaptic Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Matsliah, Sivan Ida; Seroussi, Yaron; Rosenblum, Kobi; Barkai, Edi

    2008-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons in the piriform cortex from olfactory-discrimination (OD) trained rats undergo synaptic modifications that last for days after learning. A particularly intriguing modification is reduced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) in the synapses interconnecting these cells; a phenomenon thought to reflect enhanced synaptic release. The…

  5. Experimental hypothyroidism delays field excitatory post-synaptic potentials and disrupts hippocampal long-term potentiation in the dentate gyrus of hippocampal formation and Y-maze performance in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Artis, A S; Bitiktas, S; Taşkın, E; Dolu, N; Liman, N; Suer, C

    2012-03-01

    Manipulations of thyroid hormones have been shown to influence learning and memory. Although a large body of literature is available on the effect of thyroid hormone deficiency on learning and memory functions during the developmental stage, electrophysiological and behavioural findings, particularly on propylthiouracil administration to adult normothyroid animals, are not satisfactory. The experiments in the present study were carried out on 12 adult male Wistar rats aged 6-7 months. Hypothyroidism was induced by administering 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil in their drinking water for 21 days at a concentration of 0.05%. The spatial learning performance of hypothyroid and control rats was studied on a Y-maze. The rats were then placed in a stereotaxic frame under urethane anaesthesia. A bipolar tungsten electrode was used to stimulate the medial perforant path. A glass micropipette was inserted into the granule cell layer of the ipsilateral dentate gyrus to record field excitatory post-synaptic potentials. After a 15-min baseline recording of field potentials, long-term potentiation was induced by four sets of tetanic trains. The propylthiouracil-treated rats showed a significantly attenuated input-output (I/O) relationship when population spike (PS) amplitudes and field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSP) were compared. fEPSP and PS latencies were found to be longer in the hypothyroid group than in the control group. The PS amplitude and fEPSP slope potentiations in the hypothyroid rats were not statistically different from those in the control rats, except for the field EPSP slope measured in the post-tetanic and maintenance phases. The hypothyroid rats also showed lower thyroxine levels and poor performance in the spatial memory task. The present study provides in vivo evidence for the action of propylthiouracil leading to impaired synaptic plasticity, which might explain deficit in spatial memory tasks in adult hypothyroid rats.

  6. Protective effects of a natural product, curcumin, against amyloid β induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, Xiangling; Grady, Mary Catharine; Mitchell, Andrew; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Kuruva, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the protective effects of a natural product—‘curcumin’— in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurons. Although much research has been done in AD, very little has been reported on the effects of curcumin on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, function and synaptic activities. Therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects against amyloid β (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, curcumin and Aβ, we studied the protective effects of curcumin against Aβ. Further, we also studied preventive (curcumin+Aβ) and intervention (Aβ+curcumin) effects of curcumin against Aβ in SHSY5Y cells. Using real time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP. Cell viability was studied using the MTT assay. Aβ was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and decrease synaptic activity and mitochondrial function. In contrast, curcumin enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity and reduced fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in curcumin treated cells. Interestingly, curcumin pre- and post-treated cells incubated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability and mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic activity. Further, the protective effects of curcumin were stronger in pretreated SHSY5Y cells than in post-treated cells, indicating that curcumin works better in prevention than treatment in AD-like neurons. Our findings suggest that curcumin is a promising drug molecule to treat AD patients. PMID:27521081

  7. Protective effects of a natural product, curcumin, against amyloid β induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, Xiangling; Grady, Mary Catharine; Mitchell, Andrew; Kandimalla, Ramesh; Kuruva, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the protective effects of a natural product-'curcumin'- in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-like neurons. Although much research has been done in AD, very little has been reported on the effects of curcumin on mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, function and synaptic activities. Therefore, the present study investigated the protective effects against amyloid β (Aβ) induced mitochondrial and synaptic toxicities. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, curcumin and Aβ, we studied the protective effects of curcumin against Aβ. Further, we also studied preventive (curcumin+Aβ) and intervention (Aβ+curcumin) effects of curcumin against Aβ in SHSY5Y cells. Using real time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity and mitochondrial ATP. Cell viability was studied using the MTT assay. Aβ was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, reduce mitochondrial biogenesis and decrease synaptic activity and mitochondrial function. In contrast, curcumin enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity and reduced fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in curcumin treated cells. Interestingly, curcumin pre- and post-treated cells incubated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability and mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis and synaptic activity. Further, the protective effects of curcumin were stronger in pretreated SHSY5Y cells than in post-treated cells, indicating that curcumin works better in prevention than treatment in AD-like neurons. Our findings suggest that curcumin is a promising drug molecule to treat AD patients.

  8. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  9. Differential modulation of short-term synaptic dynamics by long-term potentiation at mouse hippocampal mossy fibre synapses.

    PubMed

    Gundlfinger, Anja; Leibold, Christian; Gebert, Katja; Moisel, Marion; Schmitz, Dietmar; Kempter, Richard

    2007-12-15

    Synapses continuously experience short- and long-lasting activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength. Long-term plasticity refers to persistent alterations in synaptic efficacy, whereas short-term plasticity (STP) reflects the instantaneous and reversible modulation of synaptic strength in response to varying presynaptic stimuli. The hippocampal mossy fibre synapse onto CA3 pyramidal cells is known to exhibit both a presynaptic, NMDA receptor-independent form of long-term potentiation (LTP) and a pronounced form of STP. A detailed description of their exact interdependence is, however, lacking. Here, using electrophysiological and computational techniques, we have developed a descriptive model of transmission dynamics to quantify plasticity at the mossy fibre synapse. STP at this synapse is best described by two facilitatory processes acting on time-scales of a few hundred milliseconds and about 10 s. We find that these distinct types of facilitation are differentially influenced by LTP such that the impact of the fast process is weakened as compared to that of the slow process. This attenuation is reflected by a selective decrease of not only the amplitude but also the time constant of the fast facilitation. We henceforth argue that LTP, involving a modulation of parameters determining both amplitude and time course of STP, serves as a mechanism to adapt the mossy fibre synapse to its temporal input.

  10. Visual experience regulates the development of long-term synaptic modifications induced by low-frequency stimulation in mouse visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Taketoshi; Yamamoto, Mariko; Yamada, Kazumasa; Komatsu, Yukio; Yoshimura, Yumiko

    2017-03-08

    Manipulation of visual experience can considerably modify visual responses of visual cortical neurons even in adulthood in the mouse, although the modification is less profound than that observed during the critical period. Our previous studies demonstrated that low-frequency (2Hz) stimulation for 15min applied to layer 4 induces T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 neurons of visual cortex during the critical period. In this study, we investigated whether low-frequency stimulation could induce synaptic plasticity in adult mice. We found that 2Hz stimulation induced LTP of extracellular field potentials evoked by stimulation of layer 4 in layer 2/3 in adulthood as during the critical period. LTP in adulthood was blocked by L-type, but not T-type, Ca(2+) channel antagonists, whereas LTP during the critical period was blocked by T-type, but not L-type, Ca(2+) channel antagonists. This developmental change in LTP was prevented by dark rearing. Under pharmacological blockade of GABAA receptors, T-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent LTP occurred, whereas L-type Ca(2+) channel-dependent LTP did not occur. These results suggest that different forms of synaptic plasticity can contribute separately to experience-dependent modification of visual responses during the critical period and in adulthood.

  11. Novelty exposure overcomes foot shock-induced spatial-memory impairment by processes of synaptic-tagging in rats

    PubMed Central

    Almaguer-Melian, William; Bergado-Rosado, Jorge; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Alberti-Amador, Esteban; Mercerón-Martínez, Daymara; Frey, Julietta U.

    2012-01-01

    Novelty processing can transform short-term into long-term memory. We propose that this memory-reinforcing effect of novelty could be explained by mechanisms outlined in the “synaptic tagging hypothesis.” Initial short-term memory is sustained by a transient plasticity change at activated synapses and sets synaptic tags. These tags are later able to capture and process the plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), which are required to transform a short-term synaptic change into a long-term one. Novelty is involved in inducing the synthesis of PRPs [Moncada D, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:12937–12936], which are then captured by the tagged synapses, consolidating memory. In contrast to novelty, stress can impair learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. Here, we address questions as to whether novelty-induced PRPs are able to prevent the loss of memory caused by stress and if the latter would not interact with the tag-setting process. We used water-maze (WM) training as a spatial learning paradigm to test our hypothesis. Stress was induced by a strong foot shock (FS; 5 × 1 mA, 2 s) applied 5 min after WM training. Our data show that FS reduced long-term but not short-term memory in the WM paradigm. This negative effect on memory consolidation was time- and training-dependent. Interestingly, novelty exposure prevented the stress-induced memory loss of the spatial task and increased BDNF and Arc expression. This rescuing effect was blocked by anisomycin, suggesting that WM-tagged synapses were not reset by FS and were thus able to capture the novelty-induced PRPs, re-establishing FS-impaired long-term memory. PMID:22215603

  12. Novelty exposure overcomes foot shock-induced spatial-memory impairment by processes of synaptic-tagging in rats.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Melian, William; Bergado-Rosado, Jorge; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Alberti-Amador, Esteban; Mercerón-Martínez, Daymara; Frey, Julietta U

    2012-01-17

    Novelty processing can transform short-term into long-term memory. We propose that this memory-reinforcing effect of novelty could be explained by mechanisms outlined in the "synaptic tagging hypothesis." Initial short-term memory is sustained by a transient plasticity change at activated synapses and sets synaptic tags. These tags are later able to capture and process the plasticity-related proteins (PRPs), which are required to transform a short-term synaptic change into a long-term one. Novelty is involved in inducing the synthesis of PRPs [Moncada D, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:12937-12936], which are then captured by the tagged synapses, consolidating memory. In contrast to novelty, stress can impair learning, memory, and synaptic plasticity. Here, we address questions as to whether novelty-induced PRPs are able to prevent the loss of memory caused by stress and if the latter would not interact with the tag-setting process. We used water-maze (WM) training as a spatial learning paradigm to test our hypothesis. Stress was induced by a strong foot shock (FS; 5 × 1 mA, 2 s) applied 5 min after WM training. Our data show that FS reduced long-term but not short-term memory in the WM paradigm. This negative effect on memory consolidation was time- and training-dependent. Interestingly, novelty exposure prevented the stress-induced memory loss of the spatial task and increased BDNF and Arc expression. This rescuing effect was blocked by anisomycin, suggesting that WM-tagged synapses were not reset by FS and were thus able to capture the novelty-induced PRPs, re-establishing FS-impaired long-term memory.

  13. Protection against β-amyloid-induced synaptic and memory impairments via altering β-amyloid assembly by bis(heptyl)-cognitin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lan; Cui, Wei; Yang, Yong; Xu, Shujun; Zhou, Wenhua; Fu, Hongjun; Hu, Shengquan; Mak, Shinghung; Hu, Juwei; Wang, Qin; Pui-Yan Ma, Victor; Chung-lit Choi, Tony; Dik-lung Ma, Edmond; Tao, Liang; Pang, Yuanping; Rowan, Michael J.; Anwyl, Roger; Han, Yifan; Wang, Qinwen

    2015-01-01

    β-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers have been closely implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We found, for the first time, that bis(heptyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor derived from tacrine, prevented Aβ oligomers-induced inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) at concentrations that did not interfere with normal LTP. Bis(heptyl)-cognitin also prevented Aβ oligomers-induced synaptotoxicity in primary hippocampal neurons. In contrast, tacrine and donepezil, typical AChE inhibitors, could not prevent synaptic impairments in these models, indicating that the modification of Aβ oligomers toxicity by bis(heptyl)-cognitin might be attributed to a mechanism other than AChE inhibition. Studies by using dot blotting, immunoblotting, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy have shown that bis(heptyl)-cognitin altered Aβ assembly via directly inhibiting Aβ oligomers formation and reducing the amount of preformed Aβ oligomers. Molecular docking analysis further suggested that bis(heptyl)-cognitin presumably interacted with the hydrophobic pockets of Aβ, which confers stabilizing powers and assembly alteration effects on Aβ. Most importantly, bis(heptyl)-cognitin significantly reduced cognitive impairments induced by intra-hippocampal infusion of Aβ oligomers in mice. These results clearly demonstrated how dimeric agents prevent Aβ oligomers-induced synaptic and memory impairments, and offered a strong support for the beneficial therapeutic effects of bis(heptyl)-cognitin in the treatment of AD. PMID:26194093

  14. Synaptic facilitation by reflected action potentials: Enhancement of transmission when nerve impulses reverse direction at axon branch points

    PubMed Central

    Baccus, Stephen A.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid, reversible enhancement of synaptic transmission from a sensory neuron is reported and explained by impulses that reverse direction, or reflect, at axon branch points. In leech mechanosensory neurons, where one can detect reflection because it is possible simultaneously to study electrical activity in separate branches, action potentials reflected from branch points within the central nervous system under physiological conditions. Synapses adjacent to these branch points were activated twice in rapid succession, first by an impulse arriving from the periphery and then by its reflection. This fast double-firing facilitated synaptic transmission, increasing it to more than twice its normal level. Reflection occurred within a range of resting membrane potentials, and electrical activity produced by mechanical stimulation changed membrane potential so as to produce and cease reflection. A compartmental model was used to investigate how branch-point morphology and electrical activity contribute to produce reflection. The model shows that mechanisms that hyperpolarize the membrane so as to impair action potential propagation can increase the range of structures that can produce reflection. This suggests that reflection is more likely to occur in other structures where impulses fail, such as in axons and dendrites in the mammalian brain. In leech sensory neurons, reflection increased transmission from central synapses only in those axon branches that innervate the edges of the receptive field in the skin, thereby sharpening spatial contrast. Reflection thus allows a neuron to amplify synaptic transmission from a selected group of its branches in a way that can be regulated by electrical activity. PMID:9653189

  15. Reconstruction of field excitatory post-synaptic potentials in the dentate gyrus from amperometric biosensor signals.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, Alessandro; Marinesco, Stéphane; Pain, Frédéric; Meiller, Anne; Gurden, Hirac

    2012-04-30

    A new feasible and reproducible method to reconstruct local field potentials from amperometric biosensor signals is presented. It is based on the least-square fit of the current response of the biosensor electrode to a voltage step by the use of two time constants. After determination of the electrode impedance, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Inverse FFT are performed to convert the recorded amperometric signals into voltage and trace the local field potentials using a resistor-capacitor circuit-based model. We applied this method to reconstruct field evoked potentials from currents recorded by a lactate biosensor in the rat dentate gyrus after stimulation of the perforant pathway in vivo. Initial slope of the reconstructed field excitatory postsynaptic potentials was used in order to demonstrate long term potentiation induced by high frequency stimulation of the perforant path. Our results show that reconstructing evoked potentials from amperometric recordings is a reliable method to obtain in vivo electrophysiological and amperometric information simultaneously from the same electrode in order to understand how chemical compounds vary with and modulate the dynamics of brain activity.

  16. 17β-Estradiol-Induced Synaptic Rearrangements Are Accompanied by Altered Ectonucleotidase Activities in Male Rat Hippocampal Synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Nataša; Zarić, Marina; Drakulić, Dunja; Martinović, Jelena; Sévigny, Jean; Stanojlović, Miloš; Nedeljković, Nadežda; Grković, Ivana

    2017-03-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) rapidly, by binding to membrane estrogen receptors, activates cell signaling cascades which induce formation of new dendritic spines in the hippocampus of males as in females, but the interaction with other metabolic processes, such as extracellular adenine nucleotides metabolism, are currently unknown. Extracellular adenine nucleotides play significant roles, controlling excitatory glutamatergic synapses and development of neural circuits and synaptic plasticity. Their precise regulation in the synaptic cleft is tightly controlled by ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase)/ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN) enzyme chain. Therefore, we sought to clarify whether a single systemic injection of E2 in male rats is accompanied by changes in the expression of the pre- and postsynaptic proteins and downstream kinases linked to E2-induced synaptic rearrangement as well as alterations in NTPDase/eN pathway in the hippocampal synaptosomes. Obtained data showed activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and upregulation of key synaptic proteins necessary for spine formation, 24 h after systemic E2 administration. In E2-mediated conditions, we found downregulation of NTPDase1 and NTPDase2 and attenuation of adenine nucleotide hydrolysis by NTPDase/eN enzyme chain, without changes in NTPDase3 properties and augmentation of synaptic tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) activity. Despite reduced NTPDase activities, increased TNAP activity probably prevents toxic accumulation of ATP in the extracellular milieu and also hydrolyzes accumulated ADP due to unchanged NTPDase3 activity. Thus, our initial evaluation supports idea of specific roles of different ectonucleotidases and their coordinated actions in E2-mediated spine remodeling and maintenance.

  17. Synaptic multistability and network synchronization induced by the neuron-glial interaction in the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazarevich, I. A.; Stasenko, S. V.; Kazantsev, V. B.

    2017-02-01

    The dynamics of a synaptic contact between neurons that forms a feedback loop through the interaction with glial cells of the brain surrounding the neurons is studied. It is shown that, depending on the character of the neuron-glial interaction, the dynamics of the signal transmission frequency in the synaptic contact can be bistable with two stable steady states or spiking with the regular generation of spikes with various amplitudes and durations. It is found that such a synaptic contact at the network level is responsible for the appearance of quasisynchronous network bursts.

  18. Neonatal sensory nerve injury-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lo, Fu-Sun; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2016-01-01

    Sensory deprivation studies in neonatal mammals, such as monocular eye closure, whisker trimming, and chemical blockade of the olfactory epithelium have revealed the importance of sensory inputs in brain wiring during distinct critical periods. But very few studies have paid attention to the effects of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage on synaptic wiring of the central nervous system (CNS) circuits. Peripheral somatosensory nerves differ from other special sensory afferents in that they are more prone to crush or severance because of their locations in the body. Unlike the visual and auditory afferents, these nerves show regenerative capabilities after damage. Uniquely, damage to a somatosensory peripheral nerve does not only block activity incoming from the sensory receptors but also mediates injury-induced neuro- and glial chemical signals to the brain through the uninjured central axons of the primary sensory neurons. These chemical signals can have both far more and longer lasting effects than sensory blockade alone. Here we review studies which focus on the consequences of neonatal peripheral sensory nerve damage in the principal sensory nucleus of the brainstem trigeminal complex.

  19. Fasting induces a form of autonomic synaptic plasticity that prevents hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manqi; Wang, Qian; Whim, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    During fasting, activation of the counter-regulatory response (CRR) prevents hypoglycemia. A major effector arm is the autonomic nervous system that controls epinephrine release from adrenal chromaffin cells and, consequently, hepatic glucose production. However, whether modulation of autonomic function determines the relative strength of the CRR, and thus the ability to withstand food deprivation and maintain euglycemia, is not known. Here we show that fasting leads to altered transmission at the preganglionic → chromaffin cell synapse. The dominant effect is a presynaptic, long-lasting increase in synaptic strength. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches we show this plasticity requires neuropeptide Y, an adrenal cotransmitter and the activation of adrenal Y5 receptors. Loss of neuropeptide Y prevents a fasting-induced increase in epinephrine release and results in hypoglycemia in vivo. These findings connect plasticity within the sympathetic nervous system to a physiological output and indicate the strength of the final synapse in this descending pathway plays a decisive role in maintaining euglycemia.

  20. Mitochondria controlled by UCP2 determine hypoxia-induced synaptic remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Varela, Luis; Schwartz, Michael L; Horvath, Tamas L

    2016-06-01

    We have established that mitochondrial dynamics, under metabolic control, play crucial roles in the regulation of systemic metabolism by hypothalamic circuits. The role of mitochondrial dynamics in neurons in higher brain regions is, however, ill-defined. Here we show that early postnatal exposure of animals to temporal hypoxia followed by normoxia, a major metabolic challenge on brain cells, resulted in adaptive responses of neuronal mitochondria. The number and oxygen consumption of mitochondria in cortical and hippocampal neurons were altered, while mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) interactions were preserved. These changes coincided with increased synaptic input of neurons in the cortex and hippocampus. We identified that the changing oxygen tension triggered mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) expression and showed that UCP2 is crucial for these adaptive mitochondrial responses. In UCP2 KO mice, changing oxygen tension did not induce changes in mitochondrial parameters and function but decreased mitochondria-ER contacts and resulted in loss of synapses both in the cortex and hippocampus. These observations establish that mitochondrial location controlled by UCP2 is relevant for adaptive responses of neurons in cortical and hippocampal neurons and are relevant to perinatal hypoxia-triggered circuit adaptations.

  1. Fasting induces a form of autonomic synaptic plasticity that prevents hypoglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manqi; Wang, Qian; Whim, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    During fasting, activation of the counter-regulatory response (CRR) prevents hypoglycemia. A major effector arm is the autonomic nervous system that controls epinephrine release from adrenal chromaffin cells and, consequently, hepatic glucose production. However, whether modulation of autonomic function determines the relative strength of the CRR, and thus the ability to withstand food deprivation and maintain euglycemia, is not known. Here we show that fasting leads to altered transmission at the preganglionic → chromaffin cell synapse. The dominant effect is a presynaptic, long-lasting increase in synaptic strength. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches we show this plasticity requires neuropeptide Y, an adrenal cotransmitter and the activation of adrenal Y5 receptors. Loss of neuropeptide Y prevents a fasting-induced increase in epinephrine release and results in hypoglycemia in vivo. These findings connect plasticity within the sympathetic nervous system to a physiological output and indicate the strength of the final synapse in this descending pathway plays a decisive role in maintaining euglycemia. PMID:27092009

  2. Primary Blast Injury Depressed Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation through Disruption of Synaptic Proteins.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Edward W; Rwema, Steve H; Meaney, David F; Bass, Cameron R Dale; Morrison, Barclay

    2017-03-01

    Blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is a major threat to United States service members in military conflicts worldwide. The effects of primary blast, caused by the supersonic shockwave interacting with the skull and brain, remain unclear. Our group has previously reported that in vitro primary blast exposure can reduce long-term potentiation (LTP), the electrophysiological correlate of learning and memory, in rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) without significant changes to cell viability or basal, evoked neuronal function. We investigated the time course of primary blast-induced deficits in LTP and the molecular mechanisms that could underlie these deficits. We found that pure primary blast exposure induced LTP deficits in a delayed manner, requiring longer than 1 hour to develop, and that these deficits spontaneously recovered by 10 days following exposure depending on blast intensity. Additionally, we observed that primary blast exposure reduced total α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) subunit expression and phosphorylation of the GluR1 subunit at the serine-831 site. Blast also reduced the expression of postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) and phosphorylation of stargazin protein at the serine-239/240 site. Finally, we found that modulation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway ameliorated electrophysiological and protein-expression changes caused by blast. These findings could inform the development of novel therapies to treat blast-induced loss of neuronal function.

  3. Vagal nerve stimulation blocks interleukin 6-dependent synaptic hyperexcitability induced by lipopolysaccharide-induced acute stress in the rodent prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Peña, David; Housini, Mohammad; Cheng, Derek; Lopez, Diego; Borland, Michael S.; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Salgado, Humberto; D’Mello, Santosh; Kilgard, Michael P.; Rose-John, Stefan; Atzori, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The ratio between synaptic inhibition and excitation (sI/E) is a critical factor in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disease. We recently described a stress-induced interleukin-6 dependent mechanism leading to a decrease in sI/E in the rodent temporal cortex. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar mechanism takes place in the prefrontal cortex, and to elaborate strategies to prevent or attenuate it. We used aseptic inflammation (single acute injections of lipopolysaccharide, LPS, 10 mg/kg) as stress model, and patch-clamp recording on a prefrontal cortical slice preparation from wild-type rat and mice, as well as from transgenic mice in which the inhibitor of IL-6 trans-signaling sgp130Fc was produced in a brain-specific fashion (sgp130Fc mice). The anti-inflammatory reflex was activated either by vagal nerve stimulation or peripheral administration of the nicotinic α7 receptor agonist PHA543613. We found that the IL-6-dependent reduction in prefrontal cortex synaptic inhibition was blocked in sgp130Fc mice, or – in wild-type animals – upon application sgp130Fc. Similar results were obtained by activating the “anti-inflammatory reflex” – a neural circuit regulating peripheral immune response – by stimulation of the vagal nerve or through peripheral administration of the α7 nicotinic receptor agonist PHA543613. Our results indicate that the prefrontal cortex is an important potential target of IL-6 mediated trans-signaling, and suggest a potential new avenue in the treatment of a large class of hyperexcitable neuropsychiatric conditions, including epilepsy, schizophrenic psychoses, anxiety disorders, autism spectrum disorders, and depression. PMID:25128387

  4. Centaurin-α1-Ras-Elk-1 Signaling at Mitochondria Mediates β-Amyloid-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Szatmari, Erzsebet M.; Oliveira, Ana F.; Sumner, Elizabeth J.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is thought to be caused by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-dependent synaptic dysfunction. However, the signaling pathways connecting Aβ and synaptic dysfunction remain elusive. Here we report that Aβ transiently increases the expression level of centaurin-α1 (CentA1) in neurons, which induces a Ras-dependent association of Elk-1 with mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction in organotypic hippocampal slices of rats. Downregulation of the CentA1–Ras-Elk-1 pathway restored normal mitochondrial activity, spine structural plasticity, spine density, and the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs in Aβ-treated neurons, whereas upregulation of the pathway was sufficient to decrease spine density. Elevations of CentA1 and association of Elk-1 with mitochondria were also observed in transgenic mice overexpressing a human mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, the CentA1–Ras-Elk-1 signaling pathway acts on mitochondria to regulate dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity in response to Aβ in hippocampal neurons, providing new pharmacological targets for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23516302

  5. Centaurin-α1-Ras-Elk-1 signaling at mitochondria mediates β-amyloid-induced synaptic dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Szatmari, Erzsebet M; Oliveira, Ana F; Sumner, Elizabeth J; Yasuda, Ryohei

    2013-03-20

    Alzheimer's disease is thought to be caused by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ)-dependent synaptic dysfunction. However, the signaling pathways connecting Aβ and synaptic dysfunction remain elusive. Here we report that Aβ transiently increases the expression level of centaurin-α1 (CentA1) in neurons, which induces a Ras-dependent association of Elk-1 with mitochondria, leading to mitochondrial and synaptic dysfunction in organotypic hippocampal slices of rats. Downregulation of the CentA1-Ras-Elk-1 pathway restored normal mitochondrial activity, spine structural plasticity, spine density, and the amplitude and frequency of miniature EPSCs in Aβ-treated neurons, whereas upregulation of the pathway was sufficient to decrease spine density. Elevations of CentA1 and association of Elk-1 with mitochondria were also observed in transgenic mice overexpressing a human mutant form of amyloid precursor protein. Therefore, the CentA1-Ras-Elk-1 signaling pathway acts on mitochondria to regulate dendritic spine density and synaptic plasticity in response to Aβ in hippocampal neurons, providing new pharmacological targets for Alzheimer's disease.

  6. A presynaptic locus for long-term potentiation of elementary synaptic transmission at mossy fiber synapses in culture.

    PubMed Central

    López-García, J C; Arancio, O; Kandel, E R; Baranes, D

    1996-01-01

    The complex circuitry of the CA3 region and the abundance of collateral connections has made it difficult to study the mossy fiber pathway in hippocampal slices and therefore to establish the site of expression of long-term potentiation at these synapses. Using a novel cell culture system, we have produced long-term potentiation of the elementary synaptic connections on single CA3 pyramidal neurons following tetanic stimulation of individual dentate gyrus granule cells. As is the case for the hippocampal slice, this potentiation was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, was simulated by application of forskolin, and its induction did not require any modulatory input. The increase in synaptic strength was accompanied by a reduction in the number of failures of transmission and by an increase in the coefficient of variation of the responses and was prevented by presynaptic injection of an inhibitor of protein kinase A. These findings show that mossy fiber long-term potentiation has a presynaptic locus and that its expression is dependent on protein kinase A. PMID:8643468

  7. Synaptic plasticity deficits in an experimental model of rett syndrome: long-term potentiation saturation and its pharmacological reversal.

    PubMed

    Weng, S-M; McLeod, F; Bailey, M E S; Cobb, S R

    2011-04-28

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a disorder caused almost exclusively by mutations in the X-linked gene, MECP2, has a phenotype thought to be primarily of neurological origin. Disruption of Mecp2 in mice results in a prominent RTT-like phenotype. One of the consequences of MeCP2 absence in the brain is altered functional and structural plasticity. We aimed to characterize synaptic effects related to plasticity in the hippocampus further and establish whether plasticity defects are amenable to pharmacological reversal. Using male mice in which Mecp2 expression was prevented by a stop cassette, we assessed synaptic plasticity in area CA1 at different phenotypic stages, scoring the mice weekly for overt RTT-like signs. Strongly symptomatic Mecp2(stop/y) mice displayed reduced long-term potentiation (LTP, 40.2±1.6% of wild-type), post-tetanic potentiation (PTP, 45±18.8% of wild-type) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF, 78±0.1% of wild type) (all P<0.05), the impairment increasing with symptom severity score. These plasticity impairments were absent in presymptomatic mice. Repeated high frequency stimulation revealed pronounced LTP saturation in symptomatic Mecp2(stop/y) mice, suggesting an LTP 'ceiling' effect. Bath application of the weak NMDA receptor blocker memantine (1 μM) resulted in partial restoration of a short-term plasticity component. These data support that idea that progressive functional synaptic impairment is a key feature in the RTT brain and demonstrate the potential for the pharmacological restoration of plasticity function.

  8. Enhanced sensitivity of hippocampal pyramidal neurons from mdx mice to hypoxia-induced loss of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Mehler, M F; Haas, K Z; Kessler, J A; Stanton, P K

    1992-01-01

    The gene at the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy locus encodes dystrophin, a member of a protein superfamily that links the actin cytoskeleton to transmembrane plasmalemmal proteins. In mature skeletal myocytes, the absence of dystrophin is associated with decreased membrane stability, altered kinetics of several calcium channels, and increased intracellular calcium concentration. In the central nervous system, dystrophin is restricted to specific neuronal populations that show heightened susceptibility to excitotoxic damage and is localized in proximal dendrites and the neuronal somata. We report that CA1 pyramidal neurons in a hippocampal slice preparation from a dystrophin-deficient mouse genetic model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (the mdx mouse) exhibit significant increased susceptibility to hypoxia-induced damage to synaptic transmission. This selective vulnerability was substantially ameliorated by pretreatment with diphenylhydantoin, an anticonvulsant that blocks both sodium-dependent action potentials and low-threshold transient calcium conductances. These findings suggest that dystrophin deficiency could predispose susceptible neuronal populations to cumulative hypoxic insults that may contribute to the development of cognitive deficits in Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients and that the effects of such periods of hypoxia may be pharmacologically remediable. PMID:1549609

  9. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss.

    PubMed

    Tohda, Chihiro; Ichimura, Mahoko; Bai, Yanjing; Tanaka, Ken; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2008-07-01

    Neurons with atrophic neurites may remain alive and therefore may have the potential to regenerate even when neuronal death has occurred in some parts of the brain. This study aimed to explore effects of drugs that can facilitate the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses even in severely damaged neurons. We investigated the effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on the regeneration of neurites and the reconstruction of synapses in rat cultured cortical neurons damaged by amyloid beta (Abeta)(25-35). Treatment with Abeta(25-35) (10 microM) induced axonal and dendritic atrophies and synaptic loss in cortical neurons. Subsequent treatment with the methanol extract and the water extract of E. senticosus (10 - 1000 ng/ml) resulted in significant axonal and dendritic regenerations and reconstruction of neuronal synapses. Co-application of the extract and Abeta(25-35) attenuated Abeta(25-35)-induced neuronal death. We investigated neurite outgrowth activities of eleutherosides B and E and isoflaxidin, which are known as major compounds in E. senticosus. Although eleutheroside B protected against Abeta(25-35)-induced dendritic and axonal atrophies, the activities of eleutheroside E and isofraxidin were less than that of eleutheroside B. Although the contents of these three compounds in the water extract were less than in the methanol extract, restoring activities against neuronal damages were not different between the two extracts. In conclusion, extracts of E. senticosus protect against neuritic atrophy and cell death under Abeta treatment, and one of active constituents may be eleutheroside B.

  10. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Siobhan H.; Pasqui, Francesca; Colvin, Ellen M.; Sanger, Helen; Mogg, Adrian J.; Felder, Christian C.; Broad, Lisa M.; Fitzjohn, Steve M.; Isaac, John T.R.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors (M1Rs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and their inhibition or ablation disrupts the encoding of spatial memory. It has been hypothesized that the principal mechanism by which M1Rs influence spatial memory is by the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here, we use a combination of recently developed, well characterized, selective M1R agonists and M1R knock-out mice to define the roles of M1Rs in the regulation of hippocampal neuronal and synaptic function. We confirm that M1R activation increases input resistance and depolarizes hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and show that this profoundly increases excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling. Consistent with a critical role for M1Rs in synaptic plasticity, we now show that M1R activation produces a robust potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal neurons that has all the hallmarks of long-term potentiation (LTP): The potentiation requires NMDA receptor activity and bi-directionally occludes with synaptically induced LTP. Thus, we describe synergistic mechanisms by which acetylcholine acting through M1Rs excites CA1 pyramidal neurons and induces LTP, to profoundly increase activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These features are predicted to make a major contribution to the pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic transmission in rodents and humans. PMID:26472558

  11. Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Siobhan H; Pasqui, Francesca; Colvin, Ellen M; Sanger, Helen; Mogg, Adrian J; Felder, Christian C; Broad, Lisa M; Fitzjohn, Steve M; Isaac, John T R; Mellor, Jack R

    2016-01-01

    Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors (M1Rs) are highly expressed in the hippocampus, and their inhibition or ablation disrupts the encoding of spatial memory. It has been hypothesized that the principal mechanism by which M1Rs influence spatial memory is by the regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Here, we use a combination of recently developed, well characterized, selective M1R agonists and M1R knock-out mice to define the roles of M1Rs in the regulation of hippocampal neuronal and synaptic function. We confirm that M1R activation increases input resistance and depolarizes hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and show that this profoundly increases excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling. Consistent with a critical role for M1Rs in synaptic plasticity, we now show that M1R activation produces a robust potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto CA1 pyramidal neurons that has all the hallmarks of long-term potentiation (LTP): The potentiation requires NMDA receptor activity and bi-directionally occludes with synaptically induced LTP. Thus, we describe synergistic mechanisms by which acetylcholine acting through M1Rs excites CA1 pyramidal neurons and induces LTP, to profoundly increase activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons. These features are predicted to make a major contribution to the pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic transmission in rodents and humans.

  12. Botulinum and Tetanus Neurotoxin Induced Blockage of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-28

    CONTRACT NUMBER Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Beske, PH, Bradford AB...Neurotoxin-Induced Blockade of Synaptic Transmission in Networked Cultures of Human and Rodent Neurons Phillip H. Beske, Aaron B. Bradford, Justin O...as well as human andmouse stem cell-derived neurons exposed to botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A–G and tetanus neurotoxin. The sensitivity and

  13. Dendrobium alkaloids prevent Aβ25–35-induced neuronal and synaptic loss via promoting neurotrophic factors expression in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Jing; Tian, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Yan-Liu; Li, Li-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Neuronal and synaptic loss is the most important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and preventing synaptic loss are promising therapeutic approaches for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In this study, we investigate the protective effects of Dendrobium alkaloids (DNLA), a Chinese medicinal herb extract, on β-amyloid peptide segment 25–35 (Aβ25-35)-induced neuron and synaptic loss in mice. Method Aβ25–35(10 µg) was injected into the bilateral ventricles of male mice followed by an oral administration of DNLA (40 mg/kg) for 19 days. The Morris water maze was used for evaluating the ability of spatial learning and memory function of mice. The morphological changes were examined via H&E staining and Nissl staining. TUNEL staining was used to check the neuronal apoptosis. The ultrastructure changes of neurons were observed under electron microscope. Western blot was used to evaluate the protein expression levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and cortex. Results DNLA significantly attenuated Aβ25–35-induced spatial learning and memory impairments in mice. DNLA prevented Aβ25–35-induced neuronal loss in the hippocampus and cortex, increased the number of Nissl bodies, improved the ultrastructural injury of neurons and increased the number of synapses in neurons. Furthermore, DNLA increased the protein expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF, CNTF and GDNF in the hippocampus and cortex. Conclusions DNLA can prevent neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss. This effect is mediated at least in part via increasing the expression of BDNF, GDNF and CNTF in the hippocampus and cortex; improving Aβ-induced spatial learning and memory impairment in mice. PMID:27994964

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Entinostat (MS-275) Restores Anesthesia-induced Alteration of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission in the Developing Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Joksimovic, Srdjan M; Osuru, Hari Prasad; Oklopcic, Azra; Beenhakker, Mark P; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna; Todorovic, Slobodan M

    2017-08-24

    Recent evidence strongly supports the idea that common general anesthetics (GAs) such as isoflurane (Iso) and nitrous oxide (N2O; laughing gas), as well as sedative drugs such as midazolam are neurotoxic for the developing mammalian brain having deleterious effects on neural circuits involved in cognition, learning and memory. However, to date, very little is known about epigenetic mechanisms involved in GA-induced plasticity of synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, the main memory-processing region in the brain. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings of miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents (mIPSCs) from hippocampal neurons in slice cultures exposed to the clinically relevant GA combination. We found that in vitro exposure to a combination of midazolam, 0.75% Iso, and 70% N2O for 6 h leads to lasting increase in frequency of mIPSCs, while amplitudes and kinetics of the events were spared. Importantly, co-application of entinostat (MS-275), a selective inhibitor of class I histone deacetylases (HDAC), completely reversed GA-induced synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, when given in vivo to P7 pups exposed to GA with midazolam, Iso and N2O for 6 h, MS-275 reversed GA-induced histone-3 hypoacetylation as shown by an increase in Ac-H3 protein expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that exposure to a combination of Iso with N2O and midazolam causes plasticity of mIPSCs in hippocampal neurons by epigenetic mechanisms that target presynaptic sites. We hypothesize that GA-induced epigenetic alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus may contribute to altered neuronal excitability and consequently abnormal learning and memory later in life.

  15. Activity Induces Fmr1-Sensitive Synaptic Capture of Anterograde Circulating Neuropeptide Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Cavolo, Samantha L.; Bulgari, Dinara; Deitcher, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic neuropeptide and neurotrophin stores are maintained by constitutive bidirectional capture of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) as they circulate in and out of the nerve terminal. Activity increases DCV capture to rapidly replenish synaptic neuropeptide stores following release. However, it is not known whether this is due to enhanced bidirectional capture. Here experiments at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where DCVs contain neuropeptides and a bone morphogenic protein, show that activity-dependent replenishment of synaptic neuropeptides following release is evident after inhibiting the retrograde transport with the dynactin disruptor mycalolide B or photobleaching DCVs entering a synaptic bouton by retrograde transport. In contrast, photobleaching anterograde transport vesicles entering a bouton inhibits neuropeptide replenishment after activity. Furthermore, tracking of individual DCVs moving through boutons shows that activity selectively increases capture of DCVs undergoing anterograde transport. Finally, upregulating fragile X mental retardation 1 protein (Fmr1, also called FMRP) acts independently of futsch/MAP-1B to abolish activity-dependent, but not constitutive, capture. Fmr1 also reduces presynaptic neuropeptide stores without affecting activity-independent delivery and evoked release. Therefore, presynaptic motoneuron neuropeptide storage is increased by a vesicle capture mechanism that is distinguished from constitutive bidirectional capture by activity dependence, anterograde selectivity, and Fmr1 sensitivity. These results show that activity recruits a separate mechanism than used at rest to stimulate additional synaptic capture of DCVs for future release of neuropeptides and neurotrophins. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic release of neuropeptides and neurotrophins depends on presynaptic accumulation of dense-core vesicles (DCVs). At rest, DCVs are captured bidirectionally as they circulate through Drosophila motoneuron terminals by

  16. Cortical Up states induce the selective weakening of subthreshold synaptic inputs.

    PubMed

    Bartram, Julian; Kahn, Martin C; Tuohy, Simon; Paulsen, Ole; Wilson, Tony; Mann, Edward O

    2017-09-22

    Slow-wave sleep is thought to be important for retuning cortical synapses, but the cellular mechanisms remain unresolved. During slow-wave activity, cortical neurons display synchronized transitions between depolarized Up states and hyperpolarized Down states. Here, using recordings from LIII pyramidal neurons from acute slices of mouse medial entorhinal cortex, we find that subthreshold inputs arriving during the Up state undergo synaptic weakening. This does not reflect a process of global synaptic downscaling, as it is dependent on presynaptic spiking, with network state encoded in the synaptically evoked spine Ca(2+) responses. Our data indicate that the induction of synaptic weakening is under postsynaptic control, as it can be prevented by correlated postsynaptic spiking activity, and depends on postsynaptic NMDA receptors and GSK3β activity. This provides a mechanism by which slow-wave activity might bias synapses towards weakening, while preserving the synaptic connections within active neuronal assemblies.Slow oscillations between cortical Up and Down states are a defining feature of deep sleep, but their function is not well understood. Here the authors study Up/Down states in acute slices of entorhinal cortex, and find that Up states promote the weakening of subthreshold synaptic inputs, while suprathreshold inputs are preserved or strengthened.

  17. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A.; Charlton, Milton P.; Carlen, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery. PMID:26934214

  18. Raised Intracellular Calcium Contributes to Ischemia-Induced Depression of Evoked Synaptic Transmission.

    PubMed

    Jalini, Shirin; Ye, Hui; Tonkikh, Alexander A; Charlton, Milton P; Carlen, Peter L

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) leads to depression of evoked synaptic transmission, for which the mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i during transient OGD contributes to the depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs). Additionally, we hypothesized that increased buffering of intracellular calcium would shorten electrophysiological recovery after transient ischemia. Mouse hippocampal slices were exposed to 2 to 8 min of OGD. fEPSPs evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation were recorded in the stratum radiatum, and whole cell current or voltage clamp recordings were performed in CA1 neurons. Transient ischemia led to increased presynaptic [Ca2+]i, (shown by calcium imaging), increased spontaneous miniature EPSP/Cs, and depressed evoked fEPSPs, partially mediated by adenosine. Buffering of intracellular Ca2+ during OGD by membrane-permeant chelators (BAPTA-AM or EGTA-AM) partially prevented fEPSP depression and promoted faster electrophysiological recovery when the OGD challenge was stopped. The blocker of BK channels, charybdotoxin (ChTX), also prevented fEPSP depression, but did not accelerate post-ischemic recovery. These results suggest that OGD leads to elevated presynaptic [Ca2+]i, which reduces evoked transmitter release; this effect can be reversed by increased intracellular Ca2+ buffering which also speeds recovery.

  19. Diet-induced insulin resistance impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognition in middle-aged rats.

    PubMed

    Stranahan, Alexis M; Norman, Eric D; Lee, Kim; Cutler, Roy G; Telljohann, Richard S; Egan, Josephine M; Mattson, Mark P

    2008-01-01

    Overall dietary energy intake, particularly the consumption of simple sugars such as fructose, has been increasing steadily in Western societies, but the effects of such diets on the brain are poorly understood. Here, we used functional and structural assays to characterize the effects of excessive caloric intake on the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory. Rats fed with a high-fat, high-glucose diet supplemented with high-fructose corn syrup showed alterations in energy and lipid metabolism similar to clinical diabetes, with elevated fasting glucose and increased cholesterol and triglycerides. Rats maintained on this diet for 8 months exhibited impaired spatial learning ability, reduced hippocampal dendritic spine density, and reduced long-term potentiation at Schaffer collateral--CA1 synapses. These changes occurred concurrently with reductions in levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the hippocampus. We conclude that a high-calorie diet reduces hippocampal synaptic plasticity and impairs cognitive function, possibly through BDNF-mediated effects on dendritic spines.

  20. Bidirectional regulation of synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala induced by the D1-like family of dopamine receptors and group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenchen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2014-01-01

    Competing mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are thought to underlie the acquisition and consolidation of fear memories, and their subsequent extinction. However, no study to date has examined the locus of action and/or the cellular mechanism(s) by which these processes interact. Here, we report that synaptic plasticity in the cortical pathway onto BLA principal neurons is frequency-dependent and shows a transition from LTD to LTP at stimulation frequencies of ∼10 Hz. At the crossover point from LTD to LTP induction we show that concurrent activation of D1 and group II metabotropic glutamate (mGluR2/3) receptors act to nullify any net change in synaptic strength. Significantly, blockade of either D1 or mGluR2/3 receptors unmasked 10 Hz stimulation-induced LTD and LTP, respectively. Significantly, prior activation of presynaptic D1 receptors caused a time-dependent attenuation of mGluR2/3-induced depotentiation of previously induced LTP. Furthermore, studies with cell type-specific postsynaptic transgene expression of designer receptors activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) suggest that the interaction results via bidirectional modulation of adenylate cyclase activity in presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. The results of our study raise the possibility that the temporal sequence of activation of either presynaptic D1 receptors or mGluR2/3 receptors may critically regulate the direction of synaptic plasticity in afferent pathways onto BLA principal neurons. Hence, the interaction of these two neurotransmitter systems may represent an important mechanism for bidirectional metaplasticity in BLA circuits and thus modulate the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. PMID:25107924

  1. Critical Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Deficits in Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Hao; Xie, Hui; Shi, Zhi-Hui; Du, Li-Da; Wing, Yun-Kwok; Li, Albert M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims: This study examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mediating chronic intermittent hypoxia (IH)-induced neurocognitive deficits. We designed experiments to demonstrate that ER stress is initiated in the hippocampus under chronic IH and determined its role in apoptotic cell death, impaired synaptic structure and plasticity, and memory deficits. Results: Two weeks of IH disrupted ER fine structure and upregulated ER stress markers, glucose-regulated protein 78, caspase-12, and C/EBP homologous protein, in the hippocampus, which could be suppressed by ER stress inhibitors, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyric acid. Meanwhile, ER stress induced apoptosis via decreased Bcl-2, promoted reactive oxygen species production, and increased malondialdehyde formation and protein carbonyl, as well as suppressed mitochondrial function. These effects were largely prevented by ER stress inhibitors. On the other hand, suppression of oxidative stress could reduce ER stress. In addition, the length of the synaptic active zone and number of mature spines were reduced by IH. Long-term recognition memory and spatial memory were also impaired, which was accompanied by reduced long-term potentiation in the Schaffer collateral pathway. These effects were prevented by coadministration of the TUDCA. Innovation and Conclusion: These results show that ER stress plays a critical role in underlying memory deficits in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)-associated IH. Attenuators of ER stress may serve as novel adjunct therapeutic agents for ameliorating OSA-induced neurocognitive impairment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 23, 695–710. PMID:25843188

  2. Synaptic plasticity by antidromic firing during hippocampal network oscillations.

    PubMed

    Bukalo, Olena; Campanac, Emilie; Hoffman, Dax A; Fields, R Douglas

    2013-03-26

    Learning and other cognitive tasks require integrating new experiences into context. In contrast to sensory-evoked synaptic plasticity, comparatively little is known of how synaptic plasticity may be regulated by intrinsic activity in the brain, much of which can involve nonclassical modes of neuronal firing and integration. Coherent high-frequency oscillations of electrical activity in CA1 hippocampal neurons [sharp-wave ripple complexes (SPW-Rs)] functionally couple neurons into transient ensembles. These oscillations occur during slow-wave sleep or at rest. Neurons that participate in SPW-Rs are distinguished from adjacent nonparticipating neurons by firing action potentials that are initiated ectopically in the distal region of axons and propagate antidromically to the cell body. This activity is facilitated by GABA(A)-mediated depolarization of axons and electrotonic coupling. The possible effects of antidromic firing on synaptic strength are unknown. We find that facilitation of spontaneous SPW-Rs in hippocampal slices by increasing gap-junction coupling or by GABA(A)-mediated axon depolarization resulted in a reduction of synaptic strength, and electrical stimulation of axons evoked a widespread, long-lasting synaptic depression. Unlike other forms of synaptic plasticity, this synaptic depression is not dependent upon synaptic input or glutamate receptor activation, but rather requires L-type calcium channel activation and functional gap junctions. Synaptic stimulation delivered after antidromic firing, which was otherwise too weak to induce synaptic potentiation, triggered a long-lasting increase in synaptic strength. Rescaling synaptic weights in subsets of neurons firing antidromically during SPW-Rs might contribute to memory consolidation by sharpening specificity of subsequent synaptic input and promoting incorporation of novel information.

  3. Paradoxical (REM) Sleep Deprivation Causes a Large and Rapidly Reversible Decrease in Long-Term Potentiation, Synaptic Transmission, Glutamate Receptor Protein Levels, and ERK/MAPK Activation in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Ravassard, Pascal; Pachoud, Bastien; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Mejia-Perez, Camila; Scoté-Blachon, Céline; Gay, Nadine; Claustrat, Bruno; Touret, Monique; Luppi, Pierre-Hervé; Salin, Paul Antoine

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: It has been shown that wake (W) and slow wave sleep (SWS) modulate synaptic transmission in neocortical projections. However the impact of paradoxical sleep (PS) quantities on synaptic transmission remains unknown. We examined whether PS modulated the excitatory transmission and expression of glutamate receptor subtypes and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-ERK1/2). Design: PS deprivation (PSD) was carried out with the multiple platforms method on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. LTP, late-LTP, and synaptic transmission were studied in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus of controls, 75-h PSD and 150-min PS rebound (PSR). GluR1 and NR1 protein and mRNA expression were evaluated by western blot and real-time PCR. P-ERK1/2 level was quantified by western blot and immunohistochemistry. Measurement and Results: PSD decreased synaptic transmission and LTP selectively in dorsal CA1 and PSR rescued these deficits. PSD-induced synaptic modifications in CA1 were associated with a decrease in GluR1, NR1, and p-ERK1/2 levels in dorsal CA1 without change in GluR1 and NR1 mRNA expression. Regression analysis shows that LTP is positively correlated with both PS quantities and SWS episodes duration, whereas synaptic transmission and late-LTP are positively correlated with PS quantities and negatively correlated with SWS quantities. Conclusions: These findings unveil previously unrecognized roles of PSD on synaptic transmission and LTP in the dorsal, but not in the ventral, hippocampus. The fact that the decrease in protein expression of GluR1 and NR1 was not associated with a change in mRNA expression of these receptors suggests that a sleep-induced modulation of translational mechanisms occurs in dorsal CA1. Citation: Ravassard P; Pachoud B; Comte JC; Mejia-Perez C; Scoté-Blachon C; Gay N; Claustrat B; Touret M; Luppi PH; Salin PA. Paradoxical (REM) sleep deprivation causes a large and rapidly reversible decrease in long-term potentiation

  4. Role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in synaptic transmission and plasticity of a nociceptive input on capsular central amygdaloid neurons in normal and acid-induced muscle pain mice.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sin-Jhong; Chen, Chien-Chang; Yang, Hsiu-Wen; Chang, Ya-Ting; Bai, Shin-Wen; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yen, Chen-Tung; Min, Ming-Yuan

    2011-02-09

    Application of phorbol 12,13-diacetate (PDA) caused marked enhancement of synaptic transmission of nociceptive parabrachio-amygdaloid (PBA) input onto neurons of the capsular central amygdaloid (CeAC) nucleus. The potentiation of PBA-CeAC EPSCs by PDA involved a presynaptic protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent component and a postsynaptic PKC-extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent component. NMDA glutamatergic receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP) of PBA-CeAC EPSCs, which was also dependent on the PKC-ERK signaling pathway, was induced by tetanus stimulation at 100 Hz. In slices from mice subjected to acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP), phosphorylated ERK levels in the CeAC increased, and PBA-CeAC synaptic transmission was postsynaptically enhanced. The enhanced PBA-CeAC synaptic transmission in AIMP mice shared common mechanisms with the postsynaptic potentiation effect of PDA and induction of NMDAR-dependent LTP by high-frequency stimulation in normal slices, both of which required ERK activation. Since the CeAC plays an important role in the emotionality of pain, enhanced synaptic function of nociceptive (PBA) inputs onto CeAC neurons might partially account for the supraspinal mechanisms underlying central sensitization.

  5. Synaptic adhesion molecule IgSF11 regulates synaptic transmission and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hyewon; van Riesen, Christoph; Whitcomb, Daniel; Warburton, Julia M.; Jo, Jihoon; Kim, Doyoun; Kim, Sun Gyun; Um, Seung Min; Kwon, Seok-kyu; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Roh, Junyeop Daniel; Woo, Jooyeon; Jun, Heejung; Lee, Dongmin; Mah, Won; Kim, Hyun; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Cho, Kwangwook; Rhee, Jeong-Seop; Choquet, Daniel; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Summary Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate synapse development and plasticity through mechanisms including trans-synaptic adhesion and recruitment of diverse synaptic proteins. We report here that the immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (IgSF11), a homophilic adhesion molecule preferentially expressed in the brain, is a novel and dual-binding partner of the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95 and AMPAR glutamate receptors (AMPARs). IgSF11 requires PSD-95 binding for its excitatory synaptic localization. In addition, IgSF11 stabilizes synaptic AMPARs, as shown by IgSF11 knockdown-induced suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and increased surface mobility of AMPARs, measured by high-throughput, single-molecule tracking. IgSF11 deletion in mice leads to suppression of AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission in the dentate gyrus and long-term potentiation in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. IgSF11 does not regulate the functional characteristics of AMPARs, including desensitization, deactivation, or recovery. These results suggest that IgSF11 regulates excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity through its tripartite interactions with PSD-95 and AMPARs. PMID:26595655

  6. Reactive oxygen species mediate the potentiating effects of ATP on GABAergic synaptic transmission in the immature hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Safiulina, Victoria F; Afzalov, Ramil; Khiroug, Leonard; Cherubini, Enrico; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2006-08-18

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) constitute important signaling molecules in the central nervous system. They regulate a number of different functions both under physiological conditions and under pathological conditions. Here we tested the hypothesis that in the immature hippocampus ATP, the most diffuse neurotransmitter in the brain, modulates synaptic transmission via ROS. We show that ATP, acting on metabotropic P2Y1 receptors, increased the frequency of GABA(A)-mediated spontaneous postsynaptic currents (SPSCs) in CA3 principal cells, an effect that was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or by catalase, an enzyme that breaks down H2O2. The effect of ATP on SPSCs was mimicked by H2O2 or by the pro-oxidant, Fe2+, which, through the Fentol reaction, catalyzes the conversion of H2O2 into highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. MRS-2179, a P2Y1 receptor antagonist, removed the facilitatory action of Fe2+ on SPSCs, suggesting that endogenous ATP acting on P2Y1 receptors is involved in Fe2+-induced modulation of synaptic transmission. Imaging ROS with the H2O2-sensitive dye DCF revealed that ATP induces generation of peroxide in astrocytes via activation of P2Y1 receptors coupled to intracellular calcium rise. Neither N-acetyl-cysteine nor catalase prevented Ca2+ transients induced by ATP in astrocytes. Since a single hippocampal astrocyte can contact many neurons, ATP-induced ROS signaling may control thousands of synapses. This may be crucial for information processing in the immature brain when GABAergic activity is essential for the proper wiring of the hippocampal network.

  7. Serotonin Modulates Developmental Microglia via 5-HT2B Receptors: Potential Implication during Synaptic Refinement of Retinogeniculate Projections.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejczak, Marta; Béchade, Catherine; Gervasi, Nicolas; Irinopoulou, Theano; Banas, Sophie M; Cordier, Corinne; Rebsam, Alexandra; Roumier, Anne; Maroteaux, Luc

    2015-07-15

    Maturation of functional neuronal circuits during central nervous system development relies on sophisticated mechanisms. First, axonal and dendritic growth should reach appropriate targets for correct synapse elaboration. Second, pruning and neuronal death are required to eliminate redundant or inappropriate neuronal connections. Serotonin, in addition to its role as a neurotransmitter, actively participates in postnatal establishment and refinement of brain wiring in mammals. Brain resident macrophages, that is, microglia, also play an important role in developmentally regulated neuronal death as well as in synaptic maturation and elimination. Here, we tested the hypothesis of cross-regulation between microglia and serotonin during postnatal brain development in a mouse model of synaptic refinement. We found expression of the serotonin 5-HT2B receptor on postnatal microglia, suggesting that serotonin could participate in temporal and spatial synchronization of microglial functions. Using two-photon microscopy, acute brain slices, and local delivery of serotonin, we observed that microglial processes moved rapidly toward the source of serotonin in Htr2B(+/+) mice, but not in Htr2B(-/-) mice lacking the 5-HT2B receptor. We then investigated whether some developmental steps known to be controlled by serotonin could potentially result from microglia sensitivity to serotonin. Using an in vivo model of synaptic refinement during early brain development, we investigated the maturation of the retinal projections to the thalamus and observed that Htr2B(-/-) mice present anatomical alterations of the ipsilateral projecting area of retinal axons into the thalamus. In addition, activation markers were upregulated in microglia from Htr2B(-/-) compared to control neonates, in the absence of apparent morphological modifications. These results support the hypothesis that serotonin interacts with microglial cells and these interactions participate in brain maturation.

  8. Sleep recalibrates homeostatic and associative synaptic plasticity in the human cortex

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Marion; Wolf, Elias; Maier, Jonathan G.; Mainberger, Florian; Feige, Bernd; Schmid, Hanna; Bürklin, Jan; Maywald, Sarah; Mall, Volker; Jung, Nikolai H.; Reis, Janine; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Klöppel, Stefan; Sterr, Annette; Eckert, Anne; Riemann, Dieter; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is ubiquitous in animals and humans, but its function remains to be further determined. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis of sleep–wake regulation proposes a homeostatic increase in net synaptic strength and cortical excitability along with decreased inducibility of associative synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) due to saturation after sleep deprivation. Here we use electrophysiological, behavioural and molecular indices to non-invasively study net synaptic strength and LTP-like plasticity in humans after sleep and sleep deprivation. We demonstrate indices of increased net synaptic strength (TMS intensity to elicit a predefined amplitude of motor-evoked potential and EEG theta activity) and decreased LTP-like plasticity (paired associative stimulation induced change in motor-evoked potential and memory formation) after sleep deprivation. Changes in plasma BDNF are identified as a potential mechanism. Our study indicates that sleep recalibrates homeostatic and associative synaptic plasticity, believed to be the neural basis for adaptive behaviour, in humans. PMID:27551934

  9. Sleep recalibrates homeostatic and associative synaptic plasticity in the human cortex.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Marion; Wolf, Elias; Maier, Jonathan G; Mainberger, Florian; Feige, Bernd; Schmid, Hanna; Bürklin, Jan; Maywald, Sarah; Mall, Volker; Jung, Nikolai H; Reis, Janine; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Klöppel, Stefan; Sterr, Annette; Eckert, Anne; Riemann, Dieter; Normann, Claus; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-08-23

    Sleep is ubiquitous in animals and humans, but its function remains to be further determined. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis of sleep-wake regulation proposes a homeostatic increase in net synaptic strength and cortical excitability along with decreased inducibility of associative synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) due to saturation after sleep deprivation. Here we use electrophysiological, behavioural and molecular indices to non-invasively study net synaptic strength and LTP-like plasticity in humans after sleep and sleep deprivation. We demonstrate indices of increased net synaptic strength (TMS intensity to elicit a predefined amplitude of motor-evoked potential and EEG theta activity) and decreased LTP-like plasticity (paired associative stimulation induced change in motor-evoked potential and memory formation) after sleep deprivation. Changes in plasma BDNF are identified as a potential mechanism. Our study indicates that sleep recalibrates homeostatic and associative synaptic plasticity, believed to be the neural basis for adaptive behaviour, in humans.

  10. Structural synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus induced by spatial experience and its implications in information processing.

    PubMed

    Carasatorre, M; Ramírez-Amaya, V; Díaz Cintra, S

    2016-10-01

    Long-lasting memory formation requires that groups of neurons processing new information develop the ability to reproduce the patterns of neural activity acquired by experience. Changes in synaptic efficiency let neurons organise to form ensembles that repeat certain activity patterns again and again. Among other changes in synaptic plasticity, structural modifications tend to be long-lasting which suggests that they underlie long-term memory. There is a large body of evidence supporting that experience promotes changes in the synaptic structure, particularly in the hippocampus. Structural changes to the hippocampus may be functionally implicated in stabilising acquired memories and encoding new information. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Activation of Synaptic Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Induces Long-Term Depression at GABAergic Synapses in CNS Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zheng-Quan; Liu, Yu-Wei; Shi, Wei; Dinh, Emilie Hoang; Hamlet, William R.; Curry, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) has been studied extensively at glutamatergic synapses in the CNS. However, much less is known about heterosynaptic long-term plasticity induced by mGluRs at inhibitory synapses. Here we report that pharmacological or synaptic activation of group II mGluRs (mGluR II) induces LTD at GABAergic synapses without affecting the excitatory glutamatergic transmission in neurons of the chicken cochlear nucleus. Coefficient of variation and failure rate analysis suggested that the LTD was expressed presynaptically. The LTD requires presynaptic spike activity, but does not require the activation of NMDA receptors. The classic cAMP-dependent protein kinase A signaling is involved in the transduction pathway. Remarkably, blocking mGluR II increased spontaneous GABA release, indicating the presence of tonic activation of mGluR II by ambient glutamate. Furthermore, synaptically released glutamate induced by electrical stimulations that concurrently activated both the glutamatergic and GABAergic pathways resulted in significant and constant suppression of GABA release at various stimulus frequencies (3.3, 100, and 300 Hz). Strikingly, low-frequency stimulation (1 Hz, 15 min) of the glutamatergic synapses induced heterosynaptic LTD of GABAergic transmission, and the LTD was blocked by mGluR II antagonist, indicating that synaptic activation of mGluR II induced the LTD. This novel form of long-term plasticity in the avian auditory brainstem may play a role in the development as well as in temporal processing in the sound localization circuit. PMID:24089501

  12. Surgical incision-induced nociception causes cognitive impairment and reduction in synaptic NMDA receptor 2B in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqin; Xin, Xin; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Yu, Buwei; Mao, Jianren; Xie, Zhongcong

    2013-11-06

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.

  13. Ethanol potentiation of GABAergic synaptic transmission may be self-limiting: role of presynaptic GABA(B) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ariwodola, Olusegun J; Weiner, Jeffrey L

    2004-11-24

    Ethanol enhances GABAergic synaptic inhibition, and this interaction contributes to many of the behavioral and cognitive effects of this drug. Most studies suggest that ethanol enhances GABAergic neurotransmission via an allosteric potentiation of the postsynaptic GABA(A) receptors that mediate fast synaptic inhibition in the mammalian CNS. Despite widespread acceptance of this hypothesis, direct support for such a mechanism has been difficult to obtain. Ethanol does not enhance GABA(A) receptor function in all brain regions or under all experimental conditions, and factors responsible for this variability remain mostly unknown. Notably, blockade of GABA(B) receptors dramatically enhances ethanol potentiation of hippocampal GABA(A) IPSPs and IPSCs, suggesting that some unknown GABA(B) receptor mechanism limits the overall potentiating effect of ethanol on GABAergic synapses. In this study, we demonstrate that, at perisomatic synapses in the rat hippocampus, ethanol enhances presynaptic GABA(B) autoreceptor function and that this interaction reduces the overall potentiating effect of ethanol at these synapses. We further show that ethanol significantly elevates basal presynaptic GABA(B) receptor tone, possibly via an increase in spontaneous GABA release, and that pretreatment with a subthreshold concentration of the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen blocks ethanol but not flunitrazepam or pentobarbital potentiation of GABA(A) IPSCs. These data suggest that an interaction between ethanol and presynaptic GABA(B) autoreceptor activity regulates the ethanol sensitivity of GABAergic synapses. Given that the in vitro ethanol sensitivity of these synapses correlates with in vivo ethanol responsiveness in a number of rodent lines, our data further suggest that presynaptic GABA(B) receptor activity may play a role in regulating behavioral sensitivity to ethanol.

  14. Intracellular Ca(2+) signaling is required for neurotrophin-induced potentiation in the adult rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kang, H; Schuman, E M

    2000-03-24

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of neurotrophin function in adult synaptic plasticity. In an effort to characterize the intracellular signaling pathways that couple Trk receptor activation to the final physiological effects of neurotrophins, we have examined the role of intracellular calcium rises in neurotrophin-induced synaptic enhancement in hippocampal slices. Using pharmacological blockers to two different calcium ion (Ca(2+)) sources, voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) stores, we show that the potentiating effects of neurotrophins in hippocampal slices are mediated by intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. Although basal synaptic transmission between hippocampal CA3 and CA1 neurons was not affected by nifedipine or thapsigargin, both drugs significantly attenuated brain-derived neurotrophic factor or neurotrophin-3-induced synaptic enhancement. The pharmacological blockade of Ca(2+) signaling is effective only during the initial period of neurotrophin-induced potentiation. These data suggest that the minimal requirements for inducing potentiation by neurotrophins involve a transient increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, via voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels and/or intracellular Ca(2+) stores.

  15. F1F0 ATP Synthase-Cyclophilin D Interaction Contributes to Diabetes-Induced Synaptic Dysfunction and Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shijun; Du, Fang; Wu, Long; Zhang, Zhihua; Zhong, Changjia; Yu, Qing; Wang, Yongfu; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G; Douglas, Justin T; Yan, Shirley ShiDu

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial abnormalities are well known to cause cognitive decline. However, the underlying molecular basis of mitochondria-associated neuronal and synaptic dysfunction in the diabetic brain remains unclear. Here, using a mitochondrial single-channel patch clamp and cyclophilin D (CypD)-deficient mice (Ppif (-/-)) with streptozotocin-induced diabetes, we observed an increase in the probability of Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening in brain mitochondria of diabetic mice, which was further confirmed by mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release induced by Ca(2+) overload. Diabetes-induced elevation of CypD triggers enhancement of F1F0 ATP synthase-CypD interaction, which in turn leads to mPTP opening. Indeed, in patients with diabetes, brain cypD protein levels were increased. Notably, blockade of the F1F0 ATP synthase-CypD interaction by CypD ablation protected against diabetes-induced mPTP opening, ATP synthesis deficits, oxidative stress, and mitochondria dysfunction. Furthermore, the absence of CypD alleviated deficits in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory in diabetic mice. Thus, blockade of ATP synthase interaction with CypD provides a promising new target for therapeutic intervention in diabetic encephalopathy. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  16. In vitro neuronal depolarization and increased synaptic activity induced by infrared neural stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Entwisle, Blake; McMullan, Simon; Bokiniec, Phillip; Gross, Simon; Chung, Roger; Withford, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal responses to infrared neural stimulation (INS) are explored at the single cell level using patch-clamp electrophysiology. We examined membrane and synaptic responses of solitary tract neurons recorded in acute slices prepared from the Sprague-Dawley rat. Neurons were stimulated using a compact 1890 nm waveguide laser with light delivered to a small target area, comparable to the size of a single cell, via a single-mode fiber. We show that infrared radiation increased spontaneous synaptic event frequency, and evoked steady-state currents and neuronal depolarization. The magnitude of the responses was proportional to laser output. PMID:27699093

  17. In vitro neuronal depolarization and increased synaptic activity induced by infrared neural stimulation.

    PubMed

    Entwisle, Blake; McMullan, Simon; Bokiniec, Phillip; Gross, Simon; Chung, Roger; Withford, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Neuronal responses to infrared neural stimulation (INS) are explored at the single cell level using patch-clamp electrophysiology. We examined membrane and synaptic responses of solitary tract neurons recorded in acute slices prepared from the Sprague-Dawley rat. Neurons were stimulated using a compact 1890 nm waveguide laser with light delivered to a small target area, comparable to the size of a single cell, via a single-mode fiber. We show that infrared radiation increased spontaneous synaptic event frequency, and evoked steady-state currents and neuronal depolarization. The magnitude of the responses was proportional to laser output.

  18. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    edge of chaos, where complex phenomena, including creativity and intelligence, may emerge'. Also in this issue R Stanley Williams and colleagues report results from simulations that demonstrate the potential for using Mott transistors as building blocks for scalable neuristor-based integrated circuits without transistors [5]. The scalability of neural chip designs is also tackled in the design reported by Narayan Srinivasa and colleagues in the US [6]. Meanwhile Carsten Timm and Massimiliano Di Ventra describe simulations of a molecular transistor in which electrons strongly coupled to a vibrational mode lead to a Franck-Condon (FC) blockade that mimics the spiking action potentials in synaptic memory behaviour [7]. The 'atomic switches' used to demonstrate synaptic behaviour by a collaboration of researchers in California and Japan also come under further scrutiny in this issue. James K Gimzewski and colleagues consider the difference between the behaviour of an atomic switch in isolation and in a network [8]. As the authors point out, 'The work presented represents steps in a unified approach of experimentation and theory of complex systems to make atomic switch networks a uniquely scalable platform for neuromorphic computing'. Researchers in Germany [9] and Sweden [10] also report on theoretical approaches to modelling networks of memristive elements and complementary resistive switches for synaptic devices. As Vincent Derycke and colleagues in France point out, 'Actual experimental demonstrations of neural network type circuits based on non-conventional/non-CMOS memory devices and displaying function learning capabilities remain very scarce'. They describe how their work using carbon nanotubes provides a rare demonstration of actual function learning with synapses based on nanoscale building blocks [11]. However, this is far from the only experimental work reported in this issue, others include: short-term memory of TiO2-based electrochemical capacitors [12]; a

  19. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Enhances the Excitability and Synaptic Plasticity of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Neurons and Induces a Tolerance to the Acute Inhibitory Actions of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Lopez, Marcelo F; Mulholland, Patrick J; Woodward, John J

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholism is associated with changes in brain reward and control systems, including the prefrontal cortex. In prefrontal areas, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to have an important role in the development of alcohol-abuse disorders and studies from this laboratory demonstrate that OFC-mediated behaviors are impaired in alcohol-dependent animals. However, it is not known whether chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure alters the fundamental properties of OFC neurons. In this study, mice were exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure to induce dependence and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine the effects of CIE treatment on lateral OFC (lOFC) neuron excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Repeated cycles of CIE exposure and withdrawal enhanced current-evoked action potential (AP) spiking and this was accompanied by a reduction in the after-hyperpolarization and a decrease in the functional activity of SK channels. CIE mice also showed an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and this was associated with an increase in GluA1/GluA2 AMPA receptor expression and a decrease in GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. Following CIE treatment, lOFC neurons displayed a persistent long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission following a spike-timing-dependent protocol. Lastly, CIE treatment diminished the inhibitory effect of acute ethanol on AP spiking of lOFC neurons and reduced expression of the GlyT1 transporter. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol leads to enhanced intrinsic excitability and glutamatergic synaptic signaling of lOFC neurons. These alterations may contribute to the impairment of OFC-dependent behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:26286839

  20. Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Enhances the Excitability and Synaptic Plasticity of Lateral Orbitofrontal Cortex Neurons and Induces a Tolerance to the Acute Inhibitory Actions of Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Lopez, Marcelo F; Mulholland, Patrick J; Woodward, John J

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with changes in brain reward and control systems, including the prefrontal cortex. In prefrontal areas, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to have an important role in the development of alcohol-abuse disorders and studies from this laboratory demonstrate that OFC-mediated behaviors are impaired in alcohol-dependent animals. However, it is not known whether chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure alters the fundamental properties of OFC neurons. In this study, mice were exposed to repeated cycles of chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure to induce dependence and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was used to examine the effects of CIE treatment on lateral OFC (lOFC) neuron excitability, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. Repeated cycles of CIE exposure and withdrawal enhanced current-evoked action potential (AP) spiking and this was accompanied by a reduction in the after-hyperpolarization and a decrease in the functional activity of SK channels. CIE mice also showed an increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and this was associated with an increase in GluA1/GluA2 AMPA receptor expression and a decrease in GluN2B NMDA receptor subunits. Following CIE treatment, lOFC neurons displayed a persistent long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission following a spike-timing-dependent protocol. Lastly, CIE treatment diminished the inhibitory effect of acute ethanol on AP spiking of lOFC neurons and reduced expression of the GlyT1 transporter. Taken together, these results suggest that chronic exposure to ethanol leads to enhanced intrinsic excitability and glutamatergic synaptic signaling of lOFC neurons. These alterations may contribute to the impairment of OFC-dependent behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  1. Recruitment of resting vesicles into recycling pools supports NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic potentiation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayaka, Arjuna; Marra, Vincenzo; Bush, Daniel; Burden, Jemima J; Branco, Tiago; Staras, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Most presynaptic terminals in the central nervous system are characterized by two functionally distinct vesicle populations: a recycling pool, which supports action potential-driven neurotransmitter release via vesicle exocytosis, and a resting pool. The relative proportions of these two pools are highly variable between individual synapses, prompting speculation on their specific relationship, and on the possible functions of the resting pool. Using fluorescence imaging of FM-styryl dyes and synaptophysinI-pHluorin (sypHy) as well as correlative electron microscopy approaches, we show here that Hebbian plasticity-dependent changes in synaptic strength in rat hippocampal neurons can increase the recycling pool fraction at the expense of the resting pool in individual synaptic terminals. This recruitment process depends on NMDA-receptor activation, nitric oxide signalling and calcineurin and is accompanied by an increase in the probability of neurotransmitter release at individual terminals. Blockade of actin-mediated intersynaptic vesicle exchange does not prevent recycling pool expansion demonstrating that vesicle recruitment is intrasynaptic. We propose that the conversion of resting pool vesicles to the functionally recycling pool provides a rapid mechanism to implement long-lasting changes in presynaptic efficacy. PMID:22271866

  2. Neuroprotective Effect of Fisetin Against Amyloid-Beta-Induced Cognitive/Synaptic Dysfunction, Neuroinflammation, and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ali, Tahir; Park, Hyun Young; Badshah, Haroon; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2017-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and is characterized pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and the hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins in the brain. The deposition of Aβ aggregates triggers synaptic dysfunction, hyperphosphorylation of tau, and neurodegeneration, which lead to cognitive disorders. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of fisetin in the Aβ1-42 mouse model of AD. Single intracerebroventricular injections of Aβ1-42 (3 μl/5 min/mouse) markedly induced memory/synaptic deficits, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration. Intraperitoneal injections of fisetin at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks starting 24 h after Aβ1-42 injection significantly decreased the Aβ1-42-induced accumulation of Aβ, BACE-1 expression, and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein at serine 413. Fisetin treatment also markedly reversed Aβ1-42-induced synaptic dysfunction by increasing the levels of both presynaptic (SYN and SNAP-25) and postsynaptic proteins (PSD-95, SNAP-23, p-GluR1 (Ser 845), p-CREB (Ser 133) and p-CAMKII (Thr 286) and ultimately improved mouse memory, as observed in the Morris water maze test. Fisetin significantly activated p-PI3K, p-Akt (Ser 473), and p-GSK3β (Ser 9) expression in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Moreover, fisetin prevented neuroinflammation by suppressing various activated neuroinflammatory mediators and gliosis; it also suppressed the apoptotic neurodegeneration triggered by Aβ1-42 injections in the mouse hippocampus. Fluorojade-B and immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 revealed that fisetin prevented neurodegeneration in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Our results suggest that fisetin has a potent neuroprotective effect against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity. These results demonstrate that polyphenolic flavonoids such as fisetin could be a beneficial, effective and safe neuroprotective agent for preventing neurological disorders such as AD.

  3. Mitochondria-Division Inhibitor 1 Protects Against Amyloid-β induced Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Synaptic Damage in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P Hemachandra; Manczak, Maria; Yin, XiangLing

    2017-01-01

    The purpose our study was to determine the protective effects of mitochondria division inhibitor 1 (Mdivi1) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mdivi1 is hypothesized to reduce excessive fragmentation of mitochondria and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD neurons. Very little is known about whether Mdivi1 can confer protective effects in AD. In the present study, we sought to determine the protective effects of Mdivi1 against amyloid-β (Aβ)- and mitochondrial fission protein, dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1)-induced excessive fragmentation of mitochondria in AD progression. We also studied preventive (Mdivi1+Aβ42) and intervention (Aβ42+Mdivi1) effects against Aβ42 in N2a cells. Using real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting analysis, we measured mRNA and protein levels of mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic genes. We also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring H2O2, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome oxidase activity, and mitochondrial ATP. MTT assays were used to assess the cell viability. Aβ42 was found to impair mitochondrial dynamics, lower mitochondrial biogenesis, lower synaptic activity, and lower mitochondrial function. On the contrary, Mdivi1 enhanced mitochondrial fusion activity, lowered fission machinery, and increased biogenesis and synaptic proteins. Mitochondrial function and cell viability were elevated in Mdivi1-treated cells. Interestingly, Mdivi1 pre- and post-treated cells treated with Aβ showed reduced mitochondrial dysfunction, and maintained cell viability, mitochondrial dynamics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and synaptic activity. The protective effects of Mdivi1 were stronger in N2a+Aβ42 pre-treated with Mdivi1, than in N2a+Aβ42 cells than Mdivi1 post-treated cells, indicating that Mdivi1 works better in prevention than treatment in AD like neurons.

  4. Nicotine-induced enhancement of synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 synapses requires GABAergic interneurons in adult anti-NGF mice.

    PubMed

    Rosato-Siri, Marcelo; Cattaneo, Antonino; Cherubini, Enrico

    2006-10-15

    GABAergic interneurons. Together, these experiments indicate that in AD 11 mice a rearrangement of the GABAergic circuit can 'rescue' nicotine-induced potentiation of synaptic plasticity. This may be relevant for developing proper therapeutic tools useful for the treatment of AD.

  5. Priming of Short-Term Potentiation and Synaptic Tagging/Capture Mechanisms by Ryanodine Receptor Activation in Rat Hippocampal CA1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Li, Qin; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Xiao, Zhi Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are considered to be cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Strengthening of a synapse for a few seconds or minutes is termed short-term potentiation (STP) and is normally unable to take part in the processes of synaptic…

  6. Priming of Short-Term Potentiation and Synaptic Tagging/Capture Mechanisms by Ryanodine Receptor Activation in Rat Hippocampal CA1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajikumar, Sreedharan; Li, Qin; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Xiao, Zhi Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Activity-dependent changes in synaptic strength such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are considered to be cellular mechanisms underlying learning and memory. Strengthening of a synapse for a few seconds or minutes is termed short-term potentiation (STP) and is normally unable to take part in the processes of synaptic…

  7. The impact of stimulation induced short-term synaptic plasticity on firing patterns in the globus pallidus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Bugaysen, Jenia; Bar-Gad, Izhar; Korngreen, Alon

    2011-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in the globus pallidus (GP) leads to complex modulations of neuronal activity in the stimulated nucleus. Multiple in vivo studies have demonstrated the modulation of both firing rates and patterns during and immediately following the GP stimulation. Previous in vitro studies, together with computational studies, have suggested the involvement of short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) during the stimulation. The aim of the current study was to explore in vitro the effects of STP on neuronal activity of GP neurons during local repetitive stimulation. We recorded synaptic potentials and assessed the modulations of spontaneous firing in a postsynaptic neuron in acute brain slices via a whole-cell pipette. Low-frequency repetitive stimulation locked the firing of the neuron to the stimulus. However, high-frequency repetitive stimulation in the GP generated a biphasic modulation of the firing frequency consisting of inhibitory and excitatory phases. Using blockers of synaptic transmission, we show that GABAergic synapses mediated the inhibitory and glutamatergic synapses the excitatory part of the response. Furthermore, we report that at high stimulation frequencies both types of synapses undergo short-term depression leading to a time dependent modulation of the neuronal firing. These findings indicate that STP modulates the dynamic responses of pallidal activity during electrical stimulation, and may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism underlying deep brain stimulation like protocols.

  8. Persistent neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss induced by multiple but not single exposure of propofol contribute to long-term cognitive dysfunction in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Bin; Liu, Hongliang

    2016-01-01

    Propofol can induce acute neuronal apoptosis or long-term cognitive dysfunction when exposed at early age in rodents, but it is unclear how the neurotoxicity including neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss will change in a dynamic manner with brain development after multiple or single exposure of propofol, and the role of neuronal apoptosis and synaptic loss in propofol-induced long-term cognitive impairment needs to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated dynamic changes of neuronal apoptosis, neuronal density, synaptic density in hippocampal CA1 region and the prelimbic cortex (PrL), and long-term cognitive function after multiple or single exposure of propofol in neonatal rats. Results showed that single exposure of propofol only induced great neuronal apoptosis and deficit at postnatal day 9(P9); while multiple exposures of propofol could induce significant neuronal apoptosis, neuronal deficit and synaptic loss at P9, P14, P21, or P35 compared with intact, and spatial learning and memory impairment from P36 to P41. Results suggest that single exposure of propofol only induces transient neuronal apoptosis and deficit, while multiple exposures of propofol induce persistent neuronal apoptosis, neuronal deficit, synaptic loss, and long-term cognitive impairment. Furthermore, persistent neuronal deficit and disturbances in synapse formation but not transient neuronal apoptosis may contribute to long-term cognitive impairment.

  9. Involvement of vH+-ATPase in synaptic vesicle swelling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Leah; Basi, Nirukti; Jeremic, Aleksandar; Lee, Jin-Sook; Cho, Won Jin; Chen, ZhiHui; Abu-Hamdah, Rania; Oupicky, David; Jena, Bhanu P

    2010-01-01

    Secretory vesicle swelling is central to cell secretion, however the underlying mechanism of vesicle swelling, particularly synaptic vesicles, is not completely understood. The Gαi3-PLA2-mediated involvement of water channel AQP-1 in the regulation of secretory vesicle swelling in exocrine pancreas, and the Gαo-mediated AQP-6 involvement in synaptic vesicle swelling in neurons, has previously been reported. Furthermore, the role of vH+-ATPase in neurotransmitter transport into synaptic vesicles, has also been shown. Using nanometer scale precision measurements of isolated synaptic vesicles, the present study reports for the first time, the involvement of vH+-ATPase in GTP-Gαo-mediated synaptic vesicle swelling. Results from this study, demonstrate that the GTP-Gαo-mediated vesicle swelling is vH+-ATPase–dependent, and pH sensitive. Zeta potential measurements of isolated synaptic vesicles further demonstrate, a bafilomycin-sensitive vesicle acidification, following the GTP-Gαo-induced swelling stimulus. Since water channels are bidirectional, and the vH+-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin decreases both the volume of isolated synaptic vesicles and GTP-mastoparan stimulated swelling, suggests vH+-ATPase to be upstream of AQP-6, in the pathway leading from Gαo-stimulated swelling of synaptic vesicles. Vesicle acidification is therefore a prerequisite for AQP-6 mediated gating of water into synaptic vesicles. PMID:19610106

  10. Effects of dimethylarsinic and dimethylarsinous acid on evoked synaptic potentials in hippocampal slices of young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Katharina Repges, Hendrik; Hippler, Joerg; Hartmann, Louise M.; Hirner, Alfred V.; Straub, Heidrun; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2007-11-15

    In this study, the effects of pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}AsO(OH); DMA{sup V}) and trivalent dimethylarsinous acid ((CH{sub 3}){sub 2}As(OH); DMA{sup III}) on synaptic transmission generated by the excitatory Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse were tested in hippocampal slices of young (14-21 day-old) and adult (2-4 month-old) rats. Both compounds were applied in concentrations of 1 to 100 {mu}mol/l. DMA{sup V} had no effect on the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs or the induction of LTP recorded from the CA1 dendritic region either in adult or in young rats. However, application of DMA{sup III} significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked fEPSPs in a concentration-dependent manner with a total depression following application of 100 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in adult and 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} in young rats. Moreover, DMA{sup III} significantly affected the LTP-induction. Application of 10 {mu}mol/l DMA{sup III} resulted in a complete failure of the postsynaptic potentiation of the fEPSP amplitudes in slices taken both from adult and young rats. The depressant effect was not reversible after a 30-min washout of the DMA{sup III}. In slices of young rats, the depressant effects of DMA{sup III} were more pronounced than in those taken from adult ones. Compared to the (absent) effect of DMA{sup V} on synaptic transmission, the trivalent compound possesses a considerably higher neurotoxic potential.

  11. Apamin Boosting of Synaptic Potentials in CaV2.3 R-Type Ca2+ Channel Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kang; Kelley, Melissa H; Wu, Wendy W; Adelman, John P; Maylie, James

    2015-01-01

    SK2- and KV4.2-containing K+ channels modulate evoked synaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Each is coupled to a distinct Ca2+ source that provides Ca2+-dependent feedback regulation to limit AMPA receptor (AMPAR)- and NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated postsynaptic depolarization. SK2-containing channels are activated by Ca2+ entry through NMDARs, whereas KV4.2-containing channel availability is increased by Ca2+ entry through SNX-482 (SNX) sensitive CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels. Recent studies have challenged the functional coupling between NMDARs and SK2-containing channels, suggesting that synaptic SK2-containing channels are instead activated by Ca2+ entry through R-type Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, SNX has been implicated to have off target affects, which would challenge the proposed coupling between R-type Ca2+ channels and KV4.2-containing K+ channels. To reconcile these conflicting results, we evaluated the effect of SK channel blocker apamin and R-type Ca2+ channel blocker SNX on evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in CA1 pyramidal neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. The results show that in the absence of CaV2.3 channels, apamin application still boosted EPSPs. The boosting effect of CaV2.3 channel blockers on EPSPs observed in neurons from wild type mice was not observed in neurons from CaV2.3 null mice. These data are consistent with a model in which SK2-containing channels are functionally coupled to NMDARs and KV4.2-containing channels to CaV2.3 channels to provide negative feedback regulation of EPSPs in the spines of CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  12. A transient receptor potential-like channel mediates synaptic transmission in rod bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yin; Heimel, J. Alexander; Kamermans, Maarten; Peachey, Neal S.; Gregg, Ronald G.; Nawy, Scott

    2009-01-01

    On bipolar cells are connected to photoreceptors via a sign-inverting synapse. At this synapse, glutamate binds to a metabotropic receptor which couples to the closure of a cation-selective transduction channel. The molecular identity of both the receptor and the G protein are known, but the identity of the transduction channel has remained elusive. Here we show that the transduction channel in mouse rod bipolar cells, a subtype of On bipolar cell, is likely to be a member of the TRP family of channels. To evoke a transduction current, the metabotropic receptor antagonist LY341495 was applied to the dendrites of cells that were bathed in a solution containing the mGluR6 agonists L-AP4 or glutamate. The transduction current was suppressed by ruthenium red and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and SB-366791. Furthermore, focal application of the TRPV1 agonists capsaicin and anandamide evoked a transduction-like current. The capsaicin-evoked and endogenous transduction current displayed prominent outward rectification, a property of the TRPV1 channel. To test the possibility that the transduction channel is TRPV1, we measured rod bipolar cell function in the TRPV1-/-mouse. The ERG b-wave, a measure of On bipolar cell function, as well as the transduction current and the response to TRPV1 agonists were normal, arguing against a role for TRPV1. However, ERG measurements from mice lacking TRPM1 receptors, another TRP channel implicated in retinal function, revealed the absence of a b-wave. Our results suggest that a TRP-like channel, possibly TRPM1, is essential for synaptic function in On bipolar cells. PMID:19439586

  13. Increased Spinal Cord Na+-K+-2Cl− Cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) Activity Contributes to Impairment of Synaptic Inhibition in Paclitaxel-induced Neuropathic Pain*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-Rui; Zhu, Lihong; Chen, Hong; Wen, Lei; Laumet, Geoffroy; Pan, Hui-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-stabilizing agents, such as paclitaxel (Taxol), are effective chemotherapy drugs for treating many cancers, and painful neuropathy is a major dose-limiting adverse effect. Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) and K+-Cl− cotransporter-2 (KCC2), critically influence spinal synaptic inhibition by regulating intracellular chloride concentrations. Here we show that paclitaxel treatment in rats significantly reduced GABA-induced membrane hyperpolarization and caused a depolarizing shift in GABA reversal potential of dorsal horn neurons. However, paclitaxel had no significant effect on AMPA or NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic input from primary afferents to dorsal horn neurons. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased protein levels, but not mRNA levels, of NKCC1 in spinal cords. Inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide reversed the paclitaxel effect on GABA-mediated hyperpolarization and GABA reversal potentials. Also, intrathecal bumetanide significantly attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by paclitaxel. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed that NKCC1 interacted with β-tubulin and β-actin in spinal cords. Remarkably, paclitaxel increased NKCC1 protein levels at the plasma membrane and reduced NKCC1 levels in the cytosol of spinal cords. In contrast, treatment with an actin-stabilizing agent had no significant effect on NKCC1 protein levels in the plasma membrane or cytosolic fractions of spinal cords. In addition, inhibition of the motor protein dynein blocked paclitaxel-induced subcellular redistribution of NKCC1, whereas inhibition of kinesin-5 mimicked the paclitaxel effect. Our findings suggest that increased NKCC1 activity contributes to diminished spinal synaptic inhibition and neuropathic pain caused by paclitaxel. Paclitaxel disrupts intracellular NKCC1 trafficking by interfering with microtubule dynamics and associated motor proteins. PMID:25253692

  14. Hippocampal Synaptic Expansion Induced by Spatial Experience in Rats Correlates with Improved Information Processing in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Carasatorre, Mariana; Ochoa-Alvarez, Adrian; Velázquez-Campos, Giovanna; Lozano-Flores, Carlos; Díaz-Cintra, Sofía Y.; Ramírez-Amaya, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Spatial water maze (WM) overtraining induces hippocampal mossy fiber (MF) expansion, and it has been suggested that spatial pattern separation depends on the MF pathway. We hypothesized that WM experience inducing MF expansion in rats would improve spatial pattern separation in the hippocampal network. We first tested this by using the the delayed non-matching to place task (DNMP), in animals that had been previously trained on the water maze (WM) and found that these animals, as well as animals treated as swim controls (SC), performed better than home cage control animals the DNMP task. The “catFISH” imaging method provided neurophysiological evidence that hippocampal pattern separation improved in animals treated as SC, and this improvement was even clearer in animals that experienced the WM training. Moreover, these behavioral treatments also enhance network reliability and improve partial pattern separation in CA1 and pattern completion in CA3. By measuring the area occupied by synaptophysin staining in both the stratum oriens and the stratun lucidum of the distal CA3, we found evidence of structural synaptic plasticity that likely includes MF expansion. Finally, the measures of hippocampal network coding obtained with catFISH correlate significantly with the increased density of synaptophysin staining, strongly suggesting that structural synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus induced by the WM and SC experience is related to the improvement of spatial information processing in the hippocampus. PMID:26244549

  15. Potentiation of convergent synaptic inputs onto pyramidal neurons in somatosensory cortex: dependence on brain wave frequencies and NMDA receptor subunit composition.

    PubMed

    Pilli, J; Kumar, S S

    2014-07-11

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) at layer (L)1/primary whisker motor cortex synaptic inputs are distinct from thalamic/striatal (Str) synaptic inputs onto L5 pyramidal neurons in the rat somatosensory cortex. However, the consequences of differential expression of putative GluN3A-containing triheteromeric NMDARs at L1 inputs and GluN2A-containing diheteromeric NMDARs at Str inputs on plasticity of the underlying synapses at the respective inputs remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that L1, but not Str, synapses are potentiated following delta burst stimulation (dBS). This potentiation is blocked by d-serine and/or intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA) suggesting that it is subunit-specific and dependent on elevations in intracellular Ca(2+). Interestingly, ifenprodil, the GluN2B-preferring antagonist, suppresses baseline L1 responses but does not prevent induction of dBS-evoked potentiation. Unlike L1, Str synapses are maximally potentiated following theta burst stimulation (tBS) and this potentiation is blocked with BAPTA and/or the GluN2A-preferring antagonist NVP-AAM077. We show further that while dBS is both necessary and sufficient to potentiate L1 synapses, tBS is most effective in potentiating Str synapses. Our data suggest distinct potentiating paradigms for the two convergent inputs onto pyramidal neurons in the somatosensory cortex and co-dependence of synaptic potentiation on brain wave-tuned frequencies of burst stimulation and subunit composition of underlying NMDARs. A model for predicting the likelihood of enhancing synaptic efficacy is proposed based on Ca(2+) influx through these receptors and integration of EPSPs at these inputs. Together, these findings raise the possibility of input-specific enhancements of synaptic efficacy in neurons as a function of the animal's behavioral state and/or arousal in vivo.

  16. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  17. Spaceflight induces changes in the synaptic circuitry of the postnatal developing neocortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeFelipe, J.; Arellano, J. I.; Merchan-Perez, A.; Gonzalez-Albo, M. C.; Walton, K.; Llinas, R.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of the adult pattern of neocortical circuitry depends on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, whose modification during development can lead to alterations in cortical organization and function. We report the effect of 16 days of spaceflight [Neurolab mission; from postnatal day 14 (P14) to P30] on the neocortical representation of the hindlimb synaptic circuitry in rats. As a result, we show, for the first time, that development in microgravity leads to changes in the number and morphology of cortical synapses in a laminar-specific manner. In the layers II/III and Va, the synaptic cross-sectional lengths were significantly larger in flight animals than in ground control animals. Flight animals also showed significantly lower synaptic densities in layers II/III, IV and Va. The greatest difference was found in layer II/III, where there was a difference of 344 million synapses per mm(3) (15.6% decrease). Furthermore, after a 4 month period of re-adaptation to terrestrial gravity, some changes disappeared (i.e. the alterations were transient), while conversely, some new differences also appeared. For example, significant differences in synaptic density in layers II/III and Va after re-adaptation were no longer observed, whereas in layer IV the density of synapses increased notably in flight animals (a difference of 185 million synapses per mm(3) or 13.4%). In addition, all the changes observed only affected asymmetrical synapses, which are known to be excitatory. These results indicates that terrestrial gravity is a necessary environmental parameter for normal cortical synaptogenesis. These findings are fundamental in planning future long-term spaceflights.

  18. Mechanisms involved in systemic nicotine-induced glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ming; Jin, Yu; Yang, Kechun; Zhang, Die; Lukas, Ronald J.; Wu, Jie

    2010-01-01

    Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA ratio) assessed 24 hr later, based on slice patch recording. The AMPA/NMDA ratio increase is evident within 1 hr and lasts for at least 72 hr after nicotine exposure (and up to 8 days after repeated nicotine administration). This effect cannot be prevented by systemic injection of either α7-nAChR-selective (methyllycaconitine, MLA) or β2*-nAChR-selective (mecamylamine, MEC) antagonists but is prevented by co-injection of MLA and MEC. In either nAChR α7 or β2 subunit knock-out mice, systemic exposure to nicotine still increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio. Pre-injection in rats of a NMDA receptor antagonist (MK801), but neither DA receptor antagonists (SCH23390 plus haloperidol) nor a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine), prevents the nicotine-induced increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio. After systemic exposure to nicotine, glutamatergic (but not GABAergic) transmission onto rat VTA DA neuronal inputs is enhanced. Correspondingly, DA neuronal firing measured 24 hr after nicotine exposure using extracellular single unit recording in vivo is significantly faster, and there is conversion of silent to active DA neurons. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that systemic nicotine acting via either α7- or β2*-nAChRs increases pre- and post-synaptic glutamatergic function, and consequently initiates glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, which may be an important, early neuronal adaptation in nicotine reward and reinforcement. PMID:20943922

  19. A specific requirement of Arc/Arg3.1 for visual experience-induced homeostatic synaptic plasticity in mouse primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Sossa, Kenneth; Song, Lihua; Errington, Lauren; Cummings, Laurel; Hwang, Hongik; Kuhl, Dietmar; Worley, Paul; Lee, Hey-Kyoung

    2010-05-26

    Visual experience scales down excitatory synapses in the superficial layers of visual cortex in a process that provides an in vivo paradigm of homeostatic synaptic scaling. Experience-induced increases in neural activity rapidly upregulates mRNAs of immediate early genes involved in synaptic plasticity, one of which is Arc (activity-regulated cytoskeleton protein or Arg3.1). Cell biological studies indicate that Arc/Arg3.1 protein functions to recruit endocytic machinery for AMPA receptor internalization, and this action, together with its activity-dependent expression, rationalizes a role for Arc/Arg3.1 in homeostatic synaptic scaling. Here, we investigated the role of Arc/Arg3.1 in homeostatic scaling in vivo by examining experience-dependent development of layer 2/3 neurons in the visual cortex of Arc/Arg3.1 knock-out (KO) mice. Arc/Arg3.1 KOs show minimal changes in basal and developmental regulation of excitatory synaptic strengths but display a profound deficit in homeostatic regulation of excitatory synapses by visual experience. As additional evidence of specificity, we found that the visual experience-induced regulation of inhibitory synapses is normal, although the basal inhibitory synaptic strength is increased in the Arc/Arg3.1 KOs. Our results demonstrate that Arc/Arg3.1 plays a selective role in regulating visual experience-dependent homeostatic plasticity of excitatory synaptic transmission in vivo.

  20. A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Honnuraiah, Suraj; Narayanan, Rishikesh

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a conductance-based model for the hippocampal pyramidal neuron, and incorporate synaptic plasticity through the well-established Bienenstock-Cooper-Munro (BCM)-like rule for synaptic plasticity, wherein the direction and strength of the plasticity is dependent on the concentration of calcium influx. Under this framework, we derive a rule for HCN channel plasticity to establish homeostasis in synaptically-driven firing rate, and incorporate such plasticity into our model. In demonstrating that this rule for HCN channel plasticity helps maintain firing rate homeostasis after bidirectional synaptic plasticity, we observe a linear relationship between synaptic plasticity and HCN channel plasticity for maintaining firing rate homeostasis. Motivated by this linear relationship, we derive a calcium-dependent rule for HCN-channel plasticity, and demonstrate that firing rate homeostasis is maintained in the face of synaptic plasticity when moderate and high levels of cytosolic calcium influx induced depression and potentiation of the HCN-channel conductance, respectively. Additionally, we show that such synergy between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity enhances the stability of synaptic learning through metaplasticity in the BCM-like synaptic plasticity profile. Finally, we demonstrate that the synergistic interaction between synaptic and HCN-channel plasticity preserves robustness of information transfer across the neuron under a rate-coding schema. Our results establish specific physiological roles

  1. Choline induces opposite changes in pyramidal neuron excitability and synaptic transmission through a nicotinic receptor-independent process in hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Albiñana, E; Luengo, J G; Baraibar, A M; Muñoz, M D; Gandía, L; Solís, J M; Hernández-Guijo, J M

    2017-06-01

    Choline is present at cholinergic synapses as a product of acetylcholine degradation. In addition, it is considered a selective agonist for α5 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In this study, we determined how choline affects action potentials and excitatory synaptic transmission using extracellular and intracellular recording techniques in CA1 area of hippocampal slices obtained from both mice and rats. Choline caused a reversible depression of evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in a concentration-dependent manner that was not affected by α7 nAChR antagonists. Moreover, this choline-induced effect was not mimicked by either selective agonists or allosteric modulators of α7 nAChRs. Additionally, this choline-mediated effect was not prevented by either selective antagonists of GABA receptors or hemicholinium, a choline uptake inhibitor. The paired pulse facilitation paradigm, which detects whether a substance affects presynaptic release of glutamate, was not modified by choline. On the other hand, choline induced a robust increase of population spike evoked by orthodromic stimulation but did not modify that evoked by antidromic stimulation. We also found that choline impaired recurrent inhibition recorded in the pyramidal cell layer through a mechanism independent of α7 nAChR activation. These choline-mediated effects on fEPSP and population spike observed in rat slices were completely reproduced in slices obtained from α7 nAChR knockout mice, which reinforces our conclusion that choline modulates synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability by a mechanism independent of nicotinic receptor activation.

  2. PSPs and ERPs: applying the dynamics of post-synaptic potentials to individual units in simulation of temporally extended Event-Related Potential reading data.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Sarah; Armstrong, Blair C

    2014-05-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework is built on neural-style computation, and is thus well-suited for simulating the neural implementation of cognition. However, relatively little cognitive modeling work has concerned neural measures, instead focusing on behavior. Here, we extend a PDP model of reading-related components in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) to simulation of the N400 repetition effect. We accomplish this by incorporating the dynamics of cortical post-synaptic potentials--the source of the ERP signal--into the model. Simulations demonstrate that application of these dynamics is critical for model elicitation of repetition effects in the time and frequency domains. We conclude that by advancing a neurocomputational understanding of repetition effects, we are able to posit an interpretation of their source that is both explicitly specified and mechanistically different from the well-accepted cognitive one.

  3. A synaptically controlled, associative signal for Hebbian plasticity in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Magee, J C; Johnston, D

    1997-01-10

    The role of back-propagating dendritic action potentials in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) was investigated in CA1 neurons by means of dendritic patch recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging. Pairing of subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) with back-propagating action potentials resulted in an amplification of dendritic action potentials and evoked calcium influx near the site of synaptic input. This pairing also induced a robust LTP, which was reduced when EPSPs were paired with non-back-propagating action potentials or when stimuli were unpaired. Action potentials thus provide a synaptically controlled, associative signal to the dendrites for Hebbian modifications of synaptic strength.

  4. Oridonin Attenuates Synaptic Loss and Cognitive Deficits in an Aβ1–42-Induced Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hui; Li, Chaosheng; Hui, Zhen; Xu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic loss induced by beta-amyloid (Aβ) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown. In this study, we found that oridonin (Ori) rescued synaptic loss induced by Aβ1–42 in vivo and in vitro and attenuated the alterations in dendritic structure and spine density observed in the hippocampus of AD mice. In addition, Ori increased the expression of PSD-95 and synaptophysin and promoted mitochondrial activity in the synaptosomes of AD mice. Ori also activated the BDNF/TrkB/CREB signaling pathway in the hippocampus of AD mice. Furthermore, in the Morris water maze test, Ori reduced latency and searching distance and increased the number of platform crosses in AD mice. These data suggest that Ori might prevent synaptic loss and improve behavioral symptoms in Aβ1–42-induced AD mice. PMID:26974541

  5. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress hormone associates with plastic alteration of synaptic NMDA receptor in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tse, Yiu Chung; Bagot, Rosemary C; Hutter, Juliana A; Wong, Alice S; Wong, Tak Pan

    2011-01-01

    Stress exerts a profound impact on learning and memory, in part, through the actions of adrenal corticosterone (CORT) on synaptic plasticity, a cellular model of learning and memory. Increasing findings suggest that CORT exerts its impact on synaptic plasticity by altering the functional properties of glutamate receptors, which include changes in the motility and function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid subtype of glutamate receptor (AMPAR) that are responsible for the expression of synaptic plasticity. Here we provide evidence that CORT could also regulate synaptic plasticity by modulating the function of synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which mediate the induction of synaptic plasticity. We found that stress level CORT applied to adult rat hippocampal slices potentiated evoked NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses within 30 min. Surprisingly, following this fast-onset change, we observed a slow-onset (>1 hour after termination of CORT exposure) increase in synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs. To investigate the consequences of the distinct fast- and slow-onset modulation of NMDARs for synaptic plasticity, we examined the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) within relevant time windows. Paralleling the increased NMDAR function, both LTP and LTD were facilitated during CORT treatment. However, 1-2 hours after CORT treatment when synaptic expression of GluN2A-containing NMDARs is increased, bidirectional plasticity was no longer facilitated. Our findings reveal the remarkable plasticity of NMDARs in the adult hippocampus in response to CORT. CORT-mediated slow-onset increase in GluN2A in hippocampal synapses could be a homeostatic mechanism to normalize synaptic plasticity following fast-onset stress-induced facilitation.

  6. Activation of kappa opioid receptors decreases synaptic transmission and inhibits long-term potentiation in the basolateral amygdala of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Huge, Volker; Rammes, Gerhard; Beyer, Antje; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Azad, Shahnaz C

    2009-02-01

    The amygdala plays an important role in the processing of chronic pain and pain memory formation. Particularly, it is involved in the emotional and affective components of the pain circuitry. The role of kappa opioid receptors in these pain conditions is only partly known. The present study investigates the effect of kappa receptor activation on synaptic transmission and synaptic plasticity in the amygdala. Electrophysiological in vitro experiments were carried out in brain slices of male C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice. The effect of the kappa opioid receptor agonist U50,488H (5 microM) and the selective kappa opioid receptor antagonist nor-BNI (3 microM) on field potential (FP) amplitude and the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was examined. High frequency stimulation (HFS) of afferents in the lateral amygdala with two trains of 100 pulses at 50 Hz increased the FP amplitudes to 119+/-2% (mean+/-SEM; n=6) in the BLA. U50,488H decreased synaptic transmission (baseline: 100+/-0.5%; U50,488H: 86.3+/-2.4%; n=6) and blocked the induction of LTP (U50,488H: 100+/-4.1%; HFS: 102.6+/-7%; n=6). The effect on synaptic transmission and on LTP was completely reversed or prevented by application of nor-BNI, which itself had no effect on synaptic transmission or the induction of LTP. Kappa opioid receptor activation decreases synaptic transmission and inhibits the induction of LTP in the BLA of the mouse. These findings may be associated with the effects of kappa opioid agonists in chronic pain and pain memory formation.

  7. Single-trial imaging of spikes and synaptic potentials in single neurons in brain slices with genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ghitani, Nima; Bayguinov, Peter O.; Ma, Yihe

    2014-01-01

    Genetically encoded voltage sensors expand the optogenetics toolkit into the important realm of electrical recording, enabling researchers to study the dynamic activity of complex neural circuits in real time. However, these probes have thus far performed poorly when tested in intact neural circuits. Hybrid voltage sensors (hVOS) enable the imaging of voltage by harnessing the resonant energy transfer that occurs between a genetically encoded component, a membrane-tethered fluorescent protein that serves as a donor, and a small charged molecule, dipicrylamine, which serves as an acceptor. hVOS generates optical signals as a result of voltage-induced changes in donor-acceptor distance. We expressed the hVOS probe in mouse brain by in utero electroporation and in transgenic mice with a neuronal promoter. Under conditions favoring sparse labeling we could visualize single-labeled neurons. hVOS imaging reported electrically evoked fluorescence changes from individual neurons in slices from entorhinal cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. These fluorescence signals tracked action potentials in individual neurons in a single trial with excellent temporal fidelity, producing changes that exceeded background noise by as much as 16-fold. Subthreshold synaptic potentials were detected in single trials in multiple distinct cells simultaneously. We followed signal propagation between different cells within one field of view and between dendrites and somata of the same cell. hVOS imaging thus provides a tool for high-resolution recording of electrical activity from genetically targeted cells in intact neuronal circuits. PMID:25411462

  8. The stress hormone corticosterone increases synaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors via serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) regulation of the GDI-Rab4 complex.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenhua; Yuen, Eunice Y; Yan, Zhen

    2010-02-26

    Corticosterone, the major stress hormone, plays an important role in regulating neuronal functions of the limbic system, although the cellular targets and molecular mechanisms of corticosteroid signaling are largely unknown. Here we show that a short treatment of corticosterone significantly increases alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission and AMPAR membrane trafficking in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex, a key region involved in cognition and emotion. This enhancing effect of corticosterone is through a mechanism dependent on Rab4, the small GTPase-controlling receptor recycling between early endosome and plasma membrane. Guanosine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (GDI), which regulates the cycle of Rab proteins between membrane and cytosol, forms an increased complex with Rab4 after corticosterone treatment. Corticosterone also triggers an increased GDI phosphorylation at Ser-213 by the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK). Moreover, AMPAR synaptic currents and surface expression and their regulation by corticosterone are altered by mutating Ser-213 on GDI. These results suggest that corticosterone, via SGK phosphorylation of GDI at Ser-213, increases the formation of GDI-Rab4 complex, facilitating the functional cycle of Rab4 and Rab4-mediated recycling of AMPARs to the synaptic membrane. It provides a potential mechanism underlying the role of corticosteroid stress hormone in up-regulating excitatory synaptic efficacy in cortical neurons.

  9. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jinhee; Shin, Ki Ok; Park, So Young; Jang, Ki Soeng; Kang, Sunghwun

    2013-10-08

    Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1-4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5-8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning capacity unlike dietary control.

  10. Effects of exercise and diet change on cognition function and synaptic plasticity in high fat diet induced obese rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nutritional imbalance-induced obesity causes a variety of diseases and in particular is an important cause of cognitive function decline. This study was performed on Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 13-weeks of high fat diet-induced obesity in connection to the effects of regular exercise and dietary control for 8 weeks on the synaptic plasticity and cognitive abilities of brain. Methods Four weeks-old SD rats were adopted classified into normal-normal diet-sedentary (NNS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-sedentary (OHS, n = 8), obesity-high fat diet-training (OHT, n = 8), obesity-normal diet-sedentary (ONS, n = 8) and obesity- normal diet-training (ONT, n = 8). The exercise program consisted of a treadmill exercise administered at a speed of 8 m/min for 1–4 weeks, and 14 m/min for 5–8 weeks. The Western blot method was used to measure the expression of NGF, BDNF, p38MAPK and p-p38MAPK proteins in hippocampus of the brain, and expressions of NGF, BDNF, TrkA, TrkB, CREB and synapsin1 mRNA were analyzed through qRT-PCR. Results The results suggest cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression to be significantly decreased in the hippocampus of obese rats, and synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors were also significantly decreased. In addition, 8-weeks exercises and treatment by dietary change had induced significant increase of cognitive function-related protein levels and mRNA expression as well as synaptic plasticity and cognitive function signaling sub-pathway factors in obese rats. In particular, the combined treatment had presented even more positive effect. Conclusions Therefore, it was determined that the high fat diet-induced obesity decreases plasticity and cognitive function of the brain, but was identified as being improved by exercises and dietary changes. In particular, it is considered that regular exercise has positive effects on memory span and learning

  11. Activity-induced synaptic delivery of the GluN2A-containing NMDA receptor is dependent on endoplasmic reticulum chaperone Bip and involved in fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-min; Yan, Xun-yi; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Qian; Ye, Mao; Cao, Wei; Qiang, Wen-bin; Zhu, Li-jun; Du, Yong-lan; Xu, Xing-xing; Wang, Jia-sheng; Xu, Fei; Lu, Wei; Qiu, Shuang; Yang, Wei; Luo, Jian-hong

    2015-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in adult forebrain is a heterotetramer mainly composed of two GluN1 subunits and two GluN2A and/or GluN2B subunits. The synaptic expression and relative numbers of GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing NMDARs play critical roles in controlling Ca2+-dependent signaling and synaptic plasticity. Previous studies have suggested that the synaptic trafficking of NMDAR subtypes is differentially regulated, but the precise molecular mechanism is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated that Bip, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone, selectively interacted with GluN2A and mediated the neuronal activity-induced assembly and synaptic incorporation of the GluN2A-containing NMDAR from dendritic ER. Furthermore, the GluN2A-specific synaptic trafficking was effectively disrupted by peptides interrupting the interaction between Bip and GluN2A. Interestingly, fear conditioning in mice was disrupted by intraperitoneal injection of the interfering peptide before training. In summary, we have uncovered a novel mechanism for the activity-dependent supply of synaptic GluN2A-containing NMDARs, and demonstrated its relevance to memory formation. PMID:26088419

  12. Probiotics treatment improves diabetes-induced impairment of synaptic activity and cognitive function: behavioral and electrophysiological proofs for microbiome-gut-brain axis.

    PubMed

    Davari, S; Talaei, S A; Alaei, H; Salami, M

    2013-06-14

    Diabetes mellitus-induced metabolic disturbances underlie the action of many systems including some higher functions of the brain such as learning and memory. Plenty of evidence supports the effects of probiotics on the function of many systems including the nervous system. Here we report the effect of probiotics treatment on the behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of learning and memory disorders. Diabetic rats were made through intraperitoneal injection of streptozocin. The control and diabetic rats were fed with either normal regimen (control rats recieving normal regimen (CO) and diabetics rats receiving normal regimen (DC), respectively) or normal regimen plus probiotic supplementation for 2months (control rats receiving probiotic supplementation (CP) and diabetics rats recieving probiotic supplementation (DP), respectively). The animals were first introduced to spatial learning task in the Morris water maze. Then, in electrophysiological experiments, stimulating the Schaffer collaterals the basic and potentiated excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. Finally, the serum levels of glucose, insulin, superoxide dismutase and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. We found that probiotics administration considerably improved the impaired spatial memory in the diabetic animals. The probiotics supplementation in the diabetic rats recovered the declined basic synaptic transmission and further restored the hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). While the probiotics administration enhanced the activation of superoxide dismutase and increased the insulin level of serum it decreased both the glucose level of serum and the 8-OHdG factor. From the present results we concluded that probiotics efficiently reverse deteriorated brain functions in the levels of cognitive performances and their proposed synaptic mechanisms in diabetes mellitus. These considerations imply on the necessity of an optimal

  13. Effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on kindling-induced alterations in dentate granule cell excitability. I. Synaptic transmission measures.

    PubMed

    Bronzino, J D; Austin-LaFrance, R J; Morgane, P J; Galler, J R

    1991-05-01

    The effects of prenatal protein malnutrition upon the efficacy of excitatory synaptic transmission at the level of the perforant path/dentate granule cell synapse were examined during development of perforant path kindling in chronically implanted adults rats. Rats born to dams fed a low protein (6% casein) or control protein (25% casein) diet were fostered to lactating dams fed the 25% casein diet 24 h after birth and were maintained on this diet throughout life following weaning. Beginning at 90-120 days of age, animals received daily kindling stimulations applied to the perforant path. Extracellular field potentials recorded from the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in response to single-pulse stimulation of the perforant path were analyzed to determine the effects of prenatal protein malnutrition on the efficacy of synaptic transmission during the kindling process. Measures used for these analyses included the EPSP slope, an indicator of the level of synaptic drive, the population spike amplitude which is a measure of postsynaptic activation and cellular firing, and the ratio of the population spike amplitude relative to the corresponding EPSP slope value, which was used to evaluate the overall efficacy of synaptic transmission. animals of the 6%/25% diet group were found to have significantly lower afterdischarge thresholds, yet required significantly more daily kindling stimulations to develop generalized motor convulsions (stage 5 seizure) than control animals. Examination of dentate field potentials obtained prior to kindling revealed no significant between group differences in measures of EPSP slope or population spike amplitude. Statistically significant increases in measures of both the population EPSP slope and population spike amplitude were observed in both diet groups 24 h after the first kindled afterdischarge. The degree of increase in both of these measures was significantly greater in animals of the 6%/25% group. Evaluation of input

  14. Burst-induced synaptic depression and its modulation contribute to information transfer at Aplysia sensorimotor synapses: empirical and computational analyses.

    PubMed

    Phares, Gregg A; Antzoulatos, Evangelos G; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2003-09-10

    The Aplysia sensorimotor synapse is a key site of plasticity for several simple forms of learning. Plasticity of this synapse has been extensively studied, albeit primarily with individual action potentials elicited at low frequencies. Yet, the mechanosensory neurons fire high-frequency bursts in response to even moderate tactile stimuli delivered to the skin. In the present study, we extend this analysis to show that sensory neurons also fire bursts in the range of 1-60 Hz in response to electrical stimuli similar to those used in behavioral studies of sensitization. Intracellular stimulation of sensory neurons to fire a burst of action potentials at 10 Hz for 1 sec led to significant homosynaptic depression of postsynaptic responses. The depression was transient and fully recovered within 10 min. During the burst, the steady-state depressed phase of the postsynaptic response, which was only 20% of the initial EPSP of the burst, still contributed to firing the motor neuron. To explore the functional contribution of transient homosynaptic depression to the response of the motor neuron, computer simulations of the sensorimotor synapse with and without depression were compared. Depression allowed the motor neuron to produce graded responses over a wide range of presynaptic input strength. In addition, enhancement of synaptic transmission throughout a burst increased motor neuron output substantially more than did preferential enhancement of the initial phase of a burst. Thus, synaptic depression increased the dynamic range of the sensorimotor synapse and can, in principle, have a profound effect on information processing.

  15. The synaptic connexions to intercostal motoneurones as revealed by the average common excitation potential.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, P A; Sears, T A

    1978-02-01

    1. The hypothesis is advanced that the joint occurrence of unitary e.p.s.p.s evoked in motoneurones by branches of common stem presynaptic fibres causes, on average, transient depolarization in one motoneurone at the time of discharge in another motoneurone of the same pool. 2. The hypothesis was tested in anaesthetized, paralysed cats by averaging the naturally occurring synpatic noise of thoracic inspiratory motoneurones with an averager triggered by spikes from other inspiratory motoneurones. These spikes were obtained as efferent discharges in nerve filaments supplying the proximal regions of the external intercostal muscles. 3. A transient depolarization centred around the time of the trigger spikes was consistently observed and was designated the average common excitation (a.c.e.) potential. 4. The peak depolarization lay between -1.0 and +4.6 msec (mean +0.7 msec) with respect to the trigger spikes and the rise times of its most prominent component ranged from 4 to 16 msec (mean 8.4 msec). 5. The amplitudes of the a.c.e. potentials ranged from 6 to 104 muV (mean 32 muV) when the trigger spikes were derived from a filament in the same segment as the relevant motoneurones, and from 3 to 42 muV (mean 19 muV) when the filament was two segments rostral to the motoneurone. 6. Cells innervating the proximal region of the intercostal space gave larger a.c.e. potentials than those innervating more distal regions and also showed larger central respiratory drive potentials. 7. A.c.e. potentials were observed for either alpha or gamma spikes as triggers. The potentials were usually smaller for the gamma than for the alpha spikes, the mean ration being about 0.6. The presence of the a.c.e. potentials from the gamma spikes was taken as evidence for alpha-gamma coactivation by common presynaptic axons. 8. A theory is developed which quantitatively accounts for the main features of both the a.c.e. potential and the short term synchrony observed by Sears & Stagg (1976). 9

  16. Dynamic DNA methylation controls glutamate receptor trafficking and synaptic scaling.

    PubMed

    Sweatt, J David

    2016-05-01

    Hebbian plasticity, including long-term potentiation and long-term depression, has long been regarded as important for local circuit refinement in the context of memory formation and stabilization. However, circuit development and stabilization additionally relies on non-Hebbian, homeostatic, forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling. Synaptic scaling is induced by chronic increases or decreases in neuronal activity. Synaptic scaling is associated with cell-wide adjustments in postsynaptic receptor density, and can occur in a multiplicative manner resulting in preservation of relative synaptic strengths across the entire neuron's population of synapses. Both active DNA methylation and demethylation have been validated as crucial regulators of gene transcription during learning, and synaptic scaling is known to be transcriptionally dependent. However, it has been unclear whether homeostatic forms of plasticity such as synaptic scaling are regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously largely considered separately: DNA methylation, homeostatic plasticity, and glutamate receptor trafficking. This review describes exciting recent work that has demonstrated a role for active changes in neuronal DNA methylation and demethylation as a controller of synaptic scaling and glutamate receptor trafficking. These findings bring together three major categories of memory-associated mechanisms that were previously considered separately: glutamate receptor trafficking, DNA methylation, and homeostatic plasticity.

  17. Hypermethylation of Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity-Related genes is Involved in Neonatal Sevoflurane Exposure-Induced Cognitive Impairments in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, Ling-sha; Jia, Min; Sun, Jie; Sun, Xiao-ru; Zhang, Hui; Ji, Mu-huo; Yang, Jian-jun; Wang, Zhong-yun

    2016-02-01

    General anesthetics given to immature rodents cause delayed neurobehavioral abnormalities via incompletely understood mechanisms. DNA methylation, one of the epigenetic modifications, is essential for the modulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity through regulating the related genes. Therefore, we investigated whether abnormalities in the hippocampal DNA methylation of synaptic plasticity-related genes are involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 3 % sevoflurane or 30 % oxygen/air for 2 h daily from postnatal day 7 (P7) to P9 and were treated with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) inhibitor 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-AZA) or vehicle 1 h before the first sevoflurane exposure on P7. The rats were euthanized 1, 6, 24 h, and 30 days after the last sevoflurane exposure, and the brain tissues were harvested for biochemical analysis. Cognitive functions were evaluated by the open field, fear conditioning, and Morris water maze (MWM) tests on P39, P41-43, and P50-57, respectively. In the present study, repeated neonatal sevoflurane exposure resulted in hippocampus-dependent cognitive impairments as assessed by fear conditioning and MWM tests. The cognitive impairments were associated with the increased DNMTs and hypermethylation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Reelin genes, and subsequent down-regulation of BDNF and Reelin genes, which finally led to the decrease of dendritic spines in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons in adolescent rats. Notably, pretreatment with 5-AZA reversed these sevoflurane-induced abnormalities. In conclusion, our results suggest that hypermethylation of hippocampal BDNF and Reelin is involved in neonatal sevoflurane exposure-induced cognitive impairments.

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Amantadine on Corticosterone-induced Abnormal Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 pathway in rat's hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hui; Li, Qun; Zhang, Tao

    2017-09-13

    Depression is a psychiatric disorder and chronic stress, leading to altered glucocorticoid secretion patterns, is one of the factors that induce depression. Our previous study showed that amantadine significantly attenuated the impairments of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function a rat model of CUS. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. In the present study, the whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to examine the protection effect of amantadine on the hippocampus CA3-CA1 pathway. Evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs), miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), paired-pulse ratio (PPR) and the action potentials of CA3 neurons were recorded. Our data showed that corticosterone increased the amplitude of eEPSCs and decreased the value of paired-pulse ratio (PPR), but both of them were significantly reversed by amantadine. In addition, the frequency of mEPSC was considerably increased by corticosterone, but it was reduced by amantadine. Moreover, we used the Fluo-3/AM image to detect the Ca(2+) influx in primary cultured hippocampal neurons. The results showed that the intracellular calcium levels were significantly decreased by amantadine in the corticosterone treated neurons. Additionally, the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were reduced by corticosterone, while they were enhanced by either amantadine or low-calcium artificial cerebral spinal fluid (ACSF). These results suggest that amantadine significantly improves corticosterone-induced abnormal glutamatergic synaptic transmission of CA3-CA1 synapses presynaptically and alleviates the activities of antioxidant enzymes via regulating the calcium influx. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Activin Controls Ethanol Potentiation of Inhibitory Synaptic Transmission Through GABAA Receptors and Concomitant Behavioral Sedation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fang; Puppel, Anne; Huber, Sabine E; Link, Andrea S; Eulenburg, Volker; van Brederode, Johannes F; Müller, Christian P; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-β family, exerts multiple functions in the nervous system. Originally identified as a neurotrophic and -protective agent, increasing evidence implicates activin also in the regulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in brain regions associated with cognitive and affective functions. To explore how activin impacts on ethanol potentiation of GABA synapses and related behavioral paradigms, we used an established transgenic model of disrupted activin receptor signaling, in which mice express a dominant-negative activin receptor IB mutant (dnActRIB) under the control of the CaMKIIα promoter. Comparison of GABAA receptor currents in hippocampal neurons from dnActRIB mice and wild-type mice showed that all concentrations of ethanol tested (30–150 mM) produced much stronger potentiation of phasic inhibition in the mutant preparation. In dentate granule cells of dnActRIB mice, tonic GABA inhibition was more pronounced than in wild-type neurons, but remained insensitive to low ethanol (30 mM) in both preparations. The heightened ethanol sensitivity of phasic inhibition in mutant hippocampi resulted from both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, the latter probably involving PKCɛ. At the behavioral level, ethanol produced significantly stronger sedation in dnActRIB mice than in wild-type mice, but did not affect consumption of ethanol or escalation after withdrawal. We link the abnormal narcotic response of dnActRIB mice to ethanol to the excessive potentiation of inhibitory neurotransmission. Our study suggests that activin counteracts oversedation from ethanol by curtailing its augmenting effect at GABA synapses. PMID:26717882

  20. 20Hz membrane potential oscillations are driven by synaptic inputs in collision-detecting neurons in the frog optic tectum.

    PubMed

    Baranauskas, Gytis; Svirskiene, Natasa; Svirskis, Gytis

    2012-10-24

    Although the firing patterns of collision-detecting neurons have been described in detail in several species, the mechanisms generating responses in these neurons to visual objects on a collision course remain largely unknown. This is partly due to the limited number of intracellular recordings from such neurons, particularly in vertebrate species. By employing patch recordings in a novel integrated frog eye-tectum preparation we tested the hypothesis that OFF retinal ganglion cells were driving the responses to visual objects on a collision course in the frog optic tectum neurons. We found that the majority (22/26) of neurons in layer 6 responding to visual stimuli fitted the definition of η class collision-detectors: they readily responded to a looming stimulus imitating collision but not a receding stimulus (spike count difference ∼10 times) and the spike firing rate peaked after the stimulus visual angle reached a threshold value of ∼20-45°. In the majority of these neurons (15/22) a slow frequency oscillation (f=∼20Hz) of the neuronal membrane potential could be detected in the responses to a simulated collision stimulus, as well as to turning off the lights. Since OFF retinal ganglion cells could produce such oscillations, our observations are in agreement with the hypothesis that 'collision' responses in the frog optic tectum neurons are driven by synaptic inputs from OFF retinal ganglion cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. PULL-PUSH NEUROMODULATION OF LTP AND LTD ENABLES BIDIRECTIONAL EXPERIENCE-INDUCED SYNAPTIC SCALING IN VISUAL CORTEX

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario; Huang, ShiYong; He, Kaiwen; Ardiles, Alvaro; di Pasquale, Roberto; Guo, Yatu; Palacios, Adrian; Huganir, Richard; Kirkwood, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Neuromodulatory input, acting on G-protein coupled receptors, is essential for the induction of experience-dependent cortical plasticity. Here we report that G-coupled receptors in layer II/III of visual cortex control the polarity of synaptic plasticity through a pull-push regulation of LTP and LTD. In slices, receptors coupled to Gs promote LTP while suppressing LTD; conversely, receptors coupled to Gq11 promote LTD and suppress LTP. In vivo, the selective stimulation of Gs- or Gq11-coupled receptors brings the cortex into LTP-only or LTD-only states, which allows the potentiation or depression of targeted synapses with visual stimulation. The pull-push regulation of LTP/LTD occurs via direct control of the synaptic plasticity machinery and it is independent of changes in NMDAR activation or neuronal excitability. We propose these simple rules governing the pull-push control of LTP/LTD form a general metaplasticity mechanism that may contribute to neuromodulation of plasticity in other cortical circuits. PMID:22325202

  2. Met-enkephalin induces fast synaptic plasticity of magnocellular neurons in the rat supraoptic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Blanco, E; Carretero, J; Riesco, J M; Sanchez, F; Juanes, J A; Vazquez, R

    1992-01-01

    A morphometric-ultrastructural study was made of the supraoptic nucleus of rats of both sexes following central administration of met-enkephalin. Ten minutes after met-enkephalin treatment the number of axo-somatic synapses was significantly increased. This effect was more pronounced in female rats than in males and could be prevented by preceding administration of naloxone. Animals that received naloxone followed by met-enkephalin showed a dilation of the rough endoplasmic reticulum into a vesicular shape. Our results provide preliminary evidence for a fast remodeling of synaptic input to magnocellular hypothalamic neurons. It is likely that the known inhibitory action of opioids on the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system is partly mediated by this plasticity.

  3. AMPA receptor involvement in 5-hydroxytryptamine2A receptor-mediated pre-frontal cortical excitatory synaptic currents and DOI-induced head shakes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ce; Marek, Gerard J

    2008-01-01

    Glutamate plays an important role in the psychotomimetic effects of both channel blocking N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and hallucinogenic drugs which activate 5-hydroxytryptamine2A (5-HT2A) receptors. Previous work suggested that activation of non-NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors mediates the effects of 5-HT-induced excitatory post-synaptic potentials/currents (EPSPs/EPSCs) when recording from layer V pyramidal cells in the rat medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC). However, those effects are mediated by either alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) or kainate receptors of the iGluk5 subtype. To test whether activation of AMPA receptors is sufficient to mediate 5-HT-induced EPSCs, a 2,3-benzodiazepine that selectively blocks AMPA receptors was assessed. This selective AMPA receptor antagonist potently suppressed 5-HT-induced EPSCs. Since phenethylamine hallucinogens induce head shakes by activating 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC and this action is modulated by glutamate, we also examined whether selective blockade of AMPA receptors would suppress DOI-induced head shakes. As predicted, we found that selective blockade of AMPA receptors suppressed DOI-induced head shakes. Given evidence that activation of AMPA receptors is an important downstream effect for both channel blocking NMDA receptor antagonists and phenethylamine hallucinogens, we also tested multiple doses of DOI with a sub-anesthetic dose of MK-801. Synergistic action between these two classes of psychotomimetic drugs was demonstrated by MK-801 enhancing DOI-induced head shakes and locomotor activity. These findings expand the dependence of both channel blocking NMDA receptor antagonists and phenethylamine hallucinogens on enhancing extracellular glutamate.

  4. BISPHENOL A INTERFERES WITH SYNAPTIC REMODELING

    PubMed Central

    Hajszan, Tibor; Leranth, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    The potential adverse effects of Bisphenol A (BPA), a synthetic xenoestrogen, have long been debated. Although standard toxicology tests have revealed no harmful effects, recent research highlighted what was missed so far: BPA-induced alterations in the nervous system. Since 2004, our laboratory has been investigating one of the central effects of BPA, which is interference with gonadal steroid-induced synaptogenesis and the resulting loss of spine synapses. We have shown in both rats and nonhuman primates that BPA completely negates the ~70–100% increase in the number of hippocampal and prefrontal spine synapses induced by both estrogens and androgens. Synaptic loss of this magnitude may have significant consequences, potentially causing cognitive decline, depression, and schizophrenia, to mention those that our laboratory has shown to be associated with synaptic loss. Finally, we discuss why children may particularly be vulnerable to BPA, which represents future direction of research in our laboratory. PMID:20609373

  5. Doxorubicin attenuates serotonin-induced long-term synaptic facilitation by phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Zhang, Yili; Coughlin, Brittany L; Cleary, Leonard J; Byrne, John H

    2014-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline used widely for cancer chemotherapy. Its primary mode of action appears to be topoisomerase II inhibition, DNA cleavage, and free radical generation. However, in non-neuronal cells, DOX also inhibits the expression of dual-specificity phosphatases (also referred to as MAPK phosphatases) and thereby inhibits the dephosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), two MAPK isoforms important for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Activation of these kinases by DOX in neurons, if present, could have secondary effects on cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. The present study used cultures of rat cortical neurons and sensory neurons (SNs) of Aplysia to examine the effects of DOX on levels of phosphorylated ERK (pERK) and phosphorylated p38 (p-p38) MAPK. In addition, Aplysia neurons were used to examine the effects of DOX on long-term enhanced excitability, long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), and long-term synaptic depression (LTD). DOX treatment led to elevated levels of pERK and p-p38 MAPK in SNs and cortical neurons. In addition, it increased phosphorylation of the downstream transcriptional repressor cAMP response element-binding protein 2 in SNs. DOX treatment blocked serotonin-induced LTF and enhanced LTD induced by the neuropeptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2. The block of LTF appeared to be attributable to overriding inhibitory effects of p-p38 MAPK, because LTF was rescued in the presence of an inhibitor (SB203580 [4-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-methylsulfinylphenyl)-5-(4-pyridyl)-1H-imidazole]) of p38 MAPK. These results suggest that acute application of DOX might impair the formation of LTM via the p38 MAPK pathway. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3413289-12$15.00/0.

  6. ESP-102, a Combined Herbal Extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, Changes Synaptic Plasticity and Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rat Hippocampus Tissue.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Choi, Ga-Young; Lee, Seok; Park, Tae-Suk; Lee, Cheol-Won; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Young-Choong; Kim, Sang Seong; Lee, Sung-Ok; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ESP-102, an extract from Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, has been used as herbal medicine and dietary supplement in Korea. Despite the numerous bioactivities in vitro and in vivo studies, its effects on neuronal networks remain elusive. To address the neuronal effect, we examined synaptic plasticity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture with multielectrode array. Our results showed an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), indicating the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), in the presence of ESP-102. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of ESP-102 was also tested by application of scopolamine to the hippocampal slice. Interestingly, ESP-102 competitively antagonized the preventative LTP effect induced by scopolamine. The scopolamine-induced reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and GluR-2 expression was also rescued by ESP-102. In terms of mode of action, ESP-102 appears to act on the presynaptic region independent of AMPA/NMDA receptors. Based on these findings, ESP-102 can be suggested as a novel herbal ingredient with memory enhancing as well as neuroprotective effects.

  7. ESP-102, a Combined Herbal Extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, Changes Synaptic Plasticity and Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rat Hippocampus Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Choi, Ga-Young; Lee, Seok; Park, Tae-Suk; Lee, Cheol-Won; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Young-Choong; Kim, Sang Seong; Lee, Sung-Ok; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ESP-102, an extract from Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, has been used as herbal medicine and dietary supplement in Korea. Despite the numerous bioactivities in vitro and in vivo studies, its effects on neuronal networks remain elusive. To address the neuronal effect, we examined synaptic plasticity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture with multielectrode array. Our results showed an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), indicating the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), in the presence of ESP-102. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of ESP-102 was also tested by application of scopolamine to the hippocampal slice. Interestingly, ESP-102 competitively antagonized the preventative LTP effect induced by scopolamine. The scopolamine-induced reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and GluR-2 expression was also rescued by ESP-102. In terms of mode of action, ESP-102 appears to act on the presynaptic region independent of AMPA/NMDA receptors. Based on these findings, ESP-102 can be suggested as a novel herbal ingredient with memory enhancing as well as neuroprotective effects. PMID:27298627

  8. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD.

  9. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse

    PubMed Central

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O.; Jiménez-Díaz, Lydia; Yajeya, Javier; Navarro-Lopez, Juan D.

    2013-01-01

    Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP) followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP) was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK) channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:23898239

  10. Superior Long-Term Synaptic Memory Induced by Combining Dual Pharmacological Activation of PKA and ERK with an Enhanced Training Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Neveu, Curtis; Smolen, Paul; Cleary, Leonard J.; Byrne, John H.

    2017-01-01

    Developing treatment strategies to enhance memory is an important goal of neuroscience research. Activation of multiple biochemical signaling cascades, such as the protein kinase A (PKA) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, is necessary to induce long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF), a correlate of long-term memory (LTM).…

  11. Regulation of synaptic Rac1 activity, long-term potentiation maintenance, and learning and memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-activating proteins.

    PubMed

    Oh, Daeyoung; Han, Seungnam; Seo, Jinsoo; Lee, Jae-Ran; Choi, Jeonghoon; Groffen, John; Kim, Karam; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Han-Saem; Shin, Hyewon; Woo, Jooyeon; Won, Hyejung; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Soo-Young; Jo, Jihoon; Whitcomb, Daniel J; Cho, Kwangwook; Kim, Hyun; Bae, Yong Chul; Heisterkamp, Nora; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Eunjoon

    2010-10-20

    Rho family small GTPases are important regulators of neuronal development. Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer's disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known about how synaptic Rac1 is negatively regulated. Breakpoint cluster region (BCR) is a Rac GTPase-activating protein known to form a fusion protein with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Despite the fact that BCR mRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain, the neural functions of BCR protein have remained obscure. We report here that BCR and its close relative active BCR-related (ABR) localize at excitatory synapses and directly interact with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Mice deficient for BCR or ABR show enhanced basal Rac1 activity but only a small increase in spine density. Importantly, mice lacking BCR or ABR exhibit a marked decrease in the maintenance, but not induction, of long-term potentiation, and show impaired spatial and object recognition memory. These results suggest that BCR and ABR have novel roles in the regulation of synaptic Rac1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, and that excessive Rac1 activity negatively affects synaptic and cognitive functions.

  12. Regulation of Synaptic Rac1 Activity, Long-Term Potentiation Maintenance, and Learning and Memory by BCR and ABR Rac GTPase-Activating Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Daeyoung; Han, Seungnam; Seo, Jinsoo; Lee, Jae-Ran; Choi, Jeonghoon; Groffen, John; Kim, Karam; Cho, Yi Sul; Choi, Han-Saem; Shin, Hyewon; Woo, Jooyeon; Won, Hyejung; Park, Soon Kwon; Kim, Soo-Young; Jo, Jihoon; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Cho, Kwangwook; Kim, Hyun; Bae, Yong Chul; Heisterkamp, Nora; Choi, Se-Young; Kim, Eunjoon

    2016-01-01

    Rho family small GTPases are important regulators of neuronal development. Defective Rho regulation causes nervous system dysfunctions including mental retardation and Alzheimer’s disease. Rac1, a member of the Rho family, regulates dendritic spines and excitatory synapses, but relatively little is known about how synaptic Rac1 is negatively regulated. Breakpoint cluster region (BCR) is a Rac GTPase-activating protein known to form a fusion protein with the c-Abl tyrosine kinase in Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia. Despite the fact that BCR mRNAs are abundantly expressed in the brain, the neural functions of BCR protein have remained obscure. We report here that BCR and its close relative active BCR-related (ABR) localize at excitatory synapses and directly interact with PSD-95, an abundant postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Mice deficient for BCR or ABR show enhanced basal Rac1 activity but only a small increase in spine density. Importantly, mice lacking BCR or ABR exhibit a marked decrease in the maintenance, but not induction, of long-term potentiation, and show impaired spatial and object recognition memory. These results suggest that BCR and ABR have novel roles in the regulation of synaptic Rac1 signaling, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory, and that excessive Rac1 activity negatively affects synaptic and cognitive functions. PMID:20962234

  13. Potentiation of Synaptic GluN2B NMDAR Currents by Fyn Kinase Is Gated through BDNF-Mediated Disinhibition in Spinal Pain Processing.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Michael E; Xu, Jian; Dedek, Annemarie; Li, Yi; Sengar, Ameet S; Beggs, Simon; Lombroso, Paul J; Salter, Michael W

    2016-12-06

    In chronic pain states, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) transforms the output of lamina I spinal neurons by decreasing synaptic inhibition. Pain hypersensitivity also depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) and Src-family kinases, but the locus of NMDAR dysregulation remains unknown. Here, we show that NMDAR-mediated currents at lamina I synapses are potentiated in a peripheral nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. We find that BDNF mediates NMDAR potentiation through activation of TrkB and phosphorylation of the GluN2B subunit by the Src-family kinase Fyn. Surprisingly, we find that Cl(-)-dependent disinhibition is necessary and sufficient to prime potentiation of synaptic NMDARs by BDNF. Thus, we propose that spinal pain amplification is mediated by a feedforward mechanism whereby loss of inhibition gates the increase in synaptic excitation within individual lamina I neurons. Given that neither disinhibition alone nor BDNF-TrkB signaling is sufficient to potentiate NMDARs, we have discovered a form of molecular coincidence detection in lamina I neurons. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term depression-inducing stimuli promote cleavage of the synaptic adhesion molecule NGL-3 through NMDA receptors, matrix metalloproteinases and presenilin/γ-secretase

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyejin; Lee, Eun-Jae; Song, Yoo Sung; Kim, Eunjoon

    2014-01-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) reduces the functional strength of excitatory synapses through mechanisms that include the removal of AMPA glutamate receptors from the postsynaptic membrane. LTD induction is also known to result in structural changes at excitatory synapses, including the shrinkage of dendritic spines. Synaptic adhesion molecules are thought to contribute to the development, function and plasticity of neuronal synapses largely through their trans-synaptic adhesions. However, little is known about how synaptic adhesion molecules are altered during LTD. We report here that NGL-3 (netrin-G ligand-3), a postsynaptic adhesion molecule that trans-synaptically interacts with the LAR family of receptor tyrosine phosphatases and intracellularly with the postsynaptic scaffolding protein PSD-95, undergoes a proteolytic cleavage process. NGL-3 cleavage is induced by NMDA treatment in cultured neurons and low-frequency stimulation in brain slices and requires the activities of NMDA glutamate receptors, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and presenilin/γ-secretase. These results suggest that NGL-3 is a novel substrate of MMPs and γ-secretase and that NGL-3 cleavage may regulate synaptic adhesion during LTD. PMID:24298159

  15. Synchronization of action potentials during low-magnesium-induced bursting

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Hudson, John L.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between mono- and polysynaptic strength and action potential synchronization was explored using a reduced external Mg2+ model. Single and dual whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in hippocampal cultures in three concentrations of external Mg2+. In decreased Mg2+ medium, the individual cells transitioned to spontaneous bursting behavior. In lowered Mg2+ media the larger excitatory synaptic events were observed more frequently and fewer transmission failures occurred, suggesting strengthened synaptic transmission. The event synchronization was calculated for the neural action potentials of the cell pairs, and it increased in media where Mg2+ concentration was lowered. Analysis of surrogate data where bursting was present, but no direct or indirect connections existed between the neurons, showed minimal action potential synchronization. This suggests the synchronization of action potentials is a product of the strengthening synaptic connections within neuronal networks. PMID:25609103

  16. Exogenous α-Synuclein Fibrils Induce Lewy Body Pathology Leading to Synaptic Dysfunction and Neuron Death

    PubMed Central

    Volpicelli-Daley, Laura A.; Luk, Kelvin C.; Patel, Tapan P.; Tanik, Selcuk A.; Riddle, Dawn M.; Stieber, Anna; Meany, David F.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Lee, Virginia M.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Inclusions comprised of α-synuclein (α-syn), i.e. Lewy bodies (LBs) and Lewy neurites (LNs), define synucleinopathies including Parkinson’s Disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB). Here, we demonstrate that pre-formed fibrils generated from full length and truncated recombinant α-syn enter primary neurons, likely by adsorptive-mediated endocytosis and promote recruitment of soluble endogenous α-syn into insoluble PD-like LBs and LNs. Remarkably, endogenous α-syn was sufficient for formation of these aggregates, and overexpression of wild type or mutant α-syn was not required. LN-like pathology first developed in axons and propagated to form LB-like inclusions in perikarya. Accumulation of pathologic α-syn led to selective decreases in synaptic proteins, progressive impairments in neuronal excitability and connectivity, and eventually, neuron death. Thus, our data contribute important insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of PD-like α-syn inclusions, their impact on neuronal functions, and provide a model for discovering therapeutics targeting pathologic α-syn- mediated neurodegeneration. PMID:21982369

  17. In vivo single branch axotomy induces GAP-43-dependent sprouting and synaptic remodeling in cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Cesare, Paolo; Sacconi, Leonardo; Grasselli, Giorgio; Mandolesi, Georgia; Maco, Bohumil; Knott, Graham W; Huang, Lieven; De Paola, Vincenzo; Strata, Piergiorgio; Pavone, Francesco S

    2013-06-25

    Plasticity in the central nervous system in response to injury is a complex process involving axonal remodeling regulated by specific molecular pathways. Here, we dissected the role of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43; also known as neuromodulin and B-50) in axonal structural plasticity by using, as a model, climbing fibers. Single axonal branches were dissected by laser axotomy, avoiding collateral damage to the adjacent dendrite and the formation of a persistent glial scar. Despite the very small denervated area, the injured axons consistently reshape the connectivity with surrounding neurons. At the same time, adult climbing fibers react by sprouting new branches through the intact surroundings. Newly formed branches presented varicosities, suggesting that new axons were more than just exploratory sprouts. Correlative light and electron microscopy reveals that the sprouted branch contains large numbers of vesicles, with varicosities in the close vicinity of Purkinje dendrites. By using an RNA interference approach, we found that downregulating GAP-43 causes a significant increase in the turnover of presynaptic boutons. In addition, silencing hampers the generation of reactive sprouts. Our findings show the requirement of GAP-43 in sustaining synaptic stability and promoting the initiation of axonal regrowth.

  18. Imbalance of leptin pathway and hypothalamus synaptic plasticity markers are associated with stress-induced depression in rats.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jin-Fang; Qi, Cong-Cong; Zhou, Jiang-Ning

    2013-07-15

    Increasing evidences have indicated that chronic stress is a contributing risk factor in the development of psychiatric illnesses including depression. The mechanisms of their psychopathology are multifaceted and include, besides others, alterations in neuroendocrine function and brain plasticity. In the present study, we investigated the behavior of stressed animals by the sucrose preference test, open field test (OFT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail-suspension test (TST). The response of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, leptin pathway, and synaptic plasticity markers in the hypothalamus were also detected. Our data demonstrated that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) could induce depression-like behavior in rat model, accompanied with the hyperactivity of HPA axis. The serum leptin level and hypothalamic mRNA expression of leptin receptor (LEPR) were both decreased. Results of Pearson test showed that the decreased serum leptin level was negatively related with the locomotion and rearing frequency in the open-field test, and the hypothalamic mRNA expression of LEPR was inversely related to serum CORT concentration. Moreover, our results showed that the mRNA expression of synaptotagmin I and synapsin I was both increased in the hypothalamus of CUMS rats, providing new evidence for the synaptic plasticity change in the hypothalamus of depressive rats. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that the mRNA expression of synaptotagmin I, but not synapsin I, was correlated with the depression-like behaviors and HPA axis hyperactivity in CUMS rats. Together with our previous results, the current findings suggested that a CUMS rat model could be effectively used to study molecular mechanisms underling the depressive symptomatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural Firing Patterns Imply Low Sensitivity of Synaptic Plasticity to Spike Timing Compared with Firing Rate.

    PubMed

    Graupner, Michael; Wallisch, Pascal; Ostojic, Srdjan

    2016-11-02

    Synaptic plasticity is sensitive to the rate and the timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic action potentials. In experimental protocols inducing plasticity, the imposed spike trains are typically regular and the relative timing between every presynaptic and postsynaptic spike is fixed. This is at odds with firing patterns observed in the cortex of intact animals, where cells fire irregularly and the timing between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes varies. To investigate synaptic changes elicited by in vivo-like firing, we used numerical simulations and mathematical analysis of synaptic plasticity models. We found that the influence of spike timing on plasticity is weaker than expected from regular stimulation protocols. Moreover, when neurons fire irregularly, synaptic changes induced by precise spike timing can be equivalently induced by a modest firing rate variation. Our findings bridge the gap between existing results on synaptic plasticity and plasticity occurring in vivo, and challenge the dominant role of spike timing in plasticity.

  20. Maresin 1 Inhibits TRPV1 in Temporomandibular Joint-Related Trigeminal Nociceptive Neurons and TMJ Inflammation-Induced Synaptic Plasticity in the Trigeminal Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chul-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In the trigeminal system, disruption of acute resolution processing may lead to uncontrolled inflammation and chronic pain associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Currently, there are no effective treatments for TMJ pain. Recently, it has been recognized that maresin 1, a newly identified macrophage-derived mediator of inflammation resolution, is a potent analgesic for somatic inflammatory pain without noticeable side effects in mice and a potent endogenous inhibitor of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) in the somatic system. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the analgesic actions of maresin 1 on TMJ pain are unclear in the trigeminal system. Here, by performing TMJ injection of a retrograde labeling tracer DiI (a fluorescent dye), I showed that maresin 1 potently inhibits capsaicin-induced TRPV1 currents and neuronal activity via Gαi-coupled G-protein coupled receptors in DiI-labeled trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Further, maresin 1 blocked TRPV1 agonist-evoked increases in spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency and abolished TMJ inflammation-induced synaptic plasticity in the trigeminal nucleus. These results demonstrate the potent actions of maresin 1 in regulating TRPV1 in the trigeminal system. Thus, maresin 1 may serve as a novel endogenous inhibitor for treating TMJ-inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. PMID:26617436

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced Alzheimer's Disease-Like Pathology, Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, and Synaptic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kamat, Pradip K; Kyles, Philip; Kalani, Anuradha; Tyagi, Neetu

    2016-05-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) level is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). During transsulfuration pathways, Hcy is metabolized into hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which is a synaptic modulator, as well as a neuro-protective agent. However, the role of hydrogen sulfide, as well as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation, in hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and synaptic dysfunction, leading to AD pathology is not clear. Therefore, we hypothesized that the inhibition of neuronal NMDA-R by H2S and MK801 mitigate the Hcy-induced BBB disruption and synapse dysfunction, in part by decreasing neuronal matrix degradation. Hcy intracerebral (IC) treatment significantly impaired cerebral blood flow (CBF), and cerebral circulation and memory function. Hcy treatment also decreases the expression of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in the brain along with increased expression of NMDA-R (NR1) and synaptosomal Ca(2+) indicating excitotoxicity. Additionally, we found that Hcy treatment increased protein and mRNA expression of intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 and also increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the brain. The increased expression of ICAM-1, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the decreased expression of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin and claudin-5 indicates BBB disruption and vascular inflammation. Moreover, we also found decreased expression of microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), synapse-associated protein 97 (SAP-97), synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25), synaptophysin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) showing synapse dysfunction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, NaHS and MK801 treatment ameliorates BBB disruption, CBF, and synapse functions in the mice brain. These results demonstrate a neuro-protective effect of H2S over Hcy-induced

  2. Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

  3. Activation of Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic-AMP Enhances Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation in the Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelinas, Jennifer N.; Banko, Jessica L.; Peters, Melinda M.; Klann, Eric; Weeber, Edwin J.; Nguyen, Peter V.

    2008-01-01

    cAMP is a critical second messenger implicated in synaptic plasticity and memory in the mammalian brain. Substantial evidence links increases in intracellular cAMP to activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and subsequent phosphorylation of downstream effectors (transcription factors, receptors, protein kinases) necessary for long-term…

  4. Unique ionotropic receptors for D-aspartate are a target for serotonin-induced synaptic plasticity in Aplysia californica.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Stephen L; Fieber, Lynne A

    2012-01-01

    The non-L-glutamate (L-Glu) receptor component of D-aspartate (D-Asp) currents in Aplysia californica buccal S cluster (BSC) neurons was studied with whole cell voltage clamp to differentiate it from receptors activated by other well-known agonists of the Aplysia nervous system and investigate modulatory mechanisms of D-Asp currents associated with synaptic plasticity. Acetylcholine (ACh) and serotonin (5-HT) activated whole cell excitatory currents with similar current voltage relationships to D-Asp. These currents, however, were pharmacologically distinct from D-Asp. ACh currents were blocked by hexamethonium (C6) and tubocurarine (D-TC), while D-Asp currents were unaffected. 5-HT currents were blocked by granisetron and methysergide (MES), while D-Asp currents were unaffected. Conversely, while (2S,3R)-1-(Phenanthren-2-carbonyl)piperazine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid(PPDA) blocked D-Asp currents, it had no effect on ACh or 5-HT currents. Comparison of the charge area described by currents induced by ACh or 5-HT separately from, or with, D-Asp suggests activation of distinct receptors by all 3 agonists. Charge area comparisons with L-Glu, however, suggested some overlap between L-Glu and D-Asp receptors. Ten minute exposure to 5-HT induced facilitation of D-Asp-evoked responses in BSC neurons. This effect was mimicked by phorbol ester, suggesting that protein kinase C (PKC) was involved.

  5. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Ardiles, Alvaro O.; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M.; Palacios, Adrian G.; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C.; Martínez, Agustín D.

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca2+ concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory. PMID:25360084

  6. Pannexin 1 regulates bidirectional hippocampal synaptic plasticity in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Ardiles, Alvaro O; Flores-Muñoz, Carolina; Toro-Ayala, Gabriela; Cárdenas, Ana M; Palacios, Adrian G; Muñoz, Pablo; Fuenzalida, Marco; Sáez, Juan C; Martínez, Agustín D

    2014-01-01

    The threshold for bidirectional modification of synaptic plasticity is known to be controlled by several factors, including the balance between protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, postsynaptic free Ca(2+) concentration and NMDA receptor (NMDAR) composition of GluN2 subunits. Pannexin 1 (Panx1), a member of the integral membrane protein family, has been shown to form non-selective channels and to regulate the induction of synaptic plasticity as well as hippocampal-dependent learning. Although Panx1 channels have been suggested to play a role in excitatory long-term potentiation (LTP), it remains unknown whether these channels also modulate long-term depression (LTD) or the balance between both types of synaptic plasticity. To study how Panx1 contributes to excitatory synaptic efficacy, we examined the age-dependent effects of eliminating or blocking Panx1 channels on excitatory synaptic plasticity within the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. By using different protocols to induce bidirectional synaptic plasticity, Panx1 channel blockade or lack of Panx1 were found to enhance LTP, whereas both conditions precluded the induction of LTD in adults, but not in young animals. These findings suggest that Panx1 channels restrain the sliding threshold for the induction of synaptic plasticity and underlying brain mechanisms of learning and memory.

  7. Endocannabinoids in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian-Yi; Chen, Chu

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are endogenous lipid mediators involved in a variety of physiological, pharmacological, and pathological processes. While activation of the eCB system primarily induces inhibitory effects on both GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity through acting on presynaptically-expressed CB1 receptors in the brain, accumulated information suggests that eCB signaling is also capable of facilitating or potentiating excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Recent studies show that a long-lasting potentiation of excitatory synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses is induced by spatiotemporally primed inputs, accompanying with a long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission (I-LTD) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. This input-timing-dependent long-lasting synaptic potentiation at SC-CA1 synapses is mediated by 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) signaling triggered by activation of postsynaptic NMDA receptors, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), and a concurrent rise in intracellular Ca2+. Emerging evidence now also indicates that 2-AG is an important signaling mediator keeping brain homeostasis by exerting its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in response to harmful insults through CB1/2 receptor-dependent and/or independent mechanisms. Activation of the nuclear receptor protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) apparently is one of the important mechanisms in resolving neuroinflammation and protecting neurons produced by 2-AG signaling. Thus, the information summarized in this review suggests that the role of eCB signaling in maintaining integrity of brain function is greater than what we thought previously. PMID:24571856

  8. Synaptic activation and membrane potential changes modulate the frequency of spontaneous elementary Ca2+ release events in the dendrites of pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N.

    2009-01-01

    In most neurons postsynaptic [Ca2+]i changes result from synaptic activation opening voltage gated channels, ligand gated channels, or mobilizing Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. In addition to these changes that result directly from stimulation we found that in pyramidal cells there are spontaneous, rapid, Ca2+ release events, predominantly, but not exclusively localized at dendritic branch points. They are clearest on the main apical dendrite but also have been detected in the finer branches and in the soma. Typically they have a spatial extent at initiation of about 2μm, a rise time of less than 15ms, duration less than 100ms, and amplitudes of 10-70% of that generated by a backpropagating action potential at the same location. These events are not due to background electrical or synaptic activity. However, their rate can be increased by repetitive synaptic stimulation at moderate frequencies, mainly through metabotropic glutamate receptor mobilization of IP3. In addition, their frequency can be modulated by changes in membrane potential in the subthreshold range, predominantly by affecting Ca2+ entry through L-type channels. They resemble the elementary events (“spark” and “puffs”) mediated by IP3 receptors and ryanodine receptors that have been described primarily in nonneuronal preparations. These spontaneous Ca2+ release events may be the fundamental units underlying some postsynaptic signaling cascades in mature neurons. PMID:19535595

  9. Soybean isoflavone ameliorates β-amyloid 1-42-induced learning and memory deficit in rats by protecting synaptic structure and function.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Xi, Yuan-Di; Zhang, Dan-Di; Zhao, Xia; Liu, Jin-Meng; Li, Chao-Qun; Han, Jing; Xiao, Rong

    2013-12-01

    This research aims to investigate whether soybean isoflavone (SIF) could alleviate the learning and memory deficit induced by β-amyloid peptides 1-42 (Aβ 1-42) by protecting the synapses of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to the following groups: (1) control group; (2) Aβ 1-42 group; (3) SIF group; (4) SIF + Aβ 1-42 group (SIF pretreatment group) according to body weight. The 80 mg/kg/day of SIF was administered orally by gavage to the rats in SIF and SIF+Aβ 1-42 groups. Aβ 1-42 was injected into the lateral cerebral ventricle of rats in Aβ 1-42 and SIF+Aβ 1-42 groups. The ability of learning and memory, ultramicrostructure of hippocampal synapses, and expression of synaptic related proteins were investigated. The Morris water maze results showed the escape latency and total distance were decreased in the rats of SIF pretreatment group compared to the rats in Aβ1-42 group. Furthermore, SIF pretreatment could alleviate the synaptic structural damage and antagonize the down-regulation expressions of below proteins induced by Aβ1-42: (1) mRNA and protein of the synaptophysin and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95); (2) protein of calmodulin (CaM), Ca(2+) /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II), and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB); (3) phosphorylation levels of CaMK II and CREB (pCAMK II, pCREB). These results suggested that SIF pretreatment could ameliorate the impairment of learning and memory ability in rats induced by Aβ 1-42, and its mechanism might be associated with the protection of synaptic plasticity by improving the synaptic structure and regulating the synaptic related proteins.

  10. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring.

  11. Methamphetamine Reduces LTP and Increases Baseline Synaptic Transmission in the CA1 Region of Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Swant, Jarod; Chirwa, Sanika; Stanwood, Gregg; Khoshbouei, Habibeh

    2010-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an addictive psychostimulant whose societal impact is on the rise. Emerging evidence suggests that psychostimulants alter synaptic plasticity in the brain—which may partly account for their adverse effects. While it is known that METH increases the extracellular concentration of monoamines dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, it is not clear how METH alters glutamatergic transmission. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of acute and systemic METH on basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP; an activity-induced increase in synaptic efficacy) in CA1 sub-field in the hippocampus. Both the acute ex vivo application of METH to hippocampal slices and systemic administration of METH decreased LTP. Interestingly, the acute ex vivo application of METH at a concentration of 30 or 60 µM increased baseline synaptic transmission as well as decreased LTP. Pretreatment with eticlopride (D2-like receptor antagonist) did not alter the effects of METH on synaptic transmission or LTP. In contrast, pretreatment with D1/D5 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390 or 5-HT1A receptor antagonist NAN-190 abrogated the effect of METH on synaptic transmission. Furthermore, METH did not increase baseline synaptic transmission in D1 dopamine receptor haploinsufficient mice. Our findings suggest that METH affects excitatory synaptic transmission via activation of dopamine and serotonin receptor systems in the hippocampus. This modulation may contribute to synaptic maladaption induced by METH addiction and/or METH-mediated cognitive dysfunction. PMID:20614033

  12. Neuromodulator-evoked synaptic metaplasticity within a central pattern generator network.

    PubMed

    Kvarta, Mark D; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M; Johnson, Bruce R

    2012-11-01

    Synapses show short-term activity-dependent dynamics that alter the strength of neuronal interactions. This synaptic plasticity can be tuned by neuromodulation as a form of metaplasticity. We examined neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity at a graded chemical synapse in a model central pattern generator (CPG), the pyloric network of the spiny lobster stomatogastric ganglion. Dopamine, serotonin, and octopamine each produce a unique motor pattern from the pyloric network, partially through their modulation of synaptic strength in the network. We characterized synaptic depression and its amine modulation at the graded synapse from the pyloric dilator neuron to the lateral pyloric neuron (PD→LP synapse), driving the PD neuron with both long square pulses and trains of realistic waveforms over a range of presynaptic voltages. We found that the three amines can differentially affect the amplitude of graded synaptic transmission independently of the synaptic dynamics. Low concentrations of dopamine had weak and variable effects on the strength of the graded inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (gIPSPs) but reliably accelerated the onset of synaptic depression and recovery from depression independently of gIPSP amplitude. Octopamine enhanced gIPSP amplitude but decreased the amount of synaptic depression; it slowed the onset of depression and accelerated its recovery during square pulse stimulation. Serotonin reduced gIPSP amplitude but increased the amount of synaptic depression and accelerated the onset of depression. These results suggest that amine-induced metaplasticity at graded chemical synapses can alter the parameters of synaptic dynamics in multiple and independent ways.

  13. Repeated transcranial direct current stimulation improves cognitive dysfunction and synaptic plasticity deficit in the prefrontal cortex of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Jen; Lin, Chou-Ching; Yeh, Che-Ming; Chien, Miao-Er; Tsao, Ming-Chung; Tseng, Philip; Huang, Chin-Wei; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2017-08-24

    Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed in diabetic patients. We have previously reported that anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex can facilitate visuospatial working memory in diabetic patients with concomitant diabetic peripheral neuropathy and mild cognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying the effect of tDCS on cognitive decline in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. STZ-induced diabetic rats were subjected to either repeated anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Spatial working memory performance in delayed nonmatch-to-place T maze task (DNMT), the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the mPFC, and dendritic morphology of Golgi-stained pyramidal neurons in the mPFC were assessed. Repeated applications of prefrontal anodal tDCS improved spatial working memory performance in DNMT and restored the impaired mPFC LTP of diabetic rats. The mPFC of tDCS-treated diabetic rats exhibited higher levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein and N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) subunit mRNA and protein compared to sham stimulation group. Furthermore, anodal tDCS significantly increased dendritic spine density on the apical dendrites of mPFC layer V pyramidal cells in diabetic rats, whereas the complexity of basal and apical dendritic trees was unaltered. Our findings suggest that repeated anodal tDCS may improve spatial working memory performance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats through augmentation of synaptic plasticity that requires BDNF secretion and transcription/translation of NMDARs in the mPFC, and support the therapeutic potential of tDCS for cognitive decline in diabetes mellitus patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of synaptic plasticity by stress and antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Maurizio; Gennarelli, Massimo; Racagni, Giorgio

    2002-06-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical studies have shown that mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity and survival are involved in both the outcome of stressful experiences and the action of antidepressants. Whereas most antidepressants predominantly affect the brain levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, it is increasingly appreciated that they also modulate neurotransmission at synapses using the neurotransmitter glutamate (the most abundant in the brain). In the hippocampus, a main area of the limbic system involved in cognitive functions as well as attention and affect, specific molecules enriched at glutamatergic synapses mediate major changes in synaptic plasticity induced by stress paradigms or antidepressant treatments. We analyze here the modifications induced by stress or antidepressants in the strength of synaptic transmission in hippocampus, and the molecular modifications induced by antidepressants in two main mediators of synaptic plasticity: the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor complex for glutamate and the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM kinase II). Both stress and antidepressants induce alterations in long-term potentiation of hippocampal glutamatergic synapses, which may be partly accounted for by the influence of environmental or drug-induced stimulation of monoaminergic pathways projecting to the hippocampus. In the course of antidepressant treatments significant changes have been described in both the NMDA receptor and CaM kinase II, which may account for the physiological changes observed. A central role in these synaptic changes is exerted by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which modulates both synaptic plasticity and its molecular mediators, as well as inducing morphological synaptic changes. The role of these molecular effectors in synaptic plasticity is discussed in relation to the action of antidepressants and the search for new molecular targets of drug action in the therapy of mood disorders.

  15. Mechanisms involved in systemic nicotine-induced glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Jin, Yu; Yang, Kechun; Zhang, Die; Lukas, Ronald J; Wu, Jie

    2010-10-13

    Systemic exposure to nicotine induces glutamatergic synaptic plasticity on dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), but mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we report that single, systemic exposure in rats to nicotine (0.17 mg/kg free base) increases the ratio of DA neuronal currents mediated by AMPA relative to NMDA receptors (AMPA/NMDA ratio) assessed 24 h later, based on slice-patch recording. The AMPA/NMDA ratio increase is evident within 1 h and lasts for at least 72 h after nicotine exposure (and up to 8 d after repeated nicotine administration). This effect cannot be prevented by systemic injection of either α7-nAChR (nicotinic ACh receptor)-selective [methyllycaconitine (MLA)] or β2*-nAChR-selective [mecamylamine (MEC)] antagonists but is prevented by coinjection of MLA and MEC. In either nAChR α7 or β2 subunit knock-out mice, systemic exposure to nicotine still increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio. Preinjection in rats of a NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate), but neither DA receptor antagonists [SCH-23390 (R-(+)-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) plus haloperidol] nor a calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine), prevents the nicotine-induced increase in AMPA/NMDA ratio. After systemic exposure to nicotine, glutamatergic (but not GABAergic) transmission onto rat VTA DA neuronal inputs is enhanced. Correspondingly, DA neuronal firing measured 24 h after nicotine exposure using extracellular single-unit recording in vivo is significantly faster, and there is conversion of silent to active DA neurons. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that systemic nicotine acting via either α7- or β2*-nAChRs increases presynaptic and postsynaptic glutamatergic function, and consequently initiates glutamatergic synaptic plasticity, which may be an important, early neuronal adaptation in nicotine reward and reinforcement.

  16. Attenuated effects of Neu2000 on hypoxia-induced synaptic activities in a rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Noh, Jihyun; Koh, Young-Hyun; Chung, Jun-Mo

    2014-02-01

    Neu2000 (NEU; 2-hydroxy-5-(2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-4-trifluoromethyl-benzylamino)-benzoic acid), a recently developed derivative of acetylsalicylic acid and sulfasalazine, potently protects against neuronal cell death following ischemic brain injury by antagonizing NMDA receptor-mediated neuronal toxicity and oxidative stress. However, it has yet to be determined whether NEU can attenuate hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal electrical activity. In this study, we carried out extracellular recordings of hippocampal slices in order to investigate the effects of NEU on the electrical activity of neurons exposed to a hypoxic insult (oxygen and glucose deprivation). NEU prominently suppressed hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NEU, at a low dose (1 μM), competently depressed the hypoxia-induced convulsive activity in a manner similar to trolox. Furthermore, high concentrations of NEU (50 μM) markedly abolished all hypoxia-mediated impairment of neuronal activity and accelerated the slow recovery of neuronal activity more efficiently than ifenprodil and APV. These results suggest that NEU attenuates hypoxia-induced impairment of neuronal activity more potently than the antioxidant, trolox, and the NMDA receptor antagonists, ifenprodil and APV. We propose that NEU is a striking pharmacological candidate for neuroprotection against hypoxia because of its defensive action on hypoxia-mediated impairment of electrical neurotransmission as well as its neuroprotective action against neuronal cell death induced by exposure to pathological hypoxic conditions.

  17. TH-9 (a theophylline derivative) induces long-lasting enhancement in excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat hippocampus that is occluded by frequency-dependent plasticity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nashawi, H; Bartl, T; Bartl, P; Novotny, L; Oriowo, M A; Kombian, S B

    2012-09-18

    Dementia, especially Alzheimer's disease, is a rapidly increasing medical condition that presents with enormous challenge for treatment. It is characterized by impairment in memory and cognitive function often accompanied by changes in synaptic transmission and plasticity in relevant brain regions such as the hippocampus. We recently synthesized TH-9, a conjugate racetam-methylxanthine compound and tested if it had potential for enhancing synaptic function and possibly, plasticity, by examining its effect on hippocampal fast excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in the CA1 hippocampal area of naïve juvenile male Sprague-Dawley rats using conventional electrophysiological recording techniques. TH-9 caused a concentration-dependent, long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs. This effect was blocked by adenosine A1, acetylcholine (muscarinic and nicotinic) and glutamate (N-methyl-d-aspartate) receptor antagonists but not by a γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type B (GABA(B)) receptor antagonist. The TH-9 effect was also blocked by enhancing intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate and inhibiting protein kinase A. Pretreatment with TH-9 did not prevent the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or long-term depression (LTD). Conversely, induction of LTP or LTD completely occluded the ability of TH-9 to enhance fEPSPs. Thus, TH-9 utilizes cholinergic and adenosinergic mechanisms to cause long-lasting enhancement in fEPSPs which were occluded by LTP and LTD. TH-9 may therefore employ similar or convergent mechanisms with frequency-dependent synaptic plasticities to produce the observed long-lasting enhancement in synaptic transmission and may thus, have potential for use in improving memory.

  18. Synaptic potentials of primary afferent fibers and motoneurons evoked by single intermediate nucleus interneurons in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Rudomin, P; Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I

    1987-05-01

    Spike-triggered averaging of dorsal and ventral root potentials was used in anesthetized cats to disclose possible synaptic connections of spinal interneurons in the intermediate nucleus with afferent fibers and/or motoneurons. With this method we have been able to document the existence of a distinct group of interneurons whose activity was associated with the recording of inhibitory potentials in the ventral roots (iVRPs), but not with negative dorsal root potentials (nDRPs). The iVRPs had mean durations of 60.8 +/- 22.1 ms and latencies between 1.7 and 5.1 ms relative to the onset of the interneuronal spikes. Within this group of neurons it was possible to characterize two categories depending on their responses to segmental inputs. Most type A interneurons were mono- or disynaptically activated by group I muscle afferents and polysynaptically by low threshold (1.08-1.69 X T) cutaneous fibers. Type B interneurons were instead polysynaptically activated by group II muscle and by cutaneous fibers with thresholds ranging from 1.02 to 3.1 X T. Whenever tested, both type A and B interneurons could be antidromically activated from Clarke's columns. There was a second group of interneurons whose activity was associated with the generation of both iVRPs and nDRPs. These potentials had mean durations of 107.5 +/- 35.6 and 131.5 +/- 32 ms, respectively, and onset latencies between 1.7 and 6.1 ms. The interneurons belonging to this group, which appear not to send axonal projections to Clarke's column, could be classified in three categories depending on their responses to peripheral inputs. Type C interneurons responded mono- or disynaptically to group I muscle volleys and polysynaptically to intermediate threshold (1.22-2.7 X T) cutaneous afferents. Type D interneurons were polysynaptically activated by group II muscle afferents (2.3-8.5 X T) and by intermediate threshold (1.4-3 X T) cutaneous fibers and type E interneurons only by group I muscle afferents with mono- or

  19. The Kinase Function of MSK1 Regulates BDNF Signaling to CREB and Basal Synaptic Transmission, But Is Not Required for Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation or Spatial Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daumas, Stephanie; Hunter, Christopher J.; Mistry, Rajen B.; Cooper, Daniel D.; Reyskens, Kathleen M.; Flynn, Harry T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The later stages of long-term potentiation (LTP) in vitro and spatial memory in vivo are believed to depend upon gene transcription. Accordingly, considerable attempts have been made to identify both the mechanisms by which transcription is regulated and indeed the gene products themselves. Previous studies have shown that deletion of one regulator of transcription, the mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), causes an impairment of spatial memory. Given the ability of MSK1 to regulate gene expression via the phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 (S133), MSK1 is a plausible candidate as a prime regulator of transcription underpinning synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. Indeed, prior work has revealed the necessity for MSK1 in homeostatic and experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, using a knock-in kinase-dead mouse mutant of MSK1, the current study demonstrates that, while the kinase function of MSK1 is important in regulating the phosphorylation of CREB at S133 and basal synaptic transmission in hippocampal area CA1, it is not required for metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD), two forms of LTP or several forms of spatial learning in the watermaze. These data indicate that other functions of MSK1, such as a structural role for the whole enzyme, may explain previous observations of a role for MSK1 in learning and memory. PMID:28275711

  20. Non-fibrillar beta-amyloid abates spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 of the neocortex by targeting postsynaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Isaac; Holmgren, Carl; Min, Rogier; Fülöp, Livia; Zilberter, Misha; Sousa, Kyle M; Farkas, Tamás; Härtig, Wolfgang; Penke, Botond; Burnashev, Nail; Tanila, Heikki; Zilberter, Yuri; Harkany, Tibor

    2006-04-01

    Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) stems from the progressive dysfunction of synaptic connections within cortical neuronal microcircuits. Recently, soluble amyloid beta protein oligomers (Abeta(ol)s) have been identified as critical triggers for early synaptic disorganization. However, it remains unknown whether a deficit of Hebbian-related synaptic plasticity occurs during the early phase of AD. Therefore, we studied whether age-dependent Abeta accumulation affects the induction of spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses on neocortical layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses onto L2/3 pyramidal cells was significantly reduced at the onset of Abeta pathology and was virtually absent in mice with advanced Abeta burden. A decreased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated current ratio implicated postsynaptic mechanisms underlying Abeta synaptotoxicity. The integral role of Abeta(ol)s in these processes was verified by showing that pretreatment of cortical slices with Abeta((25-35)ol)s disrupted spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at unitary connections between L2/3 pyramidal cells, and reduced the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents therein. A robust decrement of AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor-mediated currents in nucleated patches from L2/3 pyramidal cells confirmed that Abeta(ol)s perturb basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission by affecting postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Inhibition of AMPA receptor desensitization by cyclothiazide significantly increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by afferent stimulation, and rescued synaptic plasticity even in mice with pronounced Abeta pathology. We propose that soluble Abeta(ol)s trigger the diminution of synaptic plasticity in neocortical pyramidal cell networks during early

  1. The AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulator S 47445 rescues in vivo CA3-CA1 long-term potentiation and structural synaptic changes in old mice.

    PubMed

    Giralt, Albert; Gómez-Climent, María Ángeles; Alcalá, Rafael; Bretin, Sylvie; Bertrand, Daniel; María Delgado-García, José; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Alberch, Jordi; Gruart, Agnès

    2017-09-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are small molecules that decrease deactivation of AMPARs via an allosteric site. These molecules keep the receptor in an active state. Interestingly, this type of modulator has been proposed for treating cognitive decline in ageing, dementias, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). S 47445 (8-cyclopropyl-3-[2-(3-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-7,8-dihydro-3H-[1,3]oxazino[6,5-g][1,2,3]benzotriazine-4,9-dione) is a novel AMPAR positive allosteric modulator (AMPA-PAM). Here, the mechanisms by which S 47445 could improve synaptic strength and connectivity were studied and compared between young and old mice. A single oral administration of S 47445 at 10 mg/kg significantly increased long-term potentiation (LTP) in CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses in alert young mice in comparison to control mice. Moreover, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg in old alert animals significantly counteracted the deficit of LTP due to age. Accordingly, chronic treatment with S 47445 at 10 mg/kg seems to preserve synaptic cytoarchitecture in old mice as compared with young control mice. It was shown that the significant decreases in number and size of pre-synaptic buttons stained for VGlut1, and post-synaptic dendritic spines stained for spinophilin, observed in old mice were significantly prevented after chronic treatment with 10 mg/kg of S 47445. Altogether, by its different effects on LTP, VGlut1-positive particles, and spinophilin, S 47445 is able to modulate both the structure and function of hippocampal excitatory synapses known to be involved in learning and memory processes. These results open a new window for the treatment of specific age-dependent cognitive decline and dementias such as AD. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Astrocyte-derived adenosine and A1 receptor activity contribute to sleep loss-induced deficits in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Florian, Cédrick; Vecsey, Christopher G; Halassa, Michael M; Haydon, Philip G; Abel, Ted

    2011-05-11

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can have a negative impact on cognitive function, but the mechanism(s) by which SD modulates memory remains unclear. We have previously shown that astrocyte-derived adenosine is a candidate molecule involved in the cognitive deficits following a brief period of SD (Halassa et al., 2009). In this study, we examined whether genetic disruption of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attached protein (SNARE)-dependent exocytosis in astrocytes (dnSNARE mice) or pharmacological blockade of A1 receptor signaling using an adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), could prevent the negative effects of 6 h of SD on hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and hippocampus-dependent spatial object recognition memory. We found that SD impaired L-LTP in wild-type mice but not in dnSNARE mice. Similarly, this deficit in L-LTP resulting from SD was prevented by a chronic infusion of CPT. Consistent with these results, we found that hippocampus-dependent memory deficits produced by SD were rescued in dnSNARE mice and CPT-treated mice. These data provide the first evidence that astrocytic ATP and adenosine A1R activity contribute to the effects of SD on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory, and suggest a new therapeutic target to reverse the hippocampus-related cognitive deficits induced by sleep loss.

  3. Administration of the TrkB receptor agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone prevents traumatic stress-induced spatial memory deficits and changes in synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-García, Ancor; Knafo, Shira; Pereda-Pérez, Inmaculada; Esteban, José A; Venero, César; Armario, Antonio

    2016-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) occurs after exposure to traumatic situations and it is characterized by cognitive deficits that include impaired explicit memory. The neurobiological bases of such PTSD-associated memory alterations are yet to be elucidated and no satisfactory treatment for them exists. To address this issue, we first studied whether a single exposure of young adult rats (60 days) to immobilization on boards (IMO), a putative model of PTSD, produces long-term behavioral effects (2-8 days) similar to those found in PTSD patients. Subsequently, we investigated whether the administration of the TrkB agonist 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (DHF) 8 h after stress (therapeutic window) ameliorated the PTSD-like effect of IMO and the associated changes in synaptic plasticity. A single IMO exposure induced a spatial memory impairment similar to that found in other animal models of PTSD or in PTSD patients. IMO also increased spine density and long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA3-CA1 pathway. Significantly, DHF reverted both spatial memory impairment and the increase in LTP, while it produced no effect in the controls. These data provide novel insights into the possible neurobiological substrate for explicit memory impairment in PTSD patients, supporting the idea that the activation of the BDNF/TrkB pathway fulfils a protective role after severe stress. Administration of DHF in the aftermath of a traumatic experience might be relevant to prevent its long-term consequences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Astrocyte-derived Adenosine and A1 Receptor Activity Contribute to Sleep Loss-Induced Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Florian, Cédrick; Vecsey, Christopher G.; Halassa, Michael M.; Haydon, Philip G.; Abel, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can have a negative impact on cognitive function, but the mechanism(s) by which SD modulates memory remain unclear. We have previously shown that astrocyte-derived adenosine is a candidate molecule involved in the cognitive deficits following a brief period of SD (Halassa et al., 2009). In this study, we examined whether genetic disruption of SNARE-dependent exocytosis in astrocytes (dnSNARE mice) or pharmacological blockade of A1 receptor signaling using an adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT) could prevent the negative effects of 6 hours of SD on hippocampal late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) and hippocampus-dependent spatial object recognition memory. We found that SD impaired L-LTP in wild-type mice but not in dnSNARE mice. Similarly, this deficit in L-LTP resulting from SD was prevented by a chronic infusion of CPT. Consistent with these results, we found that hippocampus-dependent memory deficits produced by SD were rescued in dnSNARE mice and CPT-treated mice. These data provide the first evidence that astrocytic ATP and adenosine A1R activity contribute to the effects of SD on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory, and suggest a new therapeutic target to reverse the hippocampus-related cognitive deficits induced by sleep loss. PMID:21562257

  5. Long-term depression of inhibitory synaptic transmission induced by spike-timing dependent plasticity requires coactivation of endocannabinoid and muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Juan; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Couve, Alejandro; Buño, Washington; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2013-12-01

    The precise timing of pre-postsynaptic activity is vital for the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) at many central synapses. We show in synapses of rat CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro that spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) protocols that induce LTP at glutamatergic synapses can evoke LTD of inhibitory postsynaptic currents or STDP-iLTD. The STDP-iLTD requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) increase, a release of endocannabinoids (eCBs), the activation of type-1 endocananabinoid receptors and presynaptic muscarinic receptors that mediate a decreased probability of GABA release. In contrast, the STDP-iLTD is independent of the activation of nicotinic receptors, GABAB Rs and G protein-coupled postsynaptic receptors at pyramidal neurons. We determine that the downregulation of presynaptic Cyclic adenosine monophosphate/protein Kinase A pathways is essential for the induction of STDP-iLTD. These results suggest a novel mechanism by which the activation of cholinergic neurons and retrograde signaling by eCBs can modulate the efficacy of GABAergic synaptic transmission in ways that may contribute to information processing and storage in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Synaptic devices based on purely electronic memristors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Ruobing; Li, Jun; Zhuge, Fei E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Zhu, Liqiang; Liang, Lingyan; Zhang, Hongliang; Gao, Junhua; Cao, Hongtao E-mail: h-cao@nimte.ac.cn; Fu, Bing; Li, Kang

    2016-01-04

    Memristive devices have been widely employed to emulate biological synaptic behavior. In these cases, the memristive switching generally originates from electrical field induced ion migration or Joule heating induced phase change. In this letter, the Ti/ZnO/Pt structure was found to show memristive switching ascribed to a carrier trapping/detrapping of the trap sites (e.g., oxygen vacancies or zinc interstitials) in ZnO. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be controllably adjusted by regulating the current compliance level or voltage amplitude. Multi-level conductance states can, therefore, be realized in such memristive device. The spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in this type of synaptic device. Compared with filamentary-type memristive devices, purely electronic memristors have potential to reduce their energy consumption and work more stably and reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

  7. Synaptic correlates of increased cognitive vulnerability with aging: peripheral immune challenge and aging interact to disrupt theta-burst late-phase long-term potentiation in hippocampal area CA1.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Timothy R; Barrientos, Ruth M; Ahrendsen, Jared T; Maier, Steven F; Patterson, Susan L

    2010-06-02

    Variability in cognitive functioning increases markedly with age, as does cognitive vulnerability to physiological and psychological challenges. Exploring the basis of this vulnerability may provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying aging-associated cognitive decline. As we have previously reported, the cognitive abilities of aging (24-month-old) F344 x BN rats are generally good, but are more vulnerable to the consequences of a peripheral immune challenge (an intraperitoneal injection of live Escherichia coli) than those of their younger (3-month-old) counterparts. Four days after the injection, the aging, but not the young rats show profound memory deficits, specific to the consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Here, we have extended these observations, using hippocampal slices to examine for the first time the combined effects of aging and a recent infection on several forms of synaptic plasticity. We have found that the specific deficit in long-lasting memory observed in the aged animals after infection is mirrored by a specific deficit in a form of long-lasting synaptic plasticity. The late-phase long-term potentiation induced in area CA1 using theta-burst stimulation is particularly compromised by the combined effects of aging and infection-a deficit that can be ameliorated by intra-cisterna magna administration of the naturally occurring antiinflammatory cytokine IL-1Ra (interleukin-1 receptor antagonist). These data support the idea that the combination of aging and a negative life event such as an infection might produce selective, early-stage failures of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, with corresponding selective deficits in memory.

  8. Urinary Metabolomics on the Biochemical Profiles in Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rat Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight SYNAPT High-Definition Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hua; Chen, Hua; Zhang, Xu; Yin, Lu; Chen, Dan-Qian; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Wei, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight synapt high-definition mass spectrometry metabolomics was used to characterize the urinary metabolic profiling of diet-induced hyperlipidaemia in a rat model. Analysis was done by orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, correlation analysis, heat map analysis, and KEGG pathways analysis. Potential biomarkers were chosen by S-plot and were identified by accurate mass, isotopic pattern, and MS/MS fragments information. Significant differences in fatty acid, amino acid, nucleoside, and bile acid were observed, indicating the perturbations of fatty acid, amino acid, nucleoside, and bile acid metabolisms in diet-induced hyperlipidaemia rats. This study provides further insight into the metabolic profiling across a wide range of biochemical pathways in response to diet-induced hyperlipidaemia. PMID:24757578

  9. The origin of glutamatergic synaptic inputs controls synaptic plasticity and its modulation by alcohol in mice nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Martin, Gilles E.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that long-lasting changes of synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region involved in drug reward, mediate acute and chronic effects of alcohol. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on synaptic plasticity is limited by the fact that the NAc receives glutamatergic inputs from distinct brain regions (e.g., the prefrontal cortex (PFCx), the amygdala and the hippocampus), each region providing different information (e.g., spatial, emotional and cognitive). Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and the optogenetic technique, we examined synaptic plasticity, and its regulation by alcohol, at cortical, hippocampal and amygdala inputs in fresh slices of mouse tissue. We showed that the origin of synaptic inputs determines the basic properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the expression of spike-timing dependent long-term depression (tLTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term potentiation (tLTP) and their regulation by alcohol. While we observed both tLTP and tLTD at amygadala and hippocampal synapses, we showed that cortical inputs only undergo tLTD. Functionally, we provide evidence that acute Ethyl Alcohol (EtOH) has little effects on higher order information coming from the PFCx, while severely impacting the ability of emotional and contextual information to induce long-lasting changes of synaptic strength. PMID:26257641

  10. Modulation of Long-Term Potentiation of Cortico-Amygdala Synaptic Responses and Auditory Fear Memory by Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisuke; Wada, Keiji; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that an imbalance of ω3 to ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the brain is involved in mental illnesses such as anxiety disorders. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. We previously reported that the dietary ratio of ω3 to ω6 PUFA alters this ratio in the brain, and influences contextual fear memory. In addition to behavioral change, enhancement of cannabinoid CB1 receptor-mediated short-term synaptic plasticity and facilitation of the agonist sensitivity of CB1 receptors have been observed in excitatory synaptic responses in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA). However, it is not known whether long-term synaptic plasticity in the amygdala is influenced by the dietary ratio of ω3 to ω6 PUFA. In the present study, we examined long-term potentiation (LTP) of optogenetically-evoked excitatory synaptic responses in synapses between the terminal of the projection from the auditory cortex (ACx) and the pyramidal cells in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. We found that LTP in this pathway was attenuated in mice fed with a high ω3 to ω6 PUFA ratio diet (0.97), compared with mice fed with a low ω3 to ω6 PUFA ratio diet (0.14). Furthermore, mice in the former condition showed reduced fear responses in an auditory fear conditioning test, compared with mice in the latter condition. In both electrophysiological and behavioral experiments, the effect of a diet with a high ω3 to ω6 PUFA diet ratio was completely blocked by treatment with a CB1 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a significant reduction was observed in cholesterol content, but not in the level of an endogenous CB1 receptor agonist, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), in brain samples containing the amygdala. These results suggest that the balance of ω3 to ω6 PUFA has an impact on fear memory and cortico-amygdala synaptic plasticity, both in a CB1 receptor–dependent manner. PMID:27601985

  11. Fear extinction induces mGluR5-mediated synaptic and intrinsic plasticity in infralimbic neurons.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda-Orengo, Marian T; Lopez, Ana V; Soler-Cedeño, Omar; Porter, James T

    2013-04-24

    Studies suggest that plasticity in the infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL) in rodents and its homolog in humans is necessary for inhibition of fear during the recall of fear extinction. The recall of extinction is impaired by locally blocking metabotropic glutamate receptor type 5 (mGluR5) activation in IL during extinction training. This finding suggests that mGluR5 stimulation may lead to IL plasticity needed for fear extinction. To test this hypothesis, we recorded AMPA and NMDA currents, AMPA receptor (AMPAR) rectification, and intrinsic excitability in IL pyramidal neurons in slices from trained rats using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. We observed that fear extinction increases the AMPA/NMDA ratio, consistent with insertion of AMPARs into IL synapses. In addition, extinction training increased inward rectification, suggesting that extinction induces the insertion of calcium-permeable (GluA2-lacking) AMPARs into IL synapses. Consistent with this, selectively blocking calcium-permeable AMPARs with Naspm reduced the AMPA EPSCs in IL neurons to a larger degree after extinction. Extinction-induced changes in AMPA/NMDA ratio, rectification, and intrinsic excitability were blocked with an mGluR5 antagonist. These findings suggest that mGluR5 activation leads to consolidation of fear extinction by regulating the intrinsic excitability of IL neurons and modifying the composition of AMPARs in IL synapses. Therefore, impaired mGluR5 activity in IL synapses could be one factor that causes inappropriate modulation of fear expression leading to anxiety disorders.

  12. Glutamate transport into synaptic vesicles. Roles of membrane potential, pH gradient, and intravesicular pH.

    PubMed

    Tabb, J S; Kish, P E; Van Dyke, R; Ueda, T

    1992-08-05

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, is transported into bovine synaptic vesicles in a manner that is ATP dependent and requires a vesicular electrochemical proton gradient. We studied the electrical and chemical elements of this driving force and evaluated the effects of chloride on transport. Increasing concentrations of Cl- were found to increase the steady-state ATP-dependent vesicular pH gradient (delta pH) and were found to concomitantly decrease the vesicular membrane potential (delta psi). Low millimolar chloride concentrations, which cause 3-6-fold stimulation of vesicular glutamate uptake, caused small but measurable increases in delta pH and decreases in delta psi, when compared to control vesicles in the absence of chloride. Nigericin in potassium buffers was used to alter the relative proportions of delta pH and delta psi. Compared to controls, at all chloride concentrations tested, nigericin virtually abolished delta pH and increased the vesicle interior positive delta psi. Concomitantly, nigericin increased ATP-dependent glutamate uptake in 0-1 mM chloride but decreased glutamate uptake in 4 mM (45%), 20 mM (80%), and 140 mM (75%) Cl- (where delta pH in the absence of nigericin was large). These findings suggest that either delta psi, delta pH, or a combination can drive glutamate uptake, but to different degrees. In the presence of 4 mM Cl-, where uptake is optimal, both delta psi and delta pH contribute to the driving force for uptake. When the extravesicular pH was increased from 7.4 to 8.0, more Cl- was required to stimulate vesicular glutamate uptake. In the absence of Cl-, as extravesicular pH was lowered to 6.8, uptake was over 3-fold greater than it was at pH 7.4. As extravesicular pH was reduced from 8.0 toward 6.8, less Cl- was required for maximal stimulation. Decreasing the extravesicular pH from 8.0 to 6.8 in the absence of Cl- significantly increased glutamate uptake activity, even

  13. Spontaneous glutamatergic activity induces a BDNF-dependent potentiation of GABAergic synapses in the newborn rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kuczewski, Nicola; Langlois, Anais; Fiorentino, Hervé; Bonnet, Stéphanie; Marissal, Thomas; Diabira, Diabe; Ferrand, Nadine; Porcher, Christophe; Gaiarsa, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous ongoing synaptic activity is thought to play an instructive role in the maturation of the neuronal circuits. However the type of synaptic activity involved and how this activity is translated into structural and functional changes is not fully understood. Here we show that ongoing glutamatergic synaptic activity triggers a long-lasting potentiation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mediated synaptic activity (LLPGABA-A) in the developing rat hippocampus. LLPGABA-A induction requires (i) the activation of AMPA receptors and L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels, (ii) the release of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and (iii) the activation of postsynaptic tropomyosin-related kinase receptors B (TrkB). We found that spontaneous glutamatergic activity is required to maintain a high level of native BDNF in the newborn rat hippocampus and that application of exogenous BDNF induced LLPGABA-A in the absence of glutamatergic activity. These results suggest that ongoing glutamatergic synaptic activity plays a pivotal role in the functional maturation of hippocampal GABAergic synapses by means of a cascade involving BDNF release and downstream signalling through postsynaptic TrkB receptor activation. PMID:18772203

  14. Diversity of neuropsin (KLK8)-dependent synaptic associativity in the hippocampal pyramidal neuron.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Tamura, Hideki; Shiosaka, Sadao

    2011-07-15

    Hippocampal early (E-) long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) elicited by a weak stimulus normally fades within 90 min. Late (L-) LTP and LTD elicited by strong stimuli continue for >180 min and require new protein synthesis to persist. If a strong tetanus is applied once to synaptic inputs, even a weak tetanus applied to another synaptic input can evoke persistent LTP. A synaptic tag is hypothesized to enable the capture of newly synthesized synaptic molecules. This process, referred to as synaptic tagging, is found between not only the same processes (i.e. E- and L-LTP; E- and L-LTD) but also between different processes (i.e. E-LTP and L-LTD; E-LTD and L-LTP) induced at two independent synaptic inputs (cross-tagging). However, the mechanisms of synaptic tag setting remain unclear. In our previous study, we found that synaptic associativity in the hippocampal Schaffer collateral pathway depended on neuropsin (kallikrein-related peptidase 8 or KLK8), a plasticity-related extracellular protease. In the present study, we investigated how neuropsin participates in synaptic tagging and cross-tagging. We report that neuropsin is involved in synaptic tagging during LTP at basal and apical dendritic inputs. Moreover, neuropsin is involved in synaptic tagging and cross-tagging during LTP at apical dendritic inputs via integrin β1 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II signalling. Thus, neuropsin is a candidate molecule for the LTP-specific tag setting and regulates the transformation of E- to L-LTP during both synaptic tagging and cross-tagging.

  15. Disruption of hippocampal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation by psychoactive synthetic cannabinoid 'Spice' compounds: comparison with Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Alexander F; Lycas, Matthew D; Kaczmarzyk, Jakub R; Spivak, Charles E; Baumann, Michael H; Lupica, Carl R

    2017-03-01

    There has been a marked increase in the availability of synthetic drugs designed to mimic the effects of marijuana. These cannabimimetic drugs, sold illicitly as 'Spice' and related products, are associated with serious medical complications in some users. In vitro studies suggest that synthetic cannabinoids in these preparations are potent agonists at central cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs), but few investigations have delineated their cellular effects, particularly in comparison with the psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC). We compared the ability of three widely abused synthetic cannabinoids and Δ(9) -THC to alter glutamate release and long-term potentiation in the mouse hippocampus. JWH-018 was the most potent inhibitor of hippocampal synaptic transmission (EC50 ~15 nM), whereas its fluoropentyl derivative, AM2201, inhibited synaptic transmission with slightly lower potency (EC50 ~60 nM). The newer synthetic cannabinoid, XLR-11, displayed much lower potency (EC50 ~900 nM) that was similar to Δ(9) -THC (EC50 ~700 nM). The effects of all compounds occurred via activation of CB1Rs, as demonstrated by reversal with the selective antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 or the neutral CB1R antagonist PIMSR1. Moreover, AM2201 was without effect in the hippocampus of transgenic mice lacking the CB1R. Hippocampal slices exposed to either synthetic cannabinoids or Δ(9) -THC exhibited significantly impaired long-term potentiation (LTP). We find that, compared with Δ(9) -THC, the first-generation cannabinoids found in Spice preparations display higher potency, whereas a recent synthetic cannabinoid is roughly equipotent with Δ(9) -THC. The disruption of synaptic function by these synthetic cannabinoids is likely to lead to profound impairments in cognitive and behavioral function.

  16. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid/glycinergic synaptic transmission in mediating bilirubin-induced hyperexcitation in developing auditory neurons.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin-Lu; Liang, Min; Shi, Hai-Bo; Wang, Lu-Yang; Li, Chun-Yan; Yin, Shan-Kai

    2016-01-05

    Hyperbilirubinemia is a common clinical phenomenon observed in human newborns. A high level of bilirubin can result in severe jaundice and bilirubin encephalopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying bilirubin excitotoxicity are unclear. Our previous studies showed the action of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glycine switches from excitatory to inhibitory during development in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN), one of the most sensitive auditory nuclei to bilirubin toxicity. In the present study, we investigated the roles of GABAA/glycine receptors in the induction of bilirubin hyperexcitation in early developing neurons. Using the patch clamp technique, GABAA/glycine receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents (sIPSCs) were recorded from bushy and stellate cells in acute brainstem slices from young mice (postnatal day 2-6). Bilirubin significantly increased the frequency of sIPSCs, and this effect was prevented by pretreatments of slices with either fast or slow Ca(2+) chelators BAPTA-AM and EGTA-AM suggesting that bilirubin can increase the release of GABA/glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. Using cell-attached recording configuration, we found that antagonists of GABAA and glycine receptors strongly attenuated spontaneous spiking firings in P2-6 neurons but produced opposite effect in P15-19 neurons. Furthermore, these antagonists reversed bilirubin-evoked hyperexcitability in P2-6 neurons, indicating that excitatory action of GABA/glycinergic transmission specifically contribute to bilirubin-induced hyperexcitability in the early stage of development. Our results suggest that bilirubin-induced enhancement of presynaptic release GABA/Glycine via Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms may play a critical role in mediating neuronal hyperexcitation associated with jaundice, implicating potential new strategies for predicting, preventing, and treating bilirubin neurotoxicity.

  17. Natural Firing Patterns Imply Low Sensitivity of Synaptic Plasticity to Spike Timing Compared with Firing Rate

    PubMed Central

    Wallisch, Pascal; Ostojic, Srdjan

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is sensitive to the rate and the timing of presynaptic and postsynaptic action potentials. In experimental protocols inducing plasticity, the imposed spike trains are typically regular and the relative timing between every presynaptic and postsynaptic spike is fixed. This is at odds with firing patterns observed in the cortex of intact animals, where cells fire irregularly and the timing between presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes varies. To investigate synaptic changes elicited by in vivo-like firing, we used numerical simulations and mathematical analysis of synaptic plasticity models. We found that the influence of spike timing on plasticity is weaker than expected from regular stimulation protocols. Moreover, when neurons fire irregularly, synaptic changes induced by precise spike timing can be equivalently induced by a modest firing rate variation. Our findings bridge the gap between existing results on synaptic plasticity and plasticity occurring in vivo, and challenge the dominant role of spike timing in plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic plasticity, the change in efficacy of connections between neurons, is thought to underlie learning and memory. The dominant paradigm posits that the precise timing of neural action potentials (APs) is central for plasticity induction. This concept is based on experiments using highly regular and stereotyped patterns of APs, in stark contrast with natural neuronal activity. Using synaptic plasticity models, we investigated how irregular, in vivo-like activity shapes synaptic plasticity. We found that synaptic changes induced by precise timing of APs are much weaker than suggested by regular stimulation protocols, and can be equivalently induced by modest variations of the AP rate alone. Our results call into question the dominant role of precise AP timing for plasticity in natural conditions. PMID:27807166

  18. NMDA Receptor Hypofunction Induces Dysfunctions of Energy Metabolism And Semaphorin Signaling in Rats: A Synaptic Proteome Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Kejun; Yang, Yifeng; Gao, Linghan; He, Guang; Li, Weidong; Tang, Kefu; Ji, Baohu; Zhang, Ming; Li, Yang; Yang, Jinglei; Sun, Liya; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Hui; Wan, Chunling

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable evidence to suggest that aberrations of synapse connectivity contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor–mediated glutamate transmission is especially important. Administration of MK-801 ([+]-5-methyl-10, 11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo-[a, d]-cycloheptene-5, 10-iminehydrogenmaleate) induces hypofunction of NMDA receptors in rats, which are widely used as a model for schizophrenia. We investigated synaptosomal proteome expression profiling of the cerebral cortex of MK-801–treated Sprague-Dawley rats using the 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis method, and 49 differentially expression proteins were successfully identified using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight/Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry. We carried out a literature search for further confirmation of subsynaptic locations and to explore the relevance to the diseases of differentially expressed proteins. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) was used to further examine the underlying relationship between the changed proteins. The network encompassing “cell morphology, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, nervous system development and function” was found to be significantly altered in the MK-801–treated rats. “Energy metabolism” and “semaphorin signaling in neurons” are the most significant IPA canonical pathways to be affected by MK-801 treatment. Using western blots, we confirmed the differential expression of Camk2a, Crmp2, Crmp5, Dnm1, and Ndufs3 in both synaptosome proteins and total proteins in the cerebral cortex of the rats. Our study identified the change and/or response of the central nervous transmission system under the stress of NMDA hypofunction, underlining the importance of the synaptic function in schizophrenia. PMID:21084551

  19. The suppression of brain cold-stable microtubules in mice induces synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders

    PubMed Central

    Andrieux, Annie; Salin, Paul A.; Vernet, Muriel; Kujala, Pekka; Baratier, Julie; Gory-Fauré, Sylvie; Bosc, Christophe; Pointu, Hervé; Proietto, Dominique; Schweitzer, Annie; Denarier, Eric; Klumperman, Judith; Job, Didier

    2002-01-01

    Neurons contain abundant subsets of highly stable microtubules that resist depolymerizing conditions such as exposure to the cold. Stable microtubules are thought to be essential for neuronal development, maintenance, and function. Previous work has indicated an important role of the microtubule-associated protein STOP in the induction of microtubule cold stability. Here, we developed STOP null mice. These mice were devoid of cold-stable microtubules. In contrast to our expectations, STOP−/− mice had no detectable defects in brain anatomy but showed synaptic defects, with depleted synaptic vesicle pools and impaired synaptic plasticity, associated with severe behavioral disorders. A survey of the effects of psychotropic drugs on STOP−/− mice behavior showed a remarkable and specific effect of long-term administration of neuroleptics in alleviating these disorders. This study demonstrates that STOP is a major factor responsible for the intriguing stability properties of neuronal microtubules and is important for synaptic plasticity. Additionally, STOP−/− mice may yield a pertinent model for study of neuroleptics in illnesses such as schizophrenia, currently thought to result from synaptic defects. PMID:12231625

  20. Graded Synaptic Transmission between Spiking Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graubard, Katherine; Raper, Jonathan A.; Hartline, Daniel K.

    1980-06-01

    Graded synaptic transmission occurs between spiking neurons of the lobster stomatogastric ganglion. In addition to eliciting spike-evoked inhibitory potentials in postsynaptic cells, these neurons also release functionally significant amounts of transmitter below the threshold for action potentials. The spikeless postsynaptic potentials grade in amplitude with presynaptic voltage and can be maintained for long periods. Graded synaptic transmission can be modulated by synaptic input to the presynaptic neuron.

  1. Citalopram Ameliorates Synaptic Plasticity Deficits in Different Cognition-Associated Brain Regions Induced by Social Isolation in Middle-Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei-Gang; Wang, Yan-Juan; Zhou, Hong; Li, Xiao-Li; Bai, Feng; Ren, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Our previous experiments demonstrated that social isolation (SI) caused AD-like tau hyperphosphorylation and spatial memory deficits in middle-aged rats. However, the underlying mechanisms of SI-induced spatial memory deficits remain elusive. Middle-aged rats (10 months) were group or isolation reared for 8 weeks. Following the initial 4-week period of rearing, citalopram (10 mg/kg i.p.) was administered for 28 days. Then, pathophysiological changes were assessed by performing behavioral, biochemical, and pathological analyses. We found that SI could cause cognitive dysfunction and decrease synaptic protein (synaptophysin or PSD93) expression in different brain regions associated with cognition, such as the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, ventral hippocampus, amygdala, and caudal putamen, but not in the entorhinal cortex or posterior cingulate. Citalopram could significantly improve learning and memory and partially restore synaptophysin or PSD93 expression in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala in SI rats. Moreover, SI decreased the number of dendritic spines in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and ventral hippocampus, which could be reversed by citalopram. Furthermore, SI reduced the levels of BDNF, serine-473-phosphorylated Akt (active form), and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β (inactive form) with no significant changes in the levels of total GSK-3β and Akt in the dorsal hippocampus, but not in the posterior cingulate. Our results suggest that decreased synaptic plasticity in cognition-associated regions might contribute to SI-induced cognitive deficits, and citalopram could ameliorate these deficits by promoting synaptic plasticity mainly in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal hippocampus, and ventral hippocampus. The BDNF/Akt/GSK-3β pathway plays an important role in regulating synaptic plasticity in SI rats.

  2. Sensitivity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials and synaptic plasticity to TCN 201 and TCN 213 in rat hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Yukitoshi; Zorumski, Charles F

    2015-02-01

    Whereas ifenprodil has been used as a selective GluN1/GluN2B (NR1/NR2B, B-type) receptor antagonist to distinguish between GluN2B (NR2B) and GluN2A (NR2A)-containing N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), TCN 201 (3-chloro-4-fluoro-N-[4-[[2-(phenylcarbonyl)hydrazino]carbonyl]benzyl]benzenesulphonamide) and TCN 213 [N-(cyclohexylmethyl)-2-[{5-[(phenylmethyl)amino]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl}thio]acetamide] have been found to be selective GluN1/GluN2A (NR1/NR2A, A-type) antagonists. Based on the premise that A- and B-types are major synaptic NMDARs, we examined whether inhibition of NMDAR excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) by the TCN compounds and ifenprodil are complementary. Contrary to this prediction, inhibition of NMDAR EPSPs by the TCN compounds and ifenprodil were largely overlapping in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from 30-day-old rats. After partial inhibition by ifenprodil, TCN compounds produced little further suppression of NMDAR EPSPs. Similarly, after partial inhibition by TCN compounds ifenprodil failed to further suppress NMDAR EPSPs. However, low micromolar d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate, a competitive NMDAR antagonist, which alone only partially inhibits NMDAR EPSPs, markedly suppresses residual NMDAR responses in the presence of ifenprodil or the TCNs, suggesting that low 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate antagonizes both ifenprodil- and TCN-insensitive synaptic NMDARs. These observations can be most readily interpreted if ifenprodil and TCNs act on a similar population of synaptic NMDARs. Recent lines of evidence suggest that the majority of hippocampal synaptic NMDARs are triheteromers. If so, modulation of GluN2A, and not just GluN2B NMDARs, could dampen long-term depression (LTD). Indeed, both TCNs, like ifenprodil, blocked LTD, suggesting the involvement of ifenprodil- and TCN-sensitive NMDARs in LTD induction. However, the TCNs plus ifenprodil failed to inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP), suggesting that neither ifenprodil- nor TCN

  3. LRRK2 regulates retrograde synaptic compensation at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Penney, Jay; Tsurudome, Kazuya; Liao, Edward H.; Kauwe, Grant; Gray, Lindsay; Yanagiya, Akiko; R. Calderon, Mario; Sonenberg, Nahum; Haghighi, A. Pejmun

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease gene leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in a number of processes including the regulation of mitochondrial function, autophagy and endocytic dynamics; nevertheless, we know little about its potential role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity. Here we demonstrate that postsynaptic knockdown of the fly homologue of LRRK2 thwarts retrograde, homeostatic synaptic compensation at the larval neuromuscular junction. Conversely, postsynaptic overexpression of either the fly or human LRRK2 transgene induces a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release by increasing the size of the release ready pool of vesicles. We show that LRRK2 promotes cap-dependent translation and identify Furin 1 as its translational target, which is required for the synaptic function of LRRK2. As the regulation of synaptic homeostasis plays a fundamental role in ensuring normal and stable synaptic function, our findings suggest that aberrant function of LRRK2 may lead to destabilization of neural circuits. PMID:27432119

  4. In vivo BDNF modulation of adult functional and morphological synaptic plasticity at hippocampal mossy fibers.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Palacio-Schjetnan, Andrea; Escoba