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Sample records for synchronous bilateral breast

  1. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  2. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male].

    PubMed

    García-Mejido, José Antonio; Delgado-Jiménez, Carmen; Gutiérrez-Palomino, Laura; Sánchez-Sevilla, Miguel; Iglesias-Bravo, Eva; Caballero-Fernández, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: el cáncer de mama en el hombre es una enfermedad con baja incidencia, que se reduce aún más cuando es bilateral sincrónica. Existen pocas publicaciones en los últimos años. Objetivo: establecer pautas para el tratamiento de este cáncer, aunque sea infrecuente. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 75 años de edad, con tumores en ambas mamas, que se le resecaron completamente con exéresis de ganglios palpables. El estudio histopatológico informó que se trataba de un carcinoma ductal infiltrante no especificado. Se indicó tratamiento adyuvante con tamoxifeno y radioterapia; en la actualidad está libre de enfermedad. Conclusiones: el carcinoma mamario bilateral sincrónico en el varón es una enfermedad poco frecuente. Su tratamiento principal es la cirugía, de ahí la importancia del diagnóstico temprano. En la mayoría de los casos se requiere quimioterapia y radioterapia adyuvante porque suelen diagnosticarse en un estadio avanzado.

  3. Synchronous, bilateral breast cancer: prognostic value and incidence.

    PubMed

    Jobsen, J J; van der Palen, J; Ong, F; Meerwaldt, J H

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to address the question whether patients with bilateral breast cancer (BBC) have a worse prognosis in terms of recurrence and survival than patients with primarily unilateral breast cancer (UBC) following breast-conserving treatment (BCT). From 1983 to 2000, a total of 1760 BCT were registered in the Radiotherapy Department of the Medisch Spectrum Twente. We defined synchronous a BBC as cancer diagnosed in both breasts at the same time or within a period of 3 months of diagnosis of the first tumor. One thousand seven hundred and sixty BCT were performed on 1705 patients, 26 of whom presented with BBC. Of these 26 patients, 18 had BCT for both breasts. A higher proportion of patients with BBC showed more tubular carcinoma (P=0.029) and medially located tumors (P=0.076) than those with UBC did. The 5- and 10-year local recurrence rates (LRRs) were 4.5% and 9.1%, respectively, in BBC patients, as against 3.3% and 7.6% for UBC after BCT. The 5- and 10-year distant metastasis rates were 26.9% and 50.7%, respectively, for BBC as against 13.4% and 21.1% for UBC after BCT (P=0.065 and P=0.014, respectively). The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rates for the 1705 patients were 82.1% and 41%, respectively, after BBC, and 91.4% and 84% after UBC (P=0.086 and P=0.0045, respectively). Patients with BBC have a higher rate of distant metastasis and a worse DSS than those with UBC. As the LRR is similar for BBC and UBC, BCT is not contraindicated in BBC. The incidence of BBC is low, at 1.5% which makes it difficult to reach any more definitive conclusions on outcome and treatment.

  4. [Synchronous bilateral breast cancer and pregnancy: about 3 cases at Joliot Curie institute of Dakar (Senegal)].

    PubMed

    Zongo, Nayi; Sawadogo, Yobi Alexis; Some, Some Ollo Roland; Bagre, Sidpawalmdé Carine; Ka, Sidy; Diouf, Doudou; Dieng, Mamadou Moustapha; Gaye, Papa Macoumba; Dem, Ahmadou

    2016-01-01

    To describe our diagnostic and therapeutic strategy against synchronous, bilateral breast cancer during the pregnancy. Gestational age at diagnosis of cancer was 7; 21 and 25 weeks respectively. Patients had stage IV and IIIA of breast cancer in two and one case respectively. They all received chemotherapy, two cases during pregnancy (6TEC and 3AC) and one case after delivery. Bilateral mastectomy was performed in one case. One patient died. The others were alive but all metastatic. Fetal growth restriction was noted in one case. This association leads to delayed diagnosis of cancer. Surgery is feasible and the type of intervention is only determined by the cancer stage. Chemotherapy is feasible and is associated with less foetal complications in the last two quarters of pregnancy.

  5. Prognosis of synchronous bilateral breast cancer: a review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Holm, Marianne; Tjønneland, Anne; Balslev, Eva; Kroman, Niels

    2014-08-01

    Currently, no consistent evidence-based guidelines for the management of synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) exist and it is uncertain how presenting with SBBC affects patients' prognosis. We conducted a review of studies analyzing the association between SBBC and prognosis. The studies that reported adjusted effect measures were included in meta-analyses of effect of bilaterality on breast cancer mortality. From 57 initially identified records 17 studies from 11 different countries including 8,050 SBBC patients were included. The quality of the studies varied but was generally low with small sample sizes, and lack of consistent, detailed histo-pathological information. When doing meta-analysis on the subgroup of studies that provided adjusted effect estimates on breast cancer mortality (nine studies including 3,631 SBBC cases), we found that bilaterality in itself had a negative impact on prognosis after adjustment for known prognostic factors (pooled HR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.24-1.50, p < 0.0001). Multiple sensitivity analyses indicated robustness of the overall estimate. This review summarizes the current evidence of the association between SBBC and prognosis. The previously accepted convention that appropriate adjuvant treatment can be determined by considering the higher risk cancer was not confirmed in this review; rather it seems that being diagnosed with two tumors simultaneously entails a worse prognosis above and beyond that of the unilateral cancers of the same stage. To determine the true association between SBBC and breast cancer prognosis, studies of large and updated samples of SBBC should be done and include thorough histo-pathologic information.

  6. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions.

  7. Mutational Profiling Can Establish Clonal or Independent Origin in Synchronous Bilateral Breast and Other Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Richard; Harismendy, Olivier; Pu, Minya; Crain, Brian; Yost, Shawn; Frazer, Kelly A.; Rana, Brinda; Hasteh, Farnaz; Wallace, Anne; Parker, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Synchronous tumors can be independent primary tumors or a primary-metastatic (clonal) pair, which may have clinical implications. Mutational profiling of tumor DNA is increasingly common in the clinic. We investigated whether mutational profiling can distinguish independent from clonal tumors in breast and other cancers, using a carefully defined test based on the Clonal Likelihood Score (CLS = 100 x # shared high confidence (HC) mutations/ # total HC mutations). Methods Statistical properties of a formal test using the CLS were investigated. A high CLS is evidence in favor of clonality; the test is implemented as a one-sided binomial test of proportions. Test parameters were empirically determined using 16,422 independent breast tumor pairs and 15 primary-metastatic tumor pairs from 10 cancer types using The Cancer Genome Atlas. Results We validated performance of the test with its established parameters, using five published data sets comprising 15,758 known independent tumor pairs (maximum CLS = 4.1%, minimum p-value = 0.48) and 283 known tumor clonal pairs (minimum CLS 13%, maximum p-value <0.01), across renal cell, testicular, and colorectal cancer. The CLS test correctly classified all validation samples but one, which it appears may have been incorrectly classified in the published data. As proof-of-concept we then applied the CLS test to two new cases of invasive synchronous bilateral breast cancer at our institution, each with one hormone receptor positive (ER+/PR+/HER2-) lobular and one triple negative ductal carcinoma. High confidence mutations were identified by exome sequencing and results were validated using deep targeted sequencing. The first tumor pair had CLS of 81% (p-value < 10–15), supporting clonality. In the second pair, no common mutations of 184 variants were validated (p-value >0.99), supporting independence. A plausible molecular mechanism for the shift from hormone receptor positive to triple negative was identified in the

  8. Synchronous bilateral non-Hodgkin’s diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the breast and left breast invasive ductal carcinoma: a case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weihua; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Xiaoge

    2014-01-01

    Lymphoma of the breast is unusual, and synchronous bilateral lymphoma and carcinoma of the breast is extremely rare. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who found a mass in her left breast. Ultrasound scan findings revealed nodules at the 2 o’clock position in her left breast and focal dilation of the duct at the 8-9 o’clock and 10 o’clock position in her right and left breasts, respectively. A left breast ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy and right breast segmental excisional biopsy were performed. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination revealed left breast invasive ductal carcinoma and right breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the non-germinal center type. Pathological examination of the left breast modified radical mastectomy specimen revealed synchronous invasive ductal carcinoma (grade III) and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The patient received chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation in another hospital. Based on a review of the relevant literature, we discuss the diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of synchronous breast lymphoma and invasive ductal carcinoma. PMID:25400793

  9. Synchronous bilateral breast carcinoma in a 50-year-old man with 45,X/46,XY mosaic karyotype: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, Gianluca; D'Alba, Pierfrancesco; Costantini, Melania; Magistrelli, Andrea; Belli, Paolo; Mulè, Antonino; Coco, Claudio; Picciocchi, Aurelio

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a patient with ambiguous external genitalia attributed to a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. To our knowledge, this represents the first such case ever to be reported. Mammography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging all showed bilateral suspicious breast masses with microcalcifications. There were no radiological findings of muscle invasion or axillary lymphadenopathy. The patient was successfully treated by bilateral radical modified mastectomy followed by external irradiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy. Histological examination revealed a bilateral ductal carcinoma in situ, with a cribriform and papillary pattern and microfoci of infiltrating ductal carcinoma. The hormonal profile revealed high levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, and low levels of testosterone. Testicular sonography revealed small hypoechoic testicles with bilateral microlithiasis. This case shows that 45,X/46,XY men may have an increased risk of breast cancer and must be followed up carefully.

  10. Mucinous metaplasia of breast carcinoma with macrocystic transformation resembling ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma in a case of synchronous bilateral infiltrating ductal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sheng-Huang; Chaung, Chen-Rong

    2008-09-01

    Mammary mucinous cystadenocarcinoma (MCA) is a rare, invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast that is virtually identical morphologically to MCA of the ovary, pancreas or appendix. Synchronous bilateral breast tumors, not uncommonly encountered in fibroadenoma and lobular carcinoma, are unusual in IDC. Reported herein is a primary MCA of the right breast coexisting with a bilateral ordinary IDC in a 55-year-old Taiwanese woman who underwent modified radical mastectomy of both breasts with bilateral axillary level I and II lymph node dissection. In the right breast a 2.5 cm unilocular mucus-filled cyst was found. It had complex papillae, some of which were supported by delicate fibrovascular stroma, lined by simple to slightly stratified columnar neoplastic epithelial cells with intracellular mucin and an abundance of intracystic extracellular mucin, coexisting with a low-grade ordinary IDC. In the left breast a high-grade ordinary IDC was discovered. The patient had undergone simple abdominal total hysterectomy for myoma uteri along with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy 10 years previously. Based on pathological studies and a literature review, it is suggested that mammary MCA arises from mucinous metaplasia and macrocystic transformation of ordinary breast carcinoma. A brief discussion of bilateral breast cancers is also given.

  11. Synchronous bilateral laparoendoscopic single-site adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chang Wook; Park, Yong Hyun; Shin, Chan Soo; Kim, Hyeon Hoe

    2010-08-01

    Abstract We present the first report of simultaneous laparoendoscopic single-site surgery (LESS) for bilateral primary aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas. A 40-year-old man with hypertension that was resistant to pharmacotherapy was shown to have bilateral aldosterone-producing adrenal adenomas. A right partial and a left total adrenalectomy were performed at the same time via a single umbilical incision. The surgery and recovery were uncomplicated. This is the first report of synchronous bilateral LESS.

  12. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  13. Simultaneous bilateral breast cancer in a male: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Melenhorst, J; van Berlo, C L H; Nijhuis, P H A

    2005-01-01

    A 63-year-old male presented with a bilateral breast carcinoma. Both axillae showed metastases. The patient was treated with a bilateral modified breast amputation. Study of the literature shows that synchronous bilateral breast cancer in males is uncommon. Even in a male with changing breast tissue a carcinoma has to be considered. In male breast cancer, adherence to diagnostic and treatment guidelines for female breast cancer is generally advocated. In males, hormonal causes have to be excluded.

  14. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  15. Mechanism of Highly Synchronized Bilateral Hippocampal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y.; Toprani, S.; Tang, Y.; Vrabec, T.; Durand, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo studies of epileptiform discharges in the hippocampi of rodents have shown that bilateral seizure activity can sometimes be synchronized with very small delays (< 2 ms). This observed small time delay of epileptiform activity between the left and right CA3 regions is unexpected given the physiological propagation time across the hemispheres (> 6 ms). The goal of this study is to determine the mechanisms of this tight synchronization with in-vitro electrophysiology techniques and computer simulations. The hypothesis of a common source was first eliminated by using an in-vitro preparation containing both hippocampi with a functional ventral hippocampal commissure (VHC) and no other tissue. Next, the hypothesis that a noisy baseline could mask the underlying synchronous activity between the two hemispheres was ruled out by low noise in-vivo recordings and computer simulation of the noisy environment. Then we built a novel bilateral CA3 model to test the hypothesis that the phenomenon of very small left-to-right propagation delay of seizure activity is a product of epileptic cell network dynamics. We found that the commissural tract connectivity could decrease the delay between seizure events recorded from two sides while the activity propagated longitudinally along the CA3 layer thereby yielding delays much smaller than the propagation time between the two sides. The modeling results indicate that both recurrent and feedforward inhibition were required for shortening the bilateral propagation delay and depended critically on the length of the commissural fiber tract as well as the number of cells involved in seizure generation. These combined modeling/experimental studies indicate that it is possible to explain near perfect synchronization between the two hemispheres by taking into account the structure of the hippocampal network. PMID:24262205

  16. [Respiratory synchronization and breast radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Mège, A; Ziouèche-Mottet, A; Bodez, V; Garcia, R; Arnaud, A; de Rauglaudre, G; Pourel, N; Chauvet, B

    2016-10-01

    Adjuvant radiation therapy following breast cancer surgery continues to improve locoregional control and overall survival. But the success of highly targeted-conformal radiotherapy such as intensity-modulated techniques, can be compromised by respiratory motion. The intrafraction motion can potentially result in significant under- or overdose, and also expose organs at risk. This article summarizes the respiratory motion and its effects on imaging, dose calculation and dose delivery by radiotherapy for breast cancer. We will review the methods of respiratory synchronization available for breast radiotherapy to minimize the respiratory impact and to spare organs such as heart and lung.

  17. Bilateral synchronous ossifying fibromas of the mandible: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tayfur, Mahir; Tayfur, Ebru Kadioglu; Balcı, Mecdi Gurhan; Deger, Ayse Nur; Cımen, Ferda Keskin; Daltaban, Feyza

    2015-01-01

    Ossifying fibroma of the jaw is a benign fibroosseous tumour. The growth of it is slowly and it is well circumscribed. Occurrence of multiple ossifying fibromas (synchronous) is rare in the jaw, and only a few cases have been documented. The most of these cases were in only maxilla. The fewer cases were reported in both of maxilla and mandible. We report a case of bilateral synchronous ossifying fibromas involving the mandible of a 37 years old male. The importance of our case is that bilaterality and synchronous of the lesions. Our case is the first synchronous mandibler lesion in literature reported. PMID:26191307

  18. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment.

  19. Breast-conserving therapy in patients with bilateral breast cancer: Do today's treatment choices burn bridges for tomorrow?

    SciTech Connect

    Gilroy, Jeffrey S.; Morris, Christopher G.; Mendenhall, Nancy Price . E-mail: mendenan@shands.ufl.edu

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: To determine how often initial treatment choices limit treatment options for subsequent breast cancer management in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy (BCT), in particular with treatment of internal mammary nodes. Methods and Materials: Between January 1985 and June 2001, 464 women with pathologic Stage 0, I, and II (T0-2, N0-1) breast cancer underwent BCT at our institution. All 464 patients had computed tomography-based treatment planning. In patients with bilateral breast cancer, the planning computed tomography scans were used to determine the impact initial radiation therapy fields had on treatment options for subsequent contralateral breast cancer. Results: There were 500 breast cancers diagnosed in 464 patients. Thirty-six patients (8%) had bilateral breast cancer with 9 (2%) synchronous and 27 (6%) metachronous primaries. In 80 patients, the ipsilateral internal mammary nodes were explicitly treated. Initial breast cancer treatment choices impacted subsequent treatment decisions for the contralateral breast in only 2 of 464 patients (0.4%) in the study: 2 of 80 patients (2.5%) whose internal mammary nodes were treated, and 2 of 27 patients (7.4%) who developed metachronous bilateral breast cancer. Conclusions: Initial BCT, including internal mammary node irradiation, rarely compromised future contralateral breast-conserving therapy.

  20. Bilateral Synchronous Ectopic Ethmoid Sinus Olfactory Neuroblastoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Soriano, Elena; Alfonso, Carolina; Yebenes, Laura; Garcia-Polo, Julio; Lassaletta, Luis; Gavilan, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 41 Final Diagnosis: Olfactory neuroblastoma Symptoms: Left nasal obstruction • occasional left epistaxis • headache Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Nasal endoscopic examination • neck palpation • CT • bilateral endoscopic resection • MRI • PET-CT • postoperative radiotherapy Specialty: Otolaryngology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB), also known as esthesioneuroblastoma, is a rare malignant head and neck cancer thought to originate from the olfactory epithelium. It typically invades contiguous structures at presentation. We report a very rare case of multifocal and ectopic ONB. Case Report: A 41-year-old man presented with left nasal obstruction and occasional left epistaxis associated with headache. Endoscopic examination of the nasal cavities and computed tomography suggested bilateral polypoid masses. Histopathological diagnosis after endoscopic resection established bilateral olfactory neuroblastoma of the ethmoid sinuses. The patient received postoperative radiotherapy. He remains free of disease 4 years after treatment. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the second documented case of multifocal ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Clinicians should consider ONB in the differential diagnosis of bilateral synchronous nasal and paranasal masses to avoid delayed diagnosis. Endoscopic resection of ONB could be an option in selected cases. PMID:27097989

  1. Giant Bilateral Juvenile Fibroadenoma of the Breast in Prepubescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salma; Khan, Momna; Rafique, Sadia

    2015-10-01

    Juvenile fibroadenoma accounts for 4% of the total fibroadenomas. Giant juvenile fibroadenoma is found in only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas. The authors report a 10-year girl presenting with progressive enlargement of both breasts for one year. Based on clinical findings and Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC), a diagnosis of bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of breast was made. She underwent bilateral lumpectomy with breast conservation and made uneventful postoperative recovery.

  2. Patient with bilateral breast enlargement and hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Ali, A A; Ahmed, T; Rashid, M M

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year old man was admitted in the surgical unit of Dhaka Medical College Hospital on August 2007 presented with Hypospadias & underdeveloped penis from childhood, gradual enlargement of both breasts for the last 10 years, absence of axillary and pubic hair from puberty & painful swelling of both testes for the last 3 years. The patient was regarded as a female upto the age of 10 years. He has got no voice change since puberty. On examination he had average body built, there was bilateral gynaecomastia, hypospadias, rudimentary penis & absence of pubic and axillary hair. His testosterone level, serum prolactin level, serum progesterone level, serum estradiol level was done. Cytology on buccal smear done and ultrasonography revealed no ovary and uterus. Ultimately patient was diagnosed as a case of androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS). The case is reported for clinical awareness & to share our experience.

  3. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presenting as bilateral breast masses.

    PubMed

    Edison, Michele N; O'Dell, M Cody; Letter, Haley P; Scherer, Kurt; Williams, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    An 8-year-old girl presented with bilateral breast masses and was subsequently diagnosed with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia is a rare myelodysplastic syndrome that typically presents in boys younger than 3 years of age with splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and skin findings. Bilateral breast masses in a child are rare and, as such, present a diagnostic dilemma due to the relative paucity of cases in the literature. We present a case of granulocytic sarcoma of the breasts in a patient with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The authors hope that increased reporting and research regarding pediatric breast masses will help create awareness for such cases.

  4. Synchronized computational architecture for generalized bilateral control of robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szakaly, Zoltan F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A master six degree of freedom Force Reflecting Hand Controller (FRHC) is available at a master site where a received image displays, in essentially real time, a remote robotic manipulator which is being controlled in the corresponding six degree freedom by command signals which are transmitted to the remote site in accordance with the movement of the FRHC at the master site. Software is user-initiated at the master site in order to establish the basic system conditions, and then a physical movement of the FRHC in Cartesean space is reflected at the master site by six absolute numbers that are sensed, translated and computed as a difference signal relative to the earlier position. The change in position is then transmitted in that differential signal form over a high speed synchronized bilateral communication channel which simultaneously returns robot-sensed response information to the master site as forces applied to the FRHC so that the FRHC reflects the feel of what is taking place at the remote site. A system wide clock rate is selected at a sufficiently high rate that the operator at the master site experiences the Force Reflecting operation in real time.

  5. Bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast: case seriesand literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wongmaneerung, Phanchaporn; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Watcharachan, Kirati; Ditsatham, Chagkrit

    2016-01-01

    Background Desmoid tumor of the breast is very rare and locally aggressive but has no distant metastasis. Bilateral lesions are extremely rare, found in only 4% of patients. Two cases of bilateral desmoid tumor of the breast are reported. The clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, and follow-up outcomes of recurrence as well as a brief literature review are provided. Case reports Case 1 is a 31-year-old woman who presented with nipple retraction. An ultrasound revealed BIRAD V in both breasts. She underwent a bilateral excisional biopsy under ultrasound mark with the pathology result of extra-abdominal desmoid tumor in both breasts. The patient had a bilateral mastectomy with silicone implantation due to the involved margins by excision. She remained tumor free after 7-year follow-up. Case 2 is a 28-year-old woman who presented with a lump on her right breast that she had discovered ~2 months earlier. An ultrasound showed a spiculated mass in the right breast and some circumscribed hypoechoic masses in both breasts. A bilateral breast excision was done. The pathology result was an extra-abdominal desmoid tumor. She had recurrence on both sides and underwent a mastectomy and silicone implantation. The tumor has not recurred after 1-year follow-up. Conclusion Imaging cannot distinguish between benign breast lesions and malignancy. Pathology results are helpful in making a definitive diagnosis. Given that the desmoid tumor is locally aggressive, a local excision with clear margins is recommended. Chemotherapy and hormonal treatment are controversial. PMID:27578999

  6. Bilateral breast cancer associated with diffuse scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Pineda, V; Salvador, R; Soriano, J

    2003-06-01

    There is a strong evidence to suggest the association between breast cancer and diffuse scleroderma, though it is an infrequent occurrence. We describe the clinical and radiological findings in a patient who, over a period of 2 years, was diagnosed initially of diffuse scleroderma, next with right breast cancer and finally with left breast cancer. A review of the literature evidencing the relation between these two pathologies is provided. We suggest that special vigilance for tumoral pathology of the breast should be performed in patients with systemic scleroderma.

  7. Bilateral Breast Irradiation Using Hybrid Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (h-VMAT) Technique: A Planning Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Balaji, Karunakaran; Thirunavukarasu, Moorthi; Premkumar, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this planning case report is to share the perceived dosimetric benefits of innovative hybrid volumetric modulated arc therapy (h-VMAT) for bilateral breast cancer radiotherapy in two patients with synchronous bilateral breast cancer. Two patients with early bilateral breast cancer after breast conservation surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy were planned for bilateral breast radiotherapy. On the planning computed tomography (CT) dataset, bilateral breast planning treatment volume (PTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were delineated using standard guidelines. Using the same structure set, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and h-VMAT plans were generated and compared dosimetrically. The h-VMAT showed comparable target coverage, conformity and homogeneity while sparing of both lungs and heart were better. The dose to heart was reduced with h-VMAT, with a V25Gy and V5Gy of 3.2 & 22.3% for h-VMAT versus 11.6 & 84.9% for the VMAT plan. Similarly, the dose to the total lung was better in h-VMAT with a V20Gy and V5Gy of 12.1 & 46.2 versus 19.9 & 83.3% for VMAT. Overall the results indicate a better sparing of lung and heart at low doses with h-VMAT. Long-term clinical follow-up will give us more insight about the dosimetric benefits of these innovative techniques. PMID:28083458

  8. A rare cause of anuria: Bilateral synchronous isolated mid-ureteric tubercular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dangi, Anuj D.; Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; Kumar, Santosh; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    A young female presenting with right flank pain, fever, raised creatinine and bilateral hydronephrosis was treated with antibiotics elsewhere, with presumptive diagnosis of bilateral pyelonephritis. She had partial relief in symptoms and her creatinine level showed an improvement. Three months later during evaluation at our center she had anuria, hypertensive crisis and pulmonary edema which were managed with emergency bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. Cross-sectional imaging and ureteroscopy suggested bilateral synchronous intramural mid-ureteric lesions as underlying pathology. Histopathology of the ureteric segments during laparotomy revealed caseating granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. This clinical presentation has not been previously described in urinary tuberculosis. PMID:26604451

  9. Cosmesis with bilateral mammoreduction for conservative breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E; Schneider, Heather; Hay, Karen; Elkins, David E; Schnarrs, Robert A; Carman, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Over 7 years, 57 women with breast cancer underwent lumpectomy and bilateral mammoreduction. Physical complaints about large or lax breast shape were the predominate rationale. Two patients were immediately lost to follow-up, 55 patients remained and were followed every 3 months for an average of 1.6 years. This is the largest series traceable by computer and literature search. Chart review and patient examination in this retrospective review were utilized as the basis for data within the article. Collated notes from patients' doctors were assessed, as well as documented patient responses to the procedure. Pictures without head/face for identifiers were taken of the patients. Chart data were collected by clinicians, but were reviewed blindly by a statistician. The overall control and cosmesis rates as well as alleviation of heavy breast problems were noted. Only 6% of women had fair to poor cosmetic results; the majority (82%) had excellent to good results. Women with very large breasts or markedly relaxed breast tissue of concern to the patients proved optimal candidates for lumpectomy of cancer and bilateral mammoreduction in the conservative treatment of these cancers. There was a significant reduction in the physical complaints of the patients as well. For women with very pendulous or extremely large breasts, lumpectomy and bilateral mammoreduction may prove to be the optimal course of action.

  10. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alex C; Hitt, Austin N; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  11. Bilateral atrophic squirrhus of breast in neglected breast cancer: case report

    PubMed Central

    Louati, Doulira; Trigui, Khaled; Abid, Donia; Kammoun, Salma; Dermech, Manel; Chaabane, Kais; Amouri, Habib

    2014-01-01

    The atrophic squirrhus carcinoma is an advanced form of breast cancer, which is most often neglected by patients. These days it has become very rare. The bilaterality of this form is even more exceptional. We present a case of atrophic squirrhus breast cancer of a 58 years old woman, rural origin, which is particular for its bilaterality and rapid evolution causing the death after 22 months from the first abnormal functional sign. PMID:25883743

  12. Unilateral and Bilateral Breast Cancer in Women Surviving Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Swati K.; Schwartz, Cindy; Fisher, Susan G.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Tarbell, Nancy; Muhs, Ann; Marcus, Karen J.; Mendenhall, Nancy; Mauch, Peter; Kun, Larry E.; Constine, Louis S.

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To define demographic and therapeutic associations with the risk of breast cancer in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD), particularly the frequency and interval to the development of contralateral breast cancer. Methods and Materials: All 398 female patients (<19 years) treated for HD in five institutions during the accrual period were evaluated. Mean follow-up was 16.9 years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated as the ratio of the observed number of cases to the expected number of cases, estimated using age-matched controls from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database. Results: A total of 29 women developed breast cancer (25 invasive, 4 ductal carcinoma in situ; SIR, 37.25; 95% confidence interval, 24.96-53.64). Time to diagnosis was 9.4 to 36.1 years. Cumulative incidence was 24% at 30 years. Ten patients (34%) had bilateral disease (9 metachronous, 1 synchronous). The interval to contralateral breast cancer was 12 to 34 months. On univariate analysis, significant variables included stage of HD, mantle radiation dose, pelvic radiation (protective), and follow-up time. On multivariate analysis, early stage and older age at diagnosis of HD ({<=}12 vs. >12 years) were significant predictors of secondary breast cancer. Conclusions: Women surviving pediatric HD were found to have a 37-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer and a high likelihood of rapidly developing bilateral disease. Early-stage HD and age greater than 12 years at diagnosis of HD were independent risk factors. Higher radiation doses may augment risk, and pelvic radiation may be protective. Breast cancer screening methodology and frequency, plus the role of prophylaxis in patients with unilateral disease, require definition.

  13. Optical mammography: bilateral breast symmetry in hemoglobin saturation maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Kalli, Sirishma; Makim, Shital S.; Graham, Roger A.; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the bilateral symmetry of human breast hemoglobin saturation maps measured with a broadband optical mammography instrument. We have imaged 21 patients with unilateral breast cancer, 32 patients with unilateral benign lesions, and 27 healthy patients. An image registration process was applied to the bilateral hemoglobin saturation (SO2) images by assigning each pixel to the low, middle, or high range of SO2 values, where the thresholds for the categories were the 15th and 85th percentiles of the individual saturation range. The Dice coefficient, which is a measure of similarity, was calculated for each patient's pair of right and left breast SO2 images. The invasive cancer patients were found to have an average Dice coefficient value of 0.55±0.07, which was significantly lower than the benign and healthy groups (0.61±0.11 and 0.62±0.12, respectively). Although differences were seen in a group analysis, the healthy patient Dice coefficients spanned a wide range, limiting the diagnostic capabilities of this SO2 symmetry analysis on an individual basis. Our results suggest that for assessing the SO2 contrast of breast lesions, it may be better to select a reference tissue in the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral breast.

  14. Bilateral mastectomy and the retreat from breast-conserving surgery.

    PubMed

    Moffat, Frederick L; Yakoub, Danny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the consequences for breast cancer patients of the trend away from breast conservation in favor of bilateral and contralateral mastectomy. The methods are followed from the review of the literature from 1991 to 2015. Breast-conserving surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy, introduced into mainstream practice in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively, are now the standard of care for early-stage breast cancer. Disruptive change has unexpectedly supervened in the guise of bilateral mastectomy for cancer or prophylaxis and contralateral prophylactic mastectomy. These operations are now being resorted to at a rate which cannot be explained by any of the biological imperatives related to breast cancer and related diseases. This phenomenon extends across the Western world and beyond, driven by patients' cancer concern, a misunderstanding of what surgery can and cannot achieve and preserve, and the current popular media/cultural environment. These developments and their consequences for patients are reviewed. Surgical complications, especially those related to reconstruction, are unusually common. Of equal or greater concern are the physical, esthetic, psychosocial, psychosexual morbidities, and other adverse sequelae of these operations.

  15. Optical mammography: bilateral breast symmetry in hemoglobin saturation maps

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Pamela G.; Sassaroli, Angelo; Kainerstorfer, Jana M.; Krishnamurthy, Nishanth; Kalli, Sirishma; Makim, Shital S.; Graham, Roger A.; Fantini, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We present a study of the bilateral symmetry of human breast hemoglobin saturation maps measured with a broadband optical mammography instrument. We have imaged 21 patients with unilateral breast cancer, 32 patients with unilateral benign lesions, and 27 healthy patients. An image registration process was applied to the bilateral hemoglobin saturation (SO2) images by assigning each pixel to the low, middle, or high range of SO2 values, where the thresholds for the categories were the 15th and 85th percentiles of the individual saturation range. The Dice coefficient, which is a measure of similarity, was calculated for each patient’s pair of right and left breast SO2 images. The invasive cancer patients were found to have an average Dice coefficient value of 0.55±0.07, which was significantly lower than the benign and healthy groups (0.61±0.11 and 0.62±0.12, respectively). Although differences were seen in a group analysis, the healthy patient Dice coefficients spanned a wide range, limiting the diagnostic capabilities of this SO2 symmetry analysis on an individual basis. Our results suggest that for assessing the SO2 contrast of breast lesions, it may be better to select a reference tissue in the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral breast. PMID:26849841

  16. Synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jinjing; Lei, Jianyong; Jiang, Ke; Li, Zhihui; Gong, Rixiang; Zhu, Jingqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The incidences of both thyroid cancer and breast cancer have been rising in recent years; however, it is very rare to find a single person with both of these cancers. Only a few cases of synchronous thyroid and breast cancer have been published, and even fewer cases have been reported in older patients (>60 years). Case summary: The current study presents a case of synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma and breast ductal carcinoma in an elderly patient. The patient first underwent a mastectomy and axillary lymphadenectomy in our department, followed by a total thyroidectomy and lymphadenectomy of the left lateral region of the neck 1 month later. Postoperative pathological examination identified invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Over almost half a year of follow-up, the patient has exhibited no evidence of recurrence or metastasis, as demonstrated by careful ultrasound examinations. Herein, we not only report this case but also present a systematic review of the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of synchronous breast and thyroid cancer. Conclusion: Although synchronous primary tumors of the thyroid and breast are very rare, they remain a possibility; therefore, more attention should be paid to these cases. PMID:28207532

  17. Tamoxifen Citrate, Letrozole, Anastrozole, or Exemestane With or Without Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Invasive RxPONDER Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-13

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor and/or Progesterone Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Multicentric Breast Carcinoma; Multifocal Breast Carcinoma; Synchronous Bilateral Breast Carcinoma

  18. Independent Tumor Origin in Two Cases of Synchronous Bilateral Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zhengguo; Zhao, Jialu; Zhao, Tian; Han, Yuying; Zhang, Yujun; Ye, Haihong

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) pose a challenge for clinical treatment and management. Most bilateral RCCs are sporadic, and do not show a hereditary pattern indicative of VHL syndrome or other inherited cancers. The origin and evolution of these sporadic bilateral RCCs remains elusive. We obtained normal and tumor samples from two male patients suffering from early stage synchronous bilateral clear cell RCC (ccRCC), and analyzed genomic DNA using whole exome sequencing and bisulfite pyrosequencing. We detected distinct 3p loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in both tumors in each patient. Two tumors within the same patient harbored distinct driver mutations and different CpG hypermethylation sites in the VHL promoter. Moreover, tumors exhibit independent evolutionary trajectories. Therefore, distinct 3p LOH, combined with contingent driver gene mutations and independent VHL hypermethylation, led to independent tumor origin and parallel evolution of bilateral ccRCC in these two patients. Our results indicate that tumors in these two cases were not due to common germline oncogenic mutations. They were results of multiple de novo mutations in each kidney, rather than primary ccRCC with contralateral renal metastasis. Therefore, histopathologic and genetic profiling from single tumor specimen may underestimate the mutational burden and somatic heterogeneity of bilateral ccRCCs. PMID:27383411

  19. Multimodality approach in the diagnosis and management of bilateral giant juvenile breast fibroadenoma.

    PubMed

    Rafeek, Noora; Rangasami, Rajeswaran; Dhanraj, Kamakshi; Joseph, Santhosh

    2016-10-06

    Juvenile giant fibroadenoma is a very rare breast disease affecting young girls of premenarche and adolescent ages. It is a benign fibroepithelial tumour characterised by stromal and epithelial proliferation that causes rapidly growing breast mass. Bilateral symmetrical involvement is extremely rare. In this article, we describe this entity in a girl aged 13 years who presented with bilateral gigantically enlarged breasts. Ultrasonography and MRI showed large, multilobulated masses involving both breasts entirely. Endovascular embolisation of bilateral internal mammary arteries and lateral thoracic arteries supplying the masses was performed prior to surgery to reduce their vascularity. The patient subsequently underwent excision of bilateral breast masses and reduction mammoplasty. Histopathologically, bilateral breast masses were confirmed to be juvenile fibroadenomas.

  20. A case report on bilateral partial breast irradiation using SAVI

    SciTech Connect

    Gloi, Aime M.; Buchanan, Robert; Nuskind, Jeff; Zuge, Corrie; Goettler, Anndrea

    2012-07-01

    To assess dosimetric parameters in a case study where bilateral accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) is delivered using a strut-adjusted volume implant (SAVI) device. A 59-year-old female received APBI in both breasts over 5 days, with fractions of 3.4 Gy twice daily. A Vac-lok system was used for immobilization, and a C-arm was used for daily imaging. We generated dose-volume histograms (DVHs) for the brachytherapy plans to derive several important biologic factors. We calculated the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), equivalent uniform dose (EUD), and tumor control probability (TCP) using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model parameters {alpha} = 0.3 Gy{sup -1}, {alpha}/{beta} = 4 Gy, n = 0.1, and m = 0.3. In addition, we assessed the dose homogeneity index (DHI), overdose index, and dose nonuniformity ratio. D95 was >95% and V150 was <50 mL for both breasts. The DHIs were 0.469 and 0.512 for the left and right breasts, respectively. The EUDs (normalized to 3.4 Gy b.i.d.) were 33.53 and 29.10 Gy. The TCPs were estimated at 99.2% and 99.9%, whereas the NTCP values were 4.2% and 2.57%. In this clinical case, we were able to quantify the dosimetric parameters of an APBI treatment performed with a SAVI device.

  1. Familial synchronous bilateral teratoid Wilms tumor with elevated alpha-fetoprotein level.

    PubMed

    Okur, Arzu; Pinarli, Faruk Guclu; Karadeniz, Ceyda; Poyraz, Aylar; Fidan, Kibriya; Basaklar, Can; Oguz, Aynur

    2012-11-01

    Familial Wilms tumor is a rare entity that accounts for only 1-2% of all Wilms tumor cases, with an earlier age of onset and an increased frequency of bilateral tumors. Teratoid Wilms tumor is a variant of nephroblastoma with a predominance of heterologous tissues comprising more than 50% of the tumor volume. Wilms tumor does not usually secrete any specific tumor marker and all teratoid Wilms tumor cases previously reported were sporadic non-secreting neoplasms. Here we describe an infant with familial synchronous bilateral teratoid Wilms tumor whose serum alpha-fetoprotein level was elevated. To our knowledge, this extremely rare type of case is reported for the first time in the literature.

  2. Breast reconstruction after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women at high risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Eldor, Liron; Spiegel, Aldona

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown the effectiveness of bilateral prophylactic mastectomies (BPM) at reducing the risk of developing breast cancer in women by more than 90%. A growing number of women at high risk for breast cancer are electing to undergo prophylactic mastectomy as part of a risk reduction strategy. This unique group of women frequently chooses to undergo reconstructive surgery as a part of their immediate treatment plan. Breast reconstruction after BPM has profound physiological and emotional impact on body image, sexuality, and quality of life. These factors should be taken into consideration and addressed when consulting the patient prior to BPM and reconstructive surgery. The timing of reconstructive surgery, the type of mastectomy performed, the reconstructive modalities available, and the possibility to preserve the nipple-areola complex, should all be discussed with the patient prior to surgery. In this article, we review our experience and the current existing literature on breast reconstruction for high-risk women after BPM.

  3. An exceptional case of bilateral gestational gigantomastia with multiple breast lumps

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Bangaly; Kamate, Bakarou; Conde, Mamoudou; Keita, Ahmed Monzomba; Kourouma, Tidiane; Dem, Ahmadou

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral gigantomastia is a rare condition, often associated with pregnancy that is characterized by a diffuse enlargement of both breasts. Here we present a case of a late 20s woman in her seven months pregnancy with a bilateral gestational gigantomastia associated with multiple breast lumps. Histological analysis revealed a fibroadenoma. Her prolactin level after caesarean delivery was found particularly high. A significant decrease in breast size was achieved with bromocriptine treatment in conjunction with a bilateral lumpectomy. This case report highlights the diversity of gigantomastia and emphasizes the importance of a tailored, multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of this condition. PMID:26161232

  4. A brother and sister with breast cancer, BRCA2 mutations and bilateral supernumerary nipples

    PubMed Central

    Coad, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    We describe a 54-year-old man with breast cancer and a BRCA2 mutation who was also found to have bilateral supernumerary nipples. His sister, also with a BRCA2 mutation, was diagnosed with breast cancer in her late forties; she also had bilateral supernumerary nipples. We address the significance of breast cancer arising in breast tissue underlying supernumerary nipples; the known association between supernumerary nipples and genitourinary malignancies/malformations and the possible link between BRCA2 and supernumerary nipple development. We believe that this is the first described case of the latter. We then outline an approach to further management for supernumerary nipple cases. PMID:28361071

  5. Bilateral primary breast lymphoma in a teenage girl with multi-organ involvement.

    PubMed

    Poureisa, Masoud; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Mazaheri-Khameneh, Ramin; Ghadirpour, Ali

    2013-09-09

    We present 16 years old girl with primary breast lymphoma involving the both breasts simultaneously and co-incidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement which originated from the breast, in addition to evidence of lymphoma in multi-organ such as skin, mediastinum and some abdominal viscera. Bilaterality has been observed in some series, but reports are few and series are often very small. Radiologic features may be indistinguishable from those of the other breast malignancies, but it can be concluded that primary involvement of the breast with lymphoma should be considered when breast mass or inflammatory changes occur in a patient without any previously diagnosed lymphoma. The clinical behavior, imaging and therapeutic procedures are discussed. The findings of this report may have clinical impact on oncologists or that may alter the disease concept of bilateral breast lymphoma.

  6. Computerized prediction of breast cancer risk: comparison between the global and local bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Lederman, Dror; Tan, Jun; Wang, Xiao Hui; Zheng, Bin

    2011-03-01

    We have developed and preliminarily tested a new breast cancer risk prediction model based on computerized bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry. In this study, we investigated and compared the performance difference of our risk prediction model when the bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetrical features were extracted in two different methods namely (1) the entire breast area and (2) the mirror-matched local strips between the left and right breast. A testing dataset including bilateral craniocaudal (CC) view images of 100 negative and 100 positive cases for developing breast abnormalities or cancer was selected from a large and diverse full-field digital mammography (FFDM) image database. To detect bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry, a set of 20 initial "global" features were extracted from the entire breast areas of two bilateral mammograms in CC view and their differences were computed. Meanwhile, a pool of 16 local histogram-based statistic features was computed from eight mirror-matched strips between the left and right breast. Using a genetic algorithm (GA) to select optimal features, two artificial neural networks (ANN) were built to predict the risk of a test case developing cancer. Using the leave-one-case-out training and testing method, two GAoptimized ANNs yielded the areas under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of 0.754+/-0.024 (using feature differences extracted from the entire breast area) and 0.726+/-0.026 (using the feature differences extracted from 8 pairs of local strips), respectively. The risk prediction model using either ANN is able to detect 58.3% (35/60) of cancer cases 6 to 18 months earlier at 80% specificity level. This study compared two methods to compute bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry and demonstrated that bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry was a useful breast cancer risk indicator with high discriminatory power.

  7. Bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma and bilateral gigantomastia in HIV-positive patient.

    PubMed

    Singh, Saumya; Mishra, Anand K; Tewari, S; Kumar, Sanjeev

    2013-06-24

    Accessory breast is a rare entity that can present as asymptomatic masses or can cause symptoms like heaviness, pain, restriction of arm movement and limitation in daily pursuits with allied apprehension and anxiety for the patient. We present a case of bilateral axillary masses mimicking as accessory breast with multiple fibroadenoma in a 28 years, nulliparous, Indian woman who is HIV positive, which proves to be a diagnostic dilemma. Excisional biopsy was diagnostic. The rarity of such cases imposes challenges on the management in terms of diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic options.

  8. Bilateral Breast Abscess Caused by E. coli in a Non-lactating Woman: A Rare Case

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Gürcan; Gündeş, Ebubekir; Tekin, Şakir; Tavlı, Şakir

    2014-01-01

    Breast abscess usually occurs during lactation and the responsible organism is often S. Aureus. Breast abscess in non-lactating women is extremely rare and limited data is available in the literature regarding this entity. In our study, a 36-year-old non-lactating female patient who developed bilateral breast abscess due to E. coli infection without any predisposing factors has been discussed in light of the literature.

  9. Disease evolution and heterogeneity in bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fountzilas, Elena; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Zagouri, Flora; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Kouvatseas, George; Pentheroudakis, George; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Bobos, Mattheos; Papadopoulou, Kyriaki; Samantas, Epaminontas; Demiri, Efterpi; Miliaras, Spyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Chrisafi, Sofia; Razis, Evangelia; Fostira, Florentia; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Zografos, George; Fountzilas, George

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral breast cancers (BBC) are currently treated as independent tumors arising in the same patient. Herein, we investigated whether BBC indeed evolve independently at the genomic level. We examined paired targeted next generation sequencing genotypes from 155 paraffin tumors corresponding to 76 BBC patients (75 women and one man; 52 concurrent and 24 metachronous), for coding mutations (amino acid changing, minor allele frequency <0.1%) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) zygosity. Germline genotypes were available for 29 patients. Mutations were present in 80 tumors (54/76 patients; 71%), were mostly tumor-private (90%), more frequent in TP53 (19%), PIK3CA (14%), CDH1, GATA3, MLL3. TP53 mutations were more frequent in metachronous tumors (P<0.001); hormone receptor negative (P<0.001); with higher Ki-67 (P=0.002); and, in younger patients (P=0.01). Hypermutated tumors, all TP53 mutated, were diagnosed as the first incidence in 5 patients; their metachronous counterparts were mutation poor without TP53 involvement. Paired tumors shared common mutations at intratumoral frequency >20% in 10/54 comparable BBC (18.5%), 8/10 concurrent. SNP zygosity status was less preserved in metachronous, compared to concurrent disease. Pathogenic germline mutations were present in 10/29 patients, 9 in BRCA1 and one in TP53 (p.Phe341Val, first report in the germline). BBC demonstrated extensive inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in the present thus far largest series of corresponding paired genotypes. The majority evolve independently and unpredictably, supporting current clinical practice. A considerable minority though, retains clonal origin and may be regarded as a distinct group for therapeutic interventions among concurrent BBC.

  10. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Steinmann, D; Bremer, M; Rades, D; Skawran, B; Siebrands, C; Karstens, J H; Dörk, T

    2001-01-01

    Mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been shown to strongly predispose towards the development of contralateral breast cancer in patients from large multi-case families. In order to test the hypothesis that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more frequent in patients with bilateral breast cancer, we have investigated a hospital-based series of 75 consecutive patients with bilateral breast cancer and a comparison group of 75 patients with unilateral breast cancer, pairwise matched by age and family history, for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Five frameshift deletions (517delGT in BRCA1; 4772delA, 5946delCT, 6174delT and 8138del5 in BRCA2) were identified in patients with bilateral disease. No further mutations, apart from polymorphisms and 3 rare unclassified variants, were found after scanning the whole BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding sequence. Three pathogenic BRCA1 mutations (Cys61Gly, 3814del5, 5382insC) were identified in the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer. The frequencies of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants were not different between the 2 groups. In summary, we did not find a significantly increased prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a hospital-based cohort of German patients with bilateral breast cancer. We conclude that bilaterality of breast cancer on its own is not strongly associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations when adjusted for age and family history. The high frequency of bilateral disease in multi-case breast cancer families may be due to a familial aggregation of additional susceptibility factors modifying the penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaignhttp://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11556836

  11. Mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Steinmann, D; Bremer, M; Rades, D; Skawran, B; Siebrands, C; Karstens, J H; Dörk, T

    2001-09-14

    Mutations of the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been shown to strongly predispose towards the development of contralateral breast cancer in patients from large multi-case families. In order to test the hypothesis that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more frequent in patients with bilateral breast cancer, we have investigated a hospital-based series of 75 consecutive patients with bilateral breast cancer and a comparison group of 75 patients with unilateral breast cancer, pairwise matched by age and family history, for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Five frameshift deletions (517delGT in BRCA1; 4772delA, 5946delCT, 6174delT and 8138del5 in BRCA2) were identified in patients with bilateral disease. No further mutations, apart from polymorphisms and 3 rare unclassified variants, were found after scanning the whole BRCA1 and BRCA2 coding sequence. Three pathogenic BRCA1 mutations (Cys61Gly, 3814del5, 5382insC) were identified in the group of patients with unilateral breast cancer. The frequencies of common BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants were not different between the 2 groups. In summary, we did not find a significantly increased prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a hospital-based cohort of German patients with bilateral breast cancer. We conclude that bilaterality of breast cancer on its own is not strongly associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations when adjusted for age and family history. The high frequency of bilateral disease in multi-case breast cancer families may be due to a familial aggregation of additional susceptibility factors modifying the penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.

  12. Onco-testicular sperm extraction: birth of a healthy baby after fertility preservation in synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia.

    PubMed

    Roque, M; Sampaio, M; Salles, P G de Oliveira; Geber, S

    2015-05-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) represent 1%-1.5% of all male neoplasms, and they have the highest prevalence among men between 15 and 35 years old. Synchronous bilateral disease is a rare presentation, and the ratio of metachronous to synchronous bilateral disease is about 4 : 1. Several studies have suggested a correlation between male infertility and testicular cancer, with a 20-fold increase in the incidence of testicular cancer in infertile patients compared with the general population. At the time of diagnosis, 50%-75% of patients with unilateral TGCT present with subfertility; almost 13% of the patients are azoospermic before treatment, and up to two-thirds of patients become azoospermic following adjuvant cancer therapies. Therefore, fertility preservation should be considered in all oncological treatments. The only available option to preserve the reproductive potential in azoospermic patients with testicular cancer is to perform an onco-testicular sperm extraction (onco-TESE) before cancer treatment. In this paper, we describe a rare case of a patient with synchronous bilateral testicular cancer and azoospermia who was submitted to onco-TESE, sperm cryopreservation, and which was followed by the delivery of a healthy baby after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), emphasising the importance of fertility preservation in oncology patients.

  13. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Keith S.; Hartman, Brett C.; Sood, Rajiv; Socas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments. PMID:27689054

  14. Increasing options in autologous microsurgical breast reconstruction: four free flaps for ‘stacked’ bilateral breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nakul Gamanlal; Ramakrishnan, Venkat V.

    2016-01-01

    For autologous breast reconstruction, there are cases where one free flap cannot provide the volume of tissue required, and the concept of ‘stacked’ bilateral deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEP) flaps was developed, in which hemi-abdominal flaps are raised on each deep inferior epigastric artery (DIEA), and both flaps transferred to the chest. In cases of bilateral breast reconstruction, stacked flaps may be required to achieve volume replacement, however options are not described. We demonstrate the use of stacked free flaps for bilateral breast reconstruction, using one DIEP flap stacked with one transverse upper gracilis (TUG) flap for each side. A 49-year-old woman, with BRCA1 mutation, presented for risk reduction mastectomies. Flap design was planned to achieve maximal projection and primary nipple reconstruction. This was able to be achieved by using the DIEP flap de-epithelialised and completely buried, with the flap orientated with the pedicle on its superficial surface, and the TUG flap lying superficially with its skin paddle used for nipple reconstruction and able to be monitored clinically. There were no flap or donor related complications and good aesthetic outcomes were achieved. This technique offers a further option in microsurgical breast reconstruction for patients in whom there is a paucity of abdominal tissue for reconstruction. PMID:27047791

  15. Synchronous single-port access laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Ybañez-Morano, Jessica; Tiu, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery through a single incision is gaining popularity with different stakeholders. The advantages of improved cosmetics, decreased postoperative pain and blood loss continue to attract patients from different surgical fields. Multidisciplinary approach to different surgical entities through a single incision has just been introduced. We report the first case of a synchronous single-port access (SPA) laparoscopic right hemicolectomy and laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy through a single incision above the umbilicus in a 48-year-old female with ascending colon mass and uterine mass with good postoperative outcomes. SPA laparoscopic surgery is feasible for multidisciplinary approach in resectable tumors. PMID:28096321

  16. Bilateral Simultaneous Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia of the Breasts and Axillae: Imaging Findings with Pathological and Clinical Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Ensani, Fereshteh; Omranipour, Ramesh; Abdollahi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a pathology that is usually diagnosed by accident during pathological examination of other breast lesions. PASH is an uncommon and benign tumoral lesion of the mammary stroma that can be pathologically mistaken for other tumours, such as phyllodes, fibroadenoma, and sometimes even angiosarcoma. We report the case of a 45-year-old woman with complaints of huge bilateral breast enlargement. This is a rare case of PASH presenting with gigantomastia and involving bilateral breasts and axillae simultaneously. Mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI features are illustrated with histopathological correlation. PMID:27867677

  17. Prophylactic Bilateral Nipple-sparing Mastectomy and a Staged Breast Reconstruction Technique: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Tondu, Thierry; Thiessen, Filip; Tjalma, Wiebren A.A.

    2016-01-01

    More high-risk women with breast cancer are identified using genetic testing at a younger age. These young women often opt for prophylactic surgery. Most patients are reluctant for extra donor-site scars besides infections and necrosis. In order to reduce these risks, a two-stage breast reconstruction technique is used for high-risk women with large or ptotic breasts. We presume that this procedure will reduce the risk of skin envelope and nipple–areola complex (NAC) necrosis to less than 1%. In the first stage, an inferior pedicle reduction is performed to obtain large volume reduction with maximal safety for the NAC. The ptosis, skin excess, and malpositioning of the NAC are corrected safely at this stage. In the second stage, the skin-sparing mastectomy is performed with or without nipple sparing. During this procedure, the areola is never removed. A bilateral breast reconstruction is then performed with an immediate subpectoral prothesis or delayed with the use of a subpectoral tissue expander. In this way, we aim to meet the patient’s wish to undergo bilateral risk reducing mastectomy in breasts that need ptosis correction without donor-site scarring. This article describes the procedure and reports the preliminary data. PMID:27867298

  18. Satisfaction with breast reconstruction in women with bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kelly A; Semple, John L; Narod, Steven A

    2004-08-01

    Prophylactic bilateral mastectomy is an option for women who are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. Prophylactic mastectomy is often performed with immediate reconstruction (i.e., at the same time and under the same anesthetic as the mastectomy). Satisfaction with reconstruction has been described previously for women with mastectomy for breast cancer. However, the authors know of no previous research that has reported on satisfaction with reconstruction in patients who have electively sought mastectomy for the prevention of breast cancer. Women in the province of Ontario who had undergone prophylactic bilateral mastectomy plus breast reconstruction between 1991 and 2000 were asked to rate their level of satisfaction with the cosmetic results of their mastectomy and reconstruction and their overall satisfaction with their decision to have prophylactic mastectomy. Women were also asked whether they experienced complications associated with their surgery and what types of complications they experienced. Thirty-seven women completed questionnaires for this study, and all of them had immediate breast reconstruction after prophylactic mastectomy. The majority of women (70.3 percent) reported being satisfied or extremely satisfied with the cosmetic results of their breast reconstruction. Women with self-reported postsurgical complications (16.2 percent) were significantly less satisfied with reconstruction than those who did not report complications (p = 0.009). Personal subjective risk of breast cancer before prophylactic mastectomy was negatively correlated with satisfaction with reconstruction (r = -0.38, p = 0.024) and with subjective risk estimation after prophylactic surgery (r = -0.54, p = 0.001). Women who did not worry about developing breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy had significantly higher levels of satisfaction with breast reconstruction than those who continued to worry (p < 0.001). Women who reported an improved body image after

  19. Spontaneous Perforation as a First Presentation of Ileal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour (GIST) with Synchronous Breast Sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma M, Bir Kumar; Barad, Arun Kumar; Padu, Kemba; Singh K, Sridartha; Singh Th, Sudhir Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumours (GIST's) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. Majority of the GISTs are asymptomatic and often diagnosis is incidental. Synchronous second malignancies have been reported in patients with GIST. We report a case of 50-year-old female presenting with features of hollow viscous perforation, found to have ileal GIST with perforations along with a synchronous breast sarcoma. GIST with spontaneous perforation as its first clinical manifestation is rare. Synchronous occurrence of an ileal GIST with a breast sarcoma is unique and deserves reporting. This case report highlights the varied nature of clinical presentation of the GIST and also stresses on the importance of extensive search for the synchronous second malignancies in the extra abdominal sites as well.

  20. A new breast cancer risk analysis approach using features extracted from multiple sub-regions on bilateral mammograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenqing; Tseng, Tzu-Liang B.; Zheng, Bin; Zhang, Jianying; Qian, Wei

    2015-03-01

    A novel breast cancer risk analysis approach is proposed for enhancing performance of computerized breast cancer risk analysis using bilateral mammograms. Based on the intensity of breast area, five different sub-regions were acquired from one mammogram, and bilateral features were extracted from every sub-region. Our dataset includes 180 bilateral mammograms from 180 women who underwent routine screening examinations, all interpreted as negative and not recalled by the radiologists during the original screening procedures. A computerized breast cancer risk analysis scheme using four image processing modules, including sub-region segmentation, bilateral feature extraction, feature selection, and classification was designed to detect and compute image feature asymmetry between the left and right breasts imaged on the mammograms. The highest computed area under the curve (AUC) is 0.763 ± 0.021 when applying the multiple sub-region features to our testing dataset. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 0.60 and 0.73, respectively. The study demonstrates that (1) features extracted from multiple sub-regions can improve the performance of our scheme compared to using features from whole breast area only; (2) a classifier using asymmetry bilateral features can effectively predict breast cancer risk; (3) incorporating texture and morphological features with density features can boost the classification accuracy.

  1. Bilateral Reduction Mammaplasty as an Oncoplastic Technique for the Management of Early-Stage Breast Cancer in Women with Macromastia

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shailesh; Izenberg, Paul H.; Beil, Richard J.; Sherick, Daniel G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Lumpectomy may result in contour deformities or breast asymmetry in women with breast cancer and macromastia. This study investigates the use of bilateral reduction mammaplasty, with the tumor and margins included within the reduction specimen. Methods: Twenty-four patients who underwent lumpectomy with immediate bilateral reduction mammaplasty for unilateral breast cancer were included. Patient medical records were reviewed for demographic, oncological, and surgical characteristics. Results: Mean patient age was 57 years, and mean body mass index was 32.2 kg/m2. Mean tumor size was 1.7 cm. All tumor margins were free of neoplastic involvement. No difference was noted between the ipsilateral and contralateral resection weights (P = .81). Adjuvant radiation therapy was delivered to 21 patients (88%). There were no significant differences in postoperative total (P = .36), major (P = .44), or minor (P = .71) complications between the tumor and nontumor sides. Only 1 patient required additional revision surgery following the initial lumpectomy with bilateral reduction mammaplasty. Conclusion: Lumpectomy with bilateral reduction mammaplasty did not compromise surgical margins. Lumpectomy with bilateral reduction mammaplasty may allow for adequate surgical treatment of breast cancer while avoiding significant breast asymmetry in women with macromastia. PMID:26816558

  2. Gastric cancer in a pregnant woman presenting with low back pain and bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mandato, Vincenzo Dario; Pirillo, Debora; Gelli, Maria Carolina; Cavina, Maurizio; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2011-02-01

    This report describes the first case of a pregnant woman presenting low-back pain and breast pain associated with bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, proving to be the result of metastatic disease from a gastric carcinoma. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was admitted complaining of persistent severe low back pain, breast pain and concomitant bilateral erythematous breast hypertrophy, mimicking primary inflammatory breast carcinoma. During the caesarean section, widespread disease was found and finally metastatic gastric cancer was detected. Pregnant women with gastric cancer may present symptoms that are considered common during pregnancy. Common symptoms that present warning characteristics, such as the persistent severe pain observed in the presented case, should be carefully investigated as they may be the only warning signs and symptoms of rare ominous conditions such as gastric cancer.

  3. Single-stage nonintubated uniportal thoracoscopic resection of synchronous bilateral pulmonary nodules after coil labeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Miao; Wang, Tao; Zhang, You-Wei; Wu, Wen-Bin; Wang, Heng; Xu, Rong-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Preoperative localization of small pulmonary nodules is essential for precise resection, besides, the optimal treatment for pulmonary nodules is controversial and the prognosis without surgery is uncertain. Patient concerns: Herein we present a patient with compromised pulmonary function harboring synchronous triple ground-glass nodules located separately in different pulmonary lobes. Diagnoses: The pathological diagnosis of the nodules were chronic inflammation, inflammatory pseudotumor and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, respectively. Interventions: The patient underwent single-stage, non-intubated thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection after computed tomography-guided coil labeling of the nodules. Outcomes: The postoperative recovery was encouragingly fast without obvious complications. Lessons: Non-intubated thoracoscopic pulmonary wedge resection is feasible for patients with compromised lung function, meanwhile, preoperative coil labeling of small nodules is reliable. PMID:28328859

  4. Bilateral Sciatic Neuropathy after an Autologous Breast Reconstruction in a Massive Weight Loss Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ablavsky, Michael; Shteynberg, Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Perioperative compression neuropathy is a known potential complication of prolonged surgical procedures. Sciatic postoperative neuropathy has rarely been reported. We present a 34-year-old woman who underwent right breast reconstruction with supercharged (venous anastomosis) transverse rectus abdominis flap and developed bilateral sciatic compression neuropathy. Her history was remarkable for sleeve gastrectomy 2 years earlier resulting in 105 pound weight loss 1 year before breast reconstruction. During the procedure, the patient was in the supine position for 8 hours and in the semirecumbent position for an additional 2 hours with the torso flexed at 30 degrees and knees flexed at approximately 45 degrees in addition to standard padding. Postoperatively, the patient was found to have loss of sensation and motor paralysis distal to her knees bilaterally. Pain sensation was preserved distally and no other neurological abnormalities were noted. Laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging, electromyography, and nerve conduction studies all revealed no evidence of neurological lesions and peroneal or lumbosacral radiculopathy. Motor strength gradually returned to her lower extremities over 4–5 weeks, whereas sensory function continued to improve over 7 weeks. The patient had complete neurological recovery 2 months postoperatively. PMID:28203505

  5. Association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the DCE-MRI images and breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Li, Lihua; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Chengjie; Zheng, Bin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) of breast yields high sensitivity but relatively lower specificity. To improve diagnostic accuracy of DCE-MRI, we investigated the association between bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features computed from the left and right breasts and breast cancer detection with the hypothesis that due to the growth of angiogenesis associated with malignant lesions, the average dynamic contrast enhancement computed from the breasts depicting malignant lesions should be higher than negative or benign breasts. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a database involving 130 DCE-MRI examinations including 81 malignant and 49 benign cases. We developed a computerized scheme that automatically segments breast areas depicted on MR images and computes kinetic features related to the bilateral asymmetry of contrast enhancement ratio between two breasts. An artificial neural network (ANN) was then used to classify between malignant and benign cases. To identify the optimal approach to compute the bilateral kinetic feature asymmetry, we tested 4 different thresholds to select the enhanced pixels (voxels) from DCE-MRI images and compute the kinetic features. Using the optimal threshold, the ANN had a classification performance measured by the area under the ROC curve of AUC=0.79+/-0.04. The positive and negative predictive values were 0.75 and 0.67, respectively. The study suggested that the bilateral asymmetry of kinetic features or contrast enhancement of breast background tissue could provide valuable supplementary information to distinguish between the malignant and benign cases, which can be fused into existing computer-aided detection schemes to improve classification performance.

  6. Frequency-Specific Synchronization in the Bilateral Subthalamic Nuclei Depending on Voluntary Muscle Contraction and Relaxation in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Kenji; Yokochi, Fusako; Iwamuro, Hirokazu; Kawasaki, Takashi; Hamada, Kohichi; Isoo, Ayako; Kimura, Katsuo; Okiyama, Ryoichi; Taniguchi, Makoto; Ushiba, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    The volitional control of muscle contraction and relaxation is a fundamental component of human motor activity, but how the processing of the subcortical networks, including the subthalamic nucleus (STN), is involved in voluntary muscle contraction (VMC) and voluntary muscle relaxation (VMR) remains unclear. In this study, local field potentials (LFPs) of bilateral STNs were recorded in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) while performing externally paced VMC and VMR tasks of the unilateral wrist extensor muscle. The VMC- or VMR-related oscillatory activities and their functional couplings were investigated over the theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–13 Hz), beta (14–35 Hz), and gamma (40–100 Hz) frequency bands. Alpha and beta desynchronizations were observed in bilateral STNs at the onset of both VMC and VMR tasks. On the other hand, theta and gamma synchronizations were prominent in bilateral STNs specifically at the onset of the VMC task. In particular, just after VMC, theta functional coupling between the bilateral STNs increased, and the theta phase became coupled to the gamma amplitude within the contralateral STN in a phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupled manner. On the other hand, the prominent beta-gamma cross-frequency couplings observed in the bilateral STNs at rest were reduced by the VMC and VMR tasks. These results suggest that STNs are bilaterally involved in the different performances of muscle contraction and relaxation through the theta-gamma and beta-gamma networks between bilateral STNs in patients with PD. PMID:27064969

  7. Body image issues after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction in healthy women at risk for hereditary breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gopie, Jessica P; Mureau, Marc A M; Seynaeve, Caroline; Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Menke-Pluymers, Marian B E; Timman, Reinier; Tibben, Aad

    2013-09-01

    The outcome of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy with breast reconstruction (BPM-IBR) in healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers can be potentially burdensome for body image and the intimate relationship. Therefore, in the current analysis the impact on body image, sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was prospectively investigated in women opting for BPM-IBR as well as cancer distress and general quality of life. Healthy women undergoing BPM-IBR completed questionnaires preoperatively (T0, n = 48), at 6 months (T1, n = 44) and after finishing breast reconstruction (median 21 months, range 12-35) (T2, n = 36). With multi-level regression analyses the course of outcome variables was investigated and a statistically significant change in body image and/or sexual and partner relationship satisfaction was predicted by baseline covariates. Body image significantly decreased at T1. At T2 sexual relationship satisfaction and body image tended to be lower compared to baseline. The overall partner relationship satisfaction did not significantly change. At T2, 37 % of the women reported that their breasts felt unpleasantly, 29 % was not satisfied with their breast appearance and 21 % felt embarrassed for their naked body. Most body image issues remained unchanged in 30 % of the women. A negative body image was predicted by high preoperative cancer distress. BPM-IBR was associated with adverse impact on body image in a substantial subgroup, but satisfaction with the overall sexual and partner relationship did not significantly change in time. The psychosocial impact of BPM-IBR in unaffected women should not be underestimated. Psychological support should ideally be integrated both before and after BPM-IBR.

  8. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction. PMID:23997589

  9. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    PubMed

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction.

  10. Stewart-Treves Syndrome after Bilateral Mastectomy and Radiotherapy for Breast Carcinoma: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Taşdemir, Arzu; Karaman, Hatice; Ünal, Dilek; Mutlu, Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Stewart-Treves syndrome is an angiosarcoma that occurs because of chronic lymphedema, which in most cases is a complication after mastectomy with axillary node dissection and postoperative radiation. Prognosis for this rare tumor is poor. The best therapy is early and radical excision. Chronic lymphedema seems to be an important pathogenic factor. We report a 59-year-old patient with chronic lymphedema and lymphangiosarcoma of the left upper limb who had a left modified radical mastectomy with axillary node dissection and postoperative radiation nine years ago. Additionally, the patient underwent a right modified radical mastectomy with axillary node dissection and postoperative radiation one year ago. In this report, we present a case of Stewart-Treves syndrome after the patient was operated for bilateral breast carcinoma, a review of literature, and principles of treatment.

  11. Possible Synchronous Lung Metastasis of Breast Mass Detected Using Breast Ultrasonography: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bekci, Tümay

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US), which is used for the diagnosis of breast cancer and the evaluation of its local metastasis, has proven its worth as a diagnostic method. In breast ultrasonographic examination peripherally localized metastatic lesions at the posterior of the screened breast tissue can also be detected. In this case report, two female patients whose breast ultrasonography showed lumps. Their peripheral lung metastases were screened ultrasonographically, and the patients were diagnosed in a timely manner. Ultrasonographic examination at a patient’s first appointment – and especially during routine check-ups after the primary treatment – can allow an early diagnosis of peripherally localized lung metastasis at the posterior of the screened breast tissue and make a vital contribution to the patient’s prognosis.

  12. Importance of revealing a rare case of breast cancer in a female to male transsexual after bilateral mastectomy.

    PubMed

    Nikolic, Dejan V; Djordjevic, Miroslav L; Granic, Miroslav; Nikolic, Aleksandra T; Stanimirovic, Violeta V; Zdravkovic, Darko; Jelic, Svetlana

    2012-12-28

    The incidence of breast carcinoma following prophylactic mastectomy is probably less than 2%. We present a 43-year-old female to male transsexual who developed breast cancer 1 year after bilateral nipple- sparing subcutaneous mastectomy as part of female to male gender reassignment surgery. In addition to gender reassignment surgery, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (to avoid the patient from entering menopause and to eliminate any subsequent risk of iatrogenic endometrial carcinoma), colpocleisys, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty, urethroplasty together with scrotoplasty/placement of testicular prosthesis and perineoplasty were also performed. Before the sex change surgery, the following diagnostic procedures were performed: breast ultrasound and mammography (which were normal), lung radiography (also normal) together with abdominal ultrasound examination, biochemical analysis of the blood and hormonal status.According to medical literature, in the last 50 years only three papers have been published with four cases of breast cancer in transsexual female to male patients. All hormonal pathways included in this complex hormonal and surgical procedure of transgender surgery have important implications for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of a high risk of possible breast cancer.

  13. Importance of revealing a rare case of breast cancer in a female to male transsexual after bilateral mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of breast carcinoma following prophylactic mastectomy is probably less than 2%. We present a 43-year-old female to male transsexual who developed breast cancer 1 year after bilateral nipple- sparing subcutaneous mastectomy as part of female to male gender reassignment surgery. In addition to gender reassignment surgery, total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (to avoid the patient from entering menopause and to eliminate any subsequent risk of iatrogenic endometrial carcinoma), colpocleisys, metoidioplasty, phalloplasty, urethroplasty together with scrotoplasty/placement of testicular prosthesis and perineoplasty were also performed. Before the sex change surgery, the following diagnostic procedures were performed: breast ultrasound and mammography (which were normal), lung radiography (also normal) together with abdominal ultrasound examination, biochemical analysis of the blood and hormonal status. According to medical literature, in the last 50 years only three papers have been published with four cases of breast cancer in transsexual female to male patients. All hormonal pathways included in this complex hormonal and surgical procedure of transgender surgery have important implications for women undergoing prophylactic mastectomy because of a high risk of possible breast cancer. PMID:23273269

  14. Synchronous primary breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in a male patient: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Cui, Xiuzheng; Li, Lin; Lu, Haizhen; Rong, Weiqi; Bi, Chao; Wu, Jianxiong

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare malignant disease characterized by hormonal imbalance. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common neoplasm of the liver, and is generally correlated with hepatitis B or C virus-related cirrhosis. While to our knowledge a case with these two malignant diseases in a same male patient in the concomitant period is an exceptional event, rarely reported in literature. In this report, we present a case in which a Chinese patient with hepatitis B developed a tumor mass that originated from segment V of the liver and presented with right breast nodules at the same time. Synchronous mastectomy and hepatectomy were performed, and standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy as adjuvant treatment were therefore followed. The diverse histogenesis of the two kinds of cancers highlights the need for us to investigate any common physiopathogenetic elements. PMID:26617917

  15. SU-E-T-18: A Comparison of Planning Techniques for Bilateral Reconstructed Chest Wall Patients Undergoing Whole Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, T; Margiasso, R; Saleh, Z; Kuo, L; Hong, L; Ballangrud, A; Gelblum, D; Zinovoy, M; Deasy, J; Tang, X

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As we continuously see more bilateral reconstructed chest wall cases, new challenges are being presented to deliver left-sided breast irradiation. We herein compare three Deep Inspiration Breath Hold (DIBH) planning techniques (tangents, VMAT, and IMRT) and two free breathing techniques (VMAT and IMRT). Methods: Three left-sided chest wall patients with bilateral implants were studied. Tangents, VMAT, and IMRT plans were created for DIBH scans. VMAT and IMRT plans were created for free breathing scans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the prescription dose was delivered to 95% of the planning target volume (PTV). The maximum point dose was constrained to less than 120% of the prescription dose. Since the success of DIBH delivery largely depends on patient’s ability to perform consistent breath hold during beam on time, smaller number of Monitor Units (MU) is in general desired. For each patient, the following information was collected to compare the planning techniques: heart mean dose, left and right lung V20 Gy, contra-lateral (right) breast mean dose, cord max dose, and MU. Results: The average heart mean dose over all patients are 1561, 692, 985, 1245, and 1121 cGy, for DIBH tangents, VMAT, IMRT, free breathing VMAT and IMRT, respectively. For left lung V20 are 60%, 28%, 26%, 30%, and 29%. For contra-lateral breast mean dose are 244, 687, 616, 783, 438 cGy. MU are 253, 853, 2048, 1035, and 1874 MUs. Conclusion: In the setting of bilateral chest wall reconstruction, opposed tangent beams cannot consistently achieve desired heart and left lung sparing. DIBH consistently achieves better healthy tissue sparing. VMAT appears to be preferential to IMRT for planning and delivering radiation to patients with bilaterally reconstructed chest walls being treated with DIBH.

  16. Bilateral Synchronous Granulomatous Orchitis in a Patient with Erectile Disfunction: Clinical and Pathologic Study of the Case

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Peña, M.; Moreno, D.

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old male patient presented with erectile failure and loss of libido. In the physical examination, there were stone-hard indurations in his bilateral testes. The ultrasonographic study demonstrated multiple hypoechoic areas in the testes and normal epididymis. Since the lesion was presumed as malignancy, bilateral inguinal exploration was performed and intraoperative frozen biopsies were studied and diagnosed as inflammatory process. Nevertheless, we decided to perform left orchiectomy to a deeper histopathologic analysis which revealed granulomatous orchitis, mastocytosis, and severe depletion of Leydig cells at the testicular interstitium. Differential diagnosis between testicular tumor and granulomatous orchitis is very difficult in any examination except by histological findings. Bilateral cases of this pathology are relatively rare, but it is necessary to distinguish them from the testicular tumor before surgical intervention to avoid an unnecessary orchiectomy. PMID:24288647

  17. [Right Hemi-Colectomy for a Metastatic Transverse Colon Tumor from Breast Cancer Following Bilateral Breast Cancer Resection - A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Okamura, Shu; Yanagisawa, Tetsu; Ohishi, Kazuhito; Murata, Kohei; Nushijima, Yoichiro; Hamano, Rie; Fukuchi, Nariaki; Ebisui, Chikara; Yokouchi, Hideoki; Kinuta, Masakatsu

    2016-11-01

    We herein report the case of a 75-year-old female patient who underwent 4 surgeries for bilateral breast cancer and its recurrence. When she presented at a clinic with an irritable colon, a fist-sized tumor was palpated in the right upper abdomen at her first medical examination. Abdominal CT scan at the clinic revealed a tumor with a maximum diameter of 10 cm on the right side of the transverse colon and multiple swollen mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the patient was referred to our hospital for surgery. Colonoscopy revealed stenosis of the same lesion with an edematous mucosa and sclerosis. Using immunohistochemistry, a biopsy specimen from the lesion tested positive for CK AE1+AE3, and negative for CD20(-)and CD3 (-). As a result, the tumor was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. We performed right hemicolectomy to avoid her intestinal obstruction. Tumor cells were mainly present at the subserosa, according to HEstaining. Using immunostaining, the cells were tested for the following markers: CDX2(-), GCDFP15(weakly positive), CK7(strongly positive), CD20(partially positive), E R(+), PgR(-), and HER2(1+), characterizing the tumor as metastasis of breast cancer. Although gastro-intestinal metastasis from breast cancer is rare, and colon metastasis is even rarer, it might be necessary to rule out the possibility of a metastatic colon tumor from breast cancer when treating patients with a colon tumor who have undergone surgery for breast cancer.

  18. Lower extremity anterior compartment syndrome complicating bilateral mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tashakkor, A Yashar; Macadam, Sheina A

    2012-01-01

    'Well leg compartment syndrome' refers to compartment syndrome occurring in a nontraumatic setting. This occurs most commonly in the lower limb during surgery performed with the patient in an anatomically vulnerable position. While this complication is well documented in the setting of orthopedic, urological and gynecological surgeries, it is an exceptionally rare complication in plastic surgery; only seven cases have been published on compartment syndrome complicating an operation performed on a supine patient. A case involving a 56-year-old woman who developed an anterior compartment syndrome of her right lower leg following a bilateral mastectomy with immediate breast reconstruction is presented. A detailed literature review is also included.

  19. Atypical Bilateral Brain Synchronization in the Early Stage of Human Voice Auditory Processing in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Kurita, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hirosawa, Tetsu; Furutani, Naoki; Higashida, Haruhiro; Ikeda, Takashi; Mutou, Kouhei; Asada, Minoru; Minabe, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been postulated to involve impaired neuronal cooperation in large-scale neural networks, including cortico-cortical interhemispheric circuitry. In the context of ASD, alterations in both peripheral and central auditory processes have also attracted a great deal of interest because these changes appear to represent pathophysiological processes; therefore, many prior studies have focused on atypical auditory responses in ASD. The auditory evoked field (AEF), recorded by magnetoencephalography, and the synchronization of these processes between right and left hemispheres was recently suggested to reflect various cognitive abilities in children. However, to date, no previous study has focused on AEF synchronization in ASD subjects. To assess global coordination across spatially distributed brain regions, the analysis of Omega complexity from multichannel neurophysiological data was proposed. Using Omega complexity analysis, we investigated the global coordination of AEFs in 3–8-year-old typically developing (TD) children (n = 50) and children with ASD (n = 50) in 50-ms time-windows. Children with ASD displayed significantly higher Omega complexities compared with TD children in the time-window of 0–50 ms, suggesting lower whole brain synchronization in the early stage of the P1m component. When we analyzed the left and right hemispheres separately, no significant differences in any time-windows were observed. These results suggest lower right-left hemispheric synchronization in children with ASD compared with TD children. Our study provides new evidence of aberrant neural synchronization in young children with ASD by investigating auditory evoked neural responses to the human voice. PMID:27074011

  20. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: bilateral analysis for false positive reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Ta; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Wei, Jun; Zhou, Chuan; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping

    2006-03-01

    In this study, our purpose was to develop a false positive (FP) reduction method for computerized mass detection systems based on the analysis of bilateral mammograms. We first detect the mass candidates on each view by utilizing our unilateral computer-aided detection (CAD) system. For each detected object, the regional registration technique is used to define a region of interest (ROI) that is "symmetrical" to the object location on the contralateral mammogram. Spatial gray level dependence matrices (SGLD) texture features and morphological features are extracted from both the ROI containing the detected object on a mammogram and its corresponding ROI on the contralateral mammogram. Bilateral features are then generated from the extracted unilateral features and a final bilateral score is formed as a new feature to differentiate symmetric from asymmetric ROIs. By incorporating the unilateral features of the mass candidates and their bilateral scores, a bilateral classifier was trained to reduce the FPs. It was found that our bilateral CAD system achieved a case-based sensitivity of 70%, 80%, and 85% at 0.52, 0.83, and 1.05 FPs/image on the test data set. In comparison to the FP rates for the unilateral CAD system of 0.67, 1.11, and 1.69, respectively, at the corresponding sensitivities, the FP rates were reduced by 22%, 25%, and 37% with the bilateral symmetry information.

  1. Characteristic Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells in a Newly Developed Bilateral Coculture System.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takayuki; Utsumi, Jun; Toi, Masakazu; Shimizu, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of cancer cells has been implicated in cancer development and progression. Cancer-associated fibroblast constitutes a major stromal component of the microenvironment. To analyze interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts, we have developed a new bilateral coculture system using a two-sided microporous collagen membrane. Human normal skin fibroblasts were cocultured with three different human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC1937. After coculture, mRNA was extracted separately from cancer cells and fibroblasts and applied to transcriptomic analysis with microarray. Top 500 commonly up- or downregulated genes were characterized by enrichment functional analysis using MetaCore Functional Analysis. Most of the genes upregulated in cancer cells were downregulated in fibroblasts while most of the genes downregulated in cancer cells were upregulated in fibroblasts, indicating that changing patterns of mRNA expression were reciprocal between cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, breast cancer cells commonly increased genes related to mitotic response and TCA pathway while fibroblasts increased genes related to carbohydrate metabolism including glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glucose transport, indicating that fibroblasts support cancer cell proliferation by supplying energy sources. We propose that the bilateral coculture system using collagen membrane is useful to study interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells by mimicking in vivo tumor microenvironment.

  2. Characteristic Gene Expression Profiles of Human Fibroblasts and Breast Cancer Cells in a Newly Developed Bilateral Coculture System

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Takayuki; Utsumi, Jun; Toi, Masakazu; Shimizu, Kazuharu

    2015-01-01

    The microenvironment of cancer cells has been implicated in cancer development and progression. Cancer-associated fibroblast constitutes a major stromal component of the microenvironment. To analyze interaction between cancer cells and fibroblasts, we have developed a new bilateral coculture system using a two-sided microporous collagen membrane. Human normal skin fibroblasts were cocultured with three different human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7, SK-BR-3, and HCC1937. After coculture, mRNA was extracted separately from cancer cells and fibroblasts and applied to transcriptomic analysis with microarray. Top 500 commonly up- or downregulated genes were characterized by enrichment functional analysis using MetaCore Functional Analysis. Most of the genes upregulated in cancer cells were downregulated in fibroblasts while most of the genes downregulated in cancer cells were upregulated in fibroblasts, indicating that changing patterns of mRNA expression were reciprocal between cancer cells and fibroblasts. In coculture, breast cancer cells commonly increased genes related to mitotic response and TCA pathway while fibroblasts increased genes related to carbohydrate metabolism including glycolysis, glycogenesis, and glucose transport, indicating that fibroblasts support cancer cell proliferation by supplying energy sources. We propose that the bilateral coculture system using collagen membrane is useful to study interactions between cancer cells and stromal cells by mimicking in vivo tumor microenvironment. PMID:26171396

  3. Cytological Diagnosis of Bilateral Breast Implant-Associated Lymphoma of the ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large-Cell Type. Clinical Implications of Peri-Implant Breast Seroma Cytological Reporting.

    PubMed

    Granados, Rosario; Lumbreras, Eva M; Delgado, Manuel; Aramburu, José A; Tardío, Juan C

    2016-07-01

    The cytological examination of peri-prosthetic breast effusions allowed the diagnosis of bilateral breast-implant ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) in the case reported. Ten years after reconstructive surgery with bilateral breast implants, a large unilateral seroma developed and was cytologically analyzed. The presence of CD30 and CD4-positive large-sized atypical lymphoid cells exhibiting horseshoe-shaped nuclei and a brisk mitotic activity rendered the diagnosis of BI-ALCL. Similar cells were seen in the peri-prosthetic fluid intraoperatively collected from the contralateral breast. Although initial histological analysis of the capsulectomy specimens showed unilateral tumor, the cytological findings prompted a more thorough tissue sampling, resulting in the diagnosis of bilateral disease. BI-ALCL usually follows an indolent clinical course; however, there are reported cases with an aggressive behavior. While the presence of bilateral disease is a putative risk factor for a bad prognosis, the small number of cases reported precludes a definitive assessment of this risk. Since most BI-ALCL present with late seromas, cytologic analysis of these effusions in women with breast implants should be mandatory. Cytology is a safe tool for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with breast implant-related late seromas, sometimes proven more sensitive than histological analysis. Complete bilateral capsulectomy and a detailed histological analysis should follow a cytological diagnosis of BI-ALCL in a breast effusion in order to avoid false negative diagnoses. Our case constitutes the first published report of a bilateral BI-ALCL diagnosed by cytology. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016;44:623-627. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Bilateral invasive lobular breast cancer in a female teenager: a rare finding of a common disease--case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Enownchong, Enow-Orock George; Thomas, Egbe Obinchemti; Akum, Achidi Eric; Defang, Asonganyi Etienne; Paul, Ndom; Emmanuel, Fongang; Peter, Ndumbe

    2010-07-19

    Management of cancer patients in low-resource communities presents enormous challenges. Breast cancer is a public health problem in Cameroon and occurs mostly in elderly women. The predominant histological type is a duct carcinoma. Lobular carcinoma in teenagers is rare. In this report we present a case of bilateral invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast that was confirmed on biopsies in a 22-year-old female. We present this rare finding and review the pathological, clinical and radiographic challenges of the disease. Nodules in the breast from patients of any age should be submitted for histology. Public education is beneficial and should be intensified.

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.
SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.
METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.
RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.
CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast

  6. HIF2α contributes to antiestrogen resistance via positive bilateral crosstalk with EGFR in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Muhammad Wasi; Persson, Camilla Ulrika; Reinbothe, Susann; Kazi, Julhash U.; Rönnstrand, Lars; Wigerup, Caroline; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E.; Påhlman, Sven; Jögi, Annika

    2016-01-01

    The majority of breast cancers express estrogen receptor α (ERα), and most patients with ERα-positive breast cancer benefit from antiestrogen therapy. The ERα-modulator tamoxifen and ERα-downregulator fulvestrant are commonly employed antiestrogens. Antiestrogen resistance remains a clinical challenge, with few effective treatments available for patients with antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer. Hypoxia, which is intrinsic to most tumors, promotes aggressive disease, with the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF1 and HIF2 regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. Here, we show that the ERα-expressing breast cancer cells MCF-7, CAMA-1, and T47D are less sensitive to antiestrogens when hypoxic. Furthermore, protein and mRNA levels of HIF2α/HIF2A were increased in a panel of antiestrogen-resistant cells, and antiestrogen-exposure further increased HIF2α expression. Ectopic expression of HIF2α in MCF-7 cells significantly decreased sensitivity to antiestrogens, further implicating HIF2α in antiestrogen resistance. EGFR is known to contribute to antiestrogen resistance: we further show that HIF2α drives hypoxic induction of EGFR and that EGFR induces HIF2α expression. Downregulation or inhibition of EGFR led to decreased HIF2α levels. This positive and bilateral HIF2-EGFR regulatory crosstalk promotes antiestrogen resistance and, where intrinsic hypoxic resistance exists, therapy itself may exacerbate the problem. Finally, inhibition of HIFs by FM19G11 restores antiestrogen sensitivity in resistant cells. Targeting HIF2 may be useful for counteracting antiestrogen resistance in the clinic. PMID:26849233

  7. HIF2α contributes to antiestrogen resistance via positive bilateral crosstalk with EGFR in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Alam, Muhammad Wasi; Persson, Camilla Ulrika; Reinbothe, Susann; Kazi, Julhash U; Rönnstrand, Lars; Wigerup, Caroline; Ditzel, Henrik Jorn; Lykkesfeldt, Anne E; Påhlman, Sven; Jögi, Annika

    2016-03-08

    The majority of breast cancers express estrogen receptor α (ERα), and most patients with ERα-positive breast cancer benefit from antiestrogen therapy. The ERα-modulator tamoxifen and ERα-downregulator fulvestrant are commonly employed antiestrogens. Antiestrogen resistance remains a clinical challenge, with few effective treatments available for patients with antiestrogen-resistant breast cancer. Hypoxia, which is intrinsic to most tumors, promotes aggressive disease, with the hypoxia-inducible transcription factors HIF1 and HIF2 regulating cellular responses to hypoxia. Here, we show that the ERα-expressing breast cancer cells MCF-7, CAMA-1, and T47D are less sensitive to antiestrogens when hypoxic. Furthermore, protein and mRNA levels of HIF2α/HIF2A were increased in a panel of antiestrogen-resistant cells, and antiestrogen-exposure further increased HIF2α expression. Ectopic expression of HIF2α in MCF-7 cells significantly decreased sensitivity to antiestrogens, further implicating HIF2α in antiestrogen resistance. EGFR is known to contribute to antiestrogen resistance: we further show that HIF2α drives hypoxic induction of EGFR and that EGFR induces HIF2α expression. Downregulation or inhibition of EGFR led to decreased HIF2α levels. This positive and bilateral HIF2-EGFR regulatory crosstalk promotes antiestrogen resistance and, where intrinsic hypoxic resistance exists, therapy itself may exacerbate the problem. Finally, inhibition of HIFs by FM19G11 restores antiestrogen sensitivity in resistant cells. Targeting HIF2 may be useful for counteracting antiestrogen resistance in the clinic.

  8. [Bilateral idiopathic granulomatous orchitis].

    PubMed

    Peyrí Rey, E; Riverola Manzanilla, A; Cañas Tello, M A

    2008-04-01

    A rare case of asymtomatic synchronous bilateral granulomatous orchitis idiopathic is decribed. In the scrotal ultrasonography are multiple hypoecoic areas, differential diagnosis between testicular tumor and granulomatous orchitis is very difficult in any examination by histological findings.

  9. Genomic differences between pure ductal carcinoma in situ and synchronous ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shinn Young; Jung, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Min Sung; Baek, In-Pyo; Lee, Sung Hak; Kim, Tae-Min; Chung, Yeun-Jun; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2015-04-10

    Although ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) precedes invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), the related genomic alterations remain unknown. To identify the genomic landscape of DCIS and better understand the mechanisms behind progression to IDC, we performed whole-exome sequencing and copy number profiling for six cases of pure DCIS and five pairs of synchronous DCIS and IDC. Pure DCIS harbored well-known mutations (e.g., TP53, PIK3CA and AKT1), copy number alterations (CNAs) and chromothripses, but had significantly fewer driver genes and co-occurrence of mutation/CNAs than synchronous DCIS-IDC. We found neither recurrent nor significantly mutated genes with synchronous DCIS-IDC compared to pure DCIS, indicating that there may not be a single determinant for pure DCIS progression to IDC. Of note, synchronous DCIS genomes were closer to IDC than pure DCIS. Among the clinicopathologic parameters, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status was associated with increased mutations, CNAs, co-occurrence of mutations/CNAs and driver mutations. Our results indicate that although pure DCIS has already acquired some drivers, more changes are needed to progress to IDC. In addition, IDC-associated DCIS is more aggressive than pure DCIS at genomic level and should really be considered IDC. Finally, the data suggest that PR-negativity could be used to predict aggressive breast cancer genotypes.

  10. [Bilateral radical mastectomy for carcinoma of the breast of the stages T0 and T1 (N0, M0) and mammoplasty of both breasts, areola and nipples in a single operation (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hüter, J

    1976-01-01

    Bilateral radical mastectomy and concomitant mammoplasty is a new operative procedure for the treatment of carcinoma of the breast in the stages T0 and the small T1, N0, M0. The advantage of the procedure is the increased extent of the operation, the improved cosmetic result and the single stage of the procedure. Consequently the cure rate is improved and the psychic trauma to the patient is decreased. The operation is more radical since the so-called healthy breast is operated first, including axillary lymphadenectomy and subsequent mammoplasty followed by the same procedure on the so-called diseased breast. If the pectoral muscles are involved, a conventional radical mastectomy has to be done. The diagnosis is made by excisional biopsy and frozen section microscopy. The cosmetic result is improved because both breasts are subjected to the same operation, and lateral differences in shape, volume and consistency of the breasts are eliminated. Cylastic prostheses are inserted as new breasts usually sub-pectorally and rarely subcutaneously. The nipples are surgically reconstructed and pigmented by tattooing. The advantage of this single stage procedure is a single general anaesthesia and less psychic trauma since the patient goes to sleep with the knowledge of waking up with two breasts even though endoprothetic breasts. Post-operative radiotherapy can be applied with the prostheses in place. The principle of cure before cosmetics is preserved. Radical operation of the so-called healthy side is justified because of the above mentioned cosmetic advantages and the 25% incidence of primary or metastatic cancer of the so-called healthy side. The post-operative care of women with a bilateral operation is not a problem since no more breast tissue is left behind. Orthopedic complaints which can occur because of macromastia of the remaining breast are also eliminated.

  11. Image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy for refractory bilateral breast cancer in a patient with extensive cutaneous metastasis in the chest and abdominal walls

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yueh-Feng; Lin, Yu-Chin; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Shueng, Pei-Wei; Yeh, Hsin-Pei; Hsieh, Chen-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Treatment for bilateral breast cancer with chest wall and abdominal skin invasion normally involves conventional radiotherapy (RT); however, conventional RT provides inadequate target volume coverage and excessive treatment of large volumes of normal tissue. Helical tomotherapy (HT) has the ability to deliver continuous craniocaudal irradiation that suppresses junction problems and provides good conformity of dose distribution. A 47-year-old female with stage IV bilateral breast cancer with chest wall and pectoralis major muscle invasion, lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, and multiple bone metastases received chemotherapy and target therapy beginning in January 2014; 4 months after the initiation of chemotherapy, computed tomography revealed progression of chest and abdominal wall invasion. A total dose of 70.2 Gy was delivered to both breasts, the chest wall, the abdominal wall, and the bilateral supraclavicular nodal areas in 39 fractions via HT. The total planning target volume was 4,533.29 cm3. The percent of lung volume receiving at least 20 Gy (V20) was 28%, 22%, and 25% for the right lung, left lung, and whole lung, respectively. The mean dose to the heart was 8.6 Gy. Follow-up computed tomography revealed complete response after the RT course. Grade 1 dysphagia, weight loss, grade 2 neutropenia, and grade 3 dermatitis were noted during the RT course. Pain score decreased from 6 to 1. No cardiac, pulmonary, liver, or intestinal toxicity developed during treatment or follow-up. Concurrent HT with or without systemic treatment could be a safe salvage therapy for chemorefractory locally advanced breast cancer patients with extensive cutaneous metastasis. PMID:27284253

  12. A novel deleterious PTEN mutation in a patient with early-onset bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An early age at Breast Cancer (BC) onset may be a hallmark of inherited predisposition, but BRCA1/2 mutations are only found in a minority of younger BC patients. Among the others, a fraction may carry mutations in rarer BC genes, such as TP53, STK11, CDH1 and PTEN. As the identification of women harboring such mutations allows for targeted risk-management, the knowledge of associated manifestations and an accurate clinical and family history evaluation are warranted. Case presentation We describe the case of a woman who developed an infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast at the age of 32, a contralateral BC at age 36 and another BC of the right breast at 40. When she was 39 years-old, during a dermatological examination, mucocutaneous features suggestive of Cowden Syndrome, a disorder associated to germ-line PTEN mutations, were noticed. PTEN genetic testing revealed the novel c.71A > T (p.Asp24Val) mutation, whose deleterious effect, suggested by conservation data and in silico tools, was definitely demonstrated by the incapacity of mutant PTEN to inhibit Akt phosphorylation when used to complement PTEN-null cells. In BC tissue, despite the absence of LOH or somatic mutations of PTEN, Akt phosphorylation was markedly increased in comparison to normal tissue, thus implying additional somatic events into the deregulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and, presumably, into carcinogenesis. Hence, known oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA (exons 10 and 21) and AKT1 (exon 2) were screened in tumor DNA with negative results, which suggests that the responsible somatic event(s) is a different, uncommon one. Conclusion This case stresses the importance of clinical/genetic assessment of early-onset BC patients in order to identify mutation carriers, who are at high risk of new events, so requiring tailored management. Moreover, it revealed a novel PTEN mutation with pathogenic effect, pointing out, however, the need for further efforts to elucidate the

  13. Discordance rate of HER2 status in primary breast carcinomas versus synchronous axillary lymph node metastases: a multicenter retrospective investigation

    PubMed Central

    Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; Caltabiano, Rosario; Cascone, Anna Maria; Del Sordo, Rachele; Cabibi, Daniela; Zeppa, Pio; Lanzafame, Salvatore; Sidoni, Angelo; Franco, Vito; Tuccari, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is considered to be a therapeutic and prognostic marker in the management of breast carcinoma (BC), although discordance rates between primary and metastatic or locally recurrent lesions have been reported. Methods One hundred and forty-eight paraffin-embedded BC tissues from patients of mean age 59.27 (33–96) years and corresponding synchronous lymph node metastases were collected and retrospectively studied using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization to evaluate HER2 status. Fleiss-Cohen weighted k statistics were used to assess the concordance rate between HER2 status of the primary BC and the synchronous metastatic lesions. Results The overall concordance rate for HER2 was 95.28%. Eighty-nine cases were concordantly HER2-negative in primary BC and nodal metastases, and 52 cases were HER2-positive in both primary and metastatic tumors. Changes in HER2 status between primary BC and corresponding synchronous metastases were observed in seven (4.72%) cases. Three of the discordant cases were HER2-negative in the primary tumor and HER2-positive in the metastases, while four cases were HER2-positive in the primary BC and HER2-negative in the metastases. No significant correlations were identified between HER2 status and expression of hormone receptors, growth fraction (Ki-67), or other histopathological parameters (pT, pN, grade). Conclusion Simultaneous determination of HER2 in BC and corresponding metastatic lymph nodes is not mandatory, but may strongly influence the therapeutic management. It was demonstrated that loss of HER2 amplification results in worse post-relapse survival and overall survival in BC patients and, on the other hand, a gain in HER2 expression in metastatic lymph nodes of BC may allow the possibility of a targeted treatment. Thus, our opinion is that significant prognostic information may be obtained by simultaneous assessment of HER2 status in both primary and

  14. Pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nottegar, A; Luchini, C; Cingarlini, S; Beccari, S; Grego, E; Gilioli, E; Manfrin, E; Bonetti, F

    2016-12-01

    A pathological complete response in a patient affected by multiple synchronous, breast and lung primary malignancies is reported. A 63-year-old woman presented with an invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and a lung adenocarcinoma. After multidisciplinary discussion, the patient underwent pulmonary left lower lobectomy followed by radio-chemotherapy with cisplatin and vinorelbine and started hormone therapy with letrozole. Ten months later, a left mastectomy with axillary lymph nodes dissection was performed. Histologically, a pathological complete response (pCR) was documented. With a review of the Literature, we discuss the issue of multiple primary malignancies, with its diagnostic and therapeutic implications. In cases of multiple synchronous malignancies it has been highlighted the importance of the choice of the best therapeutic approach for both the malignancies, reducing collateral individual effects.

  15. Prostate cancer in a man with a BRCA2 mutation and a personal history of bilateral breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singer, C F; Rappaport-Fuerhauser, C; Sopik, V; Narod, S A

    2015-08-01

    Men with a BRCA2 mutation face substantial lifetime risks for the development of both breast and prostate cancer. A male who was initially diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 32 was subsequently diagnosed at age 77 with both contralateral breast cancer and prostate cancer. He was found to be BRCA2 mutation carrier. The patient was treated with contralateral mastectomy, breast irradiation, prostate irradiation and adjuvant endocrine therapy. At age 83 he died of metastatic prostate cancer. Our case underscores the observation that BRCA2 mutation carriers are at risk for multiple cancers, including contralateral breast cancer, and illustrates the need for current practice recommendations for the early detection of breast and prostate cancer in men with BRCA2 mutations.

  16. Bilateral Breast Enlargement: An Unusual Presentation of Superior Vena Cava Obstruction in a Hemodialysis Patient with Fibrosing Mediastinitis

    SciTech Connect

    Goo, Dong Erk Kim, Yong Jae; Choi, Deuk Lin; Kwon, Kui Hyang; Yang, Seung Boo

    2011-02-15

    A 67-year-old woman with end-stage renal disease presented with profound edema of both breasts. The presence of a patent hemodialysis basilic transposition fistula and superior vena cava obstruction (SVC), due to fibrosing mediastinitis, was demonstrated by the use of fistulography. Endovascular treatment with a balloon and stent caused immediate resolution of the breast edema.

  17. Bilateral and symmetrical tinea mammae.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murat; Kavak, Ayse; Yamaner, Nalan Jale

    2013-09-14

    Tinea corporis has rarely been reported in some locations such as on the breast skin as unilaterally. Herein, we present a case of bilateral tinea mammae, which has not been reported before in English language literature to our knowledge.

  18. Bilateral Triple-Negative Invasive Breast Cancer with a BRCA2 Mutation, and Glioblastoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Alsharedi, Mohamed; Khelfa, Yousef; Tirona, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death among women in North America. Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant central nervous system tumor in adults. The majority of hereditary breast cancers are associated with deleterious mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Although few case reports have described the incidence of glioblastoma in patients previously diagnosed with breast cancer, any association between BRCA2 mutations and glioblastoma has not been demonstrated to date. Herein, we report a woman who is a carrier of a familial BRCA2 mutation, and was previously diagnosed with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and subsequently with a second primary TNBC and glioblastoma. Further investigation is required to define the possible relationship between these two aggressive malignances and the BRCA2 mutation, which might be critical for the proper management and treatment of this disease. PMID:28382102

  19. Bilateral eosinophilic mastitis: an uncommon unheard entity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aminder; Kaur, Pavneet; Sood, Neena; Puri, Harpreet; Garg, Bhavna

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral eosinophilic mastitis which is rare and hardly heard. It is a mimicker of carcinoma breast both clinically & radiologically. A 30 years old non diabetic female presented with bilateral breast lumps with history of rhinitis off & on and peripheral eosinophilia. Mammography was suspicious while ultrasonography was diagnostic of bilateral mastitis. Aspiration cytology exhibited inflammatory lesion rich in eosinophils. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of eosinophilic mastitis. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia and bilateralism is even rarer.

  20. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind and matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.

  1. Synchronicity from synchronized chaos

    DOE PAGES

    Duane, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    The synchronization of loosely-coupled chaotic oscillators, a phenomenon investigated intensively for the last two decades, may realize the philosophical concept of “synchronicity”—the commonplace notion that related events mysteriously occur at the same time. When extended to continuous media and/or large discrete arrays, and when general (non-identical) correspondences are considered between states, intermittent synchronous relationships indeed become ubiquitous. Meaningful synchronicity follows naturally if meaningful events are identified with coherent structures, defined by internal synchronization between remote degrees of freedom; a condition that has been posited as necessary for synchronizability with an external system. The important case of synchronization between mind andmore » matter is realized if mind is analogized to a computer model, synchronizing with a sporadically observed system, as in meteorological data assimilation. Evidence for the ubiquity of synchronization is reviewed along with recent proposals that: (1) synchronization of different models of the same objective process may be an expeditious route to improved computational modeling and may also describe the functioning of conscious brains; and (2) the nonlocality in quantum phenomena implied by Bell’s theorem may be explained in a variety of deterministic (hidden variable) interpretations if the quantum world resides on a generalized synchronization “manifold”.« less

  2. A comparative study of postoperative pain for open thyroidectomy versus bilateral axillo-breast approach robotic thyroidectomy using a self-reporting application for iPad

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Young Jun; Song, Junho; Kang, Jiyoung; Woo, Jung-Woo; Song, Ra-Yeong; Kwon, Hyungju; Kim, Su-Jin; Choi, June Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Postoperative pain for robotic thyroid surgeries including bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) has not been well studied. In this study, we have developed a self-reporting application (SRA) for iPad and prospectively collected pain scores from open thyroidectomy (OT) and BABA robotic thyroidectomy (RT) patients. Methods Female patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma were included. Patients recorded pain scores for throat, anterior neck, posterior neck, chest, and back on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. Once discharged, on postoperative day 14, a survey was also conducted on satisfaction of SRA and cosmesis. Results A total of 54 patients were enrolled (27 BABA RT and 27 OT). There were no significant differences between the 2 groups in clinicopathological characteristics and postoperative complication rates. Postoperative pain scores at days 1, 2, 3, and 14 were not significantly different between the groups for throat, anterior neck, posterior neck, or back. Postoperative analgesic requirements were similar between the 2 groups. Wound satisfaction scores were significantly higher in the BABA RT group (BABA RT 7.4 vs. OT 5.7; P = 0.016). Satisfaction scores for the usefulness of SRA were above 7.2 for all four questionnaire items on the 10-point scale. Conclusion Postoperative pain for BABA RT is equivalent to OT but offers greater cosmetic satisfaction for patients. A mobile device application such as SRA may facilitate proper assessment and management of pain in postoperative patients. PMID:27186567

  3. Bilateral cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Mulliken, John B

    2004-04-01

    The surgeon's objectives are normal nasolabial appearance and normal speech. The principles for synchronous repair of bilateral cleft lip have been established, and the techniques continue to evolve. Primary repair impairs maxillary growth, but little can be done at this time except to practice gentle craftsmanship and to minimize tension on the lower labial closure. The cutaneous lip should never be reopened for revision, and the number of secondary procedures involving the nasal cartilages should be kept to a minimum. Many adolescents with repaired bilateral cleft lip need maxillary advancement to improve projection of the nasal tip, to protrude the upper lip, and to attain normal sagittal skeletal harmony. With expected improvements in the technology of distraction osteogenesis, maxillary advancement may someday become as acceptable as orthodontic treatment.

  4. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report.

    PubMed

    Neto, Guerino Barbalaco; Rossetti, Claudia; Souza, Natalia A; LA Fonseca, Fernando; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Junqueira, Virginia Berlanga Campos; Valenti, Vitor E; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos

    2012-04-25

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional.

  5. Coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor and invasive ductal carcinoma in distinct breasts: case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of coexistence of benign phyllodes tumor, which measured 9 cm in the right breast, and invasive ductal carcinoma of 6 cm in the left breast, synchronous and independent, in a 66-year-old patient. The patient underwent a bilateral mastectomy due to the size of both lesions. Such situations are rare and usually refer to the occurrence of ductal or lobular carcinoma in situ when associated with malignant phyllodes tumors, and more often in ipsilateral breast or intra-lesional. PMID:22534285

  6. Bilateral cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vivek; Baras, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    We present a case of bilateral lesions in a 50-year-old man, which were on first impression mistaken for and initially treated as bilateral cellulitis. We propose that bilateral cellulitis, as opposed to unilateral, is rare and that other aetiologies should be considered in evaluating a patient with bilateral lesions. The differential diagnosis includes stasis-dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, lymphoedema and vascular lesions such as Kaposi sarcoma, as was identified in this case. Early consultation with dermatology and biopsy in unclear cases mitigates the unnecessary use of prolonged antibiotics, antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. HIV testing is an essential screening test in all adults who present with non-specific viral symptoms and rash.

  7. Prospective, randomized, and controlled trial on ketamine infusion during bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy: Effects on postoperative pain and recovery profiles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Choi, June Young; Kim, Byoung-Gook; Hwang, Jin-Young; Park, Seong-Joo; Oh, Ah-Young; Jeon, Young-Tae; Ryu, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy using bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) is frequently performed for excellent cosmesis. However, postoperative pain is remained as concerns due to the extent tissue dissection and tension during the operation. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist that reduces acute postoperative pain. We evaluated the effects of intraoperative ketamine infusion on postoperative pain control and recovery profiles following BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy. Methods: Fifty-eight adult patients scheduled for BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy were randomized into a control group (n = 29) and ketamine group (n = 29). Following induction of anesthesia, patients in each group were infused with the same volume of saline or ketamine solution (1 mg/kg bolus, 60 μg/kg/h continuous infusion). Total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil was used to induce and maintain anesthesia. Pain scores (101-point numerical rating scale, 0 = no pain, 100 = the worst imaginable pain), the consumption of rescue analgesics, and other postoperative adverse effects were assessed at 1, 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: Patients in the ketamine group reported lower pain scores than those in the control group at 6 hours (30 [30] vs 50 [30]; P = 0.017), 24 hours (20 [10] vs 30 [20]; P < 0.001), and 48 hours (10 [10] vs 20 [15]; P < 0.001) in neck area. No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups in terms of the requirements for rescue analgesics or the occurrence of adverse events. Conclusion: Intravenous ketamine infusion during anesthesia resulted in lower postoperative pain scores following BABA robotic or endoscopic thyroidectomy, with no increase in adverse events. PMID:27930531

  8. Multi-epitope Folate Receptor Alpha Peptide Vaccine, Sargramostim, and Cyclophosphamide in Treating Patients With Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Bilateral Breast Carcinoma; Estrogen Receptor Negative; HER2/Neu Negative; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma; Unilateral Breast Carcinoma

  9. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case

    PubMed Central

    Lancer, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  10. Bilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Feil, K; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T

    2016-01-01

    The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response. If the results of the bedside HIT are unclear, angular VOR function should be quantified by a video-oculography system (vHIT). An additional test supporting the diagnosis is dynamic visual acuity. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (c/oVEMP) may also be reduced or absent, indicating impaired otolith function. There are different subtypes of BVP depending on the affected anatomic structure and frequency range of the VOR deficit: impaired canal function in the low- and/or high-frequency VOR range only and/or otolith function only; the latter is very rare. The etiology of BVP remains unclear in more than 50% of patients: in these cases neurodegeneration is assumed. Frequent known causes are ototoxicity mainly due to gentamicin, bilateral Menière's disease, autoimmune diseases, meningitis and bilateral vestibular schwannoma, as well as an association with cerebellar degeneration (cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome=CANVAS). In general, in the long term there is no improvement of vestibular function. There are four treatment options: first, detailed patient counseling to explain the cause, etiology, and consequences, as well as the course of the disease; second, daily vestibular exercises and balance training; third, if possible, treatment of the underlying cause, as in bilateral

  11. [Synchronous and ipsilateral invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor - a case report].

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Sakagami, Masashi; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-11-01

    We report 2 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast occurring near a phyllodes tumor. The first case was ofa 58- year-old woman who had a tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. Following a core needle biopsy (CNB), a malignant phyllodes tumor was diagnosed. We performed a lumpectomy for the phyllodes tumor, with 1.5-cm surgical margins. Pathological diagnosis of the resected specimen confirmed the malignant phyllodes tumor. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also discovered near the phyllodes tumor. The second case was of another 58-year-old woman who had a big tumor in her right breast and visited our hospital. CNB resulted in pathological diagnosis ofa benign phyllodes tumor. The tumor was removed by a lumpectomy with 1.5-cm surgical margins. The pathological diagnosis from the resected specimen was borderline phyllodes tumor with invasive ductal carcinoma in the proximity. In both cases, DCIS could not have been diagnosed preoperatively.

  12. Comparative Study between Robotic Total Thyroidectomy with Central Lymph Node Dissection via Bilateral Axillo-breast Approach and Conventional Open Procedure for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing-Qing; Zhu, Jian; Zhuang, Da-Yong; Fan, Zi-Yi; Zheng, Lu-Ming; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Lei; Yu, Fang; Li, Yan-Ning; Xiao, Lei; Dong, Xue-Feng; Ni, Gao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large proportion of the patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma are young women. Therefore, minimally invasive endoscopic thyroidectomy with central neck dissection (CND) emerged and showed well-accepted results with improved cosmetic outcome, accelerated healing, and comforting the patients. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of robotic total thyroidectomy with CND via bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA), compared with conventional open procedure in papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Methods: One-hundred patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma from March 2014 to January 2015 in Jinan Military General Hospital of People's Liberation Army (PLA) were randomly assigned to robotic group or conventional open approach group (n = 50 in each group). The total operative time, estimated intraoperative blood loss, numbers of lymph node removed, visual analog scale (VAS), postoperative hospital stay time, complications, and numerical scoring system (NSS, used to assess cosmetic effect) were analyzed. Results: The robotic total thyroidectomy with CND via BABA was successfully performed in robotic group. There were no conversion from the robotic surgeries to open or endoscopic surgery. The subclinical central lymph node metastasis rate was 35%. The mean operative time of the robotic group was longer than that of the conventional open approach group (118.8 ± 16.5 min vs. 90.7 ± 10.3 min, P < 0.05). The study showed significant differences between the two groups in terms of the VASs (2.1 ± 1.0 vs. 3.8 ± 1.2, P < 0.05) and NSS (8.9 ± 0.8 vs. 4.8 ± 1.7, P < 0.05). The differences between the two groups in the estimated intraoperative blood loss, postoperative hospital stay time, numbers of lymph node removed, postoperative thyroglobulin levels, and complications were not statistically significant (all P > 0.05). Neither iatrogenic implantation nor metastasis occurred in punctured porous channel or chest wall in both groups

  13. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts—a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  14. Neocortical synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maksim; Seigneur, Joseé; Sejnowski, Terrence

    2011-01-01

    Summary Neuronal synchronization occurs when two or more neuronal events are coordinated across time. Local synchronization produces field potentials. Long-range synchronization between distant brain sites contributes to the electroencephalogram. Neuronal synchronization depends on synaptic (chemical/electrical), ephaptic, and extracellular interactions. For an expanded treatment of this topic see Jasper’s Basic Mechanisms of the Epilepsies, Fourth Edition (Noebels JL, Avoli M, Rogawski MA, Olsen RW, Delgado-Escueta AV, eds) published by Oxford University Press (available on the National Library of Medicine Bookshelf [NCBI] at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books). PMID:24850952

  15. Bilateral breast MRI by use of dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming at 3 Tesla: improvement in homogeneity on fat-suppression imaging.

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Kinya; Kato, Fumi; Terae, Satoshi; Mito, Suzuko; Oyama-Manabe, Noriko; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Nakanishi, Mitsuhiro; Sugimori, Hiroyuki; Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Shirato, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare fat-suppression homogeneity on breast MR imaging by using dual-source parallel radiofrequency excitation and image-based shimming (DS-IBS) with single-source radiofrequency excitation with volume shim (SS-Vol) at 3 Tesla. Twenty patients were included. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo-field-echo breast images with DS-IBS and SS-Vol were obtained. Fat suppression was scored with four grade points. The contrast of the pectoral muscle and the fat in each breast area was obtained in the head medial, head lateral, foot medial, and foot lateral areas. The axillary space was calculated and compared between DS-IBS and SS-Vol. The average DS-IBS score was significantly higher than that of SS-Vol. The mean contrasts of fat in the foot lateral areas and axillary spaces on DS-IBS images were significantly higher than on SS-Vol images.

  16. Bilateral ankle edema with bilateral iritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2007-07-01

    I report two patient presented to me with bilateral symmetrical ankle edema and bilateral acute iritis. A 42-year-old female of Indian origin and 30-year-old female from Somalia both presented with bilateral acute iritis. In the first patient, bilateral ankle edema preceded the onset of bilateral acute iritis. Bilateral ankle edema developed during the course of disease after onset of ocular symptoms in the second patient. Both patients did not suffer any significant ocular problem in the past, and on systemic examination, all clinical parameters were within normal limit. Lacrimal gland and conjunctival nodule biopsy established the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in both cases, although the chest x-rays were normal.

  17. Bilateral ovarian carcinoma with bilateral uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, J; Mooney, D; O'Connor, M; McDonald, G S

    1984-01-01

    A case of bilateral uveal melanoma in a 60-year-old woman in association with primary bilateral ovarian carcinoma is described. This is the first case in which ultrastructural studies have been performed on the ocular tumours. Seven previously described cases are summarised, and the extreme rarity of such reports would suggest that this may indeed be a new syndrome. Images PMID:6704361

  18. Bilateral Duane syndrome and bilateral aniridia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammad

    2006-06-01

    Duane retraction syndrome has been reported in association with structural abnormalities of the eye, including epibulbar dermoid, keratoconus, iris dysplasia, heterochromia iridis, persistent fetal vasculature, cataract, choroidal coloboma, microphthalmia, and optic nerve dysplasia. A novel association, that of bilateral Duane syndrome with bilateral aniridia, is the subject of this report.

  19. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking achieved efficient cell cycle synchronization and altered the expression of p27, p53, bcl-2 in canine breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jinjin; Sun, Dongdong; Yang, Chao; Wang, Yingxue; Sun, Sichao; Li, Qing; Bao, Jun; Liu, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Cell synchronization is an approach to obtain cell populations of the same stage, which is a prerequisite to studying the regulation of cell cycle progression in vivo. Serum starvation and thymidine double blocking (TdR) are two important practices in studying cell cycle synchronization. However, their effects on canine cancer cells as well as the regulatory mechanisms by these two methods are poorly understood. In this study, we determined the optimum conditions of serum starvation and TdR and their effects on cell cycle synchronization. We further explored the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in the cell cycle synchronization by investigating the expression of three key genes (p27, p53 and bcl-2). Serum starvation resulted in a reversible cell cycle arrest and synchronously progress through G0/G1. The highest percentage of CHMm cells (87.47%) in G0/G1 stage was obtained after 42 h incubation with 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS). TdR double blocking could arrest 98.9% of CHMm cells in G1/S phase (0 h of release), and could arrest 93.74% of CHMm cells in S phase after 4h of release. We also found that the p27, p53, bcl-2 genes were most highly expressed in G0/G1 phase. Our current work revealed that serum starvation and TdR methods could achieve sufficient synchronization of CHMm cells. Moreover, the expression of p27, p53 and bcl-2 genes was related to cyclical movements and apoptosis. Our results will provide a new insight into cell cycle regulation and reprogramming of canine cancer cells induced by serum starvation and TdR blocking.

  20. Synchronizing Fireflies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Ying; Gall, Walter; Nabb, Karen Mayumi

    2006-01-01

    "Imagine a tenth of a mile of river front with an unbroken line of trees with fireflies on ever leaf flashing in synchronism. ... Then, if one's imagination is sufficiently vivid, he may form some conception of this amazing spectacle." So wrote the naturalist Hugh Smith. In this article we consider how one might model mathematically the…

  1. Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: issues and concerns.

    PubMed

    Stefanek, M E

    1995-01-01

    At present, the care of women at increased risk of developing breast cancer poses a clinical dilemma and remains an area of controversy. A number of investigators have addressed the pros and cons of prophylactic mastectomy versus close follow-up, utilizing annual mammography, semiannual or even more frequent physical examinations of the breast, and proficient monthly breast self-examinations. Recent efforts to isolate a gene (BRCA1) on chromosome 17q12-21 raise additional concerns about the management of women testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. These women are estimated to have an 85% lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. Testing for BRCA1 mutation carriers may soon be available for population screening. This article describes preliminary studies investigating health care provider and patient perceptions of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy. In addition, a number of research questions remain regarding the efficacy and utilization of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy as a treatment option for women at increased risk of developing breast cancer. These women include those testing positive for BRCA1 mutations. In addition, women with a strong family history opting against testing for BRCA1 mutations may express interest in surgery.

  2. SU-E-T-209: Comparison of Plan Quality Between Arm Avoidance (AA) Vs. Non Arm Avoidance VMAT Planning Techniques for Breast Cancer Patients with Bilateral Implant Reconstructions Receiving Postmastectomy Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, L; Ballangrud, A; Ho, A; Mechalakos, J; Li, G; Hong, L

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Breast cancer patients with bilateral implant reconstructions who require postmastectomy radiotherapy can pose unique treatment planning challenges. The use of VMAT may provide advantages over conventional tangent or multi-beam IMRT techniques. Moreover, daily setup uncertainly of the arm position, however, could have significant impact on accurate dose delivery. This study compares the plan qualities between non-AA and AA VMAT techniques. Methods: Three breast cancer patients receiving left chest wall and regional nodal irradiation with bilateral implant reconstructions were studied. PTV included chest wall and IMNs (PTV-CW), and supraclavicular and axillary lymph nodes (PTV-SCV). For each patient, one non-AA VMAT plan (VMAT-S) with 4 partial arcs encompassing the ipsilateral arm and three AA VMAT plans where no arcs were entering or existing through the ipsilateral arm were generated. VMAT-AA1 uses 2 arcs for PTV-CW and 2 arcs for PTV-SCV. VMAT-AA2 used two static fields for PTV-SCV with 2 arcs for PTV-CW. VMAT-AA3 used 2 narrow arcs for PTV-CW and 2 long arcs for all PTVs. Prescription dose (PD) was 50 Gy (25 fractions). All plans were normalized to have 95% of PD to 95 % of PTV. PTV dose inhomogeneity and dose to the heart, left lung, right thyroid dose and left humerus were evaluated. Results: For VMAT-S, VMAT-AA1, VMAT-AA2 and VMAT-AA3, respectively, the average and standard deviation (in Gy unless specified otherwise) of PTV D05 are 54.7±0.9, 55.9±0.4, 56.7±0.7 and 55.7±0.4; mean Heart dose: 7.1±0.7, 7.2±0.8, 7.3±0.9 and 6.9±1.0; left lung V20Gy (in %): 28.1±1.0, 28.8+2.2, 32.2±4.1 and 27.8±2.0; mean right thyroid dose: 8.1±0.6, 5.1±2.1, 2.1±0.4 and 5.0±2.0; mean left humerus dose: 20.0±4.4,15.6±4.4, 15.2±8.2 and 15.3±4.6. Conclusion: AA VMAT can produce acceptable clinical plans while eliminating dosimetric impact related to arm setup uncertainty. These data require validation in larger planning studies prior to routine clinical

  3. Breast enlargement after two reduction mastoplasties: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2007-01-01

    In 1989, a bilateral breast reduction was performed for a large-breasted woman. She returned 1 year later with bilateral breast enlargement as severe as in the original case. The operation was repeated but in a more aggressive way. She became pregnant 2 years later, and both her small breasts began to grow again until they became gigantic. Hormonal tests showed results within the standard limits, and no medical treatment was effective. After the delivery, her breasts reduced in size spontaneously.

  4. In newly diagnosed breast cancer, screening MRI of the contralateral breast detects mammographically occult cancer, even in elderly women: the mayo clinic in Florida experience.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Johnny Ray; Vallow, Laura A; DePeri, Elizabeth R; McNeil, Rebecca B; Feigel, Deborah G; Amar, Surabhi; Buskirk, Steven J; Perez, Edith A

    2010-01-01

    The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is somewhat controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of synchronous, occult contralateral breast cancer detected by MRI but not by mammography or clinical breast examination in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, including those aged 70 years or older at our institution. MRI results for women with newly diagnosed breast cancer who underwent bilateral breast MRI after negative mammography and clinical examination between February 2003 and November 2007 at Mayo Clinic in Florida were reviewed. The prevalence of pathologically confirmed contralateral carcinoma diagnosed solely by MRI was determined and analyzed in the context of age, family history, menopausal status, breast density, and primary-tumor characteristics. Logistic regression was used to explore the association between contralateral carcinoma and potential patient risk factors. A total of 425 women were evaluated, of whom 129 (30%) were aged 70 years or older. A contralateral biopsy was recommended and performed solely on the basis of MRI in 72 of the 425 women (17%). Sixteen of these 72 women (22%) had pathologically confirmed carcinoma, including seven in the older subgroup. The prevalence of clinically and mammographically occult contralateral carcinoma detected by MRI was 3.8% (16/425) overall and 5.4% (7/129) in the group of older women. When potential risk factors for contralateral breast cancer were evaluated, postmenopausal status was the only significant predictor of contralateral cancer detected by MRI (p = 0.016). We concluded that contralateral breast screening with MRI should be considered in postmenopausal women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, even those aged 70 years or older at diagnosis.

  5. Bilateral appendicular bone tumors in four dogs.

    PubMed

    Selmic, Laura E; Ryan, Stewart D; Ehrhart, Nicole P; Withrow, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors, occurring in the same bone and same anatomic site within the bone are very rare. This report describes the clinical presentation and oncologic outcome for four dogs with this rare presentation. All cases presented to the authors following a history of unilateral lameness for several weeks. On presentation, case 1 had pain elicited in the contralateral proximal humerus but all the other cases had no abnormalities detectable on physical examination of the contralateral limb. All dogs had technetium 99m ((99m)Tc) nuclear scintigraphy performed that identified bilateral lesions of the distal radii in two dogs, proximal humeri and distal tibiae in one dog each. Thoracic radiographs performed on all dogs showed no evidence of pulmonary metastases. Three dogs were treated with palliative radiation therapy (two dogs received concurrent bisphosphonates) resulting in survival times from initial presentation of 50 days, 193 days, and 523 days, respectively. One dog had stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) and a surgical limb-salvage performed followed by carboplatin chemotherapy, resulting in a survival time of 926 days from initial presentation. Palliative and curative-intent treatments for the bilateral synchronous appendicular bone tumors resulted in survival times similar to those reported for treatment of a single primary appendicular bone tumor.

  6. Spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wali, Aisha Syed; Khan, Rozilla Sadia

    2012-02-01

    With the increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy over the decades, bilateral ectopic pregnancy is also increasing. It is usually associated with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but in recent years few cases of spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy have been reported. Gynaecologists should be aware of this and that ultrasonography has limitations in diagnosis. In cases of ectopic pregnancy where contralateral adnexa is not clearly identified on ultrasound and fertility needs to be conserved, patient should be managed by experts in well equipped centres. A case of spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy that remained undiagnosed till laparotomy, is described.

  7. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  8. Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengcheng; Wu, Liang; Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present.

  9. Echinoderms Have Bilateral Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present. PMID:22247765

  10. Minimal breast cancer: a clinical appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Peters, T G; Donegan, W L; Burg, E A

    1977-01-01

    Eighty-five patients with a diagnosis of minimal breast cancer were evaluated. The predominant lesion was intraductal carcinoma, and axillary metastases occurred in association with minimal breast cancer in seven of 96 cases. One death occurred due to minimal breast cancer. Bilateral mammary carcinoma was evident in 24% and bilateral minimal breast cancer in 13% of the patients. The component lesions of minimal breast cancer have varied biologic activity, but prognosis is good with a variety of operations. The multifocal nature of minimal breast cancer and the potential for metastases should be recognized. Therapy should include removal of the entire mammary parenchyma and low axillary nodes. The high incidence of bilateral malignancy supports elective contralateral biopsy at the time of therapy for minimal breast cancer. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 5. PMID:203233

  11. Subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Scherle, Claudio; Machado, Calixto

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is rare, and most reported cases are from Asian countries. An 80-year-old white Cuban man, with a history of arterial hypertension, suffered sudden onset of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left posteromedial thalamic haemorrhage. Two days later his condition suddenly deteriorated: blood pressure was 220/105 mm Hg, he was stuporous and tetraplegic, respiration was ataxic, and his gaze was fixed and deviated downward and inward. CT scan showed haemorrhages in both thalami, extending to the ventricles. 32 h later the patient died. There are few previous publications of simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhages and this is the first report involving a Hispanic patient. Prognosis in patients with bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is poor, and the mechanism underlying the development of subsequent and symmetrical bleeding is not clear. PMID:21709830

  12. Diagnosis of breast tumors after breast reduction.

    PubMed

    Beer, G M; Kompatscher, P; Hergan, K

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate the diagnosability of breast tumors after breast reductions as this is a frequent surgical procedure. The data should shed light on the hypothesis that routine screening methods concerning the diagnosis of breast tumors prove more difficult after breast operations. All women who had undergone breast reduction at our department between January 1989 and December 1994 were examined. During this period we counted 166 patients; the majority of them (n = 144) had undergone a bilateral breast reduction and the rest of them (n = 22) a unilateral breast reduction for various reasons. After the operation, all patients were checked in standardized intervals. Those who developed any kind of breast mass (n = 6) were recorded and examined by ultrasound and mammography, and occasionally by an additional fine-needle biopsy. In case any doubt about the dignity had remained, an excisional biopsy was carried out. In none of our patients was it possible to get a precise diagnosis of an ill-defined mass with ultrasound. With mammography, some of the existing masses, which were really scars, mimicked different kinds of tumors, and once a carcinoma was initially interpreted as scar tissue with oil cysts. The diagnosis of breast masses after breast reductions with routinely used screening methods has proved to be more difficult as breast reductions lead to architectural alterations of the remaining breast parenchyma. Such alterations can and should be documented shortly after the operation so that later occurring tumors are distinguished more easily. Therefore, a basic mammography 3 months after each breast reduction has to be claimed in order to facilitate further breast tumor diagnosis.

  13. Synchronization of Regular Automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucal, Didier

    Functional graph grammars are finite devices which generate the class of regular automata. We recall the notion of synchronization by grammars, and for any given grammar we consider the class of languages recognized by automata generated by all its synchronized grammars. The synchronization is an automaton-related notion: all grammars generating the same automaton synchronize the same languages. When the synchronizing automaton is unambiguous, the class of its synchronized languages forms an effective boolean algebra lying between the classes of regular languages and unambiguous context-free languages. We additionally provide sufficient conditions for such classes to be closed under concatenation and its iteration.

  14. Synchronization in multistatic radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrink, H. G.

    1993-08-01

    This report gives a summary of multistatic radar principles and synchronization methods. Different methods are described using direct and indirect synchronization. The report also presents a general review of synchronization methods for the future. Two LORAN C receivers have been analyzed for use as local reference oscillators in multistatic radar.

  15. Bilateral tibial hemimelia I.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, J; Rassau, Marina; Koshi, Rachel; Battacharjee, Suranjan

    2007-05-01

    Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We report a case of bilateral tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents. The two amputated legs with tibial dysplasia obtained from a 3-year-old boy were studied by radiography and anatomical dissection. The radiological evaluation revealed a normal hip joint. The lower end of femur was normal without any bifurcation, shortening or bowing. Fibula was present on both legs and there was no sign of bowing or doubling. Both right and left tibiae were absent. In addition, on the right side, five tarsal bones, two metatarsals and the corresponding digital rays were absent. On the left side, three tarsal bones were absent. Dissection of the amputated segments showed the presence of extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Following bilateral knee disarticulation the patient was fitted with prosthesis and is doing well.

  16. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor.

  17. Bilateral combined laryngocele

    PubMed Central

    Suqati, Abrar A.; Alherabi, Ameen Z.; Marglani, Osama A.; Alaidarous, Tariq O.

    2016-01-01

    Laryngocele is an uncommon condition that represents a benign dilatation of the laryngeal saccule with air and/or fluid, arising in the region of the laryngeal ventricle. Laryngoceles, or laryngomucocele can be classified as internal, or combined. The aim of presenting this rare case of a bilateral combined laryngocele, are to emphasize the importance of diagnostic laryngoscopy in upper airway pathologies evaluation, increase awareness in the general otolaryngologist community, and to highlight the external surgical method. PMID:27464869

  18. Synchronization of chaotic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pecora, Louis M.; Carroll, Thomas L.

    2015-09-15

    We review some of the history and early work in the area of synchronization in chaotic systems. We start with our own discovery of the phenomenon, but go on to establish the historical timeline of this topic back to the earliest known paper. The topic of synchronization of chaotic systems has always been intriguing, since chaotic systems are known to resist synchronization because of their positive Lyapunov exponents. The convergence of the two systems to identical trajectories is a surprise. We show how people originally thought about this process and how the concept of synchronization changed over the years to a more geometric view using synchronization manifolds. We also show that building synchronizing systems leads naturally to engineering more complex systems whose constituents are chaotic, but which can be tuned to output various chaotic signals. We finally end up at a topic that is still in very active exploration today and that is synchronization of dynamical systems in networks of oscillators.

  19. McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral macroorchidism and bilateral testicular masses.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Geetika; Kantawala, Kartikeya; Shinawi, Marwan; Sarwate, Sandhya; Dehner, Louis P

    2010-12-01

    Bilateral synchronous intratesticular masses are rare but can be caused by metastatic disease to the testicle, primary testicular masses or benign etiologies such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and granulomatous orchitis. We present an unusual case of McCune-Albright syndrome presenting with unilateral testicular enlargement and bilateral testicular masses secondary to Sertoli cell hyperplasia. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of testicular masses secondary to McCune-Albright syndrome.

  20. Bilateral pigmented villonodular synovitis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Samir H.; Porrino, Jack A.; Green, John R.; Chew, Felix S.

    2015-01-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a disorder resulting in a villous, nodular, or villonodular proliferation of the synovium, with pigmentation related to the presence of hemosiderin. These lesions are almost exclusively benign with rare reports of malignancy. Pigmented villonodular synovitis can occur in a variety of joints and at any age but most often occurs within the knee in the young adult. Pigmented villonodular synovitis is a rare disease entity, and bilateral synchronous or metachronous involvement of a joint is even more uncommon, with few reports previously described in the literature. We present a case of pigmented villonodular synovitis involving both the right and left knee in the same patient, with radiographic imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, photograph and video intraoperative imaging, and pathologic correlation. PMID:26649121

  1. Ischemic Bilateral Opercular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aydın, Mehmet Nuri; Gökgül, Alper; Hamamcı, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome. PMID:23476665

  2. Ischemic bilateral opercular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aydın, Mehmet Nuri; Gökgül, Alper; Hamamcı, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome.

  3. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  4. Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease.

    PubMed

    Frejo, Lidia; Soto-Varela, Andres; Santos-Perez, Sofía; Aran, Ismael; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Perez-Guillen, Vanesa; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Fraile, Jesus; Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Tapia, Maria C; Trinidad, Gabriel; García-Arumi, Ana María; González-Aguado, Rocío; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M; Marques, Pedro; Perez, Paz; Benitez, Jesus; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms, and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities, such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5 to 50%, and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD (BMD) to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of BMD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in BMD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to BMD.

  5. Clinical Subgroups in Bilateral Meniere Disease

    PubMed Central

    Frejo, Lidia; Soto-Varela, Andres; Santos-Perez, Sofía; Aran, Ismael; Batuecas-Caletrio, Angel; Perez-Guillen, Vanesa; Perez-Garrigues, Herminio; Fraile, Jesus; Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Tapia, Maria C.; Trinidad, Gabriel; García-Arumi, Ana María; González-Aguado, Rocío; Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M.; Marques, Pedro; Perez, Paz; Benitez, Jesus; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2016-01-01

    Meniere disease (MD) is a heterogeneous clinical condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss, episodic vestibular symptoms, and tinnitus associated with several comorbidities, such as migraine or autoimmune disorders (AD). The frequency of bilateral involvement may range from 5 to 50%, and it depends on the duration of the disease. We have performed a two-step cluster analysis in 398 patients with bilateral MD (BMD) to identify the best predictors to define clinical subgroups with a potential different etiology to improve the phenotyping of BMD and to develop new treatments. We have defined five clinical variants in BMD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 46% of patients, and is defined by metachronic hearing loss without migraine and without AD. Group 2 is found in 17% of patients, and it is defined by synchronic hearing loss without migraine or AD. Group 3, with 13% of patients, is characterized by familial MD, while group 4, that includes 12% of patients, is associated by the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by AD. This approach can be helpful in selecting patients for genetic and clinical research. However, further studies will be required to improve the phenotyping in these clinical variants for a better understanding of the diverse etiological factors contributing to BMD. PMID:27822199

  6. Bilateral Wilms' tumors: changing concepts in management

    SciTech Connect

    Laberge, J.M.; Nguyen, L.T.; Homsy, Y.L.; Doody, D.P.

    1987-08-01

    Bilaterality is uncommon in Wilms' tumor, being present in 4% to 8% of the cases. We report the combined experience of two children's hospitals in one city over a 20-year period. We encountered nine cases of synchronous bilateral nephroblastoma (National Wilms' Tumor Study 3, stage V). Age at diagnosis ranged from 9 to 41 months (mean 23 months). There were five girls and four boys. Associated findings include nephroblastomatosis in three cases (33%), one of which also had a familial history; undescended testis in two cases; and minor anomalies in two other cases. Surgical treatment consisted of unilateral nephrectomy with contralateral partial nephrectomy or tumorectomy in six cases, nephrectomy with contralateral biopsy only in two cases, and the other patient had bilateral biopsies initially, followed at a later date by partial nephrectomy on one side. All patients received chemotherapy; actinomycin D (AMD) only was used in the oldest case, vincristine and AMD in five cases, to which was added cyclophosphamide in one case and adriamycin in two. Seven patients received radiation therapy. Seven out of the nine patients survived more than 2 years (77%); five are well, off chemotherapy, with no evidence of disease from 4 to 11 years after diagnosis. Two patients suffered from chronic renal failure and one died from complications after renal transplantation more than 19 years after diagnosis. The two patients who died from their disease presented with more advanced tumor. Therefore, the agressiveness of multimodal therapy can be tailored according to stage and histology, and effective chemotherapy allows maximal preservation of renal parenchyma in patients with stage I and II tumors.

  7. Synchronous Energy Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The synchronous technology requirements for large space power systems are summarized. A variety of technology areas including photovoltaics, thermal management, and energy storage, and power management are addressed.

  8. Synchronization of genetic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tianshou; Zhang, Jiajun; Yuan, Zhanjiang; Chen, Luonan

    2008-09-01

    Synchronization of genetic or cellular oscillators is a central topic in understanding the rhythmicity of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. Here, we show how a collective rhythm across a population of genetic oscillators through synchronization-induced intercellular communication is achieved, and how an ensemble of independent genetic oscillators is synchronized by a common noisy signaling molecule. Our main purpose is to elucidate various synchronization mechanisms from the viewpoint of dynamics, by investigating the effects of various biologically plausible couplings, several kinds of noise, and external stimuli. To have a comprehensive understanding on the synchronization of genetic oscillators, we consider three classes of genetic oscillators: smooth oscillators (exhibiting sine-like oscillations), relaxation oscillators (displaying jump dynamics), and stochastic oscillators (noise-induced oscillation). For every class, we further study two cases: with intercellular communication (including phase-attractive and repulsive coupling) and without communication between cells. We find that an ensemble of smooth oscillators has different synchronization phenomena from those in the case of relaxation oscillators, where noise plays a different but key role in synchronization. To show differences in synchronization between them, we make comparisons in many aspects. We also show that a population of genetic stochastic oscillators have their own synchronization mechanisms. In addition, we present interesting phenomena, e.g., for relaxation-type stochastic oscillators coupled to a quorum-sensing mechanism, different noise intensities can induce different periodic motions (i.e., inhomogeneous limit cycles).

  9. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  10. Idiopathic bilateral lipid keratopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, E.; Arrellanes, L.; Boruchoff, S. A.; Ormerod, L. D.; Albert, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A 52-year-old Mexican man presented with asymptomatic, bilaterally symmetrical lipid infiltrates of the cornea and adjacent limbus. No evidence of previous ocular disease or systemic disorder of lipid metabolism could be detected. Penetrating keratoplasty of the right eye was required. The cornea was rigid and thick, with posterior bulging into the anterior chamber. Light microscopy revealed deep corneal lipid granules, foamy histiocytes, vascularisation, and chronic non-granulomatous inflammation. Transmission electron microscopy showed extracellular lipid spaces and numerous intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in histiocytes, keratocytes, conjunctival epithelium, and the endothelium of blood vessels in the corneal stroma and adjacent limbal conjunctiva. Histochemical analysis revealed the presence of neutral fats, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Images PMID:3395592

  11. EEG synchronization and migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramaglia, Sebastiano; Angelini, Leonardo; Pellicoro, Mario; Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2004-03-01

    We investigate phase synchronization in EEG recordings from migraine patients. We use the analytic signal technique, based on the Hilbert transform, and find that migraine brains are characterized by enhanced alpha band phase synchronization in presence of visual stimuli. Our findings show that migraine patients have an overactive regulatory mechanism that renders them more sensitive to external stimuli.

  12. Synchronization On Hanoi Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shanshan; Boettcher, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Synchronization of coupled oscillators has been intensively studied on a variety of structures. It is believed that the dynamics is deeply associated with its structure. To explore this relation, we study the synchronization of coupled oscillators on Hanoi networks. We analyze the evolution of coupled units over time, and characterized the convergence to the global synchronized state. For this state, the results show a close connection to the spectrum of connectivity matrix. Inspired by this connection, we try to show a dynamical pattern that describes the entire synchronization process from the onset to the final state. This may unveil the unique hierarchical structure of these self-similar Hanoi networks. Our goal is to map the dynamics to the spectrum of the connectivity matrix that encodes significant information about the structure of the underlying system. This exploration may have implications on designing networks that synchronizes coupled units efficiently. Supported through NSF Grant DMR-1207431.

  13. Quantum-phase synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiderer, Lukas J.; Kuś, Marek; Braun, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We study mechanisms that allow one to synchronize the quantum phase of two qubits relative to a fixed basis. Starting from one qubit in a fixed reference state and the other in an unknown state, we find that, contrary to the impossibility of perfect quantum cloning, the quantum phase can be synchronized perfectly through a joined unitary operation. When both qubits are initially in a pure unknown state, perfect quantum-phase synchronization through unitary operations becomes impossible. In this situation we determine the maximum average quantum-phase synchronization fidelity and the distribution of relative phases and fidelities, and we identify optimal quantum circuits that achieve this maximum fidelity. A subset of these optimal quantum circuits enable perfect quantum-phase synchronization for a class of unknown initial states restricted to the equatorial plane of the Bloch sphere.

  14. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts.

  15. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Breast Cancer What is Breast Cancer? How Tumors Form The body is made up ... tumors form in the breast tissue. Who Gets Breast Cancer? Breast cancer is one of the most common ...

  16. Body image after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    McGaughey, Amy

    2006-01-01

    Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) can reduce a woman's risk for breast cancer by 80%. Thus, women who are at high risk for familial breast cancer are increasingly opting for BPM as a preventative option. Research indicates that there are psychological benefits to BPM, including a reduction in anxiety about developing breast cancer. The purpose of this integrative review is to summarize the research that has examined the effect of prophylactic mastectomy on women's subsequent body image. Thirteen studies were reviewed. The majority of women were satisfied with their decision. However, the majority of studies indicate that up to one-half of the women suffer a negative effect on body image and changes in sexuality. Knowledge of these findings can improve the practitioner's ability to counsel women regarding this radical decision. Further research, particularly prospective studies, are needed to examine women's body image prior to BPM so that the impact of prophylactic mastectomy can be examined more thoroughly.

  17. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    SciTech Connect

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-17

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2{pi} in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step {delta}t. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/{delta}t is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is ''blue shifted'' relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval {delta}t. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  18. Synchronous Discrete Harmonic Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antippa, Adel F.; Dubois, Daniel M.

    2008-10-01

    We introduce the synchronous discrete harmonic oscillator, and present an analytical, numerical and graphical study of its characteristics. The oscillator is synchronous when the time T for one revolution covering an angle of 2π in phase space, is an integral multiple N of the discrete time step Δt. It is fully synchronous when N is even. It is pseudo-synchronous when T/Δt is rational. In the energy conserving hyperincursive representation, the phase space trajectories are perfectly stable at all time scales, and in both synchronous and pseudo-synchronous modes they cycle through a finite number of phase space points. Consequently, both the synchronous and the pseudo-synchronous hyperincursive modes of time-discretization provide a physically realistic and mathematically coherent, procedure for dynamic, background independent, discretization of spacetime. The procedure is applicable to any stable periodic dynamical system, and provokes an intrinsic correlation between space and time, whereby space-discretization is a direct consequence of background-independent time-discretization. Hence, synchronous discretization moves the formalism of classical mechanics towards that of special relativity. The frequency of the hyperincursive discrete harmonic oscillator is "blue shifted" relative to its continuum counterpart. The frequency shift has the precise value needed to make the speed of the system point in phase space independent of the discretizing time interval Δt. That is the speed of the system point is the same on the polygonal (in the discrete case) and the circular (in the continuum case) phase space trajectories.

  19. Nonlocal chaotic phase synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Meng; Zheng, Zhi-Gang; Hu, Gang; Peng, Xi-Hong

    2000-09-01

    A novel synchronization behavior, nonlocal chaotic phase synchronization, is investigated. For two coupled Rossler oscillators with only one forced by an injected periodic signal, the phase of the unforced oscillator can be locked to the phase of the periodic signal while the forced one is well unlocked by the signal; in a chain of coupled chaotic oscillators with nearest coupling, the phase of an oscillator (or a cluster) can be locked to another nonneighbor one. Moreover, the mechanism underlying the transition to nonlocal synchronization is discussed in detail.

  20. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-05-26

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax.

  1. Synchronization in complex networks

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, A.; Diaz-Guilera, A.; Moreno, Y.; Zhou, C.; Kurths, J.

    2007-12-12

    Synchronization processes in populations of locally interacting elements are in the focus of intense research in physical, biological, chemical, technological and social systems. The many efforts devoted to understand synchronization phenomena in natural systems take now advantage of the recent theory of complex networks. In this review, we report the advances in the comprehension of synchronization phenomena when oscillating elements are constrained to interact in a complex network topology. We also overview the new emergent features coming out from the interplay between the structure and the function of the underlying pattern of connections. Extensive numerical work as well as analytical approaches to the problem are presented. Finally, we review several applications of synchronization in complex networks to different disciplines: biological systems and neuroscience, engineering and computer science, and economy and social sciences.

  2. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition.

  3. Potential improvement of computerized mass detection on mammograms using a bilateral pairing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquerault, S.; Petrick, N.; Sahiner, B.; Myers, K. J.; Chan, H.-P.

    2006-03-01

    We are developing a bilateral pairing technique to help reduce false-positives identified by a single-view computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses. In this study, we compare the performance of the proposed bilateral CAD to a single-view CAD. A database of 172 right/left breast pairs containing 205 biopsy-proven masses was used. Single-view CAD was run on each image using a lax selection threshold so that 5 objects per image were retained. The automated bilateral pairing algorithm identified all objects in a left breast mammogram "matching" a CAD detected object in the corresponding right breast image and visa-versa. Bilateral pairing was based on geometrical correspondence between objects with a matching score derived from a paired right/left object feature set and a linear discriminant analysis classifier. Leave-one out resampling was used to train/test the technique. We compared the FROC performances of the single-view CAD, the proposed bilateral technique and a modified CAD using manual pairing of bilateral structures. At a per-lesion detection sensitivity of 0.7, there were 3.8 FPs/image for the original CAD, 3.3 for the proposed technique, and 2.2 for the modified CAD using manual matching, a 12.6% and 42.1% reduction, respectively. At an FP rate of 1.0 per image, the sensitivities for the original CAD, the proposed technique and the modified CAD using manual matching were 0.47, 0.51 and 0.60, respectively. Preliminary results show that CAD with bilateral pairing did not achieve a significant FP-reduction.

  4. Standardization of infrared breast thermogram acquisition protocols and abnormality analysis of breast thermograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Gogoi, Usha Rani; Das, Kakali; Ghosh, Anjan Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Majumdar, Gautam

    2016-05-01

    The non-invasive, painless, radiation-free and cost-effective infrared breast thermography (IBT) makes a significant contribution to improving the survival rate of breast cancer patients by early detecting the disease. This paper presents a set of standard breast thermogram acquisition protocols to improve the potentiality and accuracy of infrared breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection. By maintaining all these protocols, an infrared breast thermogram acquisition setup has been established at the Regional Cancer Centre (RCC) of Government Medical College (AGMC), Tripura, India. The acquisition of breast thermogram is followed by the breast thermogram interpretation, for identifying the presence of any abnormality. However, due to the presence of complex vascular patterns, accurate interpretation of breast thermogram is a very challenging task. The bilateral symmetry of the thermal patterns in each breast thermogram is quantitatively computed by statistical feature analysis. A series of statistical features are extracted from a set of 20 thermograms of both healthy and unhealthy subjects. Finally, the extracted features are analyzed for breast abnormality detection. The key contributions made by this paper can be highlighted as -- a) the designing of a standard protocol suite for accurate acquisition of breast thermograms, b) creation of a new breast thermogram dataset by maintaining the protocol suite, and c) statistical analysis of the thermograms for abnormality detection. By doing so, this proposed work can minimize the rate of false findings in breast thermograms and thus, it will increase the utilization potentiality of breast thermograms in early breast cancer detection.

  5. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Güzelali; Andıç, Kemal; Erdem Yaşar, Niyazi

    2017-01-01

    In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control. PMID:28326103

  6. Hydrodynamic synchronization of flagellar oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    In this review, we highlight the physics of synchronization in collections of beating cilia and flagella. We survey the nonlinear dynamics of synchronization in collections of noisy oscillators. This framework is applied to flagellar synchronization by hydrodynamic interactions. The time-reversibility of hydrodynamics at low Reynolds numbers requires swimming strokes that break time-reversal symmetry to facilitate hydrodynamic synchronization. We discuss different physical mechanisms for flagellar synchronization, which break this symmetry in different ways.

  7. Metastatic ovarian serous carcinoma presenting as inflammatory breast cancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gingell, Dana; Samuel, Amber; Haynik, Denise; McBee, William; Kelley, Joseph; Zorn, Kristin; Bhargava, Rohit

    2010-05-01

    A 42-year-old woman presented with localized irritation, erythema and sharp pain in the one breast. After unsuccessful treatment for mastitis, an oncology consultation was obtained. A breast biopsy revealed an invasive carcinoma and a diagnosis of inflammatory breast cancer was made. The patient was treated with neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently underwent bilateral mastectomy. A total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was also performed at the same time due to the presence of a pelvic mass. Morphologic and immunohistochemical examination of the specimens helped to clarify the correct diagnosis of primary ovarian carcinoma with widespread metastases to bilateral breasts.

  8. Breast infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... female breast anatomy Breast infection Female breast References Hunt KK, Mittendorf EA. Diseases of the breast. In: ... Jacobson, MD, Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda Center for ...

  9. Breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of a direct link between breast cancer and pesticides. Symptoms Early breast cancer often does not cause ... breast cancer should not drink alcohol at all) Alternative Names Cancer - breast; Carcinoma - ductal; Carcinoma - lobular; DCIS; ...

  10. Trajectory Modulated Arc Therapy: A Fully Dynamic Delivery With Synchronized Couch and Gantry Motion Significantly Improves Dosimetric Indices Correlated With Poor Cosmesis in Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jieming; Atwood, Todd; Eyben, Rie von; Fahimian, Benjamin; Chin, Erika; Horst, Kathleen; Otto, Karl; Hristov, Dimitre

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To develop planning and delivery capabilities for linear accelerator–based nonisocentric trajectory modulated arc therapy (TMAT) and to evaluate the benefit of TMAT for accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) with the patient in prone position. Methods and Materials: An optimization algorithm for volumetrically modulated arc therapy (VMAT) was generalized to allow for user-defined nonisocentric TMAT trajectories combining couch rotations and translations. After optimization, XML scripts were automatically generated to program and subsequently deliver the TMAT plans. For 10 breast patients in the prone position, TMAT and 6-field noncoplanar intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans were generated under equivalent objectives and constraints. These plans were compared with regard to whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose. Results: For TMAT APBI, nonisocentric collision-free horizontal arcs with large angular span (251.5 ± 7.9°) were optimized and delivered with delivery time of ∼4.5 minutes. Percentage changes of whole breast tissue volume receiving more than 100%, 80%, 50%, and 20% of the prescription dose for TMAT relative to IMRT were −10.81% ± 6.91%, −27.81% ± 7.39%, −14.82% ± 9.67%, and 39.40% ± 10.53% (P≤.01). Conclusions: This is a first demonstration of end-to-end planning and delivery implementation of a fully dynamic APBI TMAT. Compared with IMRT, TMAT resulted in marked reduction of the breast tissue volume irradiated at high doses.

  11. Optimistic barrier synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicol, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Barrier synchronization is fundamental operation in parallel computation. In many contexts, at the point a processor enters a barrier it knows that it has already processed all the work required of it prior to synchronization. The alternative case, when a processor cannot enter a barrier with the assurance that it has already performed all the necessary pre-synchronization computation, is treated. The problem arises when the number of pre-sychronization messages to be received by a processor is unkown, for example, in a parallel discrete simulation or any other computation that is largely driven by an unpredictable exchange of messages. We describe an optimistic O(log sup 2 P) barrier algorithm for such problems, study its performance on a large-scale parallel system, and consider extensions to general associative reductions as well as associative parallel prefix computations.

  12. Single-stage bilateral pulmonary resections by video-assisted thoracic surgery for multiple small nodules

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yang, Haitang

    2016-01-01

    Background Surgical treatment is thought to be the most effective strategy for multiple small nodules. However, in general, one-stage bilateral resection is not recommended due to its highly invasive nature. Methods Clinical records of patients undergoing one-stage bilateral resections of multiple pulmonary nodules between January 2009 and September 2014 in a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. Results Simultaneous bilateral pulmonary resection by conventional video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) was undertaken in 29 patients. Ground glass opacity (GGO) accounted for 71.9% (46/64) of total lesions, including 26 pure GGO and 20 mixed GGO lesions. One case underwent bilateral lobectomy that was complicated by postoperative dyspnea. Lobar-sublobar (L/SL) resection and bilateral sublobar resection (SL-SL) were conducted in 16 and 12 cases, respectively, and most of these cases had uneventful postoperative courses. There was no significant difference with regard to postoperative complications (P=0.703), duration of use of chest drains (P=0.485), between one- and two-stage groups. Mean postoperative follow-up in cases of primary lung cancer was 31.4 (range, 10–51) months. There was neither recurrence nor deaths at final follow-up. Conclusions Single-stage bilateral surgery in selected cases with synchronous bilateral multiple nodules (SBMNs) is feasible and associated with satisfactory outcomes. PMID:27076942

  13. Synchronous trifocal colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Charalampoudis, Petros; Kykalos, Stylianos; Stamopoulos, Paraskevas; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous colorectal cancers (SCRCs) have been increasingly diagnosed due to emerging diagnostic modalities. The presence of three or more synchronous colorectal cancers has, however, only rarely been reported. A 76-year-old white man presented for management of two concurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas in the left colon evidenced on total colonoscopy. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and thoracoabdominal computed tomography were negative for metastatic disease. The patient underwent an elective left hemicolectomy. The pathology report ultimately showed the presence of three moderately differentiated, distinct colorectal cancers. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery. PMID:27695171

  14. The sonographic appearance of the irradiated breast

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, A.R.; Jackson, V.P.; Morphis, J.G.; Stehman, F.B. )

    1988-07-01

    A dedicated supine breast ultrasound scanner was used to perform 48 bilateral breast sonograms on 21 patients who had undergone segmental resection and radiation therapy for breast cancer. Skin thickening was seen in 13 of 21 patients (62%). There was an increased echogenicity of the fat in 13 patients (62%) and poor definition of Cooper's ligaments in nine patients (43%). Fifteen patients (71%) had decreased compressibility and 8 (38%) had decreased penetration of the sound beam into the breast. The radiation changes were seen as early as one month after the completion of radiotherapy and improved by one year in the majority of patients studied with sequential sonograms.

  15. Bimodal fitting or bilateral implantation?

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Massie, Robyn; Van Wanrooy, Emma; Rushbrooke, Emma; Psarros, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises findings from studies that evaluated the benefits of bimodal fitting (combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears) or bilateral cochlear implantation, relative to unilateral implantation, for children (Ching et al., 2007). On average, the size of binaural speech intelligibility advantages due to redundancy and head shadow was similar for the two bilateral conditions. An added advantage of bimodal fitting was that the low-frequency cues provided by acoustic hearing complemented the high-frequency cues conveyed by electric hearing in perception of voice and music. Some children with bilateral cochlear implants were able to use spatial separation between speech and noise to improve speech perception in noise. This is possibly a combined effect of the directional microphones in their implant systems and their ability to use spatial cues. The evidence to date supports the provision of hearing in two ears as the standard of care.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  17. [Neurofibromatosis 2 (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis)].

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, C; Sarioglu, A; Boltshauser, E

    1989-10-14

    We report a personal series of 28 patients with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF-2), emphasizing the differences from classical NF-1. The hallmark of NF-2 is bilateral acoustic neuromas with initial symptoms usually occurring in the second or third decade. The natural history may lead to bilateral deafness, but hearing loss may also be a complication of surgery. NF-2 is frequently accompanied by additional intracranial tumors (particularly multiple meningiomas). Half of our patients had a spinal space-occupying lesion. NF-2 is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, and many patients appear to represent new mutations.

  18. Advanced synchronous luminescence system

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1997-02-04

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the condition of tissue or otherwise making chemical identifications includes exposing the sample to a light source, and using a synchronous luminescence system to produce a spectrum that can be analyzed for tissue condition. 14 figs.

  19. Synchronized time stamp support

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalkowski, J.

    1994-02-16

    New software has been added to IOC core to maintain time stamps. The new software has the ability to maintain time stamps over all IOCs on a network. The purpose of this paper is to explain how EPICS will synchronize the time stamps. In addition, this paper will explain how to configure and use the new EPICS time stamp support software.

  20. Implementing the Synchronous Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Jan A.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary describes an action research project conducted by selected staff at the Northern Valley Regional High School District in New Jersey. The project focused on the idea of developing a synchronous classroom to provide world language learning opportunities to students. Relevant research is provided as are ideas regarding logistics and…

  1. Gallium-67 breast uptake in a patient with hypothalamic granuloma (sarcoid)

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, R.; Oates, E.; Sarno, R.C.; Fay, J.; Gale, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    An unusual case is presented of bilateral breast uptake of (/sup 67/Ga)citrate in a patient with a hypothalamic granuloma in the absence of galactorrhea is presented. A possible mechanism for this incidental finding is elevated prolactin levels, as other causes of gallium breast uptake such as drug therapy, and intrinsic breast disease, were not present.

  2. Bilateral arm training: Why and who benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Sandy McCombe; Whitall, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  3. Bilateral arm training: why and who benefits?

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Whitall, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  4. Wavelet phase synchronization and chaoticity.

    PubMed

    Postnikov, E B

    2009-11-01

    It has been shown that the so-called "wavelet phase" (or "time-scale") synchronization of chaotic signals is actually synchronization of smoothed functions with reduced chaotic fluctuations. This fact is based on the representation of the wavelet transform with the Morlet wavelet as a solution of the Cauchy problem for a simple diffusion equation with initial condition in a form of harmonic function modulated by a given signal. The topological background of the resulting effect is discussed. It is argued that the wavelet phase synchronization provides information about the synchronization of an averaged motion described by bounding tori instead of the fine-level classical chaotic phase synchronization.

  5. Synchronization and hydrodynamic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Thomas; Qian, Bian; Breuer, Kenneth

    2008-03-01

    Cilia and flagella commonly beat in a coordinated manner. Examples include the flagella that Volvox colonies use to move, the cilia that sweep foreign particles up out of the human airway, and the nodal cilia that set up the flow that determines the left-right axis in developing vertebrate embryos. In this talk we present an experimental study of how hydrodynamic interactions can lead to coordination in a simple idealized system: two nearby paddles driven with fixed torques in a highly viscous fluid. The paddles attain a synchronized state in which they rotate together with a phase difference of 90 degrees. We discuss how synchronization depends on system parameters and present numerical calculations using the method of regularized stokeslets.

  6. Optimal synchronization in space.

    PubMed

    Brede, Markus

    2010-02-01

    In this Rapid Communication we investigate spatially constrained networks that realize optimal synchronization properties. After arguing that spatial constraints can be imposed by limiting the amount of "wire" available to connect nodes distributed in space, we use numerical optimization methods to construct networks that realize different trade offs between optimal synchronization and spatial constraints. Over a large range of parameters such optimal networks are found to have a link length distribution characterized by power-law tails P(l) proportional to l(-alpha), with exponents alpha increasing as the networks become more constrained in space. It is also shown that the optimal networks, which constitute a particular type of small world network, are characterized by the presence of nodes of distinctly larger than average degree around which long-distance links are centered.

  7. Synchronously deployable truss structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, H. G. (Inventor); Mikulas, M., Jr. (Inventor); Wallsom, E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A collapsible-expandable truss structure, including first and second spaced surface truss layers having an attached core layer is described. The surface truss layers are composed of a plurality of linear struts arranged in multiple triangular configurations. Each linear strut is hinged at the center and hinge connected at each end to a nodular joint. A passive spring serves as the expansion force to move the folded struts from a stowed collapsed position to a deployed operative final truss configuration. A damper controls the rate of spring expansion for the synchronized deployment of the truss as the folded configuration is released for deployment by the restrain belts. The truss is synchronously extended under the control of motor driven spools.

  8. Optimal synchronization in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, Markus

    2010-02-01

    In this Rapid Communication we investigate spatially constrained networks that realize optimal synchronization properties. After arguing that spatial constraints can be imposed by limiting the amount of “wire” available to connect nodes distributed in space, we use numerical optimization methods to construct networks that realize different trade offs between optimal synchronization and spatial constraints. Over a large range of parameters such optimal networks are found to have a link length distribution characterized by power-law tails P(l)∝l-α , with exponents α increasing as the networks become more constrained in space. It is also shown that the optimal networks, which constitute a particular type of small world network, are characterized by the presence of nodes of distinctly larger than average degree around which long-distance links are centered.

  9. Synchronization of micromasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis-Tilley, C.; Armour, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate synchronization effects in quantum self-sustained oscillators theoretically using the micromaser as a model system. We use the probability distribution for the relative phase as a tool for quantifying the emergence of preferred phases when two micromasers are coupled together. Using perturbation theory, we show that the behavior of the phase distribution is strongly dependent on exactly how the oscillators are coupled. In the quantum regime where photon occupation numbers are low we find that, although synchronization effects are rather weak, they are nevertheless significantly stronger than expected from a semiclassical description of the phase dynamics. We also compare the behavior of the phase distribution with the mutual information of the two oscillators and show that they can behave in rather different ways.

  10. Genetic epidemiology of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D

    1994-07-01

    It has been recognized for some time that a family history of breast cancer is associated rather strongly with a woman's own risk of developing the disease. Recent segregation analyses of population-based data on familial patterns provide evidence for a rare autosomal dominant allele that increases a carrier's susceptibility to breast cancer. The estimated proportion of breast cancer patients who carry this allele declines sharply with age at diagnosis. Empirical estimates of the risk associated with particular patterns of family history of breast cancer indicate the following: (1) having any first-degree relative with breast cancer increases a woman's risk of breast cancer 1.5-3-fold, depending on age, (2) having multiple first degree relatives affected is associated with particularly elevated risks, (3) having a second-degree relative affected increases the risk by approximately 50%, (4) affected family members on the maternal side and the paternal side contribute similarly to the risk, (5) a family history of breast cancer is associated with bilateral disease, and (6) breast cancer in males is associated with breast cancer in female relatives in much the same way as is breast cancer in women. Ovarian cancer clearly has been shown to be associated with breast cancer in families, and genetic linkage has provided strong evidence for a breast-ovarian cancer gene located somewhere on chromosome 17q. At the population level, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer may be at least as predictive of a woman's risk for developing breast cancer as is having a second-degree relative with breast cancer. Considerably weaker evidence points to a possible familial relationship between breast and endometrial cancer and between breast cancer in women and prostatic cancer in males. The clinical applications of the genetic epidemiology of breast cancer are complicated by uncertainty as to the efficacy of mammographic screening in women under the age of 50. For the vast

  11. Digital Synchronizer without Metastability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simle, Robert M.; Cavazos, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    A proposed design for a digital synchronizing circuit would eliminate metastability that plagues flip-flop circuits in digital input/output interfaces. This metastability is associated with sampling, by use of flip-flops, of an external signal that is asynchronous with a clock signal that drives the flip-flops: it is a temporary flip-flop failure that can occur when a rising or falling edge of an asynchronous signal occurs during the setup and/or hold time of a flip-flop. The proposed design calls for (1) use of a clock frequency greater than the frequency of the asynchronous signal, (2) use of flip-flop asynchronous preset or clear signals for the asynchronous input, (3) use of a clock asynchronous recovery delay with pulse width discriminator, and (4) tying the data inputs to constant logic levels to obtain (5) two half-rate synchronous partial signals - one for the falling and one for the rising edge. Inasmuch as the flip-flop data inputs would be permanently tied to constant logic levels, setup and hold times would not be violated. The half-rate partial signals would be recombined to construct a signal that would replicate the original asynchronous signal at its original rate but would be synchronous with the clock signal.

  12. Synchronization of Eukaryotic Flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2012-11-01

    From unicellular organisms as small as a few microns to the largest vertebrates on earth we find groups of beating flagella or cilia that exhibit striking spatio-temporal organization. This may take the form of precise frequency and phase locking as frequently found in the swimming of green algae, or beating with long-wavelength phase modulations known as metachronal waves, seen in ciliates and in our respiratory systems. The remarkable similarity in the underlying molecular structure of flagella across the whole eukaryotic world leads naturally to the hypothesis that a similarly universal mechanism might be responsible for synchronization. Although this mechanism is poorly understood, one appealing hypothesis is that it results from hydrodynamic interactions between flagella. In this talk I will describe a synthesis of recent experimental and theoretical studies of this issue that have provided the strongest evidence to date for the hydrodynamic origin of flagellar synchronization. At the unicellular level this includes studies of the beating of the two flagella of the wild type unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in their native state and under conditions of regrowth following autotomy, and of the flagellar dominance mutant ptx1, which displays unusual anti-phase synchronization. Analysis of the related multicellular organism Volvox carteri shows it to be an ideal model organism for the study of metachronal waves. Supported by BBSRC, EPSRC, ERC, and The Wellcome Trust.

  13. Socially synchronized circadian oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Herzog, Erik D; Levine, Joel D; Schwartz, William J

    2013-08-22

    Daily rhythms of physiology and behaviour are governed by an endogenous timekeeping mechanism (a circadian 'clock'). The alternation of environmental light and darkness synchronizes (entrains) these rhythms to the natural day-night cycle, and underlying mechanisms have been investigated using singly housed animals in the laboratory. But, most species ordinarily would not live out their lives in such seclusion; in their natural habitats, they interact with other individuals, and some live in colonies with highly developed social structures requiring temporal synchronization. Social cues may thus be critical to the adaptive function of the circadian system, but elucidating their role and the responsible mechanisms has proven elusive. Here, we highlight three model systems that are now being applied to understanding the biology of socially synchronized circadian oscillators: the fruitfly, with its powerful array of molecular genetic tools; the honeybee, with its complex natural society and clear division of labour; and, at a different level of biological organization, the rodent suprachiasmatic nucleus, site of the brain's circadian clock, with its network of mutually coupled single-cell oscillators. Analyses at the 'group' level of circadian organization will likely generate a more complex, but ultimately more comprehensive, view of clocks and rhythms and their contribution to fitness in nature.

  14. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2015-03-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson's disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson's disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with 'stimulation on' compared to 'stimulation off' on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With 'stimulation on', interhemispheric cortico

  15. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia causing massive breast enlargement.

    PubMed

    Bourke, Anita Geraldine; Tiang, Stephen; Harvey, Nathan; McClure, Robert

    2015-10-16

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast is a benign mesenchymal proliferative process, initially described by Vuitch et al. We report an unusual case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with a 6-week history of bilateral massive, asymmetrical, painful enlargement of her breasts, without a history of trauma. On clinical examination, both breasts were markedly enlarged and oedematous, but there were no discrete palpable masses. Preoperative image-guided core biopsies and surgery showed PASH. PASH is increasingly recognised as an incidental finding on image-guided core biopsy performed for screen detected lesions. There are a few reported cases of PASH presenting as rapid breast enlargement. In our case, the patient presented with painful, asymmetrical, massive breast enlargement. Awareness needs to be raised of this entity as a differential diagnosis in massive, painful breast enlargement.

  16. Asia’s Bilateral Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    these bilateral relationships, while they are not quite “building blocks” of a possible regional “security architecture ,” are certainly a variable in...nationshave long influenced each other in the fields of culture, art, architecture , and language, especially during the 1526-1757 period, when the Mughals...countries are close to forming a single economic market, and on security issues there is an official commitment to harmonize policies and processes to the

  17. Bilateral tonsillolithiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Emel; Ural, Ahmet; Oktemer, Tuğba Koçak; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2006-09-01

    Although tonsilloliths are reported to be fairly common, florid cases casting distinct radiopaque shadows on panoramic radiographs are not often reported. This report illustrates such a case as an incidental finding in an asymptomatic 38-year-old female dental patient. Panoramic radiography revealed distinct radiopaque shadows over the ascending rami of the mandible bilaterally. These radiopacities were localized to the palatine tonsils by computerized tomographic inspection. Tonsillectomy was performed and tonsillolithiasis was confirmed by histopathologic examination.

  18. A self-adjusting compliant bilateral control scheme for time-delay teleoperation in constrained environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhang; Liang, Bin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-05-01

    When teleoperations are implemented in the constrained environment, the lack of environment information would lead to contacts and undesired excessive contact forces, which are more evident with the existence of time delays. In this paper, a hybrid compliant bilateral controller is proposed to deal with this problem. The controller adopts a self-adjusting selecting scheme to divide the subspaces online. The master and slave manipulators are synchronized in the position subspace through an adaptive bilateral control scheme. At the same time, the slave manipulator is controlled by a local sliding mode impedance controller in order to achieve the desired compliant motion when contacting with the environment. Theoretical analysis proves the stability of the hybrid bilateral controller and concludes the transient performance of the teleoperators. Simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results show that the control goals are all achieved.

  19. The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information.

    PubMed

    Benito, Nuria; Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2016-09-06

    It is unclear whether the two hippocampal lobes convey similar or different activities and how they cooperate. Spatial discrimination of electric fields in anesthetized rats allowed us to compare the pathway-specific field potentials corresponding to the gamma-paced CA3 output (CA1 Schaffer potentials) and CA3 somatic inhibition within and between sides. Bilateral excitatory Schaffer gamma waves are generally larger and lead from the right hemisphere with only moderate covariation of amplitude, and drive CA1 pyramidal units more strongly than unilateral waves. CA3 waves lock to the ipsilateral Schaffer potentials, although bilateral coherence was weak. Notably, Schaffer activity may run laterally, as seen after the disruption of the connecting pathways. Thus, asymmetric operations promote the entrainment of CA3-autonomous gamma oscillators bilaterally, synchronizing lateralized gamma strings to converge optimally on CA1 targets. The findings support the view that interhippocampal connections integrate different aspects of information that flow through the left and right lobes.

  20. Fibroadenoma - breast

    MedlinePlus

    Breast lump - fibroadenoma; Breast lump - noncancerous; Breast lump - benign ... The cause of fibroadenomas is not known. There may be a connection to a problem with genes. Fibroadenoma is the most common benign ...

  1. Breast ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sonogram of the breast Images Female breast References Hacker NF, Friedland ML. Breast disease. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  2. Breast Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... before your period and sometimes continuing through your menstrual cycle. The pain may be moderate or severe, and ... breasts. Throughout the month, not related to your menstrual cycle. Postmenopausal women sometimes have breast pain, but breast ...

  3. Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Children after Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, M.; Lisi, G.; Bianchi, D.; Bove, P.; Miano, R.; Esser, A.; De Sanctis, F.; Neri, A.; Grande, S.; Villa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction is a rare complication after appendectomy in children. We report a case of bilateral ureteric obstruction in a 14-year-old boy nine days after surgery for an acute appendicitis. After saline-filling of the urinary bladder, transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis of moderate degree. No abscess was found with CT but presence of millimetric stones on both distal ureters was shown, with bilateral calyceal dilatation. Cystoscopy revealed inflammatory changes in the bladder base. Following introduction of bilateral ureteric stents, there was rapid normalisation of urinary output and serum creatinine. PMID:26295001

  4. What Is Breast Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  5. Breast implant foreign body reaction mimicking breast cancer recurrence on FDG PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Ulaner, Gary A; D'Andrea, Gabriella; Cody, Hiram S

    2013-06-01

    A woman with bilateral breast cancer treated with bilateral mastectomies, implant reconstructions, chemotherapy, and hormonal therapy underwent FDG PET/CT imaging. Imaging demonstrated sternal, nodal, and lung lesions which were stable or slowly increasing, as well as a parasternal chest wall mass which was enlarging much more rapidly and was excised. Pathology of the chest wall mass demonstrated only benign soft tissue with fat necrosis and foreign body giant cell reaction, without evidence of malignancy or implant rupture. This case demonstrates how a benign FDG-avid foreign body reaction, induced by an intact breast prosthesis, could easily be mistaken for malignancy.

  6. Synchronization of pathogenic protozoans.

    PubMed

    Svärd, Staffan; Troell, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Protozoans are single-cell eukaryotes and many of the best studied protozoans are parasitic to humans (e.g., Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria and Trypanosoma brucei causing sleeping sickness). These organisms are distantly related to humans but with retained eukaryotic type of cellular processes, making them good model systems for studies of the evolution of basic processes like the cell cycle. Giardia intestinalis causes 250 million cases of diarrhea yearly and is one of the earliest diverging protozoans. It has recently been possible to synchronize its cell cycle using compounds that inhibit different steps of the cell cycle and the detailed protocol is described here.

  7. Psychic energy and synchronicity.

    PubMed

    Zabriskie, Beverley

    2014-04-01

    Given Jung's interest in physics' formulations of psychic energy and the concept of time, overlaps and convergences in the themes addressed in analytical psychology and in quantum physics are to be expected. These are informed by the active intersections between the matter of mind and mindfulness re matter. In 1911, Jung initiated dinners with Einstein. Jung's definition of libido in the pivotal 1912 Fordham Lectures reveals the influence of these conversations. Twenty years later, a significant period in physics, Wolfgang Pauli contacted Jung. Their collaboration led to the theory of synchronicity.

  8. Generalized synchronization via nonlinear control.

    PubMed

    Juan, Meng; Xingyuan, Wang

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, the generalized synchronization problem of drive-response systems is investigated. Using the drive-response concept and the nonlinear control theory, a control law is designed to achieve the generalized synchronization of chaotic systems. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, a generalized synchronization condition is derived. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations further demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  9. Huygens synchronization of two clocks.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Henrique M; Melo, Luís V

    2015-07-23

    The synchronization of two pendulum clocks hanging from a wall was first observed by Huygens during the XVII century. This type of synchronization is observed in other areas, and is fundamentally different from the problem of two clocks hanging from a moveable base. We present a model explaining the phase opposition synchronization of two pendulum clocks in those conditions. The predicted behaviour is observed experimentally, validating the model.

  10. Planning for Victory: Joint Synchronization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-22

    Desert Storm . . . .. 13 V A JOINT SYNCHRONIZATION MATRIX .. ........ .. 16 Proposed Synchronization Matrixes Joint Sync Matrix: D-day, 1944 . . .. 16...campaigns. I will offer two such proposals. Joint Sync Matrix: D-day, 1944 . Figure 2 is offered as one proposal of how a joint synchronization matrix...CHANNEL sweep CENTRAL CHANNEL commence sweep AfW ALLIED completeI CHERBOURG-LE HAVRE FLEET sweep UTAH OMAHA GOLD JUNO SWORD ASUW SWEEPS ALLIED

  11. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  12. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  13. Digitized synchronous demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodhouse, Christopher E. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A digitized synchronous demodulator is constructed entirely of digital components including timing logic, an accumulator, and means to digitally filter the digital output signal. Indirectly, it accepts, at its input, periodic analog signals which are converted to digital signals by traditional analog-to-digital conversion techniques. Broadly, the input digital signals are summed to one of two registers within an accumulator, based on the phase of the input signal and medicated by timing logic. At the end of a predetermined number of cycles of the inputted periodic signals, the contents of the register that accumulated samples from the negative half cycle is subtracted from the accumulated samples from the positive half cycle. The resulting difference is an accurate measurement of the narrow band amplitude of the periodic input signal during the measurement period. This measurement will not include error sources encountered in prior art synchronous demodulators using analog techniques such as offsets, charge injection errors, temperature drift, switching transients, settling time, analog to digital converter missing code, and linearity errors.

  14. [Case report: bilateral Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cheikhrouhou, Héla; Khiari, Karima; Chérif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Néjib; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2003-04-01

    The authors report a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting a Cushing's syndrome (January 1997). The Magnetic Resonance Image of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma without extension in the cavernous sinus and a partial empty sella. The computed tomography scan showed a discreet bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with a left nodule (23 mm in diameter) a second nodule was noted. These data suggested the eventuality of maconodular adrenocortical hyperplasia in long-standing Cushing's disease. We discuss the implications of this finding for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  15. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  16. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    Telemanipulator system includes master robot manipulated by human operator, and slave robot performing tasks at remote location. Two robots electronically coupled so slave robot moves in response to commands from master robot. Teleoperation greatly enhanced if forces acting on slave robot fed back to operator, giving operator feeling he or she manipulates remote environment directly. Main advantage of bilateral impedance control: enables arbitrary specification of desired performance characteristics for telemanipulator system. Relationship between force and position modulated at both ends of system to suit requirements of task.

  17. Spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Condous, George; Amarasinghe, W I

    2009-03-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented at eight weeks and four days of gestation, according to her menstrual dates, complaining of painless vaginal bleeding for three days. Her urinary pregnancy test was positive. Initial transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated an irregular complex structure with a fluid filled centre in the right adnexum. Despite the diagnosis of a possible underlying unruptured right tubal ectopic pregnancy, she declined surgical intervention and was managed expectantly as an inpatient. When she complained of increasing abdominal pain with haemodynamic instability, an emergency laparotomy was performed and a diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy was made.

  18. Amelogenesis imperfecta with bilateral nephrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Poornima, P; Katkade, Shashikant; Mohamed, Roshan Noor; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-05-24

    A 12-year-old patient presented with a severe delay of eruption in permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors. On examination, there was over-retained primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Retained primary teeth showed light yellow discolouration whereas permanent teeth were distinct yellow with thin or little enamel. Subsequent imaging revealed all the premolars except maxillary left first premolar showed signs of intra-alveolar coronal resorption, nephrocalcinosis with bilateral multiple calculi and small papillary tip calcifications, marked increase in alkaline phosphatase. Subsequent dental treatment for restoring the functional and aesthetic requirement followed by appropriate treatment for renal problem was undertaken.

  19. FPGA based fast synchronous serial multi-wire links synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozniak, Krzysztof T.

    2013-10-01

    The paper debates synchronization method of multi-wire, serial link of constant latency, by means of pseudo-random numbers generators. The solution was designed for various families of FPGA circuits. There were debated synchronization algorithm and functional structure of parameterized transmitter and receiver modules. The modules were realized in VHDL language in a behavioral form.

  20. Endoscopic Breast Surgery in Treating Patients With Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-02-05

    Male Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer

  1. Experience with Bilateral Risk-Reducing Mastectomy for an Unaffected BRCA Mutation Carrier

    PubMed Central

    Maeshima, Yurina; Oseto, Kumiko; Katsuragi, Ryohei; Yoshimoto, Yukiko; Takahara, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have a high risk of breast cancer and may opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM). We report a 38-year-old Japanese woman who was diagnosed as a BRCA2 mutation carrier. She underwent prophylactic bilateral skin-sparing mastectomy (SSM) with excision of the nipple and preservation of the areola skin. It is unclear whether a bilateral RRM leads to better survival compared with intensive surveillance. The oncological risk associated with the presence of remnant breast glandular tissue after SSM or nipple-sparing mastectomy has been obscure. We report the first case of RRM for a Japanese BRCA mutation carrier and provide a literature review on risk management for BRCA mutation carriers with a focus on the concepts and procedures of RRM. PMID:27382401

  2. Breast Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... bumps, and discharges (fluids that are not breast milk). If you have a breast lump, pain, discharge or skin irritation, see your health care provider. Minor and serious breast problems have similar symptoms. Although many women fear cancer, most breast problems are not cancer. Some common ...

  3. LUNG EDEMA FOLLOWING BILATERAL VAGOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Victor

    1939-01-01

    1. Small animals (rat and guinea pig) vagotomized in the neck die within a period of hours, the lungs showing extensive congestion and edema. 2. Tracheotomy permits appreciably longer survival with minimal lung changes approximating those seen in the control animals. 3. Intrathoracic vagotomy (sparing the recurrent laryngeal nerve) on one side, and cervical vagotomy on the other, permits almost indefinite survival (guinea pig and rabbit), unless laryngeal paralysis from the unilateral denervation produces respiratory obstruction (rat, guinea pig, and rabbit). 4. Pulmonary edema following bilateral vagotomy probably results primarily from respiratory obstruction. It is suggested that circulatory failure may also be a factor of some importance. The rôle of vagotomy itself is considered in relationship to these two phenomena. 5. The reaction of smaller animals to bilateral vagotomy, with regard to lung changes, apparently differs in no way from that of the larger animals, but is less readily demonstrated because of the smaller diameters of the air passages. PMID:19870894

  4. SRBF: Speckle reducing bilateral filtering.

    PubMed

    Balocco, Simone; Gatta, Carlo; Pujol, Oriol; Mauri, Josepa; Radeva, Petia

    2010-08-01

    Speckle noise negatively affects medical ultrasound image shape interpretation and boundary detection. Speckle removal filters are widely used to selectively remove speckle noise without destroying important image features to enhance object boundaries. In this article, a fully automatic bilateral filter tailored to ultrasound images is proposed. The edge preservation property is obtained by embedding noise statistics in the filter framework. Consequently, the filter is able to tackle the multiplicative behavior modulating the smoothing strength with respect to local statistics. The in silico experiments clearly showed that the speckle reducing bilateral filter (SRBF) has superior performances to most of the state of the art filtering methods. The filter is tested on 50 in vivo US images and its influence on a segmentation task is quantified. The results using SRBF filtered data sets show a superior performance to using oriented anisotropic diffusion filtered images. This improvement is due to the adaptive support of SRBF and the embedded noise statistics, yielding a more homogeneous smoothing. SRBF results in a fully automatic, fast and flexible algorithm potentially suitable in wide ranges of speckle noise sizes, for different medical applications (IVUS, B-mode, 3-D matrix array US).

  5. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  6. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  7. Bilateral de quervain syndrome after aromatase inhibitor administration: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Morakis, Emmanouil; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Barbounis, Vasileios; Ardavanis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are widely used as one of the main treatment options of both early and advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal symptoms are often presented in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and, although the pathogenesis is unknown, postulated mechanisms have been described. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first report of bilateral De Quervain syndrome related with AIs therapy with a review of the relevant literature.

  8. Bilateral De Quervain Syndrome after Aromatase Inhibitor Administration: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Kountourakis, Panteleimon; Morakis, Emmanouil; Vassiliou, Vassilios; Barbounis, Vasileios; Ardavanis, Alexandros

    2012-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors are widely used as one of the main treatment options of both early and advanced hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Unfortunately, musculoskeletal symptoms are often presented in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs), and, although the pathogenesis is unknown, postulated mechanisms have been described. Herein, to our knowledge, we present the first report of bilateral De Quervain syndrome related with AIs therapy with a review of the relevant literature. PMID:22567020

  9. Benefits of Synchronous Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Scott; Smith, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Most online courses are offered as "asynchronous" courses and have no real-time contact with students. The Synchronous online alternative provides normal scheduled class time and allows students to login to a virtual online classroom with the instructor. We provide an overview of two different platforms for hosting synchronous classes…

  10. Chaos synchronization by nonlinear coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, Johannes; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2017-03-01

    We study synchronization properties of three nonlinearly coupled chaotic maps. Coupling is introduced in such a way, that it cannot be reduced to pairwise terms, but includes combined action of all interacting units. For two models of nonlinear coupling we characterize the transition to complete synchrony, as well as partially synchronized states. Relation to hypernetworks of chaotic units is also discussed.

  11. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, William C.

    1992-01-01

    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  12. System for simultaneous measurements of bilaterally symmetrical acupoints multifrequency impedances.

    PubMed

    Su, Mi-Yong; Tan, Yong-Hong; Wang, Zi-Min; Gan, Cai-Jun; Chen, Shou-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Devices which can obtain comparable bilaterally symmetrical acupoints (BSA) multifrequency impedances (MFI) are often needed in the detection of the energy balance states of acupoints in traditional Chinese medicine. To satisfy these needs, a two-channel impedance measurement system has been introduced which is capable of accurately and simultaneously measuring BSA MFI. The system includes a set of five electrodes, two of which are injected with exciting current signal to synchronously and equally excite BSA; the other three electrodes are used as sensors to simultaneously sense the response signal from both sides. The system also includes a PC-based time-domain signal testing platform with arbitrary current waveform generation and three channels (one exciting current and two response voltages) simultaneously sampling, and a set of MFI simultaneously unbiased computing algorithms based on special odd multisine current signal input. Preliminary validating experiments suggest that the system allows accurate and synchronous measurement of BSA MFI at least in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 60 kHz, and the obtained BSA MFI are well comparable.

  13. Congenital bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Babu, Manohar K V; Lee, Peter; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lee, Eng Hin

    2009-05-01

    Unilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle contracture causing torticollis and other secondary deformities such as facial scoliosis, plagiocephaly and scoliosis of cervical spine are well known. The aetiology and pathogenesis is still intriguing. Although unilateral contracture of sternocleidomastoid is seen quite often, bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture is almost unheard of. A review of the English literature revealed no cases of bilateral congenital sternocleidomastoid contracture being reported. We present a case report of a 19-year-old girl with congenital bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture.

  14. Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gloria E; Wirrell, Elaine C; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Krecke, Karl N

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis is characterized by calcification of the basal ganglia and other gray matter structures. We describe a 16-year-old boy with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. He exhibited mineralization in the basal ganglia, posterior thalami, and dentate nuclei bilaterally, and was diagnosed with sporadic bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis. The paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia responded to low-dose treatment with carbamazepine (200 mg/day).

  15. Chua's Circuit: Control and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimiciuc, Stefan-Andrei; Vasilovici, Ovidiu; Dimitriu, Dan-Gheorghe

    Chaos-based data encryption is one of the most reliable methods used in secure communications. This implies a good control of a chaotic system and a good synchronization between the involved systems. Here, experimental results are shown on the control and synchronization of Chua's circuits. The control of the chaotic circuit was achieved by using the switching method. The influence of the control signal characteristics (amplitude, frequency and shape) on the system's states was also investigated. The synchronization of two similar chaotic circuits was studied, emphasizing the importance of the chaotic state characteristics of the Master system in respect to those of Slave system. It was shown that the synchronization does not depend on the chaotic state type, neither on the dimension (x, y or z) used for synchronization.

  16. Robust Synchronization Schemes for Dynamic Channel Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Fugin

    2003-01-01

    Professor Xiong will investigate robust synchronization schemes for dynamic channel environment. A sliding window will be investigated for symbol timing synchronizer and an open loop carrier estimator for carrier synchronization. Matlab/Simulink will be used for modeling and simulations.

  17. Twin engine synchronizer

    SciTech Connect

    Kobus, J.R.

    1988-05-03

    This patent describes an apparatus for synchronizing the speeds of two engines, each having its own throttle level connected by an associated cable to a respective hand throttle lever, comprising moving means carried by the throttle lever of one of the engines for moving the throttle lever of the one engine independently of its associated cable and its respective hand throttle lever to increase or decrease the speed of the one engine until the speed of the one engine matches the speed of the other engine. The moving means moves the throttle lever of the one engine without moving its associated cable or its respective hand throttle lever, and actuating means mounted remote from the throttle lever of the one engine for actuating the moving means.

  18. Friction and Phase Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braiman, Y.; Protopopescu, V.; Family, F.; Hentschel, H. G. E.

    2000-03-01

    Spatiotemporal fluctuations in small discrete nonlinear arrays affect the dynamics of the center of mass. We derive the equations describing the dynamics of the center of mass and the spatial fluctuations for each coherent mode of the array. Analysis of these equations indicates that depending on array stiffness, size, and the external forcing - quantized jumps occur in the minimum friction (maximum velocity) of the array. We propose an analytical formalism to determine the occurrences of these jumps. We present numerical evidence indicating that phase synchronization is related to the frictional properties of sliding objects at the atomic scale and discuss mechanisms of tuning and controlling nanoscale friction. Y. Braiman, F. Family, H. G. E. Hentschel, C. Mak, and J. Krim, Phys. Rev. E 59, R4737 (1999). H. G. E. Hentschel, F. Family, and Y. Braiman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 104 (1999).

  19. Timesharing without synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rubin, A. L.

    1976-01-01

    The capacity region of a multiple-access channel has recently been identified as the convex hull (barred K) of a certain set (K) of points in the first quadrant of the (R1,R2) plane. For a pair of rates in K, a more or less standard random-coding argument can be used to show the existence of a good pair of codes. But for points in barred K-K, it is apparently necessary for the two senders to use some form of time sharing to achieve the desired rates. However, in order to share time, at least one of the senders must have knowledge of the other's phase; and in many practical situations this knowledge does not exist. This paper investigates the problems which arise in coding for multiple-access channels when the senders cannot synchronize with each other.

  20. [Our experience with bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Carmel, Eldar; Taitelbaum-Swead, Ricky; Migirov, Lela; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2008-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is a standard method of hearing rehabilitation among patients with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. In recent years there have been an increasing number of studies showing superior hearing with bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral procedure. In this study we present our experience with 15 patients, children and adults, who had bilateral cochlear implant surgery. Speech perception test results demonstrated a hearing benefit in bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral device, mainly by improvement in the identification of speech in noise tests.

  1. Synchronous Seminoma in Abdominopelvic and Inguinal Testes: A Rare Presentation with Unusual Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakar, Neha; Nagger, Seema; Saxena, Arun

    2017-01-01

    The development of testes occurs in the abdomen during fetal life, after which they migrate into the scrotal sacs during the third trimester. During their descent, they may get arrested anywhere along the tract. Risk of testicular cancer is higher in patients with undescended testes, abdominal testis being more prone than inguinal. Seminoma is the commonest cancer in undescended testis. However, synchronous seminoma involving bilateral cryptorchid testis is rare. Present case is uncommon due to synchronous involvement of abdominopelvic and inguinal testes in extended age. It also exhibited unusual morphology with marked heterogeneity grossly as well as microscopically, instead of a common homogenous appearance. PMID:28286686

  2. Stochastic Resonance Modulates Neural Synchronization within and between Cortical Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Lawrence M.; MacLean, Shannon E.; Kirschner, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Neural synchronization is a mechanism whereby functionally specific brain regions establish transient networks for perception, cognition, and action. Direct addition of weak noise (fast random fluctuations) to various neural systems enhances synchronization through the mechanism of stochastic resonance (SR). Moreover, SR also occurs in human perception, cognition, and action. Perception, cognition, and action are closely correlated with, and may depend upon, synchronized oscillations within specialized brain networks. We tested the hypothesis that SR-mediated neural synchronization occurs within and between functionally relevant brain areas and thus could be responsible for behavioral SR. We measured the 40-Hz transient response of the human auditory cortex to brief pure tones. This response arises when the ongoing, random-phase, 40-Hz activity of a group of tuned neurons in the auditory cortex becomes synchronized in response to the onset of an above-threshold sound at its “preferred” frequency. We presented a stream of near-threshold standard sounds in various levels of added broadband noise and measured subjects' 40-Hz response to the standards in a deviant-detection paradigm using high-density EEG. We used independent component analysis and dipole fitting to locate neural sources of the 40-Hz response in bilateral auditory cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex and left superior frontal gyrus. We found that added noise enhanced the 40-Hz response in all these areas. Moreover, added noise also increased the synchronization between these regions in alpha and gamma frequency bands both during and after the 40-Hz response. Our results demonstrate neural SR in several functionally specific brain regions, including areas not traditionally thought to contribute to the auditory 40-Hz transient response. In addition, we demonstrated SR in the synchronization between these brain regions. Thus, both intra- and inter-regional synchronization of neural activity are

  3. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity. PMID:26175916

  4. Bilateral shotgun pellet pulmonary emboli

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Stephen; Ali, Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular migration of bullets and other foreign bodies is a rare but known complication of penetrating trauma. Missile embolization can represent a diagnostic challenge because it may present in various and unexpected ways. We present the case of a 54-year-old female who sustained shotgun pellet emboli to the pulmonary arteries following a left upper extremity gunshot wound and related vascular surgery. The case illustrates bilateral embolization, and the embolic events occurred following surgery. Embolization should be considered in evaluating patients with gunshot wounds, particularly if there are anomalous symptoms or the projectile is not found in the original, or expected, location. Close attention to the location of the foreign bodies on serial radiographs may reveal the diagnosis of intravascular embolization. PMID:22690290

  5. Breast Reconstruction with Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... removes your breast to treat or prevent breast cancer. One type of breast reconstruction uses breast implants — silicone devices filled with silicone gel or salt water (saline) — to reshape your breasts. Breast reconstruction ...

  6. Nutritional recommendations for synchronized swimming.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sherry; Benardot, Dan; Mountjoy, Margo

    2014-08-01

    The sport of synchronized swimming is unique, because it combines speed, power, and endurance with precise synchronized movements and high-risk acrobatic maneuvers. Athletes must train and compete while spending a great amount of time underwater, upside down, and without the luxury of easily available oxygen. This review assesses the scientific evidence with respect to the physiological demands, energy expenditure, and body composition in these athletes. The role of appropriate energy requirements and guidelines for carbohydrate, protein, fat, and micronutrients for elite synchronized swimmers are reviewed. Because of the aesthetic nature of the sport, which prioritizes leanness, the risks of energy and macronutrient deficiencies are of significant concern. Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport and disordered eating/eating disorders are also of concern for these female athletes. An approach to the healthy management of body composition in synchronized swimming is outlined. Synchronized swimmers should be encouraged to consume a well-balanced diet with sufficient energy to meet demands and to time the intake of carbohydrate, protein, and fat to optimize performance and body composition. Micronutrients of concern for this female athlete population include iron, calcium, and vitamin D. This article reviews the physiological demands of synchronized swimming and makes nutritional recommendations for recovery, training, and competition to help optimize athletic performance and to reduce risks for weight-related medical issues that are of particular concern for elite synchronized swimmers.

  7. Thoracoscopic Bilateral Bullectomy for Simultaneously Developed Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Ipsilateral Transmediastinal versus Bilateral Sequential Approach.

    PubMed

    Cho, Deog Gon; Lee, Seok In; Chang, Yong Jin; Cho, Kyu Do; Cho, Suk Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Simultaneously developed bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (BPSP) is an indication for thoracic surgery of both sides. Recently, we have reported a new technique for BPSP, which is ipsilateral apicoposterior transmediastinal (TM) bullectomy of both sides using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and we compared this TM VATS with bilateral sequential (BS) VATS for BPSP. Materials and Methods From June 2003 to May 2014, 11 and 14 patients were performed VATS TM and BS bullectomy for BPSP, respectively. We reviewed the medical records and compared the clinical data between the two groups. For TM group, we first performed the right VATS bullectomy and approached through the apicoposterior mediastinal region for contralateral VATS. In the other group, conventional BS VATS bullectomy was performed in the lateral decubitus position change. Results The mean follow-up was 62.0 ± 32.6 months. No mortality and major complications were observed. The operative time (68.18 ± 24.93 vs. 96.07 ± 37.73, p = 0.046), duration of left pleural drainage (1.00 ± 0.45 vs. 3.21 ± 1.37, p = 0.000), and length of hospital stay (3.82 ± 1.54 vs. 4.93 ± 1.07, p = 0.044) were significantly shorter in the TM group than in the BS group. No significant differences were seen in duration of general anesthesia, total number of wedge resections and endostaplers used in both lungs, duration of right drainage, and postoperative recurrence. Conclusion The TM VATS approach may be a safe and feasible modality for BPSP. It may decrease the operative time, patients inconvenience such as bilateral multiple wounds and longstanding placement of chest tubes, and decrease the hospital stay compared with the BS VATS approach.

  8. How to synchronize biological clocks.

    PubMed

    Russo, G; Di Bernardo, M

    2009-02-01

    This paper is concerned with a novel algorithm to study networks of biological clocks. A new set of conditions is established that can be used to verify whether an existing network synchronizes or to give guidelines to construct a new synthetic network of biological oscillators that synchronize. The methodology uses the so-called contraction theory from dynamical system theory and Gershgorin disk theorem. The strategy is validated on two examples: a model of glycolisis in yeast cells and a synthetic network of Repressilators that synchronizes.

  9. Synchronization of periodical cicada emergences.

    PubMed

    Hoppensteadt, F C; Keller, J B

    1976-10-15

    Synchronized insect emergences are shown to be a possible consequence of predation in the presence of a limited environmental carrying capacity through a mathematical model for cicada populations that includes these two features. Synchronized emergences, like those observed in 13- and 17-year cicades, are predicted for insects with sufficiently long life-spans. Balanced solutions, in which comparable emergences occur each year, are found for insects having sufficiently short life-spans, such as 3-, 4-, and 7-year cicadas. For the values used here, synchronized emergences occur for insects with life-spans of 10 years or more, and balanced emergences occur for life-spans of fewer than 10 years.

  10. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  11. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  12. Bilateral phacoemulsification in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Lima, Leandro; Bacellar, Marianna; D'Otaviano Vilani, Ricardo G; Fedullo, José Daniel; Lange, Rogério R

    2010-09-01

    A 14-year-old, female, captive-born orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) developed bilateral cataracts. Ultrasonography, electroretinography and cataract correction using phacoemulsification were performed bilaterally. This case report aims to describe the ophthalmic procedures performed in this animal critically endangered of extinction. The surgery successfully restored vision and normal activity to the patient.

  13. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  14. Severe bilateral microphthalmos in a Pomeranian pup.

    PubMed

    Dell, Melanie

    2010-12-01

    A 4-week-old male Pomeranian was presented with eyes that had remained closed since birth. Clinical examination of the orbits revealed that globes were bilaterally absent, suggesting clinical anophthalmos. Following ultrasound imaging of the orbits, a diagnosis of severe bilateral microphthalmos was made, a condition of rare occurrence with an etiology that is not fully understood.

  15. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  16. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  17. Bilateral xanthogranulomatous orchitis in a tetraplegic patient.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, J Fernando; Argueta, Liza; Fernández-Flórez, Alejandro; Correas, Miguel Angel; Val, Daniel; Garijo, M Francisca; López-Rasines, Gerardo

    2012-01-15

    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare chronic inflammatory process characterized by destruction of tissue that is replaced by an outstanding cellular infiltrate of lipid-laden macrophages. To date, 20 cases of this process have been reported previously. We present herein the case of a 55-year-old man who had sustained complete tetraplegia at C-6 level and neuropathic bladder for 21 years. After repeated episodes of urinary tract infection, the patient developed a bilateral XGO and a right xanthogranulomatous epididymitis (XGE) that were treated with bilateral orchiepididymectomy. To our knowledge, a bilateral XGO has not yet been reported. Repeated episodes of high-pressure urinary reflux along the vas deferens during dyssynergic voiding possibly led to retrograde extension from the urinary tract by common urinary pathogens and development of bilateral XGO and right XGE. Since tissue destruction is a feature of this process, curative treatment required antibiotic therapy followed by bilateral excision of testes and epididymes.

  18. Breast Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast gangrene is rare in surgical practice. Gangrene of breast can be idiopathic or secondary to some causative factor. Antibiotics and debridement are used for management. Acute inflammatory infiltrate, severe necrosis of breast tissue, necrotizing arteritis, and venous thrombosis is observed on histopathology. The aim of was to study patients who had breast gangrene. Methods A prospective study of 10 patients who had breast gangrene over a period of 6 years were analyzed Results All the patients in the study group were female. Total of 10 patients were encountered who had breast gangrene. Six patients presented with breast gangrene on the right breast whereas four had on left breast. Out of 10 patients, three had breast abscess after teeth bite followed by gangrene, one had iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of erythematous area of breast under septic conditions. Four had history of application of belladonna on cutaneous breast abscess and had then gangrene. All were lactating female. Amongst the rest two were elderly, one of which was a diabetic who had gangrene of breast and had no application of belladonna. All except one had debridement under cover of broad spectrum antibiotics. Three patients had grafting to cover the raw area. Conclusion Breast gangrene occurs rarely. Etiology is variable and mutifactorial. Teeth bite while lactation and the iatrogenic trauma by needle aspiration of breast abscess under unsterlised conditions could be causative. Uncontrolled diabetes can be one more causative factor for the breast gangrene. Belladonna application as a topical agent could be inciting factor. Sometimes gangrene of breast can be idiopathic. Treatment is antibiotics and debridement. PMID:21854557

  19. A rare case of bilateral cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma recurring as bilateral cystic Wilms tumour.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Jujju Jacob; Ninan, Pradeep Joseph

    2015-04-15

    Childhood cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) is an uncommon renal neoplasm. Bilateral CPDN or CPDN co-existing with a cystic nephroma/Wilms tumour is extremely rare. Treatment of CPDN is by complete surgical excision. Although local recurrences are uncommon, distant metastases have not been described. We present a case of bilateral CPDN that, after complete excision, recurred as bilateral cystic Wilms tumour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature where a bilateral CPDN has recurred as bilateral Wilms tumour.

  20. Competing Synchronization of Nonlinear Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Epaminondas

    2006-03-01

    Coupled nonlinear oscillators abound in nature and in man-made devices. Think for example of two neurons in the brain competing to get the attention of a third neuron, and eventually developing some sort of synchronization process. This is a common feature involving oscillators in general, and can be studied using numerical simulations and/or experimental setups. In this talk, results involving electronic circuits and plasma discharges will be presented showing interesting features related to the types of oscillators and to the types of couplings. In particular, for the case of two oscillators competing for synchronization with a third one, the target oscillator synchronizes alternately to one or the other of the competing oscillators. The time intervals of synchronous states vary in a random-like manner. Numerical and experimental results will be presented and the consistency between them will be discussed.

  1. Synchronous identification of friendly targets

    DOEpatents

    Telle, John M.; Roger, Stutz A.

    1998-01-01

    A synchronous communication targeting system for use in battle. The present invention includes a transceiver having a stabilizing oscillator, a synchronous amplifier and an omnidirectional receiver, all in electrical communication with each other. A remotely located beacon is attached to a blackbody radiation source and has an amplitude modulator in electrical communication with a optical source. The beacon's amplitude modulator is set so that the optical source transmits radiation frequency at approximately the same or lower amplitude than that of the blackbody radiation source to which the beacon is attached. The receiver from the transceiver is adapted to receive frequencies approximately at or below blackbody radiation signals and sends such signals to the synchronous amplifier. The synchronous amplifier then rectifies and amplifies those signals which correspond to the predetermined frequency to therefore identify whether the blackbody radiation source is friendly or not.

  2. Synchronization waves in geometric networks.

    PubMed

    Leyva, I; Navas, A; Sendiña-Nadal, I; Buldú, J M; Almendral, J A; Boccaletti, S

    2011-12-01

    We report synchronization of networked excitable nodes embedded in a metric space, where the connectivity properties are mostly determined by the distance between units. Such a high clustered structure, combined with the lack of long-range connections, prevents full synchronization and yields instead the emergence of synchronization waves. We show that this regime is optimal for information transmission through the system, as it enhances the options of reconstructing the topology from the dynamics. Measurements of topological and functional centralities reveal that the wave-synchronization state allows detection of the most structurally relevant nodes from a single observation of the dynamics, without any a priori information on the model equations ruling the evolution of the ensemble.

  3. Breast lift

    MedlinePlus

    ... Planning to have more children Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering cosmetic breast surgery. ... before surgery: You may need a mammogram . Your plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. You ...

  4. Breast Exam

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your hormone levels fluctuate each month during your menstrual cycle, which causes changes in breast tissue. Swelling begins ... changes that occur at various points in the menstrual cycles. Finding a change or lump in your breast ...

  5. Breast Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss your symptoms, their relation to your menstrual cycle and any other relevant information. To prepare for ... one or both breasts? How does your menstrual cycle affect the breast cyst or lump? When was ...

  6. Synchronized Swimming of Two Fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koumoutsakos, Petros; Novati, Guido; Abbati, Gabriele; Hejazialhosseini, Babak; van Rees, Wim

    2015-11-01

    We present simulations of two, self-propelled, fish-like swimmers that perform synchronized moves in a two-dimensional, viscous fluid. The swimmers learn to coordinate by receiving a reward for their synchronized actions. We analyze the swimming patterns emerging for different rewards in terms of their hydrodynamic efficiency and artistic impression. European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Investigator Award (No. 2-73985-14).

  7. Frequency-Specific Alterations of Local Synchronization in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jue; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Gong-Jun; Xu, Qiang; Huang, Yubin; Wang, Zhengge; Jiao, Qing; Yang, Fang; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liao, Wei; Lu, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Recurrently and abnormally hypersynchronous discharge is a striking feature of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging has revealed aberrant spontaneous brain synchronization, predominately in low-frequency range (<0.1 Hz), in individuals with IGE. Little is known, however, about these changes in local synchronization across different frequency bands. We examined alterations to frequency-specific local synchronization in terms of spontaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations across 5 bands, spanning 0 to 0.25 Hz. Specifically, we compared brain activity in a large cohort of IGE patients (n = 86) to age- and sex-matched normal controls (n = 86). IGE patients showed decreased local synchronization in low frequency (<0.073 Hz), primarily in the default mode network (DMN). IGE patients also exhibited increased local synchronization in high-frequency (>0.073 Hz) in a “conscious perception network,” which is anchored by the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, as well as the bilateral insular cortices, possibly contributing to impaired consciousness. Furthermore, we found frequency-specific alternating local synchronization in the posterior portion of the DMN relative to the anterior part, suggesting an interaction between the disease and frequency bands. Importantly, the aberrant high-frequency local synchronization in the middle cingulate cortex was associated with disease duration, thus linking BOLD frequency changes to disease severity. These findings provide an overview of frequency-specific local synchronization of BOLD fluctuations, and may be helpful in uncovering abnormal synchronous neuronal activity in patients with IGE at specific frequency bands. PMID:26266394

  8. Bilateral subtrochanteric stress fractures in a Dambali mystic dancer--a unique complication of a Sufi ritual. Case study.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Nasir; Hussain, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Nawaz; Moosa, Mohammad; Shah, Nissar

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are commonly seen among soldiers and athletes with the usual sites being the tibia, fibula or the metatarsals. Clinical examination may not be very helpful in such cases unless a high degree of suspicion is directed towards the pathology. We present a case of bilateral synchronous subtrochanteric stress fractures in a Sufi mystic dancer who presented with mild leg pain. The patient responded well to rest and conservative management.

  9. Synchronous reactive programming in Ptolemy

    SciTech Connect

    Boulanger, F.; Vidal-Naquet, G.

    1996-12-31

    Synchronous reactive languages allow a high level deterministic description of reactive systems such as control-command systems. Their well defined mathematical semantics makes it possible to check formal properties on the control of a system. In previous work, we developed an object-oriented execution model for synchronous reactive modules. This model is implemented as a set of tools and a C++ class library, and allows us to use object-oriented methodologies and tools for the design of complex applications with both transformational and reactive parts. Among these design tools, the Ptolemy system stands as an object-oriented framework that supports various execution models, or {open_quotes}domains{close_quotes}. We are currently working on a translator from the output format of the Lustre and Esterel compilers to the Ptolemy language. Since no existing domain matches the reactive synchronous execution model, we also plan to develop a SEC (Synchronous Execution and Communication) domain. Such a domain will provide support for the execution of synchronous modules in Ptolemy. One of the most interesting features of Ptolemy is the communication between domains. Therefore we discuss the interface of the SEC domain to other domains to determine the meaning of communications between them. The main goal is to allow the use of synchronous reactive modules for the control of the behavior of data-flow or discrete event processes.

  10. Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  11. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  12. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  13. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  14. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case.

  15. Improving CAD performance by fusion of the bilateral mammographic tissue asymmetry information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingwei; Li, Lihua; Liu, Wei; Xu, Weidong; Lederman, Dror; Zheng, Bin

    2012-03-01

    Bilateral mammographic tissue density asymmetry could be an important factor in assessing risk of developing breast cancer and improving the detection of the suspicious lesions. This study aims to assess whether fusion of the bilateral mammographic density asymmetrical information into a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme could improve CAD performance in detecting mass-like breast cancers. A testing dataset involving 1352 full-field digital mammograms (FFDM) acquired from 338 cases was used. In this dataset, half (169) cases are positive containing malignant masses and half are negative. Two computerized schemes were first independently applied to process FFDM images of each case. The first single-image based CAD scheme detected suspicious mass regions on each image. The second scheme detected and computed the bilateral mammographic tissue density asymmetry for each case. A fusion method was then applied to combine the output scores of the two schemes. The CAD performance levels using the original CAD-generated detection scores and the new fusion scores were evaluated and compared using a free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) type data analysis method. By fusion with the bilateral mammographic density asymmetrical scores, the case-based CAD sensitivity was increased from 79.2% to 84.6% at a false-positive rate of 0.3 per image. CAD also cued more "difficult" masses with lower CAD-generated detection scores while discarded some "easy" cases. The study indicated that fusion between the scores generated by a single-image based CAD scheme and the computed bilateral mammographic density asymmetry scores enabled to increase mass detection sensitivity in particular to detect more subtle masses.

  16. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  17. A rare case of bilateral tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, J P; Shetty, Bhaskar; Makkanavar, J H; Chandrika

    2011-07-01

    Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy continues to be an important challenge. Here a case of incidental diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is reported. There was a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy on the left side and chronic ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy on the right side. Leading cause of first trimester maternal deaths is due to complications of ectopic pregnancy. Here an unusual case of ectopic pregnancy is reported in which the patient had spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy which presented with left tubal rupture and subsequently emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed bilateral tubal mass, which on histopathological examination confirmed tubal pregnancy.

  18. Bilateral four heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeon; Jang, Han-Bin; Kim, Jinu; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2015-09-01

    The sternocleidomastoid muscle shows a wide range of variations including supernumerary muscular heads. We found a rare variation in the sternocleidomastoid muscle with bilateral supernumerary heads in a 67-year-old Korean male cadaver. Bilateral four muscle bellies were recorded: two sternomastoids, one cleido-occipital and one cleido-mastoid occipital on the right side, and one sternomastoid, one cleido-occipital and two cleido-mastoids on the left side. The variation of bilateral four heads on sternocleidomastoid muscle is important to surgeons and anesthetists for clinical using.

  19. The guided bilateral filter: when the joint/cross bilateral filter becomes robust.

    PubMed

    Caraffa, Laurent; Tarel, Jean-Philippe; Charbonnier, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The bilateral filter and its variants, such as the joint/cross bilateral filter, are well-known edge-preserving image smoothing tools used in many applications. The reason of this success is its simple definition and the possibility of many adaptations. The bilateral filter is known to be related to robust estimation. This link is lost by the ad hoc introduction of the guide image in the joint/cross bilateral filter. We here propose a new way to derive the joint/cross bilateral filter as a particular case of a more generic filter, which we name the guided bilateral filter. This new filter is iterative, generic, inherits the robustness properties of the robust bilateral filter, and uses a guide image. The link with robust estimation allows us to relate the filter parameters with the statistics of input images. A scheme based on graduated nonconvexity is proposed, which allows converging to an interesting local minimum even when the cost function is nonconvex. With this scheme, the guided bilateral filter can handle non-Gaussian noise on the image to be filtered. A complementary scheme is also proposed to handle non-Gaussian noise on the guide image even if both are strongly correlated. This allows the guided bilateral filter to handle situations with more noise than the joint/cross bilateral filter can work with and leads to high peak signal-to-noise ratio values as shown experimentally.

  20. The effects of bilateral movement training on upper limb function in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyoung Ju; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the functional and kinematic changes associated with two rehabilitation protocols: bilateral and unilateral movement training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to two training protocols for four weeks of training. Each training session consisted of three tasks. The tasks were performed with either the impaired and unimpaired arms moving synchronously (bilateral training) or with the impaired arm alone (unilateral training). To compare the changes associated with each rehabilitation protocol, functional and kinematic assessments were performed before and after the interventions. The functional state of each patient was measured by the Box and Block Test, and the kinematic variables were assessed by three-dimensional motion analysis. The Box and Block Test was used to assess the functional abilities of the affected upper limb. Kinematic measurements of upper limb movement were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] Results showed that the bilateral movement group had significantly improved motion of the shoulder compared to the unilateral movement group. [Conclusion] Bilateral movement training should be used to improve upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630418

  1. Noncoherent DTTLs for Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin; Tkacenko, Andre

    2007-01-01

    Noncoherent data-transition tracking loops (DTTLs) have been proposed for use as symbol synchronizers in digital communication receivers. [Communication- receiver subsystems that can perform their assigned functions in the absence of synchronization with the phases of their carrier signals ( carrier synchronization ) are denoted by the term noncoherent, while receiver subsystems that cannot function without carrier synchronization are said to be coherent. ] The proposal applies, more specifically, to receivers of binary phase-shift-keying (BPSK) signals generated by directly phase-modulating binary non-return-to-zero (NRZ) data streams onto carrier signals having known frequencies but unknown phases. The proposed noncoherent DTTLs would be modified versions of traditional DTTLs, which are coherent. The symbol-synchronization problem is essentially the problem of recovering symbol timing from a received signal. In the traditional, coherent approach to symbol synchronization, it is necessary to establish carrier synchronization in order to recover symbol timing. A traditional DTTL effects an iterative process in which it first generates an estimate of the carrier phase in the absence of symbol-synchronization information, then uses the carrier-phase estimate to obtain an estimate of the symbol-synchronization information, then feeds the symbol-synchronization estimate back to the carrier-phase-estimation subprocess. In a noncoherent symbol-synchronization process, there is no need for carrier synchronization and, hence, no need for iteration between carrier-synchronization and symbol- synchronization subprocesses. The proposed noncoherent symbolsynchronization process is justified theoretically by a mathematical derivation that starts from a maximum a posteriori (MAP) method of estimation of symbol timing utilized in traditional, coherent DTTLs. In that MAP method, one chooses the value of a variable of interest (in this case, the offset in the estimated symbol

  2. Synchronous presentation of invasive ductal carcinoma and mantle cell lymphoma: a diagnostic challenge in menopausal patients.

    PubMed

    Woo, Edward J; Baugh, Aaron D; Ching, Karen

    2016-01-22

    Synchronous presentation of breast carcinoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a rare occurrence (Bradford PT, Freedman DM, Goldstein AM, Tucker MA. Increased risk of second primary cancers after a diagnosis of melanoma. Arch Dermatol 2010; 146: :265-72; Dutta Roy S, Stafford JA, Scally J, Selvachandran SN. A rare case of breast carcinoma co-existing with axillary mantle cell lymphoma. World J Surg Oncol 2003; 1: :27; Suresh Attili VS, Dadhich HK, Rao CR, Bapsy PP, Batra U, Anupama G et al. A case of breast cancer coexisting with B-cell follicular lymphoma. Austral Asian J Cancer 2007; 6: :155-6). In particular, only two reported cases on synchronous presentation of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) exist in the English literature. Owing to the rarity, there is a lack of consensus about underlying mechanism as well as optimal treatment strategy, and diagnosing both malignancies together without a delay remains a complex clinical challenge. We report a case of synchronous presentation of IDC and MCL in a 67-year-old female patient whose MCL diagnosis was delayed due to a misinterpretation of her B symptoms as postmenopausal, with a review of the literature on concurrently occurring breast carcinoma and NHL.

  3. Environment-adaptive speech enhancement for bilateral cochlear implants using a single processor.

    PubMed

    Mirzahasanloo, Taher S; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser; Gopalakrishna, Vanishree; Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-05-01

    A computationally efficient speech enhancement pipeline in noisy environments based on a single-processor implementation is developed for utilization in bilateral cochlear implant systems. A two-channel joint objective function is defined and a closed form solution is obtained based on the weighted-Euclidean distortion measure. The computational efficiency and no need for synchronization aspects of this pipeline make it a suitable solution for real-time deployment. A speech quality measure is used to show its effectiveness in six different noisy environments as compared to a similar one-channel enhancement pipeline when using two separate processors or when using independent sequential processing.

  4. On the estimation of phase synchronization, spurious synchronization and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios Herrera, Wady A.; Escalona, Joaquín; Rivera López, Daniel; Müller, Markus F.

    2016-12-01

    Phase synchronization, viz., the adjustment of instantaneous frequencies of two interacting self-sustained nonlinear oscillators, is frequently used for the detection of a possible interrelationship between empirical data recordings. In this context, the proper estimation of the instantaneous phase from a time series is a crucial aspect. The probability that numerical estimates provide a physically relevant meaning depends sensitively on the shape of its power spectral density. For this purpose, the power spectrum should be narrow banded possessing only one prominent peak [M. Chavez et al., J. Neurosci. Methods 154, 149 (2006)]. If this condition is not fulfilled, band-pass filtering seems to be the adequate technique in order to pre-process data for a posterior synchronization analysis. However, it was reported that band-pass filtering might induce spurious synchronization [L. Xu et al., Phys. Rev. E 73, 065201(R), (2006); J. Sun et al., Phys. Rev. E 77, 046213 (2008); and J. Wang and Z. Liu, EPL 102, 10003 (2013)], a statement that without further specification causes uncertainty over all measures that aim to quantify phase synchronization of broadband field data. We show by using signals derived from different test frameworks that appropriate filtering does not induce spurious synchronization. Instead, filtering in the time domain tends to wash out existent phase interrelations between signals. Furthermore, we show that measures derived for the estimation of phase synchronization like the mean phase coherence are also useful for the detection of interrelations between time series, which are not necessarily derived from coupled self-sustained nonlinear oscillators.

  5. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with bilateral nephrocutaneous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Biyani, C S; Torella, F; Cornford, P A; Brough, S J

    1997-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with bilateral nephrocutaneous fistulae and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Contralateral involvement of the psoas muscle is a rare occurrence and has not been previously documented.

  6. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Daniel A; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic 'real-world' music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences.

  7. Exploration of Circadian Rhythms in Patients with Bilateral Vestibular Loss

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Tristan; Moussay, Sébastien; Bulla, Ingo; Bulla, Jan; Toupet, Michel; Etard, Olivier; Denise, Pierre; Davenne, Damien; Coquerel, Antoine; Quarck, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Background New insights have expanded the influence of the vestibular system to the regulation of circadian rhythmicity. Indeed, hypergravity or bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in rodents causes a disruption in their daily rhythmicity for several days. The vestibular system thus influences hypothalamic regulation of circadian rhythms on Earth, which raises the question of whether daily rhythms might be altered due to vestibular pathology in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate human circadian rhythmicity in people presenting a total bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) in comparison with control participants. Methodology and Principal Findings Nine patients presenting a total idiopathic BVL and 8 healthy participants were compared. Their rest-activity cycle was recorded by actigraphy at home over 2 weeks. The daily rhythm of temperature was continuously recorded using a telemetric device and salivary cortisol was recorded every 3 hours from 6:00AM to 9:00PM over 24 hours. BVL patients displayed a similar rest activity cycle during the day to control participants but had higher nocturnal actigraphy, mainly during weekdays. Sleep efficiency was reduced in patients compared to control participants. Patients had a marked temperature rhythm but with a significant phase advance (73 min) and a higher variability of the acrophase (from 2:24 PM to 9:25 PM) with no correlation to rest-activity cycle, contrary to healthy participants. Salivary cortisol levels were higher in patients compared to healthy people at any time of day. Conclusion We observed a marked circadian rhythmicity of temperature in patients with BVL, probably due to the influence of the light dark cycle. However, the lack of synchronization between the temperature and rest-activity cycle supports the hypothesis that the vestibular inputs are salient input to the circadian clock that enhance the stabilization and precision of both external and internal entrainment. PMID:27341473

  8. Biomechanical comparison of unilateral and bilateral power snatch lifts.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Mike A; Lake, Jason P

    2008-05-01

    Biomechanical characteristics of the one-handed dumbbell power snatch (DBPS) were examined to determine whether significant differences existed between unilateral and bilateral weightlifting movements. Kinetic and kinematic movement data were recorded from 10 male weightlifters (mean +/- SD: age: 30.2 +/- 10.2 years; height: 174.2 +/- 4.4 cm; body mass: 81.5 +/- 14.6 kg) during one-handed dumbbell (DB) and traditional barbell (BBPS) power snatch performance with loads of approximately 80% of respective lift one repetition maximums (1RM) with the use of 2 synchronized Kistler force plates and high-speed 3-dimensional video. Results highlighted asymmetry in the ground reaction force and kinematic profile of the DBPS, which deviated from the observed patterns of the bilateral movement. This study found that the nonlifting side (the side corresponding with the hand that did not hold the DB) tended to generate a greater pull phase peak vertical ground reaction forces significantly faster (p = 0.001) than the lifting side (the side corresponding with the hand that held the DB) during the DBPS. In addition, the DBPS nonlifting side catch phase loading rate was approximately double that of the lifting side loading rate (p < 0.05). These results quantify symmetrical deviations in the movement patterns of the unilateral power snatch movement both during the concentric muscular contraction of load vertical displacement, and the loading implications of unilateral landing. This asymmetry supports the contention that unilateral variations of weightlifting movements may provide a different training stimulus to athletes.

  9. Bodily synchronization underlying joke telling

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, R. C.; Nie, Lin; Franco, Alison; Richardson, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in video and time series analysis have greatly enhanced our ability to study the bodily synchronization that occurs in natural interactions. Past research has demonstrated that the behavioral synchronization involved in social interactions is similar to dynamical synchronization found generically in nature. The present study investigated how the bodily synchronization in a joke telling task is spread across different nested temporal scales. Pairs of participants enacted knock–knock jokes and times series of their bodily activity were recorded. Coherence and relative phase analyses were used to evaluate the synchronization of bodily rhythms for the whole trial as well as at the subsidiary time scales of the whole joke, the setup of the punch line, the two-person exchange and the utterance. The analyses revealed greater than chance entrainment of the joke teller’s and joke responder’s movements at all time scales and that the relative phasing of the teller’s movements led those of the responder at the longer time scales. Moreover, this entrainment was greater when visual information about the partner’s movements was present but was decreased particularly at the shorter time scales when explicit gesturing in telling the joke was performed. In short, the results demonstrate that a complex interpersonal bodily “dance” occurs during structured conversation interactions and that this “dance” is constructed from a set of rhythms associated with the nested behavioral structure of the interaction. PMID:25177287

  10. How Synchronization Protects from Noise

    PubMed Central

    Tabareau, Nicolas; Slotine, Jean-Jacques; Pham, Quang-Cuong

    2010-01-01

    The functional role of synchronization has attracted much interest and debate: in particular, synchronization may allow distant sites in the brain to communicate and cooperate with each other, and therefore may play a role in temporal binding, in attention or in sensory-motor integration mechanisms. In this article, we study another role for synchronization: the so-called “collective enhancement of precision”. We argue, in a full nonlinear dynamical context, that synchronization may help protect interconnected neurons from the influence of random perturbations—intrinsic neuronal noise—which affect all neurons in the nervous system. More precisely, our main contribution is a mathematical proof that, under specific, quantified conditions, the impact of noise on individual interconnected systems and on their spatial mean can essentially be cancelled through synchronization. This property then allows reliable computations to be carried out even in the presence of significant noise (as experimentally found e.g., in retinal ganglion cells in primates). This in turn is key to obtaining meaningful downstream signals, whether in terms of precisely-timed interaction (temporal coding), population coding, or frequency coding. Similar concepts may be applicable to questions of noise and variability in systems biology. PMID:20090826

  11. The Transverse Musculocutaneous Gracilis Free Flap: Virtual Animation-Assisted Dissection and Application in Breast Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Gabert, Pierre-Elliott; Bodin, Frederic; Aljudaibi, Nawaf; Duquennoy-Martinot, Veronique; Guerreschi, Pierre

    2016-05-01

    The transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap is a valuable choice for autologous tissue, unilateral or bilateral breast reconstruction. This procedure is an excellent and customized option for immediate or delayed breast reconstruction in patients with small to moderate size breasts. Few descriptions of flap dissection and breast mound shaping are available. In this first educational video, the authors report the original dissection of the transverse musculocutaneous gracilis free flap used for breast reconstruction. Virtual animations insist on surgical key points and relevant details of the harvesting of the flap.

  12. Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anand; Sharma, Achal; Mittal, Radhey S; Gandhi, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cerebellopontine angle (CPA) arachnoid cysts (ACs) are very rare: only one case is reported in literature. Pathogenesis of those cysts is unknown; they are thought to be congenital. The presenting symptoms of CPA AC are frequently nonspecific or otological. The management of ACs of the CPA is controversial. We are reporting two cases of bilateral CPA AC with their pathophysiology and review of literature.

  13. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  14. Breast Cancer Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  15. Surgery for Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment for breast cancer, ... Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main types of surgery to ...

  16. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Valldeperas, Xavier; Angi, Martina; Romano, Vito; Romano, Mario R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 μm in the right eye and of 710 μm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 μm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus. PMID:20737056

  17. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation.

    PubMed

    Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented.

  18. A case report of bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Mai P; Lawler, Ericka A; Morcuende, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of a patient with bilateral mirror clubfeet and bilateral hand polydactyly. The patient presented to our orthopaedic clinic with bilateral mirror clubfeet, each with eight toes, and bilateral hands with six fingers and a hypoplastic thumb. The pattern does not fit any described syndrome such as Martin or Laurin-Sandrow syndrome. Treatments by an orthopaedic pediatric surgeon and an orthopaedic pediatric hand surgeon are described. The patient achieved excellent functional and cosmetic outcomes at four year follow-up.

  19. Bilateral microvascular second toe transfer for bilateral post-traumatic thumb amputation

    PubMed Central

    Nehete, Rajendra; Nehete, Anita; Singla, Sandeep; Adhav, Harshad

    2012-01-01

    In bilateral thumb amputations, the functional impairment is serious and every attempt should be made to reconstruct the thumb. We report a case of bilateral post traumatic thumb amputation, reconstructed with bilateral second toe transfer. Only two such cases have been reported in literature so far. Though there are various modalities for the reconstruction of thumb, microvascular toe transfer has its own merits. The convalescent period is minimal with excellent function. It is bilaterally symmetric and aesthetically superior to the osteoplastic reconstruction. The technical details are discussed, and the long term functional and aesthetic results are presented. PMID:22754176

  20. How to suppress undesired synchronization.

    PubMed

    Louzada, V H P; Araújo, N A M; Andrade, J S; Herrmann, H J

    2012-01-01

    Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.

  1. Digital data detection and synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noack, T. L.; Morris, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The primary accomplishments have been in the analysis and simulation of receivers and bit synchronizers. It has been discovered that tracking rate effects play, a rather fundamental role in both receiver and synchronizer performance, but that data relating to recorder time-base-error, for the proper characterization of this phenomenon, is in rather short supply. It is possible to obtain operationally useful tape recorder time-base-error data from high signal-to-noise ratio tapes using synchronizers with relatively wideband tracking loops. Low signal-to-noise ratio tapes examined in the same way would not be synchronizable. Additional areas of interest covered are receiver false lock, cycle slipping, and other unusual phenomena, which have been described to some extent in this and earlier reports and simulated during the study.

  2. How to suppress undesired synchronization

    PubMed Central

    Louzada, V. H. P.; Araújo, N. A. M.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Examples of synchronization can be found in a wide range of phenomena such as neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks and two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network. PMID:22993685

  3. Remote synchronization in star networks.

    PubMed

    Bergner, A; Frasca, M; Sciuto, G; Buscarino, A; Ngamga, E J; Fortuna, L; Kurths, J

    2012-02-01

    We study phase synchronization in a network motif with a starlike structure in which the central node's (the hub's) frequency is strongly detuned against the other peripheral nodes. We find numerically and experimentally a regime of remote synchronization (RS), where the peripheral nodes form a phase synchronized cluster, while the hub remains free with its own dynamics and serves just as a transmitter for the other nodes. We explain the mechanism for this RS by the existence of a free amplitude and also show that systems with a fixed or constant amplitude, such as the classic Kuramoto phase oscillator, are not able to generate this phenomenon. Further, we derive an analytic expression which supports our explanation of the mechanism.

  4. Linear Synchronous Motor Repeatability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, C.R.

    2002-10-18

    A cart system using linear synchronous motors was being considered for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP). One of the applications in the PIP was the movement of a stack of furnace trays, filled with the waste form (pucks) from a stacking/unstacking station to several bottom loaded furnaces. A system was ordered to perform this function in the PIP Ceramic Prototype Test Facility (CPTF). This system was installed and started up in SRTC prior to being installed in the CPTF. The PIP was suspended and then canceled after the linear synchronous motor system was started up. This system was used to determine repeatability of a linear synchronous motor cart system for the Modern Pit Facility.

  5. Cytomorphology of male breast lesions: diagnostic pitfalls and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Marilin; Masood, Shahla

    2012-02-01

    Because lesions of the male breast have been exceeded in number by those of the female breast, marginal attention was given to these lesions in the past. Fortunately, this has changed over the years leading to an increased awareness about male breast cancer. Although male breast cancer constitutes only about 1% of all diagnosed breast cancer cases, an increased mortality is seen in this patient population. This is probably caused by late diagnosis as a consequence of low level of concern about breast cancer among male patients. However, the vast majority of lesions of the male breast are benign, gynecomastia being the number one cause of unilateral or bilateral breast mass. Since it is important to avoid unnecessary surgical treatment without missing malignancy, accurate diagnostic tools are necessary in order to triage these patients. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy has demonstrated excellent accuracy in the diagnosis and management of breast lesions in female patients. In addition, several authors have proven the value of this technique in the evaluation of lesions of the male breast. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy permits accurate diagnosis in many lesions arising in the male breast. It also allows gathering cytological material that can be used for ancillary studies which enhances the diagnostic value of this technique.

  6. Synchronization in an optomechanical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlomi, Keren; Yuvaraj, D.; Baskin, Ilya; Suchoi, Oren; Winik, Roni; Buks, Eyal

    2015-03-01

    We study self-excited oscillations (SEO) in an on-fiber optomechanical cavity. Synchronization is observed when the optical power that is injected into the cavity is periodically modulated. A theoretical analysis based on the Fokker-Planck equation evaluates the expected phase space distribution (PSD) of the self-oscillating mechanical resonator. A tomography technique is employed for extracting PSD from the measured reflected optical power. Time-resolved state tomography measurements are performed to study phase diffusion and phase locking of the SEO. The detuning region inside which synchronization occurs is experimentally determined and the results are compared with the theoretical prediction.

  7. State observer for synchronous motors

    DOEpatents

    Lang, Jeffrey H.

    1994-03-22

    A state observer driven by measurements of phase voltages and currents for estimating the angular orientation of a rotor of a synchronous motor such as a variable reluctance motor (VRM). Phase voltages and currents are detected and serve as inputs to a state observer. The state observer includes a mathematical model of the electromechanical operation of the synchronous motor. The characteristics of the state observer are selected so that the observer estimates converge to the actual rotor angular orientation and velocity, winding phase flux linkages or currents.

  8. Synchronization with sound propagation delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haché, A.

    2010-04-01

    Complex systems that synchronize with acoustic signals, like chanting crowds and musical ensembles, have the intrinsic ability to maintain synchrony without external aid or visual cues, even when spread over wide areas. According to two models, the counterintuitive self-synchronization happens when the system's components have a spatial distribution that is sufficiently uniform. The roles of system size and density are examined for arrangements in 1, 2 and 3 dimensions. Asynchrony is predicted to become vanishingly small at high densities, and results suggest ways on how to minimize asynchrony in real-world situations.

  9. Optimized multiparty quantum clock synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Av, Radel; Exman, Iaakov

    2011-07-15

    A multiparty protocol for distributed quantum clock synchronization has been claimed to provide universal limits on the clock accuracy, viz., that accuracy monotonically decreases with the number n of party members. But this is only true for synchronization when one limits oneself to W states. This work shows that the usage of Z (Symmetric Dicke) states, a generalization of W states, results in improved accuracy, having a maximum when Left-Floor n/2 Right-Floor of its members have their qubits with a |1> eigenstate.

  10. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Maria A; McGraw, Michael H; Wells, Lawrence; Jaramillo, Diego

    2014-09-01

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed.

  11. Breast Lumps

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2015. Raftery AT, et al. Breast lumps. In: Churchill's Pocketbook of Differential Diagnosis. 4th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Churchill Livingston Elsevier; 2014. http://www.clinicalkey.com. Accessed ...

  12. Bilateral bloody nipple discharge in a male infant: sonographic findings and proposed diagnostic approach.

    PubMed

    Djilas-Ivanovic, Dragana; Boban, Jasmina; Katanic, Dragan; Ivkovic-Kapicl, Tatjana; Lucic, Milos Alexandar

    2012-01-01

    Bloody nipple discharge is an uncommon finding in the pediatric population, without clear diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines established. We noted a case of a 3-month-old male infant who presented with bilateral blood-stained nipple discharge, with unremarkable medical history. Sonographic findings revealed bilaterally dilated ducts and cysts with mixed iso- and hypoechoic intraductal content. Possible causes of this condition include hyperlaxity syndrome with decreased function of elastic fibers and fibrocystic changes in breasts, and unusual response to maternal hormones, transferred to the neonate either transplacentally or through breastfeeding. Given the most probable benign etiology and self-limiting nature of the described condition, a conservative approach is suggested. Unnecessary invasive procedures should be avoided.

  13. Synchronization by elastic neuronal latencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardi, Roni; Timor, Reut; Marom, Shimon; Abeles, Moshe; Kanter, Ido

    2013-01-01

    Psychological and physiological considerations entail that formation and functionality of neuronal cell assemblies depend upon synchronized repeated activation such as zero-lag synchronization. Several mechanisms for the emergence of this phenomenon have been suggested, including the global network quantity, the greatest common divisor of neuronal circuit delay loops. However, they require strict biological prerequisites such as precisely matched delays and connectivity, and synchronization is represented as a stationary mode of activity instead of a transient phenomenon. Here we show that the unavoidable increase in neuronal response latency to ongoing stimulation serves as a nonuniform gradual stretching of neuronal circuit delay loops. This apparent nuisance is revealed to be an essential mechanism in various types of neuronal time controllers, where synchronization emerges as a transient phenomenon and without predefined precisely matched synaptic delays. These findings are described in an experimental procedure where conditioned stimulations were enforced on a circuit of neurons embedded within a large-scale network of cortical cells in vitro, and are corroborated and extended by simulations of circuits composed of Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with time-dependent latencies. These findings announce a cortical time scale for time controllers based on tens of microseconds stretching of neuronal circuit delay loops per spike. They call for a reexamination of the role of the temporal periodic mode in brain functionality using advanced in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  14. Speed control for synchronous motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, H.; Schott, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feedback circuit controls fluctuations in speed of synchronous ac motor. Voltage proportional to phase angle is developed by phase detector, rectified, amplified, compared to threshold, and reapplied positively or negatively to motor excitation circuit. Speed control reduces wow and flutter of audio turntables and tape recorders, and enhances hunting in gyroscope motors.

  15. Sports Medicine Meets Synchronized Swimming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenz, Betty J.; And Others

    This collection of articles contains information about synchronized swimming. Topics covered include general physiology and cardiovascular conditioning, flexibility exercises, body composition, strength training, nutrition, coach-athlete relationships, coping with competition stress and performance anxiety, and eye care. Chapters are included on…

  16. Fermi Timing and Synchronization System

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.; Staples, J.; Doolittle, L.; Byrd, J.; Ratti, A.; Kaertner, F.X.; Kim, J.; Chen, J.; Ilday, F.O.; Ludwig, F.; Winter, A.; Ferianis, M.; Danailov, M.; D'Auria, G.

    2006-07-19

    The Fermi FEL will depend critically on precise timing of its RF, laser and diagnostic subsystems. The timing subsystem to coordinate these functions will need to reliably maintain sub-100fs synchronicity between distant points up to 300m apart in the Fermi facility. The technology to do this is not commercially available, and has not been experimentally demonstrated in a working facility. Therefore, new technology must be developed to meet these needs. Two approaches have been researched by different groups working with the Fermi staff. At MIT, a pulse transmission scheme has been developed for synchronization of RF and laser devices. And at LBL, a CW transmission scheme has been developed for RF and laser synchronization. These respective schemes have advantages and disadvantages that will become better understood in coming years. This document presents the work done by both teams, and suggests a possible system design which integrates them both. The integrated system design provides an example of how choices can be made between the different approaches without significantly changing the basic infrastructure of the system. Overall system issues common to any synchronization scheme are also discussed.

  17. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization.

  18. Tweaking synchronization by connectivity modifications.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Paul; Peron, Thomas; Eroglu, Deniz; Stemler, Thomas; Ramírez Ávila, Gonzalo Marcelo; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Natural and man-made networks often possess locally treelike substructures. Taking such tree networks as our starting point, we show how the addition of links changes the synchronization properties of the network. We focus on two different methods of link addition. The first method adds single links that create cycles of a well-defined length. Following a topological approach, we introduce cycles of varying length and analyze how this feature, as well as the position in the network, alters the synchronous behavior. We show that in particular short cycles can lead to a maximum change of the Laplacian's eigenvalue spectrum, dictating the synchronization properties of such networks. The second method connects a certain proportion of the initially unconnected nodes. We simulate dynamical systems on these network topologies, with the nodes' local dynamics being either discrete or continuous. Here our main result is that a certain number of additional links, with the relative position in the network being crucial, can be beneficial to ensure stable synchronization.

  19. Bilateral first and second arch anomalies: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Virad; Narula, Vineet; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop

    2012-04-01

    Branchial sinuses are one of the most common congenital anomalies present. They are usually unilateral; bilateral cases are present but are rare. The presentation of bilateral branchial sinus anomalies along with bilateral first arch anomalies is very rare. Here, we present a case of bilateral first arch anomalies co-existing with bilateral second arch anomalies in a patient with no related family history and no associated syndrome.

  20. Synchronization between two coupled complex networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Changpin; Sun, Weigang; Kurths, Jürgen

    2007-10-01

    We study synchronization for two unidirectionally coupled networks. This is a substantial generalization of several recent papers investigating synchronization inside a network. We derive analytically a criterion for the synchronization of two networks which have the same (inside) topological connectivity. Then numerical examples are given which fit the theoretical analysis. In addition, numerical calculations for two networks with different topological connections are presented and interesting synchronization and desynchronization alternately appear with increasing value of the coupling strength.

  1. Synchronization effect for uncertain quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Gebremariam, Tesfay; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for investigating the synchronization effect for uncertain networks with quantum chaotic behaviors in this paper. Through designing a special function to construct Lyapunov function of network and the adaptive laws of uncertain parameters, the synchronization between the uncertain network and the synchronization target can be realized, and the uncertain parameters in state equations of the network nodes are perfectly identified. All the theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique.

  2. Don't homogenize, synchronize.

    PubMed

    Sawhney, M

    2001-01-01

    To be more responsive to customers, companies often break down organizational walls between their units--setting up all manner of cross-business and cross-functional task forces and working groups and promoting a "one-company" culture. But such attempts can backfire terribly by distracting business and functional units and by contaminating their strategies and processes. Fortunately, there's a better way, says the author. Rather than tear down organizational walls, a company can make them permeable to information. It can synchronize all its data on products, filtering the information through linked databases and applications and delivering it in a coordinated, meaningful form to customers. As a result, the organization can present a single, unified face to the customer--one that can change as market conditions warrant--without imposing homogeneity on its people. Such synchronization can lead not just to stronger customer relationships and more sales but also to greater operational efficiency. It allows a company, for example, to avoid the high costs of maintaining many different information systems with redundant data. The decoupling of product control from customer control in a synchronized company reflects a fundamental fact about business: While companies have to focus on creating great products, customers think in terms of the activities they perform and the benefits they seek. For companies, products are ends, but for customers, products are means. The disconnect between how customers think and how companies organize themselves is what leads to inefficiencies and missed opportunities, and that's exactly the problem that synchronization solves. Synchronized companies can get closer to customers, sustain product innovation, and improve operational efficiency--goals that have traditionally been very difficult to achieve simultaneously.

  3. Midline serotonergic neurones contribute to widespread synchronized activity in embryonic mouse hindbrain

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Peter N; McCabe, Annette K; Bosma, Martha M

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous, synchronous activity occurs in motor neurones of the embryonic mouse hindbrain at the stage when rhombomeric segmentation disappears (embryonic day 11.5). The mechanisms generating and synchronizing the activity, however, and the extent to which it is widespread in the hindbrain, are unknown. We show here that spontaneous activity is initiated in the midline of the hindbrain, and propagates laterally to encompass virtually the entire hindbrain synchronously and bilaterally. Separation of the midline region from lateral regions abolishes or slows activity laterally, but not medially. The early differentiating neurones of the midline raphe system are present in the rostral midline and express serotonin at E11.5. Their axons ramify extensively in the marginal zone, cross the midline, and extend at the midline both rostrally into the midbrain and caudally towards the caudal hindbrain. Blockers of serotonin receptors, specifically the 5-HT2A receptor, abolish synchronous activity in the hindbrain, while blockers of other neurotransmitter systems, including GABA and glutamate, do not. In addition, the 5-HT2A receptor is expressed in the marginal regions in the entire medial-to-lateral extent of the hindbrain and in the midline commissural region. Thus, the serotonergic neurones of the developing midline raphe system may play a role in initiating and propagating spontaneous synchronous activity throughout the hindbrain. PMID:15932887

  4. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico

  5. Bilateral conjugacy of movement initiation is retained at the eye but not at the mouth following long-term unilateral facial nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Susan E; O'Dwyer, Nicholas J; Adams, Roger D; Croxson, Glen R

    2006-08-01

    Voluntary eyelid closure and smiling were studied in 11 normal subjects and 11 patients with long-term unilateral facial nerve palsy (FNP). The conjugacy of eyelid movements shown previously for blinks was maintained for voluntary eye closures in normal subjects, with movement onset being synchronous in both eyes. Bilateral onset synchrony of the sides of the mouth was also observed in smiling movements in normal subjects. In FNP patients, initiation of movement of the paretic and non-paretic eyelids was also synchronous, but markedly delayed relative to normal (by 136 ms = 32%). The initiation of bilateral movements at the mouth was similarly delayed, but in contrast to the eyes, it was not synchronous. Central neural processing in the FNP subjects was normal, however, since unilateral movements at the mouth were not delayed. The delays therefore point to considerable additional information processing needed for initiating bilateral facial movements after FNP. The maintenance of bilateral onset synchrony in eyelid closure and its loss in smiling following FNP is an important difference in the neural control of these facial regions. Bilateral conjugacy of eyelid movements is probably crucial for coordinating visual input and was achieved apparently without conscious effort on the part of the patients. Bilateral conjugacy of movements at the sides of the mouth may be less critical for normal function, although patients would very much like to achieve it in order to improve the appearance of their smile. Since the everyday frequency of eyelid movements is considerably greater than that of smiling, it is possible that the preserved eyelid conjugacy in these patients with long-term FNP is merely a product of greater experience. However, if synchrony of movement onset is found to be preserved in patients with acute FNP, then it would suggest that eyelid conjugacy has a privileged status in the neural organisation of the face.

  6. Comparison of complication rates of unilateral, staged bilateral, and single-session bilateral surgery for the treatment of bilateral medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Bronwyn A; Rajala-Schultz, Päivi; Hettlich, Bianca F

    2017-01-01

    This retrospective study compared complication rates in 93 client-owned dogs (119 stifles) undergoing single-session bilateral, staged bilateral, or unilateral surgery for bilateral medial patellar luxation. Clinical characteristics and complication rates were compared and risk factors for major complications were explored. Sixty-five dogs had unilateral, 16 staged bilateral and 11 single-session bilateral surgery. Complications occurred in 28/119 stifles (24%), 11 (9%) of which required revision surgery. Patellar reluxation occurred in 7/119 (6%) stifles, with no revision required. There was no significant association between timing of surgery and incidence of complications. In dogs < 10 kg with bilateral medial patellar luxation, single-session bilateral surgery is a feasible treatment option with a complication rate comparable to staged bilateral or unilateral medial patellar luxation surgery.

  7. Delay synchronization of temporal Boolean networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiang; Xie, Cheng-jun; Liang, Yi; Niu, Yu-jun; Lin, Da

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the delay synchronization between two temporal Boolean networks base on semi-tensor product method, which improve complete synchronization. Necessary and sufficient conditions for delay synchronization are drawn base on algebraic expression of temporal Boolean networks. A example is presented to show the effectiveness of theoretical analysis.

  8. Criterion of quantum synchronization and controllable quantum synchronization based on an optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2015-02-01

    We propose a quantitative criterion to determine whether the coupled quantum systems can achieve complete synchronization or phase synchronization in the process of analyzing quantum synchronization. Adopting the criterion, we discuss the quantum synchronization effects between optomechanical systems and find that the error between the systems and the fluctuation of error is sensitive to coupling intensity by calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent of the model and quantum fluctuation, respectively. By taking the appropriate coupling intensity, we can control quantum synchronization even under different logical relationships between switches. Finally, we simulate the dynamical evolution of the system to verify the quantum synchronization criterion and to show the ability of synchronization control.

  9. [Bilateral pheochromocytoma: laparoscopic surgery in 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Lam, J; Castillo, O; Bravo, J; Henríquez, R; Tagle, F

    2001-01-01

    Laparoscopic adrenalectomy, if done by skilled surgeons, is now the first choice for treating most adrenal tumors, including bilateral pheochromocytoma. We report two women, aged 35 and 34 years old, with bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma successfully excised by laparoscopic surgery. Both had severe hypertension, high urinary catecholamine values (epinephrine + norepinephrine: 528 and 1083 ug/24 h) and bilateral adrenal tumors at CT scan. After 4 weeks of doxazosin treatment, a laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy was done (Gugner's technique), with surgical times of 7 and 5 hours respectively. Both patients received hydrocortisone and only the second one required one unit of packed cells. Postoperative evolution was uneventful and both patients were discharged at the fifth postoperative day. At two months of follow up, both patients are asymptomatic and normotensive.

  10. Bilateral inguinal hernias: simultaneous or sequential repair?

    PubMed Central

    Stott, M. A.; Sutton, R.; Royle, G. T.

    1988-01-01

    Two hundred and forty four patients underwent either simultaneous bilateral inguinal hernia repair (n = 122) or unilateral inguinal hernia (n = 122) repair at a general hospital between January 1971 and December 1981. The two groups of patients were matched for age and sex. Both groups had a similar overall incidence of post-operative complications and in both groups the duration of post-operative stay and duration of operating time were similar. Chest infections developed in 12 patients after bilateral repair and in 3 patients after unilateral repair (P less than 0.02). All patients were assessed prospectively from 4 to 15 years after operation, when no significant difference in the number of recurrent hernias was found. Our results suggest that simultaneous bilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy is economical in terms of both operating time and duration of hospital stay, and that this economy is not bought at a cost of increased short term morbidity or long-term recurrence rate. PMID:3200778

  11. Bilateral filtering of magnetic resonance phase images.

    PubMed

    McPhee, Kelly C; Denk, Christian; Al-Rekabi, Zeinab; Rauscher, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    High-pass filtering is required for the removal of background field inhomogeneities in magnetic resonance phase images. This high-pass filtering smooths across boundaries between areas with large differences in phase. The most prominent boundary is the surface of the brain where areas with large phase values inside the brain are located close to areas outside the brain where the phase is, on average, zero. Cortical areas, which are of great interest in brain MRI, are therefore often degraded by high-pass filtering. Here, we propose the use of the bilateral filter for the high-pass filtering step. The bilateral filter is essentially a Gaussian filter that stops smoothing at boundaries. We show that the bilateral filter improves image quality at the brain's surface, without sacrificing contrast within the brain.

  12. Bilateral and unilateral mesodermal corneal metaplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Klauss, V; Riedel, K

    1983-01-01

    We report on 2 infants, one with a bilateral and the other with a unilateral corneal metaplasia. The first case with bilateral corneal metaplasia showed shortening of both upper and lower lids with formation of symblephara. By ultrasonography the right eye presented with microphthalmos, aphakia, and persistent hyaloid, whereas the inner parts of the left eye appeared to be normal. The question remains to be answered whether this is an abortive cryptophthalmos leading to bilateral corneal metaplasia or a primary corneal metaplasia inhibiting the lid growth. No suggestions concerning the aetiology are made. The second case presented with a unilateral corneal metaplasia, normal eye lids, aphakia, and microphthalmos. This aberration was probably caused by an amniotic band, as it is associated with malformation of the nose on the same side. In case 2 the dermoid was excised and a lamellar corneal graft performed. The histology is reported. Images PMID:6838805

  13. Breast Tomosynthesis

    MedlinePlus

    ... mammography, that uses a low-dose x-ray system and computer reconstructions to create three-dimensional images of the ... Breast tomosynthesis uses a low-dose x-ray system, electronics and a computer to convert x-ray images of the breast ...

  14. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  15. Classification System for Identifying Women at Risk for Altered Partial Breast Irradiation Recommendations After Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalchik, Kristin V.; Vallow, Laura A.; McDonough, Michelle; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heckman, Michael G.; Peterson, Jennifer L.; Adkisson, Cameron D.; Serago, Christopher; McLaughlin, Sarah A.

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To study the utility of preoperative breast MRI for partial breast irradiation (PBI) patient selection, using multivariable analysis of significant risk factors to create a classification rule. Methods and Materials: Between 2002 and 2009, 712 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent preoperative bilateral breast MRI at Mayo Clinic Florida. Of this cohort, 566 were retrospectively deemed eligible for PBI according to the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project Protocol B-39 inclusion criteria using physical examination, mammogram, and/or ultrasound. Magnetic resonance images were then reviewed to determine their impact on patient eligibility. The patient and tumor characteristics were evaluated to determine risk factors for altered PBI eligibility after MRI and to create a classification rule. Results: Of the 566 patients initially eligible for PBI, 141 (25%) were found ineligible because of pathologically proven MRI findings. Magnetic resonance imaging detected additional ipsilateral breast cancer in 118 (21%). Of these, 62 (11%) had more extensive disease than originally noted before MRI, and 64 (11%) had multicentric disease. Contralateral breast cancer was detected in 28 (5%). Four characteristics were found to be significantly associated with PBI ineligibility after MRI on multivariable analysis: premenopausal status (P=.021), detection by palpation (P<.001), first-degree relative with a history of breast cancer (P=.033), and lobular histology (P=.002). Risk factors were assigned a score of 0-2. The risk of altered PBI eligibility from MRI based on number of risk factors was 0:18%; 1:22%; 2:42%; 3:65%. Conclusions: Preoperative bilateral breast MRI altered the PBI recommendations for 25% of women. Women who may undergo PBI should be considered for breast MRI, especially those with lobular histology or with 2 or more of the following risk factors: premenopausal, detection by palpation, and first-degree relative with a history of

  16. Bilateral macular cysts following electric burn.

    PubMed

    Sony, Parul; Venkatesh, Pradeep; Tewari, Hem Kumar; Garg, Sat Pal

    2005-02-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with bilateral acute loss of vision following a high-voltage injury. The visual acuity was 6/36 in the right eye and 6/24 in the left eye. Fundus examination revealed a well-defined round lesion simulating a full thickness macular hole in the right eye and yellow deposits in the macular area in the left eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed bilateral macular cysts, with intact outer and inner retinal layers. At 1 month follow up, OCT showed a persistent macular cyst in the right eye with spontaneous resolution of the macular cyst along with visual improvement in the left eye.

  17. Bilateral occipital extradural hematoma in a child

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sharad; Sharma, Vivek; Shinde, Neeraj; Sharma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Extradural hematoma (EDH) occurs in approximately 2% of all patients with head injuries. Bilateral EDHs account for 2–10% of all acute EDHs in adults but are exceedingly rare in children. Posterior fossa EDHs occurs in 5% of all cases of EDHs. EDHs in children are more frequently venous (from tears of a dural sinus or diploic veins) and consequently have a better prognosis than EDHs in adults. Once the diagnosis of BEH is confirmed, urgent surgical treatment should be considered. We are reporting such rare form of injury as bilateral occipital EDH with supratentorial extension in 12 years child following road traffic accident. PMID:26557174

  18. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism☆

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, Rolf D.; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Methods Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Results Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Conclusion Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying. PMID:26566326

  19. Bilateral Meckel's cave amyloidoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gültaşli, N; van den Hauwe, L; Bruneau, M; D'Haene, N; Delpierre, I; Balériaux, D

    2012-05-01

    Primary solitary amyloidoma of Meckel's cave is rare, and a bilateral location is even more rare. To the best of our knowledge, only 12 cases in the literature have described such a primary lesion, including one case of bilateral involvement of Meckel's cave. We report here on the case of a 57-year-old woman presenting with pseudotumor masses involving both Meckel's caves and responsible for trigeminal neuropathy. The final diagnosis of amyloidoma was made on the basis of histological examination of surgical biopsy specimens.

  20. Correlation between nipple elevation and breast resection weight: How to preoperatively plan breast reduction.

    PubMed

    Moio, Mariagrazia; Schonauer, Fabrizio

    2015-08-01

    Breast hypertrophy is often associated with functional limitations. Beyond the aesthetic concerns, breast reduction can improve symptoms and self-esteem. In different countries, health-care system regulations have fixed the threshold for reimbursement in 500 g of predicted tissue resection for each breast. Different preoperative measurements have been proposed to predict breast-tissue weight to be removed, showing a variable correlation with post-operative evaluation. We describe a reliable, simple measurement to predict the quantity of breast reduction in grams, which can be applicable to any surgical technique. A total of 128 patients undergoing bilateral breast reduction were evaluated. The correlation between the preoperative nipple-areola complex (NAC) lift distance and the weight of removed breast tissue was tested with linear regression and Pearson's test. Other anthropometric measurements were tested as a control. The ratio between resected grams and lift distance was explored to find a multiplication coefficient to be used at preoperative planning. The mean resection weight was 686.65 g. The mean NAC-lift distance was 7.6 cm. Positive correlation between the NAC-lift distance and the weight of breast tissue removed was found (r: 0.87; p < 0.001). The mean weight of the removed breast tissue (g) per centimetre of NAC lift was 81 g/cm in the group between 6 and 12 cm and 70 g/cm in the group with >12 cm of lift distance. The NAC-lift distance is a single, objective, repeatable measure that can provide a reliable prediction of breast-tissue grams to be removed; it helps in classifying breast-reduction indications.

  1. Partial Synchronization of Interconnected Boolean Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Liang, Jinling; Lu, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the partial synchronization problem for the interconnected Boolean networks (BNs) via the semi-tensor product (STP) of matrices. First, based on an algebraic state space representation of BNs, a necessary and sufficient criterion is presented to ensure the partial synchronization of the interconnected BNs. Second, by defining an induced digraph of the partial synchronized states set, an equivalent graphical description for the partial synchronization of the interconnected BNs is established. Consequently, the second partial synchronization criterion is derived in terms of adjacency matrix of the induced digraph. Finally, two examples (including an epigenetic model) are provided to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.

  2. Different Synchronization Schemes for Chaotic Rikitake Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Ali

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents the chaos synchronization by designing a different type of controllers. Firstly, we propose the synchronization of bi-directional coupled chaotic Rikitake systems via hybrid feedback control. Secondly, we study the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled Rikitake systems using hybrid feedback control. Lastly, we investigate the synchronization of unidirectionally coupled Rikitake chaotic systems using tracking control. Comparing all the results, finally, we conclude that tracking control is more effective than feedback control. Simulation results are presented to show the efficiency of synchronization schemes.

  3. Multistatic radar: Synchronization and time reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jubrink, H. G.

    1994-08-01

    A synchronization and time reference system for multistatic radar (MSR) is presented. The report also gives a summary of the most important parameter values of the synchronization process in MSR. Some reference oscillator systems using Loran C and global positioning system (GPS) receivers have been briefly analyzed. The synchronization method is based on a multioscillator system from the HP time and frequency standard system, the HP 55000 system. The multioscillator concept gives a more robust and redundant solution of the synchronization problem. The synchronization system can also be given external support by other time precision systems, for instance the GPS system.

  4. Inhomogeneity induces relay synchronization in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia; Fortuna, Luigi; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Relay synchronization is a collective state, originally found in chains of interacting oscillators, in which uncoupled dynamical units synchronize through the action of mismatched inner nodes that relay the information but do not synchronize with them. It is demonstrated herein that relay synchronization is not limited to such simple motifs, rather it can emerge in larger and arbitrary network topologies. In particular, we show how this phenomenon can be observed in networks of chaotic systems in the presence of some mismatched units, the relay nodes, and how it is actually responsible for an enhancement of synchronization in the network.

  5. Inhomogeneity induces relay synchronization in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia; Fortuna, Luigi; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Relay synchronization is a collective state, originally found in chains of interacting oscillators, in which uncoupled dynamical units synchronize through the action of mismatched inner nodes that relay the information but do not synchronize with them. It is demonstrated herein that relay synchronization is not limited to such simple motifs, rather it can emerge in larger and arbitrary network topologies. In particular, we show how this phenomenon can be observed in networks of chaotic systems in the presence of some mismatched units, the relay nodes, and how it is actually responsible for an enhancement of synchronization in the network.

  6. Photonic cavity synchronization of nanomechanical oscillators.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Mahmood; Poot, Menno; Fan, Linran; Marquardt, Florian; Tang, Hong X

    2013-11-22

    Synchronization in oscillatory systems is a frequent natural phenomenon and is becoming an important concept in modern physics. Nanomechanical resonators are ideal systems for studying synchronization due to their controllable oscillation properties and engineerable nonlinearities. Here we demonstrate synchronization of two nanomechanical oscillators via a photonic resonator, enabling optomechanical synchronization between mechanically isolated nanomechanical resonators. Optical backaction gives rise to both reactive and dissipative coupling of the mechanical resonators, leading to coherent oscillation and mutual locking of resonators with dynamics beyond the widely accepted phase oscillator (Kuramoto) model. In addition to the phase difference between the oscillators, also their amplitudes are coupled, resulting in the emergence of sidebands around the synchronized carrier signal.

  7. The emergence of synchronization behavior in Physarum polycephalum and its particle approximation.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Soichiro; Jones, Jeff

    2011-03-01

    The regeneration process of contractile oscillation in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is investigated experimentally and modelled computationally. When placed in a well, the Physarum cell restructures the body (fusion of small granule-like cells) and shows various complex oscillation patterns. After it completed the restructuring and regained synchronized oscillation within the body, the cell shows bilateral oscillation or rotating wave pattern. This regeneration process did not depend on the well size and all the cases tested here showed similar time course. Phase synchronization analysis based on Hilbert Transform also suggested that the cell can develop a fully synchronized oscillation within a fixed time no matter what the cell size is. A particle-based computational model was developed in order to model the emergence of oscillation patterns. Particles employing very simple and identical sensory and motor behaviors interacted with each other via the sensing and deposition of chemoattractants in a diffusive environment. From a random and almost homogeneous distribution, emergent domains of oscillatory activity emerged. By increasing the sensory radius the model simulated the regeneration process of the real plasmodium. In addition, the model replicated the rotating wave and bilateral oscillation pattern when the sensory radius was increased. The results suggest that complex emergent oscillatory behaviors (and thus the high-level systems which may utilize them, such as pumping and transport mechanisms) may be developed from simple materials inspired by Physarum slime mold.

  8. Unusual Presentation of Recurrent Pyogenic Bilateral Psoas Abscess Causing Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism by Iliac Vein Compression

    PubMed Central

    Ijaz, Mohsin; Sakam, Sailaja; Ashraf, Umair; Marquez, Jose Gomez

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Bilateral psoas abscess • acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis • bilateral pulmonary embolism Symptoms: Progressive left leg swelling • productive cough with whitish sputum • right flank pain Medication: Antibiotics and anticoagulation Clinical Procedure: CT-guided percutaneous drain placement Specialty: Internal Medicine/Critical Care Objective: Unusual presentation Background: Psoas abscesses are a known cause of back pain, but they have not been reported as a cause of acute lower extremity thromboses and bilateral pulmonary emboli. We report a patient with bilateral psoas abscesses causing extensive pulmonary emboli through compression of the iliac vein. Case Report: A 47-year-old man presented with bilateral leg swelling over 4 weeks. Physical examination revealed a thin male with bilateral leg swelling, extending to the thigh on his left side. He had hemoglobin of 10.5 g/dl, leukocytosis of 16 000/ml, and an elevated D-dimer. A computed tomography (CT) angiogram of his chest showed extensive bilateral pulmonary emboli and infarcts. He remained febrile with vague flank pain, prompting a CT of his abdomen and pelvis that showed large, multiloculated, septated, bilateral psoas abscesses with compression of the left femoral vein by the left psoas abscess and a thrombus distal to the occlusion. Two liters of pus was drained from the left psoas abscess by CT-guidance, and although the Gram staining showed Gram-positive cocci in clusters, cultures from the abscess and blood were negative. A repeat CT showed resolution of the abscesses, and the drain was removed. He was discharged to a nursing home to complete a course of intravenous antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusions: Although the infectious complications of psoas abscesses have been described in the literature, the mechanical complications of bilateral psoas abscesses are lacking. It is important to assess for complete resolution of psoas abscesses through

  9. The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information

    PubMed Central

    Benito, Nuria; Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the two hippocampal lobes convey similar or different activities and how they cooperate. Spatial discrimination of electric fields in anesthetized rats allowed us to compare the pathway-specific field potentials corresponding to the gamma-paced CA3 output (CA1 Schaffer potentials) and CA3 somatic inhibition within and between sides. Bilateral excitatory Schaffer gamma waves are generally larger and lead from the right hemisphere with only moderate covariation of amplitude, and drive CA1 pyramidal units more strongly than unilateral waves. CA3 waves lock to the ipsilateral Schaffer potentials, although bilateral coherence was weak. Notably, Schaffer activity may run laterally, as seen after the disruption of the connecting pathways. Thus, asymmetric operations promote the entrainment of CA3-autonomous gamma oscillators bilaterally, synchronizing lateralized gamma strings to converge optimally on CA1 targets. The findings support the view that interhippocampal connections integrate different aspects of information that flow through the left and right lobes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16658.001 PMID:27599221

  10. Producing Newborn Synchronous Mammalian Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steve R.; Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen

    2008-01-01

    A method and bioreactor for the continuous production of synchronous (same age) population of mammalian cells have been invented. The invention involves the attachment and growth of cells on an adhesive-coated porous membrane immersed in a perfused liquid culture medium in a microgravity analog bioreactor. When cells attach to the surface divide, newborn cells are released into the flowing culture medium. The released cells, consisting of a uniform population of synchronous cells are then collected from the effluent culture medium. This invention could be of interest to researchers investigating the effects of the geneotoxic effects of the space environment (microgravity, radiation, chemicals, gases) and to pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies involved in research on aging and cancer, and in new drug development and testing.

  11. Parallel integrated frame synchronizer chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder Singh (Inventor); Solomon, Jeffrey Michael (Inventor); Bennett, Toby Dennis (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A parallel integrated frame synchronizer which implements a sequential pipeline process wherein serial data in the form of telemetry data or weather satellite data enters the synchronizer by means of a front-end subsystem and passes to a parallel correlator subsystem or a weather satellite data processing subsystem. When in a CCSDS mode, data from the parallel correlator subsystem passes through a window subsystem, then to a data alignment subsystem and then to a bit transition density (BTD)/cyclical redundancy check (CRC) decoding subsystem. Data from the BTD/CRC decoding subsystem or data from the weather satellite data processing subsystem is then fed to an output subsystem where it is output from a data output port.

  12. [Synchronous diverticulitis: a case report.].

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Argáiz, R; Rodríguez-Zentner, H A; Tapia, H; González-Contreras, Q H

    2010-01-01

    Diverticular colonic disease is not as common in developing nations as in western and industrialized societies, accounting for approximately 130 000 hospitalizations per year in the United States, being diverticulitis the most frequent complication. Synchronous presentation of this complication is very rare, with only one case reported in literature. We present a patient who presented with diffuse abdominal pain. Colonoscopy was performed identifying a mass in the sigmoid colon and a perforation in the cecum. Patient underwent total abdominal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis and protective loop ileostomy. Histopathologic examination revealed synchronous complicated diverticular disease of the sigmoid and cecum. In this report we disclose this type of atypical presentation of diverticular disease and establish that the approach taken is safe and feasible.

  13. Synchronous clock stopper for microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous clock stopper circuit for inhibiting clock pulses to a microprocessor in response to a stop request signal, and for reinstating the clock pulses in response to a start request signal thereby to conserve power consumption of the microprocessor when used in an environment of limited power. The stopping and starting of the microprocessor is synchronized, by a phase tracker, with the occurrences of a predetermined phase in the instruction cycle of the microprocessor in which the I/O data and address lines of the microprocessor are of high impedance so that a shared memory connected to the I/O lines may be accessed by other peripheral devices. The starting and stopping occur when the microprocessor initiates and completes, respectively, an instruction, as well as before and after transferring data with a memory. Also, the phase tracker transmits phase information signals over a bus to other peripheral devices which signals identify the current operational phase of the microprocessor.

  14. Synchronization of electronic genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Alexandre; Buldú, Javier M; García-Ojalvo, Jordi; Sanjuán, Miguel A F

    2006-03-01

    We describe a simple analog electronic circuit that mimics the behavior of a well-known synthetic gene oscillator, the repressilator, which represents a set of three genes repressing one another. Synchronization of a population of such units is thoroughly studied, with the aim to compare the role of global coupling with that of global forcing on the population. Our results show that coupling is much more efficient than forcing in leading the gene population to synchronized oscillations. Furthermore, a modification of the proposed analog circuit leads to a simple electronic version of a genetic toggle switch, which is a simple network of two mutual repressor genes, where control by external forcing is also analyzed.

  15. Varicosity of a single breast: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vinod; Misra, Samir; Jaiswal, Vaibhav; Singh, Saumya

    2014-09-19

    Varicosity of the breasts is a rare clinical entity that may lead to symptoms such as prominent vascular markings over the breasts and may be painless; in long-standing cases it can lead to recurrent bleeding episodes. Bilateral venous affection in the breasts has been described in the literature; however, unilateral affection is a rarely documented phenomenon. Since vascular affliction of a single breast is rare and there is inherent difficulty in obtaining a histopathological diagnosis against a background of suspicion of malignancy, it is always challenging to provide optimal management to the patient. We are reporting a rare case of a 42-year-old, postmenopausal Indian woman with a long-standing history of unilateral varicosity of the left breast, who was treated successfully with a simple mastectomy; postoperative histopathology was consistent with benign vascular lesion, that is, angiomatosis.

  16. High Accuracy Time Transfer Synchronization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    HIGH ACCURACY TIME TRANSFER SYNCHRONIZATION Paul Wheeler, Paul Koppang, David Chalmers, Angela Davis, Anthony Kubik and William Powell U.S. Naval...Observatory Washington, DC 20392 Abstract In July 1994, the US Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a...field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchro- nization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance

  17. Conveyor-belt clock synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Wong, Franco N.C.; Lloyd, Seth

    2004-10-01

    A protocol for synchronizing distant clocks is proposed that does not rely on the arrival times of the signals which are exchanged, and an optical implementation based on coherent-state pulses is described. This protocol is not limited by any dispersion that may be present in the propagation medium through which the light signals are exchanged. Possible improvements deriving from the use of quantum-mechanical effects are also addressed.

  18. Digital-data receiver synchronization

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.

    2005-08-02

    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  19. Octopamine promotes rhythmicity but not synchrony in a bilateral pair of bursting motor neurons in the feeding circuit of Aplysia

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rubio, C.; Serrano, G. E.; Miller, M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Octopamine-like immunoreactivity was localized to a limited number (<40) of neurons in the Aplysia central nervous system, including three neurons in the paired buccal ganglia (BG) that control feeding movements. Application of octopamine (OA) to the BG circuit produced concentration-dependent (10−8–10−4 mol l−1) modulatory actions on the spontaneous burst activity of the bilaterally paired B67 pharyngeal motor neurons (MNs). OA increased B67's burst duration and the number of impulses per burst. These effects reflected actions of OA on the intrinsic tetrodotoxin-resistant driver potential (DP) that underlies B67 bursting. In addition to its effects on B67's burst parameters, OA also increased the rate and regularity of burst timing. Although the bilaterally paired B67 MNs both exhibited rhythmic bursting in the presence of OA, they did not become synchronized. In this respect, the response to OA differed from that of dopamine, another modulator of the feeding motor network, which produces both rhythmicity and synchrony of bursting in the paired B67 neurons. It is proposed that modulators can regulate burst synchrony of MNs by exerting a dual control over their intrinsic rhythmicity and their reciprocal capacity to generate membrane potential perturbations. In this simple system, dopaminergic and octopaminergic modulation could influence whether pharyngeal contractions occur in a bilaterally synchronous or asynchronous fashion. PMID:20228355

  20. Network synchronization in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Penn, Yaron; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2016-03-22

    Oscillatory activity is widespread in dynamic neuronal networks. The main paradigm for the origin of periodicity consists of specialized pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the rest of the network; however, other models exist. Here, we studied the spontaneous emergence of synchronized periodic bursting in a network of cultured dissociated neurons from rat hippocampus and cortex. Surprisingly, about 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected, each with its own natural frequency. The individual neuron's tendency to oscillate and the corresponding oscillation frequency are controlled by its excitability. The single neuron intrinsic oscillations were blocked by riluzole, and are thus dependent on persistent sodium leak currents. Upon a gradual retrieval of connectivity, the synchrony evolves: Loose synchrony appears already at weak connectivity, with the oscillators converging to one common oscillation frequency, yet shifted in phase across the population. Further strengthening of the connectivity causes a reduction in the mean phase shifts until zero-lag is achieved, manifested by synchronous periodic network bursts. Interestingly, the frequency of network bursting matches the average of the intrinsic frequencies. Overall, the network behaves like other universal systems, where order emerges spontaneously by entrainment of independent rhythmic units. Although simplified with respect to circuitry in the brain, our results attribute a basic functional role for intrinsic single neuron excitability mechanisms in driving the network's activity and dynamics, contributing to our understanding of developing neural circuits.

  1. Network synchronization in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Yaron; Segal, Menahem; Moses, Elisha

    2016-01-01

    Oscillatory activity is widespread in dynamic neuronal networks. The main paradigm for the origin of periodicity consists of specialized pacemaking elements that synchronize and drive the rest of the network; however, other models exist. Here, we studied the spontaneous emergence of synchronized periodic bursting in a network of cultured dissociated neurons from rat hippocampus and cortex. Surprisingly, about 60% of all active neurons were self-sustained oscillators when disconnected, each with its own natural frequency. The individual neuron’s tendency to oscillate and the corresponding oscillation frequency are controlled by its excitability. The single neuron intrinsic oscillations were blocked by riluzole, and are thus dependent on persistent sodium leak currents. Upon a gradual retrieval of connectivity, the synchrony evolves: Loose synchrony appears already at weak connectivity, with the oscillators converging to one common oscillation frequency, yet shifted in phase across the population. Further strengthening of the connectivity causes a reduction in the mean phase shifts until zero-lag is achieved, manifested by synchronous periodic network bursts. Interestingly, the frequency of network bursting matches the average of the intrinsic frequencies. Overall, the network behaves like other universal systems, where order emerges spontaneously by entrainment of independent rhythmic units. Although simplified with respect to circuitry in the brain, our results attribute a basic functional role for intrinsic single neuron excitability mechanisms in driving the network’s activity and dynamics, contributing to our understanding of developing neural circuits. PMID:26961000

  2. A case of bilateral temporal lobe agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C; Lehrl, S; Huk, W

    1981-01-01

    A 76-year-old man with bilateral temporal lobe agenesis producing clinical features resembling the Robinson syndrome is described. The malformation was discovered during a routine CT examination after the appearance of a homonymous visual field defect. The patient was examined by (neuro) psychological testing. The findings are compared with other reported cases and discussed with regard to cerebral localisation. Images PMID:7288451

  3. Management of Bilateral Carotid Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jadhav, Ashutosh P.; Ducruet, Andrew F.; Jankowitz, Brian T.; Jovin, Tudor G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Symptomatic bilateral internal carotid occlusive disease is a rare but potentially devastating entity. Medical therapy alone is associated with high rates of mortality and recurrent stroke. The optimal management of this disease remains poorly understood. Methods A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database was conducted for patients who presented with an acute stroke in the setting of bilateral carotid occlusive disease between May and October 2013. Results We identified 3 patients. The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score ranged from 4 to 7. All patients had small- to moderate-sized infarcts in the anterior circulation on presentation. Angiography confirmed bilateral internal carotid occlusions with collateral filling via the posterior communicating artery and retrograde filling via external carotid artery supply to the ophthalmic artery. All patients were initially managed with permissive hypertension and anticoagulation followed by carotid angioplasty and stenting. At 1-year follow-up, all patients demonstrated a modified Rankin scale score of 0-1. Conclusions Carotid stenting may be a safe and effective therapy for patients presenting with symptomatic bilateral carotid occlusions. PMID:27051405

  4. Color image diffusion using adaptive bilateral filter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Ann Heng, Pheng

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to diffuse color images based on the bilateral filter. Real image data has a level of uncertainty that is manifested in the variability of measures assigned to pixels. This uncertainty is usually interpreted as noise and considered an undesirable component of the image data. Image diffusion can smooth away small-scale structures and noise while retaining important features, thus improving the performances for many image processing algorithms such as image compression, segmentation and recognition. The bilateral filter is noniterative, simple and fast. It has been shown to give similar and possibly better filtering results than iterative approaches. However, the performance of this filter is greatly affected by the choose of the parameters of filtering kernels. In order to remove noise and maintain the significant features on images, we extend the bilateral filter by introducing an adaptive domain spread into the nonlinear diffusion scheme. For color images, we employ the CIE-Lab color system to describe input images and the filtering process is operated using three channels together. Our analysis shows that the proposed method is more suitable for preserving strong edges on noisy images than the original bilateral filter. Empirical results on both nature images and color medical images confirm the novel method's advantages, and show it can diffuse various kinds of color images correctly and efficiently.

  5. Bilateral angle closure glaucoma following general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Raj, K Mohan; Reddy, P Arun Subhash; Kumar, Vikram Chella

    2015-04-01

    Angle closure glaucoma is one of the ophthalmic emergencies and treatment has to be given at the earliest. It is a rare complication of general anesthesia. A female patient underwent Hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Following this, patient developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma. This patient was treated with antiglaucoma medications followed by YAG laser iridotomy and patient regained vision.

  6. Bilateral optic papillitis following mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Milla, E; Zografos, L; Piguet, B

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that can cause a great variety of respiratory infections and be responsible for ocular involvement such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis and very rarely optic neuropathy. We report herein an additional case of bilateral optic disc swelling with profound visual loss following Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and review the world literature on the ocular manifestations associated with this pathogen.

  7. Bilateral macular colobomas in Leber's congenital amaurosis.

    PubMed

    Murayama, K; Adachi-Usami, E

    1989-06-01

    Two siblings with Leber's congenital amaurosis had bilateral macular colobomas, nystagmus, extinguished ERGs, and degenerative salt and pepper like changes in the fundus. They had non-recordable or non-meaningful visually evoked cortical potentials in response to both flash and pattern stimuli. The ophthalmic conditions were thought to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.

  8. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... disabilities of the right and left sides will be combined as usual, and 10 percent of this value will be added... extremities as a whole. Thus with a compensable disability of the right thigh, for example, amputation, and one of the left foot, for example, pes planus, the bilateral factor applies, and similarly...

  9. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... disabilities of the right and left sides will be combined as usual, and 10 percent of this value will be added... extremities as a whole. Thus with a compensable disability of the right thigh, for example, amputation, and one of the left foot, for example, pes planus, the bilateral factor applies, and similarly...

  10. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or injury of both arms, or of both legs, or of paired skeletal muscles, the ratings for the... arm, forearm and hand, or the thigh, leg, and foot, but relates to the upper extremities and lower... one of the left foot, for example, pes planus, the bilateral factor applies, and similarly...

  11. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or injury of both arms, or of both legs, or of paired skeletal muscles, the ratings for the... arm, forearm and hand, or the thigh, leg, and foot, but relates to the upper extremities and lower... one of the left foot, for example, pes planus, the bilateral factor applies, and similarly...

  12. Bilateral subclavian steal syndrome with vertigo.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Toshiaki; Sawai, Yachiyo; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is usually caused by unilateral subclavian artery (SA) occlusion, and bilateral SSS is very rare. Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is a chronic granulomatous form of vasculitis that affects the SA, most commonly in women aged 15-40 years. We report a rare case of bilateral SSS due to TA in a 52-year-old woman, who exhibited severe vertigo. Although her blood pressure was within the normal range and did not differ between her arms, Doppler ultrasonography revealed low antegrade blood flow in the right SA and retrograde flow in the left SA. Computed tomography angiography demonstrated complete obstruction of the bilateral SA proximal to the vertebral artery origin. The more marked decrease in the blood flow of the vertebrobasilar artery experienced in bilateral SSS compared with unilateral SSS is considered to have caused the severe rotatory vertigo in the present patient. Since the vascular conditions of TA progressively deteriorate, delayed diagnosis and treatment could result in poor outcomes and unfavorable prognosis. We suggest that SSS with TA might require an early detection and treatment as well as careful follow-up for preventing vertigo and other neurological deficits in the vertebrobasilar arterial region.

  13. [Lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses].

    PubMed

    García, Elena; Sánchez, Raquel; Martínez, Guillermo; Bernal, Carmen; Calatayud, M; Partida, M; Hawkins, Federico

    2009-05-01

    Many problems may arise when defining whether adrenal lesions are primary to the adrenal glands or represent other tissue, whether they are benign or malignant and whether they are functioning or nonfunctioning. Adrenal imaging complements the clinical and hormonal evaluation of these patients. We present a patient with lumbar pain and bilateral adrenal masses.

  14. Bilateral Parotid Swelling in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yakubov, Yakov; Mandel, Louis

    2016-05-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is recognized by the presence of polycystic ovaries, irregular menstruation, and increased androgen levels. Many patients have insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance and an associated development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. A patient with PCOS is presented whose cosmetic concerns centered on the prolonged existence of substantial bilateral parotid swelling. The pathophysiology, diagnosis, and therapy of sialosis are discussed.

  15. Computed tomographic findings in bilateral adrenal tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wilms, G.E.; Baert, A.L.; Kint, E.J.; Pringot, J.H.; Goddeeris, P.G.

    1983-03-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) features of bilateral adrenal tuberculosis are reported in two cases that demonstrate two typical different clinical and morphological manifestations of the disease. The incidence and CT appearance of adrenal tuberculosis are discussed, with emphasis on differential diagnosis.

  16. Early bilateral sensory deprivation blocks the development of coincident discharge in rat barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Ayan; Pouget, Pierre; Popescu, Maria; Ebner, Ford

    2009-02-25

    Several theories have proposed a functional role for synchronous neuronal firing in generating the neural code of a sensory perception. Synchronous neural activity develops during a critical postnatal period of cortical maturation, and severely reducing neural activity in a sensory pathway during this period could interfere with the development of coincident discharge among cortical neurons. Loss of such synchrony could provide a fundamental mechanism for the degradation of acuity shown in behavioral studies. We tested the hypothesis that synchronous discharge of barrel cortex neurons would fail to develop after sensory deprivation produced by bilateral whisker trimming from birth to postnatal day 60. By studying the correlated discharge of cortical neuron pairs, we found evidence for strong correlated firing in control animals, and this synchrony was almost absent among pairs of cortical barrel neurons in deprived animals. The degree of synchrony impairment was different in subregions of rat barrel cortex. The model that best fits the data is that cortical neurons receiving direct inputs from the primary sensory (lemniscal) pathway show the greatest decrement in synchrony following sensory deprivation, while neurons with diverse inputs from other areas of thalamus and cortex are relatively less affected in this dimension of cortical function.

  17. Breast augmentation surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shape of your breasts. Talk with a plastic surgeon if you are considering breast augmentation. Discuss ... mammograms or breast x-rays before surgery. The plastic surgeon will do a routine breast exam. Several ...

  18. Learning about Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Breast Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast ... Cancer What do we know about heredity and breast cancer? Breast cancer is a common disease. Each year, ...

  19. Breast reconstruction - natural tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... After a mastectomy , some women choose to have cosmetic surgery to remake their breast. This type of surgery ... augmentation surgery Breast reconstruction - implants Mastectomy Patient Instructions Cosmetic breast surgery - discharge Mastectomy and breast reconstruction - what to ask ...

  20. Synchronization transition in networked chaotic oscillators: the viewpoint from partial synchronization.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chenbo; Lin, Weijie; Huang, Liang; Wang, Xingang

    2014-05-01

    Synchronization transition in networks of nonlocally coupled chaotic oscillators is investigated. It is found that in reaching the state of global synchronization the networks can stay in various states of partial synchronization. The stability of the partial synchronization states is analyzed by the method of eigenvalue analysis, in which the important roles of the network topological symmetry on synchronization transition are identified. Moreover, for networks possessing multiple topological symmetries, it is found that the synchronization transition can be divided into different stages, with each stage characterized by a unique synchronous pattern of the oscillators. Synchronization transitions in networks of nonsymmetric topology and nonidentical oscillators are also investigated, where the partial synchronization states, although unstable, are found to be still playing important roles in the transitions.

  1. Increased cardiovascular mortality following early bilateral oophorectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Cathleen M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Brown, Robert D.; Roger, Véronique L.; Melton, L. Joseph; Rocca, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mortality associated with cardiovascular diseases and the effect of estrogen treatment in women who underwent unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. Design We conducted a cohort study with long-term follow-up of women in Olmsted County, MN, who underwent either unilateral or bilateral oophorectomy before the onset of menopause from 1950 through 1987. Each member of the oophorectomy cohort was matched by age to a referent woman from the same population who had not undergone any oophorectomy. We studied the mortality associated with cardiovascular disease in a total of 1,274 women with unilateral oophorectomy, 1,091 women with bilateral oophorectomy, and 2,383 referent women. Results Women who underwent unilateral oophorectomy experienced a reduced mortality associated with cardiovascular disease compared with referent women (hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67–0.99; P = 0.04). By contrast, women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 45 years experienced an increased mortality associated with cardiovascular disease compared with referent women (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.01–2.05; P = 0.04). Within this age stratum, the HR for mortality was significantly elevated in women who were not treated with estrogen through age 45 years or longer (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.27–2.68; P = 0.001) but not in women treated (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.30–1.41; P = 0.28; test of interaction, P = 0.01). Mortality was further increased after excluding deaths associated with cerebrovascular causes. Conclusions Bilateral oophorectomy performed before age 45 years is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, especially with cardiac mortality. However, estrogen treatment may reduce this risk. PMID:19034050

  2. Amnesia Associated with Bilateral Hippocampal and Bilateral Basal Ganglia Lesions in Anoxia with Stimulant Use

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Marc W.; Hogg, Jeffery P.; Marshalek, Patrick J.; Suter, Blair C.; Miller, Liv E.

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of a 55-year-old man with ischemic lesions of the bilateral hippocampus and bilateral basal ganglia following a myocardial infarction during an episode of multiple drug use with subsequent anoxia requiring resuscitation. He presented for a neuropsychological evaluation with an anterograde amnesia for both explicit and procedural memory. There are two main points to this case, the unique aspects of the bilateral multifocal lesions and the functional, cognitive impact of these lesions. We hypothesize that his rare focal bilateral lesions of both the hippocampus and basal ganglia are a result of anoxia acting in synergy with his stimulant drug use (cocaine and/or 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine). Second, his unique lesions produced an explicit and implicit/procedural anterograde amnesia. PMID:28228745

  3. Collision tumor: invasive ductal carcinoma in association with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the same breast.

    PubMed

    Quilon, Joanne M; Gaskin, Thomas A; Ludwig, Arthur S; Alley, Catherine

    2006-02-01

    Synchronous occurrence of multiple neoplastic processes is uncommon and the relationship between breast cancer with lymphoproliferative diseases is unusual as well. Furthermore, breast involvement by malignant lymphoma is a rare event and primary breast mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is even rarer. We report a patient with synchronous occurrence of malignant lymphoma of MALT type and ductal carcinoma of the breast, presenting as "collision tumor," invading each other and occurring as a single mass in the breast. Involvement of the sentinel lymph node by MALT lymphoma was demonstrated with no evidence of metastatic carcinoma. Staging bone marrow biopsy did not show involvement by malignant lymphoma or carcinoma. Our patient was treated with chemotherapy for the lymphoma. She also received radiotherapy and aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant therapy for the breast carcinoma.

  4. Erbium:YAG laser as a method of deepithelization in corrective and reductive breast surgery.

    PubMed

    Trelles, Mario A; Pardo, Lourdes; Chamorro, Juan José; Bonanad, Enrique; Allones, Inés; Buil, Carmen; Luna, Ricardo

    2005-08-01

    Deepithelization of the breast in breast ptosis surgery is important, being associated with risks which could affect the clinical outcome. The role of Er:YAG laser deepithelization was investigated. A total of 12 bilateral mammoplasties were performed, randomly assigned to 2 groups, one of experienced and one of less-experienced surgeons. Results were compared between the 2 groups of surgeons for scalpel deepithelization on one breast and the Er:YAG laser on the contralateral breast. No complications; less edema, pain, and erythema; and quicker wound healing were observed in the laser-deepithelized breasts, with a shorter operation time even for the less-experienced surgeons. The authors do not suggest that the Er:YAG laser should replace the scalpel in the hands of the expert surgeon for breast deepithelization in breast ptosis surgery, but the results of the study suggest that Er:YAG laser ablation is a safe, precise, effective and complication-free method.

  5. Hardware Implementation of a Bilateral Subtraction Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huertas, Andres; Watson, Robert; Villalpando, Carlos; Goldberg, Steven

    2009-01-01

    A bilateral subtraction filter has been implemented as a hardware module in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). In general, a bilateral subtraction filter is a key subsystem of a high-quality stereoscopic machine vision system that utilizes images that are large and/or dense. Bilateral subtraction filters have been implemented in software on general-purpose computers, but the processing speeds attainable in this way even on computers containing the fastest processors are insufficient for real-time applications. The present FPGA bilateral subtraction filter is intended to accelerate processing to real-time speed and to be a prototype of a link in a stereoscopic-machine- vision processing chain, now under development, that would process large and/or dense images in real time and would be implemented in an FPGA. In terms that are necessarily oversimplified for the sake of brevity, a bilateral subtraction filter is a smoothing, edge-preserving filter for suppressing low-frequency noise. The filter operation amounts to replacing the value for each pixel with a weighted average of the values of that pixel and the neighboring pixels in a predefined neighborhood or window (e.g., a 9 9 window). The filter weights depend partly on pixel values and partly on the window size. The present FPGA implementation of a bilateral subtraction filter utilizes a 9 9 window. This implementation was designed to take advantage of the ability to do many of the component computations in parallel pipelines to enable processing of image data at the rate at which they are generated. The filter can be considered to be divided into the following parts (see figure): a) An image pixel pipeline with a 9 9- pixel window generator, b) An array of processing elements; c) An adder tree; d) A smoothing-and-delaying unit; and e) A subtraction unit. After each 9 9 window is created, the affected pixel data are fed to the processing elements. Each processing element is fed the pixel value for

  6. Breast lump

    MedlinePlus

    ... a woman are often caused by fibrocystic changes, fibroadenomas, and cysts. Fibrocystic changes are painful, lumpy breasts. ... period, and then improve after your period starts. Fibroadenomas are noncancerous lumps that feel rubbery. They move ...

  7. Breast pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... chocolate in your diet helps reduce breast pain. Vitamin E, thiamine, magnesium, and evening primrose oil are not harmful, but most studies have not shown any benefit. Talk to your health care provider before starting ...

  8. Breast cancer, genetics, and age at first pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, H T; Albano, W A; Layton, M A; Kimberling, W J; Lynch, J F

    1984-01-01

    Hereditary breast cancer shows a distinctive natural history characterised by an earlier age of onset, excess bilaterality, vertical transmission, heterogeneous tumour associations, and improved survival when compared to its sporadic counterpart. To date, very little attention has been given to interrelationships between breast cancer risk factors and genetics. In the general population, early age of first term pregnancy has been generally accepted as protective against breast cancer. In addition, recent findings suggest that an early age of first pregnancy may be associated with an earlier age of breast cancer diagnosis. We studied the age at first pregnancy and age at onset of breast cancer among 162 females at 50% genetic risk, 72 of whom had already developed the disease. We then compared them to 154 consecutively ascertained breast cancer patients from the Creighton Cancer Center. In the hereditary subset (1) early first term pregnancy did not alter the frequency of breast cancer; (2) early age at first term pregnancy was not associated with an earlier age at cancer diagnosis; and (3) age of breast cancer onset in nulliparous females was not significantly lower than that in females having at least one term pregnancy. We speculate, therefore, that in our hereditary population, pregnancy does not influence the natural history of breast cancer in the same way that it does in the population at large. PMID:6716424

  9. Bilateral gas gangrene of the hand - a unique case.

    PubMed

    Goyal, R W; Ng, A B Y; Bale, R S

    2003-11-01

    Gas gangrene is a rare and rapidly progressive process with the propensity for devastating consequences. We report the first case of bilateral gas gangrene of the hand following bilateral middle phalangectomy of the middle fingers.

  10. A Switched-Mode Breast Coil for 7 T MRI Using Forced-Current Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Bosshard, John C.; Rispoli, Joseph V.; Dimitrov, Ivan E.; Cheshkov, Sergey; McDougall, Mary Preston; Malloy, Craig; Wright, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    In high-field magnetic resonance imaging, the radio frequency wavelength within the human body is comparable to anatomical dimensions, resulting in B1 inhomogeneity and nonuniform sensitivity patterns. Thus, this relatively short wavelength presents engineering challenges for RF coil design. In this study, a bilateral breast coil for 1H imaging at 7 T was designed and constructed using forced-current excitation. By forcing equal current through the coil elements, we reduce the effects of coupling between the elements to simplify tuning and to ensure a uniform field across both breasts. To combine the benefits of the higher power efficiency of a unilateral coil with the bilateral coverage of a bilateral coil, a switching circuit was implemented to allow the coil to be reconfigured for imaging the left, right, or both breasts. PMID:25706501

  11. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an "all or none" phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera).

  12. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L.

    2015-01-15

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an “all or none” phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera)

  13. A chimeric path to neuronal synchronization.

    PubMed

    Essaki Arumugam, Easwara Moorthy; Spano, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization of neuronal activity is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy. This process of neuronal synchronization is not fully understood. To further our understanding, we have experimentally studied the progression of this synchronization from normal neuronal firing to full synchronization. We implemented nine FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons (a simplified Hodgkin-Huxley model) via discrete electronics. For different coupling parameters (synaptic strengths), the neurons in the ring were either unsynchronized or completely synchronized when locally coupled in a ring. When a single long-range connection (nonlocal coupling) was introduced, an intermediate state known as a chimera appeared. The results indicate that (1) epilepsy is likely not only a dynamical disease but also a topological disease, strongly tied to the connectivity of the underlying network of neurons, and (2) the synchronization process in epilepsy may not be an "all or none" phenomenon, but can pass through an intermediate stage (chimera).

  14. Explosive synchronization coexists with classical synchronization in the Kuramoto model.

    PubMed

    Danziger, Michael M; Moskalenko, Olga I; Kurkin, Semen A; Zhang, Xiyun; Havlin, Shlomo; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    Explosive synchronization has recently been reported in a system of adaptively coupled Kuramoto oscillators, without any conditions on the frequency or degree of the nodes. Here, we find that, in fact, the explosive phase coexists with the standard phase of the Kuramoto oscillators. We determine this by extending the mean-field theory of adaptively coupled oscillators with full coupling to the case with partial coupling of a fraction f. This analysis shows that a metastable region exists for all finite values of f > 0, and therefore explosive synchronization is expected for any perturbation of adaptively coupling added to the standard Kuramoto model. We verify this theory with GPU-accelerated simulations on very large networks (N ∼ 10(6)) and find that, in fact, an explosive transition with hysteresis is observed for all finite couplings. By demonstrating that explosive transitions coexist with standard transitions in the limit of f → 0, we show that this behavior is far more likely to occur naturally than was previously believed.

  15. Scrotal leiomyosarcoma associated with bilateral epididymo-orchitis.

    PubMed

    Singla, Komal; Preet Malhotra, Kiran; Rathore, Ruchi; Arora, Deepshikha; Sharma, Sonal

    2011-11-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the scrotum is a rare tumor. We report the case of a 60-year-old man who presented with bilateral testicular enlargement that was clinically misdiagnosed as a testicular tumor. The tumor was excised by bilateral inguinal orchiectomy. Histopathologic examination revealed a scrotal wall leiomyosarcoma with bilateral epididymo-orchitis.

  16. Nondestructive synchronous beam current monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-12-15

    A fast current transformer is mounted after the deflectors of the Berkeley 88-Inch Cyclotron. The measured signal is amplified and connected to the input of a lock-in amplifier. The lock-in amplifier performs a synchronous detection of the signal at the cyclotron second harmonic frequency. The magnitude of the signal detected is calibrated against a Faraday cup and corresponds to the beam intensity. It has exceptional resolution, long term stability, and can measure the beam current leaving the cyclotron as low as 1 nA.

  17. Synchronization in random balanced networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García del Molino, Luis Carlos; Pakdaman, Khashayar; Touboul, Jonathan; Wainrib, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Characterizing the influence of network properties on the global emerging behavior of interacting elements constitutes a central question in many areas, from physical to social sciences. In this article we study a primary model of disordered neuronal networks with excitatory-inhibitory structure and balance constraints. We show how the interplay between structure and disorder in the connectivity leads to a universal transition from trivial to synchronized stationary or periodic states. This transition cannot be explained only through the analysis of the spectral density of the connectivity matrix. We provide a low-dimensional approximation that shows the role of both the structure and disorder in the dynamics.

  18. Synchronous Sampling for Distributed Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittkamp, M.; Ettl, J.

    2015-09-01

    Sounding Rocket payloads, especially for atmospheric research, often consists of several independent sensors or experiments with different objectives. The data of these sensors can be combined in the post processing to improve the scientific results of the flight. One major requirement for this data-correlation is a common timeline for the measurements of the distributed experiments. Within this paper we present two ways to achieve absolute timing for asynchronously working experiments. The synchronization process is using the Global Positioning System (GPS) and a standard serial communication protocol for transport of timestamps and flight-states.

  19. Mutual synchronization of weakly coupled gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rozental, R. M.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.

    2015-09-15

    The processes of synchronization of two weakly coupled gyrotrons are studied within the framework of non-stationary equations with non-fixed longitudinal field structure. With the allowance for a small difference of the free oscillation frequencies of the gyrotrons, we found a certain range of parameters where mutual synchronization is possible while a high electronic efficiency is remained. It is also shown that synchronization regimes can be realized even under random fluctuations of the parameters of the electron beams.

  20. Synchronization analysis of cultured epileptic human astrocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balazsi, Gabor; Cornell-Bell, Ann; Neiman, Alexander; Moss, Frank

    2001-03-01

    Astrocyte cultures from severely epileptic patients were cultured, and the fluctuations of the intracellular calcium ion concentration were visualized using the fluorescent dye Fluo-3. The resulting image sequences were analyzed by methods of stochastic synchronization. Increased synchronization was observed in the epileptic tissues, when compared to normal tissues from rats. The more pathological the tissue, the more synchronized the calcium oscillations. The results might lead to a better understanding of intracellular calcium dynamics and could help drug development.

  1. Complexity and synchronization in stochastic chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Thai Son; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayan; Hoang, Thang Manh; Banerjee, Santo

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the complexity of a hyperchaotic dynamical system perturbed by noise and various nonlinear speech and music signals. The complexity is measured by the weighted recurrence entropy of the hyperchaotic and stochastic systems. The synchronization phenomenon between two stochastic systems with complex coupling is also investigated. These criteria are tested on chaotic and perturbed systems by mean conditional recurrence and normalized synchronization error. Numerical results including surface plots, normalized synchronization errors, complexity variations etc show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.

  2. Desynchronization of stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Snari, Razan; Tinsley, Mark R. E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu; Faramarzi, Sadegh; Showalter, Kenneth E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu; Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff; Netoff, Theoden Ivan

    2015-12-15

    Experimental and theoretical studies are presented on the design of perturbations that enhance desynchronization in populations of oscillators that are synchronized by periodic entrainment. A phase reduction approach is used to determine optimal perturbation timing based upon experimentally measured phase response curves. The effectiveness of the perturbation waveforms is tested experimentally in populations of periodically and stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators. The relevance of the approach to therapeutic methods for disrupting phase coherence in groups of stochastically synchronized neuronal oscillators is discussed.

  3. Synchronization reveals topological scales in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Arenas, Alex; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Pérez-Vicente, Conrad J

    2006-03-24

    We study the relationship between topological scales and dynamic time scales in complex networks. The analysis is based on the full dynamics towards synchronization of a system of coupled oscillators. In the synchronization process, modular structures corresponding to well-defined communities of nodes emerge in different time scales, ordered in a hierarchical way. The analysis also provides a useful connection between synchronization dynamics, complex networks topology, and spectral graph analysis.

  4. Topological speed limits to network synchronization.

    PubMed

    Timme, Marc; Wolf, Fred; Geisel, Theo

    2004-02-20

    We study collective synchronization of pulse-coupled oscillators interacting on asymmetric random networks. We demonstrate that random matrix theory can be used to accurately predict the speed of synchronization in such networks in dependence on the dynamical and network parameters. Furthermore, we show that the speed of synchronization is limited by the network connectivity and remains finite, even if the coupling strength becomes infinite. In addition, our results indicate that synchrony is robust under structural perturbations of the network dynamics.

  5. Bilateral Symptomatic Os Epilunatum: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mauler, Flavien; Rahm, Stefan; Schweizer, Andreas; Nagy, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Background Accessory carpal ossicles may be the cause of atraumatic wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a fracture after a trauma. Case Description We report the case of a patient suffering with chronic, bilateral wrist pain without history of trauma. Sonographic examination showed a bilateral symptomatic os epilunatum, both of which were surgically resected, resulting in pain relief. Literature Review Os epilunatum is a rare entity that has been reported only in few cadaveric specimen. Clinical Relevance Os epilunatum is a rare accessory ossicle of the carpus that can cause this aggravating pain. Sonography enabled accurate diagnosis of this anomaly. Because of possible associated tear of the scapholunate ligament, we recommend intraoperative testing of the stability of the scapholunate joint. PMID:25709883

  6. Peribulbar anesthesia causing bilateral orbital hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Garft, Kyla; Burt, Peter; Burt, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral orbital hemorrhage as a complication of peribulbar anesthesia in a 78 year old man. Initially, unilateral orbital hemorrhage occurred but quickly spread to the contralateral side. Neuroophthalmological assessment revealed a proptosed tense globe with normal retinovascular findings. Visual acuity was adversely affected and this was conservatively managed with no lasting ophthalmic sequela. This patient’s case was reported as it illustrates an unusual complication of bilateral spread of orbital hemorrhage secondary to peribulbar anesthesia. It highlights how early ophthalmic assessment can ensure a good visual outcome in the setting of appropriate ophthalmic monitoring. The mechanisms of orbital hemorrhage spread and appropriate management options are discussed. PMID:27013899

  7. Sudden bilateral hearing loss after organophosphate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Mehmet Akif; Derin, Serhan; Aricigil, Mitat; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    Sudden bilateral hearing loss are seen rarely and the toxic substance exposure constitutes a small part of etiology. A Fifty-eight-year-old woman admitted to our clinic with sudden bilateral hearing loss shortly after chlorpyrifos-ethyl exposure. Otolaryngologic examination findings were normal. The patient had 40 dB sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) on the right ear and 48 dB SNHL on the left ear. Additional diagnostic tests were normal. The conventional treatment for sudden hearing loss was performed. On the second week following organophosphate (OP) exposure the patient's hearing loss almost completely resolved. OP's are heavily used in agriculture and should be taken into consideration as an etiologic factor in sudden hearing loss.

  8. Bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song Eun; Jung, Chaeyong; Ahn, Kyu Youn

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the biceps brachii have been described by various authors, but the occurrence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads is rare and has not been reported. We found three accessory heads of the biceps brachii muscle on right arm and an anomalous third head of biceps brachii on left arm. The third, fourth, and fifth heads of right arm originated from the body of humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and inserted into the distal part of biceps brachii short head in order. The third head of left arm originated from humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and combined with the distal part of biceps brachii and continued to the proximal part of common biceps tendon. Understanding the existence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii may influence preoperative diagnosis and surgery on the upper limbs. PMID:22025976

  9. Ovarian arteries with bilateral unusual courses.

    PubMed

    Sulak, Osman; Albay, Soner; Tagil, Suleyman M; Malas, Mehmet A

    2005-09-01

    Bilateral unusual coursed ovarian arteries were found in a 45-year-old female cadaver. The ovarian arteries arose from the abdominal aorta at a level inferior to the corpus of L1 vertebra bilaterally. The right ovarian artery was coursing behind the inferior vena cava. The left one was coursing between the left renal artery and vein upward to the level of the inferior part of the body of Th12 vertebra. At the level of Th12 vertebra, it turned caudally and proceeded downward between the anterior-inferior and posterior segmental renal veins. On both sides, ovarian arteries were on their normal routes below the L2 vertebra accompanying the ovarian veins. The variation determined by this study would reduce possible complications of nephrectomy operations that urologists, gynecologists and other related surgeons may encounter.

  10. Neuropsychological sequelae of bilateral posteroventral pallidotomy

    PubMed Central

    Turner, K; Reid, W; Homewood, J; Cook, R

    2002-01-01

    Methods: 17 patients with Parkinson's disease were evaluated with a neuropsychological battery before and six months after bilateral pallidotomy. A comparison group (n = 8) was also assessed at six month intervals. Outcome variables were tests of memory, language, visuospatial function, attention, executive skills, and depression. Results: Despite a large number of variables studied, a significant postsurgical change was found only in performance of the tower of London task, a measure of planning abilities. The effect size of this change was larger than that of the comparison group, and a reliable change index score established that 5 of 13 surgical patients had statistically reliable reductions in planning performance. Conclusions: Patients with a young age of onset and long duration of Parkinson's disease who underwent bilateral pallidotomy had a relatively circumscribed reduction in neuropsychological functioning, being limited to motor planning efficiency. These data suggest that the cognitive role of the posteroventral globus pallidus is limited, at least in people with Parkinson's disease. PMID:12235317

  11. [Bilateral eye injuries by external transversal force].

    PubMed

    Geidel, K; Schob, S; Unterlauft, J D; Wiedemann, P; Meier, P

    2016-12-14

    A 49-year-old female victim of violent crime with an acute bilateral loss of vision was referred to our hospital. The ophthalmological evaluation showed complete subconjunctival hemorrhage of both eyes, bilateral hemophthalmos and hypotonia of the left eye. These raised the suspicion of an occult scleral rupture. We immediately performed exploratory surgery and found a perforating scleral lesion of the left eye and a penetrating scleral lesion of the right eye. Furthermore, a small, cruciform wound was detected on the left temple. In cooperation with the department of radiology, the extraordinary injury pattern was reconstructed: a horizontal stab wound with perforation of the left eye and penetration of the right eye caused by a screwdriver. Visual rehabilitation necessitated further surgical interventions. Besides the intraoperative approach, immediate primary wound management within 100 h of trauma plays a pivotal role for long-term outcome.

  12. Bilateral traumatic facial paralysis. Case report.

    PubMed

    Undabeitia, Jose; Liu, Brian; Pendleton, Courtney; Nogues, Pere; Noboa, Roberto; Undabeitia, Jose Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Although traumatic injury of the facial nerve is a relatively common condition in neurosurgical practice, bilateral lesions related to fracture of temporal bones are seldom seen. We report the case of a 38-year-old patient admitted to Intensive Care Unit after severe head trauma requiring ventilatory support (Glasgow Coma Scale of 7 on admission). A computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a longitudinal fracture of the right temporal bone and a transversal fracture of the left. After successful weaning from respirator, bilateral facial paralysis was observed. The possible aetiologies for facial diplegia differ from those of unilateral injury. Due to the lack of facial asymmetry, it can be easily missed in critically ill patients, and both the high resolution CT scan and electromyographic studies can be helpful for correct diagnosis.

  13. Emergence of multiple synchronization modes in hydrodynamically-coupled cilia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hanliang; Kanso, Eva

    2016-11-01

    Motile cilia and flagella exhibit different phase coordinations. For example, closely swimming spermatozoa are observed to synchronize together; bi-flagellates Chlamydomonas regulate the flagella in a "breast-stroke" fashion; cilia on the surface of Paramecium beat in a fixed phase lag in an orchestrated wave like fashion. Experimental evidence suggests that phase coordinations can be achieved solely via hydrodynamical interactions. However, the exact mechanisms behind it remain illusive. Here, adapting a "geometric switch" model, we observe different synchronization modes in pairs of hydrodynamically-coupled cilia by changing physical parameters such as the strength of the cilia internal motor and the separation distance between cilia. Interestingly, we find regions in the parameter space where the coupled cilia reach stable phase coordinations and regions where the phase coordinations are sensitive to perturbations. We also find that leaning into the fluid reduces the sensitivity to perturbations, and produces stable phase coordination that is neither in-phase nor anti-phase, which could explain the origin of metachronal waves in large cilia populations.

  14. [Bilateral pleural mesothelioma--case report].

    PubMed

    Land, I; Knolle, H

    1990-08-01

    It is reported on the rare case of a 46-year-old female patient with a bilateral mesothelioma of the pleura without contact to asbest. Although the female was suspected in a malignant tumor and many diagnostic investigations were performed, diagnosis could be ensured morphologically only a short time before her death. Causes and development of mesothelioma, histological types, clinical symptoms and diagnostic procedures are described.

  15. Tape-recorded Lectures With Slide Synchronization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodhue, D.

    1969-01-01

    Describes "Taped Explanation Slide Synchronization" programs used for individual study or group showing in college zoology. Discusses preparation of programs, class organization, equipment, and costs. (EB)

  16. Variety of synchronous regimes in neuronal ensembles.

    PubMed

    Komarov, M A; Osipov, G V; Suykens, J A K

    2008-09-01

    We consider a Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of oscillatory activity in neurons of the snail Helix pomatia. This model has a distinctive feature: It demonstrates multistability in oscillatory and silent modes that is typical for the thalamocortical neurons. A single neuron cell can demonstrate a variety of oscillatory activity: Regular and chaotic spiking and bursting behavior. We study collective phenomena in small and large arrays of nonidentical cells coupled by models of electrical and chemical synapses. Two single elements coupled by electrical coupling show different types of synchronous behavior, in particular in-phase and antiphase synchronous regimes. In an ensemble of three inhibitory synaptically coupled elements, the phenomenon of sequential synchronous dynamics is observed. We study the synchronization phenomena in the chain of nonidentical neurons at different oscillatory behavior coupled with electrical and chemical synapses. Various regimes of phase synchronization are observed: (i) Synchronous regular and chaotic spiking; (ii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting; and (iii) synchronous regular and chaotic bursting with different numbers of spikes inside the bursts. We detect and study the effect of collective synchronous burst generation due to the cluster formation and the oscillatory death.

  17. Pilotless Frame Synchronization Using LDPC Code Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Christopher; Vissasenor, John

    2009-01-01

    A method of pilotless frame synchronization has been devised for low- density parity-check (LDPC) codes. In pilotless frame synchronization , there are no pilot symbols; instead, the offset is estimated by ex ploiting selected aspects of the structure of the code. The advantag e of pilotless frame synchronization is that the bandwidth of the sig nal is reduced by an amount associated with elimination of the pilot symbols. The disadvantage is an increase in the amount of receiver data processing needed for frame synchronization.

  18. Coupled lasers: phase versus chaos synchronization.

    PubMed

    Reidler, I; Nixon, M; Aviad, Y; Guberman, S; Friesem, A A; Rosenbluh, M; Davidson, N; Kanter, I

    2013-10-15

    The synchronization of chaotic lasers and the optical phase synchronization of light originating in multiple coupled lasers have both been extensively studied. However, the interplay between these two phenomena, especially at the network level, is unexplored. Here, we experimentally compare these phenomena by controlling the heterogeneity of the coupling delay times of two lasers. While chaotic lasers exhibit deterioration in synchronization as the time delay heterogeneity increases, phase synchronization is found to be independent of heterogeneity. The experimental results are found to be in agreement with numerical simulations for semiconductor lasers.

  19. Map synchronization in optical communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliardi, R. M.; Mohanty, N.

    1973-01-01

    The time synchronization problem in an optical communication system is approached as a problem of estimating the arrival time (delay variable) of a known transmitted field. Maximum aposteriori (MAP) estimation procedures are used to generate optimal estimators, with emphasis placed on their interpretation as a practical system device, Estimation variances are used to aid in the design of the transmitter signals for best synchronization. Extension is made to systems that perform separate acquisition and tracking operations during synchronization. The closely allied problem of maintaining timing during pulse position modulation is also considered. The results have obvious application to optical radar and ranging systems, as well as the time synchronization problem.

  20. Multilateral, regional and bilateral energy trade governance

    SciTech Connect

    Leal-Arcas, Rafael; Grasso, Costantino; Rios, Juan Alemany )

    2014-12-01

    The current international energy trade governance system is fragmented and multi-layered. Streamlining it for greater legal cohesiveness and international political and economic cooperation would promote global energy security. The current article explores three levels of energy trade governance: multilateral, regional and bilateral. Most energy-rich countries are part of the multilateral trading system, which is institutionalized by the World Trade Organization (WTO). The article analyzes the multilateral energy trade governance system by focusing on the WTO and energy transportation issues. Regionally, the article focuses on five major regional agreements and their energy-related aspects and examines the various causes that explain the proliferation of regional trade agreements, their compatibility with WTO law, and then provides several examples of regional energy trade governance throughout the world. When it comes to bilateral energy trade governance, this article only addresses the European Union’s (EU) bilateral energy trade relations. The article explores ways in which gaps could be filled and overlaps eliminated whilst remaining true to the high-level normative framework, concentrating on those measures that would enhance EU energy security.

  1. High Performance, Three-Dimensional Bilateral Filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes

    2008-06-05

    Image smoothing is a fundamental operation in computer vision and image processing. This work has two main thrusts: (1) implementation of a bilateral filter suitable for use in smoothing, or denoising, 3D volumetric data; (2) implementation of the 3D bilateral filter in three different parallelization models, along with parallel performance studies on two modern HPC architectures. Our bilateral filter formulation is based upon the work of Tomasi [11], but extended to 3D for use on volumetric data. Our three parallel implementations use POSIX threads, the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and Unified Parallel C (UPC), a Partitioned Global Address Space (PGAS) language. Our parallel performance studies, which were conducted on a Cray XT4 supercomputer and aquad-socket, quad-core Opteron workstation, show our algorithm to have near-perfect scalability up to 120 processors. Parallel algorithms, such as the one we present here, will have an increasingly important role for use in production visual analysis systems as the underlying computational platforms transition from single- to multi-core architectures in the future.

  2. Bilateral calcaneal stress fractures: a case report.

    PubMed

    Imerci, Ahmet; Incesu, Mustafa; Bozoglan, Muhammet; Canbek, Umut; Ursavas, Hüseyin Tamer

    2012-01-01

    The majority of plantar heel pain is diagnosed as plantar fasciitis or heel spur syndrome. When history or physical findings are unusual or when routine treatment proves ineffective, one should consider an atypical cause of heel pain. Stress fractures of the calcaneus are a frequently unrecognized source of heel pain. In a normal populatıon, the possibility of calcaneal stress fractures must be borne in mind with patients who have bilateral heel pain. When a stress fracture is considered, clinicans have different imaging options. First of all, x-rays must be used to evaluate for any visible osseous pathology. If plain films are inconclusive, the clinician can proceed with a bone scan or Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In the literature, calcaneal stress fractures are mostly reported in soldiers or athletes, but our case is one of a 44-year-old housewife with bilateral heel pain treated as Achilles tendinitis and plantar faciitis for a long time. Her final diagnosis was bilateral calcaneal fracture by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  3. [Bilateral Asymmetric Traumatic Dislocation of Hip Joints].

    PubMed

    Paša, L; Veselý, R; Kelbl, M

    2017-01-01

    The authors present a rare case of bilateral asymmetric traumatic dislocation of hip joints, where the left joint was treated conservatively after the reduction, while the right joint, with an acetabular fragment interposition, was treated surgically - by arthroscopically assisted reduction and fixation of an osteochondral fragment of posterior wall of the acetabulum. The female patient healed with no complications, showing an excellent clinical outcome with no signs of instability or limited mobility of hip joints, and also with no signs of para-articular calcification or necrosis of the hip at 1 year after the injury and treatment. Bilateral asymmetric dislocation of hip joint is a rare injury with the total incidence of 150 cases as reported by the literature. Recently, its incidence is higher due to the increased traffic and the associated accident rate. A precise and prompt reduction of the injured hip joint is always necessary, if possible under general anesthesia. Also, it is always necessary to carry out a complete examination of the patient since this type of injury is always caused by a strong force and is often accompanied by injuries of other parts of the body. Key words: bilateral asymmetric dislocation of hip joints, hip arthroscopy, acetabular fracture.

  4. High accuracy time transfer synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Paul J.; Koppang, Paul A.; Chalmers, David; Davis, Angela; Kubik, Anthony; Powell, William M.

    1995-01-01

    In July 1994, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) Time Service System Engineering Division conducted a field test to establish a baseline accuracy for two-way satellite time transfer synchronization. Three Hewlett-Packard model 5071 high performance cesium frequency standards were transported from the USNO in Washington, DC to Los Angeles, California in the USNO's mobile earth station. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer links between the mobile earth station and the USNO were conducted each day of the trip, using the Naval Research Laboratory(NRL) designed spread spectrum modem, built by Allen Osborne Associates(AOA). A Motorola six channel GPS receiver was used to track the location and altitude of the mobile earth station and to provide coordinates for calculating Sagnac corrections for the two-way measurements, and relativistic corrections for the cesium clocks. This paper will discuss the trip, the measurement systems used and the results from the data collected. We will show the accuracy of using two-way satellite time transfer for synchronization and the performance of the three HP 5071 cesium clocks in an operational environment.

  5. Gait synchronization in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinzhou; Raizen, David M.; Bau, Haim H.

    2014-01-01

    Collective motion is observed in swarms of swimmers of various sizes, ranging from self-propelled nanoparticles to fish. The mechanisms that govern interactions among individuals are debated, and vary from one species to another. Although the interactions among relatively large animals, such as fish, are controlled by their nervous systems, the interactions among microorganisms, which lack nervous systems, are controlled through physical and chemical pathways. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanism of collective movements in microscopic organisms with nervous systems. To attempt to remedy this, we studied collective swimming behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a microorganism with a compact nervous system. We evaluated the contributions of hydrodynamic forces, contact forces, and mechanosensory input to the interactions among individuals. We devised an experiment to examine pair interactions as a function of the distance between the animals and observed that gait synchronization occurred only when the animals were in close proximity, independent of genes required for mechanosensation. Our measurements and simulations indicate that steric hindrance is the dominant factor responsible for motion synchronization in C. elegans, and that hydrodynamic interactions and genotype do not play a significant role. We infer that a similar mechanism may apply to other microscopic swimming organisms and self-propelled particles. PMID:24778261

  6. Coronal Modeling and Synchronic Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Downs, C.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C.

    2013-07-01

    MHD simulations of the solar corona rely on maps of the solar magnetic field (typically measured at the photosphere) for input as boundary conditions. These "synoptic" maps (available from a number of ground-based and space-based solar observatories), which are perhaps better described as "diachronic," are built up over a solar rotation. A well-known problem with this approach is that the maps contain data that is as much as 27 days old. The Sun's magnetic flux is always evolving, and these changes in the flux affect coronal and heliospheric structure. Flux evolution models can in principle provide a more accurate specification, by estimating the likely state of the photospheric magnetic field on unobserved portions of the Sun. The Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport (ADAPT) model (Arge et al. 2010), which incorporates data assimilation techniques into the Worden and Harvey (2000) flux evolution model, is especially well-suited for this purpose. In this presentation we describe the use of such "synchronic" maps with coronal models. We compare results using synchronic maps versus the traditional synoptic maps. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  7. Synchronizing with music: intercultural differences.

    PubMed

    Drake, Carolyn; Ben El Heni, Jamel

    2003-11-01

    The way in which listeners perceive music changes throughout childhood, but little is known about the factors responsible for these changes. One factor, explicit music training, has received considerable attention, with studies indicating that musicians demonstrate a more complex hierarchical mental representation for music and superior temporal organizational skills. But does acculturation-the passive exposure to a particular type of music since birth-also influence the acquisition of these skills? We compared the music synchronization performance of Tunisian and French subjects with music from these two contrasting musical cultures. Twelve musical excerpts were selected from the two popular music cultures, matched for perceived tempo, complexity, and familiarity, and subjects were asked to tap in time with the music. Tapping mode (rate and hierarchical level) varied with subjects' familiarity with the musical idiom, as evidenced by an interaction between musical culture and type of music: participants synchronized at higher hierarchical levels (and over a wider range) with music from their own culture than with an unfamiliar type of music. Thus, passive acculturation as well as explicit music tuition influence our perception and cognition of music.

  8. Breast Carcinosarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Yakan, Savaş; Sarı, Erdem; Erkan, Nazif; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Vardar, Enver; Coşkun, Ali; Çetin, Durmuş Ali; Eliyatkın, Nükhet

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carcinosarcomas of the breast are rare and aggressive breast tumors. The optimal treatment strategies and the classification of these difficult to diagnose tumors are not clear in the literature due to their very low incidence. In this study, we aimed to evaluate patients who were operated on for breast carcinosarcoma and discuss the current literature. Materials and Methods Ten patients who were treated with a diagnosis of breast carcinosarcoma between January 2000 – March 2013 at the Izmir Bozyaka Teaching and Training Hospital General Surgery Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Results The mean age of the patients was 59.7 (±13.4) years. Eight patients underwent modified radical mastectomy, one patient lumpectomy and one patient breast conserving surgery + sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures. The TNM stage of patients were identified as stage 1 in 2 patients, stage 2 in 6 patients, and stage 3 in 2 patients. 60-month disease-free survival rate was 52.5% (±18.6). The overall survival rate was 53.3% (±20.5). Four patients died during follow-up. Conclusion It is reported that the prognosis of carcinosarcomas are as poor as triple negative epithelial tumors. In contrast to the literature, in our study the disease-free and overall survival rates according to stage were not different from epithelial tumors. In this regard, prospective studies including more patients are required.

  9. Patterns of radioiodine uptake by the lactating breast.

    PubMed

    Bakheet, S M; Hammami, M M

    1994-07-01

    Breast uptake of radioiodine, if not suspected, may be misinterpreted as thyroid cancer metastasis to the lung. To characterize the patterns of radioiodine breast uptake, we retrospectively studied 20 radioiodine scans that were performed within 1 week of cessation of breast feeding. Four patterns of uptake were identified: "full", "focal", "crescent" and "irregular". The uptake was asymmetric in 60% (left > right in 45%, right > left in 15%), symmetric in 25% and unilateral in 15% of cases. A characteristic full bilateral uptake was present in 40% of cases. In three cases with the irregular pattern, caused in part by external contamination with radioactive milk, the uptake closely mimicked lung metastases. Delayed images, obtained in one case, showed an apparent radioiodine shift from the breast to the thyroid, suggesting that the presence of breast uptake can modulate radioiodine uptake by thyroid tissue. In a case of unilateral breast uptake, a history of mastitis was obtained, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported. Breast uptake of radioiodine may take several scintigraphic patterns that are not always characteristic of the lactating breast and may affect the apparent extent of thyroid remnant/metastasis.

  10. Neoadjuvant tamoxifen synchronizes ERα binding and gene expression profiles related to outcome and proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Tesa M.; Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina; Peeters, Justine; Kuilman, Thomas; Krijgsman, Oscar; van Rossum, Annelot; Droog, Marjolein; Kim, Yongsoo; Koornstra, Rutger; Beumer, Inès; Glas, Annuska M.; Peeper, Daniel; Wesseling, Jelle; Simon, Iris M.; Wessels, Lodewyk; Linn, Sabine C.; Zwart, Wilbert

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers are frequently treated with tamoxifen, but resistance is common. It remains elusive how tamoxifen resistance occurs and predictive biomarkers for treatment outcome are needed. Because most biomarker discovery studies are performed using pre-treatment surgical resections, the effects of tamoxifen therapy directly on the tumor cell in vivo remain unexamined. In this study, we assessed DNA copy number, gene expression profiles and ERα/chromatin binding landscapes on breast tumor specimens, both before and after neoadjuvant tamoxifen treatment. We observed neoadjuvant tamoxifen treatment synchronized ERα/chromatin interactions and downstream gene expression, indicating that hormonal therapy reduces inter-tumor molecular variability. ERα-synchronized sites are associated with dynamic FOXA1 action at these sites, which is under control of growth factor signaling. Genes associated with tamoxifen-synchronized sites are capable of differentiating patients for tamoxifen benefit. Due to the direct effects of therapeutics on ERα behavior and transcriptional output, our study highlights the added value of biomarker discovery studies after neoadjuvant drug exposure. PMID:27129152

  11. Examining Interactivity in Synchronous Virtual Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Parker, Michele A.; Deale, Deborah F.

    2012-01-01

    Interaction is crucial to student satisfaction in online courses. Adding synchronous components (virtual classroom technologies) to online courses can facilitate interaction. In this study, interaction within a synchronous virtual classroom was investigated by surveying 21 graduate students in an instructional technology program in the…

  12. Multiple-access channels without synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Posner, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses models for multiple-access communications which take into account the fact that the channel users may not be able to synchronize their transmissions. It is shown that for a broad class of such channels, the capacity region is the same as it would be with user synchronization. Some open problems are discussed.

  13. Complexity in synchronized and non-synchronized states: A comparative analysis and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, Sanjay K.; Fataf, Nur Aisyah Abdul; Said, Mohd Rushdan Md; Mukherjee, Sayan; Banerjee, Santo

    2017-01-01

    This analysis shows the dynamics of a hyperchaotic system changes from its original state to a synchronized state with nonlinear controller. The decreasing complexity of the coupled systems also quantifies the loss of information from its original state to the synchronized state. We proposed and modified a chaos synchronization based secure communication scheme to implement in case of non synchronization. The scheme is designed and illustrated using examples and simulations. Security analysis of the proposed scheme is also investigated. This analysis gives a new direction on chaos based cryptography in case of the coupled systems completely in non synchronized state.

  14. Bilateral shared autonomous systems with passive and nonpassive input forces under time varying delay.

    PubMed

    Islam, Shafiqul; Liu, Peter X; El Saddik, Abdulmotaleb; Dias, J; Seneviratne, Lakmal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we address stability and tracking control problem of bilateral shared autonomous systems in the presence of passive and nonpassive input interaction forces. The design comprises delayed position and position-velocity signals with the known and unknown structures of the master and slave manipulator dynamics. Using novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, stability and tracking conditions of the coupled master-slave shared autonomous systems are developed under symmetrical and unsymmetrical time varying data transmission delays. This condition allows the designer to estimate the control design parameters to ensure position, velocity and synchronizing errors of the master and slave manipulators. Finally, evaluation results are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design for real-time teleoperation applications.

  15. Amplitude dynamics favors synchronization in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesus; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study phase synchronization in random complex networks of coupled periodic oscillators. In particular, we show that, when amplitude dynamics is not negligible, phase synchronization may be enhanced. To illustrate this, we compare the behavior of heterogeneous units with both amplitude and phase dynamics and pure (Kuramoto) phase oscillators. We find that in small network motifs the behavior crucially depends on the topology and on the node frequency distribution. Surprisingly, the microscopic structures for which the amplitude dynamics improves synchronization are those that are statistically more abundant in random complex networks. Thus, amplitude dynamics leads to a general lowering of the synchronization threshold in arbitrary random topologies. Finally, we show that this synchronization enhancement is generic of oscillators close to Hopf bifurcations. To this aim we consider coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo units modeling neuron dynamics. PMID:27108847

  16. Clustering versus non-clustering phase synchronizations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shuai; Zhan, Meng

    2014-03-15

    Clustering phase synchronization (CPS) is a common scenario to the global phase synchronization of coupled dynamical systems. In this work, a novel scenario, the non-clustering phase synchronization (NPS), is reported. It is found that coupled systems do not transit to the global synchronization until a certain sufficiently large coupling is attained, and there is no clustering prior to the global synchronization. To reveal the relationship between CPS and NPS, we further analyze the noise effect on coupled phase oscillators and find that the coupled oscillator system can change from CPS to NPS with the increase of noise intensity or system disorder. These findings are expected to shed light on the mechanism of various intriguing self-organized behaviors in coupled systems.

  17. Transient performance of permanent magnet synchronous motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borger, W. U.

    The performance of a permanent magnet synchronous machine is presented for transient conditions including: starting, load application and load removal. The machine studied possesses asynchronous torque for starting as well as synchronous torque for high efficiency and high power factor during normal operation. The transient performance of the synchronous machine is compared with a high efficiency induction machine of the same rating. The comparison presented is strictly analytical and is approached by developing the required equations for the idealized synchronous and induction machines. Solutions for the equations are approximated on the digital computer. Although the study is not universal in scope, it shows that the permanent magnet synchronous motor rivals the induction machine in weight and in transient performance while at the same time besting the induction machine from an efficiency and power factor standpoint.

  18. Decoder synchronization for deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statman, J. I.; Cheung, K.-M.; Chauvin, T. H.; Rabkin, J.; Belongie, M. L.

    1994-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Standards (CCSDS) recommends that space communication links employ a concatenated, error-correcting, channel-coding system in which the inner code is a convolutional (7,1/2) code and the outer code is a (255,223) Reed-Solomon code. The traditional implementation is to perform the node synchronization for the Viterbi decoder and the frame synchronization for the Reed-Solomon decoder as separate, sequential operations. This article discusses a unified synchronization technique that is required for deep space missions that have data rates and signal-to-noise ratios (SNR's) that are extremely low. This technique combines frame synchronization in the bit and symbol domains and traditional accumulated-metric growth techniques to establish a joint frame and node synchronization. A variation on this technique is used for the Galileo spacecraft on its Jupiter-bound mission.

  19. Amplitude dynamics favors synchronization in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesus; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we study phase synchronization in random complex networks of coupled periodic oscillators. In particular, we show that, when amplitude dynamics is not negligible, phase synchronization may be enhanced. To illustrate this, we compare the behavior of heterogeneous units with both amplitude and phase dynamics and pure (Kuramoto) phase oscillators. We find that in small network motifs the behavior crucially depends on the topology and on the node frequency distribution. Surprisingly, the microscopic structures for which the amplitude dynamics improves synchronization are those that are statistically more abundant in random complex networks. Thus, amplitude dynamics leads to a general lowering of the synchronization threshold in arbitrary random topologies. Finally, we show that this synchronization enhancement is generic of oscillators close to Hopf bifurcations. To this aim we consider coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo units modeling neuron dynamics.

  20. Breast awareness and screening.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  1. [Synchronous carcinoma of the colorectum].

    PubMed

    Pisciotta, M; Gulotta, G; Profita, G; Amoroso, S; Mineo, R; Rodolico, V

    1991-06-30

    The incidence of synchronous carcinoma of the large intestine is rising in relation to a greater oncogenic environmental charge and increased average life expectancy. There is also a constant risk of not recognising the disease, especially in the case of small carcinoma and, to a greater extent, in patients operated during the occlusive phase. Having underlined the diagnostic value of a correct preparation of the colon prior to instrumental tests, the authors emphasise the importance of a careful intraoperative exploration of the viscera, its preliminary confinement in occluded subjects and repeated surgery in the event of doubts regarding the monolocation of the tumour. Lastly, they underline the importance of postoperative radiological and endoscopic controls since these tests mark both the successful outcome of treatment and the start of follow-up.

  2. Synchronous computer mediated group discussion.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, focus groups have become increasingly popular with nursing researchers as a data collection method, as has the use of computer-based technologies to support all forms of nursing research. This article describes the conduct of a series of focus groups in which the participants were in the same room as part of a "real-time" discussion during which they also used personal computers as an interface between each other and the moderator. Synchronous Computer Mediated Group Discussion differed from other forms of focus group discussion in that participants used personal computers rather than verbal expressions to respond to specific questions, engage in communication with other participants, and to record their thoughts. This form of focus group maintained many of the features of spoken exchanges, a cornerstone of the focus group, while capturing the advantages of online discussion.

  3. High satisfaction rate ten years after bilateral prophylactic mastectomy - a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wasteson, E; Sandelin, K; Brandberg, Y; Wickman, M; Arver, B

    2011-07-01

    Women from families with an increased risk for breast/ovarian cancer have undergone bilateral prophylactic mastectomy (BPM) since the early 1990s at the Karolinska University Hospital in Sweden. Perceptions of BPM as reported by the first women who underwent the procedure have previously been evaluated on a short-term basis (1-3 years). The present study aims to evaluate the long-term (10 years) physical and psychological consequences of BPM in the same cohort of women. Some of the very first women to undergo BPM participated in the present interview study (n= 13). The semi-structured interviews focused on the women's long-term experiences related to BPM and immediate breast reconstruction. Overall, the women were satisfied with their decision to undergo BPM and perceived a negligible remaining risk of getting breast cancer. For most women, the operation had not resulted in changes in family life or lifestyle (n= 8), although some described that the relationship with their spouse was affected (8/13), either in a negative (n= 5) or positive (n= 3) way. The cosmetic results were mainly positive (n= 10). Recurrent counselling and support during the whole process of decision, treatment and follow up is recommended.

  4. Synchronized sampling improves fault location

    SciTech Connect

    Kezunovic, M.; Perunicic, B.

    1995-04-01

    Transmission line faults must be located accurately to allow maintenance crews to arrive at the scene and repair the faulted section as soon as possible. Rugged terrain and geographical layout cause some sections of power transmission lines to be difficult to reach. In the past, a variety of fault location algorithms were introduced as either an add-on feature in protective relays or stand-alone implementation in fault locators. In both cases, the measurements of current and voltages were taken at one terminal of a transmission line only. Under such conditions, it may become difficult to determine the fault location accurately, since data from other transmission line ends are required for more precise computations. In the absence of data from the other end, existing algorithms have accuracy problems under several circumstances, such as varying switching and loading conditions, fault infeed from the other end, and random value of fault resistance. Most of the one-end algorithms were based on estimation of voltage and current phasors. The need to estimate phasors introduces additional difficulty in high-speed tripping situations where the algorithms may not be fast enough in determining fault location accurately before the current signals disappear due to the relay operation and breaker opening. This article introduces a unique concept of high-speed fault location that can be implemented either as a simple add-on to the digital fault recorders (DFRs) or as a stand-alone new relaying function. This advanced concept is based on the use of voltage and current samples that are synchronously taken at both ends of a transmission line. This sampling technique can be made readily available in some new DFR designs incorporating receivers for accurate sampling clock synchronization using the satellite Global Positioning System (GPS).

  5. Emotions promote social interaction by synchronizing brain activity across individuals

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Viinikainen, Mikko; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko

    2012-01-01

    Sharing others’ emotional states may facilitate understanding their intentions and actions. Here we show that networks of brain areas “tick together” in participants who are viewing similar emotional events in a movie. Participants’ brain activity was measured with functional MRI while they watched movies depicting unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant emotions. After scanning, participants watched the movies again and continuously rated their experience of pleasantness–unpleasantness (i.e., valence) and of arousal–calmness. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity measures [intersubject correlations (ISCs)] of functional MRI data. Valence and arousal time series were used to predict the moment-to-moment ISCs computed using a 17-s moving average. During movie viewing, participants' brain activity was synchronized in lower- and higher-order sensory areas and in corticolimbic emotion circuits. Negative valence was associated with increased ISC in the emotion-processing network (thalamus, ventral striatum, insula) and in the default-mode network (precuneus, temporoparietal junction, medial prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal sulcus). High arousal was associated with increased ISC in the somatosensory cortices and visual and dorsal attention networks comprising the visual cortex, bilateral intraparietal sulci, and frontal eye fields. Seed-voxel–based correlation analysis confirmed that these sets of regions constitute dissociable, functional networks. We propose that negative valence synchronizes individuals’ brain areas supporting emotional sensations and understanding of another’s actions, whereas high arousal directs individuals’ attention to similar features of the environment. By enhancing the synchrony of brain activity across individuals, emotions may promote social interaction and facilitate interpersonal understanding. PMID:22623534

  6. Evolving paradigms in multifocal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Roberto; Aftimos, Philippe; Sotiriou, Christos; Desmedt, Christine

    2015-04-01

    The 7th edition of the TNM defines multifocal breast cancer as multiple simultaneous ipsilateral and synchronous breast cancer lesions, provided they are macroscopically distinct and measurable using current traditional pathological and clinical tools. According to the College of American Pathologists (CAP), the characterization of only the largest lesion is considered sufficient, unless the grade and/or histology are different between the lesions. Here, we review three potentially clinically relevant aspects of multifocal breast cancers: first, the importance of a different intrinsic breast cancer subtype of the various lesions; second, the emerging awareness of inter-lesion heterogeneity; and last but not least, the potential introduction of bias in clinical trials due to the unrecognized biological diversity of these cancers. Although the current strategy to assess the lesion with the largest diameter has clearly its advantages in terms of costs and feasibility, this recommendation may not be sustainable in time and might need to be adapted to be compliant with new evolving paradigms in breast cancer.

  7. Bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Theresa M; Roy, Neil K; Zlupko, George R

    2011-09-01

    Acupuncture is becoming increasingly popular in the United States for a wide variety of uses, ranging from the treatment of chronic back pain to aiding in addiction therapy. As this form of complementary and alternative medicine becomes more prevalent in certain areas of the country, it is of paramount importance that the emergency physician be familiar with its methods and potential complications. In general, acupuncture is perceived as fairly safe. However, it is not without risks or side effects. In this case report, we discuss the history, methods, and common complications of acupuncture in the context of a patient who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with bilateral pneumothoraces secondary to acupuncture therapy.

  8. True bilateral nasopharyngeal angiofibroma: report and review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anupam; Mishra, Subhash Chandra

    2016-10-01

    This report describes the third case of a true bilateral Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (JNA), i.e. two separate JNA arising from both sides simultaneously. The associated multiple recurrences in such a case have not yet been reported. A 21-year-man underwent transpalatal excision and recurred twice. The last 'neo-occurrence' encountered after 2 years was at a different site and was subsequently managed by post-embolization endoscopic resection. A complete report of its clinico-radiological features and management outcome is discussed.

  9. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  10. Primary amenorrhea with bilateral endometriotic cysts.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Sadaqat; Raees, Mehnaz

    2015-05-01

    Primary amenorrhea is a common problem. Diagnosis is usually by going through systematic approach of history, examination and investigations. This case had bilateral large endometriotic cysts in the adnexal region. Uterus was normal sized with well-formed endometrium. She underwent laparotomy followed by drainage of endometriotic cysts, stripping and reconstruction of ovaries was performed. Patient was given a trial of combined oral contraceptive pills for two consecutive cycles to observe withdrawal bleeding, but it failed. Till now we are unable to find out such case in literature. Exact case of primary amenorrhea could not be found.

  11. Bilateral emphysematous pyelitis: a rare encounter in urology.

    PubMed

    Tan C C K Ho, G H; Bahadzor, B; Praveen, S; Goh, E H; Syahril, A S; Zulkifli, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Gas-forming infection of the kidneys can affect either the parenchyma or the collecting system. They are known as emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) and emphysematous pyelitis (EP) respectively. Bilateral EPN is a fairly established entity and numerous articles about this condition have been published. However, much less is known about bilateral EP. We report a rare case of bilateral EP and a literature review of this disease. A 66-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral staghorn calculi presented with bilateral EP and severe sepsis. She was treated with antibiotics and bilateral double-J stents to drain the upper urinary tracts. She recovered after 1 month of intensive care and medical therapy. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) had been scheduled to treat her staghorn calculi. A literature search on MEDLINE and Google Scholar with the terms "bilateral emphysematous pyelitis" only found 1 case report in English and another 2 reports in the Korean language that discussed bilateral EP. The collective experience of these few cases, including the present case, suggests that bilateral EP runs a more benign course than bilateral EPN. It should be diagnosed as soon as possible with computed tomography (CT) scans of the renal system. Current evidence shows that can be treated successfully with timely antibiotics. Drainage of the collecting system either percutaneously or with placement of double-J stents might facilitate recovery.

  12. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Category Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast ... cancer or how fast it’s growing. Types of Breast Cancer There are several types of breast cancer. The ...

  13. Surgical Treatment of Tubular Breast Type II

    PubMed Central

    Dabizha, Oleksii Y.; Kostenko, Alona A.; Gomolyako, Irina V.; Samko, Kristina A.; Borovyk, Denys V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubular breasts are caused by connective tissue malformation and occur in puberty. The main clinical characteristics of the tubular breast are breast asymmetry, dense fibrous ring around the areola, hernia bulging of the areola, megaareola, and hypoplasia of quadrants of the breast. Pathology causes great psychological discomfort to patients. Methods: This study included 17 patients, aged 18 to 34 years, with tubular breast type II who had bilateral pathology and were treated from 2013 to 2016. They had surgical treatment by method of the clinic. Correction technique consisted of mobilization of the central part of the gland and formation of a glandular flap with vertical and horizontal scorings, which looks like a “chessboard,” that was sufficient to cover the lower pole of the implant. The flap was fixed to the submammary folds with stitches that prevented its reduction and accented a new submammary fold. To underscore the importance of the method and to study the structural features of the vascular bed of tubular breast tissue, a morphological study was conducted. Results: Mean follow-up time was 25 months (range between 13 and 37 mo). The proposed technique achieved good results. Complications (hematoma, circumareolar scarring, and “double-bubble” deformity) were identified in 4 patients. Conclusions: Our morphological study confirmed that tubular breast tissue has increased vascularity due to the vessels with characteristic minor malformation and due to the high restorative potential of the vascular bed. Therefore, an extended glandular flap could be freely mobilized without damaging its blood supply; thus, the flap in most cases covered the implant completely and good aesthetic results were achieved. PMID:27826461

  14. Breast Reconstruction

    MedlinePlus

    If you need a mastectomy, you have a choice about whether or not to have surgery to rebuild the shape of the breast. Instead of ... be done at the same time as the mastectomy, or it may be done later on. If ...

  15. Breast Implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... sale in the United States: saline-filled and silicone gel-filled. Both types have a silicone outer shell. They vary in size, shell thickness, ... implant them. Provide information on saline-filled and silicone gel-filled breast implants, including data supporting a ...

  16. Breast reduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fade. The surgeon will make every effort to place the cuts so that scars are hidden. Cuts are usually made on the underside of the breast. Most of the time, the scars should not be noticeable, even in low-cut clothing.

  17. [Breast ductoscopy].

    PubMed

    Sharon, Eran; Avin, Ilan D; Leong, Wey

    2011-02-01

    The majority of benign and malignant breast diseases originate in the ductal system. Breast ductoscopy (BD) allows direct access to this ductal system and thus holds great promise in the diagnosis and surgical management of a number of breast diseases. BD was first developed over 20 years ago to investigate nipple discharge. Indeed, till now, this remains the most common indication. However, BD technology has been further developed for a variety of new clinical applications. For example, BD-guided ductal ravage combined with molecular and genetic analysis can be a powerful screening tool for women at high-risk of breast cancer. BD can also be used during lumpectomy to identify additional radiographically occult disease. This refined intraoperative margin assessment can help surgeons to achieve clear margins at the first excision while optimizing the extent of resection. In the future, this same precise intraoperative margin assessment may facilitate a variety of local ablative techniques including laser Over time, BD is likely to evolve beyond its current technological limitations to realize its full diagnostic and therapeutic potential. The article describes the technique of BD, reviews its evolution and discusses current and future applications.

  18. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Although breast cancer is much more common in women, men can get it too. It happens most often to men between ... 60 and 70. Breast lumps usually aren't cancer. However, most men with breast cancer have lumps. ...

  19. Breast Reduction Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... considering breast reduction surgery, consult a board-certified plastic surgeon. It's important to understand what breast reduction ... risk of complications from breast reduction surgery. Your plastic surgeon will likely: Evaluate your medical history and ...

  20. Breast Cancer (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Breast Cancer KidsHealth > For Kids > Breast Cancer Print A A ... for it when they are older. What Is Breast Cancer? The human body is made of tiny building ...

  1. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hasn't spread beyond your breast tissue. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill ... option for men with advanced breast cancer. Hormone therapy Most men with male breast cancer have tumors ...

  2. Breast Cancer Trends

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast Cancer Funding: Young Breast Cancer Survivors Funding: Breast Cancer Genomics Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Risk by Age Trends What CDC Is Doing Research African American Women and Mass Media Campaign Public Service Announcements Print ...

  3. Breast Lift (Mastopexy)

    MedlinePlus

    ... removed and breast tissue is reshaped to restore firmness and raise the breasts. You might choose to ... get older, your breasts change — losing elasticity and firmness. There are many causes for these kinds of ...

  4. Breast reconstruction - implants

    MedlinePlus

    ... cosmetic surgery after breast cancer can improve your sense of well-being and your quality of life. Alternative Names Breast implants surgery References Roehl KR, Wilhelmi BJ, Phillips LG. Breast reconstruction. ...

  5. Multifocal bilateral metatarsal tuberculosis: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Vipul; Sud, Alok; Mehtani, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, or phthisis (consumption) as it was popularly known in the Greek era, has been endemic in Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa; however, the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic has seen the re-emergence of this disease in the areas in which it was not very commonly reported. With this, the need for understanding and treatment of rare presentations of tuberculosis has become of paramount importance to achieve the World Health Organization millennium goal of a "reversal of incidence by 2015." Foot involvement has been reported in 0.1% to 0.3% of extrapulmonary cases. Multifocal lesions have an incidence of <10% in osteoarticular tuberculosis. Bilateral feet involvement in multifocal tuberculosis has not yet been reported in either children or adults in published studies. We report a case of tuberculosis with lesions in the bilateral metatarsals, the occurrence of which is very rare. The diagnosis was mainly histopathologic owing to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. Early identification and treatment with antitubercular drugs will normally result in a good cosmetic and functional result.

  6. Atypical Bilateral Fuchs Uveitis: Diagnostic Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Cristóbal; Hurtado, Erika; Faingold, Dana; Demetrio, Carmen; Schlaen, Ariel; Zas, Marcelo; Zarate, Jorge; Rosetti, Silvia; de Lima, Andrea Paes; Croxatto, Juan Oscar; Chiaradía, Pablo; Burnier, Miguel N.

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral Fuchs uveitis associated with vitreous infiltration and posterior segment involvement requires a thorough diagnostic evaluation. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this entity difficult. The aim of this case report was to present the characteristics of a patient with atypical Fuchs uveitis and the procedures needed to rule out the differential diagnosis with specific attention to the utility of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Case Report One case of chronic bilateral uveitis with severe vitreous opacities is presented. After extensive systemic workup, including vitrectomy, the case had no identifiable systemic etiology. IVCM of the cornea revealed the presence of dendritiform keratic precipitates. Conclusion The diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis is based on clinical findings as no confirmatory laboratory tests are available. A high index of suspicion is key to an early diagnosis, especially in the cases with vitreous opacities and posterior segment manifestations. Auxiliary tests such as IVCM may aid the clinician in the diagnosis of Fuchs uveitis. PMID:26483668

  7. Bilateral Ocular Myositis Associated with Whipple's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, Vivak; Mudhar, Hardeep Singh; Wagner, Bart E.; Raoult, Didier; Batty, Ruth; Lepidi, Hubert; Burke, John; Collini, Paul; de Silva, Thushan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To describe the clinical features of a Caucasian female patient with a history of treated gastrointestinal Whipple's disease (WD) who developed new-onset diplopia, with a description of the histopathological features of the extraocular muscle biopsies. Methods A previously fit 38-year-old Caucasian female presented with acute-onset diplopia after being on a sustained medication regime for biopsy-proven gastrointestinal WD. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of her orbits with gadolinium revealed diffuse enhancement of the bellies of the extraocular muscles bilaterally, particularly the medial rectus, superior rectus, and superior oblique muscles, consistent with an infiltrative myositis. She underwent unilateral extraocular muscle biopsies. Results The extraocular muscle biopsies contained macrophages between the muscle fibres. These contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive cytoplasmic granules. Immunohistochemistry with an antibody raised to Tropheryma whipplei showed positive staining of the same macrophages. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of effete T. whipplei cell membranes in lysosomes. Conclusion This case describes bilateral WD-associated extraocular muscle myositis. The exact mechanism for this unusual presentation is unclear, but both a WD-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and treatment failure are possibilities, with a good response observed to antibiotic therapy and adjunctive corticosteroids.

  8. Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Açikgöz, A

    2006-10-01

    Bilateral bifid mandibular condyle is a rarely seen malformation. The aetiology of bifid condyle is not completely understood, although developmental anomaly, traumas, condylar fracture, teratogenic embryopathy and surgical condylectomy may all be causative factors. Although a few studies on human dried skulls tried to shed light on this entity it remains obscure. As most bifid condyle subjects have no complaint related to temporamandibular joint(TMJ), the cases are generally diagnosed through incidental radiographic findings. The case of a 54-year-old female is presented. In a panoramic radiograph obtained after a clinical examination, bilateral bifid mandibular condyle was observed. The open-closed lateral radiograph of the TMJ (obtained using the TMJ-specific program of the panoramic device) demonstrated duplication of the right and left condyles. In order to better evaluate the TMJ morphology and to eliminate pathologies such as fractures that might be missed with conventional radiographs, a computed tomography scan was also obtained. The joint head orientation was observed in the mediolateral direction. The case is discussed in the context of the relevant literature. Until large population-based studies are undertaken and further experimental studies are performed, bifid condyle will remain an incidental finding of anatomic variation rather than a clinically informative observation.

  9. Bilateral Comparison in Chemosensory-Mediated Foraging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, D. R.; Rahman, S.; Dasi, L. P.

    2000-11-01

    Motivation is drawn from the need to determine the sensory cues that animals such as blue crabs and lobsters use to track chemical odor plumes to locate food or mates. Major steps forward with this difficult problem can only be achieved through an appreciation of the spatial and temporal variation of concentration fields and the information content available to a forager in the plume. Here we discuss the usefulness of bilateral comparison to an animal tracking a turbulent plume. Instantaneous concentration fields of a chemical plume diffusing in a fully-developed turbulent open channel flow are measured using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF). The plume is released iso-kinetically 25 mm above the smooth bed (z+ = 90), thus transport is mainly due to advection and ambient turbulence. A spatial correlation function in the spanwise direction is a dramatic indicator of the relative position of the centerline and distance from the source. The relative direction of the plume centerline can be estimated from an instantaneous bilateral comparison provided the sensors are separated by a distance that is relatively large compared to the spanwise integral length scale based on the spatial correlation function.

  10. Breast cancer in patients treated for Hodgkin's disease: clinical and pathological analysis of 76 cases in 63 patients.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, B; Dhermain, F; Borel, C; de Larochefordiere, A; Graic, Y; de Lafontan, B; Dilhyudy, J M; Mignotte, H; Tessier, E; Tortochaux, J; N'Guyen, T; Bey, P; Le Mevel-Le Pourhiet, A; Velten, M; Arriagada, R

    1997-12-01

    In a retrospective multicentric analysis, 63 women treated between 1941 to 1988 for Hodgkin's disease (HD) subsequently developed 76 breast cancers (BC). The median age at diagnosis of HD was 26 years (range 7-67), and 22 women (35%) were 20 years old or less. Exclusive radiotherapy (RT) was used in 36 women (57%) and combined modalities with chemotherapy (CT) in 25 (39%). Breast cancer occurred after a median interval of 16 years (range 2-40) and the median age at diagnosis of the first BC was 42 years (range 25-73). TNM classification (UICC, 1978) showed 10 T0 (non-palpable lesions) (13%), 20 T1 (26%), 22 T2 (29%), 8 T3 (11%), 7 T4 (9%) and 9 Tx (12%), giving altogether a total of 76 tumours, including, respectively, 5 and 8 bilateral synchronous and metachronous lesions. Among the 68 tumours initially discovered, 53 ductal infiltrating, one lobular infiltrating and two medullary carcinomas were found. Moreover, two fibrosarcomas and 10 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) were also found. Among 50 axillary dissections for invasive carcinomas, histological involvement was found in 31 cases (62%). 45 tumours were treated by mastectomy, without (n = 35) or with (n = 10) RT. 27 tumours had lumpectomy, without (n = 7) or with RT (n = 20). 2 others received RT only, and one only CT. 7 patients (11%) developed isolated local recurrence. 20 patients (32%) developed metastases and all died; 38 are in complete remission, whereas 5 died of intercurrent disease. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate by the Kaplan-Meier method was 61%. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for pN0, pN1-3 and pN > or = 3 groups were 91%, 66% and 0%, respectively (P < 0.0001) and 100%, 88%, 64% and 23% for the T0, T1, T2 and T3T4 groups, respectively. These secondary BCs seem to be of two types: a large number of aggressive tumours with a very unfavourable prognosis (especially in the case of pN > 3 and/or T3T4); and many tumours with a 'slow development' such as DCIS and microinvasive

  11. Periodic and Aperiodic Synchronization in Skilled Action

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import. PMID:22232583

  12. An extended active control for chaos synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Rong-An; Liu, Ya-Li; Xue, Ju-Kui

    2009-04-01

    By introducing a control strength matrix, the active control theory in chaotic synchronization is developed. With this extended method, chaos complete synchronization can be achieved more easily, i.e., a much smaller control signal is enough to reach synchronization in most cases. Numerical simulations on Rossler, Liu's four-scroll, and Chen system confirmed this and show that the synchronization result depends on the control strength significantly. Especially, in the case of Liu and Chen systems, the response systems' largest Lyapunov exponents' variation with the control strength is not monotone and there exist minima. It is novel for Chen system that the synchronization speed with a special small strength is higher than that of the usual active control which, as a special case of the extended method, has a much larger control strength. All these results indicate that the control strength is an important factor in the actual synchronization. So, with this extended active control, one can make a better and more practical synchronization scheme by adjusting the control strength matrix.

  13. System Synchronizes Recordings from Separated Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nail, William; Nail, William L.; Nail, Jasper M.; Le, Doung T.

    2009-01-01

    A system of electronic hardware and software for synchronizing recordings from multiple, physically separated video cameras is being developed, primarily for use in multiple-look-angle video production. The system, the time code used in the system, and the underlying method of synchronization upon which the design of the system is based are denoted generally by the term "Geo-TimeCode(TradeMark)." The system is embodied mostly in compact, lightweight, portable units (see figure) denoted video time-code units (VTUs) - one VTU for each video camera. The system is scalable in that any number of camera recordings can be synchronized. The estimated retail price per unit would be about $350 (in 2006 dollars). The need for this or another synchronization system external to video cameras arises because most video cameras do not include internal means for maintaining synchronization with other video cameras. Unlike prior video-camera-synchronization systems, this system does not depend on continuous cable or radio links between cameras (however, it does depend on occasional cable links lasting a few seconds). Also, whereas the time codes used in prior video-camera-synchronization systems typically repeat after 24 hours, the time code used in this system does not repeat for slightly more than 136 years; hence, this system is much better suited for long-term deployment of multiple cameras.

  14. Global interactions, information flow, and chaos synchronization.

    PubMed

    Paredes, G; Alvarez-Llamoza, O; Cosenza, M G

    2013-10-01

    We investigate the relationship between the emergence of chaos synchronization and the information flow in dynamical systems possessing homogeneous or heterogeneous global interactions whose origin can be external (driven systems) or internal (autonomous systems). By employing general models of coupled chaotic maps for such systems, we show that the presence of a homogeneous global field, either external or internal, for all times is not indispensable for achieving complete or generalized synchronization in a system of chaotic elements. Complete synchronization can also appear with heterogeneous global fields; it does not requires the simultaneous sharing of the field by all the elements in a system. We use the normalized mutual information and the information transfer between global and local variables to characterize complete and generalized synchronization. We show that these information measures can characterize both types of synchronized states and also allow us to discern the origin of a global interaction field. A synchronization state emerges when a sufficient amount of information provided by a field is shared by all the elements in the system, on the average over long times. Thus, the maximum value of the top-down information transfer can be used as a predictor of synchronization in a system, as a parameter is varied.

  15. Periodic and aperiodic synchronization in skilled action.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized action is considered as a manifestation of shared skill. Most synchronized behaviors in humans and other animals are based on periodic repetition. Aperiodic synchronization of complex action is found in the experimental task of synchronous speaking, in which naive subjects read a common text in lock step. The demonstration of synchronized behavior without a periodic basis is presented as a challenge for theoretical understanding. A unified treatment of periodic and aperiodic synchronization is suggested by replacing the sequential processing model of cognitivist approaches with the more local notion of a task-specific sensorimotor coordination. On this view, skilled action is the imposition of constraints on the co-variation of movement and sensory flux such that the boundary conditions that define the skill are met. This non-cognitivist approach originates in the work of John Dewey. It allows a unification of the treatment of sensorimotor synchronization in simple rhythmic behavior and in complex skilled behavior and it suggests that skill sharing is a uniquely human trait of considerable import.

  16. Improvement of sudden bilateral hearing loss after vertebral artery stenting

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hwa; Roh, Kyung Jin; Suh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral deafness is a rare but possible symptom of vertebrobasilar ischemia. We report a case of sudden bilateral sensorineural hearing loss caused by bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusion which dramatically improved after stenting. A 54-year-old man was admitted with sudden onset of bilateral deafness, vertigo, and drowsy mental status. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI showed acute infarction involving both the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and left posterior cerebral artery territory. Cerebral angiography showed bilateral distal VA occlusion, and emergency intracranial stenting was performed in the left VA. After reperfusion therapy his symptoms gradually improved, including hearing impairment. Endovascular stenting may be helpful in a patient with sudden deafness caused by bilateral VA occlusion. PMID:25697296

  17. Bilateral amplification and sound localization: then and now.

    PubMed

    Simon, Helen J

    2005-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution and pros and cons of bilateral amplification. Determining whether a bilateral hearing aid fitting is superior to that of a monaural hearing aid is a long-standing question; for this reason, the trend toward bilateral amplification has been slow. However, it is now assumed that bilateral amplification has significant advantages over monaural amplification in most cases, a view that is supported by our localization results. In this article, we will address the advantages of bilateral hearing aids and reveal some new localization data that show that most listeners with bilateral amplification, when tested unaided, as well as normal-hearing listeners manifested very high degrees of symmetry in their judgments of perceived angle while listeners who routinely use monaural amplification and those with asymmetric hearing loss had relatively large asymmetries. These data show that asymmetry in localization judgments is a much more sensitive indicator of abnormal localization ability than the magnitude of localization errors.

  18. Bilateral traumatic hip dislocation associated with sacro-iliac dislocation.

    PubMed

    Galois, L; Meuley, E; Pfeffer, F; Mainard, D; Delagoutte, J P

    We report a rare injury in an 18-year-old woman who sustained posterior bilateral hip dislocation with sacro-iliac dislocation after a high energy motor vehicle accident. She was treated by closed reduction and skeletal traction. Bilateral traumatic hip dislocation is an uncommon occurrence. Rarer still is bilateral traumatic hip dislocation associated with sacro-iliac dislocation because it combines two different mechanisms of trauma. (Hip International 2002; 1: 47-9).

  19. Quantum Clock Synchronization with a Single Qudit

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Armin; Cabello, Adán; Żukowski, Marek; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Clock synchronization for nonfaulty processes in multiprocess networks is indispensable for a variety of technologies. A reliable system must be able to resynchronize the nonfaulty processes upon some components failing causing the distribution of incorrect or conflicting information in the network. The task of synchronizing such networks is related to Byzantine agreement (BA), which can classically be solved using recursive algorithms if and only if less than one-third of the processes are faulty. Here we introduce a nonrecursive quantum algorithm, based on a quantum solution of the detectable BA, which achieves clock synchronization in the presence of arbitrary many faulty processes by using only a single quantum system. PMID:25613754

  20. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  1. Using GLONASS signal for clock synchronization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Gevorkyan, Arvid G.; Bogdanov, Pyotr P.; Ovchinnikov, Vitaly V.

    1994-01-01

    Although in accuracy parameters GLONASS is correlated with GPS, using GLONASS signals for high-precision clock synchronization was, up to the recent time, of limited utility due to the lack of specialized time receivers. In order to improve this situation, in late 1992 the Russian Institute of Radionavigation and Time (RMT) began to develop a GLONASS time receiver using as a basis the airborne ASN-16 receiver. This paper presents results of estimating user clock synchronization accuracy via GLONASS signals using ASN-16 receiver in the direct synchronization and common-view modes.

  2. Complex Synchronization Phenomena in Ecological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Lewi; Olinky, Ronen; Blasius, Bernd; Huppert, Amit; Cazelles, Bernard

    2002-07-01

    Ecological and biological systems provide us with many striking examples of synchronization phenomena. Here we discuss a number of intriguing cases and attempt to explain them taking advantage of a modelling framework. One main focus will concern synchronized ecological end epidemiological cycles which have Uniform Phase growth associated with their regular recurrence, and Chaotic Amplitudes - a feature we term UPCA. Examples come from different areas and include decadal cycles of small mammals, recurrent viral epidemics such as childhood infections (eg., measles), and seasonally driven phytoplankton blooms observed in lakes and the oceans. A more detailed theoretical analysis of seasonally synchronized chaotic population cycles is presented.

  3. Synchronization Of Parallel Discrete Event Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    Adaptive, parallel, discrete-event-simulation-synchronization algorithm, Breathing Time Buckets, developed in Synchronous Parallel Environment for Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation (SPEEDES) operating system. Algorithm allows parallel simulations to process events optimistically in fluctuating time cycles that naturally adapt while simulation in progress. Combines best of optimistic and conservative synchronization strategies while avoiding major disadvantages. Algorithm processes events optimistically in time cycles adapting while simulation in progress. Well suited for modeling communication networks, for large-scale war games, for simulated flights of aircraft, for simulations of computer equipment, for mathematical modeling, for interactive engineering simulations, and for depictions of flows of information.

  4. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Zavriyev, Anton

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  5. Are feedback loops destructive to synchronization?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheshbolouki, A.; Zarei, M.; Sarbazi-Azad, H.

    2015-08-01

    We study the effects of directionality on synchronization of dynamical networks. Performing the linear stability analysis and the numerical simulation of the Kuramoto model in directed networks, we show that balancing in- and out-degrees of all nodes enhances the synchronization of sparse networks, especially in networks with high clustering coefficient and homogeneous degree distribution. Furthermore, by omitting all the feedback loops, we show that while hierarchical directed acyclic graphs are structurally highly synchronizable, their global synchronization is too sensitive to the choice of natural frequencies and is strongly affected by noise.

  6. Spermatozoa protein alterations in infertile men with bilateral varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Cui, Zhihong; Ayaz, Ahmet; Gupta, Sajal; Willard, Belinda; Gopalan, Banu; Sabanegh, Edmund

    2016-01-01

    Among infertile men, a diagnosis of unilateral varicocele is made in 90% of varicocele cases and bilateral in the remaining varicocele cases. However, there are reports of under-diagnosis of bilateral varicocele among infertile men and that its prevalence is greater than 10%. In this prospective study, we aimed to examine the differentially expressed proteins (DEP) extracted from spermatozoa cells of patients with bilateral varicocele and fertile donors. Subjects consisted of 17 men diagnosed with bilateral varicocele and 10 proven fertile men as healthy controls. Using the LTQ-orbitrap elite hybrid mass spectrometry system, proteomic analysis was done on pooled samples from 3 patients with bilateral varicocele and 5 fertile men. From these samples, 73 DEP were identified of which 58 proteins were differentially expressed, with 7 proteins unique to the bilateral varicocele group and 8 proteins to the fertile control group. Majority of the DEPs were observed to be associated with metabolic processes, stress responses, oxidoreductase activity, enzyme regulation, and immune system processes. Seven DEP were involved in sperm function such as capacitation, motility, and sperm-zona binding. Proteins TEKT3 and TCP11 were validated by Western blot analysis and may serve as potential biomarkers for bilateral varicocele. In this study, we have demonstrated for the first time the presence of DEP and identified proteins with distinct reproductive functions which are altered in infertile men with bilateral varicocele. Functional proteomic profiling provides insight into the mechanistic implications of bilateral varicocele-associated male infertility. PMID:25999357

  7. A case presentation of bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Rahmi; Ozdek, Ali; Felek, Sevim; Safak, M Asim; Samim, Erdal

    2003-01-01

    Bilateral simultaneous facial paralysis is an extremely rare clinical entity. Unlike the unilateral form, bilateral facial paralysis seldom falls into Bell's category. It is most often a special finding in a symptom complex of a systemic disease; many of them are potentially life-threatening, and therefore the condition warrants urgent medical intervention. Lyme disease, Guillian-Barre syndrome, Bell's palsy, leukemia, sarcoidosis, bacterial meningitis, syphilis, leprosy, Moebius syndrome, infectious mononucleosis, and skull fracture are the most common cause of bilateral facial paralysis. Here we present a 16-year-old patient with bilateral simultaneous Bell's palsy.

  8. Interocular symmetry analysis of bilateral eyes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Bao, Fang Jun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interocular symmetry of several biometric parameters between both eyes. The symmetry between the right and left eye of 397 subjects in 14 biometric parameters, spherical equivalent of refractive error (SE), Jackson crossed cylinder power of refractive error astigmatism with axes at 90° and 180° (RJ0) and at 45° and 135° (RJ45), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), average corneal curvature (CC), Jackson crossed cylinder power of corneal astigmatism (CJ0 and CJ45), corneal asphericity coefficient (Q), intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT), axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT) and vitreous chamber depth (VCD), was assessed by comparative data analysis. Aside from RJ0 (p = 0.00), RJ45 (p = 0.02) and Q (p = 0.00), the overall interocular differences of other biometric parameters between fellow eyes were not significant (p > 0.05). The interocular correlation and Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between fellow eyes in 14 biometric parameters. Correlations between interocular differences in SE and that in RJ0 (p = 0.03), CC (p = 0.00), AL (p = 0.00) and VCD (p = 0.00) were statistically significant. There were similar strong linear relationships between refractive error astigmatism vectors and corneal astigmatism vectors in bilateral eyes. There were negative correlations of RJ45 and CJ45 between bilateral eyes. A potentially clinically important interocular symmetry in SE, BCVA, CC, CJ0, CJ45, IOP, CCT, AL, ACD, LT and VCD is found in this research, while the differences of RJ0, RJ45 and Q between left and right eyes seem a bit large. The negative interocular relationships of RJ45 and CJ45 demonstrate moderate mirror symmetry exists among fellow eyes. High interocular symmetry in bilateral eyes may be helpful in intraocular lens power calculation, intraocular pressure evaluation, post-operative visual acuity and refraction

  9. Synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L; Hermanns, Gerhard; Hemmerle, Peter; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2013-11-01

    Based on numerical simulations with a stochastic three-phase traffic flow model, we reveal that moving queues (moving jams) in oversaturated city traffic dissolve at some distance upstream of the traffic signal while transforming into synchronized flow. It is found that, as in highway traffic [Kerner, Phys. Rev. E 85, 036110 (2012)], such a jam-absorption effect in city traffic is explained by a strong driver's speed adaptation: Time headways (space gaps) between vehicles increase upstream of a moving queue (moving jam), resulting in moving queue dissolution. It turns out that at given traffic signal parameters, the stronger the speed adaptation effect, the shorter the mean distance between the signal location and the road location at which moving queues dissolve fully and oversaturated traffic consists of synchronized flow only. A comparison of the synchronized flow in city traffic found in this Brief Report with synchronized flow in highway traffic is made.

  10. Synchronization of Arbitrarily Switched Boolean Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongwei; Liang, Jinling; Huang, Tingwen; Cao, Jinde

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization problem for the drive-response switched Boolean networks (SBNs) under arbitrary switching signals, where the switching signals of the response SBN follow those generated by the drive SBN at each time instant. First, the definition of complete synchronization is introduced for the drive-response SBNs under arbitrary switching signals. Second, the concept of switching reachable set starting from a given initial state set is put forward. Based on it, a necessary and sufficient condition is derived for the complete synchronization of the drive-response SBNs. Last, we give a simple algebraic expression for the switching reachable set in a given number of time steps, and two computable algebraic criteria are obtained for the complete synchronization of the SBNs. A biological example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained main results.

  11. Synchronization of coupled nonidentical genetic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunguang; Chen, Luonan; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2006-03-01

    The study of the collective dynamics of synchronization among genetic oscillators is essential for the understanding of the rhythmic phenomena of living organisms at both molecular and cellular levels. Genetic oscillators are biochemical networks, which can generally be modelled as nonlinear dynamic systems. We show in this paper that many genetic oscillators can be transformed into Lur'e form by exploiting the special structure of biological systems. By using a control theory approach, we provide a theoretical method for analysing the synchronization of coupled nonidentical genetic oscillators. Sufficient conditions for the synchronization as well as the estimation of the bound of the synchronization error are also obtained. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results, a population of genetic oscillators based on the Goodwin model are adopted as numerical examples.

  12. Optimal Synchronization of a Memristive Chaotic Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kountchou, Michaux; Louodop, Patrick; Bowong, Samuel; Fotsin, Hilaire; Kurths, Jurgen

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with the problem of optimal synchronization of two identical memristive chaotic systems. We first study some basic dynamical properties and behaviors of a memristor oscillator with a simple topology. An electronic circuit (analog simulator) is proposed to investigate the dynamical behavior of the system. An optimal synchronization strategy based on the controllability functions method with a mixed cost functional is investigated. A finite horizon is explicitly computed such that the chaos synchronization is achieved at an established time. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed synchronization strategy. Pspice analog circuit implementation of the complete master-slave-controller systems is also presented to show the feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  13. Minimal model for spontaneous quantum synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Claudia; Galve, Fernando; Mandarino, Antonio; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Zambrini, Roberta

    2016-11-01

    We show the emergence of spontaneous synchronization between a pair of detuned quantum oscillators within a harmonic network. Our model does not involve any nonlinearity, driving, or external dissipation, thus providing the simplest scenario for the occurrence of local coherent dynamics in an extended harmonic system. A sufficient condition for synchronization is established by building upon the Rayleigh normal mode approach to vibrational systems. Our results show that mechanisms favoring synchronization, even between oscillators that are not directly coupled to each other, are transient energy depletion and crosstalk. We also address the possible buildup of quantum correlations during synchronization and show that indeed entanglement may be generated in detuned systems, starting from uncorrelated states and without any direct coupling between the two oscillators.

  14. Method and system for downhole clock synchronization

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-11-28

    A method and system for use in synchronizing at least two clocks in a downhole network are disclosed. The method comprises determining a total signal latency between a controlling processing element and at least one downhole processing element in a downhole network and sending a synchronizing time over the downhole network to the at least one downhole processing element adjusted for the signal latency. Electronic time stamps may be used to measure latency between processing elements. A system for electrically synchronizing at least two clocks connected to a downhole network comprises a controlling processing element connected to a synchronizing clock in communication over a downhole network with at least one downhole processing element comprising at least one downhole clock. Preferably, the downhole network is integrated into a downhole tool string.

  15. Modified impulsive synchronization of hyperchaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeri, Mohammad; Dehghani, Mahsa

    2010-03-01

    In an original impulsive synchronization only instantaneous errors are used to determine the impulsive inputs. To improve the synchronization performance, addition of an integral term of the errors is proposed here. In comparison with the original form, the proposed modification increases the impulse distances which leads to reduction in the control cost as the most important characteristic of the impulsive synchronization technique. It can also decrease the error magnitude in the presence of noise. Sufficient conditions are presented through four theorems for different situations (nominal, uncertain, noisy, and noisy uncertain cases) under which stability of the error dynamics is guaranteed. Results from computer based simulations are provided to illustrate feasibility and effectiveness of the modified impulsive synchronization method applied on Rossler hyperchaotic systems.

  16. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    SciTech Connect

    Dykema, Kenneth J.; Paulsen, Vern

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  17. Repeat-PPM Super-Symbol Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, J.

    2016-11-01

    To attain a wider range of data rates in pulse position modulation (PPM) schemes with constrained pulse durations, the sender can repeat a PPM symbol multiple times, forming a super-symbol. In addition to the slot and symbol synchronization typically required for PPM, the receiver must also properly align the noisy super-symbols. We present a low-complexity approximation of the maximum-likelihood method for performing super-symbol synchronization without use of synchronization sequences. We provide simulation results demonstrating performance advantage when PPM symbols are spread by a pseudo-noise sequence, as opposed to simply repeating. Additionally, the results suggest that this super-symbol synchronization technique requires signal levels below those required for reliable communication. This validates that the PPM spreading approach proposed to CCSDS can work properly as part of the overall scheme.

  18. Visual Feedback Leader-following Attitude Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, Tatsuya; Hatanaka, Takeshi; Fujita, Masayuki

    In this paper we investigate visual feedback attitude synchronization in leader-follower type visibility structures on the Special Euclidean group SE(3). We first define visual robotic networks consisting of the dynamics describing rigid body motion, visibility structures among bodies and visual measurements. We then propose a visual feedback attitude synchronization law combining a vision-based observer with the attitude synchronization law presented in our previous works. We then prove that when the leader does not rotate, the visual robotic network with the control law achieves visual feedback attitude synchronization. Moreover, for a rotating leader, we evaluate the tracking performance of the other bodies. In analysis, we employ the notion of input-to-state stability and L2-gain performance regarding the leader’s angular velocity as an external disturbance. Finally, the validity of the proposed control law and the analysis is demonstrated through simulations.

  19. Synchronization in networks of mobile oscillators.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Naoya; Kurths, Jürgen; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

    2011-02-01

    We present a model of synchronization in networks of autonomous agents where the topology changes due to agents motion. We introduce two timescales, one for the topological change and another one for local synchronization. If the former scale is much shorter, an approximation that averages out the effect of motion is available. Here we show, however, that the time required for synchronization achievement is larger than the prediction of the approximation in the opposite case, especially close to the continuum percolation transition point. The simulation results are confirmed by means of spectral analysis of the time-dependent Laplacian matrix. Our results show that the tradeoff between these two timescales, which have opposite effects on synchronization, should be taken into account for the design of mobile device networks.

  20. Chaos synchronization of general complex dynamical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Jinhu; Yu, Xinghuo; Chen, Guanrong

    2004-03-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that many large-scale complex dynamical networks display a collective synchronization motion. Here, we introduce a time-varying complex dynamical network model and further investigate its synchronization phenomenon. Based on this new complex network model, two network chaos synchronization theorems are proved. We show that the chaos synchronization of a time-varying complex network is determined by means of the inner coupled link matrix, the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of the coupled configuration matrix, rather than the conventional eigenvalues of the coupled configuration matrix for a uniform network. Especially, we do not assume that the coupled configuration matrix is symmetric and its off-diagonal elements are nonnegative, which in a way generalizes the related results existing in the literature.