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Sample records for syndrome mouse model

  1. Mouse Models for Down Syndrome-Associated Developmental Cognitive Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunhong; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Baldini, Antonio; Antonarakis, Stylianos E.; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is mainly caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is a leading genetic cause for developmental cognitive disabilities in humans. The mouse is a premier model organism for DS because the regions on Hsa21 are syntenically conserved with three regions in the mouse genome, which are located on mouse chromosome 10 (Mmu10), Mmu16 and Mmu17. With the advance of chromosomal manipulation technologies, new mouse mutants have been generated to mimic DS at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Further mouse-based molecular genetic studies in the future may lead to the unraveling of the mechanisms underlying DS-associated developmental cognitive disabilities, which would lay the groundwork for developing effective treatments for this phenotypic manifestation. In this review, we will discuss recent progress and future challenges in modeling DS-associated developmental cognitive disability in mice with an emphasis on hippocampus-related phenotypes. PMID:21865664

  2. Phenotype profile of a genetic mouse model for Muenke syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Eiki; Agochukwu, Nneamaka B.; Bartlett, Scott P.; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The Muenke syndrome mutation (FGFR3P250R), which was discovered 15 years ago, represents the single most common craniosynostosis mutation. Muenke syndrome is characterized by coronal suture synostosis, mid-face hypoplasia, subtle limb anomalies, and hearing loss. However, the spectrum of clinical presentation continues to expand. To better understand the pathophysiology of the Muenke syndrome, we present collective findings from several recent studies that have characterized a genetically equivalent mouse model for Muenke syndrome (FgfR3P244R) and compare them with human phenotypes. Conclusions FgfR3P244R mutant mice show premature fusion of facial sutures, premaxillary and/or zygomatic sutures, but rarely the coronal suture. The mice also lack the typical limb phenotype. On the other hand, the mutant mice display maxillary retrusion in association with a shortening of the anterior cranial base and a premature closure of intersphenoidal and spheno-occipital synchondroses, resembling human midface hypoplasia. In addition, sensorineural hearing loss is detected in all FgfR3P244R mutant mice as in the majority of Muenke syndrome patients. It is caused by a defect in the mechanism of cell fate determination in the organ of Corti. The mice also express phenotypes that have not been previously described in humans, such as reduced cortical bone thickness, hypoplastic trabecular bone, and defective temporomandibular joint structure. Therefore, the FgfR3P244R mouse provides an excellent opportunity to study disease mechanisms of some classical phenotypes of Muenke syndrome and to test novel therapeutic strategies. The mouse model can also be further explored to discover previously unreported yet potentially significant phenotypes of Muenke syndrome. PMID:22872265

  3. Mouse models for the Wolf-Hirschhorn deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Näf, D; Wilson, L A; Bergstrom, R A; Smith, R S; Goodwin, N C; Verkerk, A; van Ommen, G J; Ackerman, S L; Frankel, W N; Schimenti, J C

    2001-01-15

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a deletion syndrome caused by segmental haploidy of chromosome 4p16.3. Its hallmark features include a 'Greek warrior helmet' facial appearance, mental retardation, various midline defects and seizures. The WHS critical region (WHSCR) lies between the Huntington's disease gene, HD, and FGFR3. In mice, the homologs of these genes map to chromosome 5 in a region of conserved synteny with human 4p16.3. To derive mouse models of WHS and map genes responsible for subphenotypes of the syndrome, five mouse lines bearing radiation-induced deletions spanning the WHSCR syntenic region were generated and characterized. Similar to WHS patients, these animals were growth-retarded, were susceptible to seizures and showed midline (palate closure, tail kinks), craniofacial and ocular anomalies (colobomas, corneal opacities). Other phenotypes included cerebellar hypoplasia and a shortened cerebral cortex. Expression of WHS-like traits was variable and influenced by strain background and deletion size. These mice represent the first animal models for WHS. This collection of nested chromosomal deletions will be useful for mapping and identifying loci responsible for the various subphenotypes of WHS, and provides a paradigm for the dissection of other deletion syndromes using the mouse.

  4. Sundowning syndrome in aging and dementia: research in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-05-01

    Both normal aging and dementia are associated with altered circadian regulation of physiology and behavior. Elderly individuals and dementia patients commonly experience disrupted sleep-wake cycles, which may lead to psychomotor agitation, confusion, and wandering. These behaviors are disruptive to both patients and caregivers. Sundowning syndrome, which encompasses many of these behaviors, is characterized by a temporal pattern in the severity of symptoms, usually expressed as worse during the late afternoon or evening. Other than antipsychotic medications, off-label medications, and restraint, few treatment options are available. The aim of this paper is to review mouse studies of circadian behavioral disturbances relevant to sundowning, in order to determine potential models for studying the mechanisms of sundowning syndrome. The emergence of a useful mouse model should facilitate the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mouse models of Down syndrome: gene content and consequences.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Meenal; Dhanasekaran, A Ranjitha; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), is challenging to model in mice. Not only is it a contiguous gene syndrome spanning 35 Mb of the long arm of Hsa21, but orthologs of Hsa21 genes map to segments of three mouse chromosomes, Mmu16, Mmu17, and Mmu10. The Ts65Dn was the first viable segmental trisomy mouse model for DS; it is a partial trisomy currently popular in preclinical evaluations of drugs for cognition in DS. Limitations of the Ts65Dn are as follows: (i) it is trisomic for 125 human protein-coding orthologs, but only 90 of these are Hsa21 orthologs and (ii) it lacks trisomy for ~75 Hsa21 orthologs. In recent years, several additional mouse models of DS have been generated, each trisomic for a different subset of Hsa21 genes or their orthologs. To best exploit these models and interpret the results obtained with them, prior to proposing clinical trials, an understanding of their trisomic gene content, relative to full trisomy 21, is necessary. Here we first review the functional information on Hsa21 protein-coding genes and the more recent annotation of a large number of functional RNA genes. We then discuss the conservation and genomic distribution of Hsa21 orthologs in the mouse genome and the distribution of mouse-specific genes. Lastly, we consider the strengths and weaknesses of mouse models of DS based on the number and nature of the Hsa21 orthologs that are, and are not, trisomic in each, and discuss their validity for use in preclinical evaluations of drug responses.

  6. Mouse models of primary Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Gauna, Adrienne E.; Cha, Seunghee

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by immune cell infiltration and progressive injury to the salivary and lacrimal glands. As a consequence, patients with SjS develop xerostomia (dry mouth) and keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eyes). SjS is the third most common rheumatic autoimmune disorder, affecting 4 million Americans with over 90% of patients being female. Current diagnostic criteria for SjS frequently utilize histological examinations of minor salivary glands for immune cell foci, serology for autoantibodies, and dry eye evaluation by corneal or conjunctival staining. SjS can be classified as primary or secondary SjS, depending on whether it occurs alone or in association with other systemic rheumatic conditions, respectively. Clinical manifestations typically become apparent when the disease is relatively advanced in SjS patients, which poses a challenge for early diagnosis and treatment of SjS. Therefore, SjS mouse models, because of their close resemblance to the human SjS, have been extremely valuable to identify early disease markers and to investigate underlying biological and immunological dysregulations. However, it is important to bear in mind that no single mouse model has duplicated all aspects of SjS pathogenesis and clinical features, mainly due to the multifactorial etiology of SjS that includes numerous susceptibility genes and environmental factors. As such, various mouse models have been developed in the field to try to recapitulate SjS. In this review, we focus on recent mouse models of primary SjS and describe them under three categories of spontaneous, genetically engineered, and experimentally induced development of SjS-like disease. In addition, we discuss future perspectives of SjS mouse models highlighting pros and cons of utilizing mouse models and demands for improved models. PMID:25777752

  7. Dissecting Alzheimer disease in Down syndrome using mouse models

    PubMed Central

    Choong, Xun Yu; Tosh, Justin L.; Pulford, Laura J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic condition caused by the presence of three copies of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21). This greatly increases the risk of Alzheimer disease (AD), but although virtually all people with DS have AD neuropathology by 40 years of age, not all develop dementia. To dissect the genetic contribution of trisomy 21 to DS phenotypes including those relevant to AD, a range of DS mouse models has been generated which are trisomic for chromosome segments syntenic to human chromosome 21. Here, we consider key characteristics of human AD in DS (AD-DS), and our current state of knowledge on related phenotypes in AD and DS mouse models. We go on to review important features needed in future models of AD-DS, to understand this type of dementia and so highlight pathogenic mechanisms relevant to all populations at risk of AD. PMID:26528151

  8. Transgenic mouse model for the fragile X syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kooy, R.F.; Reyniers, E.; De Boulle, K.

    1996-08-09

    Transgenic fragile X knockout mice have been constructed to provide an animal model to study the physiologic function of the fragile X gene (FMR1) and to gain more insight into the clinical phenotype caused by the absence of the fragile X protein. Initial experiments suggested that the knockout mice show macroorchidism and cognitive and behavioral deficits, abnormalities comparable to those of human fragile X patients. In the present study, we have extended our experiments, and conclude that the Fmr1 knockout mouse is a reliable transgenic model to study the fragile X syndrome. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Modeling fragile X syndrome in the Fmr1 knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Kazdoba, Tatiana M; Leach, Prescott T; Silverman, Jill L; Crawley, Jacqueline N

    2014-11-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a commonly inherited form of intellectual disability and one of the leading genetic causes for autism spectrum disorder. Clinical symptoms of FXS can include impaired cognition, anxiety, hyperactivity, social phobia, and repetitive behaviors. FXS is caused by a CGG repeat mutation which expands a region on the X chromosome containing the FMR1 gene. In FXS, a full mutation (> 200 repeats) leads to hypermethylation of FMR1, an epigenetic mechanism that effectively silences FMR1 gene expression and reduces levels of the FMR1 gene product, fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that is important for the regulation of protein expression. In an effort to further understand how loss of FMR1 and FMRP contribute to FXS symptomology, several FXS animal models have been created. The most well characterized rodent model is the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse, which lacks FMRP protein due to a disruption in its Fmr1 gene. Here, we review the behavioral phenotyping of the Fmr1 KO mouse to date, and discuss the clinical relevance of this mouse model to the human FXS condition. While much remains to be learned about FXS, the Fmr1 KO mouse is a valuable tool for understanding the repercussions of functional loss of FMRP and assessing the efficacy of pharmacological compounds in ameliorating the molecular and behavioral phenotypes relevant to FXS.

  10. A mouse model for Meckel syndrome type 3.

    PubMed

    Cook, Susan A; Collin, Gayle B; Bronson, Roderick T; Naggert, Jürgen K; Liu, Dong P; Akeson, Ellen C; Davisson, Muriel T

    2009-04-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome type 3 (MKS3; OMIM 607361) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bilateral polycystic kidney disease. Other malformations associated with MKS3 include cystic changes in the liver, polydactyly, and brain abnormalities (occipital encephalocele, hydrocephalus, and Dandy Walker-type cerebellar anomalies). The disorder is hypothesized to be caused by defects in primary cilia. In humans, the underlying mutated gene, TMEM67, encodes transmembrane protein 67, also called meckelin (OMIM 609884), which is an integral protein of the renal epithelial cell and membrane of the primary cilium. Here, we describe a spontaneous deletion of the mouse ortholog, Tmem67, which results in polycystic kidney disease and death by 3 wk after birth. Hydrocephalus also occurs in some mutants. We verified the mutated gene by transgenic rescue and characterized the phenotype with microcomputed tomography, histology, scanning electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. This mutant provides a mouse model for MKS3 and adds to the growing set of mammalian models essential for studying the role of the primary cilium in kidney function.

  11. Breathing abnormalities in a female mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christopher M; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Oginsky, Max F; Jiang, Chun

    2015-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a female neurodevelopmental disease with breathing abnormalities. To understand whether breathing defects occur in the early lives of a group of female Mecp2(+/-) mice, a mouse model of RTT, and what percentage of mice shows RTT-like breathing abnormality, breathing activity was measured by plethysmography in conscious mice. Breathing frequency variation and central apnea in a group of Mecp2(+/-) females displayed a distribution pattern similar to Mecp2(-/Y) males, while the rest resembled the wild-type mice. Similar results were obtained using the k-mean clustering statistics analysis. With two independent methods, about 20% of female Mecp2(+/-) mice showed RTT-like breathing abnormalities that began as early as 3 weeks of age in the Mecp2(+/-) mice, and were suppressed with 3% CO2. The finding that only a small proportion of Mecp2(+/-) mice develops RTT-like breathing abnormalities suggests incomplete allele inactivation in the RTT-model Mecp2(+/-) mice.

  12. Deficient Sleep in Mouse Models of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saré, R. Michelle; Harkless, Lee; Levine, Merlin; Torossian, Anita; Sheeler, Carrie A.; Smith, Carolyn B.

    2017-01-01

    In patients with fragile X syndrome (FXS), sleep problems are commonly observed but are not well characterized. In animal models of FXS (dfmr1 and Fmr1 knockout (KO)/Fxr2 heterozygote) circadian rhythmicity is affected, but sleep per se has not been examined. We used a home-cage monitoring system to assess total sleep time in both light and dark phases in Fmr1 KO mice at different developmental stages. Fmr1 KOs at P21 do not differ from controls, but genotype × phase interactions in both adult (P70 and P180) groups are statistically significant indicating that sleep in Fmr1 KOs is reduced selectively in the light phase compared to controls. Our results show the emergence of abnormal sleep in Fmr1 KOs during the later stages of brain maturation. Treatment of adult Fmr1 KO mice with a GABAB agonist, R-baclofen, did not restore sleep duration in the light phase. In adult (P70) Fmr1 KO/Fxr2 heterozygote animals, total sleep time was further reduced, once again in the light phase. Our data highlight the importance of the fragile X genes (Fmr1 and Fxr2) in sleep physiology and confirm the utility of these mouse models in enhancing our understanding of sleep disorders in FXS.

  13. Mouse model of Timothy syndrome recapitulates triad of autistic traits.

    PubMed

    Bader, Patrick L; Faizi, Mehrdad; Kim, Leo H; Owen, Scott F; Tadross, Michael R; Alfa, Ronald W; Bett, Glenna C L; Tsien, Richard W; Rasmusson, Randall L; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2011-09-13

    Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) typically arise from a mixture of environmental influences and multiple genetic alterations. In some rare cases, such as Timothy syndrome (TS), a specific mutation in a single gene can be sufficient to generate autism or ASD in most patients, potentially offering insights into the etiology of autism in general. Both variants of TS (the milder TS1 and the more severe TS2) arise from missense mutations in alternatively spliced exons that cause the same G406R replacement in the Ca(V)1.2 L-type calcium channel. We generated a TS2-like mouse but found that heterozygous (and homozygous) animals were not viable. However, heterozygous TS2 mice that were allowed to keep an inverted neomycin cassette (TS2-neo) survived through adulthood. We attribute the survival to lowering of expression of the G406R L-type channel via transcriptional interference, blunting deleterious effects of mutant L-type channel overactivity, and addressed potential effects of altered gene dosage by studying Ca(V)1.2 knockout heterozygotes. Here we present a thorough behavioral phenotyping of the TS2-neo mouse, capitalizing on this unique opportunity to use the TS mutation to model ASD in mice. Along with normal general health, activity, and anxiety level, TS2-neo mice showed markedly restricted, repetitive, and perseverative behavior, altered social behavior, altered ultrasonic vocalization, and enhanced tone-cued and contextual memory following fear conditioning. Our results suggest that when TS mutant channels are expressed at levels low enough to avoid fatality, they are sufficient to cause multiple, distinct behavioral abnormalities, in line with the core aspects of ASD.

  14. [Relevance of animal models in the study of human pathologies: a mouse model of Down syndrome].

    PubMed

    Morice, Elise

    2010-01-01

    Animal models provide a simplified representation of biological systems impossible to study directly in the human being. Regarding genetic pathologies, mouse models are the most studied since they enable to reproduce in animals the mutation of the gene or genes responsible for the disease and to study the phenotypic consequences. Down syndrome is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and is characterized by different degrees of phenotypic alterations including morphological, cardiac, muscular, cerebral, motor and intellectual changes. This high phenotypic heterogeneity involves genetic and environmental effects, which are impossible to dissect out in human beings. Various models in mice have been developed in order to identify the genetic and neurobiological mechanisms responsible for Down syndrome. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete genetic animal model currently available to study Down syndrome, since it carries an almost complete Hsa 21. The behavioural and electrophysiological studies of this model reveal a great similarity between the animal phenotype and the Down syndrome symptomatology, consequently this model represents a powerful genetic tool with a potential to unravel the mechanisms underlying the deficiencies array characteristic of this human condition. In the long term, Tc1 mice will contribute to the development and the screening of new therapeutics, with the goal of improving all the impairments reported in Down syndrome.

  15. The Fgfr2 W290R mouse model of Crouzon syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gong, S-G

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to review and discuss the utility of the Fgfr2 (W290R) mouse mutant as a model of human Crouzon syndrome. A review of current and past scientific literature on Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-2 (FGFR2) protein domain structure, FGFR mutations associated with human Crouzon syndrome, and phenotypic and molecular changes combined with recent observations and experimental data of the Fgfr2 (W290R) mouse mutant was conducted. A comparison of the Fgfr2 (W290R) mouse mutant with another mouse model of Crouzon syndrome, Fgfr2 (C342R) mouse mutant, was also performed. Finally, possible future research directions using the Fgfr2 (W290R) mutant mice were discussed. The Fgfr2 (W290R) heterozygous mouse exhibits defects characteristic of human Crouzon syndrome. At the molecular level, the defects observed in the mouse mutant are due to the dysregulation of signaling of both the IIIb and IIIc isoforms of Fgfr2. The involvement of the IIIb isoform of FGFR2 in the etiopathology of Crouzon syndrome is a novel finding in the craniosynostosis literature field. Dysregulated signaling of both IIIb and IIIc isoforms causes a broad spectrum of changes that explain some of the defects observed clinically in humans. Several of the defects observed in the Fgfr2 (W290R) homozygous mouse mutant are attributable to a loss-of-function mechanism in contrast to the frequently reported gain-of-function receptor function associated with mutated FGF receptors in craniosynostosis. The Fgfr2 ( W290R ) mouse model can be used as a model system to further investigate the cellular, molecular, and biochemical mechanisms of Crouzon syndrome.

  16. From abnormal hippocampal synaptic plasticity in down syndrome mouse models to cognitive disability in down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Nathan; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the overexpression of genes on triplicated regions of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). While the resulting physiological and behavioral phenotypes vary in their penetrance and severity, all individuals with DS have variable but significant levels of cognitive disability. At the core of cognitive processes is the phenomenon of synaptic plasticity, a functional change in the strength at points of communication between neurons. A wide variety of evidence from studies on DS individuals and mouse models of DS indicates that synaptic plasticity is adversely affected in human trisomy 21 and mouse segmental trisomy 16, respectively, an outcome that almost certainly extensively contributes to the cognitive impairments associated with DS. In this review, we will highlight some of the neurophysiological changes that we believe reduce the ability of trisomic neurons to undergo neuroplasticity-related adaptations. We will focus primarily on hippocampal networks which appear to be particularly impacted in DS and where consequently the majority of cellular and neuronal network research has been performed using DS animal models, in particular the Ts65Dn mouse. Finally, we will postulate on how altered plasticity may contribute to the DS cognitive disability.

  17. From Abnormal Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Down Syndrome Mouse Models to Cognitive Disability in Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Nathan; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the overexpression of genes on triplicated regions of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). While the resulting physiological and behavioral phenotypes vary in their penetrance and severity, all individuals with DS have variable but significant levels of cognitive disability. At the core of cognitive processes is the phenomenon of synaptic plasticity, a functional change in the strength at points of communication between neurons. A wide variety of evidence from studies on DS individuals and mouse models of DS indicates that synaptic plasticity is adversely affected in human trisomy 21 and mouse segmental trisomy 16, respectively, an outcome that almost certainly extensively contributes to the cognitive impairments associated with DS. In this review, we will highlight some of the neurophysiological changes that we believe reduce the ability of trisomic neurons to undergo neuroplasticity-related adaptations. We will focus primarily on hippocampal networks which appear to be particularly impacted in DS and where consequently the majority of cellular and neuronal network research has been performed using DS animal models, in particular the Ts65Dn mouse. Finally, we will postulate on how altered plasticity may contribute to the DS cognitive disability. PMID:22848844

  18. Delayed myelination in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pacey, Laura K K; Xuan, Ingrid C Y; Guan, Sihui; Sussman, Dafna; Henkelman, R Mark; Chen, Yan; Thomsen, Christian; Hampson, David R

    2013-10-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is the most common inherited cause of autism. Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is absent in fragile X, is an mRNA binding protein that regulates the translation of hundreds of different mRNA transcripts. In the adult brain, FMRP is expressed primarily in the neurons; however, it is also expressed in developing glial cells, where its function is not well understood. Here, we show that fragile X (Fmr1) knockout mice display abnormalities in the myelination of cerebellar axons as early as the first postnatal week, corresponding roughly to the equivalent time in human brain development when symptoms of the syndrome first become apparent (1-3 years of age). At postnatal day (PND) 7, diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging showed reduced volume of the Fmr1 cerebellum compared with wild-type mice, concomitant with an 80-85% reduction in the expression of myelin basic protein, fewer myelinated axons and reduced thickness of myelin sheaths, as measured by electron microscopy. Both the expression of the proteoglycan NG2 and the number of PDGFRα+/NG2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells were reduced in the Fmr1 cerebellum at PND 7. Although myelin proteins were still depressed at PND 15, they regained wild-type levels by PND 30. These findings suggest that impaired maturation or function of oligodendrocyte precursor cells induces delayed myelination in the Fmr1 mouse brain. Our results bolster an emerging recognition that white matter abnormalities in early postnatal brain development represent an underlying neurological deficit in Fragile X syndrome.

  19. [Utilization of Werner syndrome mouse model in studying premature aging and tumor].

    PubMed

    Jia, Shu-Ting; Yang, Shi-Hua; Luo, Ying

    2009-08-01

    Werner syndrome (WS) is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease in human. It is considered as a good model disease in studying human premature syndrome. Werner protein (WRN) is a nuclear protein mutated in WS. Recent biochemical and genetic studies indicated that WRN plays important roles in DNA replication, DNA repair, and telomere maintenance. Here, we reviewed the molecular genetics of WS and the importance of telomere and WRN in the development of WS. Knocking out both telomerase and Wrn genes in mouse faithfully manifests human WS. The mouse model provides a unique genetic platform to explore the crosstalk of premature aging and tumor.

  20. Galantamine improves olfactory learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Fabio M Simoes; Busquet, Nicolas; Blatner, Megan; Maclean, Kenneth N; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common form of congenital intellectual disability. Although DS involves multiple disturbances in various tissues, there is little doubt that in terms of quality of life cognitive impairment is the most serious facet and there is no effective treatment for this aspect of the syndrome. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS recapitulates multiple aspects of DS including cognitive impairment. Here the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was evaluated in an associative learning paradigm based on olfactory cues. In contrast to disomic controls, trisomic mice exhibited significant deficits in olfactory learning. Treatment of trisomic mice with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor galantamine resulted in a significant improvement in olfactory learning. Collectively, our study indicates that olfactory learning can be a sensitive tool for evaluating deficits in associative learning in mouse models of DS and that galantamine has therapeutic potential for improving cognitive abilities.

  1. Activity-Dependent Changes in MAPK Activation in the Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filonova, Irina; Trotter, Justin H.; Banko, Jessica L.; Weeber, Edwin J.

    2014-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by disruption of the maternal "UBE3A" gene. Ube3a protein is identified as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows neuron-specific imprinting. Despite extensive research evaluating the localization and basal expression profiles of Ube3a in mouse models, the molecular…

  2. Activity-Dependent Changes in MAPK Activation in the Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filonova, Irina; Trotter, Justin H.; Banko, Jessica L.; Weeber, Edwin J.

    2014-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a devastating neurological disorder caused by disruption of the maternal "UBE3A" gene. Ube3a protein is identified as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that shows neuron-specific imprinting. Despite extensive research evaluating the localization and basal expression profiles of Ube3a in mouse models, the molecular…

  3. Cacna1g is a genetic modifier of epilepsy in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Jeffrey D; Hawkins, Nicole A; Zachwieja, Nicole J; Kearney, Jennifer A

    2017-08-01

    Dravet syndrome, an early onset epileptic encephalopathy, is most often caused by de novo mutation of the neuronal voltage-gated sodium channel gene SCN1A. Mouse models with deletion of Scn1a recapitulate Dravet syndrome phenotypes, including spontaneous generalized tonic-clonic seizures, susceptibility to seizures induced by elevated body temperature, and elevated risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Importantly, the epilepsy phenotype of Dravet mouse models is highly strain-dependent, suggesting a strong influence of genetic modifiers. We previously identified Cacna1g, encoding the Cav3.1 subunit of the T-type calcium channel family, as an epilepsy modifier in the Scn2a(Q54) transgenic epilepsy mouse model. In this study, we asked whether transgenic alteration of Cacna1g expression modifies severity of the Scn1a(+/-) Dravet phenotype. Scn1a(+/-) mice with decreased Cacna1g expression showed partial amelioration of disease phenotypes with improved survival and reduced spontaneous seizure frequency. However, reduced Cacna1g expression did not alter susceptibility to hyperthermia-induced seizures. Transgenic elevation of Cacna1g expression had no effect on the Scn1a(+/-) epilepsy phenotype. These results provide support for Cacna1g as a genetic modifier in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome and suggest that Cav3.1 may be a potential molecular target for therapeutic intervention in patients. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Exaggerated NMDA Mediated LTD in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome and Pharmacological Rescuing by Memantine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-McKean, Jonah J.; Costa, Alberto C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the best-studied animal model for Down syndrome. In the experiments described here, NMDA-mediated or mGluR-mediated LTD was induced in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Ts65Dn and euploid control mice by bath application of 20 [mu]M NMDA for 3 min and 50 [mu]M DHPG for 5 min, respectively. We found that Ts65Dn mice…

  5. Exaggerated NMDA Mediated LTD in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome and Pharmacological Rescuing by Memantine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-McKean, Jonah J.; Costa, Alberto C. S.

    2011-01-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the best-studied animal model for Down syndrome. In the experiments described here, NMDA-mediated or mGluR-mediated LTD was induced in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from Ts65Dn and euploid control mice by bath application of 20 [mu]M NMDA for 3 min and 50 [mu]M DHPG for 5 min, respectively. We found that Ts65Dn mice…

  6. Prenatal pharmacotherapy rescues brain development in a Down's syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Guidi, Sandra; Stagni, Fiorenza; Bianchi, Patrizia; Ciani, Elisabetta; Giacomini, Andrea; De Franceschi, Marianna; Moldrich, Randal; Kurniawan, Nyoman; Mardon, Karine; Giuliani, Alessandro; Calzà, Laura; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2014-02-01

    Intellectual impairment is a strongly disabling feature of Down's syndrome, a genetic disorder of high prevalence (1 in 700-1000 live births) caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. Accumulating evidence shows that widespread neurogenesis impairment is a major determinant of abnormal brain development and, hence, of intellectual disability in Down's syndrome. This defect is worsened by dendritic hypotrophy and connectivity alterations. Most of the pharmacotherapies designed to improve cognitive performance in Down's syndrome have been attempted in Down's syndrome mouse models during adult life stages. Yet, as neurogenesis is mainly a prenatal event, treatments aimed at correcting neurogenesis failure in Down's syndrome should be administered during pregnancy. Correction of neurogenesis during the very first stages of brain formation may, in turn, rescue improper brain wiring. The aim of our study was to establish whether it is possible to rescue the neurodevelopmental alterations that characterize the trisomic brain with a prenatal pharmacotherapy with fluoxetine, a drug that is able to restore post-natal hippocampal neurogenesis in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down's syndrome. Pregnant Ts65Dn females were treated with fluoxetine from embryonic Day 10 until delivery. On post-natal Day 2 the pups received an injection of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine and were sacrificed after either 2 h or after 43 days (at the age of 45 days). Untreated 2-day-old Ts65Dn mice exhibited a severe neurogenesis reduction and hypocellularity throughout the forebrain (subventricular zone, subgranular zone, neocortex, striatum, thalamus and hypothalamus), midbrain (mesencephalon) and hindbrain (cerebellum and pons). In embryonically treated 2-day-old Ts65Dn mice, precursor proliferation and cellularity were fully restored throughout all brain regions. The recovery of proliferation potency and cellularity was still present in treated Ts65Dn 45-day-old mice. Moreover, embryonic treatment restored

  7. A mouse model for MERS coronavirus-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cockrell, Adam S; Yount, Boyd L; Scobey, Trevor; Jensen, Kara; Douglas, Madeline; Beall, Anne; Tang, Xian-Chun; Marasco, Wayne A; Heise, Mark T; Baric, Ralph S

    2016-11-28

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel virus that emerged in 2012, causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), severe pneumonia-like symptoms and multi-organ failure, with a case fatality rate of ∼36%. Limited clinical studies indicate that humans infected with MERS-CoV exhibit pathology consistent with the late stages of ARDS, which is reminiscent of the disease observed in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Models of MERS-CoV-induced severe respiratory disease have been difficult to achieve, and small-animal models traditionally used to investigate viral pathogenesis (mouse, hamster, guinea-pig and ferret) are naturally resistant to MERS-CoV. Therefore, we used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing to modify the mouse genome to encode two amino acids (positions 288 and 330) that match the human sequence in the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 receptor, making mice susceptible to MERS-CoV infection and replication. Serial MERS-CoV passage in these engineered mice was then used to generate a mouse-adapted virus that replicated efficiently within the lungs and evoked symptoms indicative of severe ARDS, including decreased survival, extreme weight loss, decreased pulmonary function, pulmonary haemorrhage and pathological signs indicative of end-stage lung disease. Importantly, therapeutic countermeasures comprising MERS-CoV neutralizing antibody treatment or a MERS-CoV spike protein vaccine protected the engineered mice against MERS-CoV-induced ARDS.

  8. Generation of a transgenic mouse model of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Garron, Tania; Tao, Xinrong; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Couch, Robert B; Tseng, Chien-Te K

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East since 2012 has caused more than 900 human infections with ∼40% mortality to date. Animal models are needed for studying pathogenesis and for development of preventive and therapeutic agents against MERS-CoV infection. Nonhuman primates (rhesus macaques and marmosets) are expensive models of limited availability. Although a mouse lung infection model has been described using adenovirus vectors expressing human CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), it is believed that a transgenic mouse model is needed for MERS-CoV research. We have developed this transgenic mouse model as indicated in this study. We show that transgenic mice globally expressing hCD26/DPP4 were fully permissive to MERS-CoV infection, resulting in relentless weight loss and death within days postinfection. High infectious virus titers were recovered primarily from the lungs and brains of mice at 2 and 4 days postinfection, respectively, whereas viral RNAs were also detected in the heart, spleen, and intestine, indicating a disseminating viral infection. Infected Tg(+) mice developed a progressive pneumonia, characterized by extensive inflammatory infiltration. In contrast, an inconsistent mild perivascular cuffing was the only pathological change associated with the infected brains. Moreover, infected Tg(+) mice were able to activate genes encoding for many antiviral and inflammatory mediators within the lungs and brains, coinciding with the high levels of viral replication. This new and unique transgenic mouse model will be useful for furthering knowledge of MERS pathogenesis and for the development of vaccine and treatments against MERS-CoV infection. Small and economical animal models are required for the controlled and extensive studies needed for elucidating pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals against MERS. Mice are the most desirable small-animal species for this purpose because of

  9. Generation of a Transgenic Mouse Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Garron, Tania; Tao, Xinrong; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East since 2012 has caused more than 900 human infections with ∼40% mortality to date. Animal models are needed for studying pathogenesis and for development of preventive and therapeutic agents against MERS-CoV infection. Nonhuman primates (rhesus macaques and marmosets) are expensive models of limited availability. Although a mouse lung infection model has been described using adenovirus vectors expressing human CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), it is believed that a transgenic mouse model is needed for MERS-CoV research. We have developed this transgenic mouse model as indicated in this study. We show that transgenic mice globally expressing hCD26/DPP4 were fully permissive to MERS-CoV infection, resulting in relentless weight loss and death within days postinfection. High infectious virus titers were recovered primarily from the lungs and brains of mice at 2 and 4 days postinfection, respectively, whereas viral RNAs were also detected in the heart, spleen, and intestine, indicating a disseminating viral infection. Infected Tg+ mice developed a progressive pneumonia, characterized by extensive inflammatory infiltration. In contrast, an inconsistent mild perivascular cuffing was the only pathological change associated with the infected brains. Moreover, infected Tg+ mice were able to activate genes encoding for many antiviral and inflammatory mediators within the lungs and brains, coinciding with the high levels of viral replication. This new and unique transgenic mouse model will be useful for furthering knowledge of MERS pathogenesis and for the development of vaccine and treatments against MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Small and economical animal models are required for the controlled and extensive studies needed for elucidating pathogenesis and development of vaccines and antivirals against MERS. Mice are the most desirable small-animal species for this

  10. New mouse model for inducing and evaluating unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cassel, R; Bordiga, P; Pericat, D; Hautefort, C; Tighilet, B; Chabbert, C

    2017-09-11

    Unilateral vestibular deafferentation syndrome (uVDS) holds a particular place in the vestibular pathology domain. Due to its suddenness, the violence of its symptoms that often result in emergency hospitalization, and its associated original neurophysiological properties, this syndrome is a major source of questioning for the otoneurology community. Also, its putative pathogenic causes remain to be determined. There is currently a strong medical need for the development of targeted and effective countermeasures to improve the therapeutic management of uVDS. The present study reports the development of a new mouse model for inducing and evaluating uVDS. Both the method for generating controlled excitotoxic-type peripheral vestibular damages, through transtympanic administration of the glutamate receptors agonist kainate (TTK), and the procedure for evaluating the ensuing clinical signs are detailed. Through extensive analysis of the clinical symptoms characteristics, this new animal model provides the opportunity to better follow the temporal evolution of various uVDS specific symptoms, while better appreciating the different phases that composed this syndrome. The uVDS evoked in the TTK mouse model displays two main phases distinguishable by their kinetics and amplitudes. Several parameters of the altered vestibular behaviour mimic those observed in the human syndrome. This new murine model brings concrete information about how uVDS develops and how it affects global behaviour. In addition, it opens new opportunity to decipher the etiopathological substrate of this pathology by authorizing the use of genetically modified mouse models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the MeCP2R168X knockin mouse model for Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wegener, Eike; Brendel, Cornelia; Fischer, Andre; Hülsmann, Swen; Gärtner, Jutta; Huppke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome, one of the most common causes of mental retardation in females, is caused by mutations in the X chromosomal gene MECP2. Mice deficient for MeCP2 recapitulate some of the symptoms seen in patients with Rett syndrome. It has been shown that reactivation of silent MECP2 alleles can reverse some of the symptoms in these mice. We have generated a knockin mouse model for translational research that carries the most common nonsense mutation in Rett syndrome, R168X. In this article we describe the phenotype of this mouse model. In male MeCP2(R168X) mice life span was reduced to 12-14 weeks and bodyweight was significantly lower than in wild type littermates. First symptoms including tremor, hind limb clasping and inactivity occurred at age 27 days. At age 6 weeks nest building, rotarod, open-field and elevated plus maze experiments showed impaired motor performance, reduced activity and decreased anxiety-like behavior. Plethysmography at the same time showed apneas and irregular breathing with reduced frequency. Female MeCP2R168X mice showed no significant abnormalities except decreased performance on the rotarod at age 9 months. In conclusion we show that the male MeCP2(R168X) mice have a phenotype similar to that seen in MECP2 knockout mouse models and are therefore well suited for translational research. The female mice, however, have a much milder and less constant phenotype making such research with this mouse model more challenging.

  12. Mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B: relation of phenotypic features to background strain.

    PubMed

    Gografe, Sylvia I; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Willing, Alison E; Haas, Ken; Chamizo, Wilfredo; Sanberg, Paul R

    2003-12-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B or mucopolysaccharidosis type III B (MPS IIIB) is a lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in autosomal recessive manner. It is characterized by systemic heparan sulfate accumulation in lysosomes due to deficiency of the enzyme alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Naglu). Devastating clinical abnormalities with severe central nervous system involvement and somatic disease lead to premature death. A mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B was created by targeted disruption of the gene encoding Naglu, providing a powerful tool for understanding pathogenesis and developing novel therapeutic strategies. However, the JAX GEMM Strain B6.129S6-Naglutm1Efn mouse, although showing biochemical similarities to humans with Sanfilippo syndrome, exhibits aging and behavioral differences. We observed idiosyncrasies, such as skeletal dysmorphism, hydrocephalus, ocular abnormalities, organomegaly, growth retardation, and anomalies of the integument, in our breeding colony of Naglu mutant mice and determined that several of them were at least partially related to the background strain C57BL/6. These background strain abnormalities, therefore, potentially mimic or overlap signs of the induced syndrome in our mice. Our observations may prove useful in studies of Naglu mutant mice. The necessity for distinguishing background anomalies from signs of the modeled disease is apparent.

  13. A mouse model of urofacial syndrome with dysfunctional urination

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunming; Kaneko, Satoshi; Sun, Ye; Huang, Yichen; Vlodavsky, Israel; Li, Xiaokun; Li, Zhong-Rong; Li, Xue

    2015-01-01

    Urofacial syndrome (UFS) is an autosomal recessive disease with severe dysfunctional urination including urinary incontinence (UI). Biallelic mutations of HPSE2 are discovered from UFS patients, suggesting that HPSE2 is a candidate disease gene. Here, we show that deletion of Hpse2 is sufficient to cause the UFS-like phenotype in mice. Hpse2 knockout mutants display a distended bladder (megacystis) phenotype and abnormal voiding behavior similar to that found in patients. While Hpse2 is largely dispensable for detrusor smooth muscle and urothelial cell fate determination, the mutants have significantly lower rates of cell proliferation than wild-type littermate controls. All Hpse2 mutants have a growth retardation phenotype and die within a month after birth. Comprehensive blood chemistry and urinalysis indicate that Hpse2 mutants have renal dysfunction and malnutrition. We provide evidence that transforming growth factor beta (Tgfβ) signaling is attenuated at birth. However, Tgfβ activity is significantly enhanced at later stages when the urological phenotype is severe, and the mutant bladders have accumulated excessive amount of fibrotic tissue. Together, these findings strongly suggest that Hpse2 is a causative gene of human UFS and further uncover unexpected roles of Hpse2 in bladder physiology, tissue remodeling and Tgfβ signaling. PMID:25510506

  14. Sudden unexpected death in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalume, Franck; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Cheah, Christine S.; Yu, Frank H.; Oakley, John C.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is the most common cause of death in intractable epilepsies, but physiological mechanisms that lead to SUDEP are unknown. Dravet syndrome (DS) is an infantile-onset intractable epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in the SCN1A gene, which encodes brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. We studied the mechanism of premature death in Scn1a heterozygous KO mice and conditional brain- and cardiac-specific KOs. Video monitoring demonstrated that SUDEP occurred immediately following generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A history of multiple seizures was a strong risk factor for SUDEP. Combined video-electroencephalography-electrocardiography revealed suppressed interictal resting heart-rate variability and episodes of ictal bradycardia associated with the tonic phases of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Prolonged atropine-sensitive ictal bradycardia preceded SUDEP. Similar studies in conditional KO mice demonstrated that brain, but not cardiac, KO of Scn1a produced cardiac and SUDEP phenotypes similar to those found in DS mice. Atropine or N-methyl scopolamine treatment reduced the incidence of ictal bradycardia and SUDEP in DS mice. These findings suggest that SUDEP is caused by apparent parasympathetic hyperactivity immediately following tonic-clonic seizures in DS mice, which leads to lethal bradycardia and electrical dysfunction of the ventricle. These results have important implications for prevention of SUDEP in DS patients. PMID:23524966

  15. Vitamin B12 ameliorates the phenotype of a mouse model of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lania, Gabriella; Bresciani, Alberto; Bisbocci, Monica; Francone, Alessandra; Colonna, Vincenza; Altamura, Sergio; Baldini, Antonio

    2016-08-09

    Pathological conditions caused by reduced dosage of a gene, such as gene haploinsufficiency, can potentially be reverted by enhancing the expression of the functional allele. In practice, low specificity of therapeutic agents, or their toxicity reduces their clinical applicability. Here, we have used a high throughput screening (HTS) approach to identify molecules capable of increasing the expression of the gene Tbx1, which is involved in one of the most common gene haploinsufficiency syndromes, the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. Surprisingly, we found that one of the two compounds identified by the HTS is the vitamin B12. Validation in a mouse model demonstrated that vitamin B12 treatment enhances Tbx1 gene expression and partially rescues the haploinsufficiency phenotype. These results lay the basis for preclinical and clinical studies to establish the effectiveness of this drug in the human syndrome.

  16. Hippocampal circuit dysfunction in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Witton, Jonathan; Padmashri, Ragunathan; Zinyuk, Larissa E; Popov, Victor I; Kraev, Igor; Line, Samantha J; Jensen, Thomas P; Tedoldi, Angelo; Cummings, Damian M; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Bannerman, David M; Randall, Andrew D; Brown, Jonathan T; Edwards, Frances A; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Stewart, Michael G; Jones, Matt W

    2015-09-01

    Hippocampal pathology is likely to contribute to cognitive disability in Down syndrome, yet the neural network basis of this pathology and its contributions to different facets of cognitive impairment remain unclear. Here we report dysfunctional connectivity between dentate gyrus and CA3 networks in the transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, demonstrating that ultrastructural abnormalities and impaired short-term plasticity at dentate gyrus-CA3 excitatory synapses culminate in impaired coding of new spatial information in CA3 and CA1 and disrupted behavior in vivo. These results highlight the vulnerability of dentate gyrus-CA3 networks to aberrant human chromosome 21 gene expression and delineate hippocampal circuit abnormalities likely to contribute to distinct cognitive phenotypes in Down syndrome.

  17. Taurine improves congestive functions in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Boukarrou, Latifa; Dokin, Carl; Brown, W Ted

    2009-01-01

    Increased seizure susceptibility is a feature of the mouse model for fragile X that has parallels in the hyperarousal and prevalence of seizures in the fragile X syndrome. Our investigation of the basis for the increased seizure susceptibility of the fragile X mouse indicated a reduction in GABA(A) receptor expression and increased expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the enzyme responsible for GAB(A) synthesis. Taurine-fed mice also show these GABAergic alterations. However, unlike fragile X mice, taurine-fed mice show a significant increase in memory acquisition and retention. This discordance implies that there may be divergent events downstream of the biochemical changes in the GABAergic system in these two mouse models. To investigate the divergence of these two models we fed taurine to fragile X mice. Our preliminary data shows that taurine supplementation to fragile X mice resulted in a significant improvement in acquisition of a passive avoidance task. Since taurine is an agonist for GABA(A) receptor, we suggest that chronic activation of GABA(A) receptors and the ensuing alterations in the GABAergic system may have beneficial effects in ameliorating the learning deficits characteristic of the fragile X syndrome.

  18. From shape to cells: mouse models reveal mechanisms altering palate development in Apert syndrome.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Holmes, Greg; Pankratz, Talia; Wang, Yingli; Zhou, Xueyan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2013-05-01

    Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by severe skull malformations and caused by one of two missense mutations, S252W and P253R, on fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). The molecular bases underlying differential Apert syndrome phenotypes are still poorly understood and it is unclear why cleft palate is more frequent in patients carrying the S252W mutation. Taking advantage of Apert syndrome mouse models, we performed a novel combination of morphometric, histological and immunohistochemical analyses to precisely quantify distinct palatal phenotypes in Fgfr2(+/S252W) and Fgfr2(+/P253R) mice. We localized regions of differentially altered FGF signaling and assessed local cell patterns to establish a baseline for understanding the differential effects of these two Fgfr2 mutations. Palatal suture scoring and comparative 3D shape analysis from high resolution μCT images of 120 newborn mouse skulls showed that Fgfr2(+/S252W) mice display relatively more severe palate dysmorphologies, with contracted and more separated palatal shelves, a greater tendency to fuse the maxillary-palatine sutures and aberrant development of the inter-premaxillary suture. These palatal defects are associated with suture-specific patterns of abnormal cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The posterior region of the developing palate emerges as a potential target for therapeutic strategies in clinical management of cleft palate in Apert syndrome patients.

  19. Restoration of norepinephrine-modulated contextual memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salehi, A; Faizi, M; Colas, D; Valletta, J; Laguna, J; Takimoto-Kimura, R; Kleschevnikov, A; Wagner, S L; Aisen, P; Shamloo, M; Mobley, W C

    2009-11-18

    Down syndrome (trisomy 21) is the most common cause of mental retardation in children and leads to marked deficits in contextual learning and memory. In rodents, these tasks require the hippocampus and are mediated by several inputs, particularly those originating in the locus coeruleus. These afferents mainly use norepinephrine as a transmitter. To explore the basis for contextual learning defects in Down syndrome, we examined the Ts65Dn mouse model. These mice, which have three copies of a fragment of mouse chromosome 16, exhibited significant deficits in contextual learning together with dysfunction and degeneration of locus coeruleus neurons. However, the postsynaptic targets of innervation remained responsive to noradrenergic receptor agonists. Indeed, despite advanced locus coeruleus degeneration, we were able to reverse contextual learning failure by using a prodrug for norepinephrine called l-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine, or xamoterol, a beta(1)-adrenergic receptor partial agonist. Moreover, an increased gene dosage of App, in the context of Down syndrome, was necessary for locus coeruleus degeneration. Our findings raise the possibility that restoring norepinephrine-mediated neurotransmission could reverse cognitive dysfunction in Down syndrome.

  20. Histone deacetylase inhibition rescues structural and functional brain deficits in a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bjornsson, Hans T.; Benjamin, Joel S.; Zhang, Li; Weissman, Jacqueline; Gerber, Elizabeth E.; Chen, Yi-Chun; Vaurio, Rebecca G.; Potter, Michelle C.; Hansen, Kasper D.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2015-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome is caused by haploinsufficiency for either of two genes that promote the opening of chromatin. If an imbalance between open and closed chromatin is central to the pathogenesis of Kabuki syndrome, agents that promote chromatin opening might have therapeutic potential. We have characterized a mouse model of Kabuki syndrome with a heterozygous deletion in the gene encoding the lysine-specific methyltransferase 2D (Kmt2d), leading to impairment of methyltransferase function. In vitro reporter alleles demonstrated a reduction in histone 4 acetylation and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) activity in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from Kmt2d+/βGeo mice. These activities were normalized in response to AR-42, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. In vivo, deficiency of H3K4me3 in the dentate gyrus granule cell layer of Kmt2d+/βGeo mice correlated with reduced neurogenesis and hippocampal memory defects. These abnormalities improved upon postnatal treatment with AR-42. Our work suggests that a reversible deficiency in postnatal neurogenesis underlies intellectual disability in Kabuki syndrome. PMID:25273096

  1. From shape to cells: mouse models reveal mechanisms altering palate development in Apert syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Holmes, Greg; Pankratz, Talia; Wang, Yingli; Zhou, Xueyan; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder characterized by severe skull malformations and caused by one of two missense mutations, S252W and P253R, on fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). The molecular bases underlying differential Apert syndrome phenotypes are still poorly understood and it is unclear why cleft palate is more frequent in patients carrying the S252W mutation. Taking advantage of Apert syndrome mouse models, we performed a novel combination of morphometric, histological and immunohistochemical analyses to precisely quantify distinct palatal phenotypes in Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R mice. We localized regions of differentially altered FGF signaling and assessed local cell patterns to establish a baseline for understanding the differential effects of these two Fgfr2 mutations. Palatal suture scoring and comparative 3D shape analysis from high resolution μCT images of 120 newborn mouse skulls showed that Fgfr2+/S252W mice display relatively more severe palate dysmorphologies, with contracted and more separated palatal shelves, a greater tendency to fuse the maxillary-palatine sutures and aberrant development of the inter-premaxillary suture. These palatal defects are associated with suture-specific patterns of abnormal cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. The posterior region of the developing palate emerges as a potential target for therapeutic strategies in clinical management of cleft palate in Apert syndrome patients. PMID:23519026

  2. Dysregulation of the long non-coding RNA transcriptome in a Rett syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Petazzi, Paolo; Sandoval, Juan; Szczesna, Karolina; Jorge, Olga C; Roa, Laura; Sayols, Sergi; Gomez, Antonio; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2013-07-01

    Mecp2 is a transcriptional repressor protein that is mutated in Rett syndrome, a neurodevelopmental disorder that is the second most common cause of mental retardation in women. It has been shown that the loss of the Mecp2 protein in Rett syndrome cells alters the transcriptional silencing of coding genes and microRNAs. Herein, we have studied the impact of Mecp2 impairment in a Rett syndrome mouse model on the global transcriptional patterns of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). Using a microarray platform that assesses 41,232 unique lncRNA transcripts, we have identified the aberrant lncRNA transcriptome that is present in the brain of Rett syndrome mice. The study of the most relevant lncRNAs altered in the assay highlighted the upregulation of the AK081227 and AK087060 transcripts in Mecp2-null mice brains. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated the Mecp2 occupancy in the 5'-end genomic loci of the described lncRNAs and its absence in Rett syndrome mice. Most importantly, we were able to show that the overexpression of AK081227 mediated by the Mecp2 loss was associated with the downregulation of its host coding protein gene, the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit Rho 2 (Gabrr2). Overall, our findings indicate that the transcriptional dysregulation of lncRNAs upon Mecp2 loss contributes to the neurological phenotype of Rett syndrome and highlights the complex interaction between ncRNAs and coding-RNAs.

  3. Reelin supplementation recovers synaptic plasticity and cognitive deficits in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hethorn, Whitney R; Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Filonova, Irina; Rogers, Justin T; Aguirre, Daniela; Ramirez, Raquel A; Grieco, Joseph C; Peters, Melinda M; Gulick, Danielle; Anderson, Anne E; L Banko, Jessica; Lussier, April L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2015-05-01

    The Reelin signaling pathway is implicated in processes controlling synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. A single direct in vivo application of Reelin enhances long-term potentiation, increases dendritic spine density and improves associative and spatial learning and memory. Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurological disorder that presents with an overall defect in synaptic function, including decreased long-term potentiation, reduced dendritic spine density, and deficits in learning and memory, making it an attractive model in which to examine the ability of Reelin to recover synaptic function and cognitive deficits. In this study, we investigated the effects of Reelin administration on synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in a mouse model of AS and demonstrated that bilateral, intraventricular injections of Reelin recover synaptic function and corresponding hippocampus-dependent associative and spatial learning and memory. Additionally, we describe alteration of the Reelin profile in tissue from both the AS mouse and post-mortem human brain.

  4. The Gut Microbiome Is Altered in a Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, Scott T.; Skarra, Danalea V.; Rivera, Alissa J.; Thackray, Varykina G.

    2016-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have reproductive and metabolic abnormalities that result in an increased risk of infertility, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The large intestine contains a complex community of microorganisms (the gut microbiome) that is dysregulated in humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a letrozole-induced PCOS mouse model, we demonstrated significant diet-independent changes in the gut microbial community, suggesting that gut microbiome dysbiosis may also occur in PCOS women. Letrozole treatment was associated with a time-dependent shift in the gut microbiome and a substantial reduction in overall species and phylogenetic richness. Letrozole treatment also correlated with significant changes in the abundance of specific Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes previously implicated in other mouse models of metabolic disease in a time-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the hyperandrogenemia observed in PCOS may significantly alter the gut microbiome independently of diet. PMID:26731268

  5. The Gut Microbiome Is Altered in a Letrozole-Induced Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Scott T; Skarra, Danalea V; Rivera, Alissa J; Thackray, Varykina G

    2016-01-01

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have reproductive and metabolic abnormalities that result in an increased risk of infertility, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The large intestine contains a complex community of microorganisms (the gut microbiome) that is dysregulated in humans with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Using a letrozole-induced PCOS mouse model, we demonstrated significant diet-independent changes in the gut microbial community, suggesting that gut microbiome dysbiosis may also occur in PCOS women. Letrozole treatment was associated with a time-dependent shift in the gut microbiome and a substantial reduction in overall species and phylogenetic richness. Letrozole treatment also correlated with significant changes in the abundance of specific Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes previously implicated in other mouse models of metabolic disease in a time-dependent manner. Our results suggest that the hyperandrogenemia observed in PCOS may significantly alter the gut microbiome independently of diet.

  6. PDE-4 Inhibition Rescues Aberrant Synaptic Plasticity in Drosophila and Mouse Models of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Catherine H.; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Weisz, Eliana D.; Bell, Aaron J.; Chambers, Daniel B.; Hinchey, Joseph; Choi, Richard J.; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Gertner, Michael J.; Ferrick, Neal J.; Terlizzi, Allison M.; Yohn, Nicole; Koenigsberg, Eric; Liebelt, David A.; Zukin, R. Suzanne; Woo, Newton H.; Tranfaglia, Michael R.; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E.; Siegel, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of both intellectual disability and autism resulting from a single gene mutation. Previously, we characterized cognitive impairments and brain structural defects in a Drosophila model of FXS and demonstrated that these impairments were rescued by treatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium. A well-documented biochemical defect observed in fly and mouse FXS models and FXS patients is low cAMP levels. cAMP levels can be regulated by mGluR signaling. Herein, we demonstrate PDE-4 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate memory impairments and brain structural defects in the Drosophila model of fragile X. Furthermore, we examine the effects of PDE-4 inhibition by pharmacologic treatment in the fragile X mouse model. We demonstrate that acute inhibition of PDE-4 by pharmacologic treatment in hippocampal slices rescues the enhanced mGluR-dependent LTD phenotype observed in FXS mice. Additionally, we find that chronic treatment of FXS model mice, in adulthood, also restores the level of mGluR-dependent LTD to that observed in wild-type animals. Translating the findings of successful pharmacologic intervention from the Drosophila model into the mouse model of FXS is an important advance, in that this identifies and validates PDE-4 inhibition as potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of individuals afflicted with FXS. PMID:25568131

  7. PDE-4 inhibition rescues aberrant synaptic plasticity in Drosophila and mouse models of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Catherine H; Schoenfeld, Brian P; Weisz, Eliana D; Bell, Aaron J; Chambers, Daniel B; Hinchey, Joseph; Choi, Richard J; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Gertner, Michael J; Ferrick, Neal J; Terlizzi, Allison M; Yohn, Nicole; Koenigsberg, Eric; Liebelt, David A; Zukin, R Suzanne; Woo, Newton H; Tranfaglia, Michael R; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E; Siegel, Steven J; Bolduc, Francois V; McDonald, Thomas V; Jongens, Thomas A; McBride, Sean M J

    2015-01-07

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading cause of both intellectual disability and autism resulting from a single gene mutation. Previously, we characterized cognitive impairments and brain structural defects in a Drosophila model of FXS and demonstrated that these impairments were rescued by treatment with metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonists or lithium. A well-documented biochemical defect observed in fly and mouse FXS models and FXS patients is low cAMP levels. cAMP levels can be regulated by mGluR signaling. Herein, we demonstrate PDE-4 inhibition as a therapeutic strategy to ameliorate memory impairments and brain structural defects in the Drosophila model of fragile X. Furthermore, we examine the effects of PDE-4 inhibition by pharmacologic treatment in the fragile X mouse model. We demonstrate that acute inhibition of PDE-4 by pharmacologic treatment in hippocampal slices rescues the enhanced mGluR-dependent LTD phenotype observed in FXS mice. Additionally, we find that chronic treatment of FXS model mice, in adulthood, also restores the level of mGluR-dependent LTD to that observed in wild-type animals. Translating the findings of successful pharmacologic intervention from the Drosophila model into the mouse model of FXS is an important advance, in that this identifies and validates PDE-4 inhibition as potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of individuals afflicted with FXS.

  8. Normal social seeking behavior, hypoactivity and reduced exploratory range in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurogenetic disorder characterized by severe developmental delay with mental retardation, a generally happy disposition, ataxia and characteristic behaviors such as inappropriate laughter, social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity. The majority of AS cases are due to loss of the maternal copy of the UBE3A gene. Maternal Ube3a deficiency (Ube3am-/p+), as well as complete loss of Ube3a expression (Ube3am-/p-), have been reproduced in the mouse model used here. Results Here we asked if two characteristic AS phenotypes - social-seeking behavior and hyperactivity - are reproduced in the Ube3a deficient mouse model of AS. We quantified social-seeking behavior as time spent in close proximity to a stranger mouse and activity as total time spent moving during exploration, movement speed and total length of the exploratory path. Mice of all three genotypes (Ube3am+/p+, Ube3am-/p+, Ube3am-/p-) were tested and found to spend the same amount of time in close proximity to the stranger, indicating that Ube3a deficiency in mice does not result in increased social seeking behavior or social dis-inhibition. Also, Ube3a deficient mice were hypoactive compared to their wild-type littermates as shown by significantly lower levels of activity, slower movement velocities, shorter exploratory paths and a reduced exploratory range. Conclusions Although hyperactivity and social-seeking behavior are characteristic phenotypes of Angelman Syndrome in humans, the Ube3a deficient mouse model does not reproduce these phenotypes in comparison to their wild-type littermates. These phenotypic differences may be explained by differences in the size of the genetic defect as ~70% of AS patients have a deletion that includes several other genes surrounding the UBE3A locus. PMID:21235769

  9. Normal protein composition of synapses in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Fabian; Trinidad, Jonathan C.; Blank, Martina; Feng, Dong-Dong; Burlingame, Alma L.; Garner, Craig C.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is the most prevalent form of intellectual disability caused by the triplication of ~ 230 genes on chromosome 21. Recent data in Ts65Dn mice, the foremost mouse model of Down syndrome, strongly suggest that cognitive impairment in individuals with Down syndrome is a consequence of reduced synaptic plasticity due to chronic over-inhibition. It remains unclear however whether changes in plasticity are tied to global molecular changes at synapses, or are due to regional changes in the functional properties of synaptic circuits. One interesting framework for evaluating the activity state of the Down syndrome brain comes from in vitro studies showing that chronic pharmacological silencing of neuronal excitability orchestrates stereotyped changes in the protein composition of synaptic junctions. In the present study, we use proteomic strategies to evaluate whether synapses from the Ts65Dn cerebrum carry signatures characteristic of inactive cortical neurons. Our data reveal that synaptic junctions do not exhibit overt alterations in protein composition. Only modest changes in the levels of synaptic proteins and in their phosphorylation are observed. This suggests that subtle changes in the functional properties of specific synaptic circuits rather than large-scale homeostatic shifts in the expression of synaptic molecules contribute to cognitive impairment in people with Down syndrome. PMID:19453946

  10. Reversal of neurological defects in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guy, Jacky; Gan, Jian; Selfridge, Jim; Cobb, Stuart; Bird, Adrian

    2007-02-23

    Rett syndrome is an autism spectrum disorder caused by mosaic expression of mutant copies of the X-linked MECP2 gene in neurons. However, neurons do not die, which suggests that this is not a neurodegenerative disorder. An important question for future therapeutic approaches to this and related disorders concerns phenotypic reversibility. Can viable but defective neurons be repaired, or is the damage done during development without normal MeCP2 irrevocable? Using a mouse model, we demonstrate robust phenotypic reversal, as activation of MeCP2 expression leads to striking loss of advanced neurological symptoms in both immature and mature adult animals.

  11. Cognitive Impairment, Neuroimaging, and Alzheimer Neuropathology in Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hamlett, Eric D.; Boger, Heather A.; Ledreux, Aurélie; Kelley, Christy M.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Falangola, Maria F.; Guilfoyle, David N.; Nixon, Ralph A.; Patterson, David; Duval, Nathan; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common non-lethal genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 700 births in the United States of America. DS is characterized by complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy, which leads to variable intellectual disabilities, progressive memory loss, and accelerated neurodegeneration with age. During the last three decades, people with DS have experienced a doubling of life expectancy due to progress in treatment of medical comorbidities, which has allowed this population to reach the age when they develop early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Individuals with DS develop cognitive and pathological hallmarks of AD in their fourth or fifth decade, and are currently lacking successful prevention or treatment options for dementia. The profound memory deficits associated with DS-related AD (DS-AD) have been associated with degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms of neurodegeneration are largely unexplored. The most successful animal model for DS is the Ts65Dn mouse, but several new models have also been developed. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and potential treatment options for the management of memory loss and AD neuropathology in DS mouse models. We also review age-related neuropathology, and recent findings from neuroimaging studies. The validation of appropriate DS mouse models that mimic neurodegeneration and memory loss in humans with DS can be valuable in the study of novel preventative and treatment interventions, and may be helpful in pinpointing gene-gene interactions as well as specific gene segments involved in neurodegeneration. PMID:26391050

  12. Cognitive Impairment, Neuroimaging, and Alzheimer Neuropathology in Mouse Models of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamlett, Eric D; Boger, Heather A; Ledreux, Aurélie; Kelley, Christy M; Mufson, Elliott J; Falangola, Maria F; Guilfoyle, David N; Nixon, Ralph A; Patterson, David; Duval, Nathan; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common non-lethal genetic condition that affects approximately 1 in 700 births in the United States of America. DS is characterized by complete or segmental chromosome 21 trisomy, which leads to variable intellectual disabilities, progressive memory loss, and accelerated neurodegeneration with age. During the last three decades, people with DS have experienced a doubling of life expectancy due to progress in treatment of medical comorbidities, which has allowed this population to reach the age when they develop early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). Individuals with DS develop cognitive and pathological hallmarks of AD in their fourth or fifth decade, and are currently lacking successful prevention or treatment options for dementia. The profound memory deficits associated with DS-related AD (DS-AD) have been associated with degeneration of several neuronal populations, but mechanisms of neurodegeneration are largely unexplored. The most successful animal model for DS is the Ts65Dn mouse, but several new models have also been developed. In the current review, we discuss recent findings and potential treatment options for the management of memory loss and AD neuropathology in DS mouse models. We also review agerelated neuropathology, and recent findings from neuroimaging studies. The validation of appropriate DS mouse models that mimic neurodegeneration and memory loss in humans with DS can be valuable in the study of novel preventative and treatment interventions, and may be helpful in pinpointing gene-gene interactions as well as specific gene segments involved in neurodegeneration.

  13. Revisiting the case for genetically engineered mouse models in human myelodysplastic syndrome research

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ting; Kinney, Marsha C.; Scott, Linda M.; Zinkel, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    Much-needed attention has been given of late to diseases specifically associated with an expanding elderly population. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a hematopoietic stem cell-based blood disease, is one of these. The lack of clear understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of this disease has hampered the development of efficacious therapies, especially in the presence of comorbidities. Mouse models could potentially provide new insights into this disease, although primary human MDS cells grow poorly in xenografted mice. This makes genetically engineered murine models a more attractive proposition, although this approach is not without complications. In particular, it is unclear if or how myelodysplasia (abnormal blood cell morphology), a key MDS feature in humans, presents in murine cells. Here, we evaluate the histopathologic features of wild-type mice and 23 mouse models with verified myelodysplasia. We find that certain features indicative of myelodysplasia in humans, such as Howell-Jolly bodies and low neutrophilic granularity, are commonplace in healthy mice, whereas other features are similarly abnormal in humans and mice. Quantitative hematopoietic parameters, such as blood cell counts, are required to distinguish between MDS and related diseases. We provide data that mouse models of MDS can be genetically engineered and faithfully recapitulate human disease. PMID:26077396

  14. Behavioural characteristics of the Prader-Willi syndrome related biallelic Snord116 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zieba, Jerzy; Low, Jac Kee; Purtell, Louise; Qi, Yue; Campbell, Lesley; Herzog, Herbert; Karl, Tim

    2015-10-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is the predominant genetic cause of obesity in humans and is associated with several behavioural phenotypes such as altered motoric function, reduced activity, and learning disabilities. It can include mood instability and, in some cases, psychotic episodes. Recently, the Snord116 gene has been associated with the development of PWS, however, it's contribution to the behavioural aspects of the disease are unknown. Here we show that male and female mice lacking Snord116 on both alleles exhibit normal motor behaviours and exploration but do display task-dependent alterations to locomotion and anxiety-related behaviours. Sociability is well developed in Snord116 deficient mice as are social recognition memory, spatial working memory, and fear-associated behaviours. No sex-specific effects were found. In conclusion, the biallelic Snord116 deficiency mouse model exhibits particular endophenotypes with some relevance to PWS, suggesting partial face validity for the syndrome.

  15. Dsp rul: a spontaneous mouse mutation in desmoplakin as a model of Carvajal-Huerta syndrome.

    PubMed

    Herbert Pratt, C; Potter, Christopher S; Fairfield, Heather; Reinholdt, Laura G; Bergstrom, David E; Harris, Belinda S; Greenstein, Ian; Dadras, Soheil S; Liang, Bruce T; Schofield, Paul N; Sundberg, John P

    2015-04-01

    Studies of spontaneous mutations in mice have provided valuable disease models and important insights into the mechanisms of human disease. Ruffled (rul) is a new autosomal recessive mutation causing abnormal hair coat in mice. The rul allele arose spontaneously in the RB156Bnr/EiJ inbred mouse strain. In addition to an abnormal coat texture, we found diffuse epidermal blistering, abnormal electrocardiograms (ECGs), and ventricular fibrosis in mutant animals. Using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) we found a frameshift mutation at 38,288,978bp of chromosome 13 in the desmoplakin gene (Dsp). The predicted mutant protein is truncated at the c-terminus and missing the majority of the plakin repeat domain. The phenotypes found in Dsp(rul) mice closely model a rare human disorder, Carvajal-Huerta syndrome. Carvajal-Huerta syndrome (CHS) is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder that presents in humans with wooly hair, palmoplantar keratoderma and ventricular cardiomyopathy. CHS results from an autosomal recessive mutation on the 3' end of desmoplakin (DSP) truncating the full length protein. The Dsp(rul) mouse provides a new model to investigate the pathogenesis of CHS, as well as the underlying basic biology of the adhesion molecules coded by the desmosomal genes.

  16. Dsprul: A spontaneous mouse mutation in Desmoplakin as a model of Carvajal-Huerta Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, C. Herbert; Potter, Christopher S.; Fairfield, Heather; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Bergstrom, David E.; Harris, Belinda S.; Greenstein, Ian; Dadras, Soheil S.; Liang, Bruce T.; Schofield, Paul N.; Sundberg, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of spontaneous mutations in mice have provided valuable disease models and important insights into the mechanisms of human disease. Ruffled (rul) is a new autosomal recessive mutation causing abnormal hair coat in mice. The rul allele arose spontaneously in the RB156Bnr/EiJ inbred mouse strain. In addition to an abnormal coat texture, we found diffuse epidermal blistering, abnormal electrocardiograms (ECGs), and ventricular fibrosis in mutant animals. Using high-throughput sequencing (HTS) we found a frameshift mutation at 38,288,978 bp of chromosome 13 in the desmoplakin gene (Dsp). The predicted mutant protein is truncated at the c-terminus and missing the majority of the plakin repeat domain. The phenotypes found in Dsprul mice closely model a rare human disorder, Carvajal-Huerta Syndrome. Carvajal-Huerta Syndrome (CHS) is a rare cardiocutaneous disorder that presents in humans with woolly hair, palmoplantar keratoderma and ventricular cardiomyopathy. CHS results from an autosomal recessive mutation on the 3′ end of Desmoplakin (DSP) truncating the full length protein. The Dsprul mouse provides a new model to investigate the pathogenesis of CHS, as well as the underlying basic biology of the adhesion molecules coded by the desmosomal genes. PMID:25659760

  17. A chimeric human-mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Young, Nicholas A; Wu, Lai-Chu; Bruss, Michael; Kaffenberger, Benjamin H; Hampton, Jeffrey; Bolon, Brad; Jarjour, Wael N

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in the understanding of Sjögren's Syndrome (SjS), the pathogenic mechanisms remain elusive and an ideal model for early drug discovery is not yet available. To establish a humanized mouse model of SjS, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy volunteers or patients with SjS were transferred into immunodeficient NOD-scid IL-2rγ(null) mouse recipients to produce chimeric mice. While no difference was observed in the distribution of cells, chimeric mice transferred with PBMCs from SjS patients produced enhanced cytokine levels, most significantly IFN-γ and IL-10. Histological examination revealed enhanced inflammatory responses in the lacrimal and salivary glands of SjS chimeras, as measured by digital image analysis and blinded histopathological scoring. Infiltrates were primarily CD4+, with minimal detection of CD8+ T-cells and B-cells. These results demonstrate a novel chimeric mouse model of human SjS that provides a unique in vivo environment to test experimental therapeutics and investigate T-cell disease pathology.

  18. Mouse Models of Down Syndrome as a Tool to Unravel the Causes of Mental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Noemí; Flórez, Jesús; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Based on the homology of Hsa21 and the murine chromosomes Mmu16, Mmu17 and Mmu10, several mouse models of DS have been developed. The most commonly used model, the Ts65Dn mouse, has been widely used to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying the mental disabilities seen in DS individuals. A wide array of neuromorphological alterations appears to compromise cognitive performance in trisomic mice. Enhanced inhibition due to alterations in GABAA-mediated transmission and disturbances in the glutamatergic, noradrenergic and cholinergic systems, among others, has also been demonstrated. DS cognitive dysfunction caused by neurodevelopmental alterations is worsened in later life stages by neurodegenerative processes. A number of pharmacological therapies have been shown to partially restore morphological anomalies concomitantly with cognition in these mice. In conclusion, the use of mouse models is enormously effective in the study of the neurobiological substrates of mental disabilities in DS and in the testing of therapies that rescue these alterations. These studies provide the basis for developing clinical trials in DS individuals and sustain the hope that some of these drugs will be useful in rescuing mental disabilities in DS individuals. PMID:22685678

  19. Aging rather than aneuploidy affects monoamine neurotransmitters in brain regions of Down syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Alain D; Vermeiren, Yannick; Albac, Christelle; Lana-Elola, Eva; Watson-Scales, Sheona; Gibbins, Dorota; Aerts, Tony; Van Dam, Debby; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Potier, Marie-Claude; De Deyn, Peter P

    2017-09-01

    Altered concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and metabolites have been repeatedly found in people with Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21). Because of the limited availability of human post-mortem tissue, DS mouse models are of great interest to study these changes and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Although previous studies have shown the potential of Ts65Dn mice - the most widely used mouse model of DS - to model noradrenergic changes, a comprehensive monoaminergic characterization in multiple brain regions has not been performed so far. Here, we used RP-HPLC with electrochemical detection to quantify (nor)adrenergic (NA, adrenaline and MHPG), dopaminergic (DA, HVA and DOPAC), and serotonergic compounds (tryptophan, 5-HT and 5-HIAA) in ten regionally dissected brain regions of Ts65Dn mice, as well as in Dp1Tyb mice - a novel DS mouse model. Comparing young adult aneuploid mice (2.5-5.5months) with their euploid WT littermates did not reveal generalized monoaminergic dysregulation, indicating that the genetic overload in these mice barely affected the absolute concentrations at this age. Moreover, we studied the effect of aging in Ts65Dn mice: comparing aged animals (12-13months) with their younger counterparts revealed a large number of significant changes. In general, the (nor)adrenergic system appeared to be reduced, while serotonergic compounds were increased with aging. Dopaminergic alterations were less consistent. These overall patterns appeared to be relatively similar for Ts65Dn and WT mice, though more observed changes were regarded significant for WT mice. Similar human post-mortem studies are necessary to validate the monoaminergic construct validity of the Ts65Dn and Dp1Typ mouse models. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of Brain and Skull in Prenatal Mouse Models of Apert and Crouzon Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Motch Perrine, Susan M; Stecko, Tim; Neuberger, Thomas; Jabs, Ethylin W; Ryan, Timothy M; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2017-01-01

    The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology. Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. Here we examine integration of brain and skull in two mouse models for craniosynostosis: one carrying the FGFR2c C342Y mutation associated with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes and a mouse model carrying the FGFR2 S252W mutation, one of two mutations responsible for two-thirds of Apert syndrome cases. Using linear distances estimated from three-dimensional coordinates of landmarks acquired from dual modality imaging of skull (high resolution micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy) of mice at embryonic day 17.5, we confirm variation in brain and skull morphology in Fgfr2c(C342Y/+) mice, Fgfr2(+/S252W) mice, and their unaffected littermates. Mutation-specific variation in neural and cranial tissue notwithstanding, patterns of integration of brain and skull differed only subtly between mice carrying either the FGFR2c C342Y or the FGFR2 S252W mutation and their unaffected littermates. However, statistically significant and substantial differences in morphological integration of brain and skull were revealed between the two mutant mouse models, each maintained on a different strain. Relative to the effects

  1. Integration of Brain and Skull in Prenatal Mouse Models of Apert and Crouzon Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Motch Perrine, Susan M.; Stecko, Tim; Neuberger, Thomas; Jabs, Ethylin W.; Ryan, Timothy M.; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2017-01-01

    The brain and skull represent a complex arrangement of integrated anatomical structures composed of various cell and tissue types that maintain structural and functional association throughout development. Morphological integration, a concept developed in vertebrate morphology and evolutionary biology, describes the coordinated variation of functionally and developmentally related traits of organisms. Syndromic craniosynostosis is characterized by distinctive changes in skull morphology and perceptible, though less well studied, changes in brain structure and morphology. Using mouse models for craniosynostosis conditions, our group has precisely defined how unique craniosynostosis causing mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptors affect brain and skull morphology and dysgenesis involving coordinated tissue-specific effects of these mutations. Here we examine integration of brain and skull in two mouse models for craniosynostosis: one carrying the FGFR2c C342Y mutation associated with Pfeiffer and Crouzon syndromes and a mouse model carrying the FGFR2 S252W mutation, one of two mutations responsible for two-thirds of Apert syndrome cases. Using linear distances estimated from three-dimensional coordinates of landmarks acquired from dual modality imaging of skull (high resolution micro-computed tomography and magnetic resonance microscopy) of mice at embryonic day 17.5, we confirm variation in brain and skull morphology in Fgfr2cC342Y/+ mice, Fgfr2+/S252W mice, and their unaffected littermates. Mutation-specific variation in neural and cranial tissue notwithstanding, patterns of integration of brain and skull differed only subtly between mice carrying either the FGFR2c C342Y or the FGFR2 S252W mutation and their unaffected littermates. However, statistically significant and substantial differences in morphological integration of brain and skull were revealed between the two mutant mouse models, each maintained on a different strain. Relative to the effects of

  2. Rett syndrome treatment in mouse models: searching for effective targets and strategies.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Laura; De Filippis, Bianca; Laviola, Giovanni

    2013-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive developmental disorder, primarily affecting girls with a prevalence of 1 in every 10,000 births; it represents the second most common cause of intellectual disability in females. Mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) have been identified as clear etiological factors in more than 90% of classical RTT cases. Whereas the mechanisms leading to the severe, progressive and specific neurological dysfunctions when this gene is mutated still remain to be elucidated, a series of different mouse models have been generated, bearing different Mecp2 mutation. Neurobehavioural analysis in these mouse lines have been carried out and phenotyping analysis can be now utilised to preclinically evaluate the effects of potential RTT treatments. This review summarizes the different results achieved in this research field taking into account different key targets identified to ameliorate RTT phenotype in mouse models, including those not directly downstream of MeCP2 and those limited to the early phases of postnatal development. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Neurodevelopmental Disorders'.

  3. Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Is Unaffected in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marland, Jamie R. K.; Smillie, Karen J.; Cousin, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability, and arises from trisomy of human chromosome 21. Accumulating evidence from studies of both DS patient tissue and mouse models has suggested that synaptic dysfunction is a key factor in the disorder. The presence of several genes within the DS trisomy that are either directly or indirectly linked to synaptic vesicle (SV) endocytosis suggested that presynaptic dysfunction could underlie some of these synaptic defects. Therefore we determined whether SV recycling was altered in neurons from the Ts65Dn mouse, the best characterised model of DS to date. We found that SV exocytosis, the size of the SV recycling pool, clathrin-mediated endocytosis, activity-dependent bulk endocytosis and SV generation from bulk endosomes were all unaffected by the presence of the Ts65Dn trisomy. These results were obtained using battery of complementary assays employing genetically-encoded fluorescent reporters of SV cargo trafficking, and fluorescent and morphological assays of fluid-phase uptake in primary neuronal culture. The absence of presynaptic dysfunction in central nerve terminals of the Ts65Dn mouse suggests that future research should focus on the established alterations in excitatory / inhibitory balance as a potential route for future pharmacotherapy. PMID:26808141

  4. A mouse model of the slow channel myasthenic syndrome: Neuromuscular physiology and effects of ephedrine treatment.

    PubMed

    Webster, R G; Cossins, J; Lashley, D; Maxwell, S; Liu, W W; Wickens, J R; Martinez-Martinez, P; de Baets, M; Beeson, D

    2013-10-01

    In the slow channel congenital myasthenic syndrome mutations in genes encoding the muscle acetylcholine receptor give rise to prolonged ion channel activations. The resulting cation overload in the postsynaptic region leads to damage of synaptic structures, impaired neuromuscular transmission and fatigable muscle weakness. Previously we identified and characterised in detail the properties of the slow channel syndrome mutation εL221F. Here, using this mutation, we generate a transgenic mouse model for the slow channel syndrome that expresses mutant human ε-subunits harbouring an EGFP tag within the M3-M4 cytoplasmic region, driven by a ~1500 bp region of the CHRNB promoter. Fluorescent mutant acetylcholine receptors are assembled, cluster at the motor endplates and give rise to a disease model that mirrors the human condition. Mice demonstrate mild fatigable muscle weakness, prolonged endplate and miniature endplate potentials, and variable degeneration of the postsynaptic membrane. We use our model to investigate ephedrine as a potential treatment. Mice were assessed before and after six weeks on oral ephedrine (serum ephedrine concentration 89 ± 3 ng/ml) using an inverted screen test and in vivo electromyography. Treated mice demonstrated modest benefit for screen hang time, and in measures of compound muscle action potentials and mean jitter that did not reach statistical significance. Ephedrine and salbutamol show clear benefit when used in the treatment of DOK7 or COLQ congenital myasthenic syndromes. Our results highlight only a modest potential benefit of these β2-adrenergic receptor agonists for the treatment of the slow channel syndrome.

  5. Insulin signaling, resistance, and the metabolic syndrome: insights from mouse models into disease mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaodong

    2014-02-01

    Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism responsible for the 'metabolic syndrome', which is also known as insulin resistance syndrome. The incidence of the metabolic syndrome is increasing at an alarming rate, becoming a major public and clinical problem worldwide. The metabolic syndrome is represented by a group of interrelated disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Animal studies have demonstrated that insulin and its signaling cascade normally control cell growth, metabolism, and survival through the activation of MAPKs and activation of phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), in which the activation of PI3K associated with insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and IRS2 and subsequent Akt→Foxo1 phosphorylation cascade has a central role in the control of nutrient homeostasis and organ survival. The inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through the suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and overnutrition, may act as the underlying mechanisms for the metabolic syndrome in humans. Targeting the IRS→Akt→Foxo1 signaling cascade will probably provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review discusses the basis of insulin signaling, insulin resistance in different mouse models, and how a deficiency of insulin signaling components in different organs contributes to the features of the metabolic syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the role of IRS1, IRS2, and associated signaling pathways that are coupled to Akt and the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxo1.

  6. Calea zacatechichi dichloromethane extract exhibits antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects in mouse models mimicking irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, M; Kowalczuk, A; Zielinska, M; Błażewicz, A; Fichna, J

    2015-10-01

    Calea zacatechichi Schltdl. (Asteraceae alt. Compositae) is a Mexican plant commonly used in folk medicine to treat respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of C. zacatechichi extracts in mouse models mimicking the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Powdered C. zacatechichi herb (leaves, stems, and flowers) was extracted with methanol. Methanolic extract was filtered and evaporated giving methanolic fraction. The residue was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM). Methanolic and DCM (200 mg/kg, per os) extracts were screened for their effect on GI motility in several in vitro tests, and the antidiarrheal and antinociceptive effects were assessed using mouse models. The influence of the DCM extract on motoric parameters and exploratory behaviors was also assessed. Finally, the composition of C. zacatechichi DCM extract was qualitatively analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. C. zacatechichi DCM extract significantly inhibited the contractility of mouse colon in vitro (IC50 = 17 ± 2 μg/ml). Administration of the DCM extract in vivo (200 mg/kg, per os) significantly prolonged the time of whole GI transit (46 ± 1 vs. 117 ± 27 min for control and DCM-treated animals, respectively; P = 0.0023), inhibited hypermotility, and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking functional GI disorders. Our findings suggest that constituents of the C. zacatechichi DCM extract exhibit antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. The extract may thus become an attractive material for isolation of compounds that may be used as a supplementary treatment for pain and diarrhea associated with IBS in the future.

  7. Study of smell and reproductive organs in a mouse model for CHARGE syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bergman, Jorieke EH; Bosman, Erika A; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny MA; Steel, Karen P

    2010-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterised by Coloboma, Heart defects, Atresia of choanae, Retardation of growth and/or development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies often associated with deafness. It is caused by heterozygous mutations in the CHD7 gene and shows a highly variable phenotype. Anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occur in the majority of the CHARGE patients, but the underlying pathogenesis is unknown. Therefore, we studied the ability to smell and aspects of the reproductive system (reproductive performance, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and anatomy of testes and uteri) in a mouse model for CHARGE syndrome, the whirligig mouse (Chd7Whi/+). We showed that Chromodomain Helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (Chd7) is expressed in brain areas involved in olfaction and reproduction during embryonic development. We observed poorer performance in the smell test in adult Chd7Whi/+ mice, secondary either to olfactory dysfunction or to balance disturbances. Olfactory bulb and reproductive organ abnormalities were observed in a proportion of Chd7Whi/+ mice. Hypothalamic GnRH neurons were slightly reduced in Chd7Whi/+ females and reproductive performance was slightly less in Chd7Whi/+ mice. This study shows that the penetrance of anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is lower in Chd7Whi/+ mice than in CHARGE patients. Interestingly, many phenotypic features of the Chd7 mutation showed incomplete penetrance in our model mice, despite the use of inbred, genetically identical mice. This supports the theory that the extreme variability of the CHARGE phenotype in both humans and mice might be attributed to variations in the fetal microenvironment or to purely stochastic events. PMID:19809474

  8. Circadian abnormalities in mouse models of Smith-Magenis syndrome: evidence for involvement of RAI1.

    PubMed

    Lacaria, Melanie; Gu, Wenli; Lupski, James R

    2013-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS; OMIM 182290) is a genomic disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies, intellectual disability, behavioral abnormalities, and disordered sleep resulting from an ~3.7 Mb deletion copy number variant (CNV) on chromosome 17p11.2 or from point mutations in the gene RAI1. The reciprocal duplication of this region results in another genomic disorder, Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; OMIM 610883), characterized by autism, intellectual disability, and congenital anomalies. We previously used chromosome-engineering and gene targeting to generate mouse models for PTLS (Dp(11)17/+), and SMS due to either deletion CNV or gene knock-out (Df(11)17-2/+ and Rai1(+/-) , respectively) and we observed phenotypes in these mouse models consistent with their associated human syndromes. To investigate the contribution of individual genes to the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS, we now report the analysis of free-running period lengths in Rai1(+/-) and Df(11)17-2/+ mice, as well as in mice deficient for another known circadian gene mapping within the commonly deleted/duplicated region, Dexras1, and we compare these results to those previously observed in Dp(11)17/+ mice. Reduced free-running period lengths were seen in Df(11)17-2/+, Rai1(+/-) , and Dexras1(-/-) , but not Dexras1(+/-) mice, suggesting that Rai1 may be the primary gene underlying the circadian defects in SMS. However, we cannot rule out the possibility that cis effects between multiple haploinsufficient genes in the SMS critical interval (e.g., RAI1 and DEXRAS1) either exacerbate the circadian phenotypes observed in SMS patients with deletions or increase their penetrance in certain environments. This study also confirms a previous report of abnormal circadian function in Dexras1(-/-) mice.

  9. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Petrashevskaya, Natalia; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2016-01-15

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/- mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2-4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6-14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS.

  10. Cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of Marfan syndrome develops into two distinctive phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tae, Hyun-Jin; Marshall, Shannon; Krawczyk, Melissa; Talan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in fibrillin-1. Cardiac dysfunction in MFS has not been characterized halting the development of therapies of cardiac complication in MFS. We aimed to study the age-dependent cardiac remodeling in the mouse model of MFS FbnC1039G+/− mouse [Marfan heterozygous (HT) mouse] and its association with valvular regurgitation. Marfan HT mice of 2–4 mo demonstrated a mild hypertrophic cardiac remodeling with predominant decline of diastolic function and increased transforming growth factor-β canonical (p-SMAD2/3) and noncanonical (p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 MAPK) signaling and upregulation of hypertrophic markers natriuretic peptides atrium natriuretic peptide and brain natriuretic peptide. Among older HT mice (6–14 mo), cardiac remodeling was associated with two distinct phenotypes, manifesting either dilated or constricted left ventricular chamber. Dilatation of left ventricular chamber was accompanied by biochemical evidence of greater mechanical stress, including elevated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK phosphorylation and higher brain natriuretic peptide expression. The aortic valve regurgitation was registered in 20% of the constricted group and 60% of the dilated group, whereas mitral insufficiency was observed in 40% of the constricted group and 100% of the dilated group. Cardiac dysfunction was not associated with the increase of interstitial fibrosis and nonmyocyte proliferation. In the mouse model fibrillin-1, haploinsufficiency results in the early onset of nonfibrotic hypertrophic cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, independently from valvular abnormalities. MFS heart is vulnerable to stress-induced cardiac dilatation in the face of valvular regurgitation, and stress-activated MAPK signals represent a potential target for cardiac management in MFS. PMID:26566724

  11. Insulin Signaling, Resistance, and the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Mouse Models to Disease Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shaodong

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a major underlying mechanism for the “metabolic syndrome”, which is also known as insulin resistance syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is increasing at an alarming rate, becoming a major public and clinical problem worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is represented by a group of interrelated disorders, including obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. It is also a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increased morbidity and mortality. Animal studies demonstrate that insulin and its signaling cascade normally control cell growth, metabolism and survival through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and phosphotidylinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), of which activation of PI-3K-associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 and -2 (IRS1, 2) and subsequent Akt→Foxo1 phosphorylation cascade has a central role in control of nutrient homeostasis and organ survival. Inactivation of Akt and activation of Foxo1, through suppression IRS1 and IRS2 in different organs following hyperinsulinemia, metabolic inflammation, and over nutrition may provide the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome in humans. Targeting the IRS→Akt→Foxo1 signaling cascade will likely provide a strategy for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and its complications. This review discusses the basis of insulin signaling, insulin resistance in different mouse models, and how a deficiency of insulin signaling components in different organs contributes to the feature of the metabolic syndrome. Emphasis will be placed on the role of IRS1, IRS2, and associated signaling pathways that couple to Akt and the forkhead/winged helix transcription factor Foxo1. PMID:24281010

  12. Mapping genetic modifiers of survival in a mouse model of Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison R.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; McCollom, Clint E.; Kearney, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder affecting approximately 1% of the population. Mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for several monogenic epilepsy syndromes. More than 800 mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel SCN1A have been reported in patients with generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus and Dravet syndrome. Heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in SCN1A result in Dravet syndrome, a severe infant-onset epileptic encephalopathy characterized by intractable seizures, developmental delays and increased mortality. A common feature of monogenic epilepsies is variable expressivity among individuals with the same mutation, suggesting that genetic modifiers may influence clinical severity. Mice with heterozygous deletion of Scn1a (Scn1a+/−) model a number of Dravet syndrome features, including spontaneous seizures and premature lethality. Phenotype severity in Scn1a+/− mice is strongly dependent on strain background. On the 129S6/SvEvTac strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit no overt phenotype, while on the (C57BL/6J × 129S6/SvEvTac)F1 strain Scn1a+/− mice exhibit spontaneous seizures and early lethality. To systematically identify loci that influence premature lethality in Scn1a+/− mice, we performed genome scans on reciprocal backcrosses. QTL mapping revealed modifier loci on mouse chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 11. RNA-seq analysis of strain-dependent gene expression, regulation and coding sequence variation provided a list of potential functional candidate genes at each locus. Identification of modifier genes that influence survival in Scn1a+/− mice will improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of Dravet syndrome and may suggest novel therapeutic strategies for improved treatment of human patients. PMID:24152123

  13. Inhibiting mitochondrial respiration prevents cancer in a mouse model of Li-Fraumeni syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping-yuan; Li, Jie; Walcott, Farzana L.; Kang, Ju-Gyeong; Starost, Matthew F.; Talagala, S. Lalith; Zhuang, Jie; Park, Ji-Hoon; Huffstutler, Rebecca D.; Bryla, Christina M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Pollak, Michael; Annunziata, Christina M.; Savage, Sharon A.; Fojo, Antonio Tito; Hwang, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) is a cancer predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in TP53 that can lead to increased mitochondrial metabolism in patients. However, the implications of altered mitochondrial function for tumorigenesis in LFS are unclear. Here, we have reported that genetic or pharmacologic disruption of mitochondrial respiration improves cancer-free survival in a mouse model of LFS that expresses mutant p53. Mechanistically, inhibition of mitochondrial function increased autophagy and decreased the aberrant proliferation signaling caused by mutant p53. In a pilot study, LFS patients treated with metformin exhibited decreases in mitochondrial activity concomitant with activation of antiproliferation signaling, thus reproducing the effects of disrupting mitochondrial function observed in LFS mice. These observations indicate that a commonly prescribed diabetic medicine can restrain mitochondrial metabolism and tumorigenesis in an LFS model, supporting its further consideration for cancer prevention in LFS patients. PMID:27869650

  14. Tau Reduction Prevents Disease in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gheyara, Ania L; Ponnusamy, Ravikumar; Djukic, Biljana; Craft, Ryan J; Ho, Kaitlyn; Guo, Weikun; Finucane, Mariel M; Sanchez, Pascal E; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reducing levels of the microtubule-associated protein tau has shown promise as a potential treatment strategy for diseases with secondary epileptic features such as Alzheimer disease. We wanted to determine whether tau reduction may also be of benefit in intractable genetic epilepsies. Methods We studied a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, a severe childhood epilepsy caused by mutations in the human SCN1A gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel subunit Nav1.1. We genetically deleted 1 or 2 Tau alleles in mice carrying an Nav1.1 truncation mutation (R1407X) that causes Dravet syndrome in humans, and examined their survival, epileptic activity, related hippocampal alterations, and behavioral abnormalities using observation, electroencephalographic recordings, acute slice electrophysiology, immunohistochemistry, and behavioral assays. Results Tau ablation prevented the high mortality of Dravet mice and reduced the frequency of spontaneous and febrile seizures. It reduced interictal epileptic spikes in vivo and drug-induced epileptic activity in brain slices ex vivo. Tau ablation also prevented biochemical changes in the hippocampus indicative of epileptic activity and ameliorated abnormalities in learning and memory, nest building, and open field behaviors in Dravet mice. Deletion of only 1 Tau allele was sufficient to suppress epileptic activity and improve survival and nesting performance. Interpretation Tau reduction may be of therapeutic benefit in Dravet syndrome and other intractable genetic epilepsies. Ann Neurol 2014;76:443–456 PMID:25042160

  15. A mouse model for Meckel syndrome reveals Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signaling

    PubMed Central

    Weatherbee, Scott D.; Niswander, Lee A.; Anderson, Kathryn V.

    2009-01-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease causing perinatal lethality associated with a complex syndrome that includes occipital meningoencephalocele, hepatic biliary ductal plate malformation, postaxial polydactyly and polycystic kidneys. The gene mutated in type 1 MKS encodes a protein associated with the base of the cilium in vertebrates and nematodes. However, shRNA knockdown studies in cell culture have reported conflicting results on the role of Mks1 in ciliogenesis. Here we show that loss of function of mouse Mks1 results in an accurate model of human MKS, with structural abnormalities in the neural tube, biliary duct, limb patterning, bone development and the kidney that mirror the human syndrome. In contrast to cell culture studies, loss of Mks1 in vivo does not interfere with apical localization of epithelial basal bodies but rather leads to defective cilia formation in most, but not all, tissues. Analysis of patterning in the neural tube and the limb demonstrates altered Hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling underlies some MKS defects, although both tissues show an expansion of the domain of response to Shh signaling, unlike the phenotypes seen in other mutants with cilia loss. Other defects in the skull, lung, rib cage and long bones are likely to be the result of the disruption of Hh signaling, and the basis of defects in the liver and kidney require further analysis. Thus the disruption of Hh signaling can explain many, but not all, of the defects caused by loss of Mks1. PMID:19776033

  16. A mouse model for Meckel syndrome reveals Mks1 is required for ciliogenesis and Hedgehog signaling.

    PubMed

    Weatherbee, Scott D; Niswander, Lee A; Anderson, Kathryn V

    2009-12-01

    Meckel syndrome (MKS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease causing perinatal lethality associated with a complex syndrome that includes occipital meningoencephalocele, hepatic biliary ductal plate malformation, postaxial polydactyly and polycystic kidneys. The gene mutated in type 1 MKS encodes a protein associated with the base of the cilium in vertebrates and nematodes. However, shRNA knockdown studies in cell culture have reported conflicting results on the role of Mks1 in ciliogenesis. Here we show that loss of function of mouse Mks1 results in an accurate model of human MKS, with structural abnormalities in the neural tube, biliary duct, limb patterning, bone development and the kidney that mirror the human syndrome. In contrast to cell culture studies, loss of Mks1 in vivo does not interfere with apical localization of epithelial basal bodies but rather leads to defective cilia formation in most, but not all, tissues. Analysis of patterning in the neural tube and the limb demonstrates altered Hedgehog (Hh) pathway signaling underlies some MKS defects, although both tissues show an expansion of the domain of response to Shh signaling, unlike the phenotypes seen in other mutants with cilia loss. Other defects in the skull, lung, rib cage and long bones are likely to be the result of the disruption of Hh signaling, and the basis of defects in the liver and kidney require further analysis. Thus the disruption of Hh signaling can explain many, but not all, of the defects caused by loss of Mks1.

  17. Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is impaired in the Mecp2-null mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Asaka, Yukiko; Jugloff, Denis G M; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H; Fitzsimonds, Reiko Maki

    2006-01-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional repressor methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Here we demonstrate that the Mecp2-null mouse model of Rett syndrome shows an age-dependent impairment in hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation induced by tetanic or theta-burst stimulation. Long-term depression induced by repetitive low-frequency stimulation is also absent in behaviorally symptomatic Mecp2-null mice. Immunoblot analyses from behaviorally symptomatic Mecp2-null mice reveal altered expression of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor subunits NR2A and NR2B. Presynaptic function is also affected, as demonstrated by a significant reduction in paired-pulse facilitation. Interestingly, the properties of basal neurotransmission are normal in the Mecp2-null mice, consistent with our observations that the levels of expression of synaptic and cytoskeletal proteins, including glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2, PSD95, synaptophysin-1, synaptobrevin-2, synaptotagmin-1, MAP2, betaIII-tubulin and NF200, are not significantly altered. Together, these data provide the first evidence that the loss of Mecp2 expression is accompanied by age-dependent alterations in excitatory synaptic plasticity that are likely to contribute to the cognitive and functional deficits underlying Rett syndrome.

  18. A mouse model of conduction system patterning abnormalities in heterotaxy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Czosek, Richard J; Haaning, Allison; Ware, Stephanie M

    2010-10-01

    Duplication or absence of parts of the specialized cardiac conduction system in patients with heterotaxy syndrome causes significant clinical disease, but the mechanistic basis by which embryonic disruption of left-right patterning alters conduction system patterning in these patients is not well understood. We sought to determine whether a mouse model of X-linked human heterotaxy recapitulates conduction system abnormalities identified in patients with heterotaxy. Cardiac structure and conduction system patterning were evaluated in Zic3 null embryos from e9.5 to e16.5 using genetic and molecular methods. Severe structural abnormalities involving atrial, ventricular, and conotruncal development were associated with a spectrum of disorganized and ambiguous arrangements throughout the conduction system, including the appearance of duplicated structures. The severity and location of conduction system abnormalities correlated with the severity and location of associated structural heart disease and were identifiable at the earliest stages examined. The Zic3 mouse model provides a novel tool to dissect the mechanistic underpinnings of conduction system patterning and dysfunction and its relationship to cardiovascular malformations, making it a promising model to improve understanding and risk assessment in the clinical arena.

  19. Cognitive and social functions and growth factors in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Moriuchi, Jennifer M; Nag, Nupur; Mellot, Tiffany J; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne

    2010-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an autism-spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Abnormalities in social behavior, stereotyped movements, and restricted interests are common features in both RTT and classic autism. While mouse models of both RTT and autism exist, social behaviors have not been explored extensively in mouse models of RTT. Here, we report cognitive and social abnormalities in Mecp2(1lox) null mice, an animal model of RTT. The null mice show severe deficits in short- and long-term object recognition memories, reminiscent of the severe cognitive deficits seen in RTT girls. Social behavior, however, is abnormal in that the null mice spend more time in contact with stranger mice than do wildtype controls. These findings are consistent with reports of increased reciprocal social interaction in RTT girls relative to classic autism. We also report here that the levels of the neurotrophins brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and nerve growth factor (NGF) are decreased in the hippocampus of the null mice, and discuss how this may provide an underlying mechanism for both the cognitive deficits and the increased motivation for social contact observed in the Mecp2(1lox) null mice. These studies support a differential etiology between RTT and autism, particularly with respect to sociability deficits.

  20. Low-dose rapamycin extends lifespan in a mouse model of mtDNA depletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siegmund, Stephanie; Yang, Hua; Sharma, Rohit; Javors, Martin; Skinner, Owen; Mootha, Vamsi; Hirano, Michio; Schon, Eric A

    2017-09-01

    Mitochondrial disorders affecting oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) are caused by mutations in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. One promising candidate for treatment is the drug rapamycin, which has been shown to extend lifespan in multiple animal models, and which was previously shown to ameliorate mitochondrial disease in a knock-out mouse model lacking a nuclear-encoded gene specifying an OxPhos structural subunit (Ndufs4). In that model, relatively high-dose intraperitoneal rapamycin extended lifespan and improved markers of neurological disease, via an unknown mechanism. Here, we administered low-dose oral rapamycin to a knock-in (KI) mouse model of authentic mtDNA disease, specifically, progressive mtDNA depletion syndrome, resulting from a mutation in the mitochondrial nucleotide salvage enzyme thymidine kinase 2 (TK2). Importantly, low-dose oral rapamycin was sufficient to extend Tk2KI/KI mouse lifespan significantly, and did so in the absence of detectable improvements in mitochondrial dysfunction. We found no evidence that rapamycin increased survival by acting through canonical pathways, including mitochondrial autophagy. However, transcriptomics and metabolomics analyses uncovered systemic metabolic changes pointing to a potential "rapamycin metabolic signature." These changes also implied that rapamycin may have enabled the Tk2KI/KI mice to utilize alternative energy reserves, and possibly triggered indirect signaling events that modified mortality through developmental reprogramming. From a therapeutic standpoint, our results support the possibility that low-dose rapamycin, while not targeting the underlying mtDNA defect, could represent a crucial therapy for the treatment of mtDNA-driven, and some nuclear DNA-driven, mitochondrial diseases. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. Hearing Loss in a Mouse Model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A.; Taylor, Ruth R.; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J.; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S.; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM. PMID:24244619

  2. Hearing loss in a mouse model of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jennifer C; Zinnamon, Fhatarah A; Taylor, Ruth R; Ivins, Sarah; Scambler, Peter J; Forge, Andrew; Tucker, Abigail S; Linden, Jennifer F

    2013-01-01

    22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) arises from an interstitial chromosomal microdeletion encompassing at least 30 genes. This disorder is one of the most significant known cytogenetic risk factors for schizophrenia, and can also cause heart abnormalities, cognitive deficits, hearing difficulties, and a variety of other medical problems. The Df1/+ hemizygous knockout mouse, a model for human 22q11DS, recapitulates many of the deficits observed in the human syndrome including heart defects, impaired memory, and abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating. Here we show that Df1/+ mice, like human 22q11DS patients, have substantial rates of hearing loss arising from chronic middle ear infection. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements revealed significant elevation of click-response thresholds in 48% of Df1/+ mice, often in only one ear. Anatomical and histological analysis of the middle ear demonstrated no gross structural abnormalities, but frequent signs of otitis media (OM, chronic inflammation of the middle ear), including excessive effusion and thickened mucosa. In mice for which both in vivo ABR thresholds and post mortem middle-ear histology were obtained, the severity of signs of OM correlated directly with the level of hearing impairment. These results suggest that abnormal auditory sensorimotor gating previously reported in mouse models of 22q11DS could arise from abnormalities in auditory processing. Furthermore, the findings indicate that Df1/+ mice are an excellent model for increased risk of OM in human 22q11DS patients. Given the frequently monaural nature of OM in Df1/+ mice, these animals could also be a powerful tool for investigating the interplay between genetic and environmental causes of OM.

  3. Mouse and hamster mutants as models for Waardenburg syndromes in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Asher, J H; Friedman, T B

    1990-01-01

    Four different Waardenburg syndromes have been defined based upon observed phenotypes. These syndromes are responsible for approximately 2% of subjects with profound congenital hearing loss. At present, Waardenburg syndromes have not been mapped to particular human chromosomes. One or more of the mouse mutant alleles, Ph (patch), s (piebald), Sp (splotch), and Mior (microphthalmia-Oak Ridge) and the hamster mutation Wh (anophthalmic white) may be homologous to mutations causing Waardenburg syndromes. In heterozygotes, phenotypic effects of these four mouse mutations and the hamster mutation are similar to the phenotypes produced by different Waardenburg syndrome mutations. The chromosomal locations and syntenic relationships associated with three of the four mouse mutant genes have been used to predict human chromosomal locations for Waardenburg syndromes: (1) on chromosome 2q near FN1 (fibronectin 1), (2) on chromosome 3p near the proto-oncogene RAF1 or 3q near RHO (rhodopsin), and (3) on chromosome 4p near the proto-oncogene KIT. Waardenburg syndromes show extensive intrafamilial phenotypic variability. Results of our studies with the hamster mutation Wh suggest that this variability may be explained in part by modifier genes segregating within families. Images PMID:2246770

  4. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo, Adriana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Campbell, Mark; Burling, Keith; Cava, Fernando; Ros, Manuel; Oresic, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) knockout (KO) mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27(Kip1) expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice.

  5. Tumour angiogenesis is reduced in the Tc1 mouse model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Louise E; Watson, Alan R; Baker, Marianne; Jones, Tania A; D'Amico, Gabriela; Robinson, Stephen D; Joffre, Carine; Garrido-Urbani, Sarah; Rodriguez-Manzaneque, Juan Carlos; Martino-Echarri, Estefanía; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Sheer, Denise; Dagna-Bricarelli, Franca; Nizetic, Dean; McCabe, Christopher J; Turnell, Andrew S; Kermorgant, Stephanie; Imhof, Beat A; Adams, Ralf; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Hart, Ian R; Hodivala-Dilke, Kairbaan M

    2010-06-10

    Down's syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by full or partial trisomy of human chromosome 21 and presents with many clinical phenotypes including a reduced incidence of solid tumours. Recent work with the Ts65Dn model of DS, which has orthologues of about 50% of the genes on chromosome 21 (Hsa21), has indicated that three copies of the ETS2 (ref. 3) or DS candidate region 1 (DSCR1) genes (a previously known suppressor of angiogenesis) is sufficient to inhibit tumour growth. Here we use the Tc1 transchromosomic mouse model of DS to dissect the contribution of extra copies of genes on Hsa21 to tumour angiogenesis. This mouse expresses roughly 81% of Hsa21 genes but not the human DSCR1 region. We transplanted B16F0 and Lewis lung carcinoma tumour cells into Tc1 mice and showed that growth of these tumours was substantially reduced compared with wild-type littermate controls. Furthermore, tumour angiogenesis was significantly repressed in Tc1 mice. In particular, in vitro and in vivo angiogenic responses to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were inhibited. Examination of the genes on the segment of Hsa21 in Tc1 mice identified putative anti-angiogenic genes (ADAMTS1and ERG) and novel endothelial cell-specific genes, never previously shown to be involved in angiogenesis (JAM-B and PTTG1IP), that, when overexpressed, are responsible for inhibiting angiogenic responses to VEGF. Three copies of these genes within the stromal compartment reduced tumour angiogenesis, explaining the reduced tumour growth in DS. Furthermore, we expect that, in addition to the candidate genes that we show to be involved in the repression of angiogenesis, the Tc1 mouse model of DS will permit the identification of other endothelium-specific anti-angiogenic targets relevant to a broad spectrum of cancer patients.

  6. Accelerated renal disease is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in a glucolipotoxic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-García, Cristina; Izquierdo, Adriana; Velagapudi, Vidya; Vivas, Yurena; Velasco, Ismael; Campbell, Mark; Burling, Keith; Cava, Fernando; Ros, Manuel; Orešič, Matej; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals with metabolic syndrome are at high risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) through unclear pathogenic mechanisms. Obesity and diabetes are known to induce glucolipotoxic effects in metabolically relevant organs. However, the pathogenic role of glucolipotoxicity in the aetiology of diabetic nephropathy is debated. We generated a murine model, the POKO mouse, obtained by crossing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) knockout (KO) mouse into a genetically obese ob/ob background. We have previously shown that the POKO mice showed: hyperphagia, insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia as early as 4 weeks of age, and developed a complete loss of normal β-cell function by 16 weeks of age. Metabolic phenotyping of the POKO model has led to investigation of the structural and functional changes in the kidney and changes in blood pressure in these mice. Here we demonstrate that the POKO mouse is a model of renal disease that is accelerated by high levels of glucose and lipid accumulation. Similar to ob/ob mice, at 4 weeks of age these animals exhibited an increased urinary albumin:creatinine ratio and significantly increased blood pressure, but in contrast showed a significant increase in the renal hypertrophy index and an associated increase in p27Kip1 expression compared with their obese littermates. Moreover, at 4 weeks of age POKO mice showed insulin resistance, an alteration of lipid metabolism and glomeruli damage associated with increased transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) expression. At this age, levels of proinflammatory molecules, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and fibrotic factors were also increased at the glomerular level compared with levels in ob/ob mice. At 12 weeks of age, renal damage was fully established. These data suggest an accelerated lesion through glucolipotoxic effects in the renal pathogenesis in POKO mice

  7. Postnatal dietary choline supplementation alters behavior in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nag, Nupur; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E

    2007-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting females, is accompanied by behavioral and neuropathological abnormalities and decreases in brain cholinergic markers. Because the cholinergic system is associated with cognitive and motor functions, cholinergic deficits in RTT may underlie some of the behavioral abnormalities. In rodents, increased choline availability during development enhances transmission at cholinergic synapses and improves behavioral performance throughout life. We examined whether choline supplementation of nursing dams would attenuate deficits in Mecp2(1lox) offspring, a mouse model of RTT. Dams were given choline in drinking water, and pups nursed from birth to weaning. Offspring were assessed on development and behavior. In Mecp2(1lox) males, choline supplementation improved motor coordination and locomotor activity, whereas in females it enhanced grip strength. Choline supplementation did not improve response to fear conditioning. Postnatal choline supplementation attenuates some behavioral deficits in Mecp2(1lox) mice and should be explored further as a therapeutic agent in RTT.

  8. The frissonnant mutant mouse, a model of dopamino-sensitive, inherited motor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Callizot, N; Guénet, J L; Baillet, C; Warter, J M; Poindron, P

    2001-06-01

    The frissonnant (fri) mutation is an autosomic recessive mutation which spontaneously appeared in the stock of C3H mice. fri mutant mice have locomotor instability and rapid tremor. Since tremor ceases when mutant mice have sleep or are anaesthetized, and because of their obvious stereotyped motor behavior, these mice could represent an inherited Parkinsonian syndrome. We show here that the fri/fri mouse fulfills two out of the three criteria required to validate an experimental model of human disease, that is isomorphism, homology and predictivity. Indeed, fri/fri mice present an important motor deficit accompanying visible tremor and stereotypies. They display some memory deficits as in human Parkinson's desease. l-Dopa and apomorphine (dopaminergic agonists), ropinirole (selective D2 agonist), and selegiline (an monoamino-oxidase B [MAO-B] inhibitor) improve their clinical status. However, neither anatomopathological evidence of nigrostriatal lesion, nor decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase production could be seen.

  9. Hippocampal circuit dysfunction in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Popov, V.I.; Kraev, I.; Line, S.J.; Jensen, T.P.; Tedoldi, A.; Cummings, D.M.; Tybulewicz, V.L.J.; Fisher, E.M.C.; Bannerman, D.M.; Randall, A.D.; Brown, J.T.; Edwards, F.A.; Rusakov, D.A.; Stewart, M.G.; Jones, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal pathology is likely to contribute to cognitive disability in Down syndrome (DS), yet the neural network basis of this pathology and its contributions to different facets of cognitive impairment remain unclear. Here, we report dysfunctional connectivity between dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 networks in the transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model of DS, demonstrating that ultrastructural abnormalities and impaired short-term plasticity at DG-CA3 excitatory synapses culminate in impaired coding of novel spatial information in CA3 and CA1 and disrupted behaviour in vivo. These results highlight the vulnerability of DG-CA3 networks to aberrant human chromosome 21 gene expression, and delineate hippocampal circuit abnormalities likely to contribute to distinct cognitive phenotypes in DS. PMID:26237367

  10. Losartan, an AT1 Antagonist, Prevents Aortic Aneurysm in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Habashi, Jennifer P.; Judge, Daniel P.; Holm, Tammy M.; Cohn, Ronald D.; Loeys, Bart L.; Cooper, Timothy K.; Myers, Loretha; Klein, Erin C.; Liu, Guosheng; Calvi, Carla; Podowski, Megan; Neptune, Enid R.; Halushka, Marc K.; Bedja, Djahida; Gabrielson, Kathleen; Rifkin, Daniel B.; Carta, Luca; Ramirez, Francesco; Huso, David L.; Dietz, Harry C.

    2006-01-01

    Aortic aneurysm and dissection are manifestations of Marfan syndrome (MFS), a disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes fibrillin-1. Selected manifestations of MFS reflect excessive signaling by the transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) family of cytokines. We show that aortic aneurysm in a mouse model of MFS is associated with increased TGF-β signaling and can be prevented by TGF-β antagonists such as TGF-β–neutralizing antibody or the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) blocker, losartan. AT1 antagonism also partially reversed noncardiovascular manifestations of MFS, including impaired alveolar septation. These data suggest that losartan, a drug already in clinical use for hypertension, merits investigation as a therapeutic strategy for patients with MFS and has the potential to prevent the major life-threatening manifestation of this disorder. PMID:16601194

  11. Induced Chromosome Deletion in a Williams-Beuren Syndrome Mouse Model Causes Cardiovascular Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Goergen, Craig J.; Li, Hong-Hua; Francke, Uta; Taylor, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a genetic disorder caused by a heterozygous ∼1.5-Mb deletion. The aim of this study was to determine how the genetic changes in a Wbs mouse model alter Eln expression, blood pressure, vessel structure, and abdominal aortic wall dynamics in vivo. Methods Elastin (ELN) transcript levels were quantified by qRT-PCR and blood pressure was measured with a tail cuff system. M-mode ultrasound was used to track pulsatile abdominal aortic wall motion. Aortas were sectioned and stained to determine medial lamellar structure. Results ELN transcript levels were reduced by 38–41% in Wbs mice lacking one copy of the ELN gene. These mice also had a 10–20% increase in mean blood pressure and significantly reduced circumferential cyclic strain (p < 0.001). Finally, histological sections showed disorganized and fragmented elastin sheets in Wbs mice, but not the characteristic increase in lamellar units seen in Eln+/– mice. Conclusions The deletion of Eln in this Wbs mouse model results in lower gene expression, hypertension, reduced cyclic strain, and fragmented elastin sheets. The observation that the number of medial lamellar units is normal in Wbs deletion mice, which is in contrast to Eln+/– mice, suggests other genes may be involved in vascular development. PMID:20926892

  12. Mouse models of Rett syndrome: from behavioural phenotyping to preclinical evaluation of new therapeutic approaches.

    PubMed

    Ricceri, Laura; De Filippis, Bianca; Laviola, Giovanni

    2008-09-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting girls. RTT causes severe cognitive, social, motor and physiological impairments and no cure currently exists. The discovery of a monogenic origin for RTT and the subsequent generation of RTT mouse models provided a major breakthrough for RTT research. Although the characterization of these mutant mice is far from complete, they recapitulate several RTT symptoms. This review provides an overview of the behavioural domains so far investigated in these models, including the very few mouse data concerning the developmental course of RTT. Both clinical and animal studies support the presence of early defects and highlight the importance of probing the presymptomatic phase for both the precocious identification of biomarkers and the early assessment of potential therapies. Preclinical evaluations of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions so far carried out are also illustrated. In addition, genetic manipulations are reported that demonstrate rescue from the damage caused by the absence of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene even at a mature stage. Given the rare occurrence of RTT cases, transnational collaborative networks are expected to provide a deeper understanding of aetiopathology and the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  13. Unconventional Transcriptional Response to Environmental Enrichment in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Bredford; Silva, Pamela A.; Walz, Katherina; Young, Juan I.

    2010-01-01

    Background Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked postnatal neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and one of the leading causes of mental retardation in females. RTT is characterized by psychomotor retardation, purposeless hand movements, autistic-like behavior and abnormal gait. We studied the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on the phenotypic manifestations of a RTT mouse model that lacks MeCP2 (Mecp2−/y). Principal Findings We found that EE delayed and attenuated some neurological alterations presented by Mecp2−/y mice and prevented the development of motor discoordination and anxiety-related abnormalities. To define the molecular correlate of this beneficial effect of EE, we analyzed the expression of several synaptic marker genes whose expression is increased by EE in several mouse models. Conclusions/Significance We found that EE induced downregulation of several synaptic markers, suggesting that the partial prevention of RTT-associated phenotypes is achieved through a non-conventional transcriptional program. PMID:20634955

  14. Progressive vascular smooth muscle cell defects in a mouse model of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.

    PubMed

    Varga, Renee; Eriksson, Maria; Erdos, Michael R; Olive, Michelle; Harten, Ingrid; Kolodgie, Frank; Capell, Brian C; Cheng, Jun; Faddah, Dina; Perkins, Stacie; Avallone, Hedwig; San, Hong; Qu, Xuan; Ganesh, Santhi; Gordon, Leslie B; Virmani, Renu; Wight, Thomas N; Nabel, Elizabeth G; Collins, Francis S

    2006-02-28

    Children with Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) suffer from dramatic acceleration of some symptoms associated with normal aging, most notably cardiovascular disease that eventually leads to death from myocardial infarction and/or stroke usually in their second decade of life. For the vast majority of cases, a de novo point mutation in the lamin A (LMNA) gene is the cause of HGPS. This missense mutation creates a cryptic splice donor site that produces a mutant lamin A protein, termed "progerin," which carries a 50-aa deletion near its C terminus. We have created a mouse model for progeria by generating transgenics carrying a human bacterial artificial chromosome that harbors the common HGPS mutation. These mice develop progressive loss of vascular smooth muscle cells in the medial layer of large arteries, in a pattern very similar to that seen in children with HGPS. This mouse model should prove valuable for testing experimental therapies for this devastating disorder and for exploring cardiovascular disease in general.

  15. Deleterious Effects of Chronic Folate Deficiency in the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Susan; Blayney, Morgan; Whited, Taylor; Noroozi, Mahjabin; Lin, Sen; Kern, Semira; Green, David; Salehi, Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Folate is an important B vitamin naturally found in the human diet and plays a critical role in methylation of nucleic acids. Indeed, abnormalities in this major epigenetic mechanism play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficit and intellectual disability in humans. The most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in children is Down syndrome (DS). Since folate deficiency is very common among the pediatric population, we questioned whether chronic folate deficiency (CFD) exacerbates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of DS. To test this, adult Ts65Dn mice and their disomic littermates were chronically fed a diet free of folic acid while preventing endogenous production of folate in the digestive tract for a period of 8 weeks. Our results show that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS was significantly more vulnerable to CFD in terms of plasma homocysteine and N5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) levels. Importantly, these changes were linked to degenerative alterations in hippocampal dendritic morphology and impaired nest building behavior in Ts65Dn mice. Based on our results, a rigorous examination of folate intake and its metabolism in individuals with DS is warranted. PMID:28649192

  16. A Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity Resembling Most Features of Human Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Della Vedova, Maria C.; Muñoz, Marcos D.; Santillan, Lucas D.; Plateo-Pignatari, Maria G.; Germanó, Maria J.; Rinaldi Tosi, Martín E.; Garcia, Silvina; Gomez, Nidia N.; Fornes, Miguel W.; Gomez Mejiba, Sandra E.; Ramirez, Dario C.

    2016-01-01

    Increased chicken-derived fat and fructose consumption in the human diet is paralleled by an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS). Herein, we aimed at developing and characterizing a mouse model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) resembling most of the key features of the human MS. To accomplish this, we fed male C57BL/6J mice for 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a high-chicken-fat diet (HFD) and tap water with or without 10% fructose (F). This experimental design resulted in the following four experimental groups: LFD, LFD + F, HFD, and HFD + F. Over the feeding period, and on a weekly basis, the HFD + F group had more caloric intake and gained more weight than the other experimental groups. Compared to the other groups, and at the end of the feeding period, the HFD + F group had a higher adipogenic index, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting basal glycemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, and atherogenic index and showed steatohepatitis and systemic oxidative stress/inflammation. A mouse model of DIO that will allow us to study the effect of MS in different organs and systems has been developed and characterized. PMID:27980421

  17. Characterization of PTZ-Induced Seizure Susceptibility in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model That Overexpresses CSTB

    PubMed Central

    Brault, Véronique; Martin, Benoît; Costet, Nathalie; Bizot, Jean-Charles; Hérault, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a complex genetic syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, dysmorphism and variable additional physiological traits. Current research progress has begun to decipher the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment, leading to new therapeutic perspectives. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) has recently been found to have positive effects on learning and memory capacities of a DS mouse model and is foreseen to treat DS patients. But PTZ is also known to be a convulsant drug at higher dose and DS persons are more prone to epileptic seizures than the general population. This raises concerns over what long-term effects of treatment might be in the DS population. The cause of increased propensity for epilepsy in the DS population and which Hsa21 gene(s) are implicated remain unknown. Among Hsa21 candidate genes in epilepsy, CSTB, coding for the cystein protease inhibitor cystatin B, is involved in progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia in both mice and human. Thus we aim to evaluate the effect of an increase in Cstb gene dosage on spontaneous epileptic activity and susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure. To this end we generated a new mouse model trisomic for Cstb by homologous recombination. We verified that increasing copy number of Cstb from Trisomy (Ts) to Tetrasomy (Tt) was driving overexpression of the gene in the brain, we checked transgenic animals for presence of locomotor activity and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities characteristic of myoclonic epilepsy and we tested if those animals were prone to PTZ-induced seizure. Overall, the results of the analysis shows that an increase in Cstb does not induce any spontaneous epileptic activity and neither increase or decrease the propensity of Ts and Tt mice to myoclonic seizures suggesting that Ctsb dosage should not interfere with PTZ-treatment. PMID:22140471

  18. Characterization of seizure-like events recorded in vivo in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colic, Sinisa; Wither, Robert G; Zhang, Liang; Eubanks, James H; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2013-10-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Spontaneous recurrent discharge episodes are displayed in Rett-related seizures as in other types of epilepsies. The aim of this paper is to investigate the seizure-like event (SLE) and inter-SLE states in a female MeCP2-deficient mouse model of Rett syndrome and compare them to those found in other spontaneous recurrent epilepsy models. The study was performed on a small population of female MeCP2-deficient mice using telemetric local field potential (LFP) recordings over a 24 h period. Durations of SLEs and inter-SLEs were extracted using a rule-based automated SLE detection system for both daytime and nighttime, as well as high and low power levels of the delta frequency range (0.5-4 Hz) of the recorded LFPs. The results suggest SLE occurrences are not influenced by circadian rhythms, but had a significantly greater association with delta power. Investigating inter-SLE and SLE states by fitting duration histograms to the gamma distribution showed that SLE initiation and termination were associated with random and deterministic mechanisms, respectively. These findings when compared to reported studies on epilepsy suggest that Rett-related seizures share many similarities with absence epilepsy.

  19. Ts1Cje, a partial trisomy 16 mouse model for Down syndrome, exhibits learning and behavioral abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Sago, Haruhiko; Carlson, Elaine J.; Smith, Desmond J.; Kilbridge, Joshua; Rubin, Edward M.; Mobley, William C.; Epstein, Charles J.; Huang, Ting-Ting

    1998-01-01

    A mouse model for Down syndrome, Ts1Cje, has been developed. This model has made possible a step in the genetic dissection of the learning, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities associated with segmental trisomy for the region of mouse chromosome 16 homologous with the so-called “Down syndrome region” of human chromosome segment 21q22. Tests of learning in the Morris water maze and assessment of spontaneous locomotor activity reveal distinct learning and behavioral abnormalities, some of which are indicative of hippocampal dysfunction. The triplicated region in Ts1Cje, from Sod1 to Mx1, is smaller than that in Ts65Dn, another segmental trisomy 16 mouse, and the learning deficits in Ts1Cje are less severe than those in Ts65Dn. In addition, degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, which was observed in Ts65Dn, was absent in Ts1Cje. PMID:9600952

  20. Mechanism and treatment for learning and memory deficits in mouse models of Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Seok; Ehninger, Dan; Zhou, Miou; Oh, Jun-Young; Kang, Minkyung; Kwak, Chuljung; Ryu, Hyun-Hee; Butz, Delana; Araki, Toshiyuki; Cai, Ying; Balaji, J; Sano, Yoshitake; Nam, Christine I; Kim, Hyong Kyu; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Burger, Corinna; Neel, Benjamin G; Silva, Alcino J

    2014-12-01

    In Noonan syndrome (NS) 30-50% of subjects show cognitive deficits of unknown etiology and with no known treatment. Here, we report that knock-in mice expressing either of two NS-associated mutations in Ptpn11, which encodes the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, show hippocampal-dependent impairments in spatial learning and deficits in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). In addition, viral overexpression of an NS-associated allele PTPN11(D61G) in adult mouse hippocampus results in increased baseline excitatory synaptic function and deficits in LTP and spatial learning, which can be reversed by a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor. Furthermore, brief treatment with lovastatin reduces activation of the GTPase Ras-extracellular signal-related kinase (Erk) pathway in the brain and normalizes deficits in LTP and learning in adult Ptpn11(D61G/+) mice. Our results demonstrate that increased basal Erk activity and corresponding baseline increases in excitatory synaptic function are responsible for the LTP impairments and, consequently, the learning deficits in mouse models of NS. These data also suggest that lovastatin or MEK inhibitors may be useful for treating the cognitive deficits in NS.

  1. Impaired Photoreceptor Protein Transport and Synaptic Transmission in a Mouse Model of Bardet-Biedl Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M.; Sykoudis, Kristen; Andrabi, Sara; Eichers, Erica R.; Pennesi, Mark E.; Tan, Perciliz L.; Wilson, John H.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lupski, James R.; Wu, Samuel M.

    2009-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl Syndrome (BBS) is an oligogenic syndrome whose manifestations include retinal degeneration, renal abnormalities, obesity and polydactylia. Evidence suggests that the main etiopathophysiology of this syndrome is impaired Intraflagellar Transport (IFT). In this study, we study the Bbs4-null mouse and investigate photoreceptor structure and function after loss of this gene. We find that Bbs4-null mice have defects in the transport of phototransduction proteins from the inner segments to the outer segments, before signs of cell death. Additionally, we show defects in synaptic transmission from the photoreceptors to secondary neurons of the visual system, demonstrating multiple functions for BBS4 in photoreceptors. PMID:18022666

  2. Using Mouse Models to Explore Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Ahmad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy 21 is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and involves multiple organs. Sequencing of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and subsequently of its orthologues on mouse chromosome 16 have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the complex relationship between various DS phenotypes and the extra copy of…

  3. Using Mouse Models to Explore Genotype-Phenotype Relationship in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salehi, Ahmad; Faizi, Mehrdad; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Mobley, William C.

    2007-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) caused by trisomy 21 is characterized by a variety of phenotypes and involves multiple organs. Sequencing of human chromosome 21 (HSA21) and subsequently of its orthologues on mouse chromosome 16 have created an unprecedented opportunity to explore the complex relationship between various DS phenotypes and the extra copy of…

  4. High-fat diet induces significant metabolic disorders in a mouse model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hao; Jia, Xiao; Yu, Qiuxiao; Zhang, Chenglu; Qiao, Jie; Guan, Youfei; Kang, Jihong

    2014-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common female endocrinopathy associated with both reproductive and metabolic disorders. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is currently used to induce a PCOS mouse model. High-fat diet (HFD) has been shown to cause obesity and infertility in female mice. The possible effect of an HFD on the phenotype of DHEA-induced PCOS mice is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate both reproductive and metabolic features of DHEA-induced PCOS mice fed a normal chow or a 60% HFD. Prepubertal C57BL/6 mice (age 25 days) on the normal chow or an HFD were injected (s.c.) daily with the vehicle sesame oil or DHEA for 20 consecutive days. At the end of the experiment, both reproductive and metabolic characteristics were assessed. Our data show that an HFD did not affect the reproductive phenotype of DHEA-treated mice. The treatment of HFD, however, caused significant metabolic alterations in DHEA-treated mice, including obesity, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, and pronounced liver steatosis. These findings suggest that HFD induces distinct metabolic features in DHEA-induced PCOS mice. The combined DHEA and HFD treatment may thus serve as a means of studying the mechanisms involved in metabolic derangements of this syndrome, particularly in the high prevalence of hepatic steatosis in women with PCOS.

  5. Wild-type microglia arrest pathology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Derecki, Noël C; Cronk, James C; Lu, Zhenjie; Xu, Eric; Abbott, Stephen B G; Guyenet, Patrice G; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2012-03-18

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked autism spectrum disorder. The disease is characterized in most cases by mutation of the MECP2 gene, which encodes a methyl-CpG-binding protein. Although MECP2 is expressed in many tissues, the disease is generally attributed to a primary neuronal dysfunction. However, as shown recently, glia, specifically astrocytes, also contribute to Rett pathophysiology. Here we examine the role of another form of glia, microglia, in a murine model of Rett syndrome. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow into irradiation-conditioned Mecp2-null hosts resulted in engraftment of brain parenchyma by bone-marrow-derived myeloid cells of microglial phenotype, and arrest of disease development. However, when cranial irradiation was blocked by lead shield, and microglial engraftment was prevented, disease was not arrested. Similarly, targeted expression of MECP2 in myeloid cells, driven by Lysm(cre) on an Mecp2-null background, markedly attenuated disease symptoms. Thus, through multiple approaches, wild-type Mecp2-expressing microglia within the context of an Mecp2-null male mouse arrested numerous facets of disease pathology: lifespan was increased, breathing patterns were normalized, apnoeas were reduced, body weight was increased to near that of wild type, and locomotor activity was improved. Mecp2(+/-) females also showed significant improvements as a result of wild-type microglial engraftment. These benefits mediated by wild-type microglia, however, were diminished when phagocytic activity was inhibited pharmacologically by using annexin V to block phosphatydilserine residues on apoptotic targets, thus preventing recognition and engulfment by tissue-resident phagocytes. These results suggest the importance of microglial phagocytic activity in Rett syndrome. Our data implicate microglia as major players in the pathophysiology of this devastating disorder, and suggest that bone marrow transplantation might offer a feasible therapeutic approach for it.

  6. Absence of Prenatal Forebrain Defects in the Dp(16)1Yey/+ Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goodliffe, Joseph W.; Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Aziz, Nadine M.; Pennings, Jeroen L.A.; Guedj, Faycal; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    Studies in humans with Down syndrome (DS) show that alterations in fetal brain development are followed by postnatal deficits in neuronal numbers, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive and motor function. This same progression is replicated in several mouse models of DS. Dp(16)1Yey/+ (hereafter called Dp16) is a recently developed mouse model of DS in which the entire region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21 has been triplicated. As such, Dp16 mice may more closely reproduce neurodevelopmental changes occurring in humans with DS. Here, we present the first comprehensive cellular and behavioral study of the Dp16 forebrain from embryonic to adult stages. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that Dp16 mice do not have prenatal brain defects previously reported in human fetal neocortex and in the developing forebrains of other mouse models, including microcephaly, reduced neurogenesis, and abnormal cell proliferation. Nevertheless, we found impairments in postnatal developmental milestones, fewer inhibitory forebrain neurons, and deficits in motor and cognitive performance in Dp16 mice. Therefore, although this new model does not express prenatal morphological phenotypes associated with DS, abnormalities in the postnatal period appear sufficient to produce significant cognitive deficits in Dp16. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Down syndrome (DS) leads to intellectual disability. Several mouse models have increased our understanding of the neuropathology of DS and are currently being used to test therapeutic strategies. A new mouse model that contains an expanded number of DS-related genes, known as Dp(16)1Yey/+ (Dp16), has been generated recently. We sought to determine whether the extended triplication creates a better phenocopy of DS-related brain pathologies. We measured embryonic development, forebrain maturation, and perinatal/adult behavior and revealed an absence of prenatal phenotypes in Dp16 fetal brain, but specific cellular and behavioral

  7. An inducible transgenic mouse model for familial hypertension with hyperkalaemia (Gordon's syndrome or pseudohypoaldosteronism type II).

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Jabed A; Liu, Che-Hsiung; Zuber, Annie M; O'Shaughnessy, Kevin M

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the novel serine/threonine WNK [With No lysine (=K)] kinases WNK1 and WNK4 cause PHAII (pseudohypoaldosteronism type II or Gordon's syndrome), a rare monogenic syndrome which causes hypertension and hyperkalaemia on a background of a normal glomerular filtration rate. Current animal models for PHAII recapitulate some aspects of the disease phenotype, but give no clues to how rapidly the phenotype emerges or whether it is reversible. To this end we have created an inducible PHAII transgenic animal model that expresses a human disease-causing WNK4 mutation, WNK4 Q565E, under the control of the Tet-On system. Several PHAII inducible transgenic mouse lines were created, each with differing TG (transgene) copy numbers and displaying varying degrees of TG expression (low, medium and high). Each of these transgenic lines demonstrated similar elevations of BP (blood pressure) and plasma potassium after 4 weeks of TG induction. Withdrawal of doxycycline switched off mutant TG expression and the disappearance of the PHAII phenotype. Western blotting of microdissected kidney nephron segments confirmed that expression of the thiazide-sensitive NCC (Na⁺-Cl⁻ co-transporter) was increased, as expected, in the distal convoluted tubule when transgenic mice were induced with doxycycline. The kidneys of these mice also do not show the morphological changes seen in the previous transgenic model expressing the same mutant form of WNK4. This inducible model shows, for the first time, that in vivo expression of a mutant WNK4 protein is sufficient to cause the rapid and reversible appearance of a PHAII disease phenotype in mice.

  8. Readthrough of nonsense mutations in Rett syndrome: evaluation of novel aminoglycosides and generation of a new mouse model.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Cornelia; Belakhov, Valery; Werner, Hauke; Wegener, Eike; Gärtner, Jutta; Nudelman, Igor; Baasov, Timor; Huppke, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Thirty-five percent of patients with Rett syndrome carry nonsense mutations in the MECP2 gene. We have recently shown in transfected HeLa cells that readthrough of nonsense mutations in the MECP2 gene can be achieved by treatment with gentamicin and geneticin. This study was performed to test if readthrough can also be achieved in cells endogenously expressing mutant MeCP2 and to evaluate potentially more effective readthrough compounds. A mouse model was generated carrying the R168X mutation in the MECP2 gene. Transfected HeLa cells expressing mutated MeCP2 fusion proteins and mouse ear fibroblasts isolated from the new mouse model were treated with gentamicin and the novel aminoglycosides NB30, NB54, and NB84. The localization of the readthrough product was tested by immunofluorescence. Readthrough of the R168X mutation in mouse ear fibroblasts using gentamicin was detected but at lower level than in HeLa cells. As expected, the readthrough product, full-length Mecp2 protein, was located in the nucleus. NB54 and NB84 induced readthrough more effectively than gentamicin, while NB30 was less effective. Readthrough of nonsense mutations can be achieved not only in transfected HeLa cells but also in fibroblasts of the newly generated Mecp2(R168X) mouse model. NB54 and NB84 were more effective than gentamicin and are therefore promising candidates for readthrough therapy in Rett syndrome patients.

  9. Paradoxical leanness in the imprinting-centre deletion mouse model for Prader–Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golding, David M; Rees, Daniel J; Davies, Jennifer R; Relkovic, Dinko; Furby, Hannah V; Guschina, Irina A; Hopkins, Anna L; Davies, Jeffrey S; Resnick, James L; Isles, Anthony R

    2016-01-01

    Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of paternal gene expression from 15q11–q13, is characterised by growth retardation, hyperphagia and obesity. However, as single gene mutation mouse models for this condition display an incomplete spectrum of the PWS phenotype, we have characterised the metabolic impairment in a mouse model for ‘full’ PWS, in which deletion of the imprinting centre (IC) abolishes paternal gene expression from the entire PWS cluster. We show that PWS-ICdel mice displayed postnatal growth retardation, with reduced body weight, hyperghrelinaemia and marked abdominal leanness; proportionate retroperitoneal, epididymal/omental and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights being reduced by 82%, 84% and 67%, respectively. PWS-ICdel mice also displayed a 48% reduction in proportionate interscapular brown adipose tissue (isBAT) weight with significant ‘beiging’ of abdominal WAT, and a 2°C increase in interscapular surface body temperature. Maintenance of PWS-ICdel mice under thermoneutral conditions (30°C) suppressed the thermogenic activity in PWS-ICdel males, but failed to elevate the abdominal WAT weight, possibly due to a normalisation of caloric intake. Interestingly, PWS-ICdel mice also showed exaggerated food hoarding behaviour with standard and high-fat diets, but despite becoming hyperphagic when switched to a high-fat diet, PWS-ICdel mice failed to gain weight. This evidence indicates that, unlike humans with PWS, loss of paternal gene expression from the PWS cluster in mice results in abdominal leanness. Although reduced subcutaneous insulation may lead to exaggerated heat loss and thermogenesis, abdominal leanness is likely to arise from a reduced lipid storage capacity rather than increased energy utilisation in BAT. PMID:27799465

  10. Genetic Enhancement of Limb Defects in a Mouse Model of Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    LOPEZ-BURKS, MARTHA E.; SANTOS, ROSAYSELA; KAWAUCHI, SHIMAKO; CALOF, ANNE L.; LANDER, ARTHUR D.

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by a wide variety of structural and functional abnormalities in almost every organ system of the body. CdLS is now known to be caused by mutations that disrupt the function of the cohesin complex or its regulators, and studies of animal models and cell lines tell us that the effect of these mutations is to produce subtle yet pervasive dysregulation of gene expression. With many hundreds of mostly small gene expression changes occurring in every cell type and tissue, identifying the etiology of any particular birth defect is very challenging. Here we focus on limb abnormalities, which are commonly seen in CdLS. In the limb buds of the Nipbl-haploinsufficient mouse (Nipbl+/− mouse), a model for the most common form of CdLS, modest gene expression changes are observed in several candidate pathways whose disruption is known to cause limb abnormalities, yet the limbs of Nipbl+/− mice develop relatively normally. We hypothesized that further impairment of candidate pathways might produce limb defects similar to those seen in CdLS, and performed genetic experiments to test this. Focusing on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp), and Hox gene pathways, we show that decreasing Bmp or Hox function (but not Shh function) enhances polydactyly in Nipbl+/− mice, and in some cases produces novel skeletal phenotypes. However, frank limb reductions, as are seen in a subset of individuals with CdLS, do not occur, suggesting that additional signaling and/or gene regulatory pathways are involved in producing such dramatic changes. PMID:27120109

  11. Sclerostin inhibition reverses skeletal fragility in an Lrp5-deficient mouse model of OPPG syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kedlaya, Rajendra; Veera, Shreya; Horan, Daniel J; Moss, Rachel E; Ayturk, Ugur M; Jacobsen, Christina M; Bowen, Margot E; Paszty, Chris; Warman, Matthew L; Robling, Alexander G

    2013-11-13

    Osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome (OPPG) is a rare genetic disease that produces debilitating effects in the skeleton. OPPG is caused by mutations in LRP5, a WNT co-receptor that mediates osteoblast activity. WNT signaling through LRP5, and also through the closely related receptor LRP6, is inhibited by the protein sclerostin (SOST). It is unclear whether OPPG patients might benefit from the anabolic action of sclerostin neutralization therapy (an approach currently being pursued in clinical trials for postmenopausal osteoporosis) in light of their LRP5 deficiency and consequent osteoblast impairment. To assess whether loss of sclerostin is anabolic in OPPG, we measured bone properties in a mouse model of OPPG (Lrp5(-/-)), a mouse model of sclerosteosis (Sost(-/-)), and in mice with both genes knocked out (Lrp5(-/-);Sost(-/-)). Lrp5(-/-);Sost(-/-) mice have larger, denser, and stronger bones than do Lrp5(-/-) mice, indicating that SOST deficiency can improve bone properties via pathways that do not require LRP5. Next, we determined whether the anabolic effects of sclerostin depletion in Lrp5(-/-) mice are retained in adult mice by treating 17-week-old Lrp5(-/-) mice with a sclerostin antibody for 3 weeks. Lrp5(+/+) and Lrp5(-/-) mice each exhibited osteoanabolic responses to antibody therapy, as indicated by increased bone mineral density, content, and formation rates. Collectively, our data show that inhibiting sclerostin can improve bone mass whether LRP5 is present or not. In the absence of LRP5, the anabolic effects of SOST depletion can occur via other receptors (such as LRP4/6). Regardless of the mechanism, our results suggest that humans with OPPG might benefit from sclerostin neutralization therapies.

  12. Paradoxical leanness in the imprinting-centre deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Golding, David M; Rees, Daniel J; Davies, Jennifer R; Relkovic, Dinko; Furby, Hannah V; Guschina, Irina A; Hopkins, Anna L; Davies, Jeffrey S; Resnick, James L; Isles, Anthony R; Wells, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of paternal gene expression from 15q11-q13, is characterised by growth retardation, hyperphagia and obesity. However, as single gene mutation mouse models for this condition display an incomplete spectrum of the PWS phenotype, we have characterised the metabolic impairment in a mouse model for 'full' PWS, in which deletion of the imprinting centre (IC) abolishes paternal gene expression from the entire PWS cluster. We show that PWS-IC(del) mice displayed postnatal growth retardation, with reduced body weight, hyperghrelinaemia and marked abdominal leanness; proportionate retroperitoneal, epididymal/omental and inguinal white adipose tissue (WAT) weights being reduced by 82%, 84% and 67%, respectively. PWS-IC(del) mice also displayed a 48% reduction in proportionate interscapular brown adipose tissue (isBAT) weight with significant 'beiging' of abdominal WAT, and a 2°C increase in interscapular surface body temperature. Maintenance of PWS-IC(del) mice under thermoneutral conditions (30°C) suppressed the thermogenic activity in PWS-IC(del) males, but failed to elevate the abdominal WAT weight, possibly due to a normalisation of caloric intake. Interestingly, PWS-IC(del) mice also showed exaggerated food hoarding behaviour with standard and high-fat diets, but despite becoming hyperphagic when switched to a high-fat diet, PWS-IC(del) mice failed to gain weight. This evidence indicates that, unlike humans with PWS, loss of paternal gene expression from the PWS cluster in mice results in abdominal leanness. Although reduced subcutaneous insulation may lead to exaggerated heat loss and thermogenesis, abdominal leanness is likely to arise from a reduced lipid storage capacity rather than increased energy utilisation in BAT. © 2017 The authors.

  13. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies’ efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. Methods The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Results Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat

  14. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Diego, Jose L; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G; Kennedy, Jeffrey B; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G; Petrash, J Mark; McCourt, Emily A

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) affects millions of people worldwide. Homeopathic remedies to treat a wide variety of ocular diseases have previously been documented in the literature, but little systematic work has been performed to validate the remedies' efficacy using accepted laboratory models of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear), two widely used homeopathic remedies, as agents to reduce pathological markers of DES. The previously described benzalkonium chloride (BAK) dry eye mouse model was used to study the efficacy of human milk and nopal cactus (prickly pear). BAK (0.2%) was applied to the mouse ocular surface twice daily to induce dry eye pathology. Fluorescein staining was used to verify that the animals had characteristic signs of DES. After induction of DES, the animals were treated with human milk (whole and fat-reduced), nopal, nopal extract derivatives, or cyclosporine four times daily for 7 days. Punctate staining and preservation of corneal epithelial thickness, measured histologically at the end of treatment, were used as indices of therapeutic efficacy. Treatment with BAK reduced the mean corneal epithelial thickness from 36.77±0.64 μm in the control mice to 21.29±3.2 μm. Reduction in corneal epithelial thickness was largely prevented by administration of whole milk (33.2±2.5 μm) or fat-reduced milk (36.1±1.58 μm), outcomes that were similar to treatment with cyclosporine (38.52±2.47 μm), a standard in current dry eye therapy. In contrast, crude or filtered nopal extracts were ineffective at preventing BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness (24.76±1.78 μm and 27.99±2.75 μm, respectively), as were solvents used in the extraction of nopal materials (26.53±1.46 μm for ethyl acetate, 21.59±5.87 μm for methanol). Epithelial damage, as reflected in the punctate scores, decreased over 4 days of treatment with whole and fat-reduced milk but continued to

  15. Digastric Muscle Phenotypes of the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome is frequently associated with complex difficulties in oromotor development, feeding, and swallowing. However, the muscle phenotypes underlying these deficits are unclear. We tested the hypotheses that the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS has significantly altered myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform profiles of the muscles involved in feeding and swallowing, as well as reductions in the speed of these movements during behavioral assays. SDS-PAGE, immunofluorescence, and qRT-PCR were used to assess MyHC isoform expression in pertinent muscles, and functional feeding and swallowing performance were quantified through videofluoroscopy and mastication assays. We found that both the anterior digastric (ADG) and posterior digastric (PDG) muscles in 11-day old and 5–6 week old Ts65Dn groups showed significantly lower MyHC 2b protein levels than in age-matched euploid control groups. In videofluoroscopic and videotape assays used to quantify swallowing and mastication performance, 5–6 week old Ts65Dn and euploid controls showed similar swallow rates, inter-swallow intervals, and mastication rates. In analysis of adults, 10–11 week old Ts65Dn mice revealed significantly less MyHC 2b mRNA expression in the posterior digastric, but not the anterior digastric muscle as compared with euploid controls. Analysis of MyHC 2b protein levels across an adult age range (10–53 weeks of age) revealed lower levels of MyHC 2b protein in the PDG of Ts65Dn than in euploids, but similar levels of MyHC 2b in the ADG. Cumulatively, these results indicate biochemical differences in some, but not all, muscles involved in swallowing and jaw movement in Ts65Dn mice that manifest early in post-natal development, and persist into adulthood. These findings suggest potential utility of this model for future investigations of the mechanisms of oromotor difficulties associated with Down syndrome. PMID:27336944

  16. A small molecule mitigates hearing loss in a mouse model of Usher syndrome III.

    PubMed

    Alagramam, Kumar N; Gopal, Suhasini R; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Daniel H-C; Nemet, Ina; Lee, Richard; Tian, Guilian; Miyagi, Masaru; Malagu, Karine F; Lock, Christopher J; Esmieu, William R K; Owens, Andrew P; Lindsay, Nicola A; Ouwehand, Krista; Albertus, Faywell; Fischer, David F; Bürli, Roland W; MacLeod, Angus M; Harte, William E; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-06-01

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3), characterized by progressive deafness, variable balance disorder and blindness, is caused by destabilizing mutations in the gene encoding the clarin-1 (CLRN1) protein. Here we report a new strategy to mitigate hearing loss associated with a common USH3 mutation CLRN1(N48K) that involves cell-based high-throughput screening of small molecules capable of stabilizing CLRN1(N48K), followed by a secondary screening to eliminate general proteasome inhibitors, and finally an iterative process to optimize structure-activity relationships. This resulted in the identification of BioFocus 844 (BF844). To test the efficacy of BF844, we developed a mouse model that mimicked the progressive hearing loss associated with USH3. BF844 effectively attenuated progressive hearing loss and prevented deafness in this model. Because the CLRN1(N48K) mutation causes both hearing and vision loss, BF844 could in principle prevent both sensory deficiencies in patients with USH3. Moreover, the strategy described here could help identify drugs for other protein-destabilizing monogenic disorders.

  17. A small molecule mitigates hearing loss in a mouse model of Usher syndrome III

    PubMed Central

    Alagramam, Kumar N.; Gopal, Suhasini R.; Geng, Ruishuang; Chen, Daniel H.-C.; Nemet, Ina; Lee, Richard; Tian, Guilian; Miyagi, Masaru; Malagu, Karine F.; Lock, Christopher J.; Esmieu, William R. K.; Owens, Andrew P.; Lindsay, Nicola A.; Ouwehand, Krista; Albertus, Faywell; Fischer, David F.; Bürli, Roland W.; MacLeod, Angus M.; Harte, William E.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Imanishi, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Usher syndrome type III (USH3) characterized by progressive deafness, variable balance disorder, and blindness is caused by destabilizing mutations in the gene encoding the clarin-1 protein (CLRN1). Here we report a novel strategy to mitigate hearing loss associated with a common USH3 mutation CLRN1N48K that involved a cell-based high-throughput screening of small molecules capable of stabilizing CLRN1N48K, a secondary screening to eliminate general proteasome inhibitors, and finally an iterative process to optimize structure activity relationships. This resulted in the identification of BF844. To test the efficacy of BF844, a mouse model was developed that mimicked the progressive hearing loss of USH3. BF844 effectively attenuated progressive hearing loss and prevented deafness in this model. Because the human CLRN1N48K mutation causes both hearing and vision loss, BF844 could in principle prevent both sensory deficiencies in USH3. Moreover, the strategy described here could help identify drugs for other protein-destabilizing monogenic disorders. PMID:27110679

  18. Endogenous glucocorticoids attenuate Shiga toxin-2-induced toxicity in a mouse model of haemolytic uraemic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    GÓMEZ, S A; FERNÁNDEZ, G C; VANZULLI, S; DRAN, G; RUBEL, C; BERKI, T; ISTURIZ, M A; PALERMO, M S

    2003-01-01

    The concept that during an immune challenge the release of glucocorticoids (GC) provides feedback inhibition on evolving immune responses has been drawn primarily from studies of autoimmune and/or inflammatory processes in animal models. The epidemic form of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) occurs secondary to infection with Gram-negative bacteria that produce Shiga toxin (Stx). Although Stx binding to the specific receptors present on renal tissue is the primary pathogenic mechanism, inflammatory or immune interactions are necessary for the development of the complete form of HUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of endogenous GC on Stx-toxicity in a mouse model. Stx2 was injected into GC-deprived mice and survival rate, renal damage and serum urea levels were evaluated. Plasma corticosterone and cytosolic GC receptor (GR) concentration were also determined at multiple intervals post-Stx2 treatment. Higher sensitivity to Stx2 was observed in mice lacking endogenous GC, evidenced by an increase in mortality rates, circulating urea levels and renal histological damage. Moreover, Stx2 injection was associated with a transient but significant rise in corticosterone secretion. Interestingly, 24 h after Stx inoculation significant increases in total GR were detected in circulating neutrophils. These results indicate that interactions between the neuroendocrine and immune systems can modulate the level of damage significantly during a bacterial infection. PMID:12562380

  19. Perturbed hematopoiesis in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alford, Kate A; Slender, Amy; Vanes, Lesley; Li, Zhe; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Nizetic, Dean; Orkin, Stuart H; Roberts, Irene; Tybulewicz, Victor L J

    2010-04-08

    Trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) results in Down syndrome (DS), a disorder that affects many aspects of physiology, including hematopoiesis. DS children have greatly increased rates of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL); DS newborns present with transient myeloproliferative disorder (TMD), a preleukemic form of AMKL. TMD and DS-AMKL almost always carry an acquired mutation in GATA1 resulting in exclusive synthesis of a truncated protein (GATA1s), suggesting that both trisomy 21 and GATA1 mutations are required for leukemogenesis. To gain further understanding of how Hsa21 contributes to hematopoietic abnormalities, we examined the Tc1 mouse model of DS, which carries an almost complete freely segregating copy of Hsa21, and is the most complete model of DS available. We show that although Tc1 mice do not develop leukemia, they have macrocytic anemia and increased extramedullary hematopoiesis. Introduction of GATA1s into Tc1 mice resulted in a synergistic increase in megakaryopoiesis, but did not result in leukemia or a TMD-like phenotype, demonstrating that GATA1s and trisomy of approximately 80% of Hsa21 perturb megakaryopoiesis but are insufficient to induce leukemia.

  20. Endogenous glucocorticoids attenuate Shiga toxin-2-induced toxicity in a mouse model of haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gómez, S A; Fernández, G C; Vanzulli, S; Dran, G; Rubel, C; Berki, T; Isturiz, M A; Palermo, M S

    2003-02-01

    The concept that during an immune challenge the release of glucocorticoids (GC) provides feedback inhibition on evolving immune responses has been drawn primarily from studies of autoimmune and/or inflammatory processes in animal models. The epidemic form of haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) occurs secondary to infection with Gram-negative bacteria that produce Shiga toxin (Stx). Although Stx binding to the specific receptors present on renal tissue is the primary pathogenic mechanism, inflammatory or immune interactions are necessary for the development of the complete form of HUS. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of endogenous GC on Stx-toxicity in a mouse model. Stx2 was injected into GC-deprived mice and survival rate, renal damage and serum urea levels were evaluated. Plasma corticosterone and cytosolic GC receptor (GR) concentration were also determined at multiple intervals post-Stx2 treatment. Higher sensitivity to Stx2 was observed in mice lacking endogenous GC, evidenced by an increase in mortality rates, circulating urea levels and renal histological damage. Moreover, Stx2 injection was associated with a transient but significant rise in corticosterone secretion. Interestingly, 24 h after Stx inoculation significant increases in total GR were detected in circulating neutrophils. These results indicate that interactions between the neuroendocrine and immune systems can modulate the level of damage significantly during a bacterial infection.

  1. Reduced seizure threshold and altered network oscillatory properties in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    McLeod, F; Ganley, R; Williams, L; Selfridge, J; Bird, A; Cobb, S R

    2013-02-12

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a disorder with a pronounced neurological phenotype and is caused mainly by mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2. A common feature of RTT is an abnormal electroencephalography and a propensity for seizures. In the current study we aimed to assess brain network excitability and seizure propensity in a mouse model of RTT. Mice in which Mecp2 expression was silenced (Mecp2(stop/y)) showed a higher seizure score (mean=6 ± 0.8 compared to 4±0.2 in wild-type [WT]) and more rapid seizure onset (median onset=10 min in Mecp2(stop/y) and 32 min in WT) when challenged with the convulsant drug kainic acid (25mg/kg). Hippocampal slices from Mecp2(stop/y) brain displayed no spontaneous field potential activities under control conditions but showed higher power gamma frequency field potential oscillations compared to WT in response to kainic acid (400 nM) in vitro. Brain slices challenged with the GABA(A)-receptor antagonist bicuculline (0.1-10 μM) and the potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (1-50 μM) also revealed differences between genotypes with hippocampal circuits from Mecp2(stop/y) mouse slices showing enhanced epileptiform burst duration and frequency. In contrast to these network level findings, single cell analysis of pyramidal cells by whole-cell patch clamp recording revealed no detectable differences in synaptic or biophysical properties between methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)-containing and MeCP2-deficient neurons. These data support the proposal that loss of MeCP2 alters network level excitability in the brain to promote epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Widespread cerebellar transcriptome changes in Ts65Dn Down syndrome mouse model after lifelong running.

    PubMed

    Walus, Marius; Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2016-01-01

    Our previous study showed an improvement in locomotor deficits after voluntary lifelong running in Ts65Dn mice, an animal model for Down syndrome (DS). In the present study, we employed mouse microarrays printed with 55,681 probes in an attempt to identify molecular changes in the cerebellar transcriptome that might contribute to the observed behavioral benefits of voluntary long-term running in Ts65Dn mice. Euploid mice were processed in parallel for comparative purposes in some analyses. We found that running significantly changed the expression of 4,315 genes in the cerebellum of Ts65Dn mice, over five times more than in euploid animals, up-regulating 1,991 and down-regulating 2,324 genes. Functional analysis of these genes revealed a significant enrichment of 92 terms in the biological process category, including regulation of biosynthesis and metabolism, protein modification, phosphate metabolism, synaptic transmission, development, regulation of cell death/apoptosis, protein transport, development, neurogenesis and neuron differentiation. The KEGG pathway database identified 18 pathways that are up-regulated and two that are down-regulated by running that were associated with learning, memory, cell signaling, proteolysis, regeneration, cell cycle, proliferation, growth, migration, and survival. Of six mRNA protein products we tested by immunoblotting, four showed significant running-associated changes in their levels, the most prominent in glutaminergic receptor metabotropic 1, and two showed changes that were close to significant. Thus, unexpectedly, our data point to the high molecular plasticity of Ts65Dn mouse cerebellum, which translated into humans with DS, suggests that the motor deficits of individuals with DS could markedly benefit from prolonged exercise.

  3. Modeling a model: Mouse genetics, 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, and disorders of cortical circuit development

    PubMed Central

    Meechan, Daniel W.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fernandez, Alejandra; Karpinski, Beverly A.; Rothblat, Lawrence A.; LaMantia, Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the developmental etiology of autistic spectrum disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia remains a major challenge for establishing new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to these common, difficult-to-treat diseases that compromise neural circuits in the cerebral cortex. One aspect of this challenge is the breadth and overlap of ASD, ADHD, and SCZ deficits; another is the complexity of mutations associated with each, and a third is the difficulty of analyzing disrupted development in at-risk or affected human fetuses. The identification of distinct genetic syndromes that include behavioral deficits similar to those in ASD, ADHC and SCZ provides a critical starting point for meeting this challenge. We summarize clinical and behavioral impairments in children and adults with one such genetic syndrome, the 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome, routinely called 22q11DS, caused by micro-deletions of between 1.5 and 3.0 MB on human chromosome 22. Among many syndromic features, including cardiovascular and craniofacial anomalies, 22q11DS patients have a high incidence of brain structural, functional, and behavioral deficits that reflect cerebral cortical dysfunction and fall within the spectrum that defines ASD, ADHD, and SCZ. We show that developmental pathogenesis underlying this apparent genetic “model” syndrome in patients can be defined and analyzed mechanistically using genomically accurate mouse models of the deletion that causes 22q11DS. We conclude that “modeling a model”, in this case 22q11DS as a model for idiopathic ASD, ADHD and SCZ, as well as other behavioral disorders like anxiety frequently seen in 22q11DS patients, in genetically engineered mice provides a foundation for understanding the causes and improving diagnosis and therapy for these disorders of cortical circuit development. PMID:25866365

  4. Assessing the Cognitive Translational Potential of a Mouse Model of the 22q11.2 Microdeletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nilsson, Simon RO.; Fejgin, Kim; Gastambide, Francois; Vogt, Miriam A.; Kent, Brianne A.; Nielsen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Jacob; Gass, Peter; Robbins, Trevor W.; Saksida, Lisa M.; Stensbøl, Tine B.; Tricklebank, Mark D.; Didriksen, Michael; Bussey, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    A chromosomal microdeletion at the 22q11.2 locus is associated with extensive cognitive impairments, schizophrenia and other psychopathology in humans. Previous reports indicate that mouse models of the 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may model the genetic basis of cognitive deficits relevant for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. To assess the models usefulness for drug discovery, a novel mouse (Df(h22q11)/+) was assessed in an extensive battery of cognitive assays by partners within the NEWMEDS collaboration (Innovative Medicines Initiative Grant Agreement No. 115008). This battery included classic and touchscreen-based paradigms with recognized sensitivity and multiple attempts at reproducing previously published findings in 22q11.2DS mouse models. This work represents one of the most comprehensive reports of cognitive functioning in a transgenic animal model. In accordance with previous reports, there were non-significant trends or marginal impairment in some tasks. However, the Df(h22q11)/+ mouse did not show comprehensive deficits; no robust impairment was observed following more than 17 experiments and 14 behavioral paradigms. Thus – within the current protocols – the 22q11.2DS mouse model fails to mimic the cognitive alterations observed in human 22q11.2 deletion carriers. We suggest that the 22q11.2DS model may induce liability for cognitive dysfunction with additional “hits” being required for phenotypic expression. PMID:27507786

  5. Postnatal growth restriction and gene expression changes in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaminen-Ahola, Nina; Ahola, Arttu; Flatscher-Bader, Traute; Wilkins, Sarah J; Anderson, Greg J; Whitelaw, Emma; Chong, Suyinn

    2010-10-01

    Growth restriction, craniofacial dysmorphology, and central nervous system defects are the main diagnostic features of fetal alcohol syndrome. Studies in humans and mice have reported that the growth restriction can be prenatal or postnatal, but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.We recently described a mouse model of moderate gestational ethanol exposure that produces measurable phenotypes in line with fetal alcohol syndrome (e.g., craniofacial changes and growth restriction in adolescent mice). In this study, we characterize in detail the growth restriction phenotype by measuring body weight at gestational day 16.5, cross-fostering from birth to weaning, and by extending our observations into adulthood. Furthermore, in an attempt to unravel the molecular events contributing to the growth phenotype, we have compared gene expression patterns in the liver and kidney of nonfostered, ethanol-exposed and control mice at postnatal day 28.We find that the ethanol-induced growth phenotype is not detectable prior to birth, but is present at weaning, even in mice that have been cross-fostered to unexposed dams. This finding suggests a postnatal growth restriction phenotype that is not due to deficient postpartum care by dams that drank ethanol, but rather a physiologic result of ethanol exposure in utero. We also find that, despite some catch-up growth after 5 weeks of age, the effect extends into adulthood, which is consistent with longitudinal studies in humans.Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed interesting ethanol-induced changes in the liver, including genes involved in the metabolism of exogenous and endogenous compounds, iron homeostasis, and lipid metabolism.

  6. Increased Skin Tumor Incidence and Keratinocyte Hyper-Proliferation in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Annan; Currier, Duane; Poitras, Jennifer L.; Reeves, Roger H.

    2016-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). People with DS display multiple clinical traits as a result of the dosage imbalance of several hundred genes. While many outcomes of trisomy are deleterious, epidemiological studies have shown a significant risk reduction for most solid tumors in DS. Reduced tumor incidence has also been demonstrated in functional studies using trisomic DS mouse models. Therefore, it was interesting to find that Ts1Rhr trisomic mice developed more papillomas than did their euploid littermates in a DMBA-TPA chemical carcinogenesis paradigm. Papillomas in Ts1Rhr mice also proliferated faster. The increased proliferation was likely caused by a stronger response of trisomy to TPA induction. Treatment with TPA caused hyperkeratosis to a greater degree in Ts1Rhr mice than in euploid, reminiscent of hyperkeratosis seen in people with DS. Cultured trisomic keratinocytes also showed increased TPA-induced proliferation compared to euploid controls. These outcomes suggest that altered gene expression in trisomy could elevate a proliferation signalling pathway. Gene expression analysis of cultured keratinocytes revealed upregulation of several trisomic and disomic genes may contribute to this hyperproliferation. The contributions of these genes to hyper-proliferation were further validated in a siRNA knockdown experiment. The unexpected findings reported here add a new aspect to our understanding of tumorigenesis with clinical implications for DS and demonstrates the complexity of the tumor repression phenotype in this frequent condition. PMID:26752700

  7. NMR Metabolomics Show Evidence for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Selen, Ebru Selin; Bolandnazar, Zeinab; Tonelli, Marco; Bütz, Daniel E; Haviland, Julia A; Porter, Warren P; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M

    2015-08-07

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic and endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. The etiology of PCOS is still unknown. Mice prenatally treated with glucocorticoids exhibit metabolic disturbances that are similar to those seen in women with PCOS. We used an untargeted nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach to understand the metabolic changes occurring in the plasma and kidney over time in female glucocorticoid-treated (GC-treated) mice. There are significant changes in plasma amino acid levels (valine, tyrosine, and proline) and their intermediates (2-hydroxybutyrate, 4-aminobutyrate, and taurine), whereas in kidneys, the TCA cycle metabolism (citrate, fumarate, and succinate) and the pentose phosphate (PP) pathway products (inosine and uracil) are significantly altered (p < 0.05) from 8 to 16 weeks of age. Levels of NADH, NAD(+), NAD(+)/NADH, and NADH redox in kidneys indicate increased mitochondrial oxidative stress from 8 to 16 weeks in GC-treated mice. These results indicate that altered metabolic substrates in the plasma and kidneys of treated mice are associated with altered amino acid metabolism, increased cytoplasmic PP, and increased mitochondrial activity, leading to a more oxidized state. This study identifies biomarkers associated with metabolic dysfunction in kidney mitochondria of a prenatal gluococorticoid-treated mouse model of PCOS that may be used as early predictive biomarkers of oxidative stress in the PCOS metabolic disorder in women.

  8. Age exacerbates abnormal protein expression in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Mahiuddin; Block, Aaron; Tong, Suhong; Davisson, Muriel T; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2017-09-01

    The Ts65Dn is a popular mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). It displays DS-relevant features of learning/memory deficits and age-related loss of functional markers in basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Here we describe protein expression abnormalities in brain regions of 12-month-old male Ts65Dn mice. We show that the magnitudes of abnormalities of human chromosome 21 and non-human chromosome 21 orthologous proteins are greater at 12 months than at ∼6 months. Age-related exacerbations involve the number of components affected in the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway, the levels of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease. Among brain regions, the number of abnormalities in cerebellum decreased while the number in cortex greatly increased with age. The Ts65Dn is being used in preclinical evaluations of drugs for cognition in DS. Most commonly, drug evaluations are tested in ∼4- to 6-month-old mice. Data on age-related changes in magnitude and specificity of protein perturbations can be used to understand the molecular basis of changes in cognitive ability and to predict potential age-related specificities in drug efficacies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vascular Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome and Effects of Curcumin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Panighini, Anna; Duranti, Emiliano; Santini, Ferruccio; Maffei, Margherita; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Funel, Niccola; Taddei, Stefano; Bernardini, Nunzia; Ippolito, Chiara; Virdis, Agostino; Costa, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the coding sequence of the X-linked gene MeCP2 (Methyl CpG–binding protein) are present in around 80% of patients with Rett Syndrome, a common cause of intellectual disability in female and to date without any effective pharmacological treatment. A relevant, and so far unexplored feature of RTT patients, is a marked reduction in peripheral circulation. To investigate the relationship between loss of MeCP2 and this clinical aspect, we used the MeCP2 null mouse model B6.129SF1-MeCP2tm1Jae for functional and pharmacological studies. Functional experiments were performed on isolated resistance mesenteric vessels, mounted on a pressurized myograph. Vessels from female MeCP2+/− mice show a reduced endothelium-dependent relaxation, due to a reduced Nitric Oxide (NO) availability secondary to an increased Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) generation. Such functional aspects are associated with an intravascular increase in superoxide anion production, and a decreased vascular eNOS expression. These alterations are reversed by curcumin administration (5% (w/w) dietary curcumin for 21 days), which restores endothelial NO availability, decreases intravascular ROS production and normalizes vascular eNOS gene expression. In conclusion our findings highlight alterations in the vascular/endothelial system in the absence of a correct function of MeCP2, and uncover related cellular/molecular mechanisms that are rescued by an anti-oxidant treatment. PMID:23705018

  10. Dysfunctional hippocampal inhibition in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Best, Tyler K.; Cramer, Nathan P.; Chakrabarti, Lina; Haydar, Tarik F.; Galdzicki, Zygmunt

    2013-01-01

    GABAergic dysfunction is implicated in hippocampal deficits of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). Since Ts65Dn mice overexpress G-protein coupled inward-rectifying potassium (GIRK2) containing channels, we sought to evaluate whether increased GABAergic function disrupts the functioning of hippocampal circuitry. After confirming that GABAB/GIRK current density is significantly elevated in Ts65Dn CA1 pyramidal neurons, we compared monosynaptic inhibitory inputs in CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to proximal (stratum radiatum; SR) and distal (stratum lacunosum moleculare; SLM) stimulation of diploid and Ts65Dn acute hippocampal slices. Synaptic GABAB and GABAA mediated currents evoked by SR stimulation were generally unaffected in Ts65Dn CA1 neurons. However, the GABAB/GABAA ratios evoked by stimulation within the SLM of Ts65Dn hippocampus were significantly larger in magnitude, consistent with increased GABAB/GIRK currents after SLM stimulation. These results indicate that GIRK overexpression in Ts65Dn has functional consequences which affect the balance between GABAB and GABAA inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons, most likely in a pathway specific manner, and may contribute to cognitive deficits reported in these mice. PMID:22178330

  11. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. © 2015 Medical Research Council. Genes, Brain and Behavior published by International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Meiotic behavior of aneuploid chromatin in mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reinholdt, Laura G; Czechanski, Anne; Kamdar, Sonya; King, Benjamin L; Sun, Fengyun; Handel, Mary Ann

    2009-12-01

    Aneuploidy, which leads to unpaired chromosomal axes during meiosis, is frequently accompanied by infertility. We previously showed, using three mouse models of Down syndrome, that it is an extra chromosome, but not extra gene dose, that is associated with male infertility and virtual absence of post-meiotic gem cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that aneuploid segments are differentially modified and expressed during meiosis, depending on whether they are present as an extra chromosome or not. In all three models examined, the trisomic region lacks a pairing partner, but in one case, spermatocytes have an extra (and unpaired) chromosome, while the two other models involve translocation of the trisomic region rather than an extra chromosome. An extra unpaired chromosome was always modified by phosphorylation of histone H2AX and lacked RNA PolII. But in the case of trisomic regions attached to a paired chromosome, assembly of these protein modifications was affected by the position of a trisomic region relative to a centromere and the physical extent of the unpaired chromatin. Analysis of gene expression in testes revealed that extra copy number alone was not sufficient for meiotic upregulation of genes in the trisomic interval. Additionally and unexpectedly, presence of meiotic gene silencing chromatin modifications was not sufficient for downregulation of genes in unpaired trisomic chromatin. Thus, the meiotic chromatin modifications that are cytologically visible are unlikely to be directly involved in sterility versus fertility of DS models. Finally, the presence of an extra unpaired chromosome, but not the presence of extra (trisomic) genes, caused global deregulation of transcription in spermatocytes. These results reveal mechanisms by which an extra chromosome, but not trisomic gene dose, impact on meiotic progress and infertility.

  13. Development of a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome, Pulmonary Hypertension, and Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qingqing; Lai, Yen-Chun; Kelly, Neil J; Bueno, Marta; Baust, Jeffrey J; Bachman, Timothy N; Goncharov, Dmitry; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Radder, Josiah E; Hu, Jian; Goncharova, Elena; Morris, Alison M; Mora, Ana L; Shapiro, Steven D; Gladwin, Mark T

    2017-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF; World Health Organization Group II) secondary to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is the most frequent cause of PH. It is an increasingly recognized clinical complication of the metabolic syndrome. To date, no effective treatment has been identified, and no genetically modifiable mouse model is available for advancing our understanding for PH-HFpEF. To develop a mouse model of PH-HFpEF, we exposed 36 mouse strains to 20 weeks of high-fat diet (HFD), followed by systematic evaluation of right ventricular (RV) and LV pressure-volume analysis. The HFD induces obesity, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, as well as PH, in susceptible strains. We observed that certain mouse strains, such as AKR/J, NON/shiLtJ, and WSB/EiJ, developed hemodynamic signs of PH-HFpEF. Of the strains that develop PH-HFpEF, we selected AKR/J for further model validation, as it is known to be prone to HFD-induced metabolic syndrome and had low variability in hemodynamics. HFD-treated AKR/J mice demonstrate reproducibly higher RV systolic pressure compared with mice fed with regular diet, along with increased LV end-diastolic pressure, both RV and LV hypertrophy, glucose intolerance, and elevated HbA1c levels. Time course assessments showed that HFD significantly increased body weight, RV systolic pressure, LV end-diastolic pressure, biventricular hypertrophy, and HbA1c throughout the treatment period. Moreover, we also identified and validated 129S1/SvlmJ as a resistant mouse strain to HFD-induced PH-HFpEF. These studies validate an HFD/AKR/J mouse model of PH-HFpEF, which may offer a new avenue for testing potential mechanisms and treatments for this disease.

  14. Transmission of trisomy decreases with maternal age in mouse models of Down syndrome, mirroring a phenomenon in human Down syndrome mothers.

    PubMed

    Stern, Shani; Biron, David; Moses, Elisha

    2016-07-11

    Down syndrome incidence in humans increases dramatically with maternal age. This is mainly the result of increased meiotic errors, but factors such as differences in abortion rate may play a role as well. Since the meiotic error rate increases almost exponentially after a certain age, its contribution to the overall incidence aneuploidy may mask the contribution of other processes. To focus on such selection mechanisms we investigated transmission in trisomic females, using data from mouse models and from Down syndrome humans. In trisomic females the a-priori probability for trisomy is independent of meiotic errors and thus approximately constant in the early embryo. Despite this, the rate of transmission of the extra chromosome decreases with age in females of the Ts65Dn and, as we show, for the Tc1 mouse models for Down syndrome. Evaluating progeny of 73 Tc1 births and 112 Ts65Dn births from females aged 130 days to 250 days old showed that both models exhibit a 3-fold reduction of the probability to transmit the trisomy with increased maternal ageing. This is concurrent with a 2-fold reduction of litter size with maternal ageing. Furthermore, analysis of previously reported 30 births in Down syndrome women shows a similar tendency with an almost three fold reduction in the probability to have a Down syndrome child between a 20 and 30 years old Down syndrome woman. In the two types of mice models for Down syndrome that were used for this study, and in human Down syndrome, older females have significantly lower probability to transmit the trisomy to the offspring. Our findings, taken together with previous reports of decreased supportive environment of the older uterus, add support to the notion that an older uterus negatively selects the less fit trisomic embryos.

  15. Working memory in the aged Ts65Dn mouse, a model for Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Katharine N; Wenger, Galen R

    2012-06-15

    The Ts65Dn mouse displays several phenotypic abnormalities that parallel characteristics found in Down syndrome. One important characteristic associated with Down syndrome is an increased incidence of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Since Alzheimer's disease is characterized largely by progressive memory loss, it is of interest to study working memory in the Ts65Dn mouse. Previous research in our lab using a titrating, delayed matching-to-position schedule of reinforcement has demonstrated that young, adult male Ts65Dn mice do not display a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched littermate controls. However, there have been no studies examining the working memory of these mice as they age. Due to the correlation between Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease, and as part of a larger effort to further characterize the phenotype of the Ts65Dn mouse, the purpose of this study was to determine whether aged Ts65Dn mice possess a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched littermate controls. In order to study working memory, two groups of mice were trained under a titrating, delayed matching-to-position schedule of reinforcement. The first group was trained beginning at 3 months of age, and the second group began training at 15 months of age. Both groups were studied to 24 months of age. Initially, both groups of Ts65Dn mice performed at a lower level of accuracy than the control mice; however, this difference disappeared with further practice. The results from these lifespan studies indicate that the aged Ts65Dn mouse does not possess a working memory deficit when compared to age-matched controls.

  16. Impairments in motor coordination without major changes in cerebellar plasticity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Galante, Micaela; Jani, Harsha; Vanes, Lesley; Daniel, Hervé; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Bliss, Timothy V P; Morice, Elise

    2009-04-15

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty et al. [An aneuploid mouse strain carrying human chromosome 21 with Down syndrome phenotypes. Science 309 (2005) 2033-2037] generated a trans-species aneuploid mouse line (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete animal model for DS currently available. Tc1 mice show many features that relate to human DS, including alterations in memory, synaptic plasticity, cerebellar neuronal number, heart development and mandible size. Because motor deficits are one of the most frequently occurring features of DS, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of motor behaviour in cerebellum-dependent learning tasks that require high motor coordination and balance. In addition, basic electrophysiological properties of cerebellar circuitry and synaptic plasticity have been investigated. Our results reveal that, compared with controls, Tc1 mice exhibit a higher spontaneous locomotor activity, a reduced ability to habituate to their environments, a different gait and major deficits on several measures of motor coordination and balance in the rota rod and static rod tests. Moreover, cerebellar long-term depression is essentially normal in Tc1 mice, with only a slight difference in time course. Our observations provide further evidence that support the validity of the Tc1 mouse as a model for DS, which will help us to provide insights into the causal factors responsible for motor deficits observed in persons with DS.

  17. Ciliopathy is differentially distributed in the brain of a Bardet-Biedl syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Agassandian, Khristofor; Patel, Milan; Agassandian, Marianna; Steren, Karina E; Rahmouni, Kamal; Sheffield, Val C; Card, J Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is a genetically heterogeneous inherited human disorder displaying a pleotropic phenotype. Many of the symptoms characterized in the human disease have been reproduced in animal models carrying deletions or knock-in mutations of genes causal for the disorder. Thinning of the cerebral cortex, enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles, and structural changes in cilia are among the pathologies documented in these animal models. Ciliopathy is of particular interest in light of recent studies that have implicated primary neuronal cilia (PNC) in neuronal signal transduction. In the present investigation, we tested the hypothesis that areas of the brain responsible for learning and memory formation would differentially exhibit PNC abnormalities in animals carrying a deletion of the Bbs4 gene (Bbs4-/-). Immunohistochemical localization of adenylyl cyclase-III (ACIII), a marker restricted to PNC, revealed dramatic alterations in PNC morphology and a statistically significant reduction in number of immunopositive cilia in the hippocampus and amygdala of Bbs4-/- mice compared to wild type (WT) littermates. Western blot analysis confirmed the decrease of ACIII levels in the hippocampus and amygdala of Bbs4-/- mice, and electron microscopy demonstrated pathological alterations of PNC in the hippocampus and amygdala. Importantly, no neuronal loss was found within the subregions of amygdala and hippocampus sampled in Bbs4-/- mice and there were no statistically significant alterations of ACIII immunopositive cilia in other areas of the brain not known to contribute to the BBS phenotype. Considered with data documenting a role of cilia in signal transduction these findings support the conclusion that alterations in cilia structure or neurochemical phenotypes may contribute to the cognitive deficits observed in the Bbs4-/- mouse mode.

  18. Acute Radiation Syndrome Severity Score System in Mouse Total-Body Irradiation Model.

    PubMed

    Ossetrova, Natalia I; Ney, Patrick H; Condliffe, Donald P; Krasnopolsky, Katya; Hieber, Kevin P

    2016-08-01

    Radiation accidents or terrorist attacks can result in serious consequences for the civilian population and for military personnel responding to such emergencies. The early medical management situation requires quantitative indications for early initiation of cytokine therapy in individuals exposed to life-threatening radiation doses and effective triage tools for first responders in mass-casualty radiological incidents. Previously established animal (Mus musculus, Macaca mulatta) total-body irradiation (γ-exposure) models have evaluated a panel of radiation-responsive proteins that, together with peripheral blood cell counts, create a multiparametic dose-predictive algorithm with a threshold for detection of ~1 Gy from 1 to 7 d after exposure as well as demonstrate the acute radiation syndrome severity score systems created similar to the Medical Treatment Protocols for Radiation Accident Victims developed by Fliedner and colleagues. The authors present a further demonstration of the acute radiation sickness severity score system in a mouse (CD2F1, males) TBI model (1-14 Gy, Co γ-rays at 0.6 Gy min) based on multiple biodosimetric endpoints. This includes the acute radiation sickness severity Observational Grading System, survival rate, weight changes, temperature, peripheral blood cell counts and radiation-responsive protein expression profile: Flt-3 ligand, interleukin 6, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, thrombopoietin, erythropoietin, and serum amyloid A. Results show that use of the multiple-parameter severity score system facilitates identification of animals requiring enhanced monitoring after irradiation and that proteomics are a complementary approach to conventional biodosimetry for early assessment of radiation exposure, enhancing accuracy and discrimination index for acute radiation sickness response categories and early prediction of outcome.

  19. A Noradrenergic Lesion Exacerbates Neurodegeneration in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Lockrow, Jason; Boger, Heather; Gerhardt, Greg; Aston-Jones, Gary; Bachman, David; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) acquire Alzheimer’s-like dementia (AD) and associated neuropathology earlier and at significantly greater rates than age-matched normosomic individuals. However, biological mechanisms have not been discovered and there is currently limited therapy for either DS- or AD-related dementia. Segmental trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) mice provide a useful model for many of the degenerative changes which occur with age in DS including cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons. Loss of noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) neurons is an early event in AD and in DS, and may contribute to the neuropathology. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit progressive loss of norepinephrine (NE) phenotype in LC neurons. In order to determine whether LC degeneration contributes to memory loss and neurodegeneration in Ts65Dn mice, we administered the noradrenergic neurotoxin N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4; 2 doses of 50 mg/kg, i.p.) to Ts65Dn mice at four months of age, prior to working memory loss. At eight months of age, Ts65Dn mice treated with DSP-4 exhibited an 80% reduction in hippocampal NE, coupled with a marked increase in hippocampal neuroinflammation. Noradrenergic depletion also resulted in accelerated cholinergic neuron degeneration and a further impairment of memory function in Ts65Dn mice. In contrast, DSP-4 had minimal effects on normosomic littermates, suggesting a disease-modulated vulnerability to NE loss in the DS mouse model. These data suggest that noradrenergic degeneration may play a role in the progressive memory loss, neuroinflammation, and cholinergic loss occurring in DS individuals, providing a possible therapeutic avenue for future clinical studies. PMID:21098982

  20. Acetyl-L-carnitine improves behavior and dendritic morphology in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Nicolai, Raffaella; Lopez, Carla M; D'Iddio, Stefania; Iannoni, Emerenziana; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E

    2012-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting 1 in 10,000 girls. Approximately 90% of cases are caused by spontaneous mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Girls with RTT suffer from severe motor, respiratory, cognitive and social abnormalities attributed to early deficits in synaptic connectivity which manifest in the adult as a myriad of physiological and anatomical abnormalities including, but not limited to, dimished dendritic complexity. Supplementation with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), an acetyl group donor, ameliorates motor and cognitive deficits in other disease models through a variety of mechanisms including altering patterns of histone acetylation resulting in changes in gene expression, and stimulating biosynthetic pathways such as acetylcholine. We hypothesized ALC treatment during critical periods in cortical development would promote normal synaptic maturation, and continuing treatment would improve behavioral deficits in the Mecp2(1lox) mouse model of RTT. In this study, wildtype and Mecp2(1lox) mutant mice received daily injections of ALC from birth until death (postnatal day 47). General health, motor, respiratory, and cognitive functions were assessed at several time points during symptom progression. ALC improved weight gain, grip strength, activity levels, prevented metabolic abnormalities and modestly improved cognitive function in Mecp2 null mice early in the course of treatment, but did not significantly improve motor or cognitive functions assessed later in life. ALC treatment from birth was associated with an almost complete rescue of hippocampal dendritic morphology abnormalities with no discernable side effects in the mutant mice. Therefore, ALC appears to be a promising therapeutic approach to treating early RTT symptoms and may be useful in combination with other therapies.

  1. Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Nicola J. A.; Ellmers, Leigh J.; Pilbrow, Anna P.; Thomsen, Lotte; Richards, Arthur Mark; Frampton, Chris M.; Cameron, Vicky A.

    2017-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males and females). Compared to standard diet, walnuts did not significantly alter food consumption or body weight trajectory of either MetS-Tg or WT mice. In MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were associated with reductions in oral glucose area under the curve (gAUC, standard diet 1455 ± 54, walnut 1146 ± 91, p = 0.006) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, standard diet 100.6 ± 1.9, walnut 73.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001), with neutral effects on gAUC and MAP in WT mice. However, in MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were also associated with trends for higher plasma cholesterol (standard diet 4.73 ± 0.18, walnut 7.03 ± 1.99 mmol/L, p = 0.140) and triglyceride levels (standard diet 2.4 ± 0.5, walnut 5.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, p = 0.061), despite lowering cholesterol and having no effect on triglycerides in WT mice. Moreover, in both MetS-Tg and WT mice, walnuts were associated with significantly increased liver expression of genes associated with metabolism (Fabp1, Insr), cell stress (Atf6, Ddit3, Eif2ak3), fibrosis (Hgf, Sp1, Timp1) and inflammation (Tnf, Ptpn22, Pparg). In conclusion, dietary walnuts were associated with modest favourable effects in WT mice, but a combination of beneficial and adverse effects in MetS-Tg mice, and up-regulation of hepatic pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes in both mouse strains. PMID:28686204

  2. Metabolic and Blood Pressure Effects of Walnut Supplementation in a Mouse Model of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicola J A; Ellmers, Leigh J; Pilbrow, Anna P; Thomsen, Lotte; Richards, Arthur Mark; Frampton, Chris M; Cameron, Vicky A

    2017-07-07

    There is extensive evidence that walnut consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease and diabetes in the healthy population, but the beneficial effects of walnut consumption in individuals with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) remain uncertain. We compared a range of cardio-metabolic traits and related tissue gene expression associated with 21 weeks of dietary walnut supplementation in a mouse model of MetS (MetS-Tg) and wild-type (WT) mice (n = 10 per genotype per diet, equal males and females). Compared to standard diet, walnuts did not significantly alter food consumption or body weight trajectory of either MetS-Tg or WT mice. In MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were associated with reductions in oral glucose area under the curve (gAUC, standard diet 1455 ± 54, walnut 1146 ± 91, p = 0.006) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, standard diet 100.6 ± 1.9, walnut 73.2 ± 1.8 mmHg, p < 0.001), with neutral effects on gAUC and MAP in WT mice. However, in MetS-Tg mice, walnuts were also associated with trends for higher plasma cholesterol (standard diet 4.73 ± 0.18, walnut 7.03 ± 1.99 mmol/L, p = 0.140) and triglyceride levels (standard diet 2.4 ± 0.5, walnut 5.4 ± 1.6 mmol/L, p = 0.061), despite lowering cholesterol and having no effect on triglycerides in WT mice. Moreover, in both MetS-Tg and WT mice, walnuts were associated with significantly increased liver expression of genes associated with metabolism (Fabp1, Insr), cell stress (Atf6, Ddit3, Eif2ak3), fibrosis (Hgf, Sp1, Timp1) and inflammation (Tnf, Ptpn22, Pparg). In conclusion, dietary walnuts were associated with modest favourable effects in WT mice, but a combination of beneficial and adverse effects in MetS-Tg mice, and up-regulation of hepatic pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory genes in both mouse strains.

  3. Behavioral and Genetic Dissection of a Mouse Model for Advanced Sleep Phase Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Striz, Martin; Wisor, Jonathan P.; O'Hara, Bruce F.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective: The adaptive value of the endogenous circadian clock arises from its ability to synchronize (i.e., entrain) to external light-dark (LD) cycles at an appropriate phase. Studies have suggested that advanced circadian phase alignment might result from shortening of the period length of the clock. Here we explore mechanisms that contribute to an early activity phase in CAST/EiJ (CAST) mice. Methods: We investigated circadian rhythms of wheel-running activity in C57BL/6J (B6), CAST and 2 strains of B6.CAST congenic mice, which carry CAST segments introgressed in a B6 genome. Results: When entrained, all CAST mice initiate daily activity several hours earlier than normal mice. This difference could not be explained by alterations in the endogenous period, as activity onset did not correlate with period length. However, the photic phase-shifting responses in these mice were phase-lagged by 3 hours relative to their activity. Attenuated light masking responses were also found in CAST mice, which allow for activity normally inhibited by light. A previously identified quantitative trait locus (QTL), Era1, which contributes to the early activity trait, was confirmed and refined here using two B6.CAST congenic strains. Surprisingly, these B6.CAST mice exhibited longer rather than shorter endogenous periods, further demonstrating that the advanced phase in these mice is not due to alterations in period. Conclusions: CAST mice have an advanced activity phase similar to human advanced sleep phase syndrome. This advanced phase is not due to its shorter period length or smaller light-induced phase shifts, but appears to be related to both light masking and altered coupling of the circadian pacemaker with various outputs. Lastly, a QTL influencing this trait was confirmed and narrowed using congenic mice as a first step toward gene identification. Citation: Jiang P; Striz M; Wisor JP; O'Hara BF. Behavioral and genetic dissection of a mouse model for advanced sleep

  4. Sleep Impairment and Reduced Interneuron Excitability in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalume, Franck; Oakley, John C.; Westenbroek, Ruth E.; Gile, Jennifer; de la Iglesia, Horacio O.; Scheuer, Todd; Catterall, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Dravet Syndrome (DS) is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Our genetic mouse model of DS recapitulates its severe seizures and premature death. Sleep disturbance is common in DS, but its mechanism is unknown. Electroencephalographic studies revealed abnormal sleep in DS mice, including reduced delta wave power, reduced sleep spindles, increased brief wakes, and numerous interictal spikes in Non-Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep. Theta power was reduced in Rapid-Eye-Movement sleep. Mice with NaV1.1 deleted specifically in forebrain interneurons exhibited similar sleep pathology to DS mice, but without changes in circadian rhythm. Sleep architecture depends on oscillatory activity in the thalamocortical network generated by excitatory neurons in the ventrobasal nucleus (VBN) of the thalamus and inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the reticular nucleus of the thalamus (RNT). Whole-cell NaV current was reduced in GABAergic RNT neurons but not in VBN neurons. Rebound firing of action potentials following hyperpolarization, the signature firing pattern of RNT neurons during sleep, was also reduced. These results demonstrate imbalance of excitatory vs. inhibitory neurons in this circuit. As predicted from this functional impairment, we found substantial deficit in homeostatic rebound of slow wave activity following sleep deprivation. Although sleep disorders in epilepsies have been attributed to anti-epileptic drugs, our results show that sleep disorder in DS mice arises from loss of NaV1.1 channels in forebrain GABAergic interneurons without drug treatment. Impairment of NaV currents and excitability of GABAergic RNT neurons are correlated with impaired sleep quality and homeostasis in these mice. PMID:25766678

  5. Machine learning methods predict locomotor response to MK-801 in mouse models of down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cao D; Costa, Alberto C S; Cios, Krzysztof J; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2011-03-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (HSA21), is a common genetic cause of cognitive impairment. This disorder results from the overexpression of HSA21 genes and the resulting perturbations in many molecular pathways and cellular processes. Knowledge-based identification of targets for pharmacotherapies will require defining the most critical protein abnormalities among these many perturbations. Here the authors show that using the Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of DS, which are trisomic for 88 and 69 reference protein coding genes, respectively, a simple linear Naïve Bayes classifier successfully predicts behavioral outcome (level of locomotor activity) in response to treatment with the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist MK-801. Input to the Naïve Bayes method were simple protein profiles generated from cortex and output was locomotor activity binned into three levels: low, medium, and high. When Feature Selection was used with the Naïve Bayes method, levels of three HSA21 and two non-HSA21 protein features were identified as making the most significant contributions to activity level. Using these five features, accuracies of up to 88% in prediction of locomotor activity were achieved. These predictions depend not only on genotype-specific differences but also on within-genotype individual variation in levels of molecular and behavioral parameters. With judicious choice of pathways and components, a similar approach may be useful in analysis of more complex behaviors, including those associated with learning and memory, and may facilitate identification of novel targets for pharmacotherapeutics.

  6. Characterization of Vestibular Dysfunction in the Mouse Model for Usher Syndrome 1F

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, John S.; Jones, Sherri M.; Pawlowski, Karen S.; Wright, Charles G.

    2005-01-01

    The deaf-circling Ames waltzer (av) mouse harbors a mutation in the protocadherin 15 (Pcdh15) gene and is a model for inner ear defects associated with Usher syndrome type 1F. Earlier studies showed altered cochlear hair cell morphology in young av mice. In contrast, no structural abnormality consistent with significant vestibular dysfunction in young av mice was observed. Light and scanning electron microscopic studies showed that vestibular hair cells from presumptive null alleles Pcdh15av-Tg and Pcdh15av-3J are morphologically similar to vestibular sensory cells from control littermates, suggesting that the observed phenotype in these alleles might be a result of a central, rather than peripheral, defect. In the present study, a combination of physiologic and anatomic methods was used to more thoroughly investigate the source of vestibular dysfunction in Ames waltzer mice. Analysis of vestibular evoked potentials and angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes revealed a lack of physiologic response to linear and angular acceleratory stimuli in Pcdh15 mutant mice. Optokinetic reflex function was diminished but still present in the mutant animals, suggesting that the defect is primarily peripheral in nature. These findings indicate that the mutation in Pcdh15 results in either a functional abnormality in the vestibular receptor organs or that the defects are limited to the vestibular nerve. AM1-43 dye uptake has been shown to correlate with normal transduction function in hair cells. Dye uptake was found to be dramatically reduced in Pcdh15 mutants compared to control littermates, suggesting that the mutation affects hair cell function, although structural abnormalities consistent with significant vestibular dysfunction are not apparent by light and scanning electron microscopy in the vestibular neuroepithelia of young animals. PMID:15952048

  7. Biomechanical properties of bone in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Bushra; Russell, David; Payne, Anthony; Constante, Diogo; Tanner, K. Elizabeth; Isaksson, Hanna; Mathavan, Neashan; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked genetic disorder and a major cause of intellectual disability in girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are the primary cause of the disorder. Despite the dominant neurological phenotypes, MECP2 is expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and a number of peripheral phenotypes such as scoliosis, reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fractures are also common and important clinical features of the disorder. In order to explore whether MeCP2 protein deficiency results in altered structural and functional properties of bone and to test the potential reversibility of any defects, we have conducted a series of histological, imaging and biomechanical tests of bone in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. Both hemizygous Mecp2stop/y male mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in all cells and female Mecp2stop/+ mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in ~ 50% of cells as a consequence of random X-chromosome inactivation, revealed significant reductions in cortical bone stiffness, microhardness and tensile modulus. Microstructural analysis also revealed alterations in both cortical and cancellous femoral bone between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Furthermore, unsilencing of Mecp2 in adult mice cre-mediated stop cassette deletion resulted in a restoration of biomechanical properties (stiffness, microhardness) towards wild-type levels. These results show that MeCP2-deficiency results in overt, but potentially reversible, alterations in the biomechanical integrity of bone and highlights the importance of targeting skeletal phenotypes in considering the development of pharmacological and gene-based therapies. PMID:25445449

  8. Biomechanical properties of bone in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Bushra; Russell, David; Payne, Anthony; Constante, Diogo; Tanner, K Elizabeth; Isaksson, Hanna; Mathavan, Neashan; Cobb, Stuart R

    2015-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked genetic disorder and a major cause of intellectual disability in girls. Mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene are the primary cause of the disorder. Despite the dominant neurological phenotypes, MECP2 is expressed ubiquitously throughout the body and a number of peripheral phenotypes such as scoliosis, reduced bone mineral density and skeletal fractures are also common and important clinical features of the disorder. In order to explore whether MeCP2 protein deficiency results in altered structural and functional properties of bone and to test the potential reversibility of any defects, we have conducted a series of histological, imaging and biomechanical tests of bone in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. Both hemizygous Mecp2(stop/y) male mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in all cells and female Mecp2(stop/+) mice in which Mecp2 is silenced in ~50% of cells as a consequence of random X-chromosome inactivation, revealed significant reductions in cortical bone stiffness, microhardness and tensile modulus. Microstructural analysis also revealed alterations in both cortical and cancellous femoral bone between wild-type and MeCP2-deficient mice. Furthermore, unsilencing of Mecp2 in adult mice cre-mediated stop cassette deletion resulted in a restoration of biomechanical properties (stiffness, microhardness) towards wild-type levels. These results show that MeCP2-deficiency results in overt, but potentially reversible, alterations in the biomechanical integrity of bone and highlights the importance of targeting skeletal phenotypes in considering the development of pharmacological and gene-based therapies.

  9. The disruption of central CO2 chemosensitivity in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Su, Junda; Cui, Ningren; Gai, Hongyu; Wu, Zhongying; Jiang, Chun

    2011-09-01

    People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have breathing instability in addition to other neuropathological manifestations. The breathing disturbances contribute to the high incidence of unexplained death and abnormal brain development. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the breathing abnormalities remain unclear. To test the hypothesis that the central CO(2) chemoreception in these people is disrupted, we studied the CO(2) chemosensitivity in a mouse model of RTT. The Mecp2-null mice showed a selective loss of their respiratory response to 1-3% CO(2) (mild hypercapnia), whereas they displayed more regular breathing in response to 6-9% CO(2) (severe hypercapnia). The defect was alleviated with the NE uptake blocker desipramine (10 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip, for 5-7 days). Consistent with the in vivo observations, in vitro studies in brain slices indicated that CO(2) chemosensitivity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons was impaired in Mecp2-null mice. Two major neuronal pH-sensitive Kir currents that resembled homomeric Kir4.1 and heteromeric Ki4.1/Kir5.1 channels were identified in the LC neurons. The screening of Kir channels with real-time PCR indicated the overexpression of Kir4.1 in the LC region of Mecp2-null mice. In a heterologous expression system, an overexpression of Kir4.1 resulted in a reduction in the pH sensitivity of the heteromeric Kir4.1-Kir5.1 channels. Given that Kir4.1 and Kir5.1 subunits are also expressed in brain stem respiration-related areas, the Kir4.1 overexpression may not allow CO(2) to be detected until hypercapnia becomes severe, leading to periodical hyper- and hypoventilation in Mecp2-null mice and, perhaps, in people with RTT as well.

  10. Behavioural and cognitive abnormalities in an imprinting centre deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Relkovic, Dinko; Doe, Christine M; Humby, Trevor; Johnstone, Karen A; Resnick, James L; Holland, Anthony J; Hagan, Jim J; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Isles, Anthony R

    2010-01-01

    The genes in the imprinted cluster on human chromosome 15q11-q13 are known to contribute to psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia and autism. Major disruptions of this interval leading to a lack of paternal allele expression give rise to Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a neurodevelopmental disorder with core symptoms of a failure to thrive in infancy and, on emergence from infancy, learning disabilities and over-eating. Individuals with PWS also display a number of behavioural problems and an increased incidence of neuropsychiatric abnormalities, which recent work indicates involve aspects of frontal dysfunction. To begin to examine the contribution of genes in this interval to relevant psychological and behavioural phenotypes, we exploited the imprinting centre (IC) deletion mouse model for PWS (PWS-IC(+/-)) and the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), which is primarily an assay of visuospatial attention and response control that is highly sensitive to frontal manipulations. Locomotor activity, open-field behaviour and sensorimotor gating were also assessed. PWS-IC(+/-) mice displayed reduced locomotor activity, increased acoustic startle responses and decreased prepulse inhibition of startle responses. In the 5-CSRTT, the PWS-IC(+/-) mice showed deficits in discriminative response accuracy, increased correct reaction times and increased omissions. Task manipulations confirmed that these differences were likely to be due to impaired attention. Our data recapitulate several aspects of the PWS clinical condition, including findings consistent with frontal abnormalities, and may indicate novel contributions of the imprinted genes found in 15q11-q13 to behavioural and cognitive function generally.

  11. Increased levels of inflammatory plasma markers and obesity risk in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fructuoso, M; Rachdi, L; Philippe, E; Denis, R G; Magnan, C; Le Stunff, H; Janel, N; Dierssen, M

    2017-09-25

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the trisomy of human chromosome 21 and is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. In addition to the intellectual deficiencies and physical anomalies, DS individuals present a higher prevalence of obesity and subsequent metabolic disorders than healthy adults. There is increasing evidence from both clinical and experimental studies indicating the association of visceral obesity with a pro-inflammatory status and recent studies have reported that obese people with DS suffer from low-grade systemic inflammation. However, the link between adiposity and inflammation has not been explored in DS. Here we used Ts65Dn mice, a validated DS mouse model, for the study of obesity-related inflammatory markers. Ts65Dn mice presented increased energy intake, and a positive energy balance leading to increased adiposity (fat mass per body weight), but did not show overweight, which only was apparent upon high fat diet induced obesity. Trisomic mice also had fasting hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia, and normal incretin levels. Those trisomy-associated changes were accompanied by reduced ghrelin plasma levels and slightly but not significantly increased leptin levels. Upon a glucose load, Ts65Dn mice showed normal increase of incretins accompanied by over-responses of leptin and resistin, while maintaining the hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic phenotype. These changes in the adipoinsular axis were accompanied by increased plasma levels of inflammatory biomarkers previously correlated with obesity galectin-3 and HSP72, and reduced IL-6. Taken together, these results suggest that increased adiposity, and pro-inflammatory adipokines leading to low-grade inflammation are important players in the propensity to obesity in DS. We conclude that DS would be a case of impaired metabolic-inflammatory axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oral treatment with desipramine improves breathing and life span in Rett syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Sébastien; Mebarek, Saida; Lajard, Anne-Marie; Picard, Nathalie; Dutschmann, Mathias; Hilaire, Gérard

    2008-01-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disease due to Mecp2 gene mutations that is associated to complex neurological symptoms, with bioaminergic deficits and life-threatening apneas related to sudden and unexpected death. In male mice, Mecp2-deficiency similarly induces medullary bioaminergic deficits, severe apneas and short life span. Here, we show that long-term oral treatment of Mecp2-deficient male mice with desipramine, an old drug of clinical use known to block norepinephrine uptake and to strengthen its synaptic effects, significantly alleviates their breathing symptoms and prolongs their life span. Although these mouse results identify desipramine as the first oral pharmacological treatment potentially able to alleviate breathing symptoms of Rett syndrome, we recommend further studies of desipramine effects in Mecp2-deficient mice before attempting any clinical trials in Rett patients.

  13. Absence of Prenatal Forebrain Defects in the Dp(16)1Yey/+ Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodliffe, Joseph W; Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Aziz, Nadine M; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Guedj, Faycal; Bianchi, Diana W; Haydar, Tarik F

    2016-03-09

    Studies in humans with Down syndrome (DS) show that alterations in fetal brain development are followed by postnatal deficits in neuronal numbers, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive and motor function. This same progression is replicated in several mouse models of DS. Dp(16)1Yey/+ (hereafter called Dp16) is a recently developed mouse model of DS in which the entire region of mouse chromosome 16 that is homologous to human chromosome 21 has been triplicated. As such, Dp16 mice may more closely reproduce neurodevelopmental changes occurring in humans with DS. Here, we present the first comprehensive cellular and behavioral study of the Dp16 forebrain from embryonic to adult stages. Unexpectedly, our results demonstrate that Dp16 mice do not have prenatal brain defects previously reported in human fetal neocortex and in the developing forebrains of other mouse models, including microcephaly, reduced neurogenesis, and abnormal cell proliferation. Nevertheless, we found impairments in postnatal developmental milestones, fewer inhibitory forebrain neurons, and deficits in motor and cognitive performance in Dp16 mice. Therefore, although this new model does not express prenatal morphological phenotypes associated with DS, abnormalities in the postnatal period appear sufficient to produce significant cognitive deficits in Dp16.

  14. Effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating intestinal hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Long, Yanqin; Liu, Ying; Tong, Jingjing; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua

    2010-06-25

    Trimebutine maleate, which modulates the calcium and potassium channels, relieves abdominal pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, its effect on postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome is not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of trimebutine maleate on modulating colonic hypercontractility in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. Mice infected up to 8 weeks with T. spiralis underwent abdominal withdrawal reflex to colorectal distention to evaluate the visceral sensitivity at different time points. Tissues were examined for histopathology scores. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared in the organ bath under basal condition or to be stimulated by acetylcholine and potassium chloride, and consecutive concentrations of trimebutine maleate were added to the bath to record the strip responses. Significant inflammation was observed in the intestines of the mice infected 2 weeks, and it resolved in 8 weeks after infection. Visceral hyperalgesia and colonic muscle hypercontractility emerged after infection, and trimebutine maleate could effectively reduce the colonic hyperreactivity. Hypercontractility of the colonic muscle stimulated by acetylcholine and high K(+) could be inhibited by trimebutine maleate in solution with Ca(2+), but not in Ca(2+) free solution. Compared with 8-week postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome group, 2-week acute infected strips were much more sensitive to the stimulators and the drug trimebutine maleate. Trimebutine maleate was effective in reducing the colonic muscle hypercontractility of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome mice. The findings may provide evidence for trimebutine maleate to treat postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome patients effectively.

  15. Obesity-initiated metabolic syndrome promotes urinary voiding dysfunction in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiqi; Babcook, Melissa A.; Shukla, Sanjeev; Shankar, Eswar; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Guiming; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Flask, Chris A.; Lu, Lan; Daneshgari, Firouz; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Gupta, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Accumulating evidences suggests that obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) contribute towards lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) through alterations in the phenotype of bladder and prostate gland. Clinical studies indicate a link between MetS and LUTS. Nevertheless, there is lack of suitable animal model(s) which could illustrate an association linking obesity to LUTS. We examined the lower urinary tract function in an obesity-initiated MetS mouse model. METHODS Male C57BL/6N wild-type and obese B6.V-Lepob/J maintained on regular diet for 28 weeks were subjected to the assessment of body weight (BW), body length (BL), waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), blood glucose (BG), plasma insulin (INS), plasma leptin (LEP), total cholesterol (CHO), free fatty acid (FFA) and measurement of urinary functions. Whole animal peritoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissue measurements as well as prostate and bladder volumes were analyzed by MRI followed by histological evaluation. These parameters were used to draw correlations between MetS and LUTS. RESULTS Obesity parameters such as BW, WC, and BMI were significantly higher in B6.V-Lepob/J mice compared to C57BL/6N mice (p<0.01). Higher levels of total CHO and FFA were noted in B6.V-Lepob/J mice than C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05). These results were concurrent with frequency, lower average urine volume and other urinary voiding dysfunctions in B6.V-Lepob/J mice. MRI assessments demonstrate marked increase in body fat and prostate volume in these mice. Compared to C57BL/6N mice, histological analysis of the prostate from B6.V-Lepob/J mice showed increased proliferation, gland crowding and infiltration of immune cells in the stroma; whereas the bladder urothelium was slightly thicker and appears more proliferative in these mice. The regression and correlation analysis indicate that peritoneal fat (R=0.853; p<0.02), CHO (R=0.729; p<0.001), BG (R=0.712; p<0.001) and prostate volume (R=0.706; p<0.023) strongly correlate

  16. Mild aerobic exercise blocks elastin fiber fragmentation and aortic dilatation in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Christine; Nielsen, Cory; Alex, Ramona; Cooper, Kimbal; Farney, Michael; Gaufin, Douglas; Cui, Jason Z; van Breemen, Cornelis; Broderick, Tom L; Vallejo-Elias, Johana; Esfandiarei, Mitra

    2017-07-01

    Regular low-impact physical activity is generally allowed in patients with Marfan syndrome, a connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene. However, being above average in height encourages young adults with this syndrome to engage in high-intensity contact sports, which unfortunately increases the risk for aortic aneurysm and rupture, the leading cause of death in Marfan syndrome. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary (cage-wheel) or forced (treadmill) aerobic exercise at different intensities on aortic function and structure in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome. Four-week-old Marfan and wild-type mice were subjected to voluntary and forced exercise regimens or sedentary lifestyle for 5 mo. Thoracic aortic tissue was isolated and subjected to structural and functional studies. Our data showed that exercise improved aortic wall structure and function in Marfan mice and that the beneficial effect was biphasic, with an optimum at low intensity exercise (55-65% V̇o2max) and tapering off at a higher intensity of exercise (85% V̇o2max). The mechanism underlying the reduced elastin fragmentation in Marfan mice involved reduction of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 within the aortic wall. These findings present the first evidence of potential beneficial effects of mild exercise on the structural integrity of the aortic wall in Marfan syndrome associated aneurysm. Our finding that moderate, but not strenuous, exercise protects aortic structure and function in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome could have important implications for the medical care of young Marfan patients.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study provides conclusive scientific evidence that daily exercise can improve aortic health in a mouse model of Marfan syndrome associated aortic aneurysm, and it establishes the threshold for the exercise intensity beyond which exercise may not be as protective. These findings establish a platform for

  17. Morphological and functional reversal of phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Lianne; Guy, Jacky; McKay, Leanne; Brockett, Emma; Spike, Rosemary C; Selfridge, Jim; De Sousa, Dina; Merusi, Cara; Riedel, Gernot; Bird, Adrian; Cobb, Stuart R

    2012-09-01

    Rett syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by mutation of the X-linked MECP2 gene. Mice lacking functional Mecp2 display a spectrum of Rett syndrome-like signs, including disturbances in motor function and abnormal patterns of breathing, accompanied by structural defects in central motor areas and the brainstem. Although routinely classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder, many aspects of the mouse phenotype can be effectively reversed by activation of a quiescent Mecp2 gene in adults. This suggests that absence of Mecp2 during brain development does not irreversibly compromise brain function. It is conceivable, however, that deep-seated neurological defects persist in mice rescued by late activation of Mecp2. To test this possibility, we have quantitatively analysed structural and functional plasticity of the rescued adult male mouse brain. Activation of Mecp2 in ∼70% of neurons reversed many morphological defects in the motor cortex, including neuronal size and dendritic complexity. Restoration of Mecp2 expression was also accompanied by a significant improvement in respiratory and sensory-motor functions, including breathing pattern, grip strength, balance beam and rotarod performance. Our findings sustain the view that MeCP2 does not play a pivotal role in brain development, but may instead be required to maintain full neurological function once development is complete.

  18. Comprehensive Analyses of Molecules with Altered Expression in the Brain of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome for Identification of Pharmacotherapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

     Down syndrome, caused by the triplication of human chromosome 21, is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. Mice with a segmental trisomy for mouse chromosome 16, which is orthologous to human chromosome 21, exhibit abnormalities similar to those in individuals with Down syndrome and therefore offer the opportunity for a genotype-phenotype correlation. In the current review, I present several mouse lines with trisomic regions of various lengths and discuss their usefulness for elucidating the mechanisms underlying Down syndrome-associated developmental cognitive disabilities. In addition, our recent comprehensive study attempting to identify molecules with disturbed expression in the brain of a mouse model of Down syndrome in order to develop a pharmacologic therapy for Down syndrome is described.

  19. An Xpd mouse model for the combined xeroderma pigmentosum/Cockayne syndrome exhibiting both cancer predisposition and segmental progeria.

    PubMed

    Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Mitchell, James R; de Wit, Jan; Hoogstraten, Deborah; Volker, Marcel; Toussaint, Wendy; Speksnijder, Ewoud; Beems, Rudolph B; van Steeg, Harry; Jans, Judith; de Zeeuw, Chris I; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; Raams, Anja; Lehmann, Alan R; Vermeulen, Wim; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J

    2006-08-01

    Inborn defects in nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) can paradoxically result in elevated cancer incidence (xeroderma pigmentosum [XP]) or segmental progeria without cancer predisposition (Cockayne syndrome [CS] and trichothiodystrophy [TTD]). We report generation of a knockin mouse model for the combined disorder XPCS with a G602D-encoding mutation in the Xpd helicase gene. XPCS mice are the most skin cancer-prone NER model to date, and we postulate an unusual NER dysfunction that is likely responsible for this susceptibility. XPCS mice also displayed symptoms of segmental progeria, including cachexia and progressive loss of germinal epithelium. Like CS fibroblasts, XPCS and TTD fibroblasts from human and mouse showed evidence of defective repair of oxidative DNA lesions that may underlie these segmental progeroid symptoms.

  20. Pharmacological interference with the glucocorticoid system influences symptoms and lifespan in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braun, Sebastian; Kottwitz, Denise; Nuber, Ulrike A

    2012-04-15

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked gene MECP2 coding for methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). This protein can act as transcriptional repressor, and we showed in a previous study that glucocorticoid-inducible genes are up-regulated in an RTT mouse model and that these genes are direct MeCP2 targets. Here, we report that pharmacological intervention with the glucocorticoid system has an impact on the symptoms and lifespan in an RTT mouse model. Our data support a functional implication of the stress hormone system in RTT and suggest this hormone system as potential therapeutic target.

  1. FGF/FGFR signaling coordinates skull development by modulating magnitude of morphological integration: evidence from Apert syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2(+/S252W) and Fgfr2(+/P253R) and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2(+/S252W) mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development.

  2. FGF/FGFR Signaling Coordinates Skull Development by Modulating Magnitude of Morphological Integration: Evidence from Apert Syndrome Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Heuzé, Yann; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Aldridge, Kristina; Richtsmeier, Joan T.

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor and receptor system (FGF/FGFR) mediates cell communication and pattern formation in many tissue types (e.g., osseous, nervous, vascular). In those craniosynostosis syndromes caused by FGFR1-3 mutations, alteration of signaling in the FGF/FGFR system leads to dysmorphology of the skull, brain and limbs, among other organs. Since this molecular pathway is widely expressed throughout head development, we explore whether and how two specific mutations on Fgfr2 causing Apert syndrome in humans affect the pattern and level of integration between the facial skeleton and the neurocranium using inbred Apert syndrome mouse models Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R and their non-mutant littermates at P0. Skull morphological integration (MI), which can reflect developmental interactions among traits by measuring the intensity of statistical associations among them, was assessed using data from microCT images of the skull of Apert syndrome mouse models and 3D geometric morphometric methods. Our results show that mutant Apert syndrome mice share the general pattern of MI with their non-mutant littermates, but the magnitude of integration between and within the facial skeleton and the neurocranium is increased, especially in Fgfr2+/S252W mice. This indicates that although Fgfr2 mutations do not disrupt skull MI, FGF/FGFR signaling is a covariance-generating process in skull development that acts as a global factor modulating the intensity of MI. As this pathway evolved early in vertebrate evolution, it may have played a significant role in establishing the patterns of skull MI and coordinating proper skull development. PMID:22053191

  3. Postnatal brain and skull growth in an Apert syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Cheryl A.; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Motch, Susan M.; Austin, Jordan R.; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T.; Aldridge, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Craniofacial and neural tissues develop in concert throughout pre- and postnatal growth. FGFR-related craniosynostosis syndromes, such as Apert syndrome (AS), are associated with specific phenotypes involving both the skull and the brain. We analyzed the effects of the FGFR P253R mutation for Apert syndrome using the Fgfr2+/P253R mouse to evaluate the effects of this mutation on these two tissues over the course of development from day of birth (P0) to postnatal day 2 (P2). Three-dimensional magnetic resonance microscopy and computed tomography images were acquired from Fgfr2+/P253R mice and unaffected littermates at P0 (N=28) and P2 (N=23). 3D coordinate data for 23 skull and 15 brain landmarks were statistically compared between groups. Results demonstrate that the Fgfr2+/P253R mice show reduced growth in the facial skeleton and the cerebrum, while the height and width of the neurocranium and caudal regions of the brain show increased growth relative to unaffected littermates. This localized correspondence of differential growth patterns in skull and brain point to their continued interaction through development and suggest that both tissues display divergent postnatal growth patterns relative to unaffected littermates. However, the change in the skull-brain relationship from P0 to P2 implies that each tissue affected by the mutation retains a degree of independence, rather than one tissue directing the development of the other. PMID:23495236

  4. CHD7 deficiency in "Looper", a new mouse model of CHARGE syndrome, results in ossicle malformation, otosclerosis and hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Ogier, Jacqueline M; Carpinelli, Marina R; Arhatari, Benedicta D; Symons, R C Andrew; Kile, Benjamin T; Burt, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare human disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7). Characteristics of CHARGE are varied and include developmental ear and hearing anomalies. Here we report a novel mouse model of CHD7 dysfunction, termed Looper. The Looper strain harbours a nonsense mutation (c.5690C>A, p.S1897X) within the Chd7 gene. Looper mice exhibit many of the clinical features of the human syndrome, consistent with previously reported CHARGE models, including growth retardation, facial asymmetry, vestibular defects, eye anomalies, hyperactivity, ossicle malformation, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Looper mice display an otosclerosis-like fusion of the stapes footplate to the cochlear oval window and blepharoconjunctivitis but not coloboma. Looper mice are hyperactive and have vestibular dysfunction but do not display motor impairment.

  5. Possible Therapeutic Doses of Cannabinoid Type 1 Receptor Antagonist Reverses Key Alterations in Fragile X Syndrome Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Gomis-González, Maria; Busquets-Garcia, Arnau; Matute, Carlos; Maldonado, Rafael; Mato, Susana; Ozaita, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common monogenetic cause of intellectual disability. The cognitive deficits in the mouse model for this disorder, the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (Fmr1) knockout (KO) mouse, have been restored by different pharmacological approaches, among those the blockade of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor. In this regard, our previous study showed that the CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant normalized a number of core features in the Fmr1 knockout mouse. Rimonabant was commercialized at high doses for its anti-obesity properties, and withdrawn from the market on the bases of mood-related adverse effects. In this study we show, by using electrophysiological approaches, that low dosages of rimonabant (0.1 mg/kg) manage to normalize metabotropic glutamate receptor dependent long-term depression (mGluR-LTD). In addition, low doses of rimonabant (from 0.01 mg/kg) equally normalized the cognitive deficit in the mouse model of FXS. These doses of rimonabant were from 30 to 300 times lower than those required to reduce body weight in rodents and to presumably produce adverse effects in humans. Furthermore, NESS0327, a CB1 receptor neutral antagonist, was also effective in preventing the novel object-recognition memory deficit in Fmr1 KO mice. These data further support targeting CB1 receptors as a relevant therapy for FXS. PMID:27589806

  6. The role of NADPH oxidase in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Alexandria J.; Dreve, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; Tamayo, Esther; Saade, George; Bytautiene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation. Oxidative stress is one of the purported mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme involved in the production of reactive oxygen species. Our objective was to evaluate NOX in the fetal brain of a well-validated mouse model of FAS. STUDY DESIGN Timed, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 mL/g of either 25% ethyl alcohol or saline. Fetal brain, liver, and placenta were harvested on gestational day 18. The unit of analysis was the litter; tissue from 6–8 litters in the alcohol and control group was isolated. Evaluation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of NOX subunits (DUOX1, DUOX2, NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOXA1, NOXO1, RAC1, p22phox, and p67phox) was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; alcohol vs placebo groups were compared using a Student t test or a Mann-Whitney test (P < .05). RESULTS Alcohol exposed fetal brains showed significant up-regulation in subunits DUOX2 (1.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.84 ± 0.09; P = .03), NOXA1 (1.75 ± 0.27 vs 1.09 ± 0.06; P = .04), and NOXO1 (1.59 ± 0.10 vs 1.28 ± 0.05; P = .02). Differences in mRNA expression in the placenta were not significant; p67phox was significantly up-regulated in alcohol-exposed livers. CONCLUSION Various NOX subunits are up-regulated in fetal brains exposed to alcohol. This effect was not observed in the fetal liver or placenta. Given the available evidence, the NOX system may be involved in the causation of FAS through the generation of reactive oxygen species and may be a potential target for preventative treatment in FAS. PMID:24334207

  7. The role of NADPH oxidase in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexandria J; Drever, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; Tamayo, Esther; Saade, George; Bytautiene, Egle

    2014-05-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common cause of nongenetic mental retardation. Oxidative stress is one of the purported mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme involved in the production of reactive oxygen species. Our objective was to evaluate NOX in the fetal brain of a well-validated mouse model of FAS. Timed, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.03 mL/g of either 25% ethyl alcohol or saline. Fetal brain, liver, and placenta were harvested on gestational day 18. The unit of analysis was the litter; tissue from 6-8 litters in the alcohol and control group was isolated. Evaluation of messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of NOX subunits (DUOX1, DUOX2, NOX1, NOX2, NOX3, NOX4, NOXA1, NOXO1, RAC1, p22phox, and p67phox) was performed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction; alcohol vs placebo groups were compared using a Student t test or a Mann-Whitney test (P < .05). Alcohol exposed fetal brains showed significant up-regulation in subunits DUOX2 (1.61 ± 0.28 vs 0.84 ± 0.09; P = .03), NOXA1 (1.75 ± 0.27 vs 1.09 ± 0.06; P = .04), and NOXO1 (1.59 ± 0.10 vs 1.28 ± 0.05; P = .02). Differences in mRNA expression in the placenta were not significant; p67phox was significantly up-regulated in alcohol-exposed livers. Various NOX subunits are up-regulated in fetal brains exposed to alcohol. This effect was not observed in the fetal liver or placenta. Given the available evidence, the NOX system may be involved in the causation of FAS through the generation of reactive oxygen species and may be a potential target for preventative treatment in FAS. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Fetal Brain Transcriptome and Neonatal Behavioral Phenotype in the Ts1Cje Mouse Model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Ferres, Millie A.; Graham, Leah C.; Wick, Heather C.; Miczek, Klaus A.; Slonim, Donna K.; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2016-01-01

    Human fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate abnormal brain growth and reduced neurogenesis. Despite the prenatal onset of the phenotype, most therapeutic trials have been conducted in adults. Here, we present evidence for fetal brain molecular and neonatal behavioral alterations in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome. Embryonic day 15.5 brain hemisphere RNA from Ts1Cje embryos (n = 5) and wild type littermates (n = 5) was processed and hybridized to mouse gene 1.0 ST arrays. Bioinformatic analyses were implemented to identify differential gene and pathway regulation during Ts1Cje fetal brain development. In separate experiments, the Fox scale, ultrasonic vocalization and homing tests were used to investigate behavioral deficits in Ts1Cje pups (n = 29) versus WT littermates (n = 64) at postnatal days 3–21. Ts1Cje fetal brains displayed more differentially regulated genes (n = 71) than adult (n = 31) when compared to their age-matched euploid brains. Ts1Cje embryonic brains showed up-regulation of cell cycle markers and down-regulation of the solute-carrier amino acid transporters. Several cellular processes were dysregulated at both stages, including apoptosis, inflammation, Jak/Stat signaling, G-protein signaling, and oxidoreductase activity. In addition, early behavioral deficits in surface righting, cliff aversion, negative geotaxis, forelimb grasp, ultrasonic vocalization, and the homing tests were observed. The Ts1Cje mouse model exhibits abnormal gene expression during fetal brain development, and significant neonatal behavioral deficits in the pre-weaning period. In combination with human studies, this suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype manifests prenatally and provides a rationale for prenatal therapy to improve perinatal brain development and post-natal neurocognition. PMID:25975229

  9. The fetal brain transcriptome and neonatal behavioral phenotype in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Ferres, Millie A; Graham, Leah C; Wick, Heather C; Miczek, Klaus A; Slonim, Donna K; Bianchi, Diana W

    2015-09-01

    Human fetuses with Down syndrome demonstrate abnormal brain growth and reduced neurogenesis. Despite the prenatal onset of the phenotype, most therapeutic trials have been conducted in adults. Here, we present evidence for fetal brain molecular and neonatal behavioral alterations in the Ts1Cje mouse model of Down syndrome. Embryonic day 15.5 brain hemisphere RNA from Ts1Cje embryos (n = 5) and wild type littermates (n = 5) was processed and hybridized to mouse gene 1.0 ST arrays. Bioinformatic analyses were implemented to identify differential gene and pathway regulation during Ts1Cje fetal brain development. In separate experiments, the Fox scale, ultrasonic vocalization and homing tests were used to investigate behavioral deficits in Ts1Cje pups (n = 29) versus WT littermates (n = 64) at postnatal days 3-21. Ts1Cje fetal brains displayed more differentially regulated genes (n = 71) than adult (n = 31) when compared to their age-matched euploid brains. Ts1Cje embryonic brains showed up-regulation of cell cycle markers and down-regulation of the solute-carrier amino acid transporters. Several cellular processes were dysregulated at both stages, including apoptosis, inflammation, Jak/Stat signaling, G-protein signaling, and oxidoreductase activity. In addition, early behavioral deficits in surface righting, cliff aversion, negative geotaxis, forelimb grasp, ultrasonic vocalization, and the homing tests were observed. The Ts1Cje mouse model exhibits abnormal gene expression during fetal brain development, and significant neonatal behavioral deficits in the pre-weaning period. In combination with human studies, this suggests that the Down syndrome phenotype manifests prenatally and provides a rationale for prenatal therapy to improve perinatal brain development and postnatal neurocognition.

  10. Mouse models of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes highlight the importance of Kansl1 for cognition

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Iacono, Giovanni; Chevalier, Claire; Afinowi, Nurudeen O.; Houbaert, Xander; Laliberte, Christine; Birling, Marie-Christine; Linda, Katrin; Meziane, Hamid; Selloum, Mohammed; Sorg, Tania; Koolen, David A.; Stunnenberg, Henk G.; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Humeau, Yann; De Vries, Bert B. A.

    2017-01-01

    Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is a multi-system disorder characterized by intellectual disability, friendly behavior, and congenital malformations. The syndrome is caused either by microdeletions in the 17q21.31 chromosomal region or by variants in the KANSL1 gene. The reciprocal 17q21.31 microduplication syndrome is associated with psychomotor delay, and reduced social interaction. To investigate the pathophysiology of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, we generated three mouse models: 1) the deletion (Del/+); or 2) the reciprocal duplication (Dup/+) of the 17q21.31 syntenic region; and 3) a heterozygous Kansl1 (Kans1+/-) model. We found altered weight, general activity, social behaviors, object recognition, and fear conditioning memory associated with craniofacial and brain structural changes observed in both Del/+ and Dup/+ animals. By investigating hippocampus function, we showed synaptic transmission defects in Del/+ and Dup/+ mice. Mutant mice with a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in Kansl1 displayed similar behavioral and anatomical phenotypes compared to Del/+ mice with the exception of sociability phenotypes. Genes controlling chromatin organization, synaptic transmission and neurogenesis were upregulated in the hippocampus of Del/+ and Kansl1+/- animals. Our results demonstrate the implication of KANSL1 in the manifestation of KdVS phenotypes and extend substantially our knowledge about biological processes affected by these mutations. Clear differences in social behavior and gene expression profiles between Del/+ and Kansl1+/- mice suggested potential roles of other genes affected by the 17q21.31 deletion. Together, these novel mouse models provide new genetic tools valuable for the development of therapeutic approaches. PMID:28704368

  11. Impairments in motor coordination without major changes in cerebellar plasticity in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galante, Micaela; Jani, Harsha; Vanes, Lesley; Daniel, Hervé; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L.J.; Bliss, Timothy V.P.; Morice, Elise

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty et al. [An aneuploid mouse strain carrying human chromosome 21 with Down syndrome phenotypes. Science 309 (2005) 2033–2037] generated a trans-species aneuploid mouse line (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. The Tc1 mouse is the most complete animal model for DS currently available. Tc1 mice show many features that relate to human DS, including alterations in memory, synaptic plasticity, cerebellar neuronal number, heart development and mandible size. Because motor deficits are one of the most frequently occurring features of DS, we have undertaken a detailed analysis of motor behaviour in cerebellum-dependent learning tasks that require high motor coordination and balance. In addition, basic electrophysiological properties of cerebellar circuitry and synaptic plasticity have been investigated. Our results reveal that, compared with controls, Tc1 mice exhibit a higher spontaneous locomotor activity, a reduced ability to habituate to their environments, a different gait and major deficits on several measures of motor coordination and balance in the rota rod and static rod tests. Moreover, cerebellar long-term depression is essentially normal in Tc1 mice, with only a slight difference in time course. Our observations provide further evidence that support the validity of the Tc1 mouse as a model for DS, which will help us to provide insights into the causal factors responsible for motor deficits observed in persons with DS. PMID:19181682

  12. Molecular Determinants of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Pathogenesis and Virulence in Young and Aged Mouse Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yount, Boyd; Agnihothram, Sudhakar; Page, Carly; Donaldson, Eric; Roberts, Anjeanette; Vogel, Leatrice; Woodruff, Becky; Scorpio, Diana; Subbarao, Kanta; Baric, Ralph S.

    2012-01-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes severe acute respiratory tract disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage and hyaline membrane formation. This pathology often progresses to acute respiratory distress (such as acute respiratory distress syndrome [ARDS]) and atypical pneumonia in humans, with characteristic age-related mortality rates approaching 50% or more in immunosenescent populations. The molecular basis for the extreme virulence of SARS-CoV remains elusive. Since young and aged (1-year-old) mice do not develop severe clinical disease following infection with wild-type SARS-CoV, a mouse-adapted strain of SARS-CoV (called MA15) was developed and was shown to cause lethal infection in these animals. To understand the genetic contributions to the increased pathogenesis of MA15 in rodents, we used reverse genetics and evaluated the virulence of panels of derivative viruses encoding various combinations of mouse-adapted mutations. We found that mutations in the viral spike (S) glycoprotein and, to a much less rigorous extent, in the nsp9 nonstructural protein, were primarily associated with the acquisition of virulence in young animals. The mutations in S likely increase recognition of the mouse angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor not only in MA15 but also in two additional, independently isolated mouse-adapted SARS-CoVs. In contrast to the findings for young animals, mutations to revert to the wild-type sequence in nsp9 and the S glycoprotein were not sufficient to significantly attenuate the virus compared to other combinations of mouse-adapted mutations in 12-month-old mice. This panel of SARS-CoVs provides novel reagents that we have used to further our understanding of differential, age-related pathogenic mechanisms in mouse models of human disease. PMID:22072787

  13. Resveratrol improves salivary dysfunction in a non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of Sjögren’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hiroko; Kishimoto, Atsuhiro; Ushikoshi-Nakayama, Ryoko; Hasaka, Ayaka; Takahashi, Ayako; Ryo, Koufuchi; Muramatsu, Takashi; Ide, Fumio; Mishima, Kenji; Saito, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol produced by plants in response to environmental stress. This compound has been shown to have pharmacological effects against a wide range of diseases including neurological, hepatic, cardiovascular and autoimmune conditions. The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, in which loss of lacrimal and salivary gland function occurs, has been studied as an animal model for Sjögren’s syndrome. In this study, we confirmed that administration of resveratrol results in increased secretion of saliva in NOD mice. Although resveratrol enhanced Sirt1 activity, inflammatory cell infiltration was not affected. Moreover, expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in salivary glands was enhanced in the resveratrol-administered group. Thus, we confirmed a novel therapeutic effect for resveratrol on salivary dysfunction in Sjögren’s syndrome. PMID:27698537

  14. Anatomical phenotyping in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ellegood, Jacob; Pacey, Laura K; Hampson, David R; Lerch, Jason P; Henkelman, R Mark

    2010-11-15

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is the most common single gene cause of inherited mental impairment, and cognitive deficits can range from simple learning disabilities to mental retardation. Human FXS is caused by a loss of the Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). The fragile X knockout (FX KO) mouse also shows a loss of FMRP, as well as many of the physical and behavioural characteristics of human FXS. This work aims to characterize the anatomical changes between the FX KO and a corresponding wild type mouse. Significant volume decreases were found in two regions within the deep cerebellar nuclei, namely the nucleus interpositus and the fastigial nucleus, which may be caused by a loss of neurons as indicated by histological analysis. Well-known links between these nuclei and previously established behavioural and physical characteristics of FXS are discussed. The loss of FMRP has a significant effect on these two nuclei, and future studies of FXS should evaluate the biochemical, physiological, and behavioral consequences of alterations in these key nuclei.

  15. Spirulina improves non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, visceral fat macrophage aggregation, and serum leptin in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Makoto; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fujimoto, Takako; Selmi, Carlo; Gershwin, M Eric; Shimada, Yutaka

    2012-09-01

    Nutritional approaches are sought to overcome the limits of pioglitazone in metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Spirulina, a filamentous unicellular alga, reduces serum lipids and blood pressure while exerting antioxidant effects. To determine whether Spirulina may impact macrophages infiltrating the visceral fat in obesity characterizing our metabolic syndrome mouse model induced by the subcutaneous injection treatment of monosodium glutamate. Mice were randomized to receive standard food added with 5% Spirulina, 0.02% pioglitazone, or neither. We tested multiple biochemistry and histology (both liver and visceral fat) readouts at 24 weeks of age. Data demonstrate that both the Spirulina and the pioglitazone groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels and liver non-esterified fatty acid compared to untreated mice. Spirulina and pioglitazone were associated with significantly lower leptin and higher levels, respectively, compared to the control group. At liver histology, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score and lipid peroxide were significantly lower in mice treated with Spirulina. Spirulina reduces dyslipidaemia in our metabolic syndrome model while ameliorating visceral adipose tissue macrophages. Human studies are needed to determine whether this safe supplement could prove beneficial in patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeated Sense of Hunger Leads to the Development of Visceral Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group). The ad libitum (AL) group (normal eating pattern) and the food restriction (FR) group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount) were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake. PMID:24879081

  17. Repeated sense of hunger leads to the development of visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Han, Jong-Min; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Ae; Son, Chang-Gue

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders, especially metabolic syndrome, contribute to 2.8 million deaths each year worldwide, with significantly increasing morbidity. Eating at regular times and proper food quantity are crucial for maintaining a healthy status. However, many people in developed countries do not follow a regular eating schedule due to a busy lifestyle. Herein, we show that a repeated sense of hunger leads to a high risk of developing visceral obesity and metabolic syndrome in a mouse model (both 3-week and 6-week-old age, 10 mice in each group). The ad libitum (AL) group (normal eating pattern) and the food restriction (FR) group (alternate-day partially food restriction by given only 1/3 of average amount) were compared after 8-week experimental period. The total food consumption in the FR group was lower than in the AL group, however, the FR group showed a metabolic syndrome-like condition with significant fat accumulation in adipose tissues. Consequently, the repeated sense of hunger induced the typical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in an animal model; a distinct visceral obesity, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and hepatic steatosis. Furthermore, we found that specifically leptin, a major metabolic hormone, played a major role in the development of these pathological disorders. Our study indicated the importance of regular eating habits besides controlling calorie intake.

  18. Behavioral abnormalities in the Fmr1-KO2 mouse model of fragile X syndrome: The relevance of early life phases.

    PubMed

    Gaudissard, Julie; Ginger, Melanie; Premoli, Marika; Memo, Maurizio; Frick, Andreas; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2017-06-07

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a developmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked FMR1 gene, coding for the FMRP protein which is largely involved in synaptic function. FXS patients present several behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, anxiety, sensory hyper-responsiveness, and cognitive deficits. Autistic symptoms, e.g., altered social interaction and communication, are also often observed: FXS is indeed the most common monogenic cause of autism. Mouse models of FXS are therefore of great interest for research on both FXS and autistic pathologies. The Fmr1-KO2 mouse line is the most recent FXS model, widely used for brain studies; surprisingly, little is known about the face validity of this model, i.e., its FXS-like behavioral phenotype. Furthermore, no data are available for the age-related expression of the pathological phenotypes in this mouse line, a critical issue for modelling neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we performed an extensive behavioral characterization of the KO2 model at infancy, adolescent and adult ages. Hyperactivity, altered emotionality, sensory hyper-responsiveness and memory deficits were already present in KO mice at adolescence and remained evident at adulthood. Alterations in social behaviors were instead observed only in young KO animals: during the first 2 weeks of life, KOs emitted longer ultrasonic vocalizations compared to their WT littermates and as adolescents they displayed more aggressive behaviors towards a conspecific. These results strongly support the face validity of the KO2 mouse as a model for FXS, at the same time demonstrating that its ability to recapitulate social autistic-relevant phenotypes depends on early testing ages. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A defect in early myogenesis causes Otitis media in two mouse models of 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Jennifer C.; Linden, Jennifer F.; Baldini, Antonio; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM), the inflammation of the middle ear, is the most common disease and cause for surgery in infants worldwide. Chronic Otitis media with effusion (OME) often leads to conductive hearing loss and is a common feature of a number of craniofacial syndromes, such as 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (22q11.2DS). OM is more common in children because the more horizontal position of the Eustachian tube (ET) in infants limits or delays clearance of middle ear effusions. Some mouse models with OM have shown alterations in the morphology and angle of the ET. Here, we present a novel mechanism in which OM is caused not by a defect in the ET itself but in the muscles that control its function. Our results show that in two mouse models of 22q11.2DS (Df1/+ and Tbx1+/−) presenting with bi- or unilateral OME, the fourth pharyngeal arch-derived levator veli palatini muscles were hypoplastic, which was associated with an earlier altered pattern of MyoD expression. Importantly, in mice with unilateral OME, the side with the inflammation was associated with significantly smaller muscles than the contralateral unaffected ear. Functional tests examining ET patency confirmed a reduced clearing ability in the heterozygous mice. Our findings are also of clinical relevance as targeting hypoplastic muscles might present a novel preventative measure for reducing the high rates of OM in 22q11.2DS patients. PMID:25452432

  20. Aging and Intellectual Disability: Insights from Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L.; Mobley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset…

  1. Aging and Intellectual Disability: Insights from Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruparelia, Aarti; Pearn, Matthew L.; Mobley, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is one of many causes of intellectual disability (ID), others including but not limited to, fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams syndrome, hypoxia, and infection. Down syndrome is characterized by a number of neurobiological problems resulting in learning and memory deficits and early onset…

  2. On the cause of mental retardation in Down syndrome: extrapolation from full and segmental trisomy 16 mouse models.

    PubMed

    Galdzicki, Z; Siarey, R; Pearce, R; Stoll, J; Rapoport, S I

    2001-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, Ts21) is the most common known cause of mental retardation. In vivo structural brain imaging in young DS adults, and post-mortem studies, indicate a normal brain size after correction for height, and the absence of neuropathology. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) shows normal brain glucose metabolism, but fewer significant correlations between metabolic rates in different brain regions than in controls, suggesting reduced functional connections between brain circuit elements. Cultured neurons from Ts21 fetuses and from fetuses of an animal model for DS, the trisomy 16 (Ts16) mouse, do not differ from controls with regard to passive electrical membrane properties, including resting potential and membrane resistance. On the other hand, the trisomic neurons demonstrate abnormal active electrical and biochemical properties (duration of action potential and its rates of depolarization and repolarization, altered kinetics of active Na(+), Ca(2+) and K(+) currents, altered membrane densities of Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels). Another animal model, the adult segmental trisomy 16 mouse (Ts65Dn), demonstrates reduced long-term potentiation and increased long-term depression (models for learning and memory related to synaptic plasticity) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Evidence suggests that the abnormalities in the trisomy mouse models are related to defective signal transduction pathways involving the phosphoinositide cycle, protein kinase A and protein kinase C. The phenotypes of DS and its mouse models do not involve abnormal gene products due to mutations or deletions, but result from altered expression of genes on human chromosome 21 or mouse chromosome 16, respectively. To the extent that the defects in signal transduction and in active electrical properties, including synaptic plasticity, that are found in the Ts16 and Ts65Dn mouse models, are found in the brain of DS subjects, we postulate that mental

  3. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mustafi, Debarshi; Kevany, Brian M.; Genoud, Christel; Okano, Kiichiro; Cideciyan, Artur V.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Engel, Andreas; Adams, Mark D.; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS), featuring an excess number of S cones, manifests as a progressive retinal degeneration that leads to blindness. Here, through optical imaging, we identified an abnormal interface between photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in 9 patients with ESCS. The neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor-knockout (Nrl−/−) mouse model demonstrates many phenotypic features of human ESCS, including unstable S-cone-positive photoreceptors. Using massively parallel RNA sequencing, we identified 6203 differentially expressed transcripts between wild-type (Wt) and Nrl−/− mouse retinas, with 6 highly significant differentially expressed genes of the Pax, Notch, and Wnt canonical pathways. Changes were also obvious in expression of 30 genes involved in the visual cycle and 3 key genes in photoreceptor phagocytosis. Novel high-resolution (100 nm) imaging and reconstruction of Nrl−/− retinas revealed an abnormal packing of photoreceptors that contributed to buildup of photoreceptor deposits. Furthermore, lack of phagosomes in the RPE layer of Nrl−/− retina revealed impairment in phagocytosis. Cultured RPE cells from Wt and Nrl−/− mice illustrated that the phagocytotic defect was attributable to the aberrant interface between ESCS photoreceptors and the RPE. Overcoming the retinal phagocytosis defect could arrest the progressive degenerative component of this disease.—Mustafi, D., Kevany, B. M., Genoud, C., Okano, K., Cideciyan, A. V., Sumaroka, A., Roman, A. J., Jacobson, S. G. Engel, A., Adams, M. D., Palczewski, K. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration. PMID:21659555

  4. Astrocyte Transcriptome from the Mecp2(308)-Truncated Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Delépine, Chloé; Nectoux, Juliette; Letourneur, Franck; Baud, Véronique; Chelly, Jamel; Billuart, Pierre; Bienvenu, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) are responsible for the neurodevelopmental disorder Rett syndrome which is one of the most frequent sources of intellectual disability in women. Recent studies showed that loss of Mecp2 in astrocytes contributes to Rett-like symptoms and restoration of Mecp2 can rescue some of these defects. The goal of this work is to compare gene expression profiles of wild-type and mutant astrocytes from Mecp2(308/y) mice (B6.129S-MeCP2/J) by using Affymetrix mouse 2.0 microarrays. Results were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and by Western blot analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis utilizing Ingenuity Pathways was employed to identify pathways disrupted by Mecp2 deficiency. A total of 2152 genes were statistically differentially expressed between wild-type and mutated samples, including 1784 coding transcripts. However, only 257 showed fold changes >1.2. We confirmed our data by replicative studies in independent primary cultures of cortical astrocytes from Mecp2-deficient mice. Interestingly, two genes known to encode secreted proteins, chromogranin B and lipocalin-2, showed significant dysregulation. These proteins secreted from Mecp2-deficient glia may exert negative non-cell autonomous effects on neuronal properties, including dendritic morphology. Moreover, transcriptional profiling revealed altered Nr2f2 expression which may explain down- and upregulation of several target genes in astrocytes such as Ccl2, Lcn2 and Chgb. Unraveling Nr2f2 involvement in Mecp2-deficient astrocytes could pave the way for a better understanding of Rett syndrome pathophysiology and offers new therapeutic perspectives.

  5. Adaptation of the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery for Use With the Ts65Dn Mouse Model (Mus musculus) of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hunsaker, Michael R; Smith, Genevieve K; Kesner, Raymond P

    2017-03-23

    We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks. The Ts65Dn mice showed intact temporal ordering, novelty detection, and visual object recognition with short delays. These results phenocopy the performance of participants with Down syndrome on the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery. This approach extends the utility of mouse models of Down syndrome by integrating the expertise of clinical neurology and cognitive neuroscience into the mouse behavioral laboratory. Further, by directly emphasizing the reciprocal translation of research between human disease states and the associated mouse models, we demonstrate that it is possible for both groups to mutually inform each other's research to more efficiently generate hypotheses and elucidate treatment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Molecular responses of the Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse models of Down syndrome to MK-801

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Almas; Lacroix, Thomas; Stasko, Melissa R.; Scott-McKean, Jonah J.; Costa, Alberto C.S.; Gardiner, Katheleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome, due to trisomy of human chromosome 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome is trisomic for orthologs of 94 chr21-encoded confirmed protein coding genes and displays a number of behavioral deficits. Recently, Ts65Dn mice were shown to be hypersensitive to the locomotor stimulatory effects of the high affinity N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (NMDAR) channel blocker, MK-801. This is consistent with the functions of several chr21 proteins that are predicted directly or indirectly to impact NMDA receptor function or NMDA receptor-mediated signaling. Here, we show that a second mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts1Cje, which is trisomic for 70 protein coding genes, is also hypersensitive to MK-801. To investigate the molecular basis for the responses to MK-801, we have measured levels of a subset of chr21 and phosphorylated non-chr21 proteins, in the cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mice and euploid controls, with and without treatment with MK-801. We show that, in euploid mice, the chr21-encoded proteins, TIAM1 and DYRK1A, and phosphorylation of Akt, Erk1/2 and the transcription factor Elk are involved in the MK-801 response. However, in both Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mice, levels of phosphorylation are constitutively elevated in naïve, unstimulated mice and the MK-801 induced changes in TIAM1 and DYRK1A and in phosphorylation are either absent or abnormal, with both genotype and brain region-specific patterns. These results emphasize the complexities of the pathway perturbations that arise with segmental trisomy. PMID:19125866

  7. The clinical relevance of animal models in Sjögren's syndrome: the interferon signature from mouse to man.

    PubMed

    Maria, Naomi I; Vogelsang, Petra; Versnel, Marjan A

    2015-07-03

    Mouse models have been widely used to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of human diseases. The advantages of using these models include the ability to study different stages of the disease with particular respect to specific target organs, to focus on the role of specific pathogenic factors and to investigate the effect of possible therapeutic interventions. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterised by lymphocytic infiltrates in the salivary and lacrimal glands. To date, effective therapy is not available and treatment has been mainly symptomatic. Ongoing studies in murine models are aimed at developing more effective and targeted therapies in SS. The heterogeneity of SS will most probably benefit from optimising therapies, tailored to specific subgroups of the disease. In this review, we provide our perspective on the importance of subdividing SS patients according to their interferon signature, and recommend choosing appropriate mouse models for interferon-positive and interferon-negative SS subtypes. Murine models better resembling human-disease phenotypes will be essential in this endeavour.

  8. The Ptch1DL mouse: a new model to study lambdoid craniosynostosis and basal cell nevus syndrome associated skeletal defects

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Weiguo; Choi, Irene; Clouthier, David E.; Niswander, Lee; Williams, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Mouse models provide valuable opportunities for probing the underlying pathology of human birth defects. Employing an ENU-based screen for recessive mutations affecting craniofacial anatomy we isolated a mouse strain, Dogface-like (DL), with abnormal skull and snout morphology. Examination of the skull indicated that these mice developed craniosynostosis of the lambdoid suture. Further analysis revealed skeletal defects related to the pathology of basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) including defects in development of the limbs, scapula, ribcage, secondary palate, cranial base, and cranial vault. In humans, BCNS is often associated with mutations in the Hedgehog receptor PTCH1 and genetic mapping in DL identified a point mutation at a splice donor site in Ptch1. Using genetic complementation analysis we determined that DL is a hypomorphic allele of Ptch1, leading to increased Hedgehog signaling. Two aberrant transcripts are generated by the mutated Ptch1DL gene, which would be predicted to reduce significantly the levels of functional Patched1 protein. This new Ptch1 allele broadens the mouse genetic reagents available to study the Hedgehog pathway and provides a valuable means to study the underlying skeletal abnormalities in BCNS. In addition, these results strengthen the connection between elevated Hedgehog signaling and craniosynostosis. PMID:23897749

  9. Attentional dysfunction, impulsivity, and resistance to change in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moon, J; Beaudin, A E; Verosky, S; Driscoll, L L; Weiskopf, M; Levitsky, D A; Crnic, L S; Strupp, B J

    2006-12-01

    On a series of attention tasks, male mice with a mutation targeted to the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmrl) gene (Fmrl knockout [KO] mice) committed a higher rate of premature responses than wild-type littermates, with the largest differences seen when task contingencies changed. This finding indicates impaired inhibitory control, particularly during times of stress or arousal. The KO mice also committed a higher rate of inaccurate responses than controls, particularly during the final third of each daily test session, indicating impaired sustained attention. In the selective attention task, the unpredictable presentation of potent olfactory distractors produced a generalized disruption in the performance of the KO mice, whereas for controls, the disruption produced by the distractors was temporally limited. Finally, the attentional disruption seen following an error was more pronounced for the KO mice than for controls, further implicating impaired regulation of arousal and/or negative affect. The present study provides the first evidence that the Fmrl KO mouse is impaired in inhibitory control, attention, and arousal regulation, hallmark areas of dysfunction in fragile X syndrome. The resistance to change also seen in these mice provides a behavioral index for studying the autistic features of this disorder.

  10. Neurological Dysfunction Associated with Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Histopathological Brain Findings of Thrombotic Changes in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Ziporen, Lea; Polak-Charcon, Sylvia; Korczyn, D. Amos; Goldberg, Iris; Afek, Arnon; Kopolovic, Juri; Chapman, Joab

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pathological processes underlying neurological dysfunctions displayed by BALB/C mice induced with experimental antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), as we have previously reported. Experimental APS was induced in female BALB/C mice by immunization with a pathogenic monoclonal anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody, H-3 (n=10), or an irrelevant immunoglobulin in controls (n=10). Mice immunized with H-3 developed clinical and neurological manifestations of APS, including: embryo resorption, thrombocytopenia neurological defects and behavioral disturbances. In mouse sera, the titer of various autoantibodies were elevated, including: anti-phospholipids (aPLs), anti-2 glycoprotein-I (β2GPI), anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) and low titer of anti-dsDNA antibodies. Five months after APS induction, mice were sacrificed and brain tissue specimens were processed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). H&E staining of cortical tissue derived from all APS mice revealed mild inflammation, localized mainly in the meninges. Prominent IgG deposits in the large vessel walls and perivascular IgG leakage were observed by immunofluorescence. No large thrombi were observed in large vessels. However, EM evaluation of cerebral tissue revealed pathological changes in the microvessels. Thrombotic occlusion of capillaries in combination with mild inflammation was the main finding and may underlie the neurological defects displayed by mice with APS. PMID:15154615

  11. Suppression of two major Fragile X Syndrome mouse model phenotypes by the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP.

    PubMed

    Yan, Q J; Rammal, M; Tranfaglia, M; Bauchwitz, R P

    2005-12-01

    Fragile X Syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation worldwide. A Fragile X mouse model, fmr1(tm1Cgr), with a disruption in the X-linked Fmr1 gene, has three substantial deficits observed in several strains: (1) sensitivity to audiogenic seizures (AGS), (2) tendency to spend significantly more time in the center of an open field, and (3) enlarged testes. Alterations in metabotropic glutamate receptor group I signaling were previously identified in the fmr1(tm1Cgr) mouse. In this study, we examined the effect of MPEP, an antagonist of the group I metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5, on audiogenic seizures and open field activity of fmr1(tm1Cgr) mice. Genetic analysis revealed synergistic reactions between fmr1(tm1Cgr) and inbred AGS alleles. In addition, AGS sensitivity due to the fmr1(tm1Cgr) allele was restricted during development. Examination of phenotypes combining mGluR5 inhibition and Fmr1 mutation indicated that absence of FMRP may affect mGluR5 signaling through indirect as well as direct pathways. All strains of fmr1(tm1Cgr) mice tested (FVB/NJ, C57BL/6J, and an F1 hybrid of the two) had a more excitable AGS pathway than wild-type, and consequently required more MPEP to achieve seizure suppression. At high doses of mGluR5 antagonists, a Fragile X specific tolerance (loss of drug activity) was observed. The tolerance effect could be overcome by a further increase in drug dose. In open field tests, MPEP reduced fmr1(tm1Cgr) center field behavior to one indistinguishable from wild-type. Therefore, mGluR5 antagonists were able to rescue two of the major phenotypes of the FX mouse. Modulation of mGluR5 signaling may allow amelioration of symptoms of Fragile X Syndrome.

  12. Spontaneous onset of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Takeshi; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Fujimoto, Makoto; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Shinichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Nakajima, Takahiko; Nakanishi, Yuko; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Wataru; Iizuka, Seiichi; Nagata, Mitsunobu; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki; Shimada, Yutaka; Imura, Johji

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide healthcare issue and a dominant risk factor for the development of incurable diseases that affect the entire body. The hepatic manifestations of this syndrome include nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its progressive variant nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The basic pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH remains controversial because it is difficult to clarify the disease process of NASH on the basis of metabolic syndrome alone. To determine the pathogenesis and effective treatment, an excellent animal model of NASH is required. Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetes (TSOD) male mice spontaneously develop diabetes mellitus, obesity, glucosuria, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia without any special treatments such as gene manipulation. In this study, we examined the histopathological characteristics of visceral fat and liver of 56 male TSOD mice aged 4-17 months and 9 male Tsumura Suzuki non-obesity (control) mice aged 6-12 months. In the visceral fat, enlargement of adipocytes and perivascular and pericapsular CD8-positive lymphoid aggregation were observed in 4-month-old mice. Abnormal expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and lipid peroxidation endo products was observed in macrophages. In the liver, microvesicular steatosis, hepatocellular ballooning, and Mallory bodies were observed in 4-month-old mice, with severity worsening with increasing time. These pathological findings in the liver mimic those seen in patients with NASH. Interestingly, small liver nodules with high cellularity and absence of portal tracts were frequently observed after 12 months. Most of them showed nuclear and structural atypia, and mimicked human hepatocellular carcinoma. The degree of steatosis in the non-tumor portions of the liver improved when the liver nodules developed. These findings were not observed in control mice. Here, we report that TSOD male mice spontaneously developed NAFLD without any special treatment, and that these

  13. Mild Electrical Stimulation and Heat Shock Ameliorates Progressive Proteinuria and Renal Inflammation in Mouse Model of Alport Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Ryosuke; Morino-Koga, Saori; Suico, Mary Ann; Koyama, Kosuke; Sato, Takashi; Shuto, Tsuyoshi; Kai, Hirofumi

    2012-01-01

    Alport syndrome is a hereditary glomerulopathy with proteinuria and nephritis caused by defects in genes encoding type IV collagen in the glomerular basement membrane. All male and most female patients develop end-stage renal disease. Effective treatment to stop or decelerate the progression of proteinuria and nephritis is still under investigation. Here we showed that combination treatment of mild electrical stress (MES) and heat stress (HS) ameliorated progressive proteinuria and renal injury in mouse model of Alport syndrome. The expressions of kidney injury marker neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β were suppressed by MES+HS treatment. The anti-proteinuric effect of MES+HS treatment is mediated by podocytic activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase (PI3K)-Akt and heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72)-dependent pathways in vitro and in vivo. The anti-inflammatory effect of MES+HS was mediated by glomerular activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and p38-dependent pathways ex vivo. Collectively, our studies show that combination treatment of MES and HS confers anti-proteinuric and anti-inflammatory effects on Alport mice likely through the activation of multiple signaling pathways including PI3K-Akt, Hsp72, JNK1/2, and p38 pathways, providing a novel candidate therapeutic strategy to decelerate the progression of patho-phenotypes in Alport syndrome. PMID:22937108

  14. Accumulated quiescent neural stem cells in adult hippocampus of the mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Yuan, Bo; Yu, Bin; Tong, Dali; Cheng, Cheng; Shao, Yinqi; Xia, Shengnan; Zhang, Ran; Lyu, Jingwen; Yu, Xiuya; Dong, Chen; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Qiu, Zilong

    2017-01-01

    Duplications of Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) -containing segments lead to the MECP2 duplication syndrome, in which severe autistic symptoms were identified. Whether adult neurogenesis may play a role in pathogenesis of autism and the role of MECP2 on state determination of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unclear. Using a MECP2 transgenic (TG) mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome, we found that adult hippocampal quiescent NSCs were significantly accumulated in TG mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice, the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reduced and the neuroblasts were increased in adult hippocampi of MECP2 TG mice. Interestingly, we found that parvalbumin (PV) positive interneurons were significantly decreased in MECP2 TG mice, which were critical for determining fates of adult hippocampal NSCs between the quiescence and activation. In summary, we found that MeCP2 plays a critical role in regulating fate determination of adult NSCs. These evidences further suggest that abnormal development of NSCs may play a role in the pathogenesis of the MECP2 duplication syndrome. PMID:28139724

  15. Quantitative profiling of brain lipid raft proteome in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Magdalena; Castillo, Catherine; Francesconi, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome, a leading cause of inherited intellectual disability and autism, arises from transcriptional silencing of the FMR1 gene encoding an RNA-binding protein, Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP). FMRP can regulate the expression of approximately 4% of brain transcripts through its role in regulation of mRNA transport, stability and translation, thus providing a molecular rationale for its potential pleiotropic effects on neuronal and brain circuitry function. Several intracellular signaling pathways are dysregulated in the absence of FMRP suggesting that cellular deficits may be broad and could result in homeostatic changes. Lipid rafts are specialized regions of the plasma membrane, enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, involved in regulation of intracellular signaling. Among transcripts targeted by FMRP, a subset encodes proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis and homeostasis, dysregulation of which could affect the integrity and function of lipid rafts. Using a quantitative mass spectrometry-based approach we analyzed the lipid raft proteome of Fmr1 knockout mice, an animal model of Fragile X syndrome, and identified candidate proteins that are differentially represented in Fmr1 knockout mice lipid rafts. Furthermore, network analysis of these candidate proteins reveals connectivity between them and predicts functional connectivity with genes encoding components of myelin sheath, axonal processes and growth cones. Our findings provide insight to aid identification of molecular and cellular dysfunctions arising from Fmr1 silencing and for uncovering shared pathologies between Fragile X syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders.

  16. Lowering β-Amyloid Levels Rescues Learning and Memory in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Nong, Yi; Blundell, Jacqueline; Wong, Lili; Duff, Karen; Flajolet, Marc; Greengard, Paul

    2010-01-01

    β-amyloid levels are elevated in Down syndrome (DS) patients throughout life and are believed to cause Alzheimer's disease (AD) in adult members of this population. However, it is not known if β-amyloid contributes to intellectual disability in younger individuals. We used a γ-secretase inhibitor to lower β-amyloid levels in young mice that model DS. This treatment corrected learning deficits characteristic of these mice, suggesting that β-amyloid-lowering therapies might improve cognitive function in young DS patients. PMID:20532168

  17. Lovastatin corrects excess protein synthesis and prevents epileptogenesis in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Osterweil, Emily K.; Chuang, Shih-Chieh; Chubykin, Alexander A.; Sidorov, Michael; Bianchi, Riccardo; Wong, Robert K. S.; Bear, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many neuropsychiatric symptoms of fragile X syndrome (FXS) are believed to be a consequence of altered regulation of protein synthesis at synapses. We discovered that lovastatin, a drug that is widely prescribed for treatment of high cholesterol, can correct excess hippocampal protein synthesis in themouse model of FXS and can prevent one of the robust functional consequences of increased protein synthesis in FXS, epileptogenesis. These data suggest that lovastatin is potentially disease modifying, and could be a viable prophylactic treatment for epileptogenesis in FXS. PMID:23352161

  18. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria.

    PubMed

    Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Vargas, Dorathy F; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R

    2013-12-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities, and photosensitivity, but without skin cancer predisposition. Cockayne syndrome life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due to either very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown, but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa(-/-) | Xpa(-/-)). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity, and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction.

  19. Activity-dependent dysfunction in visual and olfactory sensory systems in mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    William, Christopher M; Saqran, Lubna; Stern, Matthew A; Chiang, Charles L; Herrick, Scott; Rangwala, Aziz; Albers, Mark W; Frosch, Matthew P; Hyman, Bradley T

    2017-09-12

    Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity plays a critical role in the refinement of circuitry during postnatal development and may be disrupted in conditions that cause intellectual disability such as Down syndrome (DS). To test this hypothesis, visual cortical plasticity was assessed in Ts65Dn mice that harbor a chromosomal duplication syntenic to human chromosome 21q. We find that Ts65Dn mice demonstrate a defect in ocular dominance plasticity (ODP) following monocular deprivation. This phenotype is similar to that of transgenic mice that express amyloid precursor protein (APP), which is duplicated in DS and in Ts65DN mice; however, normalizing APP gene copy number in Ts65Dn mice fails to rescue plasticity. Ts1Rhr mice harbor a duplication of the telomeric third of the Ts65Dn-duplicated sequence and demonstrate the same ODP defect, suggesting a gene or genes sufficient to drive the phenotype are located in that smaller duplication. In addition, we find that Ts65Dn mice demonstrate an abnormality in olfactory system connectivity, a defect in the refinement of connections to second-order neurons in the olfactory bulb. Ts1Rhr mice do not demonstrate a defect in glomerular refinement, suggesting that distinct genes or sets of genes underlie visual and olfactory system phenotypes. Importantly, these data suggest that developmental plasticity and connectivity are impaired in sensory systems in DS model mice, that such defects may contribute to functional impairment in DS, and that these phenotypes, present in male and female mice, provide novel means by which to examine the genetic and molecular bases for neurodevelopmental impairment in model mice in vivoSignificance Statement: Our understanding of the basis for intellectual impairment in Down syndrome is hindered by the large number of genes duplicated in Trisomy 21 and a lack of understanding of the effect of disease pathology on the function of neural circuits in vivo This work describes early postnatal developmental

  20. Treatment with neuropeptides attenuates c-fos expression in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Incerti, Maddalena; Vink, Joy; Roberson, Robin; Abebe, Daniel; Spong, Catherine Y

    2010-10-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most common nongenetic cause of mental retardation and is characterized by neurodevelopmental anomalies. C-FOS is a cellular marker of transcriptional activity in the stress-signal pathway. Previously, we showed the treatment with NAP (NAPVSIPQ) + SAL (SALLRSIPA) reversed the learning deficit after prenatal alcohol exposure in FAS. Our objective was to evaluate if the mechanism of actions of NAP + SAL involves the stress-signal pathway differentiating C-FOS expression in mouse brains after prenatal alcohol exposure. C57Bl6/J mice were treated with alcohol (0.03 mL/g) or placebo on gestational day 8. On postnatal day 40, in utero alcohol-exposed males were treated via gavage with 40 μg D-NAP and 40 μg D-SAL ( N = 6) or placebo ( N = 4); controls were gavaged with placebo daily ( N = 12). After learning evaluation, hippocampus, cerebellum, and cortex were isolated. Calibrator-normalized relative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were performed. Statistics included analysis of variance and post hoc Fisher analysis. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS in the hippocampus after prenatal alcohol exposure ( P < 0.05), but not in the cerebellum. There was no difference in C-FOS expression in the cortex. Adult treatment with NAP + SAL restored the down-regulation of C-FOS expression in hippocampus attenuating the alcohol-induced alteration of the stress-signal pathway.

  1. Abnormal response to the anorexic effect of GHS-R inhibitors and exenatide in male Snord116 deletion mouse model for Prader-Willi Syndrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disease characterized by persistent hunger and hyperphagia. The lack of the Snord116 small nucleolar RNA cluster has been identified as the major contributor to PWS symptoms. The Snord116 deletion (Snord116del) mouse model manifested a subset of PWS symptoms ...

  2. Preservation of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Despite Short-Term Impairments in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C.; Cooke, Sam F.; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Bliss, Timothy V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a…

  3. Preservation of Long-Term Memory and Synaptic Plasticity Despite Short-Term Impairments in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Elise; Andreae, Laura C.; Cooke, Sam F.; Vanes, Lesley; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Bliss, Timothy V. P.

    2008-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder arising from the presence of a third copy of the human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Recently, O'Doherty and colleagues in an earlier study generated a new genetic mouse model of DS (Tc1) that carries an almost complete Hsa21. Since DS is the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, we have undertaken a…

  4. Gait Analysis in a Mecp2 Knockout Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome Reveals Early-Onset and Progressive Motor Deficits

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, John S.; Bailey, Mark E. S.; Cobb, Stuart R.

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a genetic disorder characterized by a range of features including cognitive impairment, gait abnormalities and a reduction in purposeful hand skills. Mice harbouring knockout mutations in the Mecp2 gene display many RTT-like characteristics and are central to efforts to find novel therapies for the disorder. As hand stereotypies and gait abnormalities constitute major diagnostic criteria in RTT, it is clear that motor and gait-related phenotypes will be of importance in assessing preclinical therapeutic outcomes. We therefore aimed to assess gait properties over the prodromal phase in a functional knockout mouse model of RTT. In male Mecp2 knockout mice, we observed alterations in stride, coordination and balance parameters at 4 weeks of age, before the onset of other overt phenotypic changes as revealed by observational scoring. These data suggest that gait measures may be used as a robust and early marker of MeCP2-dysfunction in future preclinical therapeutic studies. PMID:25392929

  5. Ketone ester supplementation attenuates seizure activity, and improves behavior and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in an Angelman syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ciarlone, Stephanie L; Grieco, Joseph C; D'Agostino, Dominic P; Weeber, Edwin J

    2016-12-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare genetic and neurological disorder presenting with seizures, developmental delay, ataxia, and lack of speech. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress-dependent metabolic dysfunction may underlie the phenotypic deficits reported in the AS mouse model. While the ketogenic diet (KD) has been used to protect against oxidative stress and has successfully treated refractory epilepsy in AS case studies, issues arise due to its strict adherence requirements, in addition to selective eating habits and weight issues reported in patients with AS. We hypothesized that ketone ester supplementation would mimic the KD as an anticonvulsant and improve the behavioral and synaptic plasticity deficits in vivo. AS mice were supplemented R,S-1,3-butanediol acetoacetate diester (KE) ad libitum for eight weeks. KE administration improved motor coordination, learning and memory, and synaptic plasticity in AS mice. The KE was also anticonvulsant and altered brain amino acid metabolism in AS treated animals. Our findings suggest that KE supplementation produces sustained ketosis and ameliorates many phenotypes in the AS mouse model, and should be investigated further for future clinical use.

  6. Environmental enrichment rescues postnatal neurogenesis defect in the male and female Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Lina; Scafidi, Joseph; Gallo, Vittorio; Haydar, Tarik F

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay, results from impaired neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Impaired neurogenesis in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum is believed to be the underlying cause of learning and behavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Aggressive sensorimotor and cognitive therapies have shown promise in mitigating the cognitive disabilities in DS but these behavioral therapies have not yet been investigated at the cellular level. Here, using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, we demonstrate that a combination of environmental enrichment and physical exercise starting in juvenile mice (postnatal day 18) markedly increases cell proliferation, neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of both male and female mice. Enrichment and exercise increased the rate of Ts65Dn DG neurogenesis to be comparable to that of the nonenriched euploid group, while the effect on SVZ neurogenesis was reduced and seen only after prolonged exposure. These results clearly indicate that in a comprehensive stimulatory environment, the postnatal DS brain has the intrinsic capability of improving neurogenesis and gliogenesis to the levels of normal matched controls and that this cellular response underlies the cognitive improvement seen following behavioral therapies.

  7. Environmental Enrichment Rescues Postnatal Neurogenesis Defect in the Male and Female Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Lina; Scafidi, Joseph; Gallo, Vittorio; Haydar, Tarik F.

    2011-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most frequent genetic cause of intellectual disability and developmental delay, results from impaired neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Impaired neurogenesis in the neocortex, hippocampus and cerebellum is believed to be the underlying cause of learning and behavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Aggressive sensorimotor and cognitive therapies have shown promise in mitigating the cognitive disabilities in DS but these behavioral therapies have not yet been investigated at the cellular level. Here, using the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, we demonstrate that a combination of environmental enrichment and physical exercise starting in juvenile mice (postnatal day 18) markedly increases cell proliferation, neurogenesis and gliogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of both male and female mice. Enrichment and exercise increased the rate of Ts65Dn DG neurogenesis to be comparable to that of the nonenriched euploid group, while the effect on SVZ neurogenesis was reduced and seen only after prolonged exposure. These results clearly indicate that in a comprehensive stimulatory environment, the postnatal DS brain has the intrinsic capability of improving neurogenesis and gliogenesis to the levels of normal matched controls and that this cellular response underlies the cognitive improvement seen following behavioral therapies. PMID:21865665

  8. The mouse model of Down syndrome Ts65Dn presents visual deficits as assessed by pattern visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Scott-McKean, Jonah Jacob; Chang, Bo; Hurd, Ronald E; Nusinowitz, Steven; Schmidt, Cecilia; Davisson, Muriel T; Costa, Alberto C S

    2010-06-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the most complete widely available animal model of Down syndrome (DS). Quantitative information was generated about visual function in the Ts65Dn mouse by investigating their visual capabilities by means of electroretinography (ERG) and patterned visual evoked potentials (pVEPs). pVEPs were recorded directly from specific regions of the binocular visual cortex of anesthetized mice in response to horizontal sinusoidal gratings of different spatial frequency, contrast, and luminance generated by a specialized video card and presented on a 21-in. computer display suitably linearized by gamma correction. ERG assessments indicated no significant deficit in retinal physiology in Ts65Dn mice compared with euploid control mice. The Ts65Dn mice were found to exhibit deficits in luminance threshold, spatial resolution, and contrast threshold, compared with the euploid control mice. The behavioral counterparts of these parameters are luminance sensitivity, visual acuity, and the inverse of contrast sensitivity, respectively. DS includes various phenotypes associated with the visual system, including deficits in visual acuity, accommodation, and contrast sensitivity. The present study provides electrophysiological evidence of visual deficits in Ts65Dn mice that are similar to those reported in persons with DS. These findings strengthen the role of the Ts65Dn mouse as a model for DS. Also, given the historical assumption of integrity of the visual system in most behavioral assessments of Ts65Dn mice, such as the hidden-platform component of the Morris water maze, the visual deficits described herein may represent a significant confounding factor in the interpretation of results from such experiments.

  9. Hyperconnectivity of prefrontal cortex to amygdala projections in a mouse model of macrocephaly/autism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Chin; Chen, Youjun; Page, Damon T.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple autism risk genes converge on the regulation of mTOR signalling, which is a key effector of neuronal growth and connectivity. We show that mTOR signalling is dysregulated during early postnatal development in the cerebral cortex of germ-line heterozygous Pten mutant mice (Pten+/−), which model macrocephaly/autism syndrome. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) receives input from subcortical-projecting neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Analysis of mPFC to BLA axonal projections reveals that Pten+/− mice exhibit increased axonal branching and connectivity, which is accompanied by increased activity in the BLA in response to social stimuli and social behavioural deficits. The latter two phenotypes can be suppressed by pharmacological inhibition of S6K1 during early postnatal life or by reducing the activity of mPFC–BLA circuitry in adulthood. These findings identify a mechanism of altered connectivity that has potential relevance to the pathophysiology of macrocephaly/autism syndrome and autism spectrum disorders featuring dysregulated mTOR signalling. PMID:27845329

  10. Defective photoreceptor phagocytosis in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome causes progressive retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mustafi, Debarshi; Kevany, Brian M; Genoud, Christel; Okano, Kiichiro; Cideciyan, Artur V; Sumaroka, Alexander; Roman, Alejandro J; Jacobson, Samuel G; Engel, Andreas; Adams, Mark D; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-09-01

    Enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS), featuring an excess number of S cones, manifests as a progressive retinal degeneration that leads to blindness. Here, through optical imaging, we identified an abnormal interface between photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in 9 patients with ESCS. The neural retina leucine zipper transcription factor-knockout (Nrl(-/-)) mouse model demonstrates many phenotypic features of human ESCS, including unstable S-cone-positive photoreceptors. Using massively parallel RNA sequencing, we identified 6203 differentially expressed transcripts between wild-type (Wt) and Nrl(-/-) mouse retinas, with 6 highly significant differentially expressed genes of the Pax, Notch, and Wnt canonical pathways. Changes were also obvious in expression of 30 genes involved in the visual cycle and 3 key genes in photoreceptor phagocytosis. Novel high-resolution (100 nm) imaging and reconstruction of Nrl(-/-) retinas revealed an abnormal packing of photoreceptors that contributed to buildup of photoreceptor deposits. Furthermore, lack of phagosomes in the RPE layer of Nrl(-/-) retina revealed impairment in phagocytosis. Cultured RPE cells from Wt and Nrl(-/-) mice illustrated that the phagocytotic defect was attributable to the aberrant interface between ESCS photoreceptors and the RPE. Overcoming the retinal phagocytosis defect could arrest the progressive degenerative component of this disease.

  11. Comprehensive analysis of ultrasonic vocalizations in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome reveals limited, call type specific deficits.

    PubMed

    Roy, Snigdha; Watkins, Nick; Heck, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a well-recognized form of inherited mental retardation, caused by a mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (Fmr1) gene. The gene is located on the long arm of the X chromosome and encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Absence of FMRP in fragile X patients as well as in Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice results, among other changes, in abnormal dendritic spine formation and altered synaptic plasticity in the neocortex and hippocampus. Clinical features of FXS include cognitive impairment, anxiety, abnormal social interaction, mental retardation, motor coordination and speech articulation deficits. Mouse pups generate ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) when isolated from their mothers. Whether those social ultrasonic vocalizations are deficient in mouse models of FXS is unknown. Here we compared isolation-induced USVs generated by pups of Fmr1-KO mice with those of their wild type (WT) littermates. Though the total number of calls was not significantly different between genotypes, a detailed analysis of 10 different categories of calls revealed that loss of Fmr1 expression in mice causes limited and call-type specific deficits in ultrasonic vocalization: the carrier frequency of flat calls was higher, the percentage of downward calls was lower and that the frequency range of complex calls was wider in Fmr1-KO mice compared to their WT littermates.

  12. Dysregulated TGF-β signaling alters bone microstructure in a mouse model of Loeys-Dietz syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Ashvin K; Tomlinson, Ryan E; Mitchell, Stuart; Goh, Brian C; Yung, Rachel M; Kumar, Sarvesh; Tan, Eric W; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Dietz, Harry C; Clemens, Thomas L; Sponseller, Paul D

    2015-10-01

    Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by vascular and skeletal abnormalities resembling Marfan syndrome, including a predisposition for pathologic fracture. LDS is caused by heterozygous mutations in the genes encoding transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type 1 and type 2 receptors. In this study, we characterized the skeletal phenotype of mice carrying a mutation in the TGF-β type 2 receptor associated with severe LDS in humans. Cortical bone in LDS mice showed significantly reduced tissue area, bone area, and cortical thickness with increased eccentricity. However, no significant differences in trabecular bone volume were observed. Dynamic histomorphometry performed in calcein-labeled mice showed decreased mineral apposition rates in cortical and trabecular bone with normal numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Mechanical testing of femurs by three-point bending revealed reduced femoral strength and fracture resistance. In vitro, osteoblasts from LDS mice demonstrated increased mineralization with enhanced expression of osteoblast differentiation markers compared with control cells. These changes were associated with impaired TGF-β1-induced Smad2 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation and upregulated TGF-β1 ligand mRNA expression, compatible with G357W as a loss-of-function mutation in the TGF-β type 2 receptor. Paradoxically, phosphorylated Smad2/3 in cortical osteocytes measured by immunohistochemistry was increased relative to controls, possibly suggesting the cross-activation of TGF-β-related receptors. The skeletal phenotype observed in the LDS mouse closely resembles the principal structural features of bone in humans with LDS and establishes this mouse as a valid in vivo model for further investigation of TGF-β receptor signaling in bone. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Structural Role of Elastic Fibers in the Cornea Investigated Using a Mouse Model for Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    White, Tomas L; Lewis, Philip; Hayes, Sally; Fergusson, James; Bell, James; Farinha, Luis; White, Nick S; Pereira, Lygia V; Meek, Keith M

    2017-04-01

    The presence of fibrillin-rich elastic fibers in the cornea has been overlooked in recent years. The aim of the current study was to elucidate their functional role using a mouse model for Marfan syndrome, defective in fibrillin-1, the major structural component of the microfibril bundles that constitute most of the elastic fibers. Mouse corneas were obtained from animals with a heterozygous fibrillin-1 mutation (Fbn1+/-) and compared to wild type controls. Corneal thickness and radius of curvature were calculated using optical coherence tomography microscopy. Elastic microfibril bundles were quantified and visualized in three-dimensions using serial block face scanning electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy was used to analyze stromal ultrastructure and proteoglycan distribution. Center-to-center average interfibrillar spacing was determined using x-ray scattering. Fbn1+/- corneas were significantly thinner than wild types and displayed a higher radius of curvature. In the Fbn1+/- corneas, elastic microfibril bundles were significantly reduced in density and disorganized compared to wild-type controls, in addition to containing a higher average center-to-center collagen interfibrillar spacing in the center of the cornea. No other differences were detected in stromal ultrastructure or proteoglycan distribution between the two groups. Proteoglycan side chains appeared to colocalize with the microfibril bundles. Elastic fibers have an important, multifunctional role in the cornea as highlighted by the differences observed between Fbn1+/- and wild type animals. We contend that the presence of normal quantities of structurally organized elastic fibers are required to maintain the correct geometry of the cornea, which is disrupted in Marfan syndrome.

  14. Disrupted mitochondrial function in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff Syndrome impairs skeletal integrity

    PubMed Central

    Navein, Alice E.; Cooke, Esther J.; Davies, Jennifer R.; Smith, Terence G.; Wells, Lois H. M.; Ohazama, Atsushi; Healy, Christopher; Sharpe, Paul T.; Evans, Sam L.; Evans, Bronwen A. J.; Votruba, Marcela; Wells, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction connects metabolic disturbance with numerous pathologies, but the significance of mitochondrial activity in bone remains unclear. We have, therefore, characterized the skeletal phenotype in the Opa3L122P mouse model for Costeff syndrome, in which a missense mutation of the mitochondrial membrane protein, Opa3, impairs mitochondrial activity resulting in visual and metabolic dysfunction. Although widely expressed in the developing normal mouse head, Opa3 expression was restricted after E14.5 to the retina, brain, teeth and mandibular bone. Opa3 was also expressed in adult tibiae, including at the trabecular surfaces and in cortical osteocytes, epiphyseal chondrocytes, marrow adipocytes and mesenchymal stem cell rosettes. Opa3L122P mice displayed craniofacial abnormalities, including undergrowth of the lower mandible, accompanied in some individuals by cranial asymmetry and incisor malocclusion. Opa3L122P mice showed an 8-fold elevation in tibial marrow adiposity, due largely to increased adipogenesis. In addition, femoral length and cortical diameter and wall thickness were reduced, the weakening of the calcified tissue and the geometric component of strength reducing overall cortical strength in Opa3L122P mice by 65%. In lumbar vertebrae reduced vertebral body area and wall thickness were accompanied by a proportionate reduction in marrow adiposity. Although the total biomechanical strength of lumbar vertebrae was reduced by 35%, the strength of the calcified tissue (σmax) was proportionate to a 38% increase in trabecular number. Thus, mitochondrial function is important for the development and maintenance of skeletal integrity, impaired bone growth and strength, particularly in limb bones, representing a significant new feature of the Costeff syndrome phenotype. PMID:27106103

  15. Modulation of RhoGTPases improves the behavioral phenotype and reverses astrocytic deficits in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Fabbri, Alessia; Simone, Daiana; Canese, Rossella; Ricceri, Laura; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Laviola, Giovanni; Fiorentini, Carla

    2012-04-01

    RhoGTPases are crucial molecules in neuronal plasticity and cognition, as confirmed by their role in non-syndromic mental retardation. Activation of brain RhoGTPases by the bacterial cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1) reshapes the actin cytoskeleton and enhances neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity in mouse brains. We evaluated the effects of a single CNF1 intracerebroventricular inoculation in a mouse model of Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder and a genetic cause of mental retardation, for which no effective therapy is available. Fully symptomatic MeCP2-308 male mice were evaluated in a battery of tests specifically tailored to detect RTT-related impairments. At the end of behavioral testing, brain sections were immunohistochemically characterized. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy (MRS) were also applied to assess morphological and metabolic brain changes. The CNF1 administration markedly improved the behavioral phenotype of MeCP2-308 mice. CNF1 also dramatically reversed the evident signs of atrophy in astrocytes of mutant mice and restored wt-like levels of this cell population. A partial rescue of the overexpression of IL-6 cytokine was also observed in RTT brains. CNF1-induced brain metabolic changes detected by MRS analysis involved markers of glial integrity and bioenergetics, and point to improved mitochondria functionality in CNF1-treated mice. These results clearly indicate that modulation of brain RhoGTPases by CNF1 may constitute a totally innovative therapeutic approach for RTT and, possibly, for other disorders associated with mental retardation.

  16. Neuropeptide Release Is Impaired in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Mental Retardation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), an inherited disorder characterized by mental retardation and autism-like behaviors, is caused by the failure to transcribe the gene for fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), a translational regulator and transporter of select mRNAs. FXS model mice (Fmr1 KO mice) exhibit impaired neuropeptide release. Release of biogenic amines does not differ between wild-type (WT) and Fmr1 KO mice. Rab3A, an mRNA cargo of FMRP involved in the recruitment of vesicles, is decreased by ∼50% in synaptoneurosomes of Fmr1 KO mice; however, the number of dense-core vesicles (DCVs) does not differ between WT and Fmr1 KO mice. Therefore, deficits associated with FXS may reflect this aberrant vesicle release, specifically involving docking and fusion of peptidergic DCVs, and may lead to defective maturation and maintenance of synaptic connections. PMID:20495672

  17. Fully-Automated μMRI Morphometric Phenotyping of the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M. Jorge; Ma, Da; Holmes, Holly E.; Yu, Yichao; O’Callaghan, James; Cleary, Jon O.; Sinclair, Ben; Wiseman, Frances K.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Lythgoe, Mark F.; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fully automated pipeline for the morphometric phenotyping of mouse brains from μMRI data, and show its application to the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, to identify new morphological phenotypes in the brain of this first transchromosomic animal carrying human chromosome 21. We incorporate an accessible approach for simultaneously scanning multiple ex vivo brains, requiring only a 3D-printed brain holder, and novel image processing steps for their separation and orientation. We employ clinically established multi-atlas techniques–superior to single-atlas methods–together with publicly-available atlas databases for automatic skull-stripping and tissue segmentation, providing high-quality, subject-specific tissue maps. We follow these steps with group-wise registration, structural parcellation and both Voxel- and Tensor-Based Morphometry–advantageous for their ability to highlight morphological differences without the laborious delineation of regions of interest. We show the application of freely available open-source software developed for clinical MRI analysis to mouse brain data: NiftySeg for segmentation and NiftyReg for registration, and discuss atlases and parameters suitable for the preclinical paradigm. We used this pipeline to compare 29 Tc1 brains with 26 wild-type littermate controls, imaged ex vivo at 9.4T. We show an unexpected increase in Tc1 total intracranial volume and, controlling for this, local volume and grey matter density reductions in the Tc1 brain compared to the wild-types, most prominently in the cerebellum, in agreement with human DS and previous histological findings. PMID:27658297

  18. Defects in the medial entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus in the mouse model of Sanfilippo syndrome type B.

    PubMed

    Ohmi, Kazuhiro; Zhao, Hui-Zhi; Neufeld, Elizabeth F

    2011-01-01

    Sanfilippo syndrome type B (MPS IIIB) is characterized by profound mental retardation in childhood, dementia and death in late adolescence; it is caused by deficiency of α-N-acetylglucosaminidase and resulting lysosomal storage of heparan sulfate. A mouse model, generated by homologous recombination of the Naglu gene, was used to study pathological changes in the brain. We found earlier that neurons in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the dentate gyrus showed a number of secondary defects, including the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau (Ptau) detected with antibodies raised against Ptau in Alzheimer disease brain. By further use of immunohistochemistry, we now show staining in neurons of the same area for beta amyloid, extending the resemblance to Alzheimer disease. Ptau inclusions in the dentate gyrus of MPS IIIB mice were reduced in number when the mice were administered LiCl, a specific inhibitor of Gsk3β. Additional proteins found elevated in MEC include proteins involved in autophagy and the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, glypicans 1 and 5, the latter closely related to the primary defect. The level of secondary accumulations was associated with elevation of glypican, as seen by comparing brains of mice at different ages or with different mucopolysaccharide storage diseases. The MEC of an MPS IIIA mouse had the same intense immunostaining for glypican 1 and other markers as MPS IIIB, while MEC of MPS I and MPS II mice had weak staining, and MEC of an MPS VI mouse had no staining at all for the same proteins. A considerable amount of glypican was found in MEC of MPS IIIB mice outside of lysosomes. We propose that it is the extralysosomal glypican that would be harmful to neurons, because its heparan sulfate branches could potentiate the formation of Ptau and beta amyloid aggregates, which would be toxic as well as difficult to degrade.

  19. Fully-Automated μMRI Morphometric Phenotyping of the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nick M; Modat, Marc; Cardoso, M Jorge; Ma, Da; Holmes, Holly E; Yu, Yichao; O'Callaghan, James; Cleary, Jon O; Sinclair, Ben; Wiseman, Frances K; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Lythgoe, Mark F; Ourselin, Sébastien

    We describe a fully automated pipeline for the morphometric phenotyping of mouse brains from μMRI data, and show its application to the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome, to identify new morphological phenotypes in the brain of this first transchromosomic animal carrying human chromosome 21. We incorporate an accessible approach for simultaneously scanning multiple ex vivo brains, requiring only a 3D-printed brain holder, and novel image processing steps for their separation and orientation. We employ clinically established multi-atlas techniques-superior to single-atlas methods-together with publicly-available atlas databases for automatic skull-stripping and tissue segmentation, providing high-quality, subject-specific tissue maps. We follow these steps with group-wise registration, structural parcellation and both Voxel- and Tensor-Based Morphometry-advantageous for their ability to highlight morphological differences without the laborious delineation of regions of interest. We show the application of freely available open-source software developed for clinical MRI analysis to mouse brain data: NiftySeg for segmentation and NiftyReg for registration, and discuss atlases and parameters suitable for the preclinical paradigm. We used this pipeline to compare 29 Tc1 brains with 26 wild-type littermate controls, imaged ex vivo at 9.4T. We show an unexpected increase in Tc1 total intracranial volume and, controlling for this, local volume and grey matter density reductions in the Tc1 brain compared to the wild-types, most prominently in the cerebellum, in agreement with human DS and previous histological findings.

  20. Morphological alterations in the hippocampus of the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down Syndrome correlate with structural plasticity markers.

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Olga; Ballestín, Raúl; López-Hidalgo, Rosa; Mulet, Maria; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan; Gilabert-Juan, Javier; Varea, Emilio

    2017-04-04

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aneuploidy. Although trisomy on chromosome 21 can display variable phenotypes, there is a common feature among all DS individuals: the presence of intellectual disability. This condition is partially attributed to abnormalities found in the hippocampus of individuals with DS and in the murine model for DS, Ts65Dn. To check if all hippocampal areas were equally affected in 4-5 month adult Ts65Dn mice, we analysed the morphology of dentate gyrus granule cells and cornu ammonis pyramidal neurons using Sholl method on Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons. Structural plasticity has been analysed using immunohistochemistry for plasticity molecules followed by densitometric analysis (Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Polysialylated form of the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (PSA-NCAM) and the Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP43)). We observed an impairment in the dendritic arborisation of granule cells, but not in the pyramidal neurons in the Ts65Dn mice. When we analysed the expression of molecules related to structural plasticity in trisomic mouse hippocampus, we observed a reduction in the expression of BDNF and PSA-NCAM, and an increment in the expression of GAP43. These alterations were restricted to the regions related to dentate granule cells suggesting an interrelation. Therefore the impairment in dendritic arborisation and molecular plasticity is not a general feature of all Down Syndrome principal neurons. Pharmacological manipulations of the levels of plasticity molecules could provide a way to restore granule cell morphology and function.

  1. Encapsulated engineered myoblasts can cure Hurler syndrome: preclinical experiments in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Piller Puicher, E; Tomanin, R; Salvalaio, M; Friso, A; Hortelano, G; Marin, O; Scarpa, M

    2012-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPSI) is an autosomic recessive, lysosomal storage disorder due to the deficit of the enzyme α-L-iduronidase (IDUA). The disease accounts for a general impairment of tissue and organ functions, mainly including heart disease, corneal clouding, organomegaly, skeletal malformations and joint stiffness. Neurological deterioration affects the severe forms. Both haemopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy can be applied to the treatment of the disorder; however, they both present several limitations. Thus, the search for alternative strategies to complement the present procedures is highly desirable. A murine myoblast cell line engineered to overexpress IDUA was generated and enclosed in alginate microcapsules, which were intra-peritoneally implanted in the MPSI mouse model. Plasma and tissue enzyme activity induced by the treatment and urinary and tissue glycosaminoglycan content were monitored in the animals, progressively sacrificed up to 4 months after implantation. Significant induction of enzyme activity and reduction of glycosaminoglycan accumulation were detected in the implanted animals, complete normalization of deposits was achieved in two animals. Intra-peritoneal implantation of alginate microcapsule confirms to be a valid approach as an endogenous enzyme replacement procedure.

  2. The connexin26 S17F mouse mutant represents a model for the human hereditary keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schütz, Melanie; Auth, Tanja; Gehrt, Anna; Bosen, Felicitas; Körber, Inken; Strenzke, Nicola; Moser, Tobias; Willecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the GJB2 gene coding for connexin26 (Cx26) can cause a variety of deafness and hereditary hyperproliferative skin disorders in humans. In this study, we investigated the Cx26S17F mutation in mice, which had been identified to cause the keratitis-ichthyosis-deafness (KID) syndrome in humans. The KID syndrome is characterized by keratitis and chronic progressive corneal neovascularization, skin hyperplasia, sensorineural hearing loss and increased carcinogenic potential. We have generated a conditional mouse mutant, in which the floxed wild-type Cx26-coding DNA can be deleted and the Cx26S17F mutation is expressed under control of the endogenous Cx26 promoter. Homozygous mutants are not viable, whereas the surviving heterozygous mice show hyperplasia of tail and foot epidermis, wounded tails and annular tail restrictions, and are smaller than their wild-type littermates. Analyses of auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) indicate an ∼35 dB increased hearing threshold in these mice, which is likely due to the reduction of the endocochlear potential by 20-40%. Our results indicate that the Cx26S17F protein, which does not form functional gap junction channels or hemichannels, alters epidermal proliferation and differentiation in the heterozygous state. In the inner ear, reduced intercellular coupling by heteromeric channels composed of Cx26S17F and Cx30 could contribute to hearing impairment in heterozygous mice, while remaining wild-type Cx26 may be sufficient to stabilize Cx30 and partially maintain cochlear homeostasis. The phenotype of heterozygous mice resembles many of the symptoms of the human KID syndrome. Thus, these mice represent an appropriate model to further investigate the disease mechanism.

  3. Abnormal intrinsic dynamics of dendritic spines in a fragile X syndrome mouse model in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nagaoka, Akira; Takehara, Hiroaki; Hayashi-Takagi, Akiko; Noguchi, Jun; Ishii, Kazuhiko; Shirai, Fukutoshi; Yagishita, Sho; Akagi, Takanori; Ichiki, Takanori; Kasai, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic spine generation and elimination play an important role in learning and memory, the dynamics of which have been examined within the neocortex in vivo. Spine turnover has also been detected in the absence of specific learning tasks, and is frequently exaggerated in animal models of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study aimed to examine whether the baseline rate of spine turnover was activity-dependent. This was achieved using a microfluidic brain interface and open-dura surgery, with the goal of abolishing neuronal Ca2+ signaling in the visual cortex of wild-type mice and rodent models of fragile X syndrome (Fmr1 knockout [KO]). In wild-type and Fmr1 KO mice, the majority of baseline turnover was found to be activity-independent. Accordingly, the application of matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitors selectively restored the abnormal spine dynamics observed in Fmr1 KO mice, without affecting the intrinsic dynamics of spine turnover in wild-type mice. Such findings indicate that the baseline turnover of dendritic spines is mediated by activity-independent intrinsic dynamics. Furthermore, these results suggest that the targeting of abnormal intrinsic dynamics might pose a novel therapy for ASD. PMID:27221801

  4. Modeling RASopathies with Genetically Modified Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Guerra, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The RAS/MAPK signaling pathway plays key roles in development, cell survival and proliferation, as well as in cancer pathogenesis. Molecular genetic studies have identified a group of developmental syndromes, the RASopathies, caused by germ line mutations in this pathway. The syndromes included within this classification are neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), Noonan syndrome (NS), Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NS-ML, formerly known as LEOPARD syndrome), Costello syndrome (CS), cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome (CFC), Legius syndrome (LS, NF1-like syndrome), capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (CM-AVM), and hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) type 1. Although these syndromes present specific molecular alterations, they are characterized by a large spectrum of functional and morphological abnormalities, which include heart defects, short stature, neurocognitive impairment, craniofacial malformations, and, in some cases, cancer predisposition. The development of genetically modified animals, such as mice (Mus musculus), flies (Drosophila melanogaster), and zebrafish (Danio rerio), has been instrumental in elucidating the molecular and cellular bases of these syndromes. Moreover, these models can also be used to determine tumor predisposition, the impact of different genetic backgrounds on the variable phenotypes found among the patients and to evaluate preventative and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review a wide range of genetically modified mouse models used in the study of RASopathies and the potential application of novel technologies, which hopefully will help us resolve open questions in the field.

  5. Temporal shift in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 expression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, B M; Mullaney, B C; Johnston, M V; Blue, M E

    2006-01-01

    Rett syndrome is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2. Females with identical mutations in the methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene can display varying severity of symptoms, suggesting that other factors such as X-chromosome inactivation affect phenotypic expression in Rett syndrome. Although X-chromosome inactivation is random and balanced in the blood and brain of the majority of girls with classic Rett syndrome, skewing in the ratio of expression of the mutant methyl-CpG binding protein 2-X to the wildtype-X affects the severity of symptoms. In this study, the pattern of immunostaining for methyl-CpG binding protein 2 was compared with that of neuronal nuclei specific protein, a pan-neuronal marker, to assess X-chromosome inactivation in a Rett syndrome mouse model. The number of cortical neurons and cortical volume were assessed by unbiased stereological measurements in younger adult (7-9 week old) wildtype (wildtype/methyl-CpG binding protein 2+/+), female heterozygous (heterozygous/methyl-CpG binding protein 2+/-), and null (methyl-CpG binding protein 2-/y) male mice and in older adult (24-95 week old) wildtype and heterozygous mice. The results showed that the number of neuronal nuclei specific protein-positive cells and cortical volume did not differ by genotype or age. However, younger adult heterozygous mice had significantly fewer methyl-CpG binding protein 2 cells and the pattern of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 staining was less distinct than in younger adult wildtype mice. However, in older adult heterozygous mice, the number and pattern of methyl-CpG binding protein 2-expressing neurons were similar to the wildtype. The ratio of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 to neuronal nuclei specific protein-stained neurons, a potential measure of X-chromosome inactivation, was close to 50% in the younger adult heterozygous mice, but nearly 70% in the older adult heterozygous mice. These results suggest that X

  6. Using Mouse and Zebrafish Models to Understand the Etiology of Developmental Defects in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    KAWAUCHI, SHIMAKO; SANTOS, ROSAYSELA; MUTO, AKIHIKO; LOPEZ-BURKS, MARTHA E.; SCHILLING, THOMAS F.; LANDER, ARTHUR D.; CALOF, ANNE L.

    2016-01-01

    Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem birth defects disorder that affects every tissue and organ system in the body. Understanding the factors that contribute to the origins, prevalence, and severity of these developmental defects provides the most direct approach for developing screens and potential treatments for individuals with CdLS. Since the majority of cases of CdLS are caused by haploinsufficiency for NIPBL (Nipped-B-like, which encodes a cohesin-associated protein), we have developed mouse and zebrafish models of CdLS by using molecular genetic tools to create Nipbl-deficient mice and zebrafish (Nipbl+/− mice, zebrafish nipbl morphants). Studies of these vertebrate animal models have yielded novel insights into the developmental etiology and genes/gene pathways that contribute to CdLS-associated birth defects, particularly defects of the gut, heart, craniofacial structures, nervous system, and limbs. Studies of these mouse and zebrafish CdLS models have helped clarify how deficiency for NIPBL, a protein that associates with cohesin and other transcriptional regulators in the nucleus, affects processes important to the emergence of the structural and physiological birth defects observed in CdLS: NIPBL exerts chromosome position-specific effects on gene expression; it influences long-range interactions between different regulatory elements of genes; and it regulates combinatorial and synergistic actions of genes in developing tissues. Our current understanding is that CdLS should be considered as not only a cohesinopathy, but also a “transcriptomopathy,” that is, a disease whose underlying etiology is the global dysregulation of gene expression throughout the organism. PMID:27120001

  7. A novel mouse model for Down syndrome that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC) carrying a limited number of genes from human chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Nobutaka; Sakai, Kosuke; Asakawa, Shuichi; Okazaki, Tsuneko; Kudoh, Jun; Ikeno, Masashi; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi

    2014-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS), also known as Trisomy 21, is the most common chromosome aneuploidy in live-born children and displays a complicated symptom. To date, several kinds of mouse models have been generated to understand the molecular pathology of DS, yet the gene dosage effects and gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation are not well understood. In this study, we established a novel method to generate a partial trisomy mice using the mouse ES cells that harbor a single copy of human artificial chromosome (HAC), into which a small human DNA segment containing human chromosome 21 genes cloned in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) was recombined. The produced mice were found to maintain the HAC carrying human genes as a mini-chromosome, hence termed as a Trans-Mini-Chromosomal (TMC) mouse, and HAC was transmitted for more than twenty generations independent from endogenous mouse chromosomes. The three human transgenes including cystathionine β-synthase, U2 auxiliary factor and crystalline alpha A were expressed in several mouse tissues with various expression levels relative to mouse endogenous genes. The novel system is applicable to any of human and/or mouse BAC clones. Thus, the TMC mouse carrying a HAC with a limited number of genes would provide a novel tool for studying gene dosage effects involved in the DS molecular pathogenesis and the gene(s)-phenotype(s) correlation.

  8. Early environmental therapy rescues brain development in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Begenisic, Tatjana; Sansevero, Gabriele; Baroncelli, Laura; Cioni, Giovanni; Sale, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic disorder associated with intellectual disabilities, is an untreatable condition characterized by a number of developmental defects and permanent deficits in the adulthood. Ts65Dn mice, the major animal model for DS, display severe cognitive and synaptic plasticity defects closely resembling the human phenotype. Here, we employed a multidisciplinary approach to investigate, for the first time in developing Ts65Dn mice, the effects elicited by early environmental enrichment (EE) on brain maturation and function. We report that exposure to EE resulted in a robust increase in maternal care levels displayed by Ts65Dn mothers and led to a normalization of declarative memory abilities and hippocampal plasticity in trisomic offspring. The positive effects of EE on Ts65Dn phenotype were not limited to the cognitive domain, but also included a rescue of visual system maturation. The beneficial EE effects were accompanied by increased BDNF and correction of over-expression of the GABA vesicular transporter vGAT. These findings highlight the beneficial impact of early environmental stimuli and their potential for application in the treatment of major functional deficits in children with DS.

  9. Developmental abnormalities of cortical interneurons precede symptoms onset in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Morello, Noemi; Calcagno, Eleonora; Giustetto, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT, MIM312750), a neurodevelopmental disorder predominantly occurring in females, is caused in the majority of cases by sporadic mutations in the gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). In mice, impaired MeCP2 function results in severe motor, cognitive, and emotional defects. The lack of Mecp2 in γ-aminobutyric acid-(GABA) releasing forebrain interneurons (INs) recapitulate many RTT features, however, the role of this gene in the development of the cortical inhibitory system is still unknown. Here, we found that MeCP2 expression varies among the three major classes of cortical INs and its nuclear localization differs between neuronal types. The density of calretinin(+) and parvalbumin(+) INs increases in Mecp2 knockout mice (Mecp2(-/y) ) already at early post-natal developmental stages. In contrast, the density of somatostatin(+) INs is not affected. We also found that the development of multipolar-calretinin(+) INs is selectively affected by the absence of Mecp2. Additionally, we show that in Mecp2 heterozygous female mice, a model closely mimicking human RTT condition, IN abnormalities are similar to those observed in Mecp2(-/y) mice. Together, our study indicates that loss of function of Mecp2 strongly interferes with the correct establishment of the neocortical inhibitory system producing effects that are specific to different IN subtypes.

  10. Circadian rhythm disruption in a mouse model of Rett syndrome circadian disruption in RTT.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Loh, Dawn H; Kudo, Takashi; Truong, Danny; Derakhshesh, Matthew; Kaswan, Zoë MacDowell; Ghiani, Cristina A; Tsoa, Rosemarie; Cheng, Yin; Sun, Yi E; Colwell, Christopher S

    2015-05-01

    Disturbances in the sleep/wake cycle are prevalent in patients with Rett syndrome (RTT). We sought to determine whether the circadian system is disrupted in a RTT model, Mecp2(-/y) mice. We found that MeCP2 mutants showed decreased strength and precision of daily rhythms of activity coupled with extremely fragmented sleep. The central circadian clock (suprachiasmatic nucleus) exhibited significant reduction in the number of neurons expressing vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) as well as compromised spontaneous neural activity. The molecular clockwork was disrupted both centrally in the SCN and in peripheral organs, indicating a general disorganization of the circadian system. Disruption of the molecular clockwork was observed in fibroblasts of RTT patients. Finally, MeCP2 mutant mice were vulnerable to circadian disruption as chronic jet lag accelerated mortality. Our finds suggest an integral role of MeCP2 in the circadian timing system and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for the sleep/wake distrubances observed in RTT patients. The work raises the possibility that RTT patients may benefit from a temporally structured environment.

  11. Analysis of the Serotonergic System in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome Reveals Unusual Upregulation of Serotonin Receptor 5b

    PubMed Central

    Vogelgesang, Steffen; Niebert, Sabine; Renner, Ute; Möbius, Wiebke; Hülsmann, Swen; Manzke, Till; Niebert, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the transcription factor methyl-CpG-binding-protein 2 (MeCP2) cause a delayed-onset neurodevelopmental disorder known as Rett syndrome (RTT). Although alteration in serotonin levels have been reported in RTT patients, the molecular mechanisms underlying these defects are not well understood. Therefore, we chose to investigate the serotonergic system in hippocampus and brainstem of male Mecp2-/y knock-out mice in the B6.129P2(C)-Mecp2(tm1.1Bird) mouse model of RTT. The serotonergic system in mouse is comprised of 16 genes, whose mRNA expression profile was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. Mecp2-/y mice are an established animal model for RTT displaying most of the cognitive and physical impairments of human patients and the selected areas receive significant modulation through serotonin. Using anatomically and functional characterized areas, we found region-specific differential expression between wild type and Mecp2-/y mice at post-natal day 40. In brainstem, we found five genes to be dysregulated, while in hippocampus, two genes were dysregulated. The one gene dysregulated in both brain regions was dopamine decarboxylase, but of special interest is the serotonin receptor 5b (5-ht5b), which showed 75-fold dysregulation in brainstem of Mecp2-/y mice. This dysregulation was not due to upregulation, but due to failure of down-regulation in Mecp2-/y mice during development. Detailed analysis of 5-ht5b revealed a receptor that localizes to endosomes and interacts with Gαi proteins. PMID:28337123

  12. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Belichenko, Pavel V; Faizi, Mehrdad; Jacobs, Lucia F; Htun, Khin; Shamloo, Mehrdad; Mobley, William C

    2012-07-04

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABA(B) receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABA(B) receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition, and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABA(B) receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABA(B) receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS.

  13. Calorie seeking, but not hedonic response, contributes to hyperphagia in a mouse model for Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jennifer R; Humby, Trevor; Dwyer, Dominic M; Garfield, Alastair S; Furby, Hannah; Wilkinson, Lawrence S; Wells, Timothy; Isles, Anthony R

    2015-08-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by deletion or inactivation of paternally expressed imprinted genes on human chromosome 15q11-q13, the most recognised feature of which is hyperphagia. This is thought to arise as a consequence of abnormalities in both the physiological drive for food and the rewarding properties of food. Although a number of mouse models for PWS exist, the underlying variables dictating maladaptive feeding remain unknown. Here, feeding behaviour in a mouse model in which the imprinting centre (IC) of the syntenic PWS interval has been deleted (PWS(ICdel) mice) is characterised. It is demonstrated that PWS(ICdel) mice show hyperghrelinaemia and increased consumption of food both following overnight fasting and when made more palatable with sucrose. However, hyperphagia in PWS(ICdel) mice was not accompanied by any changes in reactivity to the hedonic properties of palatable food (sucrose or saccharin), as measured by lick-cluster size. Nevertheless, overall consumption by PWS(ICdel) mice for non-caloric saccharin in the licking test was significantly reduced. Combined with converging findings from a continuous reinforcement schedule, these data indicate that PWS(ICdel) mice show a marked heightened sensitivity to the calorific value of food. Overall, these data indicate that any impact of the rewarding properties of food on the hyperphagia seen in PWS(ICdel) mice is driven primarily by calorie content and is unlikely to involve hedonic processes. This has important implications for understanding the neural systems underlying the feeding phenotype of PWS and the contribution of imprinted genes to abnormal feeding behaviour more generally.

  14. Protein dynamics associated with failed and rescued learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Mahiuddin; Dhanasekaran, A Ranjitha; Block, Aaron; Tong, Suhong; Costa, Alberto C S; Stasko, Melissa; Gardiner, Katheleen J

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID), there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ∼55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M) tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC), with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i) of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii) treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective clinical trials.

  15. Deficits in cognition and synaptic plasticity in a mouse model of Down syndrome ameliorated by GABAB receptor antagonists

    PubMed Central

    Kleschevnikov, A.M.; Belichenko, P.V.; Faizi, M.; Jacobs, L.F.; Htun, K.; Shamloo, M.; Mobley, W.C.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by deficient learning and memory. Mouse genetic models of DS exhibit impaired cognition in hippocampally mediated behavioral tasks and reduced synaptic plasticity of hippocampal pathways. Enhanced efficiency of GABAergic neurotransmission was implicated in those changes. We have recently shown that signaling through postsynaptic GABAB receptors is significantly increased in the dentate gyrus (DG) of Ts65Dn mice, a genetic model of DS. Here we examined a role for GABAB receptors in cognitive deficits in DS by defining the effect of selective GABAB receptor antagonists on behavior and synaptic plasticity of adult Ts65Dn mice. Treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 restored memory of Ts65Dn mice in the novel place recognition, novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tasks, but did not affect locomotion and performance in T-maze. The treatment increased hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), equally in 2N and Ts65Dn mice. In hippocampal slices, treatment with the GABAB receptor antagonists CGP55845 or CGP52432 enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the Ts65Dn DG. The enhancement of LTP was accompanied by an increase in the NMDA receptor-mediated component of the tetanus-evoked responses. These findings are evidence for a contribution of GABAB receptors to changes in hippocampal-based cognition in the Ts65Dn mouse. The ability to rescue cognitive performance through treatment with selective GABAB receptor antagonists motivates studies to further explore the therapeutic potential of these compounds in people with DS. PMID:22764230

  16. Adeno-associated virus-mediated rescue of the cognitive defects in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Daily, Jennifer L; Nash, Kevin; Jinwal, Umesh; Golde, Todd; Rogers, Justin; Peters, Melinda M; Burdine, Rebecca D; Dickey, Chad; Banko, Jessica L; Weeber, Edwin J

    2011-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS), a genetic disorder occurring in approximately one in every 15,000 births, is characterized by severe mental retardation, seizures, difficulty speaking and ataxia. The gene responsible for AS was discovered to be UBE3A and encodes for E6-AP, an ubiquitin ligase. A unique feature of this gene is that it undergoes maternal imprinting in a neuron-specific manner. In the majority of AS cases, there is a mutation or deletion in the maternally inherited UBE3A gene, although other cases are the result of uniparental disomy or mismethylation of the maternal gene. While most human disorders characterized by severe mental retardation involve abnormalities in brain structure, no gross anatomical changes are associated with AS. However, we have determined that abnormal calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) regulation is seen in the maternal UBE3A deletion AS mouse model and is responsible for the major phenotypes. Specifically, there is an increased αCaMKII phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation sites Thr(286) and Thr(305/306), resulting in an overall decrease in CaMKII activity. CaMKII is not produced until after birth, indicating that the deficits associated with AS are not the result of developmental abnormalities. The present studies are focused on exploring the potential to rescue the learning and memory deficits in the adult AS mouse model through the use of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to increase neuronal UBE3A expression. These studies show that increasing the levels of E6-AP in the brain using an exogenous vector can improve the cognitive deficits associated with AS. Specifically, the associative learning deficit was ameliorated in the treated AS mice compared to the control AS mice, indicating that therapeutic intervention may be possible in older AS patients.

  17. Proteomics, Ultrastructure, and Physiology of Hippocampal Synapses in a Fragile X Syndrome Mouse Model Reveal Presynaptic Phenotype*

    PubMed Central

    Klemmer, Patricia; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Holmgren, Carl D.; Klychnikov, Oleg I.; Stahl-Zeng, Jianru; Loos, Maarten; van der Schors, Roel C.; Wortel, Joke; de Wit, Heidi; Spijker, Sabine; Rotaru, Diana C.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Smit, August B.; Li, Ka Wan

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common form of hereditary mental retardation, is caused by a loss-of-function mutation of the Fmr1 gene, which encodes fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP affects dendritic protein synthesis, thereby causing synaptic abnormalities. Here, we used a quantitative proteomics approach in an FXS mouse model to reveal changes in levels of hippocampal synapse proteins. Sixteen independent pools of Fmr1 knock-out mice and wild type mice were analyzed using two sets of 8-plex iTRAQ experiments. Of 205 proteins quantified with at least three distinct peptides in both iTRAQ series, the abundance of 23 proteins differed between Fmr1 knock-out and wild type synapses with a false discovery rate (q-value) <5%. Significant differences were confirmed by quantitative immunoblotting. A group of proteins that are known to be involved in cell differentiation and neurite outgrowth was regulated; they included Basp1 and Gap43, known PKC substrates, and Cend1. Basp1 and Gap43 are predominantly expressed in growth cones and presynaptic terminals. In line with this, ultrastructural analysis in developing hippocampal FXS synapses revealed smaller active zones with corresponding postsynaptic densities and smaller pools of clustered vesicles, indicative of immature presynaptic maturation. A second group of proteins involved in synaptic vesicle release was up-regulated in the FXS mouse model. In accordance, paired-pulse and short-term facilitation were significantly affected in these hippocampal synapses. Together, the altered regulation of presynaptically expressed proteins, immature synaptic ultrastructure, and compromised short-term plasticity points to presynaptic changes underlying glutamatergic transmission in FXS at this stage of development. PMID:21596744

  18. Modulation of steroidogenesis by vitamin D3 in granulosa cells of the mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakhshalizadeh, Shabnam; Amidi, Fardin; Alleyassin, Ashraf; Soleimani, Masoud; Shirazi, Reza; Shabani Nashtaei, Maryam

    2017-03-27

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder of women of reproductive age characterized by polycystic ovarian morphology, anovulation or oligomenorrhea, and hyperandrogenism. It is shown that disruption in the steroidogenesis pathway caused by excess androgen in PCOS is a critical element of abnormal folliculogenesis and failure in dominant follicle selection. Vitamin D plays an important role in the regulation of ovulatory dysfunction and can influence genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vitamin D3 on steroidogenic enzyme expression and activities in granulosa cell using a PCOS mouse model. In our study, the PCOS mouse model was developed by the injection of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for 20 days. The mRNA and protein expression levels of genes involved in steroidogenesis in granulosa cells were compared between polycystic and normal ovaries using real-time PCR and Western blotting assays. Granulosa cells of DHEA-induced PCOS mice were then cultured with and without vitamin D3 and mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes and serum 17beta-estradiol and progesterone levels were investigated using qRT-PCR, western blot, and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Steroidogenic enzymes including Cyp11a1, StAR, Cyp19a1, and 3β-HSD were upregulated in granulosa cells of PCOS mice when compared to normal mice. Treatment with vitamin D3 decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic enzymes in cultured granulosa cells. Vitamin D3 also decreased aromatase and 3β-HSD activity that leads to decreased 17beta-estradiol and progesterone release. This study suggests that vitamin D3 could modulate the steroidogenesis pathway in granulosa cells of PCOS mice that may lead to improving follicular development and maturation. This is a step towards a possible conceivable treatment for PCOS.

  19. Interaction Between Emotion and Memory: Importance of Mammillary Bodies Damage in a Mouse Model of the Alcoholic Korsakoff Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Béracochéa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) can lead to the Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a memory deficiency attributed to diencephalie damage and/or to medial temporal or cortical related dysfunction. The etiology of KS remains unclear. Most animal models of KS involve thiaminedeficient diets associated with pyrithiamine treatment. Here we present a mouse model of CAC-induced KS. We demonstrate that CAC-generated retrieval memory deficits in working/ episodic memory tasks, together with a reduction of fear reactivity, result from damage to the mammillary bodies (MB). Experimental lesions of MB in non-alcoholic mice produced the same memory and emotional impairments. Drugs having anxiogenic-like properties counteract such impairments produced by CAC or by MB lesions. We suggest (a) that MB are the essential components of a brain network underlying emotional processes, which would be critically important in the retrieval processes involved in working/ episodic memory tasks, and (b) that failure to maintain emotional arousal due to MB damage can be a main factor of CAC-induced memory deficits. Overall, our animal model fits well with general neuropsychological and anatomic impairments observed in KS. PMID:16444899

  20. Interaction between emotion and memory: importance of mammillary bodies damage in a mouse model of the alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Béracochéa, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption (CAC) can lead to the Korsakoff syndrome (KS), a memory deficiency attributed to diencephalic damage and/or to medial temporal or cortical related dysfunction. The etiology of KS remains unclear. Most animal models of KS involve thiamine-deficient diets associated with pyrithiamine treatment. Here we present a mouse model of CAC-induced KS. We demonstrate that CAC-generated retrieval memory deficits in working/ episodic memory tasks, together with a reduction of fear reactivity, result from damage to the mammillary bodies (MB). Experimental lesions of MB in non-alcoholic mice produced the same memory and emotional impairments. Drugs having anxiogenic-like properties counteract such impairments produced by CAC or by MB lesions. We suggest (a) that MB are the essential components of a brain network underlying emotional processes, which would be critically important in the retrieval processes involved in working/ episodic memory tasks, and (b) that failure to maintain emotional arousal due to MB damage can be a main factor of CAC-induced memory deficits. Overall, our animal model fits well with general neuropsychological and anatomic impairments observed in KS.

  1. Lifespan extension by dietary intervention in a mouse model of Cockayne Syndrome uncouples early postnatal development from segmental progeria

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Lear E.; Vose, Sarah C.; Vargas, Dorathy F.; Zhao, Shuangyun; Wang, Xiu-Ping; Mitchell, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Cockayne Syndrome (CS) is a rare autosomal recessive segmental progeria characterized by growth failure, lipodystrophy, neurological abnormalities and photosensitivity but without skin cancer predisposition. CS life expectancy ranges from 5 to 16 years for the two most severe forms (Types II and I, respectively). Mouse models of CS have thus far been of limited value due either to very mild phenotypes, or premature death during postnatal development prior to weaning. The cause of death in severe CS models is unknown but has been attributed to extremely rapid aging. Here, we found that providing mutant pups with soft food from as late as postnatal day 14 allowed survival past weaning with high penetrance independent of dietary macronutrient balance in a novel CS model (Csa-/- ∣ Xpa-/-). Survival past weaning revealed a number of CS-like symptoms including small size, progressive loss of adiposity and neurological symptoms, with a maximum lifespan of 19 weeks. Our results caution against interpretation of death before weaning as premature aging, and at the same time provide a valuable new tool for understanding mechanisms of progressive CS-related progeroid symptoms including lipodystrophy and neurodysfunction. PMID:23895664

  2. Massively Parallel Sequencing Reveals the Complex Structure of an Irradiated Human Chromosome on a Mouse Background in the Tc1 Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Stephen; Prigmore, Elena; Langley, Elizabeth; Yang, Fengtang; Maguire, Sean; Fu, Beiyuan; Rajan, Diana; Sheppard, Olivia; Scott, Carol; Hauser, Heidi; Stephens, Philip J.; Stebbings, Lucy A.; Ng, Bee Ling; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Quail, Michael A.; Banerjee, Ruby; Rothkamm, Kai; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Carter, Nigel P.

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and presents a complex phenotype that arises from abnormal dosage of genes on this chromosome. However, the individual dosage-sensitive genes underlying each phenotype remain largely unknown. To help dissect genotype – phenotype correlations in this complex syndrome, the first fully transchromosomic mouse model, the Tc1 mouse, which carries a copy of human chromosome 21 was produced in 2005. The Tc1 strain is trisomic for the majority of genes that cause phenotypes associated with DS, and this freely available mouse strain has become used widely to study DS, the effects of gene dosage abnormalities, and the effect on the basic biology of cells when a mouse carries a freely segregating human chromosome. Tc1 mice were created by a process that included irradiation microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of Hsa21 into recipient mouse embryonic stem cells. Here, the combination of next generation sequencing, array-CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization technologies has enabled us to identify unsuspected rearrangements of Hsa21 in this mouse model; revealing one deletion, six duplications and more than 25 de novo structural rearrangements. Our study is not only essential for informing functional studies of the Tc1 mouse but also (1) presents for the first time a detailed sequence analysis of the effects of gamma radiation on an entire human chromosome, which gives some mechanistic insight into the effects of radiation damage on DNA, and (2) overcomes specific technical difficulties of assaying a human chromosome on a mouse background where highly conserved sequences may confound the analysis. Sequence data generated in this study is deposited in the ENA database, Study Accession number: ERP000439. PMID:23596509

  3. Massively parallel sequencing reveals the complex structure of an irradiated human chromosome on a mouse background in the Tc1 model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Susan M; Wiseman, Frances K; Clayton, Stephen; Prigmore, Elena; Langley, Elizabeth; Yang, Fengtang; Maguire, Sean; Fu, Beiyuan; Rajan, Diana; Sheppard, Olivia; Scott, Carol; Hauser, Heidi; Stephens, Philip J; Stebbings, Lucy A; Ng, Bee Ling; Fitzgerald, Tomas; Quail, Michael A; Banerjee, Ruby; Rothkamm, Kai; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Carter, Nigel P

    2013-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and presents a complex phenotype that arises from abnormal dosage of genes on this chromosome. However, the individual dosage-sensitive genes underlying each phenotype remain largely unknown. To help dissect genotype--phenotype correlations in this complex syndrome, the first fully transchromosomic mouse model, the Tc1 mouse, which carries a copy of human chromosome 21 was produced in 2005. The Tc1 strain is trisomic for the majority of genes that cause phenotypes associated with DS, and this freely available mouse strain has become used widely to study DS, the effects of gene dosage abnormalities, and the effect on the basic biology of cells when a mouse carries a freely segregating human chromosome. Tc1 mice were created by a process that included irradiation microcell-mediated chromosome transfer of Hsa21 into recipient mouse embryonic stem cells. Here, the combination of next generation sequencing, array-CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization technologies has enabled us to identify unsuspected rearrangements of Hsa21 in this mouse model; revealing one deletion, six duplications and more than 25 de novo structural rearrangements. Our study is not only essential for informing functional studies of the Tc1 mouse but also (1) presents for the first time a detailed sequence analysis of the effects of gamma radiation on an entire human chromosome, which gives some mechanistic insight into the effects of radiation damage on DNA, and (2) overcomes specific technical difficulties of assaying a human chromosome on a mouse background where highly conserved sequences may confound the analysis. Sequence data generated in this study is deposited in the ENA database, Study Accession number: ERP000439.

  4. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse).

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence.

  5. Histopathological characteristics of glutamine synthetase-positive hepatic tumor lesions in a mouse model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome (TSOD mouse)

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Nishida, Takeshi; Baba, Hayato; Hatta, Hideki; Imura, Johji; Sutoh, Mitsuko; Toyohara, Syunji; Hokao, Ryoji; Watanabe, Syunsuke; Ogawa, Hirohisa; Uehara, Hisanori; Tsuneyama, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that Tsumura-Suzuki obese diabetic (TSOD) mice, a polygenic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, is a valuable model of hepatic carcinogenesis via non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). One of the characteristics of tumors in these mice is the diffuse expression of glutamine synthetase (GS), which is a diagnostic marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we performed detailed histopathological examinations and found that GS expression was diffusely positive in >70% of the hepatic tumors from 15-month-old male TSOD mice. Translocation of β-catenin into nuclei with enhanced membranous expression also occurred in GS-positive tumors. Small lesions (<1 mm) in GS-positive cases exhibited dysplastic nodules, with severe nuclear atypia, whereas large lesions (>3 mm) bore the characteristics of human HCC, exhibiting nuclear and structural atypia with invasive growth. By contrast, the majority of GS-negative tumors were hepatocellular adenomas with advanced fatty change and low nuclear grade. In GS-negative tumors, loss of liver fatty acid-binding protein expression was observed. These results suggest that the histological characteristics of GS-positive hepatic tumors in TSOD mice resemble human HCC; thus, this model may be a useful tool in translational research targeting the NAFLD/NASH-HCC sequence. PMID:27446562

  6. Nephronophthisis and retinal degeneration in tmem218-/- mice: a novel mouse model for Senior-Løken syndrome?

    PubMed

    Vogel, P; Gelfman, C M; Issa, T; Payne, B J; Hansen, G M; Read, R W; Jones, C; Pitcher, M R; Ding, Z-M; DaCosta, C M; Shadoan, M K; Vance, R B; Powell, D R

    2015-05-01

    Mice deficient in TMEM218 (Tmem218(-/-) ) were generated as part of an effort to identify and validate pharmaceutically tractable targets for drug development through large-scale phenotypic screening of knockout mice. Routine diagnostics, expression analysis, histopathology, and electroretinogram analyses completed on Tmem218(-/-) mice identified a previously unknown role for TMEM218 in the development and function of the kidney and eye. The major observed phenotypes in Tmem218(-/-) mice were progressive cystic kidney disease and retinal degeneration. The renal lesions were characterized by diffuse renal cyst development with tubulointerstitial nephropathy and disruption of tubular basement membranes in essentially normal-sized kidneys. The retinal lesions were characterized by slow-onset loss of photoreceptors, which resulted in reduced electroretinogram responses. These renal and retinal lesions are most similar to those associated with nephronophthisis (NPHP) and retinitis pigmentosa in humans. At least 10% of NPHP cases present with extrarenal conditions, which most often include retinal degeneration. Senior-Løken syndrome is characterized by the concurrent development of autosomal recessive NPHP and retinitis pigmentosa. Since mutations in the known NPHP genes collectively account for only about 30% of NPHP cases, it is possible that TMEM218 could be involved in the development of similar ciliopathies in humans. In reviewing all other reported mouse models of NPHP, we suggest that Tmem218(-/-) mice could provide a useful model for elucidating the pathogenesis of cilia-associated disease in both the kidney and the retina, as well as in developing and testing novel therapeutic strategies for Senior-Løken syndrome.

  7. Designer receptors enhance memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fortress, Ashley M; Hamlett, Eric D; Vazey, Elena M; Aston-Jones, Gary; Cass, Wayne A; Boger, Heather A; Granholm, Ann-Charlotte E

    2015-01-28

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are novel and powerful tools to investigate discrete neuronal populations in the brain. We have used DREADDs to stimulate degenerating neurons in a Down syndrome (DS) model, Ts65Dn mice. Individuals with DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and have elevated risk for dementia starting in their 30s and 40s. Individuals with DS often exhibit working memory deficits coupled with degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. It is thought that LC degeneration precedes other AD-related neuronal loss, and LC noradrenergic integrity is important for executive function, working memory, and attention. Previous studies have shown that LC-enhancing drugs can slow the progression of AD pathology, including amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We have shown that LC degeneration in Ts65Dn mice leads to exaggerated memory loss and neuronal degeneration. We used a DREADD, hM3Dq, administered via adeno-associated virus into the LC under a synthetic promoter, PRSx8, to selectively stimulate LC neurons by exogenous administration of the inert DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide. DREADD stimulation of LC-NE enhanced performance in a novel object recognition task and reduced hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice, without significant behavioral effects in controls. To confirm that the noradrenergic transmitter system was responsible for the enhanced memory function, the NE prodrug l-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine was administered in Ts65Dn and normosomic littermate control mice, and produced similar behavioral results. Thus, NE stimulation may prevent memory loss in Ts65Dn mice, and may hold promise for treatment in individuals with DS and dementia.

  8. Dysfunctional oleoylethanolamide signaling in a mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; Narayanaswami, Vidya; Kimonis, Virginia; Galassetti, Pietro M; Oveisi, Fariba; Jung, Kwang-Mook; Piomelli, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), the leading genetic cause of obesity, is characterized by a striking hyperphagic behavior that can lead to obesity, type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death. The molecular mechanism underlying impaired satiety in PWS is unknown. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a lipid mediator involved in the control of feeding, body weight and energy metabolism. OEA produced by small-intestinal enterocytes during dietary fat digestion activates type-α peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α) to trigger an afferent signal that causes satiety. Emerging evidence from genetic and human laboratory studies suggests that deficits in OEA-mediated signaling might be implicated in human obesity. In the present study, we investigated whether OEA contributes to feeding dysregulation in Magel2(m+/p-) (Magel2 KO) mice, an animal model of PWS. Fasted/refed male Magel2 KO mice eat more than do their wild-type littermates and become overweight with age. Meal pattern analyses show that hyperphagia in Magel2 KO is due to increased meal size and meal duration rather than to lengthening of the intermeal interval, which is suggestive of a defect in mechanisms underlying satiation. Food-dependent OEA accumulation in jejunum and fasting OEA levels in plasma are significantly greater in Magel2 KO mice than in wild-type controls. Together, these findings indicate that deletion of the Magel2 gene is accompanied by marked changes in OEA signaling. Importantly, intraperitoneal administration of OEA (10mg/kg) significantly reduces food intake in fasted/refed Magel2 KO mice, pointing to a possible use of this natural compound to control hunger in PWS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Designer Receptors Enhance Memory in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Hamlett, Eric D.; Vazey, Elena M.; Aston-Jones, Gary; Cass, Wayne A.; Boger, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) are novel and powerful tools to investigate discrete neuronal populations in the brain. We have used DREADDs to stimulate degenerating neurons in a Down syndrome (DS) model, Ts65Dn mice. Individuals with DS develop Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology and have elevated risk for dementia starting in their 30s and 40s. Individuals with DS often exhibit working memory deficits coupled with degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine (NE) neurons. It is thought that LC degeneration precedes other AD-related neuronal loss, and LC noradrenergic integrity is important for executive function, working memory, and attention. Previous studies have shown that LC-enhancing drugs can slow the progression of AD pathology, including amyloid aggregation, oxidative stress, and inflammation. We have shown that LC degeneration in Ts65Dn mice leads to exaggerated memory loss and neuronal degeneration. We used a DREADD, hM3Dq, administered via adeno-associated virus into the LC under a synthetic promoter, PRSx8, to selectively stimulate LC neurons by exogenous administration of the inert DREADD ligand clozapine-N-oxide. DREADD stimulation of LC-NE enhanced performance in a novel object recognition task and reduced hyperactivity in Ts65Dn mice, without significant behavioral effects in controls. To confirm that the noradrenergic transmitter system was responsible for the enhanced memory function, the NE prodrug l-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine was administered in Ts65Dn and normosomic littermate control mice, and produced similar behavioral results. Thus, NE stimulation may prevent memory loss in Ts65Dn mice, and may hold promise for treatment in individuals with DS and dementia. PMID:25632113

  10. Systemic Delivery of MeCP2 Rescues Behavioral and Cellular Deficits in Female Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Saurabh K.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Cheval, Hélène; McGann, James C.; Bissonnette, John M.; Murtha, Matthew J.; Foust, Kevin D.; Kaspar, Brian K.; Bird, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    De novo mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the most frequent cause of the neurological disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Hemizygous males usually die of neonatal encephalopathy. Heterozygous females survive into adulthood but exhibit severe symptoms including microcephaly, loss of purposeful hand motions and speech, and motor abnormalities, which appear after a period of apparently normal development. Most studies have focused on male mouse models because of the shorter latency to and severity in symptoms, yet how well these mice mimic the disease in affected females is not clear. Very few therapeutic treatments have been proposed for females, the more gender-appropriate model. Here, we show that self-complementary AAV9, bearing MeCP2 cDNA under control of a fragment of its own promoter (scAAV9/MeCP2), is capable of significantly stabilizing or reversing symptoms when administered systemically into female RTT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first potential gene therapy for females afflicted with RTT. PMID:23966684

  11. Affective dysfunction in a mouse model of Rett syndrome: Therapeutic effects of environmental stimulation and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mari A; Gray, Laura J; Pelka, Gregory J; Leang, Sook-Kwan; Christodoulou, John; Tam, Patrick P L; Hannan, Anthony J

    2016-02-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with mutations in the X-linked gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) and consequent dysregulation of brain maturation. Patients suffer from a range of debilitating physical symptoms, however, behavioral and emotional symptoms also severely affect their quality of life. Here, we present previously unreported and clinically relevant affective dysfunction in the female heterozygous Mecp2(tm1Tam) mouse model of RTT (129sv and C57BL6 mixed background). The affective dysfunction and aberrant anxiety-related behavior of the Mecp2(+/-) mice were found to be reversible with environmental enrichment (EE) from 4 weeks of age. The effect of exercise alone (via wheel running) was also explored, providing the first evidence that increased voluntary physical activity in an animal model of RTT is beneficial for some phenotypes. Mecp2(+/-) mutants displayed elevated corticosterone despite decreased Crh expression, demonstrating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. EE of Mecp2(+/-) mice normalized basal serum corticosterone and hippocampal BDNF protein levels. The enrichment-induced rescue appears independent of the transcriptional regulation of the MeCP2 targets Bdnf exon 4 and Crh. These findings provide new insight into the neurodevelopmental role of MeCP2 and pathogenesis of RTT, in particular the affective dysfunction. The positive outcomes of environmental stimulation and physical exercise have implications for the development of therapies targeting the affective symptoms, as well as behavioral and cognitive dimensions, of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  12. Systemic delivery of MeCP2 rescues behavioral and cellular deficits in female mouse models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garg, Saurabh K; Lioy, Daniel T; Cheval, Hélène; McGann, James C; Bissonnette, John M; Murtha, Matthew J; Foust, Kevin D; Kaspar, Brian K; Bird, Adrian; Mandel, Gail

    2013-08-21

    De novo mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcription factor methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) are the most frequent cause of the neurological disorder Rett syndrome (RTT). Hemizygous males usually die of neonatal encephalopathy. Heterozygous females survive into adulthood but exhibit severe symptoms including microcephaly, loss of purposeful hand motions and speech, and motor abnormalities, which appear after a period of apparently normal development. Most studies have focused on male mouse models because of the shorter latency to and severity in symptoms, yet how well these mice mimic the disease in affected females is not clear. Very few therapeutic treatments have been proposed for females, the more gender-appropriate model. Here, we show that self-complementary AAV9, bearing MeCP2 cDNA under control of a fragment of its own promoter (scAAV9/MeCP2), is capable of significantly stabilizing or reversing symptoms when administered systemically into female RTT mice. To our knowledge, this is the first potential gene therapy for females afflicted with RTT.

  13. Aberrant Wnt signalling and cellular over-proliferation in a novel mouse model of Meckel-Gruber syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wheway, Gabrielle; Abdelhamed, Zakia; Natarajan, Subaashini; Toomes, Carmel; Inglehearn, Chris; Johnson, Colin A

    2013-05-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MKS) is an embryonic lethal ciliopathy resulting from mutations in genes encoding proteins localising to the primary cilium. Mutations in the basal body protein MKS1 account for 7% of cases of MKS. The condition affects the development of multiple organs, including brain, kidney and skeleton. Here we present a novel Mks1(tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi) knockout mouse which accurately recapitulates the human condition, consistently developing pre-axial polydactyly, complex posterior fossa defects (including the Dandy-Walker malformation), and renal cystic dysplasia. TOPFlash Wnt reporter assays in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) showed general de-regulated high levels of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signalling in Mks1(-/-) cells. In addition to these signalling defects, we also observed ectopic high proliferation in the brain and kidney of mutant animals at mid- to late-gestation. The specific role of Mks1 in regulating cell proliferation was confirmed in Mks1 siRNA knockdown experiments which showed increased levels of proliferation after knockdown, an effect not seen after knockdown of other ciliopathy genes. We suggest that this is a result of the de-regulation of multiple signalling pathways (Wnt, mTOR and Hh) in the absence of functional Mks1. This novel model system offers insights into the role of MKS1 in Wnt signalling and proliferation, and the impact of deregulation of these processes on brain and kidney development in MKS, as well as expanding our understanding of the role of Mks1 in multiple signalling pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. DRUG-BASED THERAPIES FOR VASCULAR DISEASE IN MARFAN SYNDROME: FROM MOUSE MODELS TO HUMAN PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Jason R.; Nistala, Harikiran; Ramirez, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a congenital disorder of the connective tissue with a long history of clinical and basic science breakthroughs that have forged our understanding of vascular disease pathogenesis. The biomedical importance of Marfan syndrome was recently underscored by the discovery that the underlying genetic lesion impairs both tissue integrity and transforming growth factor-β regulation of cell behavior. This discovery has led to the successful implementation of the first pharmacological intervention in a connective tissue disorder otherwise incurable by either gene- or stem cell-based therapeutic strategies. More generally, information gathered from the study of Marfan syndrome pathogenesis has the potential to improve the clinical management of common acquired disorders of connective tissue degeneration. PMID:20687182

  15. Genetic analysis of Down syndrome facilitated by mouse chromosome engineering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Fu, Dawei; Belichenko, Pavel V.; Liu, Chunhong; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Pao, Annie; Liang, Ping; Clapcote, Steven J.; Mobley, William C.; Yu, Y. Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Human trisomy 21 is the most frequent live-born human aneuploidy and causes a constellation of disease phenotypes classified as Down syndrome, which include heart defects, myeloproliferative disorder, cognitive disabilities and Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. Because these phenotypes are associated with an extra copy of a human chromosome, the genetic analysis of Down syndrome has been a major challenge. To complement human genetic approaches, mouse models have been generated and analyzed based on evolutionary conservation between the human and mouse genomes. These efforts have been greatly facilitated by Cre/loxP-mediated mouse chromosome engineering, which may result in the establishment of minimal critical genomic regions and eventually new dosage-sensitive genes associated with Down syndrome phenotypes. The success in genetic analysis of Down syndrome will further enhance our understanding of this disorder and lead to better strategies in developing effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:22126738

  16. Characterization and Demonstration of the Value of a Lethal Mouse Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Xinrong; Garron, Tania; Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Algaissi, Abdullah; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Couch, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Characterized animal models are needed for studying the pathogenesis of and evaluating medical countermeasures for persisting Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Here, we further characterized a lethal transgenic mouse model of MERS-CoV infection and disease that globally expresses human CD26 (hCD26)/DPP4. The 50% infectious dose (ID50) and lethal dose (LD50) of virus were estimated to be <1 and 10 TCID50 of MERS-CoV, respectively. Neutralizing antibody developed in the surviving mice from the ID50/LD50 determinations, and all were fully immune to challenge with 100 LD50 of MERS-CoV. The tissue distribution and histopathology in mice challenged with a potential working dose of 10 LD50 of MERS-CoV were subsequently evaluated. In contrast to the overwhelming infection seen in the mice challenged with 105 LD50 of MERS-CoV, we were able to recover infectious virus from these mice only infrequently, although quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests indicated early and persistent lung infection and delayed occurrence of brain infection. Persistent inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the lungs and brain stems at day 2 and day 6 after infection, respectively. While focal infiltrates were also noted in the liver, definite pathology was not seen in other tissues. Finally, using a receptor binding domain protein vaccine and a MERS-CoV fusion inhibitor, we demonstrated the value of this model for evaluating vaccines and antivirals against MERS. As outcomes of MERS-CoV infection in patients differ greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to overwhelming disease and death, having available both an infection model and a lethal model makes this transgenic mouse model relevant for advancing MERS research. IMPORTANCE Fully characterized animal models are essential for studying pathogenesis and for preclinical screening of vaccines and drugs against MERS-CoV infection and disease. When given a high dose of MERS-CoV, our transgenic

  17. Characterization and Demonstration of the Value of a Lethal Mouse Model of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection and Disease.

    PubMed

    Tao, Xinrong; Garron, Tania; Agrawal, Anurodh Shankar; Algaissi, Abdullah; Peng, Bi-Hung; Wakamiya, Maki; Chan, Teh-Sheng; Lu, Lu; Du, Lanying; Jiang, Shibo; Couch, Robert B; Tseng, Chien-Te K

    2015-10-07

    Characterized animal models are needed for studying the pathogenesis of and evaluating medical countermeasures for persisting Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infections. Here, we further characterized a lethal transgenic mouse model of MERS-CoV infection and disease that globally expresses human CD26 (hCD26)/DPP4. The 50% infectious dose (ID50) and lethal dose (LD50) of virus were estimated to be <1 and 10 TCID50 of MERS-CoV, respectively. Neutralizing antibody developed in the surviving mice from the ID50/LD50 determinations, and all were fully immune to challenge with 100 LD50 of MERS-CoV. The tissue distribution and histopathology in mice challenged with a potential working dose of 10 LD50 of MERS-CoV were subsequently evaluated. In contrast to the overwhelming infection seen in the mice challenged with 10(5) LD50 of MERS-CoV, we were able to recover infectious virus from these mice only infrequently, although quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) tests indicated early and persistent lung infection and delayed occurrence of brain infection. Persistent inflammatory infiltrates were seen in the lungs and brain stems at day 2 and day 6 after infection, respectively. While focal infiltrates were also noted in the liver, definite pathology was not seen in other tissues. Finally, using a receptor binding domain protein vaccine and a MERS-CoV fusion inhibitor, we demonstrated the value of this model for evaluating vaccines and antivirals against MERS. As outcomes of MERS-CoV infection in patients differ greatly, ranging from asymptomatic to overwhelming disease and death, having available both an infection model and a lethal model makes this transgenic mouse model relevant for advancing MERS research. Fully characterized animal models are essential for studying pathogenesis and for preclinical screening of vaccines and drugs against MERS-CoV infection and disease. When given a high dose of MERS-CoV, our transgenic mice expressing h

  18. Genome-wide alteration of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in a mouse model of fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Bing; Lin, Li; Street, R. Craig; Zalewski, Zachary A.; Galloway, Jocelyn N.; Wu, Hao; Nelson, David L.; Jin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder in which patients carry premutation alleles of 55–200 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene. To date, whether alterations in epigenetic regulation modulate FXTAS has gone unexplored. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) converted from 5-methylcytosine (5mC) by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) family of proteins has been found recently to play key roles in neuronal functions. Here, we undertook genome-wide profiling of cerebellar 5hmC in a FXTAS mouse model (rCGG mice) and found that rCGG mice at 16 weeks showed overall reduced 5hmC levels genome-wide compared with age-matched wild-type littermates. However, we also observed gain-of-5hmC regions in repetitive elements, as well as in cerebellum-specific enhancers, but not in general enhancers. Genomic annotation and motif prediction of wild-type- and rCGG-specific differential 5-hydroxymethylated regions (DhMRs) revealed their high correlation with genes and transcription factors that are important in neuronal developmental and functional pathways. DhMR-associated genes partially overlapped with genes that were differentially associated with ribosomes in CGG mice identified by bacTRAP ribosomal profiling. Taken together, our data strongly indicate a functional role for 5hmC-mediated epigenetic modulation in the etiology of FXTAS, possibly through the regulation of transcription. PMID:24108107

  19. Seizure-like activity in a juvenile Angelman syndrome mouse model is attenuated by reducing Arc expression.

    PubMed

    Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; Salogiannis, John; Dhamne, Sameer C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Greenberg, Michael E

    2015-04-21

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder arising from loss-of-function mutations in the maternally inherited copy of the UBE3A gene, and is characterized by an absence of speech, excessive laughter, cognitive delay, motor deficits, and seizures. Despite the fact that the symptoms of AS occur in early childhood, behavioral characterization of AS mouse models has focused primarily on adult phenotypes. In this report we describe juvenile behaviors in AS mice that are strain-independent and clinically relevant. We find that young AS mice, compared with their wild-type littermates, produce an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations. In addition, young AS mice have defects in motor coordination, as well as abnormal brain activity that results in an enhanced seizure-like response to an audiogenic challenge. The enhanced seizure-like activity, but not the increased ultrasonic vocalizations or motor deficits, is rescued in juvenile AS mice by genetically reducing the expression level of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that reduce the level of Arc expression have the potential to reverse the seizures associated with AS. In addition, the identification of aberrant behaviors in young AS mice may provide clues regarding the neural circuit defects that occur in AS and ultimately allow new approaches for treating this disorder.

  20. Rescue of synaptic failure and alleviation of learning and memory impairments in a trisomic mouse model of down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Julie; Bolognin, Silvia; Chohan, Muhammad Omar; Rabe, Ausma; Iqbal, Khalid; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is caused by the triplication of ∼240 protein-coding genes on chromosome 21 and is the most prevalent form of developmental disability. This condition results in abnormalities in many organ systems, as well as in intellectual retardation. Many previous efforts to understand brain dysfunction in DS have indicated that cognitive deficits are coincident with reduced synaptic plasticity and decreased neuronal proliferation. One therapeutic strategy for optimizing the microenvironment for neuronal proliferation and synaptic plasticity in the brain is the use of neurotrophins to restore the homeostasis of the brain biochemical milieu. Here, we show that peripheral administration of Peptide 6, an 11-mer corresponding to an active region of ciliary neurotrophic factor, amino acid residues 146 to 156, can inhibit learning and memory impairments in Ts65Dn mice, a trisomic mouse model of DS. Long-term treatment with Peptide 6 enhanced the pool of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus and increased levels of synaptic proteins crucial for synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of Peptide 6 in promoting functional neural integration into networks, thereby strengthening biologic substrates of memory processing.

  1. Endocannabinoid-mediated improvement on a test of aversive memory in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qin, Mei; Zeidler, Zachary; Moulton, Kristen; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Smith, Carolyn B

    2015-09-15

    Silencing the gene FMR1 in fragile X syndrome (FXS) with consequent loss of its protein product, FMRP, results in intellectual disability, hyperactivity, anxiety, seizure disorders, and autism-like behavior. In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, a deficit in performance on the passive avoidance test of learning and memory is a robust phenotype. We report that drugs acting on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system can improve performance on this test. We present three lines of evidence: (1) Propofol (reported to inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity) administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on wild type (WT). FAAH catalyzes the metabolism of the eCB, anandamide, so its inhibition should result in increased anandamide levels. (2) The effect of propofol was blocked by prior administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist AM-251. (3) Treatment with the FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test also improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on WT. Our results indicate that the eCB system is involved in FXS and suggest that the eCB system is a promising target for treatment of FXS.

  2. Environmental enrichment reveals effects of genotype on hippocampal spine morphologies in the mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lauterborn, Julie C; Jafari, Matiar; Babayan, Alex H; Gall, Christine M

    2015-02-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) and the Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse model of this disorder exhibit abnormal dendritic spines in neocortex, but the degree of spine disturbances in hippocampus is not clear. The present studies tested if the mutation influences dendritic branching and spine measures for CA1 pyramidal cells in Fmr1 KO and wild-type (WT) mice provided standard or enriched environment (EE) housing. Automated measures from 3D reconstructions of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled cells showed that spine head volumes were ∼ 40% lower in KOs when compared with WTs in both housing conditions. With standard housing, average spine length was greater in KOs versus WTs but there was no genotype difference in dendritic branching, numbers of spines, or spine length distribution. However, with EE rearing, significant effects of genotype emerged including greater dendritic branching in WTs, greater spine density in KOs, and greater numbers of short thin spines in KOs when compared with WTs. Thus, EE rearing revealed greater effects of the Fmr1 mutation on hippocampal pyramidal cell morphology than was evident with standard housing, suggesting that environmental enrichment allows for fuller appreciation of the impact of the mutation and better representation of abnormalities likely to be present in human FXS.

  3. Region-specific impairments in striatal synaptic transmission and impaired instrumental learning in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayrapetyan, Volodya; Castro, Stephen; Sukharnikova, Tatyana; Yu, Chunxiu; Cao, Xinyu; Jiang, Yong-Hui; Yin, Henry H

    2014-03-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mental retardation and impaired speech. Because patients with this disorder often exhibit motor tremor and stereotypical behaviors, which are associated with basal ganglia pathology, we hypothesized that AS is accompanied by abnormal functioning of the striatum, the input nucleus of the basal ganglia. Using mutant mice with maternal deficiency of AS E6-AP ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+) ), we assessed the effects of Ube3a deficiency on instrumental conditioning, a striatum-dependent task. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recording to measure glutamatergic transmission in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and dorsolateral striatum (DLS). Ube3a(m-/p+) mice were severely impaired in initial acquisition of lever pressing. Whereas the lever pressing of wild-type controls was reduced by outcome devaluation and instrumental contingency reversal, the performance of Ube3a(m-/p+) mice were more habitual, impervious to changes in outcome value and action-outcome contingency. In the DMS, but not the DLS, Ube3a(m-/p+) mice showed reduced amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. These results show for the first time a selective deficit in instrumental conditioning in the Ube3a deficient mouse model, and suggest a specific impairment in glutmatergic transmission in the associative corticostriatal circuit in AS.

  4. Seizure-like activity in a juvenile Angelman syndrome mouse model is attenuated by reducing Arc expression

    PubMed Central

    Mandel-Brehm, Caleigh; Salogiannis, John; Dhamne, Sameer C.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Greenberg, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder arising from loss-of-function mutations in the maternally inherited copy of the UBE3A gene, and is characterized by an absence of speech, excessive laughter, cognitive delay, motor deficits, and seizures. Despite the fact that the symptoms of AS occur in early childhood, behavioral characterization of AS mouse models has focused primarily on adult phenotypes. In this report we describe juvenile behaviors in AS mice that are strain-independent and clinically relevant. We find that young AS mice, compared with their wild-type littermates, produce an increased number of ultrasonic vocalizations. In addition, young AS mice have defects in motor coordination, as well as abnormal brain activity that results in an enhanced seizure-like response to an audiogenic challenge. The enhanced seizure-like activity, but not the increased ultrasonic vocalizations or motor deficits, is rescued in juvenile AS mice by genetically reducing the expression level of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc. These findings suggest that therapeutic interventions that reduce the level of Arc expression have the potential to reverse the seizures associated with AS. In addition, the identification of aberrant behaviors in young AS mice may provide clues regarding the neural circuit defects that occur in AS and ultimately allow new approaches for treating this disorder. PMID:25848016

  5. Fragile X mental retardation protein replacement restores hippocampal synaptic function in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeier, Z; Kumar, A; Bodhinathan, K; Feller, J A; Foster, T C; Bloom, D C

    2009-09-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation that silences the fragile X mental retardation gene (FMR1), which encodes the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). To determine whether FMRP replacement can rescue phenotypic deficits in a fmr1-knockout (KO) mouse model of FXS, we constructed an adeno-associated virus-based viral vector that expresses the major central nervous system (CNS) isoform of FMRP. Using this vector, we tested whether FMRP replacement could rescue the fmr1-KO phenotype of enhanced long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity that may be linked to cognitive impairments associated with FXS. Extracellular excitatory postsynaptic field potentials were recorded from CA3-CA1 synaptic contacts in hippocampal slices from wild-type (WT) and fmr1-KO mice in the presence of AP-5 and anisomycin. Paired-pulse low-frequency stimulation (PP-LFS)-induced LTD is enhanced in slices obtained from fmr1 KO compared with WT mice. Analyses of hippocampal synaptic function in fmr1-KO mice that received hippocampal injections of vector showed that the PP-LFS-induced LTD was restored to WT levels. These results indicate that expression of the major CNS isoform of FMRP alone is sufficient to rescue this phenotype and suggest that post-developmental protein replacement may have the potential to improve cognitive function in FXS.

  6. Administration of Wasabia koreana Ameliorates Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Like Symptoms in a Zymosan-Induced Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Bo-Kyung; Chun, Eunho; Choi, Jeong June; Shin, Younmin; Kho, Young Tak; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Taek Hwan; Kim, Tae-Wan; Shin, Eunju; Do, Seon-Gil; Jin, Mirim

    2017-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disease with complex pathophysiology involving the brain-gut axis. To assess the effects of Wasabia koreana (WK) on IBS, we employed a mouse model of colonic zymosan injection presenting with diarrhea-predominant IBS-like symptoms. Oral WK administration significantly diminished stool score, suppressed colon length and weight change, and minimized body weight loss without affecting food intake. In WK-treated mice, the submucosal thickening and epithelial lining of the colon were inhibited and were similar to those of naïve mice. Infiltration of mast cells into the colon and serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels were markedly suppressed. These effects were comparable to those of sulfasalazine, an anti-inflammatory drug. Furthermore, the number of visceral pain-related behaviors was significantly decreased, and locomotion activities measured in the elevated plus maze and open field tests were significantly increased by WK in a dose-dependent manner compared with amitriptyline, an antidepressant. These changes were accompanied by reduced FosB2 expression in the brain. Taken together, these data suggest that WK may have potential as a medicinal food for IBS by acting on inflammatory diarrhea and neural activity.

  7. Endocannabinoid-mediated improvement on a test of aversive memory in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Mei; Zeidler, Zachary; Moulton, Kristen; Krych, Leland; Xia, Zengyan; Smith, Carolyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Silencing the gene FMR1 in fragile X syndrome (FXS) with consequent loss of its protein product, FMRP, results in intellectual disability, hyperactivity, anxiety, seizure disorders, and autism-like behavior. In a mouse model (Fmr1 knockout (KO)) of FXS, a deficit in performance on the passive avoidance test of learning and memory is a robust phenotype. We report that drugs acting on the endocannabinoid (eCB) system can improve performance on this test. We present three lines of evidence: (1) Propofol (reported to inhibit fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) activity) administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on wild type (WT). FAAH catalyzes the metabolism of the eCB, anandamide, so its inhibition should result in increased anandamide levels. (2) The effect of propofol was blocked by prior administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 antagonist AM-251. (3) Treatment with the FAAH inhibitor, URB-597, administered 30 min after training on the passive avoidance test also improved performance in Fmr1 KO mice but had no effect on WT. Our results indicate that the eCB system is involved in FXS and suggest that the eCB system is a promising target for treatment of FXS. PMID:25979787

  8. Perinatal choline supplementation improves cognitive functioning and emotion regulation in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jisook; Chen, May; Gandhy, Shruti U; Strawderman, Myla; Levitsky, David A; Maclean, Kenneth N; Strupp, Barbara J

    2010-06-01

    In addition to mental retardation, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) also develop the neuropathological changes typical of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the majority of these individuals exhibit dementia. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of these disorders, including early degeneration of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons and impairments in functions dependent on the two CBF projection systems; namely, attention and explicit memory. Herein, we demonstrate that supplementing the maternal diet with excess choline during pregnancy and lactation dramatically improved attentional function of the adult trisomic offspring. Specifically, the adult offspring of choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams performed significantly better than unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice on a series of 5 visual attention tasks, and in fact, on some tasks did not differ from the normosomic (2N) controls. A second area of dysfunction in the trisomic animals, heightened reactivity to committing an error, was partially normalized by the early choline supplementation. The 2N littermates also benefited from increased maternal choline intake on 1 attention task. These findings collectively suggest that perinatal choline supplementation might significantly lessen cognitive dysfunction in DS and reduce cognitive decline in related neurodegenerative disorders such as AD.

  9. Increased Cortical Synaptic Activation of TrkB and Downstream Signaling Markers in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nosheny, RL; Belichenko, PV; Busse, BL; Weissmiller, AM; Dang, V; Das, D; Fahimi, A; Salehi, A; Smith, SJ; Mobley, WC

    2015-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is characterized by synaptic abnormalities and cognitive deficits throughout the lifespan and with development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) neuropathology and progressive cognitive decline in adults. Synaptic abnormalities are also present in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS, but which synapses are affected and the mechanisms underlying synaptic dysfunction are unknown. Here we show marked increases in the levels and activation status of TrkB and associated signaling proteins in cortical synapses in Ts65Dn mice. Proteomic analysis at the single synapse level of resolution using array tomography (AT) uncovered increased colocalization of activated TrkB with signaling endosome related proteins, and demonstrated increased TrkB signaling. The extent of increases in TrkB signaling differed in each of the cortical layers examined and with respect to the type of synapse, with the most marked increases seen in inhibitory synapses. These findings are evidence of markedly abnormal TrkB-mediated signaling in synapses. They raise the possibility that dysregulated TrkB signaling contributes to synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficits in DS. PMID:25753471

  10. Short-term treatment with flumazenil restores long-term object memory in a mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Colas, Damien; Chuluun, Bayarsaikhan; Garner, Craig C; Heller, H Craig

    2017-04-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common genetic cause of intellectual disability yet no pro-cognitive drug therapies are approved for human use. Mechanistic studies in a mouse model of DS (Ts65Dn mice) demonstrate that impaired cognitive function is due to excessive neuronal inhibitory tone. These deficits are normalized by chronic, short-term low doses of GABAA receptor (GABAAR) antagonists in adult animals, but none of the compounds investigated are approved for human use. We explored the therapeutic potential of flumazenil (FLUM), a GABAAR antagonist working at the benzodiazepine binding site that has FDA approval. Long-term memory was assessed by the Novel Object Recognition (NOR) testing in Ts65Dn mice after acute or short-term chronic treatment with FLUM. Short-term, low, chronic dose regimens of FLUM elicit long-lasting (>1week) normalization of cognitive function in both young and aged mice. FLUM at low dosages produces long lasting cognitive improvements and has the potential of fulfilling an unmet therapeutic need in DS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gene-environment interaction during early development in the heterozygous reeler mouse: clues for modelling of major neurobehavioral syndromes.

    PubMed

    Laviola, Giovanni; Ognibene, Elisa; Romano, Emilia; Adriani, Walter; Keller, Flavio

    2009-04-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are multifactorial disorders with increasing prevalence in the young population. Among candidate molecules, reelin (RELN) is a protein of the extracellular matrix playing a key role in brain development and synaptic plasticity. The heterozygous (HZ) reeler mouse provides a model for studying the role of reelin deficiency for the onset of these syndromes. We investigated whether early indices of neurobehavioral disorders can be identified in the infant reeler, and whether the consequences of ontogenetic adverse experiences may question or support the suitability of this model. A first study focused on the link between early exposure to Chlorpyryfos and its enduring neurobehavioral consequences. Our data are interesting in view of recently discovered cholinergic abnormalities in autism and schizophrenia, and may suggest new avenues for early pharmacological intervention. In a second study, we analyzed the consequences of repeated maternal separation early in ontogeny. The results provide evidence of how unusual stress early in development are converted into altered behavior in some, but not all, individuals depending on gender and genetic background. A third study aimed to verify the reliability of the model at critical age windows. Data suggest reduced anxiety, increased impulsivity and disinhibition, and altered pain threshold in response to morphine for HZ, supporting a differential organization of brain dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioid systems in this genotype. In conclusion, HZ exhibited a complex behavioral and psycho-pharmacological phenotype, and differential responsivity to ontogenetic adverse conditions. HZ may be used to disentangle interactions between genetic vulnerability and environmental factors. Such an approach could help to model the pathogenesis of neurodevelopmental psychiatric diseases.

  12. Memantine normalizes several phenotypic features in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Noemí; Llorens-Martín, María; Flórez, Jesús; Valdizán, Elsa; Banerjee, Pradeep; Trejo, Jose Luis; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Ts65Dn (TS) mice exhibit several phenotypic characteristics of human Down syndrome, including an increased brain expression of amyloid-beta protein precursor (AbetaPP) and cognitive disturbances. Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor signaling has been suspected in TS mice, due to an impaired generation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP). Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, is known to normalize LTP and improve cognition in transgenic mice with high brain levels of AbetaPP and amyloid-beta protein. It has recently been demonstrated that acute injections of memantine rescue performance deficits of TS mice on a fear conditioning test. Here we show that oral treatment of aged TS mice with a clinically relevant dose of memantine (30 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks) improved spatial learning in the water maze task and slightly reduced brain AbetaPP levels. We also found that TS mice exhibited a significantly reduced granule cell count and vesicular glutamate transporter-1 (VGLUT1) labeling compared to disomic control mice. After memantine treatment, the levels of hippocampal VGLUT1 were significantly increased, reaching the levels observed in vehicle treated-control animals. Memantine did not significantly affect granule cell density. These data indicate that memantine may normalize several phenotypic abnormalities in TS mice, many of which--such as impaired cognition--are also associated with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

  13. Carbon monoxide improves cardiac function and mitochondrial population quality in a mouse model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg x kg(-1)), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3-treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Improves Cardiac Function and Mitochondrial Population Quality in a Mouse Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lancel, Steve; Montaigne, David; Marechal, Xavier; Marciniak, Camille; Hassoun, Sidi Mohamed; Decoster, Brigitte; Ballot, Caroline; Blazejewski, Caroline; Corseaux, Delphine; Lescure, Bernadette; Motterlini, Roberto; Neviere, Remi

    2012-01-01

    Aims Metabolic syndrome induces cardiac dysfunction associated with mitochondria abnormalities. As low levels of carbon monoxide (CO) may improve myocardial and mitochondrial activities, we tested whether a CO-releasing molecule (CORM-3) reverses metabolic syndrome-induced cardiac alteration through changes in mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and autophagy. Methods and Results Mice were fed with normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) for twelve weeks. Then, mice received two intraperitoneal injections of CORM-3 (10 mg.kg−1), with the second one given 16 hours after the first. Contractile function in isolated hearts and mitochondrial parameters were evaluated 24 hours after the last injection. Mitochondrial population was explored by electron microscopy. Changes in mitochondrial dynamics, biogenesis and autophagy were assessed by western-blot and RT-qPCR. Left ventricular developed pressure was reduced in HFD hearts. Mitochondria from HFD hearts presented reduced membrane potential and diminished ADP-coupled respiration. CORM-3 restored both cardiac and mitochondrial functions. Size and number of mitochondria increased in the HFD hearts but not in the CORM-3–treated HFD group. CORM-3 modulated HFD-activated mitochondrial fusion and biogenesis signalling. While autophagy was not activated in the HFD group, CORM-3 increased the autophagy marker LC3-II. Finally, ex vivo experiments demonstrated that autophagy inhibition by 3-methyladenine abolished the cardioprotective effects of CORM-3. Conclusion CORM-3 may modulate pathways controlling mitochondrial quality, thus leading to improvements of mitochondrial efficiency and HFD-induced cardiac dysfunction. PMID:22870253

  15. Etiology of craniofacial malformations in mouse models of blepharophimosis, ptosis and epicanthus inversus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heude, Églantine; Bellessort, Brice; Fontaine, Anastasia; Hamazaki, Manatsu; Treier, Anna-Corina; Treier, Mathias; Levi, Giovanni; Narboux-Nême, Nicolas

    2015-03-15

    Blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus-inversus syndrome (BPES) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by narrow palpebral fissures and eyelid levator muscle defects. BPES is often associated to premature ovarian insufficiency (BPES type I). FOXL2, a member of the forkhead transcription factor family, is the only gene known to be mutated in BPES. Foxl2 is essential for maintenance of ovarian identity, but the developmental origin of the facial malformations of BPES remains, so far, unexplained. In this study, we provide the first detailed account of the developmental processes leading to the craniofacial malformations associated to Foxl2. We show that, during development, Foxl2 is expressed both by Cranial Neural Crest Cells (CNCCs) and by Cranial Mesodermal Cells (CMCs), which give rise to skeletal (CNCCs and CMCs) and muscular (CMCs) components of the head. Using mice in which Foxl2 is selectively inactivated in either CNCCs or CMCs, we reveal that expression of Foxl2 in CNCCs is essential for the development of extraocular muscles. Indeed, inactivation of Foxl2 in CMCs has only minor effects on muscle development, whereas its inactivation in CNCCs provokes a severe hypoplasia of the levator palpabrae superioris and of the superior and inferior oblique muscles. We further show that Foxl2 deletion in either CNCCs or CMCs prevents eyelid closure and induces subtle skeletal developmental defects. Our results provide new insights in the complex developmental origin of human BPES and could help to understand the origin of other ocular anomalies associated to this syndrome.

  16. Uncoupling of the endocannabinoid signalling complex in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kwang-Mook; Sepers, Marja; Henstridge, Christopher M.; Lassalle, Olivier; Neuhofer, Daniela; Martin, Henry; Ginger, Melanie; Frick, Andreas; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Mackie, Ken; Katona, Istvan; Piomelli, Daniele; Manzoni, Olivier J.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome, the most commonly known genetic cause of autism, is due to loss of the fragile X mental retardation protein, which regulates signal transduction at metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 in the brain. Fragile X mental retardation protein deletion in mice enhances metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent long-term depression in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Here we show that a distinct type of metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent long-term depression at excitatory synapses of the ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex, which is mediated by the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol, is absent in fragile X mental retardation protein-null mice. In these mutants, the macromolecular complex that links metabotropic glutamate receptor-5 to the 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol-producing enzyme, diacylglycerol lipase-α (endocannabinoid signalosome), is disrupted and metabotropic glutamate receptor-5-dependent 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol formation is compromised. These changes are accompanied by impaired endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression. Pharmacological enhancement of 2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycerol signalling normalizes this synaptic defect and corrects behavioural abnormalities in fragile X mental retardation protein-deficient mice. The results identify the endocannabinoid signalosome as a molecular substrate for fragile X syndrome, which might be targeted by therapy. PMID:23011134

  17. Neuroanatomical alterations and synaptic plasticity impairment in the perirhinal cortex of the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roncacé, Vincenzo; Burattini, Costanza; Stagni, Fiorenza; Guidi, Sandra; Giacomini, Andrea; Emili, Marco; Aicardi, Giorgio; Bartesaghi, Renata

    2017-10-01

    Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of Chromosome 21, is characterized by numerous neurodevelopmental alterations and intellectual disability. Individuals with DS and DS mouse models are impaired in several memory domains, including hippocampus-dependent declarative (spatial, in rodents) memory and visual recognition memory, a form of memory in which the perirhinal cortex (PRC) plays a fundamental role. The anatomo-functional substrates of hippocampus-dependent memory impairment have been largely elucidated in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. In contrast, there is a lack of corresponding information regarding visual recognition memory. Therefore, we deemed it of interest to examine at both an anatomical and functional level the PRC of Ts65Dn mice. We found that the PRC of adult (1.5-3.5month-old) Ts65Dn mice exhibited diffused hypocellularity and neurons with a reduced spine density. No difference between Ts65Dn and euploid mice was detected in the abundance of glutamatergic and GABAergic terminals. We examined brain slices for long-term potentiation (LTP), a form of synaptic plasticity involved in long-term memory. Theta burst stimulation of intracortical fibers was used in order to elicit LTP in the superficial layers of the PRC. We found that in trisomic slices LTP had a similar time-course but a reduced magnitude in comparison with euploid slices. While exposure to the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin had no effect on LTP magnitude, exposure to the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP55845 caused an increase in LTP magnitude that became even larger than in euploid slices. Western blot analysis showed increased levels of the G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 2 (GIRK2) in the PRC of Ts65Dn mice, consistent with triplication of the gene coding for GIRK2. This suggests that the reduced magnitude of LTP may be caused by GIRK2-dependent exaggerated GABAB receptor-mediated inhibition. Results provide novel evidence for anatomo

  18. Normalizing the gene dosage of Dyrk1A in a mouse model of Down syndrome rescues several Alzheimer's disease phenotypes.

    PubMed

    García-Cerro, Susana; Rueda, Noemí; Vidal, Verónica; Lantigua, Sara; Martínez-Cué, Carmen

    2017-10-01

    The intellectual disability that characterizes Down syndrome (DS) is primarily caused by prenatal changes in central nervous system growth and differentiation. However, in later life stages, the cognitive abilities of DS individuals progressively decline due to accelerated aging and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology. The AD neuropathology in DS has been related to the overexpression of several genes encoded by Hsa21 including DYRK1A (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), which encodes a protein kinase that performs crucial functions in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways that contribute to normal brain development and adult brain physiology. Studies performed in vitro and in vivo in animal models overexpressing this gene have demonstrated that the DYRK1A gene also plays a crucial role in several neurodegenerative processes found in DS. The Ts65Dn (TS) mouse bears a partial triplication of several Hsa21 orthologous genes, including Dyrk1A, and replicates many DS-like abnormalities, including age-dependent cognitive decline, cholinergic neuron degeneration, increased levels of APP and Aβ, and tau hyperphosphorylation. To use a more direct approach to evaluate the role of the gene dosage of Dyrk1A on the neurodegenerative profile of this model, TS mice were crossed with Dyrk1A KO mice to obtain mice with a triplication of a segment of Mmu16 that includes this gene, mice that are trisomic for the same genes but only carry two copies of Dyrk1A, euploid mice with a normal Dyrk1A dosage, and CO animals with a single copy of Dyrk1A. Normalizing the gene dosage of Dyrk1A in the TS mouse rescued the density of senescent cells in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus and septum, prevented cholinergic neuron degeneration, and reduced App expression in the hippocampus, Aβ load in the cortex and hippocampus, the expression of phosphorylated tau at the Ser202 residue in the hippocampus and cerebellum and the levels of

  19. Identification of the translocation breakpoints in the Ts65Dn and Ts1Cje mouse lines: relevance for modeling Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Duchon, Arnaud; Raveau, Matthieu; Chevalier, Claire; Nalesso, Valérie; Sharp, Andrew J; Herault, Yann

    2011-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most frequent genetic disorder leading to intellectual disabilities and is caused by three copies of human chromosome 21. Mouse models are widely used to better understand the physiopathology in DS or to test new therapeutic approaches. The older and the most widely used mouse models are the trisomic Ts65Dn and the Ts1Cje mice. They display deficits similar to those observed in DS people, such as those in behavior and cognition or in neuronal abnormalities. The Ts65Dn model is currently used for further therapeutic assessment of candidate drugs. In both models, the trisomy was induced by reciprocal chromosomal translocations that were not further characterized. Using a comparative genomic approach, we have been able to locate precisely the translocation breakpoint in these two models and we took advantage of this finding to derive a new and more efficient Ts65Dn genotyping strategy. Furthermore, we found that the translocations introduce additional aneuploidy in both models, with a monosomy of seven genes in the most telomeric part of mouse chromosome 12 in the Ts1Cje and a trisomy of 60 centromeric genes on mouse chromosome 17 in the Ts65Dn. Finally, we report here the overexpression of the newly found aneuploid genes in the Ts65Dn heart and we discuss their potential impact on the validity of the DS model.

  20. Germ cell loss is associated with fading Lin28a expression in a mouse model for Klinefelter's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werler, Steffi; Demond, Hannah; Damm, Oliver S; Ehmcke, Jens; Middendorff, Ralf; Gromoll, Jörg; Wistuba, Joachim

    2014-03-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome is a male sex-chromosomal disorder (47,XXY), causing hypogonadism, cognitive and metabolic deficits. The majority of patients are infertile due to complete germ cell loss after puberty. As the depletion occurs during development, the possibilities to study the underlying causes in humans are limited. In this study, we used the 41,XX(Y*) mouse model to characterise the germ line postnatally. We examined marker expression of testicular cells focusing on the spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and found that the number of germ cells was approximately reduced fivefold at day 1pp in the 41,XX(Y*) mice, indicating the loss to start prenatally. Concurrently, immunohistochemical SSC markers LIN28A and PGP9.5 also showed decreased expression on day 1pp in the 41,XX(Y*) mice (48.5 and 38.9% of all germ cells were positive), which dropped to 7.8 and 7.3% on 3dpp, and were no longer detectable on days 5 and 10pp respectively. The differences in PCNA-positive proliferating cells in XY* and XX(Y*) mice dramatically increased towards day 10pp. The mRNA expression of the germ cell markers Lin28a (Lin28), Pou5f1 (Oct4), Utf1, Ddx4 (Vasa), Dazl, and Fapb1 (Sycp3) was reduced and the Lin28a regulating miRNAs were deregulated in the 41,XX(Y*) mice. We suggest a model for the course of germ cell loss starting during the intrauterine period. Neonatally, SSC marker expression by the already lowered number of spermatogonia is reduced and continues fading during the first postnatal week, indicating the surviving cells of the SSC population to be disturbed in their stem cell characteristics. Subsequently, the entire germ line is then generally lost when entering meiosis.

  1. An Anti-β-Amyloid Vaccine for Treating Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Belichenko, Pavel V; Madani, Rime; Rey-Bellet, Lorianne; Pihlgren, Maria; Becker, Ann; Plassard, Adeline; Vuillermot, Stephanie; Giriens, Valérie; Nosheny, Rachel L; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Valletta, Janice S; Bengtsson, Sara K S; Linke, Gordon R; Maloney, Michael T; Hickman, David T; Reis, Pedro; Granet, Anne; Mlaki, Dorin; Lopez-Deber, Maria Pilar; Do, Long; Singhal, Nishant; Masliah, Eliezer; Pearn, Matthew L; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Mobley, William C

    2016-01-01

    In Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy of chromosome 21, the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is present in excess. Evidence points to increased APP gene dose and Aβ as playing a critical role in cognitive difficulties experienced by people with DS. Particularly, Aβ is linked to the late-life emergence of dementia as associated with neuropathological markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD). At present, no treatment targets Aβ-related pathogenesis in people with DS. Herein we used a vaccine containing the Aβ 1-15 peptide embedded into liposomes together with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). Ts65Dn mice, a model of DS, were immunized with the anti-Aβ vaccine at 5 months of age and were examined for cognitive measures at 8 months of age. The status of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and brain levels of APP and its proteolytic products were measured. Immunization of Ts65Dn mice resulted in robust anti-Aβ IgG titers, demonstrating the ability of the vaccine to break self-tolerance. The vaccine-induced antibodies reacted with Aβ without detectable binding to either APP or its C-terminal fragments. Vaccination of Ts65Dn mice resulted in a modest, but non-significant reduction in brain Aβ levels relative to vehicle-treated Ts65Dn mice, resulting in similar levels of Aβ as diploid (2N) mice. Importantly, vaccinated Ts65Dn mice showed resolution of memory deficits in the novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tests, as well as reduction of cholinergic neuron atrophy. No treatment adverse effects were observed; vaccine did not result in inflammation, cellular infiltration, or hemorrhage. These data are the first to show that an anti-Aβ immunotherapeutic approach may act to target Aβ-related pathology in a mouse model of DS.

  2. Colonic mucosal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated visceral hypersensitivity in a mouse model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qing Qing; Chen, Fei Xue; Zhao, Dong Yan; Li, Li Xiang; Wang, Peng; Li, Yan Qing; Zuo, Xiu Li

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether colonic mucosal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) participates in visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). C57BL/6 mice were administered intrarectally with trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) for the establishment of an IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity model. Those received an equivalent volume of 50% ethanol were regarded as the controls. Abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores in response to colorectal distention (CRD) were used to assess visceral sensitivity. NMDAR levels in the colonic mucosa were detected by both immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The concentrations of glutamate and ammonia in the feces of the mice were measured. Changes in visceral sensitivity after the intracolonic administration of ammonia or NMDAR antagonist were recorded. The established IBS-like mouse model of visceral hypersensitivity showed no evident inflammation in the colon. NMDAR levels in the colonic mucosa of the IBS-like mice were significantly higher compared with the controls, and were positively associated with AWR scores. The glutamate level in the feces of the TNBS-treated mice was similar to that of the controls, although the ammonia level was significantly higher. Intracolonic administration of ammonia induced visceral hypersensitivity in mice, which was repressed by pretreatment with NMDAR antagonist MK801. Overexpressed NMDAR in the colonic mucosa may participate in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. Our study identifies the effect of ammonia in the colonic lumen on NMDAR in the colonic mucosa as a potential novel targeted mechanism for IBS treatment. © 2016 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Reciprocal Effects on Neurocognitive and Metabolic Phenotypes in Mouse Models of 16p11.2 Deletion and Duplication Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Thomas; Ouagazzal, Abdel-Mouttalib; Chevalier, Claire; Kopanitsa, Maksym; Afinowi, Nurudeen; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Cowling, Belinda S.; Birling, Marie-Christine; Champy, Marie-France; Reymond, Alexandre; Herault, Yann

    2016-01-01

    The 16p11.2 600 kb BP4-BP5 deletion and duplication syndromes have been associated with developmental delay; autism spectrum disorders; and reciprocal effects on the body mass index, head circumference and brain volumes. Here, we explored these relationships using novel engineered mouse models carrying a deletion (Del/+) or a duplication (Dup/+) of the Sult1a1-Spn region homologous to the human 16p11.2 BP4-BP5 locus. On a C57BL/6N inbred genetic background, Del/+ mice exhibited reduced weight and impaired adipogenesis, hyperactivity, repetitive behaviors, and recognition memory deficits. In contrast, Dup/+ mice showed largely opposite phenotypes. On a F1 C57BL/6N × C3B hybrid genetic background, we also observed alterations in social interaction in the Del/+ and the Dup/+ animals, with other robust phenotypes affecting recognition memory and weight. To explore the dosage effect of the 16p11.2 genes on metabolism, Del/+ and Dup/+ models were challenged with high fat and high sugar diet, which revealed opposite energy imbalance. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the majority of the genes located in the Sult1a1-Spn region were sensitive to dosage with a major effect on several pathways associated with neurocognitive and metabolic phenotypes. Whereas the behavioral consequence of the 16p11 region genetic dosage was similar in mice and humans with activity and memory alterations, the metabolic defects were opposite: adult Del/+ mice are lean in comparison to the human obese phenotype and the Dup/+ mice are overweight in comparison to the human underweight phenotype. Together, these data indicate that the dosage imbalance at the 16p11.2 locus perturbs the expression of modifiers outside the CNV that can modulate the penetrance, expressivity and direction of effects in both humans and mice. PMID:26872257

  4. An Anti-β-Amyloid Vaccine for Treating Cognitive Deficits in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Bellet, Lorianne; Pihlgren, Maria; Becker, Ann; Plassard, Adeline; Vuillermot, Stephanie; Giriens, Valérie; Nosheny, Rachel L.; Kleschevnikov, Alexander M.; Valletta, Janice S.; Bengtsson, Sara K. S.; Linke, Gordon R.; Maloney, Michael T.; Hickman, David T.; Reis, Pedro; Granet, Anne; Mlaki, Dorin; Lopez-Deber, Maria Pilar; Do, Long; Singhal, Nishant; Masliah, Eliezer; Pearn, Matthew L.; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas; Mobley, William C.

    2016-01-01

    In Down syndrome (DS) or trisomy of chromosome 21, the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide product of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) is present in excess. Evidence points to increased APP gene dose and Aβ as playing a critical role in cognitive difficulties experienced by people with DS. Particularly, Aβ is linked to the late-life emergence of dementia as associated with neuropathological markers of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). At present, no treatment targets Aβ–related pathogenesis in people with DS. Herein we used a vaccine containing the Aβ 1–15 peptide embedded into liposomes together with the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA). Ts65Dn mice, a model of DS, were immunized with the anti-Aβ vaccine at 5 months of age and were examined for cognitive measures at 8 months of age. The status of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and brain levels of APP and its proteolytic products were measured. Immunization of Ts65Dn mice resulted in robust anti-Aβ IgG titers, demonstrating the ability of the vaccine to break self-tolerance. The vaccine-induced antibodies reacted with Aβ without detectable binding to either APP or its C-terminal fragments. Vaccination of Ts65Dn mice resulted in a modest, but non-significant reduction in brain Aβ levels relative to vehicle-treated Ts65Dn mice, resulting in similar levels of Aβ as diploid (2N) mice. Importantly, vaccinated Ts65Dn mice showed resolution of memory deficits in the novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning tests, as well as reduction of cholinergic neuron atrophy. No treatment adverse effects were observed; vaccine did not result in inflammation, cellular infiltration, or hemorrhage. These data are the first to show that an anti-Aβ immunotherapeutic approach may act to target Aβ-related pathology in a mouse model of DS. PMID:27023444

  5. Environmental Enrichment Improves Behavioral Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Imran; Kumar, Vipendra; Vatsa, Naman; Singh, Brijesh Kumar; Shekhar, Shashi; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2017-09-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder largely caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited UBE3A. UBE3A-maternal deficient mice (AS mice) exhibit many typical features of AS including cognitive and motor deficits but the underlying mechanism of these behavioral abnormalities is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that rearing of AS mice in the enriched environment for prolonged period significantly improved their cognitive and motor dysfunction. Enriched environment also restored elevated serum corticosterone level and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in these mice. Biochemical analysis further revealed restoration of altered levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glucocorticoid receptor, and phoshphorylated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα in the hippocampus of AS mice maintained in the enriched environment. Enriched environment also significantly increased the number of parvalbumin-positive GABAergic interneuron in the hippocampus and basolateral amygdala of AS mice. These results indicate potential beneficial effect of enriched environment in the reversal of AS phenotype.

  6. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype–phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1+/− mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies. PMID:26792133

  7. Prevention of Treacher Collins syndrome craniofacial anomalies in mouse models via maternal antioxidant supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Daisuke; Dixon, Jill; Achilleos, Annita; Dixon, Michael; Trainor, Paul A

    2016-01-21

    Craniofacial anomalies account for approximately one-third of all birth defects and are a significant cause of infant mortality. Since the majority of the bones, cartilage and connective tissues that comprise the head and face are derived from a multipotent migratory progenitor cell population called the neural crest, craniofacial disorders are typically attributed to defects in neural crest cell development. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of craniofacial development and although TCS arises primarily through autosomal dominant mutations in TCOF1, no clear genotype-phenotype correlation has been documented. Here we show that Tcof1 haploinsufficiency results in oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and neuroepithelial cell death. Consistent with this discovery, maternal treatment with antioxidants minimizes cell death in the neuroepithelium and substantially ameliorates or prevents the pathogenesis of craniofacial anomalies in Tcof1(+/-) mice. Thus maternal antioxidant dietary supplementation may provide an avenue for protection against the pathogenesis of TCS and similar neurocristopathies.

  8. Dendritic Arborization and Spine Dynamics Are Abnormal in the Mouse Model of MECP2 Duplication Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Minghui; Ash, Ryan T.; Baker, Steven A.; Suter, Bernhard; Ferguson, Andrew; Park, Jiyoung; Rudy, Jessica; Torsky, Sergey P.; Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.

    2013-01-01

    MECP2 duplication syndrome is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by intellectual disability, autism, motor abnormalities, and epilepsy. The disorder is caused by duplications spanning the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein-2 (MeCP2), a protein involved in the modulation of chromatin and gene expression. MeCP2 is thought to play a role in maintaining the structural integrity of neuronal circuits. Loss of MeCP2 function causes Rett syndrome and results in abnormal dendritic spine morphology and decreased pyramidal dendritic arbor complexity and spine density. The consequences of MeCP2 overexpression on dendritic pathophysiology remain unclear. We used in vivo two-photon microscopy to characterize layer 5 pyramidal neuron spine turnover and dendritic arborization as a function of age in transgenic mice expressing the human MECP2 gene at twice the normal levels of MeCP2 (Tg1; Collins et al., 2004). We found that spine density in terminal dendritic branches is initially higher in young Tg1 mice but falls below control levels after postnatal week 12, approximately correlating with the onset of behavioral symptoms. Spontaneous spine turnover rates remain high in older Tg1 animals compared with controls, reflecting the persistence of an immature state. Both spine gain and loss rates are higher, with a net bias in favor of spine elimination. Apical dendritic arbors in both simple- and complex-tufted layer 5 Tg1 pyramidal neurons have more branches of higher order, indicating that MeCP2 overexpression induces dendritic overgrowth. P70S6K was hyperphosphorylated in Tg1 somatosensory cortex, suggesting that elevated mTOR signaling may underlie the observed increase in spine turnover and dendritic growth. PMID:24336718

  9. Alterations in the cholinergic system of brain stem neurons in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oginsky, Max F; Cui, Ningren; Zhong, Weiwei; Johnson, Christopher M; Jiang, Chun

    2014-09-15

    Rett syndrome is an autism-spectrum disorder resulting from mutations to the X-linked gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), which causes abnormalities in many systems. It is possible that the body may develop certain compensatory mechanisms to alleviate the abnormalities. The norepinephrine system originating mainly in the locus coeruleus (LC) is defective in Rett syndrome and Mecp2-null mice. LC neurons are subject to modulation by GABA, glutamate, and acetylcholine (ACh), providing an ideal system to test the compensatory hypothesis. Here we show evidence for potential compensatory modulation of LC neurons by post- and presynaptic ACh inputs. We found that the postsynaptic currents of nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChR) were smaller in amplitude and longer in decay time in the Mecp2-null mice than in the wild type. Single-cell PCR analysis showed a decrease in the expression of α3-, α4-, α7-, and β3-subunits and an increase in the α5- and α6-subunits in the mutant mice. The α5-subunit was present in many of the LC neurons with slow-decay nAChR currents. The nicotinic modulation of spontaneous GABAA-ergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents in LC neurons was enhanced in Mecp2-null mice. In contrast, the nAChR manipulation of glutamatergic input to LC neurons was unaffected in both groups of mice. Our current-clamp studies showed that the modulation of LC neurons by ACh input was reduced moderately in Mecp2-null mice, despite the major decrease in nAChR currents, suggesting possible compensatory processes may take place, thus reducing the defects to a lesser extent in LC neurons.

  10. A human imprinting centre demonstrates conserved acquisition but diverged maintenance of imprinting in a mouse model for Angelman syndrome imprinting defects.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Karen A; DuBose, Amanda J; Futtner, Christopher R; Elmore, Michael D; Brannan, Camilynn I; Resnick, James L

    2006-02-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are caused by the loss of imprinted gene expression from chromosome 15q11-q13. Imprinted gene expression in the region is regulated by a bipartite imprinting centre (IC), comprising the PWS-IC and the AS-IC. The PWS-IC is a positive regulatory element required for bidirectional activation of a number of paternally expressed genes. The function of the AS-IC appears to be to suppress PWS-IC function on the maternal chromosome through a methylation imprint acquired during female gametogenesis. Here we have placed the entire mouse locus under the control of a human PWS-IC by targeted replacement of the mouse PWS-IC with the equivalent human region. Paternal inheritance of the human PWS-IC demonstrates for the first time that a positive regulatory element in the PWS-IC has diverged. These mice show postnatal lethality and growth deficiency, phenotypes not previously attributed directly to the affected genes. Following maternal inheritance, the human PWS-IC is able to acquire a methylation imprint in mouse oocytes, suggesting that acquisition of the methylation imprint is conserved. However, the imprint is lost in somatic cells, showing that maintenance has diverged. This maternal imprinting defect results in expression of maternal Ube3a-as and repression of Ube3a in cis, providing evidence that Ube3a is regulated by its antisense and creating the first reported mouse model for AS imprinting defects.

  11. THE EXPRESSION OF ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES IN A MOUSE MODEL OF FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    DREVER, Nathan; Yin, Huaizhi; KECHICHIAN, Talar; COSTANTINE, Maged; LONGO, Monica; SAADE, George R.; BYTAUTIENE, Egle

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) prevent cellular damage produced by free radicals. Our objective was to evaluate if prenatal alcohol exposure decreased the expression of antioxidant enzymes in the brain, liver or placenta of fetal mice. STUDY DESIGN Timed, pregnant C57BL6/J mice were treated on gestational day 8 (E8) with intraperitoneal injection of alcohol (0.03 ml/g) or saline (control). Fetuses were harvested on E18. Fetal brain, liver and placenta were analyzed for mRNA expression of SOD, GPx and CAT by real-time PCR, with 18S RNA used as reference. RESULTS SOD, GPx and CAT expression was lower in fetal brains exposed to alcohol with no differences detected in the liver or placenta between the two groups. CONCLUSION Maternal alcohol consumption causes a decrease in SOD, GPx and CAT expression in the fetal brain. This may explain the long term neurologic findings in fetal alcohol syndrome. PMID:22365038

  12. Lithium treatment alleviates impaired cognition in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    King, M K; Jope, R S

    2013-10-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by suppressed expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in intellectual disability accompanied by many variably manifested characteristics, such as hyperactivity, seizures and autistic-like behaviors. Treatment of mice that lack FMRP, Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, with lithium has been reported to ameliorate locomotor hyperactivity, prevent hypersensitivity to audiogenic seizures, improve passive avoidance behavior and attenuate sociability deficits. To focus on the defining characteristic of FXS, which is cognitive impairment, we tested if lithium treatment ameliorated impairments in four cognitive tasks in Fmr1 KO mice, tested if the response to lithium differed in adolescent and adult mice and tested if therapeutic effects persisted after discontinuation of lithium administration. Fmr1 KO mice displayed impaired cognition in the novel object detection task, temporal ordering for objects task and coordinate and categorical spatial processing tasks. Chronic lithium treatment of adolescent (from 4 to 8 weeks of age) and adult (from 8 to 12 weeks of age) mice abolished cognitive impairments in all four cognitive tasks. Cognitive deficits returned after lithium treatment was discontinued for 4 weeks. These results show that Fmr1 KO mice exhibit severe impairments in these cognitive tasks, that lithium is equally effective in normalizing cognition in these tasks whether it is administered to young or adult mice and that lithium administration must be continued for the cognitive improvements to be sustained. These findings provide further evidence that lithium administration may be beneficial for individuals with FXS.

  13. Lithium treatment alleviates impaired cognition in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    King, Margaret K.; Jope, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is caused by suppressed expression of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which results in intellectual disability accompanied by many variably manifested characteristics, such as hyperactivity, seizures, and autistic-like behaviors. Treatment of mice that lack FMRP, Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice, with lithium has been reported to ameliorate locomotor hyperactivity, prevent hypersensitivity to audiogenic seizures, improve passive avoidance behavior, and attenuate sociability deficits. To focus on the defining characteristic of FXS, which is cognitive impairment, we tested if lithium treatment ameliorated impairments in four cognitive tasks in Fmr1 KO mice, tested if the response to lithium differed in adolescent and adult mice, and tested if therapeutic effects persisted after discontinuation of lithium administration. Fmr1 KO mice displayed impaired cognition in the novel object detection task, temporal ordering for objects task, and coordinate and categorical spatial processing tasks. Chronic lithium treatment of adolescent (from 4–8 weeks of age) and adult (from 8–12 weeks of age) mice abolished cognitive impairments in all four cognitive tasks. Cognitive deficits returned after lithium treatment was discontinued for 4 weeks. These results demonstrate that Fmr1 KO mice exhibit severe impairments in these cognitive tasks, that lithium is equally effective in normalizing cognition in these tasks whether it is administered to young or adult mice, and that lithium administration must be continued for the cognitive improvements to be sustained. These findings provide further evidence that lithium administration may be beneficial for individuals with FXS. PMID:23941202

  14. 7-dehydrocholesterol efficiently supports Ret signaling in a mouse model of Smith-Opitz-Lemli syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gou-Fàbregas, Myriam; Macià, Anna; Anerillas, Carlos; Vaquero, Marta; Jové, Mariona; Jain, Sanjay; Ribera, Joan; Encinas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disorder of cholesterol synthesis. Affected individuals exhibit growth failure, intellectual disability and a broad spectrum of developmental malformations. Among them, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, decreased innervation of the gut, and ptosis are consistent with impaired Ret signaling. Ret is a receptor tyrosine kinase that achieves full activity when recruited to lipid rafts. Mice mutant for Ret are born with no kidneys and enteric neurons, and display sympathetic nervous system defects causing ptosis. Since cholesterol is a critical component of lipid rafts, here we tested the hypothesis of whether the cause of the above malformations found in SLOS is defective Ret signaling owing to improper lipid raft composition or function. No defects consistent with decreased Ret signaling were found in newborn Dhcr7−/− mice, or in Dhcr7−/− mice lacking one copy of Ret. Although kidneys from Dhcr7−/− mice showed a mild branching defect in vitro, GDNF was able to support survival and downstream signaling of sympathetic neurons. Consistently, GFRα1 correctly partitioned to lipid rafts in brain tissue. Finally, replacement experiments demonstrated that 7-DHC efficiently supports Ret signaling in vitro. Taken together, our findings do not support a role of Ret signaling in the pathogenesis of SLOS. PMID:27334845

  15. Synergistic GABA-Enhancing Therapy against Seizures in a Mouse Model of Dravet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, John C.; Cho, Alvin R.; Cheah, Christine S.; Scheuer, Todd

    2013-01-01

    Seizures remain uncontrolled in 30% of patients with epilepsy, even with concurrent use of multiple drugs, and uncontrolled seizures result in increased morbidity and mortality. An extreme example is Dravet syndrome (DS), an infantile-onset severe epilepsy caused by heterozygous loss of function mutations in SCN1A, the gene encoding the brain type-I voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.1. Studies in Scn1a heterozygous knockout mice demonstrate reduced excitability of GABAergic interneurons, suggesting that enhancement of GABA signaling may improve seizure control and comorbidities. We studied the efficacy of two GABA-enhancing drugs, clonazepam and tiagabine, alone and in combination, against thermally evoked myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Clonazepam, a positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors, protected against myoclonic and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Tiagabine, a presynaptic GABA reuptake inhibitor, was protective against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but only minimally protective against myoclonic seizures and enhanced myoclonic seizure susceptibility at high doses. Combined therapy with clonazepam and tiagabine was synergistic against generalized tonic-clonic seizures but was additive against myoclonic seizures. Toxicity determined by rotorod testing was additive for combination therapy. The synergistic actions of clonazepam and tiagabine gave enhanced seizure protection and reduced toxicity, suggesting that combination therapy may be well tolerated and effective for seizures in DS. PMID:23424217

  16. Enriched environment promotes behavioral and morphological recovery in a mouse model for the fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Restivo, Leonardo; Ferrari, Francesca; Passino, Enrica; Sgobio, Carmelo; Bock, Jörg; Oostra, Ben A; Bagni, Claudia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2005-08-09

    Fragile X syndrome, the most frequent form of hereditary mental retardation, is due to a mutation of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. Like fragile X patients, FMR1-knockout (FMR1-KO) mice lack the normal fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and show both cognitive alterations and an immature neuronal morphology. We reared FMR1-KO mice in a C57BL/6 background in enriched environmental conditions to examine the possibility that experience-dependent stimulation alleviates their behavioral and neuronal abnormalities. FMR1-KO mice kept in standard cages were hyperactive, displayed an altered pattern of open field exploration, and did not show habituation. Quantitative morphological analyses revealed a reduction in basal dendrite length and branching together with more immature-appearing spines along apical dendrites of layer five pyramidal neurons in the visual cortex. Enrichment largely rescued these behavioral and neuronal abnormalities while increasing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptor subunit 1 (GluR1) levels in both genotypes. Enrichment did not, however, affect FMRP levels in the WT mice. These data suggest that FMRP-independent pathways activating glutamatergic signaling are preserved in FMR1-KO mice and that they can be elicited by environmental stimulation.

  17. Correcting deregulated Fxyd1 expression ameliorates a behavioral impairment in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matagne, Valerie; Budden, Sarojini; Ojeda, Sergio R; Raber, Jacob

    2013-02-16

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in the MECP2. Several genes have been shown to be MECP2 targets. We previously identified FXYD1 (encoding phospholemman; a protein containing the motif phenylalanine-X-tyrosine-aspartate), a gene encoding a transmembrane modulator of the Na, K-ATPase (NKA) enzyme, as one of them. In the absence of MECP2, FXYD1 expression is increased in the frontal cortex (FC) of both RTT patients and Mecp2(Bird) null mice. Here, we show that Fxyd1 mRNA levels are also increased in the FC and hippocampus (HC) of male mice carrying a truncating mutation of the Mecp2 gene (Mecp2(308)). To test the hypothesis that some of the behavioral phenotypes seen in these Mecp2 mutants could be ameliorated by genetically preventing the Fxyd1 response to MECP2 deficiency, we crossed Fxyd1 null male mice with Mecp2(308) heterozygous females and behaviorally tested the adult male offspring. Mecp2(308) mice had impaired HC-dependent novel location recognition, and this impairment was rescued by deletion of both Fxyd1 alleles. No other behavioral or sensorimotor impairments were rescued. These results indicate that reducing FXYD1 levels improves a specific cognitive impairment in MECP2-deficient mice.

  18. 7-dehydrocholesterol efficiently supports Ret signaling in a mouse model of Smith-Opitz-Lemli syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gou-Fàbregas, Myriam; Macià, Anna; Anerillas, Carlos; Vaquero, Marta; Jové, Mariona; Jain, Sanjay; Ribera, Joan; Encinas, Mario

    2016-06-23

    Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disorder of cholesterol synthesis. Affected individuals exhibit growth failure, intellectual disability and a broad spectrum of developmental malformations. Among them, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, decreased innervation of the gut, and ptosis are consistent with impaired Ret signaling. Ret is a receptor tyrosine kinase that achieves full activity when recruited to lipid rafts. Mice mutant for Ret are born with no kidneys and enteric neurons, and display sympathetic nervous system defects causing ptosis. Since cholesterol is a critical component of lipid rafts, here we tested the hypothesis of whether the cause of the above malformations found in SLOS is defective Ret signaling owing to improper lipid raft composition or function. No defects consistent with decreased Ret signaling were found in newborn Dhcr7(-/-) mice, or in Dhcr7(-/-) mice lacking one copy of Ret. Although kidneys from Dhcr7(-/-) mice showed a mild branching defect in vitro, GDNF was able to support survival and downstream signaling of sympathetic neurons. Consistently, GFRα1 correctly partitioned to lipid rafts in brain tissue. Finally, replacement experiments demonstrated that 7-DHC efficiently supports Ret signaling in vitro. Taken together, our findings do not support a role of Ret signaling in the pathogenesis of SLOS.

  19. Alterations in the carnitine cycle in a mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mucerino, Sabrina; Di Salle, Anna; Alessio, Nicola; Margarucci, Sabrina; Nicolai, Raffaella; Melone, Mariarosa A. B.; Galderisi, Umberto; Peluso, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disease that leads to intellectual deficit, motor disability, epilepsy and increased risk of sudden death. Although in up to 95% of cases this disease is caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG binding protein 2 gene, it is a multisystem disease associated also with mitochondrial metabolic imbalance. In addition, the presence of long QT intervals (LQT) on the patients’ electrocardiograms has been associated with the development of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. In the attempt to shed light on the mechanism underlying heart failure in RTT, we investigated the contribution of the carnitine cycle to the onset of mitochondrial dysfunction in the cardiac tissues of two subgroups of RTT mice, namely Mecp2+/− NQTc and Mecp2+/− LQTc mice, that have a normal and an LQT interval, respectively. We found that carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 A/B and carnitine acylcarnitine translocase were significantly upregulated at mRNA and protein level in the heart of Mecp2+/− mice. Moreover, the carnitine system was imbalanced in Mecp2+/− LQTc mice due to decreased carnitine acylcarnitine transferase expression. By causing accumulation of intramitochondrial acylcarnitines, this imbalance exacerbated incomplete fatty acid oxidation, which, in turn, could contribute to mitochondrial overload and sudden death. PMID:28150739

  20. Reduced neuronal size and mTOR pathway activity in the Mecp2 A140V Rett syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; Olfers, Shannon; Gerald, Brittany; Hilbert, Alex; Svejda, Sean; Narayanan, Vinodh

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation in the X-linked MECP2 gene, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. We have created a mouse model ( Mecp2 A140V "knock-in" mutant) expressing the recurrent human MECP2 A140V mutation linked to an X-linked mental retardation/Rett syndrome phenotype. Morphological analyses focused on quantifying soma and nucleus size were performed on primary hippocampus and cerebellum granule neuron (CGN) cultures from mutant ( Mecp2(A140V/y)) and wild type ( Mecp2(+/y)) male mice. Cultured hippocampus and cerebellar granule neurons from mutant animals were significantly smaller than neurons from wild type animals. We also examined soma size in hippocampus neurons from individual female transgenic mice that express both a mutant  (maternal allele) and a wild type Mecp2 gene linked to an eGFP transgene (paternal allele). In cultures from such doubly heterozygous female mice, the size of neurons expressing the mutant (A140V) allele also showed a significant reduction compared to neurons expressing wild type MeCP2, supporting a cell-autonomous role for MeCP2 in neuronal development. IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1) treatment of neuronal cells from Mecp2 mutant mice rescued the soma size phenotype. We also found that Mecp2  mutation leads to down-regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, known to be involved in neuronal size regulation. Our results suggest that i) reduced neuronal size is an important in vitro cellular phenotype of Mecp2 mutation in mice, and ii) MeCP2 might play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal structure by modulation of the mTOR pathway. The definition of a quantifiable cellular phenotype supports using neuronal size as a biomarker in the development of a high-throughput, in vitro assay to screen for compounds that rescue small neuronal phenotype ("phenotypic assay").

  1. Reduced neuronal size and mTOR pathway activity in the Mecp2 A140V Rett syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rangasamy, Sampathkumar; Olfers, Shannon; Gerald, Brittany; Hilbert, Alex; Svejda, Sean; Narayanan, Vinodh

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutation in the X-linked MECP2 gene, encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. We have created a mouse model ( Mecp2 A140V “knock-in” mutant) expressing the recurrent human MECP2 A140V mutation linked to an X-linked mental retardation/Rett syndrome phenotype. Morphological analyses focused on quantifying soma and nucleus size were performed on primary hippocampus and cerebellum granule neuron (CGN) cultures from mutant ( Mecp2 A140V/y) and wild type ( Mecp2 +/y) male mice. Cultured hippocampus and cerebellar granule neurons from mutant animals were significantly smaller than neurons from wild type animals. We also examined soma size in hippocampus neurons from individual female transgenic mice that express both a mutant  (maternal allele) and a wild type Mecp2 gene linked to an eGFP transgene (paternal allele). In cultures from such doubly heterozygous female mice, the size of neurons expressing the mutant (A140V) allele also showed a significant reduction compared to neurons expressing wild type MeCP2, supporting a cell-autonomous role for MeCP2 in neuronal development. IGF-1 (insulin growth factor-1) treatment of neuronal cells from Mecp2 mutant mice rescued the soma size phenotype. We also found that Mecp2   mutation leads to down-regulation of the mTOR signaling pathway, known to be involved in neuronal size regulation. Our results suggest that i) reduced neuronal size is an important in vitro cellular phenotype of Mecp2 mutation in mice, and ii) MeCP2 might play a critical role in the maintenance of neuronal structure by modulation of the mTOR pathway. The definition of a quantifiable cellular phenotype supports using neuronal size as a biomarker in the development of a high-throughput, in vitro assay to screen for compounds that rescue small neuronal phenotype (“phenotypic assay”). PMID:27781091

  2. Chronic Melatonin Administration Reduced Oxidative Damage and Cellular Senescence in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Parisotto, Eduardo B; Vidal, Verónica; García-Cerro, Susana; Lantigua, Sara; Wilhelm Filho, Danilo; Sanchez-Barceló, Emilio J; Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Rueda, Noemí

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that melatonin administration improves spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in the adult Ts65Dn (TS) mouse, a model of Down syndrome (DS). This functional benefit of melatonin was accompanied by protection from cholinergic neurodegeneration and the attenuation of several hippocampal neuromorphological alterations in TS mice. Because oxidative stress contributes to the progression of cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in DS, this study evaluates the antioxidant effects of melatonin in the brains of TS mice. Melatonin was administered to TS and control mice from 6 to 12 months of age and its effects on the oxidative state and levels of cellular senescence were evaluated. Melatonin treatment induced antioxidant and antiaging effects in the hippocampus of adult TS mice. Although melatonin administration did not regulate the activities of the main antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase) in the cortex or hippocampus, melatonin decreased protein and lipid oxidative damage by reducing the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and protein carbonyls (PC) levels in the TS hippocampus due to its ability to act as a free radical scavenger. Consistent with this reduction in oxidative stress, melatonin also decreased hippocampal senescence in TS animals by normalizing the density of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells in the hippocampus. These results showed that this treatment attenuated the oxidative damage and cellular senescence in the brain of TS mice and support the use of melatonin as a potential therapeutic agent for age-related cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in adults with DS.

  3. Defective thymic progenitor development and mature T-cell responses in a mouse model for Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Laureanne P E; Shatynski, Kristen E; Clark, Sarah; Yarowsky, Paul J; Williams, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    In addition to archetypal cognitive defects, Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by altered lymphocyte development and function, including premature thymic involution and increased incidence of infections. However, the potential mechanisms for these changes have not been fully elucidated. The current study used the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS to assess deficiencies in T-cell development and possible molecular alterations. Ts65Dn mice exhibited premature thymic involution and a threefold to fourfold decrease in the number and proportion of immature, double-negative thymocyte progenitors. In addition, there were twofold fewer double-positive and CD4 single-positive thymocytes in Ts65Dn thymuses. Reflecting this deficient thymic function, there were fewer naive T cells in the spleen and polyclonal stimulation of peripheral T cells exhibited a marked reduction in proliferation, suggesting a senescent phenotype. In contrast, B-cell progenitors were unchanged in the bone marrow of Ts65Dn mice, but in the spleen, there were decreased transitional and follicular B cells and these cells proliferated less upon antigen receptor stimulus but not in response to lipopolysaccharide. As a potential mechanism for diminished thymic function, immature thymocyte populations expressed diminished levels of the cytokine receptor interleukin-7Rα, which was associated with decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Increased oxidative stress and inhibition of the Notch pathway were identified as possible mediators of decreased interleukin-7Rα expression in Ts65Dn mice. The data suggest that immature thymocyte defects underlie immune dysfunction in DS and that increased oxidative stress and reduced cytokine signalling may alter lymphocyte development in Ts65Dn mice. PMID:23432468

  4. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Karpinski, Beverly A.; Maynard, Thomas M.; Fralish, Matthew S.; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E.; Moody, Sally A.; LaMantia, Anthony-S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia – debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward – within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS. PMID:24357327

  5. Dysphagia and disrupted cranial nerve development in a mouse model of DiGeorge (22q11) deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Karpinski, Beverly A; Maynard, Thomas M; Fralish, Matthew S; Nuwayhid, Samer; Zohn, Irene E; Moody, Sally A; LaMantia, Anthony-S

    2014-02-01

    We assessed feeding-related developmental anomalies in the LgDel mouse model of chromosome 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), a common developmental disorder that frequently includes perinatal dysphagia--debilitating feeding, swallowing and nutrition difficulties from birth onward--within its phenotypic spectrum. LgDel pups gain significantly less weight during the first postnatal weeks, and have several signs of respiratory infections due to food aspiration. Most 22q11 genes are expressed in anlagen of craniofacial and brainstem regions critical for feeding and swallowing, and diminished expression in LgDel embryos apparently compromises development of these regions. Palate and jaw anomalies indicate divergent oro-facial morphogenesis. Altered expression and patterning of hindbrain transcriptional regulators, especially those related to retinoic acid (RA) signaling, prefigures these disruptions. Subsequently, gene expression, axon growth and sensory ganglion formation in the trigeminal (V), glossopharyngeal (IX) or vagus (X) cranial nerves (CNs) that innervate targets essential for feeding, swallowing and digestion are disrupted. Posterior CN IX and X ganglia anomalies primarily reflect diminished dosage of the 22q11DS candidate gene Tbx1. Genetic modification of RA signaling in LgDel embryos rescues the anterior CN V phenotype and returns expression levels or pattern of RA-sensitive genes to those in wild-type embryos. Thus, diminished 22q11 gene dosage, including but not limited to Tbx1, disrupts oro-facial and CN development by modifying RA-modulated anterior-posterior hindbrain differentiation. These disruptions likely contribute to dysphagia in infants and young children with 22q11DS.

  6. Of mothers and myelin: Aberrant myelination phenotypes in mouse model of Angelman syndrome are dependent on maternal and dietary influences.

    PubMed

    Grier, Mark D; Carson, Robert P; Lagrange, Andre H

    2015-09-15

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of neurological problems, including developmental delay, movement disorders, and epilepsy. AS results from the loss of UBE3A (an imprinted gene) expressed from the maternal chromosome in neurons. Given the ubiquitous expression of Ube3a and the devastating nature of AS, the role of environmental and maternal effects has been largely ignored. Severe ataxia, anxiety-like behaviors and learning deficits are well-documented in patients and AS mice. More recently, clinical imaging studies of AS patients suggest myelination may be delayed or reduced. Utilizing a mouse model of AS, we found disrupted expression of cortical myelin proteins, the magnitude of which is influenced by maternal status, in that the aberrant myelination in the AS pups of AS affected mothers were more pronounced than those seen in AS pups raised by unaffected (Ube3a (m+/p-)) Carrier mothers. Furthermore, feeding the breeding mothers a higher fat (11% vs 5%) diet normalizes these myelin defects. These effects are not limited to myelin proteins. Since AS mice have abnormal stress responses, including altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, we measured GR expression in pups from Carrier and affected AS mothers. AS pups had higher GR expression than their WT littermates. However, we also found an effect of maternal status, with reduced GR levels in pups from affected mothers compared to genotypically identical pups raised by unaffected Carrier mothers. Taken together, our findings suggest that the phenotypes observed in AS mice may be modulated by factors independent of Ube3a genotype.

  7. Ampakines promote spine actin polymerization, long-term potentiation, and learning in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baudry, Michel; Kramar, Eniko; Xu, Xiaobo; Zadran, Homera; Moreno, Stephanie; Lynch, Gary; Gall, Christine; Bi, Xiaoning

    2012-08-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder largely due to abnormal maternal expression of the UBE3A gene leading to the deletion of E6-associated protein. AS subjects have severe cognitive impairments for which there are no therapeutic interventions. Mouse models (knockouts of the maternal Ube3a gene: 'AS mice') of the disorder have substantial deficits in long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning. Here we report a clinically plausible pharmacological treatment that ameliorates both deficits. AS mice were injected ip twice daily for 5 days with vehicle or the ampakine CX929; drugs of this type enhance fast EPSCs by positively modulating AMPA receptors. Theta burst stimulation (TBS) produced a normal enhancement of field EPSPs in hippocampal slices prepared from vehicle-treated AS mice but LTP decreased steadily to baseline; however, LTP in slices from ampakine-treated AS mice stabilized at levels found in wild-type controls. TBS-induced actin polymerization within dendritic spines, an essential event for stabilizing LTP, was severely impaired in slices from vehicle-treated AS mice but not in those from ampakine-treated AS mice. Long-term memory scores in a fear conditioning paradigm were reduced by 50% in vehicle-treated AS mice but were comparable to values for littermate controls in the ampakine-treated AS mice. We propose that AS is associated with a profound defect in activity-driven spine cytoskeletal reorganization, resulting in a loss of the synaptic plasticity required for the encoding of long-term memory. Notably, the spine abnormality along with the LTP and learning impairments can be reduced by a minimally invasive drug treatment.

  8. Of mothers and myelin: Aberrant myelination phenotypes in mouse model of Angelman Syndrome are dependent on maternal and dietary influences

    PubMed Central

    Grier, Mark D.; Carson, Robert P.; Lagrange, Andre H.

    2015-01-01

    Angelman Syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of neurological problems, including developmental delay, movement disorders and epilepsy. AS results from the loss of UBE3A (an imprinted gene) expressed from the maternal chromosome in neurons. Given the ubiquitous expression of Ube3a and the devastating nature of AS, the role of environmental and maternal effects has been largely ignored. Severe ataxia, anxiety-like behaviors and learning deficits are well-documented in patients and AS mice. More recently, clinical imaging studies of AS patients suggest myelination may be delayed or reduced. Utilizing a mouse model of AS, we found disrupted expression of cortical myelin proteins, the magnitude of which is influenced by maternal status, in that the aberrant myelination in the AS pups of AS affected mothers were more pronounced than those seen in AS pups raised by unaffected (Ube3a (m+/p-)) Carrier mothers. Furthermore, feeding the breeding mothers a higher fat (11% vs 5%) diet normalizes these myelin defects. These effects are not limited to myelin proteins. Since AS mice have abnormal stress responses, including altered glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression, we measured GR expression in pups from Carrier and affected AS mothers. AS pups had higher GR expression than their WT littermates. However, we also found an effect of maternal status, with reduced GR levels in pups from affected mothers compared to genotypically identical pups raised by unaffected Carrier mothers. Taken together, our findings suggest that the phenotypes observed in AS mice may be modulated by factors independent of Ube3a genotype. PMID:26028516

  9. Early Social Enrichment Rescues Adult Behavioral and Brain Abnormalities in a Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases. PMID:25348604

  10. Long-term running alleviates some behavioral and molecular abnormalities in Down syndrome mouse model Ts65Dn.

    PubMed

    Kida, Elizabeth; Rabe, Ausma; Walus, Marius; Albertini, Giorgio; Golabek, Adam A

    2013-02-01

    Running may affect the mood, behavior and neurochemistry of running animals. In the present study, we investigated whether voluntary daily running, sustained over several months, might improve cognition and motor function and modify the brain levels of selected proteins (SOD1, DYRK1A, MAP2, APP and synaptophysin) in Ts65Dn mice, a mouse model for Down syndrome (DS). Ts65Dn and age-matched wild-type mice, all females, had free access to a running wheel either from the time of weaning (post-weaning cohort) or from around 7 months of age (adult cohort). Sedentary female mice were housed in similar cages, without running wheels. Behavioral testing and evaluation of motor performance showed that running improved cognitive function and motor skills in Ts65Dn mice. However, while a dramatic improvement in the locomotor functions and learning of motor skills was observed in Ts65Dn mice from both post-weaning and adult cohorts, improved object memory was seen only in Ts65Dn mice that had free access to the wheel from weaning. The total levels of APP and MAP2ab were reduced and the levels of SOD1 were increased in the runners from the post-weaning cohort, while only the levels of MAP2ab and α-cleaved C-terminal fragments of APP were reduced in the adult group in comparison with sedentary trisomic mice. Hence, our study demonstrates that Ts65Dn females benefit from sustained voluntary physical exercise, more prominently if running starts early in life, providing further support to the idea that a properly designed physical exercise program could be a valuable adjuvant to future pharmacotherapy for DS.

  11. Effects of stimulus salience on touchscreen serial reversal learning in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Price E.; Corkill, Beau; McKimm, Eric; Miller, Mellessa M.; Calton, Michele A.; Goldowitz, Daniel; Blaha, Charles D.; Mittleman, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common inherited form of intellectual disability in males and the most common genetic cause of autism. Although executive dysfunction is consistently found in humans with FXS, evidence of executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of FXS, has been inconsistent. One possible explanation for this is that executive dysfunction in Fmr1 KO mice, similar to humans with FXS, is only evident when cognitive demands are high. Using touchscreen operant conditioning chambers, male Fmr1 KO mice and their male wildtype littermates were tested on the acquisition of a pairwise visual discrimination followed by four serial reversals of the response rule. We assessed reversal learning performance under two different conditions. In the first, the correct stimulus was salient and the incorrect stimulus was non-salient. In the second and more challenging condition, the incorrect stimulus was salient and the correct stimulus was non-salient; this increased cognitive load by introducing conflict between sensory-driven (i.e., bottom-up) and task-dependent (i.e., top-down) signals. Fmr1 KOs displayed two distinct impairments relative to wildtype littermates. First, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more learning-type errors during the second reversal stage, but only under high cognitive load. Second, during the first reversal stage, Fmr1 KOs committed significantly more attempts to collect a reward during the timeout following an incorrect response. These findings indicate that Fmr1 KO mice display executive dysfunction that, in some cases, is only evident under high cognitive load. PMID:23747611

  12. Stimulation of intestinal growth and function with DPP4 inhibition in a mouse short bowel syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, Ryo; Woods Ignatoski, Kathleen M; Okawada, Manabu; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2014-08-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) has been shown to be effective in patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS), but it is rapidly inactivated by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4). We used an orally active DPP4 inhibitor (DPP4-I), MK-0626, to determine the efficacy of this approach to promote adaptation after SBS, determined optimal dosing, and identified further functional actions in a mouse model of SBS. Ten-week-old mice underwent a 50% proximal small bowel resection. Dose optimization was determined over a 3-day post-small bowel resection period. The established optimal dose was given for 7, 30, and 90 days and for 7 days followed by a 23-day washout period. Adaptive response was assessed by morphology, intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), epithelial barrier function (transepithelial resistance), RT-PCR for intestinal transport proteins and GLP-2 receptor, IGF type 1 receptor, and GLP-2 plasma levels. Glucose-stimulated sodium transport was assessed for intestinal absorptive function. Seven days of DPP4-I treatment facilitated an increase in GLP-2 receptor levels, intestinal growth, and IEC proliferation. Treatment led to differential effects over time, with greater absorptive function at early time points and enhanced proliferation at later time points. Interestingly, adaptation continued in the group treated for 7 days followed by a 23-day washout. DPP4-I enhanced IEC proliferative action up to 90 days postresection, but this action seemed to peak by 30 days, as did GLP-2 plasma levels. Thus DPP4-I treatment may prove to be a viable option for accelerating intestinal adaptation with SBS.

  13. Intrinsic impaired proplatelet formation and microtubule coil assembly of megakaryocytes in a mouse model of Bernard-Soulier syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Strassel, Catherine; Eckly, Anita; Léon, Catherine; Petitjean, Claire; Freund, Monique; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Gachet, Christian; Lanza, François

    2009-01-01

    Background Giant platelets and thrombocytopenia are invariable defects in the Bernard-Soulier syndrome caused by deficiency of the GPIb-V-IX complex, a receptor for von Willebrand factor supporting platelet adhesion to the damaged arterial wall. Various properties of this receptor may be considered potential determinants of the macrothrombocytopenia. Design and Methods To explore the underlying mechanisms of the disease, megakaryopoiesis was studied in a mouse model deficient in GPIbβ. Megakaryocytes were initially characterized in situ in the bone marrow of adult mice, after which their capacity to differentiate into proplatelet-bearing cells was evaluated in cultured fetal liver cells. Results The number of megakaryocyte progenitors, their differentiation and progressive maturation into distinct classes and their level of endoreplication were normal in GPIbβ−/− bone marrow. However, the more mature cells exhibited ultrastructural anomalies with a thicker peripheral zone and a less well developed demarcation membrane system. GPIbβ−/− megakaryocytes could be differentiated in culture from Lin− fetal liver cells in normal amounts but the proportion of cells able to extend proplatelets was decreased by 41%. Moreover, the GPIbβ−/− cells extending proplatelets displayed an abnormal morphology characterized by fewer pseudopodial extensions with thicker shaft sections and an increased diameter of the terminal coiled elements. GPIbβ−/− released platelets were larger but retained a typical discoid shape. Proplatelet formation was similarly affected in bone marrow explants from adult mice examined by videomicroscopy. The marginal microtubular ring contained twice as many tubulin fibers in GPIbβ−/− proplatelet buds in cultured and circulating platelets. Conclusions Altogether, these findings point to a role of the GPIb-V-IX complex intrinsic to megakaryocytes at the stage of proplatelet formation and suggest a functional link with the underlying

  14. Phenotypic Consequences of Copy Number Variation: Insights from Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski Syndrome Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Chrast, Jacqueline; Gu, Wenli; Gheldof, Nele; Pradervand, Sylvain; Schütz, Frédéric; Young, Juan I.; Lupski, James R.; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2010-01-01

    A large fraction of genome variation between individuals is comprised of submicroscopic copy number variation of genomic DNA segments. We assessed the relative contribution of structural changes and gene dosage alterations on phenotypic outcomes with mouse models of Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. We phenotyped mice with 1n (Deletion/+), 2n (+/+), 3n (Duplication/+), and balanced 2n compound heterozygous (Deletion/Duplication) copies of the same region. Parallel to the observations made in humans, such variation in gene copy number was sufficient to generate phenotypic consequences: in a number of cases diametrically opposing phenotypes were associated with gain versus loss of gene content. Surprisingly, some neurobehavioral traits were not rescued by restoration of the normal gene copy number. Transcriptome profiling showed that a highly significant propensity of transcriptional changes map to the engineered interval in the five assessed tissues. A statistically significant overrepresentation of the genes mapping to the entire length of the engineered chromosome was also found in the top-ranked differentially expressed genes in the mice containing rearranged chromosomes, regardless of the nature of the rearrangement, an observation robust across different cell lineages of the central nervous system. Our data indicate that a structural change at a given position of the human genome may affect not only locus and adjacent gene expression but also “genome regulation.” Furthermore, structural change can cause the same perturbation in particular pathways regardless of gene dosage. Thus, the presence of a genomic structural change, as well as gene dosage imbalance, contributes to the ultimate phenotype. PMID:21124890

  15. Increased Sparsity of Hippocampal CA1 Neuronal Ensembles in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome Assayed by Arc Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith-Hicks, Constance L; Cai, Peiling; Savonenko, Alena V; Reeves, Roger H; Worley, Paul F

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the leading chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, yet the neural substrates of learning and memory deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate neural networks linked to learning and memory in a well-characterized model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit exploratory behavior that is not different from littermate wild-type (WT) controls yet behavioral activation of Arc mRNA transcription in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus is altered in Ts65Dn mice. In WT mice, a 5 min period of exploration of a novel environment resulted in Arc mRNA transcription in 39% of CA1 neurons. By contrast, the same period of exploration resulted in only ~20% of CA1 neurons transcribing Arc mRNA in Ts65Dn mice indicating increased sparsity of the behaviorally induced ensemble. Like WT mice the CA1 pyramidal neurons of Ts65Dn mice reactivated Arc transcription during a second exposure to the same environment 20 min after the first experience, but the size of the reactivated ensemble was only ~60% of that in WT mice. After repeated daily exposures there was a further decline in the size of the reactivated ensemble in Ts65Dn and a disruption of reactivation. Together these data demonstrate reduction in the size of the behaviorally induced network that expresses Arc in Ts65Dn mice and disruption of the long-term stability of the ensemble. We propose that these deficits in network formation and stability contribute to cognitive symptoms in DS.

  16. Early social enrichment rescues adult behavioral and brain abnormalities in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oddi, Diego; Subashi, Enejda; Middei, Silvia; Bellocchio, Luigi; Lemaire-Mayo, Valerie; Guzmán, Manuel; Crusio, Wim E; D'Amato, Francesca R; Pietropaolo, Susanna

    2015-03-13

    Converging lines of evidence support the use of environmental stimulation to ameliorate the symptoms of a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. Applying these interventions at very early ages is critical to achieve a marked reduction of the pathological phenotypes. Here we evaluated the impact of early social enrichment in Fmr1-KO mice, a genetic mouse model of fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major developmental disorder and the most frequent monogenic cause of autism. Enrichment was achieved by providing male KO pups and their WT littermates with enhanced social stimulation, housing them from birth until weaning with the mother and an additional nonlactating female. At adulthood they were tested for locomotor, social, and cognitive abilities; furthermore, dendritic alterations were assessed in the hippocampus and amygdala, two brain regions known to be involved in the control of the examined behaviors and affected by spine pathology in Fmr1-KOs. Enrichment rescued the behavioral FXS-like deficits displayed in adulthood by Fmr1-KO mice, that is, hyperactivity, reduced social interactions, and cognitive deficits. Early social enrichment also eliminated the abnormalities shown by adult KO mice in the morphology of hippocampal and amygdala dendritic spines, namely an enhanced density of immature vs mature types. Importantly, enrichment did not induce neurobehavioral changes in WT mice, thus supporting specific effects on FXS-like pathology. These findings show that early environmental stimulation has profound and long-term beneficial effects on the pathological FXS phenotype, thereby encouraging the use of nonpharmacological interventions for the treatment of this and perhaps other neurodevelopmental diseases.

  17. Increased Sparsity of Hippocampal CA1 Neuronal Ensembles in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome Assayed by Arc Expression

    PubMed Central

    Smith-Hicks, Constance L.; Cai, Peiling; Savonenko, Alena V.; Reeves, Roger H.; Worley, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the leading chromosomal cause of intellectual disability, yet the neural substrates of learning and memory deficits remain poorly understood. Here, we interrogate neural networks linked to learning and memory in a well-characterized model of DS, the Ts65Dn mouse. We report that Ts65Dn mice exhibit exploratory behavior that is not different from littermate wild-type (WT) controls yet behavioral activation of Arc mRNA transcription in pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus is altered in Ts65Dn mice. In WT mice, a 5 min period of exploration of a novel environment resulted in Arc mRNA transcription in 39% of CA1 neurons. By contrast, the same period of exploration resulted in only ~20% of CA1 neurons transcribing Arc mRNA in Ts65Dn mice indicating increased sparsity of the behaviorally induced ensemble. Like WT mice the CA1 pyramidal neurons of Ts65Dn mice reactivated Arc transcription during a second exposure to the same environment 20 min after the first experience, but the size of the reactivated ensemble was only ~60% of that in WT mice. After repeated daily exposures there was a further decline in the size of the reactivated ensemble in Ts65Dn and a disruption of reactivation. Together these data demonstrate reduction in the size of the behaviorally induced network that expresses Arc in Ts65Dn mice and disruption of the long-term stability of the ensemble. We propose that these deficits in network formation and stability contribute to cognitive symptoms in DS. PMID:28217086

  18. Phenotypic consequences of copy number variation: insights from Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndrome mouse models.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Guénola; Molina, Jessica; Chrast, Jacqueline; Gu, Wenli; Gheldof, Nele; Pradervand, Sylvain; Schütz, Frédéric; Young, Juan I; Lupski, James R; Reymond, Alexandre; Walz, Katherina

    2010-11-23

    A large fraction of genome variation between individuals is comprised of submicroscopic copy number variation of genomic DNA segments. We assessed the relative contribution of structural changes and gene dosage alterations on phenotypic outcomes with mouse models of Smith-Magenis and Potocki-Lupski syndromes. We phenotyped mice with 1n (Deletion/+), 2n (+/+), 3n (Duplication/+), and balanced 2n compound heterozygous (Deletion/Duplication) copies of the same region. Parallel to the observations made in humans, such variation in gene copy number was sufficient to generate phenotypic consequences: in a number of cases diametrically opposing phenotypes were associated with gain versus loss of gene content. Surprisingly, some neurobehavioral traits were not rescued by restoration of the normal gene copy number. Transcriptome profiling showed that a highly significant propensity of transcriptional changes map to the engineered interval in the five assessed tissues. A statistically significant overrepresentation of the genes mapping to the entire length of the engineered chromosome was also found in the top-ranked differentially expressed genes in the mice containing rearranged chromosomes, regardless of the nature of the rearrangement, an observation robust across different cell lineages of the central nervous system. Our data indicate that a structural change at a given position of the human genome may affect not only locus and adjacent gene expression but also "genome regulation." Furthermore, structural change can cause the same perturbation in particular pathways regardless of gene dosage. Thus, the presence of a genomic structural change, as well as gene dosage imbalance, contributes to the ultimate phenotype.

  19. Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Element Distribution in a Mouse Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tsung-Sheng; Chen, Yi-Ting; Liu, Chia-Hsin; Sun, Chi-Ching; Mao, Frank Chiahung

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine disorder and one of the most common causes of anovulatory infertility. In addition, insulin resistance is commonly associated with PCOS and contributed to pathophysiology connected to dietary minerals including chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn). The aims of this study were to explore whether PCOS in mice alters levels of these elements and determine if Cr supplementation resolves changes. Twenty-four female BALB/c mice were divided into three groups of eight mice [normal control (NC), PCOS+placebo milk (PP), and PCOS+Cr-containing milk (PCr)]. Each group received a high-fat diet for 4 weeks. Our results show significantly higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) (p<0.001), fasting glucose (p<0.05), and fasting insulin (p<0.05) in the PP group compared with both NC and PCr group. However, Cr levels were significantly lower in muscle, bone, and serum in the PP group (p<0.05) compared with NC and PCr groups. In liver, bone, and serum, Fe levels were significantly higher in the PP group compared with the NC group (p<0.05). In addition, we found significant correlations between Cu/Zn ratio and fasting insulin in all mice (r=0.61; p=0.002). Given that significant research shows that Cr supplementation improves fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and metal metabolism disorders for PCOS mice, our data suggest that trace element levels can serve as biomarkers to prescribe therapeutic supplementation to maintain a healthy metabolic balance and treat disease conditions.

  20. p53 suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1+/− embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1+/−;Trp53+/− embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically. PMID:25197075

  1. Synaptic Maturation at Cortical Projections to the Lateral Amygdala in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Poulain, Bernard; Bienvenu, Thierry; Chelly, Jamel; Humeau, Yann

    2010-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neuro-developmental disorder caused by loss of function of Mecp2 - methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 - an epigenetic factor controlling DNA transcription. In mice, removal of Mecp2 in the forebrain recapitulates most of behavioral deficits found in global Mecp2 deficient mice, including amygdala-related hyper-anxiety and lack of social interaction, pointing a role of Mecp2 in emotional learning. Yet very little is known about the establishment and maintenance of synaptic function in the adult amygdala and the role of Mecp2 in these processes. Here, we performed a longitudinal examination of synaptic properties at excitatory projections to principal cells of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) in Mecp2 mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. We first show that during animal life, Cortico-LA projections switch from a tonic to a phasic mode, whereas Thalamo-LA synapses are phasic at all ages. In parallel, we observed a specific elimination of Cortico-LA synapses and a decrease in their ability of generating presynaptic long term potentiation. In absence of Mecp2, both synaptic maturation and synaptic elimination were exaggerated albeit still specific to cortical projections. Surprisingly, associative LTP was unaffected at Mecp2 deficient synapses suggesting that synaptic maintenance rather than activity-dependent synaptic learning may be causal in RTT physiopathology. Finally, because the timing of synaptic evolution was preserved, we propose that some of the developmental effects of Mecp2 may be exerted within an endogenous program and restricted to synapses which maturate during animal life. PMID:20625482

  2. p53 Suppression partially rescues the mutant phenotype in mouse models of DiGeorge syndrome.

    PubMed

    Caprio, Cinzia; Baldini, Antonio

    2014-09-16

    T-box 1 (Tbx1), a gene encoding a T-box transcription factor, is required for embryonic development in humans and mice. Half dosage of this gene in humans causes most of the features of the DiGeorge or Velocardiofacial syndrome phenotypes, including aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract abnormalities. Here we found a strong genetic interaction between Tbx1 and transformation related protein 53 (Trp53). Indeed, genetic ablation of Trp53, or pharmacological inhibition of its protein product p53, rescues significantly the cardiovascular defects of Tbx1 heterozygous and hypomorphic mutants. We found that the Tbx1 and p53 proteins do not interact directly but both occupy a genetic element of Gbx2, which is required for aortic arch and cardiac outflow tract development, and is a known genetic interactor of Tbx1. We found that Gbx2 expression is down-regulated in Tbx1(+/-) embryos and is restored to normal levels in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos. In addition, we found that the genetic element that binds both Tbx1 and p53 is highly enriched in H3K27 trimethylation, and upon p53 suppression H3K27me3 levels are reduced, along with Ezh2 enrichment. This finding suggests that the rescue of Gbx2 expression in Tbx1(+/-);Trp53(+/-) embryos is due to reduction of repressive chromatin marks. Overall our data identify unexpected genetic interactions between Tbx1 and Trp53 and provide a proof of principle that developmental defects associated with reduced dosage of Tbx1 can be rescued pharmacologically.

  3. Cardiac metabolic pathways affected in the mouse model of barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Powers, Corey; Madala, Satish K; Greis, Kenneth D; Haffey, Wendy D; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan; Javadov, Sabzali; Strauss, Arnold W; Khuchua, Zaza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid essential for electron transport chain (ETC) integrity. CL-deficiency in humans is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (Taz) gene and results in a multisystem pediatric disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS). It has been reported that tafazzin deficiency destabilizes mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and affects supercomplex assembly. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Taz-knockdown on the mitochondrial proteomic landscape and metabolic processes, such as stability of respiratory chain supercomplexes and their interactions with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in cardiac muscle. Proteomic analysis demonstrated reduction of several polypeptides of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, including Rieske and cytochrome c1 subunits of complex III, NADH dehydrogenase alpha subunit 5 of complex I and the catalytic core-forming subunit of F0F1-ATP synthase. Taz gene knockdown resulted in upregulation of enzymes of folate and amino acid metabolic pathways in heart mitochondria, demonstrating that Taz-deficiency causes substantive metabolic remodeling in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes are destabilized in CL-depleted mitochondria from Taz knockdown hearts resulting in disruption of the interactions between ETC and the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, potentially affecting the metabolic channeling of reducing equivalents between these two metabolic pathways. Mitochondria-bound myoglobin was significantly reduced in Taz-knockdown hearts, potentially disrupting intracellular oxygen delivery to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Our results identify the critical pathways affected by the Taz-deficiency in mitochondria and establish a future framework for development of therapeutic options for BTHS.

  4. Cardiac Metabolic Pathways Affected in the Mouse Model of Barth Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Powers, Corey; Madala, Satish K.; Greis, Kenneth D.; Haffey, Wendy D.; Towbin, Jeffrey A.; Purevjav, Enkhsaikhan; Javadov, Sabzali; Strauss, Arnold W.; Khuchua, Zaza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiolipin (CL) is a mitochondrial phospholipid essential for electron transport chain (ETC) integrity. CL-deficiency in humans is caused by mutations in the tafazzin (Taz) gene and results in a multisystem pediatric disorder, Barth syndrome (BTHS). It has been reported that tafazzin deficiency destabilizes mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and affects supercomplex assembly. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Taz-knockdown on the mitochondrial proteomic landscape and metabolic processes, such as stability of respiratory chain supercomplexes and their interactions with fatty acid oxidation enzymes in cardiac muscle. Proteomic analysis demonstrated reduction of several polypeptides of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, including Rieske and cytochrome c1 subunits of complex III, NADH dehydrogenase alpha subunit 5 of complex I and the catalytic core-forming subunit of F0F1-ATP synthase. Taz gene knockdown resulted in upregulation of enzymes of folate and amino acid metabolic pathways in heart mitochondria, demonstrating that Taz-deficiency causes substantive metabolic remodeling in cardiac muscle. Mitochondrial respiratory chain supercomplexes are destabilized in CL-depleted mitochondria from Taz knockdown hearts resulting in disruption of the interactions between ETC and the fatty acid oxidation enzymes, very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, potentially affecting the metabolic channeling of reducing equivalents between these two metabolic pathways. Mitochondria-bound myoglobin was significantly reduced in Taz-knockdown hearts, potentially disrupting intracellular oxygen delivery to the oxidative phosphorylation system. Our results identify the critical pathways affected by the Taz-deficiency in mitochondria and establish a future framework for development of therapeutic options for BTHS. PMID:26030409

  5. Genetic manipulation of STEP reverses behavioral abnormalities in a fragile X syndrome mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Goebel-Goody, Susan M.; Wilson-Wallis, Evan D.; Royston, Sara; Tagliatela, Stephanie; Naegele, Janice R.; Lombroso, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common inherited form of intellectual disability and prevailing known genetic basis of autism, is caused by an expansion in the Fmr1 gene that prevents transcription and translation of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). FMRP binds to and controls translation of mRNAs downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Recent work identified striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) as an FMRP target mRNA. STEP opposes synaptic strengthening and promotes synaptic weakening by dephosphorylating its substrates, including ERK1/2, p38, Fyn, Pyk2, and subunits of NMDA and AMPA receptors. Here we demonstrate that STEP translation is dysregulated in Fmr1KO mice, resulting in elevated basal levels of STEP with a concomitant loss of mGluR-dependent STEP translation. We hypothesized that the weakened synaptic strength and behavioral abnormalities reported in FXS may be linked to excess levels of STEP. To test this hypothesis, we reduced or eliminated STEP genetically in Fmr1KO mice. In addition to attenuating audiogenic seizures and seizure-induced c-Fos activation in the periaqueductal gray, genetically reducing STEP in Fmr1KO mice reversed characteristic social abnormalities, including approach, investigation, novelty-induced hyperactivity and anxiety. Loss of STEP also corrected select non-social anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1KO mice, such as open arm exploration in the elevated plus maze. Our findings indicate that genetically reducing STEP significantly diminishes seizures and restores social and non-social anxiety-related behaviors in Fmr1KO mice, suggesting that strategies to inhibit STEP activity may be effective for treating patients with FXS. PMID:22405502

  6. Learning and memory and synaptic plasticity are impaired in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Paolo; Levenson, Jonathan M; Battaglia, Fortunato; Atkinson, Richard; Teague, Ryan; Antalffy, Barbara; Armstrong, Dawna; Arancio, Ottavio; Sweatt, J David; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2006-01-04

    Loss-of-function mutations or abnormal expression of the X-linked gene encoding methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) cause a spectrum of postnatal neurodevelopmental disorders including Rett syndrome (RTT), nonsyndromic mental retardation, learning disability, and autism. Mice expressing a truncated allele of Mecp2 (Mecp2(308)) reproduce the motor and social behavior abnormalities of RTT; however, it is not known whether learning deficits are present in these animals. We investigated learning and memory, neuronal morphology, and synaptic function in Mecp2(308) mice. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory, contextual fear memory, and social memory were significantly impaired in Mecp2(308) mutant males (Mecp2(308/Y)). The morphology of dendritic arborizations, the biochemical composition of synaptosomes and postsynaptic densities, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression were not altered in these mice. However, reduced postsynaptic density cross-sectional length was identified in asymmetric synapses of area CA1 of the hippocampus. In the hippocampus of symptomatic Mecp2(308/Y) mice, Schaffer-collateral synapses exhibited enhanced basal synaptic transmission and decreased paired-pulse facilitation, suggesting that neurotransmitter release was enhanced. Schaffer-collateral long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired. LTP was also reduced in the motor and sensory regions of the neocortex. Finally, very early symptomatic Mecp2(308/Y) mice had increased basal synaptic transmission and deficits in the induction of long-term depression. These data demonstrate a requirement for MeCP2 in learning and memory and suggest that functional and ultrastructural synaptic dysfunction is an early event in the pathogenesis of RTT.

  7. Synaptic maturation at cortical projections to the lateral amygdala in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Frédéric; Khelfaoui, Malik; Poulain, Bernard; Bienvenu, Thierry; Chelly, Jamel; Humeau, Yann

    2010-07-02

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neuro-developmental disorder caused by loss of function of Mecp2--methyl-CpG-binding protein 2--an epigenetic factor controlling DNA transcription. In mice, removal of Mecp2 in the forebrain recapitulates most of behavioral deficits found in global Mecp2 deficient mice, including amygdala-related hyper-anxiety and lack of social interaction, pointing a role of Mecp2 in emotional learning. Yet very little is known about the establishment and maintenance of synaptic function in the adult amygdala and the role of Mecp2 in these processes. Here, we performed a longitudinal examination of synaptic properties at excitatory projections to principal cells of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala (LA) in Mecp2 mutant mice and their wild-type littermates. We first show that during animal life, Cortico-LA projections switch from a tonic to a phasic mode, whereas Thalamo-LA synapses are phasic at all ages. In parallel, we observed a specific elimination of Cortico-LA synapses and a decrease in their ability of generating presynaptic long term potentiation. In absence of Mecp2, both synaptic maturation and synaptic elimination were exaggerated albeit still specific to cortical projections. Surprisingly, associative LTP was unaffected at Mecp2 deficient synapses suggesting that synaptic maintenance rather than activity-dependent synaptic learning may be causal in RTT physiopathology. Finally, because the timing of synaptic evolution was preserved, we propose that some of the developmental effects of Mecp2 may be exerted within an endogenous program and restricted to synapses which maturate during animal life.

  8. Auditory function in the Tc1 mouse model of down syndrome suggests a limited region of human chromosome 21 involved in otitis media.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Stephanie; Ingham, Neil; Pearson, Selina; Gribble, Susan M; Clayton, Stephen; Steel, Karen P; Marcotti, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is one of the most common congenital disorders leading to a wide range of health problems in humans, including frequent otitis media. The Tc1 mouse carries a significant part of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) in addition to the full set of mouse chromosomes and shares many phenotypes observed in humans affected by Down syndrome with trisomy of chromosome 21. However, it is unknown whether Tc1 mice exhibit a hearing phenotype and might thus represent a good model for understanding the hearing loss that is common in Down syndrome. In this study we carried out a structural and functional assessment of hearing in Tc1 mice. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) measurements in Tc1 mice showed normal thresholds compared to littermate controls and ABR waveform latencies and amplitudes were equivalent to controls. The gross anatomy of the middle and inner ears was also similar between Tc1 and control mice. The physiological properties of cochlear sensory receptors (inner and outer hair cells: IHCs and OHCs) were investigated using single-cell patch clamp recordings from the acutely dissected cochleae. Adult Tc1 IHCs exhibited normal resting membrane potentials and expressed all K(+) currents characteristic of control hair cells. However, the size of the large conductance (BK) Ca(2+) activated K(+) current (I(K,f)), which enables rapid voltage responses essential for accurate sound encoding, was increased in Tc1 IHCs. All physiological properties investigated in OHCs were indistinguishable between the two genotypes. The normal functional hearing and the gross structural anatomy of the middle and inner ears in the Tc1 mouse contrast to that observed in the Ts65Dn model of Down syndrome which shows otitis media. Genes that are trisomic in Ts65Dn but disomic in Tc1 may predispose to otitis media when an additional copy is active.

  9. The VCD Mouse Model of Menopause and Perimenopause for the Study of Sex Differences in Cardiovascular Disease and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Brooks, H L; Pollow, D P; Hoyer, P B

    2016-07-01

    In females, menopause, the cessation of menstrual cycling, is associated with an increase in risk for several diseases such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and ovarian cancer. The majority of women enter menopause via a gradual reduction of ovarian function over several years (perimenopause) and retain residual ovarian tissue. The VCD mouse model of menopause (ovarian failure in rodents) is a follicle-deplete, ovary-intact animal that more closely approximates the natural human progression through perimenopause and into the postmenopausal stage of life. In this review, we present the physiological parameters of how to use the VCD model and explore the VCD model and its application into the study of postmenopausal disease mechanisms, focusing on recent murine studies of diabetic kidney disease, the metabolic syndrome, and hypertension.

  10. Delivery of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Tear Production in a Mouse Model of Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Aluri, Hema S.; Samizadeh, Mahta; Edman, Maria C.; Armaos, Helene L.; Janga, Srikanth R.; Meng, Zhen; Sendra, Victor G.; Hamrah, Pedram; Kublin, Claire L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the potential of mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BD-MSCs) in improving tear production in a mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye and to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved. NOD mice (n = 20) were randomized to receive i.p. injection of sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS, control) or murine BD-MSCs (1 × 106 cells). Tears production was measured at baseline and once a week after treatment using phenol red impregnated threads. Cathepsin S activity in the tears was measured at the end of treatment. After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed and the lacrimal glands were excised and processed for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and RNA analysis. Following BD-MSC injection, tears production increased over time when compared to both baseline and PBS injected mice. Although the number of lymphocytic foci in the lacrimal glands of treated animals did not change, the size of the foci decreased by 40.5% when compared to control animals. The mRNA level of the water channel aquaporin 5 was significantly increased following delivery of BD-MSCs. We conclude that treatment with BD-MSCs increases tear production in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. This is likely due to decreased inflammation and increased expression of aquaporin 5. PMID:28348600

  11. Combined Treatment With Environmental Enrichment and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Ameliorates Learning Deficits and Hippocampal Alterations in a Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Juan Ramon; Notredame, Cedric

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability in Down syndrome (DS) is accompanied by altered neuro-architecture, deficient synaptic plasticity, and excitation-inhibition imbalance in critical brain regions for learning and memory. Recently, we have demonstrated beneficial effects of a combined treatment with green tea extract containing (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and cognitive stimulation in young adult DS individuals. Although we could reproduce the cognitive-enhancing effects in mouse models, the underlying mechanisms of these beneficial effects are unknown. Here, we explored the effects of a combined therapy with environmental enrichment (EE) and EGCG in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS at young age. Our results show that combined EE-EGCG treatment improved corticohippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Cognitive improvements were accompanied by a rescue of cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) dendritic spine density and a normalization of the proportion of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic markers in CA1 and dentate gyrus. PMID:27844057

  12. Beyond the closed suture in Apert syndrome mouse models: evidence of primary effects of FGFR2 signaling on facial shape at birth

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Percival, Christopher; Aldridge, Kristina; Hill, Cheryl A; Ryan, Timothy; Sirivunnabood, Satama; Wang, Yingli; Jabs, Ethylin Wang; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2010-01-01

    Apert syndrome is a congenital disorder caused mainly by two neighboring mutations on fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2). Premature closure of the coronal suture is commonly considered the identifying and primary defect triggering or preceding the additional cranial malformations of Apert phenotype. Here we use two transgenic mouse models of Apert syndrome, Fgfr2+/S252W and Fgfr2+/P253R, to explore variation in cranial phenotypes in newborn (P0) mice. Results show that the facial skeleton is the most affected region of the cranium. Coronal suture patency shows marked variation that is not strongly correlated with skull dysmorphology. The craniofacial effects of the FGFR2 mutations are similar, but Fgfr2+/S252W mutant mice display significantly more severe dysmorphology localized to the posterior palate. Our results demonstrate that coronal suture closure is neither the primary nor the sole locus of skull dysmorphology in these mouse models for Apert syndrome, but that the face is also primarily affected. PMID:20842696

  13. A mouse model for MeCP2 duplication syndrome: MeCP2 overexpression impairs learning and memory and synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Na, Elisa S; Nelson, Erika D; Adachi, Megumi; Autry, Anita E; Mahgoub, Melissa A; Kavalali, Ege T; Monteggia, Lisa M

    2012-02-29

    Rett syndrome and MECP2 duplication syndrome are neurodevelopmental disorders that arise from loss-of-function and gain-of-function alterations in methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) expression, respectively. Although there have been studies examining MeCP2 loss of function in animal models, there is limited information on MeCP2 overexpression in animal models. Here, we characterize a mouse line with MeCP2 overexpression restricted to neurons (Tau-Mecp2). This MeCP2 overexpression line shows motor coordination deficits, heightened anxiety, and impairments in learning and memory that are accompanied by deficits in long-term potentiation and short-term synaptic plasticity. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of cultured hippocampal neurons from Tau-Mecp2 mice reveal augmented frequency of miniature EPSCs with no change in miniature IPSCs, indicating that overexpression of MeCP2 selectively impacts excitatory synapse function. Moreover, we show that alterations in transcriptional repression mechanisms underlie the synaptic phenotypes in hippocampal neurons from the Tau-Mecp2 mice. These results demonstrate that the Tau-Mecp2 mouse line recapitulates many key phenotypes of MECP2 duplication syndrome and support the use of these mice to further study this devastating disorder.

  14. Memory and Learning--Using Mouse to Model Neurobiological and Behavioural Aspects of Down Syndrome and Assess Pharmacotherapeutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Katheleen

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models are a standard tool in the study of many human diseases, providing insights into the normal functions of a gene, how these are altered in disease and how they contribute to a disease process, as well as information on drug action, efficacy and side effects. Our knowledge of human genes, their genetics, functions, interactions and…

  15. Memory and Learning--Using Mouse to Model Neurobiological and Behavioural Aspects of Down Syndrome and Assess Pharmacotherapeutics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Katheleen

    2009-01-01

    Mouse models are a standard tool in the study of many human diseases, providing insights into the normal functions of a gene, how these are altered in disease and how they contribute to a disease process, as well as information on drug action, efficacy and side effects. Our knowledge of human genes, their genetics, functions, interactions and…

  16. CHD7 Deficiency in “Looper”, a New Mouse Model of CHARGE Syndrome, Results in Ossicle Malformation, Otosclerosis and Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ogier, Jacqueline M.; Carpinelli, Marina R.; Arhatari, Benedicta D.; Symons, R. C. Andrew; Kile, Benjamin T.; Burt, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a rare human disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7 (CHD7). Characteristics of CHARGE are varied and include developmental ear and hearing anomalies. Here we report a novel mouse model of CHD7 dysfunction, termed Looper. The Looper strain harbours a nonsense mutation (c.5690C>A, p.S1897X) within the Chd7 gene. Looper mice exhibit many of the clinical features of the human syndrome, consistent with previously reported CHARGE models, including growth retardation, facial asymmetry, vestibular defects, eye anomalies, hyperactivity, ossicle malformation, hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction. Looper mice display an otosclerosis-like fusion of the stapes footplate to the cochlear oval window and blepharoconjunctivitis but not coloboma. Looper mice are hyperactive and have vestibular dysfunction but do not display motor impairment. PMID:24840056

  17. Evaluation of potential models for imprinted and nonimprinted components of human chromosome 15q11-q13 syndromes by fine-structure homology mapping in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholls, R.D.; Gottlieb, W.; Davda, M. ); Russell, L.B.; Rinchik, E.M. ); Horsthemke, B. )

    1993-03-01

    Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes are complex neurobehavioral contiguous gene syndromes whose expression depends on the unmasking of genomic imprinting for different genetic loci in human chromosome 15q11-q13. The homologous chromosomal region in the mouse genome has been fine-mapped by using interspecific (Mus spretus) crosses and overlapping, radiation-induced deletions to evaluate potential animal models for both imprinted and nonimprinted components of these syndromes. Four evolutionarily conserved sequences from human 15q11-q13, including two cDNAs from fetal brain (DN10, D15S12h; DN34, D15S9h-1), a microdissected clone (MN7; D15F37S1h) expressed in mouse brain, and the gene for the [beta]3 subunit of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (Gabrb3), were mapped in mouse chromosome 7 by analysis of deletions at the pink-eyed dilution (p) locus. Three of these loci are deleted in pre- and postnatally lethal p-locus mutations, which extend up to 5.5 [plus minus] 1.7 centimorgans (cM) proximal to p; D15S9h-1, which maps 1.1 [plus minus] 0.8 cM distal to p and is the mouse homolog of the human gene D15S9 (which shows a DNA methylation imprint), is not deleted in any of the p-locus deletion series. A transcript from the Gabrb3 gene, but not the transcript detected by MN7 at the D15F37S1h locus, is expressed in mice homozygous for the p[sup 6H] deletion, which have an abnormal neurological phenotype. Furthermore, the Gabrb3 transcript is expressed equally well from the maternal or paternal chromosome 7 and, therefore, its expression is not imprinted in mouse brain. Deletions, at the mouse p locus should serve as intermediate genetic reagents and models with which to analyze the genetics and etiology of individual components of human 15q11-q13 disorders. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 region modifies locomotor and cognitive deficits observed in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marechal, Damien; Lopes Pereira, Patricia; Duchon, Arnaud; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features.

  19. Dosage of the Abcg1-U2af1 Region Modifies Locomotor and Cognitive Deficits Observed in the Tc1 Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Marechal, Damien; Pereira, Patricia Lopes; Duchon, Arnaud; Herault, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) results from one extra copy of human chromosome 21 and leads to several alterations including intellectual disabilities and locomotor defects. The transchromosomic Tc1 mouse model carrying an extra freely-segregating copy of human chromosome 21 was developed to better characterize the relation between genotype and phenotype in DS. The Tc1 mouse exhibits several locomotor and cognitive deficits related to DS. In this report we analyzed the contribution of the genetic dosage of 13 conserved mouse genes located between Abcg1 and U2af1, in the telomeric part of Hsa21. We used the Ms2Yah model carrying a deletion of the corresponding interval in the mouse genome to rescue gene dosage in the Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mice to determine how the different behavioral phenotypes are affected. We detected subtle changes with the Tc1/Ms2Yah mice performing better than the Tc1 individuals in the reversal paradigm of the Morris water maze. We also found that Tc1/Ms2Yah compound mutants performed better in the rotarod than the Tc1 mice. This data support the impact of genes from the Abcg1-U2af1 region as modifiers of Tc1-dependent memory and locomotor phenotypes. Our results emphasize the complex interactions between triplicated genes inducing DS features. PMID:25706610

  20. Estradiol negative and positive feedback in a prenatal androgen-induced mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Melanie; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2013-02-01

    Gonadal steroid hormone feedback is impaired in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), a common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and an associated increase in LH pulse frequency. Using a prenatal androgen (PNA)-treated mouse model of PCOS, we aimed to investigate negative and positive feedback effects of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis regulation of LH. PNA-treated mice exhibited severely disrupted estrous cycles, hyperandrogenism, significantly reduced fertility, and altered ovarian morphology. To assess the negative feedback effects of estrogens, LH was measured before and after ovariectomy and after estradiol (E2) administration. Compared with controls, PNA-treated mice exhibited a blunted postcastration rise in LH (P < .001) and an absence of LH suppression after E2 administration. To assess E2-positive feedback, control and PNA-treated GnRH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice were subjected to a standard ovariectomy with E2-replacement regimen, and both plasma and perfusion-fixed brains were collected at the time of the expected GnRH/LH surge. Immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of cFos and green fluorescent protein were used to assess GnRH neuron activation and spine density. In the surged group, both control and PNA-treated mice had significantly increased LH and cFos activation in GnRH neurons (P < .05) compared with nonsurged animals. Spine density was quantified in cFos-positive and -negative GnRH neurons to examine whether there was an increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons of surged mice as expected. A significant increase in spine density in cFos-expressing GnRH neurons was evident in control animals; however, no significant increase was observed in the PNA-treated mice because spine density was elevated across all GnRH neurons. These data support that PNA treatment results in a PCOS-like phenotype that includes impaired E2-negative feedback. Additionally, although E2-positive feedback

  1. Hearing loss in the RBF/DnJ mouse, a proposed animal model of Usher syndrome type IIa.

    PubMed

    Pieke-Dahl, S; Ohlemiller, K K; McGee, J; Walsh, E J; Kimberling, W J

    1997-10-01

    The Usher syndromes (US) are a group of inherited disorders that feature autosomal recessive neurosensory hearing loss or deafness with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Moderate to severe non-progressive high frequency hearing loss with RP and normal vestibular function describes Usher syndrome type IIa, which has been localized to 1q41. Severe retinal degeneration in the inbred mouse strain RBF/DnJ is caused by rd3, a recessive gene located on mouse chromosome 1 distal to akp1 in a region which is orthologous to human 1q32-q42. We evaluated rd3 as a candidate for orthology with USH2A by first reducing and refining the relatively broad region in which rd3 is thought to reside. DNA of offspring from an RBF/DnJ x MOLF/Ei backcross was genotyped with PCR markers closely flanking the predicted location of rd3. Our haplotype analysis re-positioned rd3 to a 3.6 cM region between markers D1Mit273 (cen) and D1Mit209 (tel), consistent with the expected position of an USH2A murine orthologue. Consequently, rd3 is a positional candidate for Usher type IIa. Next we assessed the rd3/rd3 audiological phenotype to see how closely it paralleled that of Usher IIa. Audiological evaluation of mice at various ages revealed evidence of high frequency progressive hearing loss, previously unreported in the RBF/DnJ strain. However, this newly discovered hearing deficit was observed to be inherited independently of rd3, establishing that a completely different gene is responsible.

  2. Systems analysis of primary Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis in salivary glands identifies shared pathways in human and a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic autoimmune disease with complex etiopathogenesis. Despite extensive studies to understand the disease process utilizing human and mouse models, the intersection between these species remains elusive. To address this gap, we utilized a novel systems biology approach to identify disease-related gene modules and signaling pathways that overlap between humans and mice. Methods Parotid gland tissues were harvested from 24 pSS and 16 non-pSS sicca patients and 25 controls. For mouse studies, salivary glands were harvested from C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 mice at various times during development of pSS-like disease. RNA was analyzed with Affymetrix HG U133+2.0 arrays for human samples and with MOE430+2.0 arrays for mouse samples. The images were processed with Affymetrix software. Weighted-gene co-expression network analysis was used to identify disease-related and functional pathways. Results Nineteen co-expression modules were identified in human parotid tissue, of which four were significantly upregulated and three were downregulated in pSS patients compared with non-pSS sicca patients and controls. Notably, one of the human disease-related modules was highly preserved in the mouse model, and was enriched with genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses. Further comparison between these two species led to the identification of genes associated with leukocyte recruitment and germinal center formation. Conclusion Our systems biology analysis of genome-wide expression data from salivary gland tissue of pSS patients and from a pSS mouse model identified common dysregulated biological pathways and molecular targets underlying critical molecular alterations in pSS pathogenesis. PMID:23116360

  3. Methyl-orvinol-Dual activity opioid receptor ligand inhibits gastrointestinal transit and alleviates abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Marta; Jarmuż, Agata; Wasilewski, Andrzej; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Husbands, Stephen; Fichna, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The major IBS-D symptoms include diarrhea, abdominal pain and discomfort. High density of opioid receptors (ORs) in the GI tract and their participation in the maintenance of GI homeostasis make ORs ligands an attractive option for developing new anti-IBS-D treatments. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of methyl-orvinol on the GI motility and secretion and in mouse models mimicking symptoms of IBS-D. In vitro, the effects of methyl-orvinol on electrical field stimulated smooth muscle contractility and epithelial ion transport were characterized in the mouse colon. In vivo, the following tests were used to determine methyl-orvinol effect on mouse GI motility: colonic bead expulsion, whole GI transit and fecal pellet output. An antinociceptive action of methyl-orvinol was assessed in the mouse model of visceral pain induced by mustard oil. Methyl-orvinol (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) inhibited colonic smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. This effect was reversed by naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist) and β-funaltrexamine (selective MOP antagonist). Experiments with a selective KOP receptor agonist, U50488 revealed that methyl-orvinol is a KOP receptor antagonist in the GI tract. Methyl-orvinol enhanced epithelial ion transport. In vivo, methyl-orvinol inhibited colonic bead expulsion and prolonged GI transit. Methyl-orvinol improved hypermotility and reduced abdominal pain in the mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Methyl-orvinol could become a promising drug candidate in chronic therapy of functional GI diseases such as IBS-D. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations to dendritic spine morphology, but not dendrite patterning, of cortical projection neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Haas, Matilda A; Bell, Donald; Slender, Amy; Lana-Elola, Eva; Watson-Scales, Sheona; Fisher, Elizabeth M C; Tybulewicz, Victor L J; Guillemot, François

    2013-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines--the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects.

  5. Alterations to Dendritic Spine Morphology, but Not Dendrite Patterning, of Cortical Projection Neurons in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr Mouse Models of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Matilda A.; Bell, Donald; Slender, Amy; Lana-Elola, Eva; Watson-Scales, Sheona; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Guillemot, François

    2013-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly prevalent developmental disorder, affecting 1/700 births. Intellectual disability, which affects learning and memory, is present in all cases and is reflected by below average IQ. We sought to determine whether defective morphology and connectivity in neurons of the cerebral cortex may underlie the cognitive deficits that have been described in two mouse models of DS, the Tc1 and Ts1Rhr mouse lines. We utilised in utero electroporation to label a cohort of future upper layer projection neurons in the cerebral cortex of developing mouse embryos with GFP, and then examined neuronal positioning and morphology in early adulthood, which revealed no alterations in cortical layer position or morphology in either Tc1 or Ts1Rhr mouse cortex. The number of dendrites, as well as dendrite length and branching was normal in both DS models, compared with wildtype controls. The sites of projection neuron synaptic inputs, dendritic spines, were analysed in Tc1 and Ts1Rhr cortex at three weeks and three months after birth, and significant changes in spine morphology were observed in both mouse lines. Ts1Rhr mice had significantly fewer thin spines at three weeks of age. At three months of age Tc1 mice had significantly fewer mushroom spines - the morphology associated with established synaptic inputs and learning and memory. The decrease in mushroom spines was accompanied by a significant increase in the number of stubby spines. This data suggests that dendritic spine abnormalities may be a more important contributor to cognitive deficits in DS models, rather than overall neuronal architecture defects. PMID:24205261

  6. Comprehensive behavioral phenotyping of Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome: activation of β1-adrenergic receptor by xamoterol as a potential cognitive enhancer.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Bader, Patrick L; Tun, Christine; Encarnacion, Angelo; Kleschevnikov, Alexander; Belichenko, Pavel; Saw, Nay; Priestley, Matthew; Tsien, Richard W; Mobley, William C; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2011-08-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: (i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), (ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and (iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down syndrome displays cognitive deficits which are mediated by an imbalance in the

  7. Comprehensive Behavioral Phenotyping of Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome: Activation of β1-Adrenergic Receptor by Xamoterol as a Potential Cognitive Enhancer

    PubMed Central

    Faizi, Mehrdad; Bader, Patrick L.; Tun, Christine; Encarnacion, Angelo; Kleschevnikov, Alexander; Belichenko, Pavel; Saw, Nay; Priestley, Matthew; Tsien, Richard W; Mobley, William C; Shamloo, Mehrdad

    2012-01-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is the most prevalent form of mental retardation caused by genetic abnormalities in humans. This has been successfully modeled in mice to generate the Ts65Dn mouse, a genetic model of DS. This transgenic mouse model shares a number of physical and functional abnormalities with people with DS, including changes in the structure and function of neuronal circuits. Significant abnormalities in noradrenergic (NE-ergic) afferents from the locus coeruleus to the hippocampus, as well as deficits in NE-ergic neurotransmission are detected in these animals. In the current study we characterized in detail the behavioral phenotype of Ts65Dn mice, in addition to using pharmacological tools for identification of target receptors mediating the learning and memory deficits observed in this model of DS. We undertook a comprehensive approach to mouse phenotyping using a battery of standard and novel tests encompassing: i) locomotion (Activity Chamber, PhenoTyper, and CatWalk), ii) learning and memory (spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, fear conditioning, and Intellicage), and iii) social behavior. Ts65Dn mice showed increased locomotor activity in novel and home cage environments. There were significant and reproducible deficits in learning and memory tests including spontaneous alternation, delayed matching-to-place water maze, Intellicage place avoidance and contextual fear conditioning. Although Ts65Dn mice showed no deficit in sociability in the 3-chamber test, a marked impairment in social memory was detected. Xamoterol, a β1-adrenergic receptor (β1-ADR) agonist, effectively restored the memory deficit in contextual fear conditioning, spontaneous alternation and novel object recognition. These behavioral improvements were reversed by betaxolol, a selective β1-ADR antagonist. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that this mouse model of Down Syndrome display cognitive deficits which is mediated by imbalance in noradrenergic

  8. Mouse breast cancer model-dependent changes in metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes caused by maternal dioxin exposure and dietary fat.

    PubMed

    La Merrill, Michele; Baston, David S; Denison, Michael S; Birnbaum, Linda S; Pomp, Daniel; Threadgill, David W

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fat are associated with increased susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Increased adipose tissue that is caused by high-fat diets (HFD) results in altered storage of lipophilic toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which may further increase susceptibility to metabolic syndrome. Because both TCDD and HFD are associated with increased breast cancer risk, we examined their effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes in three mouse models of breast cancer: 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), Tg(MMTV-Neu)202Mul/J (HER2), and TgN(MMTV-PyMT)634Mul/J (PyMT), all on an FVB/N genetic background. Pregnant mice dosed with 1 microg/kg of TCDD or vehicle on gestational day 12.5 were placed on a HFD or low-fat diet (LFD) at parturition. Body weights, percent body fat, and fasting blood glucose were measured longitudinally, and triglycerides were measured at study termination. On HFD, all cancer models reached the pubertal growth spurt ahead of FVB controls. Among mice fed HFD, the HER2 model had a greater increase in body weight and adipose tissue from puberty through adulthood compared with the PyMT and DMBA models. However, the DMBA model consistently had higher fasting blood glucose levels than the PyMT and HER2 models. TCDD only impacted serum triglycerides in the PyMT model maintained on HFD. Because the estrogenic activity of the HFD was three times lower than that of the LFD, differential dietary estrogenic activities did not drive the observed phenotypic differences. Rather, the HFD-dependent changes were cancer model dependent. These results show that cancer models can have differential effects on metabolic syndrome-associated phenotypes even before cancers arise.

  9. Rescue of bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality in a mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I by AAV9-mediated gene transfer

    PubMed Central

    Bortolussi, Giulia; Zentilin, Lorena; Baj, Gabriele; Giraudi, Pablo; Bellarosa, Cristina; Giacca, Mauro; Tiribelli, Claudio; Muro, Andrés F.

    2012-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar type I (CNI) syndrome is a recessively inherited disorder characterized by severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia caused by uridine diphosphoglucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) deficiency. The disease is lethal due to bilirubin-induced neurological damage unless phototherapy is applied from birth. However, treatment becomes less effective during growth, and liver transplantation is required. To investigate the pathophysiology of the disease and therapeutic approaches in mice, we generated a mouse model by introducing a premature stop codon in the UGT1a1 gene, which results in an inactive enzyme. Homozygous mutant mice developed severe jaundice soon after birth and died within 11 d, showing significant cerebellar alterations. To rescue neonatal lethality, newborns were injected with a single dose of adeno-associated viral vector 9 (AAV9) expressing the human UGT1A1. Gene therapy treatment completely rescued all AAV-treated mutant mice, accompanied by lower plasma bilirubin levels and normal brain histology and motor coordination. Our mouse model of CNI reproduces genetic and phenotypic features of the human disease. We have shown, for the first time, the full recovery of the lethal effects of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We believe that, besides gene-addition-based therapies, our mice could represent a very useful model to develop and test novel technologies based on gene correction by homologous recombination.—Bortolussi, G., Zentilin, L., Baj, G., Giraudi, P., Bellarosa, C., Giacca, M., Tiribelli, C., Muro, A. F. Rescue of bilirubin-induced neonatal lethality in a mouse model of Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I by AAV9-mediated gene transfer. PMID:22094718

  10. Partial BACE1 reduction in a Down syndrome mouse model blocks Alzheimer-related endosomal anomalies and cholinergic neurodegeneration: role of APP-CTF.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ying; Rigoglioso, Andrew; Peterhoff, Corrinne M; Pawlik, Monika; Sato, Yutaka; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Stavrides, Philip; Smiley, John F; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Nixon, Ralph A

    2016-03-01

    β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, although recent evidence has linked APP-βCTF generated by BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme 1) to the development of endocytic abnormalities and cholinergic neurodegeneration in early AD. We show that partial BACE1 genetic reduction prevents these AD-related pathological features in the Ts2 mouse model of Down syndrome. Partially reducing BACE1 by deleting one BACE1 allele blocked development of age-related endosome enlargement in the medial septal nucleus, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus and loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive medial septal nucleus neurons. BACE1 reduction normalized APP-βCTF elevation but did not alter Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide levels in brain, supporting a critical role in vivo for APP-βCTF in the development of these abnormalities. Although ameliorative effects of BACE1 inhibition on β-amyloidosis and synaptic proteins levels have been previously noted in AD mouse models, our results highlight the additional potential value of BACE1 modulation in therapeutic targeting of endocytic dysfunction and cholinergic neurodegeneration in Down syndrome and AD.

  11. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-like receptor agonist, on respiration in three mouse models of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Ana P; Lioy, Daniel T; Garg, Saurabh K; Knopp, Sharon J; Paton, Julian F R; Bissonnette, John M

    2014-06-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2-like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa-induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2--deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT.

  12. Effect of Sarizotan, a 5-HT1a and D2-Like Receptor Agonist, on Respiration in Three Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Ana P.; Lioy, Daniel T.; Garg, Saurabh K.; Knopp, Sharon J.; Paton, Julian F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Disturbances in respiration are common and debilitating features of Rett syndrome (RTT). A previous study showed that the 5-HT1a receptor agonist (R)-(+)-8-hydroxy-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT) significantly reduced the incidence of apnea and the irregular breathing pattern in a mouse model of the disorder. 8-OH-DPAT, however, is not available for clinical practice. Sarizotan, a full 5-HT1a agonist and a dopamine D2–like agonist/partial agonist, has been used in clinical trials for the treatment of l-dopa–induced dyskinesia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarizotan on respiration and locomotion in mouse models of RTT. Studies were performed in Bird and Jaenisch strains of methyl-CpG–binding protein 2-–deficient heterozygous female and Jaenisch strain Mecp2 null male mice and in knock-in heterozygous female mice of a common nonsense mutation (R168X). Respiratory pattern was determined with body plethysmography, and locomotion was determined with open-field recording. Sarizotan or vehicle was administered 20 minutes before a 30-minute recording of respiratory pattern or motor behavior. In separate studies, a crossover design was used to administer the drug for 7 and for 14 days. Sarizotan reduced the incidence of apnea in all three RTT mouse models to approximately 15% of their pretreatment levels. The irregular breathing pattern was corrected to that of wild-type littermates. When administered for 7 or 14 days, apnea decreased to 25 to 33% of the incidence seen with vehicle. This study indicates that the clinically approved drug sarizotan is an effective treatment for respiratory disorders in mouse models of RTT. PMID:24351104

  13. Mouse models in oncoimmunology.

    PubMed

    Zitvogel, Laurence; Pitt, Jonathan M; Daillère, Romain; Smyth, Mark J; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental cancer research and the development of efficacious antineoplastic treatments both rely on experimental systems in which the relationship between malignant cells and immune cells can be studied. Mouse models of transplantable, carcinogen-induced or genetically engineered malignancies - each with their specific advantages and difficulties - have laid the foundations of oncoimmunology. These models have guided the immunosurveillance theory that postulates that evasion from immune control is an essential feature of cancer, the concept that the long-term effects of conventional cancer treatments mostly rely on the reinstatement of anticancer immune responses and the preclinical development of immunotherapies, including currently approved immune checkpoint blockers. Specific aspects of pharmacological development, as well as attempts to personalize cancer treatments using patient-derived xenografts, require the development of mouse models in which murine genes and cells are replaced with their human equivalents. Such 'humanized' mouse models are being progressively refined to characterize the leukocyte subpopulations that belong to the innate and acquired arms of the immune system as they infiltrate human cancers that are subjected to experimental therapies. We surmise that the ever-advancing refinement of murine preclinical models will accelerate the pace of therapeutic optimization in patients.

  14. Decreased tonic inhibition in cerebellar granule cells causes motor dysfunction in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Egawa, Kiyoshi; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Inoue, Koichi; Takayama, Masakazu; Takayama, Chitoshi; Saitoh, Shinji; Kishino, Tatsuya; Kitagawa, Masatoshi; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2012-12-05

    Angelman syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by loss of function of the UBE3A gene encoding a ubiquitin E3 ligase. Motor dysfunction is a characteristic feature of Angelman syndrome, but neither the mechanisms of action nor effective therapeutic strategies have yet been elucidated. We report that tonic inhibition is specifically decreased in cerebellar granule cells of Ube3a-deficient mice, a model of Angelman syndrome. As a mechanism underlying this decrease in tonic inhibition, we show that Ube3a controls degradation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter 1 (GAT1) and that deficiency of Ube3a induces a surplus of GAT1 that results in a decrease in GABA concentrations in the extrasynaptic space. Administering low doses of 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisothiazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP), a selective extrasynaptic GABA(A) receptor agonist, improves the abnormal firing properties of a population of Purkinje cells in cerebellar brain slices and reduces cerebellar ataxia in Ube3a-deficient mice in vivo. These results suggest that pharmacologically increasing tonic inhibition may be a useful strategy for alleviating motor dysfunction in Angelman syndrome.

  15. Inner ear and kidney anomalies caused by IAP insertion in an intron of the Eya1 gene in a mouse model of BOR syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K R; Cook, S A; Erway, L C; Matthews, A N; Sanford, L P; Paradies, N E; Friedman, R A

    1999-04-01

    A spontaneous mutation causing deafness and circling behavior was discovered in a C3H/HeJ colony of mice at the Jackson Laboratory. Pathological analysis of mutant mice revealed gross morphological abnormalities of the inner ear, and also dysmorphic or missing kidneys. The deafness and abnormal behavior were shown to be inherited as an autosomal recessive trait and mapped to mouse chromosome 1 near the position of the Eya1 gene. The human homolog of this gene, EYA1, has been shown to underly branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by hearing loss with associated branchial and renal anomalies. Molecular analysis of the Eya1 gene in mutant mice revealed the insertion of an intracisternal A particle (IAP) element in intron 7. The presence of the IAP insertion was associated with reduced expression of the normal Eya1 message and formation of additional aberrant transcripts. The hypomorphic nature of the mutation may explain its recessive inheritance, if protein levels in homozygotes, but not heterozygotes, are below a critical threshold needed for normal developmental function. The new mouse mutation is designated Eya1(bor) to denote its similarity to human BOR syndrome, and will provide a valuable model for studying mutant gene expression and etiology.

  16. Mouse Models of Aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Sheppard, Olivia; Wiseman, Frances K.; Ruparelia, Aarti; Tybulewicz, Victor L. J.; Fisher, Elizabeth M. C.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities of chromosome copy number are called aneuploidies and make up a large health load on the human population. Many aneuploidies are lethal because the resulting abnormal gene dosage is highly deleterious. Nevertheless, some whole chromosome aneuploidies can lead to live births. Alterations in the copy number of sections of chromosomes, which are also known as segmental aneuploidies, are also associated with deleterious effects. Here we examine how aneuploidy of whole chromosomes and segmental aneuploidy of chromosomal regions are modeled in the mouse. These models provide a whole animal system in which we aim to investigate the complex phenotype-genotype interactions that arise from alteration in the copy number of genes. Although our understanding of this subject is still in its infancy, already research in mouse models is highlighting possible therapies that might help alleviate the cognitive effects associated with changes in gene number. Thus, creating and studying mouse models of aneuploidy and copy number variation is important for understanding what it is to be human, in both the normal and genomically altered states. PMID:22262951

  17. Anxious, hypoactive phenotype combined with motor deficits in Gtf2ird1 null mouse model relevant to Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Tomasz; Skitt, Zara; Liu, Yiwen; Deacon, Robert M J; Flint, Jonathan; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Rawlins, J Nick P; Tassabehji, May

    2012-08-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of around 28 genes on the long arm of chromosome 7 (7q11.23), characterized by a unique spectrum of behavioral impairments, including mental retardation, deficits in visuospatial constructive cognition, hypersociability, anxiety and simple phobias. Physical characteristics include dysmorphic faces, short stature, oculomotor deficits, gross and fine coordination impairments, diminished control of balance and mild extrapyramidal signs as well as gait abnormalities resembling gait hypokinesia. Genes near the distal deletion breakpoint appear to contribute most to the WBS cognitive and behavioral profile and include the GTF family of transcription factors: GTF2I, GTF2IRD1, GTF2IRD2. We have previously shown that heterozygous deletions of GTF2IRD1 in humans and homozygous deletion in mice contributes to craniofacial abnormalities. Here we show an important role of this gene in motor coordination and anxiety ascertained from extensive behavioral mouse phenotyping. Gtf2ird1 null mice showed lower body weight, decreased spontaneous and circadian locomotor activity, diminished motor coordination and strength, gait abnormalities, increased anxiety and an elevated endocrinological response to stress. Gtf2ird1 heterozygous mice displayed lower body weight and decreased circadian activity, but only minor motor coordination and anxiety-related behavioral dysfunctions. Our study strongly supports a role for GTF2IRD1 in the motoric and anxiety-related abnormalities seen in Williams-Beuren syndrome, and suggests basal ganglia and potentially cerebellar abnormalities in Gtf2ird1 mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The craniofacial phenotype of the Crouzon mouse: analysis of a model for syndromic craniosynostosis using three-dimensional MicroCT.

    PubMed

    Perlyn, Chad A; DeLeon, Valerie B; Babbs, Christian; Govier, Daniel; Burell, Lance; Darvann, Tron; Kreiborg, Sven; Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2006-11-01

    To characterize the craniofacial phenotype of a mouse model for Crouzon syndrome by a quantitative analysis of skull morphology in mutant and wild-type mice and to compare the findings with skull features observed in humans with Crouzon syndrome. MicroCT scans and skeletal preparations were obtained on previously described Fgfr2(C342Y/+) Crouzon mutant mice and wild-type mice at 6 weeks of age. Three-dimensional coordinate data from biologically relevant landmarks on the skulls were collected. Euclidean Distance Matrix Analysis was used to quantify and compare skull shapes using these landmark data. Obliteration of bilateral coronal sutures was observed in 80% of skulls, and complete synostosis of the sagittal suture was observed in 70%. In contrast, fewer than 40% of lambdoid sutures were found to be fully fused. In each of the 10 Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mutant mice analyzed, the presphenoid-basisphenoid synchondrosis was fused. Skull height and width were increased in mutant mice, whereas skull length was decreased. Interorbital distance was also increased in Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice as compared with wild-type littermates. Upper-jaw length was shorter in the Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mutant skulls, as was mandibular length. Skulls of Fgfr2(C342Y/+) mice differ from normal littermates in a comparable manner with differences between the skulls of humans with Crouzon syndrome and those of unaffected individuals. These findings were consistent across several regions of anatomic interest. Further investigation into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anomalies seen in the Crouzon mouse model is currently under way.

  19. Mitochondrial free radical overproduction due to respiratory chain impairment in the brain of a mouse model of Rett syndrome: protective effect of CNF1.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Bianca; Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; De Rasmo, Domenico; Musto, Mattia; Fabbri, Alessia; Ricceri, Laura; Fiorentini, Carla; Laviola, Giovanni; Vacca, Rosa Anna

    2015-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly caused by mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene associated with severe intellectual disability, movement disorders, and autistic-like behaviors. Its pathogenesis remains mostly not understood and no effective therapy is available. High circulating levels of oxidative stress markers in patients and the occurrence of oxidative brain damage in MeCP2-deficient mouse models suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in RTT pathogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism and the origin of the oxidative stress have not been elucidated. Here we demonstrate that a redox imbalance arises from aberrant mitochondrial functionality in the brain of MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, a condition that more closely recapitulates that of RTT patients. The marked increase in the rate of hydrogen peroxide generation in the brain of RTT mice seems mainly produced by the dysfunctional complex II of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In addition, both membrane potential generation and mitochondrial ATP synthesis are decreased in RTT mouse brains when succinate, the complex II respiratory substrate, is used as an energy source. Respiratory chain impairment is brain area specific, owing to a decrease in either cAMP-dependent phosphorylation or protein levels of specific complex subunits. Further, we investigated whether the treatment of RTT mice with the bacterial protein CNF1, previously reported to ameliorate the neurobehavioral phenotype and brain bioenergetic markers in an RTT mouse model, exerts specific effects on brain mitochondrial function and consequently on hydrogen peroxide production. In RTT brains treated with CNF1, we observed the reactivation of respiratory chain complexes, the rescue of mitochondrial functionality, and the prevention of brain hydrogen peroxide overproduction. These results provide definitive evidence of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction in RTT mouse brain and

  20. A Mouse Model of Timothy Syndrome: a Complex Autistic Disorder Resulting from a Point Mutation in Cav1.2

    PubMed Central

    Bett, Glenna CL.; Lis, Agnieszka; Wersinger, Scott R.; Baizer, Joan S.; Duffey, Michael E; Rasmusson, Randall L.

    2013-01-01

    Timothy Syndrome (TS) arises from a point mutation in the human voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav1.2). TS is associated with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, as well as congenital heart disease, impaired cognitive function, and autism spectrum disorders. TS results from a de novo gain-of-function mutation which affects the voltage dependent component of Cav1.2 inactivation. We created a knock-in TS mouse. No homozygous TS mice survived, but heterozygous TS2-NEO mice (with the mutation and the neocassette in situ) had a normal outward appearance and survived to reproductive age. Previously, we have demonstrated that these mice exhibit the triad of Autistic traits. In this paper we document other aspects of these mice including Cav1.2 isoform expression levels, normal physical strength, brain anatomy and a marked propensity towards self-injurious scratching. Gross brain anatomy was not markedly different in TS2-NEO mice compared to control littermates, and no missing structures were noted. The lack of obvious changes in brain structure is consistent with theTS2-NEO mice may provide a significant tool in understanding the role of calcium channel inactivation in both cardiac function and brain development. PMID:24371506

  1. A mouse model to study the link between hypoxia, long QT interval and sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Neary, Marianne T; Mohun, Timothy J; Breckenridge, Ross A

    2013-03-01

    The pathology of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is poorly understood. Many risk factors, including hypoxia, have been identified. Prolongation of the ECG QTc interval is associated with elevated risk of SIDS but its aetiology in most cases remains unknown. We have characterised ECG changes in the newborn mouse in the hours and days following birth. There was a steady increase in heart rate alongside significant decreases in QTc interval, QRS duration and QTc dispersion over the first 10 postnatal days. Birth into hypoxia (10% FiO2) prevented electrocardiac maturation, downregulated cardiac ion-channel expression and led to neonatal death. We found that risk of death decreased with increasing age of exposure to hypoxia. Genetic elevation of cardiac hypoxia-signalling after birth in αMHC-Cre::VHL(fl/fl) mice also prevented electrocardiographic maturation, leading to arrhythmia and death before weaning. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting revealed internalisation and dephosphorylation of Connexin43. We conclude that increased ambient oxygen concentration after birth drives maturation of the cardiac electrical conduction system, failure of which leads to aberrant ion channel and Connexin43 expression and predisposes to arrhythmia and sudden death. This is consistent with known risk factors of SIDS and provides a link between neonatal hypoxia, ECG abnormalities and sudden death.

  2. EIAV-Based Retinal Gene Therapy in the shaker1 Mouse Model for Usher Syndrome Type 1B: Development of UshStat

    PubMed Central

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Binley, Katie; Lad, Yatish; Ellis, Scott; Widdowson, Peter; Iqball, Sharifah; Scripps, Vicky; Kelleher, Michelle; Loader, Julie; Miskin, James; Peng, You-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Cheung, Linda; Delimont, Duane; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B is a combined deaf-blindness condition caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene. Loss of functional myosin VIIa in the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and/or photoreceptors leads to blindness. We evaluated the impact of subretinally delivered UshStat, a recombinant EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing human MYO7A, on photoreceptor function in the shaker1 mouse model for Usher type 1B that lacks a functional Myo7A gene. Subretinal injections of EIAV-CMV-GFP, EIAV-RK-GFP (photoreceptor specific), EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) or EIAV-CMV-Null (control) vectors were performed in shaker1 mice. GFP and myosin VIIa expression was evaluated histologically. Photoreceptor function in EIAV-CMV-MYO7A treated eyes was determined by evaluating α-transducin translocation in photoreceptors in response to low light intensity levels, and protection from light induced photoreceptor degeneration was measured. The safety and tolerability of subretinally delivered UshStat was evaluated in macaques. Expression of GFP and myosin VIIa was confirmed in the RPE and photoreceptors in shaker1 mice following subretinal delivery of the EIAV-CMV-GFP/MYO7A vectors. The EIAV-CMV-MYO7A vector protected the shaker1 mouse photoreceptors from acute and chronic intensity light damage, indicated by a significant reduction in photoreceptor cell loss, and restoration of the α-transducin translocation threshold in the photoreceptors. Safety studies in the macaques demonstrated that subretinal delivery of UshStat is safe and well-tolerated. Subretinal delivery of EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) rescues photoreceptor phenotypes in the shaker1 mouse. In addition, subretinally delivered UshStat is safe and well-tolerated in macaque safety studies These data support the clinical development of UshStat to treat Usher type 1B syndrome. PMID:24705452

  3. EIAV-based retinal gene therapy in the shaker1 mouse model for usher syndrome type 1B: development of UshStat.

    PubMed

    Zallocchi, Marisa; Binley, Katie; Lad, Yatish; Ellis, Scott; Widdowson, Peter; Iqball, Sharifah; Scripps, Vicky; Kelleher, Michelle; Loader, Julie; Miskin, James; Peng, You-Wei; Wang, Wei-Min; Cheung, Linda; Delimont, Duane; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    Usher syndrome type 1B is a combined deaf-blindness condition caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene. Loss of functional myosin VIIa in the retinal pigment epithelia (RPE) and/or photoreceptors leads to blindness. We evaluated the impact of subretinally delivered UshStat, a recombinant EIAV-based lentiviral vector expressing human MYO7A, on photoreceptor function in the shaker1 mouse model for Usher type 1B that lacks a functional Myo7A gene. Subretinal injections of EIAV-CMV-GFP, EIAV-RK-GFP (photoreceptor specific), EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) or EIAV-CMV-Null (control) vectors were performed in shaker1 mice. GFP and myosin VIIa expression was evaluated histologically. Photoreceptor function in EIAV-CMV-MYO7A treated eyes was determined by evaluating α-transducin translocation in photoreceptors in response to low light intensity levels, and protection from light induced photoreceptor degeneration was measured. The safety and tolerability of subretinally delivered UshStat was evaluated in macaques. Expression of GFP and myosin VIIa was confirmed in the RPE and photoreceptors in shaker1 mice following subretinal delivery of the EIAV-CMV-GFP/MYO7A vectors. The EIAV-CMV-MYO7A vector protected the shaker1 mouse photoreceptors from acute and chronic intensity light damage, indicated by a significant reduction in photoreceptor cell loss, and restoration of the α-transducin translocation threshold in the photoreceptors. Safety studies in the macaques demonstrated that subretinal delivery of UshStat is safe and well-tolerated. Subretinal delivery of EIAV-CMV-MYO7A (UshStat) rescues photoreceptor phenotypes in the shaker1 mouse. In addition, subretinally delivered UshStat is safe and well-tolerated in macaque safety studies These data support the clinical development of UshStat to treat Usher type 1B syndrome.

  4. Aortic and Cardiac Structure and Function Using High-Resolution Echocardiography and Optical Coherence Tomography in a Mouse Model of Marfan Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ling; Cui, Jason Z.; Cua, Michelle; Esfandiarei, Mitra; Sheng, Xiaoye; Chui, Winsey Audrey; Xu, Michael Haoying; Sarunic, Marinko V.; Beg, Mirza Faisal; van Breemen, Cornelius; Sandor, George G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder of connective tissue caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene. Mortality is often due to aortic dissection and rupture. We investigated the structural and functional properties of the heart and aorta in a [Fbn1C1039G/+] MFS mouse using high-resolution ultrasound (echo) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Echo was performed on 6- and 12-month old wild type (WT) and MFS mice (n = 8). In vivo pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic root diameter, ejection fraction, stroke volume, left ventricular (LV) wall thickness, LV mass and mitral valve early and atrial velocities (E/A) ratio were measured by high resolution echocardiography. OCT was performed on 12-month old WT and MFS fixed mouse hearts to measure ventricular volume and mass. The PWV was significantly increased in 6-mo MFS vs. WT (366.6 ± 19.9 vs. 205.2 ± 18.1 cm/s; p = 0.003) and 12-mo MFS vs. WT (459.5 ± 42.3 vs. 205.3 ± 30.3 cm/s; p< 0.0001). PWV increased with age in MFS mice only. We also found a significantly enlarged aortic root and decreased E/A ratio in MFS mice compared with WT for both age groups. The [Fbn1C1039G/+] mouse model of MFS replicates many of the anomalies of Marfan patients including significant aortic dilation, central aortic stiffness, LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. This is the first demonstration of the direct measurement in vivo of pulse wave velocity non-invasively in the aortic arch of MFS mice, a robust measure of aortic stiffness and a critical clinical parameter for the assessment of pathology in the Marfan syndrome. PMID:27824871

  5. Exercise differentially affects metabolic functions and white adipose tissue in female letrozole- and dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Maliqueo, Manuel; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Hu, Min; Ivarsson, Niklas; Carlström, Mattias; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Maciel, Gustavo A R; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-03-24

    Here we hypothesized that exercise in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or letrozole (LET)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome mouse models improves impaired insulin and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue morphology, and expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, Notch pathway and browning in inguinal and mesenteric fat. DHT-exposed mice had increased body weight, increased number of large mesenteric adipocytes. LET-exposed mice displayed increased body weight and fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased frequency of small adipocytes and increased expression of genes related to lipolysis in mesenteric fat. In both models, exercise decreased fat mass and inguinal and mesenteric adipose tissue expression of Notch pathway genes, and restored altered mesenteric adipocytes morphology. In conclusion, exercise restored mesenteric adipocytes morphology in DHT- and LET-exposed mice, and insulin sensitivity and mesenteric expression of lipolysis-related genes in LET-exposed mice. Benefits could be explained by downregulation of Notch, and modulation of browning and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue.

  6. Novel Jbts17 mutant mouse model of Joubert syndrome with cilia transition zone defects and cerebellar and other ciliopathy related anomalies.

    PubMed

    Damerla, Rama Rao; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C; Liu, Xiaoqin; Craige, Branch; Gibbs, Brian C; Francis, Richard; Li, You; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; San Agustin, Jovenal T; Eguether, Thibaut; Subramanian, Ramiah; Witman, George B; Michaud, Jacques L; Pazour, Gregory J; Lo, Cecilia W

    2015-07-15

    Recent studies identified a previously uncharacterized gene C5ORF42 (JBTS17) as a major cause of Joubert syndrome (JBTS), a ciliopathy associated with cerebellar abnormalities and other birth defects. Here we report the first Jbts17 mutant mouse model, Heart Under Glass (Hug), recovered from a forward genetic screen. Exome sequencing identified Hug as a S235P missense mutation in the mouse homolog of JBTS17 (2410089e03rik). Hug mutants exhibit multiple birth defects typical of ciliopathies, including skeletal dysplasia, polydactyly, craniofacial anomalies, kidney cysts and eye defects. Some Hug mutants exhibit congenital heart defects ranging from mild pulmonary stenosis to severe pulmonary atresia. Immunostaining showed JBTS17 is localized in the cilia transition zone. Fibroblasts from Hug mutant mice and a JBTS patient with a JBTS17 mutation showed ciliogenesis defects. Significantly, Hug mutant fibroblasts showed loss of not only JBTS17, but also NPHP1 and CEP290 from the cilia transition zone. Hug mutants exhibited reduced ciliation in the cerebellum. This was associated with reduction in cerebellar foliation. Using a fibroblast wound-healing assay, we showed Hug mutant cells cannot establish cell polarity required for directional cell migration. However, stereocilia patterning was grossly normal in the cochlea, indicating planar cell polarity is not markedly affected. Overall, we showed the JBTS pathophysiology is replicated in the Hug mutant mice harboring a Jbts17 mutation. Our findings demonstrate JBTS17 is a cilia transition zone component that acts upstream of other Joubert syndrome associated transition zone proteins NPHP1 and CEP290, indicating its importance in the pathogenesis of Joubert syndrome.

  7. Novel Jbts17 mutant mouse model of Joubert syndrome with cilia transition zone defects and cerebellar and other ciliopathy related anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Damerla, Rama Rao; Cui, Cheng; Gabriel, George C.; Liu, Xiaoqin; Craige, Branch; Gibbs, Brian C.; Francis, Richard; Li, You; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; San Agustin, Jovenal T.; Eguether, Thibaut; Subramanian, Ramiah; Witman, George B.; Michaud, Jacques L.; Pazour, Gregory J.; Lo, Cecilia W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies identified a previously uncharacterized gene C5ORF42 (JBTS17) as a major cause of Joubert syndrome (JBTS), a ciliopathy associated with cerebellar abnormalities and other birth defects. Here we report the first Jbts17 mutant mouse model, Heart Under Glass (Hug), recovered from a forward genetic screen. Exome sequencing identified Hug as a S235P missense mutation in the mouse homolog of JBTS17 (2410089e03rik). Hug mutants exhibit multiple birth defects typical of ciliopathies, including skeletal dysplasia, polydactyly, craniofacial anomalies, kidney cysts and eye defects. Some Hug mutants exhibit congenital heart defects ranging from mild pulmonary stenosis to severe pulmonary atresia. Immunostaining showed JBTS17 is localized in the cilia transition zone. Fibroblasts from Hug mutant mice and a JBTS patient with a JBTS17 mutation showed ciliogenesis defects. Significantly, Hug mutant fibroblasts showed loss of not only JBTS17, but also NPHP1 and CEP290 from the cilia transition zone. Hug mutants exhibited reduced ciliation in the cerebellum. This was associated with reduction in cerebellar foliation. Using a fibroblast wound-healing assay, we showed Hug mutant cells cannot establish cell polarity required for directional cell migration. However, stereocilia patterning was grossly normal in the cochlea, indicating planar cell polarity is not markedly affected. Overall, we showed the JBTS pathophysiology is replicated in the Hug mutant mice harboring a Jbts17 mutation. Our findings demonstrate JBTS17 is a cilia transition zone component that acts upstream of other Joubert syndrome associated transition zone proteins NPHP1 and CEP290, indicating its importance in the pathogenesis of Joubert syndrome. PMID:25877302

  8. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes; de Diego-Otero, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome.

  9. Adult-Onset Fluoxetine Treatment Does Not Improve Behavioral Impairments and May Have Adverse Effects on the Ts65Dn Mouse Model of Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heinen, Markus; Hettich, Moritz M.; Ryan, Devon P.; Schnell, Susanne; Paesler, Katharina; Ehninger, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome is caused by triplication of chromosome 21 and is associated with neurocognitive phenotypes ranging from severe intellectual disability to various patterns of more selective neuropsychological deficits, including memory impairments. In the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome, excessive GABAergic neurotransmission results in local over-inhibition of hippocampal circuits, which dampens hippocampal synaptic plasticity and contributes to cognitive impairments. Treatments with several GABAA receptor antagonists result in increased plasticity and improved memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. These GABAA receptor antagonists are, however, not suitable for clinical applications. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine, in contrast, is a widely prescribed antidepressant that can also enhance plasticity in the adult rodent brain by lowering GABAergic inhibition. For these reasons, we wondered if an adult-onset 4-week oral fluoxetine treatment restores spatial learning and memory impairments in Ts65Dn mice. Fluoxetine did not measurably improve behavioral impairments of Ts65Dn mice. On the contrary, we observed seizures and mortality in fluoxetine-treated Ts65Dn mice, raising the possibility of a drug × genotype interaction with respect to these adverse treatment outcomes. Future studies should re-address this in larger animal cohorts and determine if fluoxetine treatment is associated with adverse treatment effects in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:22848851

  10. An Abnormal Nitric Oxide Metabolism Contributes to Brain Oxidative Stress in the Mouse Model for the Fragile X Syndrome, a Possible Role in Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Lima-Cabello, Elena; Garcia-Guirado, Francisco; Calvo-Medina, Rocio; el Bekay, Rajaa; Perez-Costillas, Lucia; Quintero-Navarro, Carolina; Sanchez-Salido, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fragile X syndrome is the most common genetic cause of mental disability. Although many research has been performed, the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis is unclear and needs further investigation. Oxidative stress played major roles in the syndrome. The aim was to investigate the nitric oxide metabolism, protein nitration level, the expression of NOS isoforms, and furthermore the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 subunit in different brain areas on the fragile X mouse model. Methods. This study involved adult male Fmr1-knockout and wild-type mice as controls. We detected nitric oxide metabolism and the activation of the nuclear factor NF-κBp65 subunit, comparing the mRNA expression and protein content of the three NOS isoforms in different brain areas. Results. Fmr1-KO mice showed an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism and increased levels of protein tyrosine nitrosylation. Besides that, nuclear factor NF-κB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly increased in the Fmr1-knockout mice. mRNA and protein levels of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase appeared significantly decreased in the knockout mice. However, the epithelial nitric oxide synthase isoform displayed no significant changes. Conclusions. These data suggest the potential involvement of an abnormal nitric oxide metabolism in the pathogenesis of the fragile X syndrome. PMID:26788253

  11. Mouse models of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Beuzard, Y

    2008-01-01

    In the absence of a natural animal model for sickle cell disease, transgenic mouse models have been generated to better understand the complex pathophysiology of the disease and to evaluate potential specific therapies. In the early nineties, the simple addition of human globin genes induced the expression of hemoglobin S (HbS) or HbS-related human hemoglobins in mice still expressing mouse hemoglobin. To increase the proportion of human hemoglobin and the severity of the mouse sickle cell syndrome, the proportion of mouse hemoglobin could be decreased by a combination of mouse alpha- and beta-thalassemic defects, leading to complex genotypes and mild disease. Following the discovery of gene targeting in the mouse embryonic stem cells (ES cells), it was made possible to knock out all mouse adult globin genes (2alpha and 2beta) and to add the human homologous genes elsewhere in the mouse genome. In addition, the human gamma gene of fetal hemoglobin was protecting the fetus from HbS polymer formation. Accordingly, the resulting adult mouse models obtained in 1997, expressing human HbS-only, had a very severe anemia (Hb=5-6 g/dL). In order to survive, these "HbS-only mice" had to reduce the HbS concentration within the red blood cells. The phenotype could be less severe by adding modified human gamma genes, still expressed in adult mice. In 2006, a last "S-only" model was obtained by homologous knock in, replacing the mouse globin genes by human genes. This array of models contributes to better understand the role of different interacting factors in the complexity of sickle cell events, such as red cell defects, changes in blood flow and vaso-occlusion, hyperhemolysis, vascular tone dysregulation, oxidations, inflammation, activation and adhesion of cells, ischemia, reperfusion... In addition, each model has an appropriate usefulness to evaluate experimental therapies in vivo and to perform preclinical studies.

  12. Mouse models of adrenocortical tumors

    PubMed Central

    Basham, Kaitlin J.; Hung, Holly A.; Lerario, Antonio M.; Hammer, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of the organogenesis, homeostasis, and tumorigenesis of the adrenal cortex has been the subject of intense study for many decades. Specifically, characterization of tumor predisposition syndromes with adrenocortical manifestations and molecular profiling of sporadic adrenocortical tumors have led to the discovery of key molecular pathways that promote pathological adrenal growth. However, given the observational nature of such studies, several important questions regarding the molecular pathogenesis of adrenocortical tumors have remained. This review will summarize naturally occurring and genetically engineered mouse models that have provided novel tools to explore the molecular and cellular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors. New paradigms of cancer initiation, maintenance, and progression that have emerged from this work will be discussed. PMID:26678830

  13. Systemic Radical Scavenger Treatment of a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome: Merits and Limitations of the Vitamin E Derivative Trolox

    PubMed Central

    Janc, Oliwia A.; Hüser, Marc A.; Dietrich, Katharina; Kempkes, Belinda; Menzfeld, Christiane; Hülsmann, Swen; Müller, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder typically arising from spontaneous mutations in the X-chromosomal methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. The almost exclusively female Rett patients show an apparently normal development during their first 6–18 months of life. Subsequently, cognitive- and motor-impairment, hand stereotypies, loss of learned skills, epilepsy and irregular breathing manifest. Early mitochondrial impairment and oxidative challenge are considered to facilitate disease progression. Along this line, we recently confirmed in vitro that acute treatment with the vitamin E-derivative Trolox dampens neuronal hyperexcitability, reinstates synaptic plasticity, ameliorates cellular redox balance and improves hypoxia tolerance in male MeCP2-deficient (Mecp2−/y) mouse hippocampus. Pursuing these promising findings, we performed a preclinical study to define the merit of systemic Trolox administration. Blinded, placebo-controlled in vivo treatment of male mice started at postnatal day (PD) 10–11 and continued for ~40 days. Compounds (vehicle only, 10 mg/kg or 40 mg/kg Trolox) were injected intraperitoneally every 48 h. Detailed phenotyping revealed that in Mecp2−/y mice, blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation, synaptic short-term plasticity, hypoxia tolerance and certain forms of environmental exploration were improved by Trolox. Yet, body weight and size, motor function and the rate and regularity of breathing did not improve. In conclusion, in vivo Trolox treatment partially ameliorated a subset of symptoms of the complex Rett phenotype, thereby confirming a partial merit of the vitamin E-derivative based pharmacotherapy. Yet, it also became evident that frequent animal handling and the route of drug administration are critical issues to be optimized in future trials. PMID:27895554

  14. Altered Cortical GABAA Receptor Composition, Physiology, and Endocytosis in a Mouse Model of a Human Genetic Absence Epilepsy Syndrome*

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chengwen; Huang, Zhiling; Ding, Li; Deel, M. Elizabeth; Arain, Fazal M.; Murray, Clark R.; Patel, Ronak S.; Flanagan, Christopher D.; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with generalized epilepsy exhibit cerebral cortical disinhibition. Likewise, mutations in the inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels, GABAA receptors (GABAARs), cause generalized epilepsy syndromes in humans. Recently, we demonstrated that heterozygous knock-out (Hetα1KO) of the human epilepsy gene, the GABAAR α1 subunit, produced absence epilepsy in mice. Here, we determined the effects of Hetα1KO on the expression and physiology of GABAARs in the mouse cortex. We found that Hetα1KO caused modest reductions in the total and surface expression of the β2 subunit but did not alter β1 or β3 subunit expression, results consistent with a small reduction of GABAARs. Cortices partially compensated for Hetα1KO by increasing the fraction of residual α1 subunit on the cell surface and by increasing total and surface expression of α3, but not α2, subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hetα1KO increased the fraction of α1 subunits, and decreased the fraction of α3 subunits, that associated in hybrid α1α3βγ receptors. Patch clamp electrophysiology studies showed that Hetα1KO layer VI cortical neurons exhibited reduced inhibitory postsynaptic current peak amplitudes, prolonged current rise and decay times, and altered responses to benzodiazepine agonists. Finally, application of inhibitors of dynamin-mediated endocytosis revealed that Hetα1KO reduced base-line GABAAR endocytosis, an effect that probably contributes to the observed changes in GABAAR expression. These findings demonstrate that Hetα1KO exerts two principle disinhibitory effects on cortical GABAAR-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission: 1) a modest reduction of GABAAR number and 2) a partial compensation with GABAAR isoforms that possess physiological properties different from those of the otherwise predominant α1βγ GABAARs. PMID:23744069

  15. Cell-Type Specific Channelopathies in the Prefrontal Cortex of the fmr1-/y Mouse Model of Fragile X Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Brian E; Johnston, Daniel; Brager, Darrin H

    2015-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by transcriptional silencing of the fmr1 gene resulting in the loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. FXS patients display several behavioral phenotypes associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction. Voltage-gated ion channels, some of which are regulated by FMRP, heavily influence PFC neuron function. Although there is evidence for brain region-specific alterations to the function a single type of ion channel in FXS, it is unclear whether subtypes of principal neurons within a brain region are affected uniformly. We tested for alterations to ion channels critical in regulating neural excitability in two subtypes of prefrontal L5 pyramidal neurons. Using somatic and dendritic patch-clamp recordings, we provide evidence that the functional expression of h-channels (Ih) is down-regulated, whereas A-type K(+) channel function is up-regulated in pyramidal tract-projecting (PT) neurons in the fmr1-/y mouse PFC. This is the opposite pattern of results from published findings from hippocampus where Ih is up-regulated and A-type K(+) channel function is down-regulated. Additionally, we find that somatic Kv1-mediated current is down-regulated, resulting in increased excitability of fmr1-/y PT neurons. Importantly, these h- and K(+) channel differences do not extend to neighboring intratelencephalic-projecting neurons. Thus, the absence of FMRP has divergent effects on the function of individual types of ion channels not only between brain regions, but also variable effects across cell types within the same brain region. Given the importance of ion channels in regulating neural circuits, these results suggest cell-type-specific phenotypes for the disease.

  16. Negative Allosteric Modulation of mGluR5 Partially Corrects Pathophysiology in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jifang; Wu, Hao; Coronado, Amanda A; de Laittre, Elizabeth; Osterweil, Emily K; Zhang, Yi; Bear, Mark F

    2016-11-23

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), an epigenetic regulator of mRNA transcription. Here, we report a test of the hypothesis of shared pathophysiology of RTT and fragile X, another monogenic cause of autism and intellectual disability. In fragile X, the loss of the mRNA translational repressor FMRP leads to exaggerated protein synthesis downstream of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5). We found that mGluR5- and protein-synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity were similarly altered in area CA1 of Mecp2 KO mice. CA1 pyramidal cell-type-specific, genome-wide profiling of ribosome-bound mRNAs was performed in wild-type and Mecp2 KO hippocampal CA1 neurons to reveal the MeCP2-regulated "translatome." We found significant overlap between ribosome-bound transcripts overexpressed in the Mecp2 KO and FMRP mRNA targets. These tended to encode long genes that were functionally related to either cytoskeleton organization or the development of neuronal connectivity. In the Fmr1 KO mouse, chronic treatment with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been shown to ameliorate many mutant phenotypes by correcting excessive protein synthesis. In Mecp2 KO mice, we found that mGluR5 NAM treatment significantly reduced the level of overexpressed ribosome-associated transcripts, particularly those that were also FMRP targets. Some Rett phenotypes were also ameliorated by treatment, most notably hippocampal cell size and lifespan. Together, these results suggest a potential mechanistic link between MeCP2-mediated transcription regulation and mGluR5/FMRP-mediated protein translation regulation through coregulation of a subset of genes relevant to synaptic functions.

  17. P2X7 receptor-dependent intestinal afferent hypersensitivity in a mouse model of postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Keating, Christopher; Pelegrin, Pablo; Martínez, Carlos M; Grundy, David

    2011-08-01

    The ATP-gated P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) was shown to be an important mediator of inflammation and inflammatory pain through its regulation of IL-1β processing and release. Trichinella spiralis-infected mice develop a postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity that is reminiscent of the clinical features associated with postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome. In this study, we used P2X(7)R knockout mice (P2X(7)R(-/-)) to investigate the role of P2X(7)R activation in the in vivo production of IL-1β and the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity in the T. spiralis-infected mouse. During acute nematode infection, IL-1β-containing cells and P2X(7)R expression were increased in the jejunum of wild-type (WT) mice. Peritoneal and serum IL-1β levels were also increased, which was indicative of elevated IL-1β release. However, in the P2X(7)R(-/-) animals, we found that infection had no effect upon intracellular, plasma, or peritoneal IL-1β levels. Conversely, infection augmented peritoneal TNF-α levels in both WT and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals. Infection was also associated with a P2X(7)R-dependent increase in extracellular peritoneal lactate dehydrogenase, and it triggered immunological changes in both strains. Jejunal afferent fiber mechanosensitivity was assessed in uninfected and postinfected WT and P2X(7)R(-/-) animals. Postinfected WT animals developed an augmented afferent fiber response to mechanical stimuli; however, this did not develop in postinfected P2X(7)R(-/-) animals. Therefore, our results demonstrated that P2X(7)Rs play a pivotal role in intestinal inflammation and are a trigger for the development of visceral hypersensitivity.

  18. Altered cortical GABAA receptor composition, physiology, and endocytosis in a mouse model of a human genetic absence epilepsy syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chengwen; Huang, Zhiling; Ding, Li; Deel, M Elizabeth; Arain, Fazal M; Murray, Clark R; Patel, Ronak S; Flanagan, Christopher D; Gallagher, Martin J

    2013-07-19

    Patients with generalized epilepsy exhibit cerebral cortical disinhibition. Likewise, mutations in the inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels, GABAA receptors (GABAARs), cause generalized epilepsy syndromes in humans. Recently, we demonstrated that heterozygous knock-out (Hetα1KO) of the human epilepsy gene, the GABAAR α1 subunit, produced absence epilepsy in mice. Here, we determined the effects of Hetα1KO on the expression and physiology of GABAARs in the mouse cortex. We found that Hetα1KO caused modest reductions in the total and surface expression of the β2 subunit but did not alter β1 or β3 subunit expression, results consistent with a small reduction of GABAARs. Cortices partially compensated for Hetα1KO by increasing the fraction of residual α1 subunit on the cell surface and by increasing total and surface expression of α3, but not α2, subunits. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that Hetα1KO increased the fraction of α1 subunits, and decreased the fraction of α3 subunits, that associated in hybrid α1α3βγ receptors. Patch clamp electrophysiology studies showed that Hetα1KO layer VI cortical neurons exhibited reduced inhibitory postsynaptic current peak amplitudes, prolonged current rise and decay times, and altered responses to benzodiazepine agonists. Finally, application of inhibitors of dynamin-mediated endocytosis revealed that Hetα1KO reduced base-line GABAAR endocytosis, an effect that probably contributes to the observed changes in GABAAR expression. These findings demonstrate that Hetα1KO exerts two principle disinhibitory effects on cortical GABAAR-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission: 1) a modest reduction of GABAAR number and 2) a partial compensation with GABAAR isoforms that possess physiological properties different from those of the otherwise predominant α1βγ GABAARs.

  19. Mouse Models of Genomic Syndromes as Tools for Understanding the Basis of Complex Traits: An Example with the Smith-Magenis and the Potocki-Lupski Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Carmona-Mora, P; Molina, J; Encina, C.A; Walz, K

    2009-01-01

    Each human's genome is distinguished by extra and missing DNA that can be “benign” or powerfully impact everything from development to disease. In the case of genomic disorders DNA rearrangements, such as deletions or duplications, correlate with a clinical specific phenotype. The clinical presentations of genomic disorders were thought to result from altered gene copy number of physically linked dosage sensitive genes. Genomic disorders are frequent diseases (~1 per 1,000 births). Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) are genomic disorders, associated with a deletion and a duplication, of 3.7 Mb respectively, within chromosome 17 band p11.2. This region includes 23 genes. Both syndromes have complex and distinctive phenotypes including multiple congenital and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Human chromosome 17p11.2 is syntenic to the 32-34 cM region of murine chromosome 11. The number and order of the genes are highly conserved. In this review, we will exemplify how genomic disorders can be modeled in mice and the advantages that such models can give in the study of genomic disorders in particular and gene copy number variation (CNV) in general. The contributions of the SMS and PTLS animal models in several aspects ranging from more specific ones, as the definition of the clinical aspects of the human clinical spectrum, the identification of dosage sensitive genes related to the human syndromes, to the more general contributions as the definition of genetic locus impacting obesity and behavior and the elucidation of general mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of gene CNV are discussed. PMID:19949547

  20. Mouse models of genomic syndromes as tools for understanding the basis of complex traits: an example with the smith-magenis and the potocki-lupski syndromes.

    PubMed

    Carmona-Mora, P; Molina, J; Encina, C A; Walz, K

    2009-06-01

    Each human's genome is distinguished by extra and missing DNA that can be "benign" or powerfully impact everything from development to disease. In the case of genomic disorders DNA rearrangements, such as deletions or duplications, correlate with a clinical specific phenotype. The clinical presentations of genomic disorders were thought to result from altered gene copy number of physically linked dosage sensitive genes. Genomic disorders are frequent diseases (~1 per 1,000 births). Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS) are genomic disorders, associated with a deletion and a duplication, of 3.7 Mb respectively, within chromosome 17 band p11.2. This region includes 23 genes. Both syndromes have complex and distinctive phenotypes including multiple congenital and neurobehavioral abnormalities. Human chromosome 17p11.2 is syntenic to the 32-34 cM region of murine chromosome 11. The number and order of the genes are highly conserved. In this review, we will exemplify how genomic disorders can be modeled in mice and the advantages that such models can give in the study of genomic disorders in particular and gene copy number variation (CNV) in general. The contributions of the SMS and PTLS animal models in several aspects ranging from more specific ones, as the definition of the clinical aspects of the human clinical spectrum, the identification of dosage sensitive genes related to the human syndromes, to the more general contributions as the definition of genetic locus impacting obesity and behavior and the elucidation of general mechanisms related to the pathogenesis of gene CNV are discussed.

  1. Lack of Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNA is critical for neonatal lethality in Prader-Willi syndrome mouse models

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Feng; Prints, Yelena; Dhar, Madhu; Johnson, Dabney K; Garnacho-Montero, Carmen; Nicholls, Robert; Francke, Uta

    2005-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurobehavioral disorder caused by the lack of paternal expression of imprinted genes in the human chromosome region 15q11-13. Recent studies of rare human translocation patients narrowed the PWS critical genes to a 121-kb region containing PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438 snoRNA genes. The existing mouse models of PWS that lack the expression of multiple genes, including Snrpn, Ube3a, and many intronic snoRNA genes, are characterized by 80%-100% neonatal lethality. To define the candidate region for PWS-like phenotypes in mice,we analyzed the expression of several genetic elements in mice carrying the large radiation-induced p30PUb deletion that includes the p locus. Mice having inherited this deletion from either parent develop normally into adulthood. By Northern blot and RTPCR assays of brain tissue, we found that Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNAs are expressed normally, while MBII-52 snoRNAs are not expressed when the deletion is paternally inherited. Mapping of the distal deletion breakpoint indicated that the p30PUb deletion includes the entire MBII-52 snoRNA gene cluster and three previously unmapped EST sequences. The lack of expression of these elements in mice with a paternal p30PUb deletion indicates that they are not critical for the neonatal lethality observed in PWS mouse models. In addition, we identified MBII-436, the mouse homolog of the HBII-436 snoRNA, confirmed its imprinting status, and mapped it outside of the p30PUb deletion. Taking together all available data, we conclude that the lack of Pwcr1/MBII-85 snoRNA expression is the most likely cause for the neonatal lethality in PWS model mice.

  2. Early neurotrophic pharmacotherapy rescues developmental delay and Alzheimer's-like memory deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Blanchard, Julie; Bianchi, Riccardo; Iqbal, Khalid

    2017-04-03

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and is associated with a greatly increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits several key features of the disease including developmental delay and AD-like cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests that impairments in early brain development caused by trisomy 21 contribute significantly to memory deficits in adult life in DS. Prenatal genetic testing to diagnose DS in utero, provides the novel opportunity to initiate early pharmacological treatment to target this critical period of brain development. Here, we report that prenatal to early postnatal treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021), rescued developmental delay in pups and AD-like hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adult life in Ts65Dn mice. Furthermore, this treatment prevented pre-synaptic protein deficit, decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β) activity, and increased levels of synaptic plasticity markers including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and phosphorylated CREB, both in young (3-week-old) and adult (~ 7-month-old) Ts65Dn mice. These findings provide novel evidence that providing neurotrophic support during early brain development can prevent developmental delay and AD-like memory impairments in a DS mouse model.

  3. Disrupted mGluR5-Homer scaffolds mediate abnormal mGluR5 signaling, circuit function and behavior in a mouse model of Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ronesi, Jennifer A.; Collins, Katie A.; Hays, Seth A.; Tsai, Nien-Pei; Guo, Weirui; Birnbaum, Shari G.; Hu, Jia-Hua; Worley, Paul F.; Gibson, Jay R.; Huber, Kimberly M.

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced mGluR5 function is causally associated with the pathophysiology of Fragile X Syndrome (FXS), a leading inherited cause of intellectual disability and autism. Here we provide evidence that altered mGluR5-Homer scaffolds contribute to mGluR5 dysfunction and phenotypes in the FXS mouse model, Fmr1 KO. In Fmr1 KO mice mGluR5 is less associated with long Homer isoforms, but more associated with the short Homer1a. Genetic deletion of Homer1a restores mGluR5- long Homer scaffolds and corrects multiple phenotypes in Fmr1 KO mice including altered mGluR5 signaling, neocortical circuit dysfunction, and behavior. Acute, peptide-mediated disruption of mGluR5-Homer scaffolds in wildtype mice mimics many Fmr1 KO phenotypes. In contrast, Homer1a deletion does not rescue altered mGluR-dependent long-term synaptic depression or translational control of FMRP target mRNAs. Our findings reveal novel functions for mGluR5-Homer interactions in the brain and delineate distinct mechanisms of mGluR5 dysfunction in a mouse model of cognitive dysfunction and autism. PMID:22267161

  4. Partial BACE1 Reduction in a Down Syndrome Mouse Model blocks Alzheimer-related Endosomal Anomalies and Cholinergic Neurodegeneration: Role of APP-CTF

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ying; Rigoglioso, Andrew; Peterhoff, Corrinne M.; Pawlik, Monika; Sato, Yutaka; Bleiwas, Cynthia; Stavrides, Philip; Smiley, John F.; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Mathews, Paul M.; Levy, Efrat; Nixon, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, although recent evidence has linked APP-βCTF generated by BACE1 (β-APP cleaving enzyme 1) to the development of endocytic abnormalities and cholinergic neurodegeneration in early AD. We show that partial BACE1 genetic reduction prevents these AD-related pathological features in the Ts2 mouse model of Down syndrome (DS). Partially reducing BACE1 by deleting one BACE1 allele blocked development of age-related endosome enlargement in the medial septal nucleus (MSN), cerebral cortex, and hippocampus and loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive MSN neurons. BACE1 reduction normalized APP-βCTF elevation but did not alter Aβ40 and Aβ42 peptide levels in brain, supporting a critical role in vivo for APP-βCTF in the development of these abnormalities. While ameliorative effects of BACE1 inhibition on β-amyloidosis and synaptic proteins levels have been previously noted in AD mouse models, our results highlight the additional potential value of BACE1 modulation in therapeutic targeting of endocytic dysfunction and cholinergic neurodegeneration in DS and AD. PMID:26923405

  5. Identification of a quantitative trait locus regulating B cell-dominant infiltration into autoimmune sialitis lesions of the IQI mouse model of primary Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Konno, Akihiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi; Takada, Kensuke; Usami, Takeshi; Azumi, Kaoru; Kubota, Hisayo; Inaba, Mutsumi; Saegusa, Junzo; Kon, Yasuhiro

    2007-11-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is caused by an autoimmune sialodacryoadenitis, and up to 5% of patients with SS develop malignant B cell growth. The IQI mouse is a spontaneous model of primary SS in which B cells are the dominant cellular subpopulation among mononuclear infiltrates in sialitis lesions. Understanding the genetic control of aberrant B cell growth in IQI mice may help elucidate the genetic mechanisms involved in B-lineage hyperplasia leading to malignant transformation in human SS. B cell-dominant infiltration in the submandibular glands of 6-month-old IQI and C57BL/6 (B6) mice and their F1 and F2 progenies was quantified as B-lymphocytic sialitis score, and a genome-wide scan of 179 (IQI x B6) F2 females was performed to identify a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling this phenotype. A QTL significantly associated with variance in B-lymphocytic sialitis score was mapped to the D6Mit138 marker (position of 0.68cM) on proximal chromosome 6, with a logarithm of odds score of 4.3 (p = 0.00005). This QTL, named autoimmune sialitis in IQI mice, associated locus 1 (Asq1), colocalized with Islet cell autoantigen 1 (Ica1), which encodes a target protein of the immune processes that define the pathogenesis of primary SS in humans and in the nonobese diabetic mouse model.

  6. Early neurotrophic pharmacotherapy rescues developmental delay and Alzheimer’s-like memory deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kazim, Syed Faraz; Blanchard, Julie; Bianchi, Riccardo; Iqbal, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability and is associated with a greatly increased risk of early-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits several key features of the disease including developmental delay and AD-like cognitive impairment. Accumulating evidence suggests that impairments in early brain development caused by trisomy 21 contribute significantly to memory deficits in adult life in DS. Prenatal genetic testing to diagnose DS in utero, provides the novel opportunity to initiate early pharmacological treatment to target this critical period of brain development. Here, we report that prenatal to early postnatal treatment with a ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) small-molecule peptide mimetic, Peptide 021 (P021), rescued developmental delay in pups and AD-like hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in adult life in Ts65Dn mice. Furthermore, this treatment prevented pre-synaptic protein deficit, decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3β) activity, and increased levels of synaptic plasticity markers including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) and phosphorylated CREB, both in young (3-week-old) and adult (~ 7-month-old) Ts65Dn mice. These findings provide novel evidence that providing neurotrophic support during early brain development can prevent developmental delay and AD-like memory impairments in a DS mouse model. PMID:28368015

  7. Micrognathia in mouse models of ciliopathies.

    PubMed

    Adel Al-Lami, Hadeel; Barrell, William B; Liu, Karen J

    2016-12-15

    Defects in the development of the mandible can lead to micrognathia, or small jaw, which manifests in ciliopathic conditions, such as orofaciodigital syndrome, Meckel-Gruber syndrome, and Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Although micrognathia occurs frequently in human and mouse ciliopathies, it has been difficult to pinpoint the underlying cellular causes. In this mini-review, we shed light on the tissue-specific contributions to ciliary dysfunction in the development of the mandible. First, we outline the steps involved in setting up the jaw primordium and subsequent steps in the outgrowth of the mandibular skeleton. We then determine the critical tissue interactions using mice carrying a conditional mutation in the cilia gene Ofd1 Our studies highlight the usefulness of the Ofd1 mouse model and illustrate long-term possibilities for understanding the cellular and biochemical events underlying micrognathia. © 2016 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Improvement of the Rett syndrome phenotype in a MeCP2 mouse model upon treatment with levodopa and a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-11-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment.

  9. Improvement of the Rett Syndrome Phenotype in a Mecp2 Mouse Model Upon Treatment with Levodopa and a Dopa-Decarboxylase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Szczesna, Karolina; de la Caridad, Olga; Petazzi, Paolo; Soler, Marta; Roa, Laura; Saez, Mauricio A; Fourcade, Stéphane; Pujol, Aurora; Artuch-Iriberri, Rafael; Molero-Luis, Marta; Vidal, August; Huertas, Dori; Esteller, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental autism spectrum disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for methyl CpG-binding protein (MeCP2). The disease is characterized by abnormal motor, respiratory, cognitive impairment, and autistic-like behaviors. No effective treatment of the disorder is available. Mecp2 knockout mice have a range of physiological and neurological abnormalities that resemble the human syndrome and can be used as a model to interrogate new therapies. Herein, we show that the combined administration of Levodopa and a Dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor in RTT mouse models is well tolerated, diminishes RTT-associated symptoms, and increases life span. The amelioration of RTT symptomatology is particularly significant in those features controlled by the dopaminergic pathway in the nigrostratium, such as mobility, tremor, and breathing. Most important, the improvement of the RTT phenotype upon use of the combined treatment is reflected at the cellular level by the development of neuronal dendritic growth. However, much work is required to extend the duration of the benefit of the described preclinical treatment. PMID:24917201

  10. Mouse models in tendon and ligament research.

    PubMed

    Mienaltowski, Michael J; Birk, David E

    2014-01-01

    Mutant mouse models are valuable resources for the study of tendon and ligament biology. Many mutant mouse models are used because their manifested phenotypes mimic clinical pathobiology for several heritable disorders, such as Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome and Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Moreover, these models are helpful for discerning roles of specific genes in the development, maturation, and repair of musculoskeletal tissues. There are several categories of genes with essential roles in the synthesis and maintenance of tendon and ligament structures. The form and function of these tissues depend highly upon fibril-forming collagens, the primary extracellular macromolecules of tendons and ligaments. Models for these fibril-forming collagens, as well as for regulatory molecules like FACITs and SLRPs, are important for studying fibril assembly, growth, and maturation. Additionally, mouse models for growth factors and transcription factors are useful for defining regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cues that stimulate matrix synthesis. Models for membrane-bound proteins assess the roles of cell-cell communication and cell-matrix interaction. In some cases, special considerations need to be given to spatio-temporal control of a gene in a model. Thus, conditional and inducible mouse models allow for specific regulation of genes of interest. Advances in mouse models have provided valuable tools for gaining insight into the form and function of tendons and ligaments.

  11. Mouse models of gastrointestinal tumors.

    PubMed

    Taketo, Makoto Mark

    2006-05-01

    The laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has become one of the best model animal species in biomedical research today because of its abundant genetic/genomic information, and easy mutagenesis using transgenic and gene knockout technology. Genetically engineered mice have become essential tools in both mechanistic studies and drug development. In this article I will review recent topics in gastrointestinal cancer model mice, with emphasis on the results obtained in our laboratory. They include: (i) mouse models for familial adenomatous polyposis (Apc mutant mice; modifier genes of Apc intestinal polyposis; stabilizing beta-catenin mutant mice); (ii) mouse models for colon cancer (mouse models for hereditary non-polyposis colon cancer; additional mutations in Apc mutant mice; models with mutations in other genes; models for colon cancer associated with inflammatory bowel diseases); and (iii) mouse models for gastric cancer.

  12. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS unsilences paternal Ube3a and ameliorates behavioral defects in the Angelman syndrome mouse model.

    PubMed

    Meng, Linyan; Person, Richard Erwin; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Beaudet, Arthur L

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A) cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome.

  13. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Christopher S.; Huang, Teng-Wei; Herrera, José A.; Samaco, Rodney C.; Pitcher, Meagan R.; Herron, Alan; Skinner, Steven A.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Percy, Alan K.; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized. PMID:27828991

  14. Peri-gestational Dietary Folic Acid Deficiency Protects Against Medulloblastoma Formation in a Mouse Model of Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Been, Raha A.; Nagel, Christian W.; Hooten, Anthony J.; Langer, Erica K.; DeCoursin, Krista J.; Marek, Courtney A.; Janik, Callie L.; Linden, Michael A.; Reed, Robyn C.; Schutten, Melissa M.; Largaespada, David A.; Johnson, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is caused by PTCH1 gene mutations that result in diverse neoplasms including medulloblastoma (MB). Epidemiological studies report reduced pediatric brain tumor risks associated with maternal intake of prenatal vitamins containing folic acid (FA) and FA supplements specifically. We hypothesized that low maternal FA intake during the peri-gestational period would increase MB incidence in a transgenic NBCCS mouse model, which carries an autosomal dominant mutation in the Ptch1 gene. Female wild-type C57BL/6 mice (n=126) were randomized to one of three diets with differing FA amounts: 0.3 mg/kg (low), 2.0 mg/kg (control), and 8.0 mg/kg (high) one month prior to mating with Ptch1+/− C57BL/6 males. Females were maintained on the diet until pup weaning; the pups were then aged for tumor development. Compared to the control group, offspring MB incidence was significantly lower in the low FA group (Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.27–0.80) at one year. No significant difference in incidence was observed between the control and high FA groups. Low maternal peri-gestational FA levels may decrease MB incidence in mice genetically predisposed to tumor development. Our results could have implications for prenatal FA intake recommendations in the presence of cancer syndromes. PMID:23909730

  15. Truncation of Ube3a-ATS Unsilences Paternal Ube3a and Ameliorates Behavioral Defects in the Angelman Syndrome Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Linyan; Person, Richard Erwin; Huang, Wei; Zhu, Ping Jun; Costa-Mattioli, Mauro; Beaudet, Arthur L.

    2013-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by maternal deficiency of the imprinted gene UBE3A. Individuals with AS suffer from intellectual disability, speech impairment, and motor dysfunction. Currently there is no cure for the disease. Here, we evaluated the phenotypic effect of activating the silenced paternal allele of Ube3a by depleting its antisense RNA Ube3a-ATS in mice. Premature termination of Ube3a-ATS by poly(A) cassette insertion activates expression of Ube3a from the paternal chromosome, and ameliorates many disease-related symptoms in the AS mouse model, including motor coordination defects, cognitive deficit, and impaired long-term potentiation. Studies on the imprinting mechanism of Ube3a revealed a pattern of biallelic transcription initiation with suppressed elongation of paternal Ube3a, implicating transcriptional collision between sense and antisense polymerases. These studies demonstrate the feasibility and utility of unsilencing the paternal copy of Ube3a via targeting Ube3a-ATS as a treatment for Angelman syndrome. PMID:24385930

  16. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1−/− mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0–P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner’s membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1−/− mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss. PMID:26084842

  17. Virally mediated Kcnq1 gene replacement therapy in the immature scala media restores hearing in a mouse model of human Jervell and Lange-Nielsen deafness syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Qi; Kim, Yeunjung; Zhou, Binfei; Wang, Yunfeng; Li, Huawei; Lin, Xi

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNQ1 cause the human severe congenital deafness Jervell and Lange-Nielsen (JLN) syndrome. We applied a gene therapy approach in a mouse model of JLN syndrome (Kcnq1(-/-) mice) to prevent the development of deafness in the adult stage. A modified adeno-associated virus construct carrying a Kcnq1 expression cassette was injected postnatally (P0-P2) into the endolymph, which resulted in Kcnq1 expression in most cochlear marginal cells where native Kcnq1 is exclusively expressed. We also found that extensive ectopic virally mediated Kcnq1 transgene expression did not affect normal cochlear functions. Examination of cochlear morphology showed that the collapse of the Reissner's membrane and degeneration of hair cells (HCs) and cells in the spiral ganglia were corrected in Kcnq1(-/-) mice. Electrophysiological tests showed normal endocochlear potential in treated ears. In addition, auditory brainstem responses showed significant hearing preservation in the injected ears, ranging from 20 dB improvement to complete correction of the deafness phenotype. Our results demonstrate the first successful gene therapy treatment for gene defects specifically affecting the function of the stria vascularis, which is a major site affected by genetic mutations in inherited hearing loss.

  18. Loss of MeCP2 Causes Urological Dysfunction and Contributes to Death by Kidney Failure in Mouse Models of Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ward, Christopher S; Huang, Teng-Wei; Herrera, José A; Samaco, Rodney C; Pitcher, Meagan R; Herron, Alan; Skinner, Steven A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Percy, Alan K; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by loss of acquired skills during development, autonomic dysfunction, and an increased risk for premature lethality. Clinical experience identified a subset of individuals with RTT that present with urological dysfunction including individuals with frequent urinary tract infections, kidney stones, and urine retention requiring frequent catheterization for bladder voiding. To determine if urologic dysfunction is a feature of RTT, we queried the Rett Syndrome Natural History Study, a repository of clinical data from over 1000 individuals with RTT and found multiple instances of urological dysfunction. We then evaluated urological function in a mouse model of RTT and found an abnormal pattern of micturition. Both male and female mice possessing Mecp2 mutations show a decrease in urine output per micturition event. Furthermore, we identified signs of kidney failure secondary to urethral obstruction. Although genetic strain background significantly affects both survival and penetrance of the urethral obstruction phenotype, survival and penetrance of urethral obstruction do not directly correlate. We have identified an additional phenotype caused by loss of MeCP2, urological dysfunction. Furthermore, we urge caution in the interpretation of survival data as an endpoint in preclinical studies, especially where causes of mortality are poorly characterized.

  19. Origin of fundus hyperautofluorescent spots and their role in retinal degeneration in a mouse model of Goldmann-Favre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chou, Chai Lin; Kong, Jian; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Tsang, Stephen H; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2013-09-01

    Goldmann-Favre syndrome, also known as enhanced S-cone syndrome, is an inherited retinal degeneration disease in which a gain of photoreceptor cell types results in retinal dysplasia and degeneration. Although microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, the fundamental role of these cells in this disease is unknown. In the current study, sequential analyses suggest that microglia are recruited and appear after outer nuclear layer folding. By crossing rd7 mice (a model for hereditary retinal degeneration owing to Nr2e3 mutation) with mice carrying the macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (Mafia) transgene, we generated double-mutant mice and studied the role of the resident retinal microglia. Microglial cells in these double-mutant mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a suicide gene that can trigger Fas-mediated apoptosis via systemic treatment with AP20187 (FK506 dimerizer). We demonstrated that more than 80% of the EGFP+ cells in retinas from rd7/rd7;Tg/Tg mice express Iba-1 (a microglial marker), and resident microglia are still present in the retina because AP20187 does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Hence, only circulating bone marrow (BM)-derived microglia are depleted. Depletion of circulating BM-derived microglia accelerates retinal degeneration in rd7 mice. An increased number of autofluorescent (AF) spots is a consequence of resident microglia proliferation, which in turn establishes an inflammatory cytokine milieu via the upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expression. This inflammation is likely to accelerate retinal degeneration. This study not only identifies inflammation as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, but also highlights the involvement of specific cytokine genes that could serve as future treatment targets in retinal degenerations.

  20. Origin of fundus hyperautofluorescent spots and their role in retinal degeneration in a mouse model of Goldmann-Favre syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nan-Kai; Lai, Chi-Chun; Liu, Chi-Hsiu; Yeh, Lung-Kun; Chou, Chai Lin; Kong, Jian; Nagasaki, Takayuki; Tsang, Stephen H.; Chien, Chung-Liang

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Goldmann-Favre syndrome, also known as enhanced S-cone syndrome, is an inherited retinal degeneration disease in which a gain of photoreceptor cell types results in retinal dysplasia and degeneration. Although microglia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases, the fundamental role of these cells in this disease is unknown. In the current study, sequential analyses suggest that microglia are recruited and appear after outer nuclear layer folding. By crossing rd7 mice (a model for hereditary retinal degeneration owing to Nr2e3 mutation) with mice carrying the macrophage Fas-induced apoptosis (Mafia) transgene, we generated double-mutant mice and studied the role of the resident retinal microglia. Microglial cells in these double-mutant mice express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a suicide gene that can trigger Fas-mediated apoptosis via systemic treatment with AP20187 (FK506 dimerizer). We demonstrated that more than 80% of the EGFP+ cells in retinas from rd7/rd7;Tg/Tg mice express Iba-1 (a microglial marker), and resident microglia are still present in the retina because AP20187 does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Hence, only circulating bone marrow (BM)-derived microglia are depleted. Depletion of circulating BM-derived microglia accelerates retinal degeneration in rd7 mice. An increased number of autofluorescent (AF) spots is a consequence of resident microglia proliferation, which in turn establishes an inflammatory cytokine milieu via the upregulation of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα expression. This inflammation is likely to accelerate retinal degeneration. This study not only identifies inflammation as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of retinal degeneration, but also highlights the involvement of specific cytokine genes that could serve as future treatment targets in retinal degenerations. PMID:23828046

  1. Evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for deficits in behavior and dentate gyrus synaptic plasticity in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kleschevnikov, Alexander M; Yu, Jessica; Kim, Jeesun; Lysenko, Larisa V; Zeng, Zheng; Yu, Y Eugene; Mobley, William C

    2017-03-22

    Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.2 (Girk2) subunits of a G-protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. This gene resides on a segment of mouse Chromosome 16 that is present in one extra copy in the genome of the Ts65Dn mouse, a well-studied genetic model of DS. Kir3.2 subunit-containing potassium channels serve as effectors for a number of postsynaptic metabotropic receptors including GABAB receptors. Several studies raise the possibility that increased Kcnj6 dose contributes to synaptic and cognitive abnormalities in DS. To assess directly a role for Kcnj6 gene dose in cognitive deficits in DS, we produced Ts65Dn mice that harbor only 2 copies of Kcnj6 (Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mice). The reduction in Kcnj6 gene dose restored to normal the hippocampal level of Kir3.2. Long-term memory, examined in the novel object recognition test with the retention period of 24h, was improved to the level observed in the normosomic littermate control mice (2N:Kcnj6++). Significantly, both short-term and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) was improved to control levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mouse. In view of the ability of fluoxetine to suppress Kir3.2 channels, we asked if fluoxetine-treated DG slices of Ts65Dn:Kcnj6+++ mice would rescue synaptic plasticity. Fluoxetine increased STP and LTP to control levels. These results are evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Strategies aimed at pharmacologically reducing channel function should be explored for enhancing cognition in DS.

  2. Constitutive activation of B-Raf in the mouse germ line provides a model for human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Urosevic, Jelena; Sauzeau, Vincent; Soto-Montenegro, María L.; Reig, Santiago; Desco, Manuel; Wright, Emma M. Burkitt; Cañamero, Marta; Mulero, Francisca; Ortega, Sagrario; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Barbacid, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    RASopathies are a class of developmental syndromes that result from congenital mutations in key elements of the RAS/RAF/MEK signaling pathway. A well-recognized RASopathy is the cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, and mental retardation. Clinically diagnosed CFC patients carry germ-line mutations in four different genes, B-RAF, MEK1, MEK2, and K-RAS. B-RAF is by far the most commonly mutated locus, displaying mutations that most often result in constitutive activation of the B-RAF kinase. Here, we describe a mouse model for CFC generated by germ-line expression of a B-RafLSLV600E allele. This targeted allele allows low levels of expression of B-RafV600E, a constitutively active B-Raf kinase first identified in human melanoma. B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice are viable and display several of the characteristic features observed in CFC patients, including reduced life span, small size, facial dysmorphism, cardiomegaly, and epileptic seizures. These mice also show up-regulation of specific catecholamines and cataracts, two features detected in a low percentage of CFC patients. In addition, B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice develop neuroendocrine tumors, a pathology not observed in CFC patients. These mice may provide a means of better understanding the pathophysiology of at least some of the clinical features present in CFC patients. Moreover, they may serve as a tool to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of B-RAF inhibitors and establish the precise window at which they could be effective against this congenital syndrome. PMID:21383153

  3. Constitutive activation of B-Raf in the mouse germ line provides a model for human cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Urosevic, Jelena; Sauzeau, Vincent; Soto-Montenegro, María L; Reig, Santiago; Desco, Manuel; Wright, Emma M Burkitt; Cañamero, Marta; Mulero, Francisca; Ortega, Sagrario; Bustelo, Xosé R; Barbacid, Mariano

    2011-03-22

    RASopathies are a class of developmental syndromes that result from congenital mutations in key elements of the RAS/RAF/MEK signaling pathway. A well-recognized RASopathy is the cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, heart defects, and mental retardation. Clinically diagnosed CFC patients carry germ-line mutations in four different genes, B-RAF, MEK1, MEK2, and K-RAS. B-RAF is by far the most commonly mutated locus, displaying mutations that most often result in constitutive activation of the B-RAF kinase. Here, we describe a mouse model for CFC generated by germ-line expression of a B-RafLSLV600E allele. This targeted allele allows low levels of expression of B-RafV600E, a constitutively active B-Raf kinase first identified in human melanoma. B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice are viable and display several of the characteristic features observed in CFC patients, including reduced life span, small size, facial dysmorphism, cardiomegaly, and epileptic seizures. These mice also show up-regulation of specific catecholamines and cataracts, two features detected in a low percentage of CFC patients. In addition, B-Raf+/LSLV600E mice develop neuroendocrine tumors, a pathology not observed in CFC patients. These mice may provide a means of better understanding the pathophysiology of at least some of the clinical features present in CFC patients. Moreover, they may serve as a tool to evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy of B-RAF inhibitors and establish the precise window at which they could be effective against this congenital syndrome.

  4. mGlu5 positive allosteric modulation normalizes synaptic plasticity defects and motor phenotypes in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gogliotti, Rocco G; Senter, Rebecca K; Rook, Jerri M; Ghoshal, Ayan; Zamorano, Rocio; Malosh, Chrysa; Stauffer, Shaun R; Bridges, Thomas M; Bartolome, Jose M; Daniels, J Scott; Jones, Carrie K; Lindsley, Craig W; Conn, P Jeffrey; Niswender, Colleen M

    2016-05-15

    Rett syndrome (RS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that shares many symptomatic and pathological commonalities with idiopathic autism. Alterations in protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity (PSDSP) are a hallmark of a number of syndromic forms of autism; in the present work, we explore the consequences of disruption and rescue of PSDSP in a mouse model of RS. We report that expression of a key regulator of synaptic protein synthesis, the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) protein, is significantly reduced in both the brains of RS model mice and in the motor cortex of human RS autopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrate that reduced mGlu5 expression correlates with attenuated DHPG-induced long-term depression in the hippocampus of RS model mice, and that administration of a novel mGlu5 positive allosteric modulator (PAM), termed VU0462807, can rescue synaptic plasticity defects. Additionally, treatment of Mecp2-deficient mice with VU0462807 improves motor performance (open-field behavior and gait dynamics), corrects repetitive clasping behavior, as well as normalizes cued fear-conditioning defects. Importantly, due to the rationale drug discovery approach used in its development, our novel mGlu5 PAM improves RS phenotypes and synaptic plasticity defects without evoking the overt adverse effects commonly associated with potentiation of mGlu5 signaling (i.e. seizures), or affecting cardiorespiratory defects in RS model mice. These findings provide strong support for the continued development of mGlu5 PAMs as potential therapeutic agents for use in RS, and, more broadly, for utility in idiopathic autism.

  5. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M; Fichna, Jakub

    2014-08-05

    The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. in vitro, BU08070 (10(-10)-10(-6) M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. in vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effects of BU08070 were observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel mixed NOP/MOP agonist BU08070 alleviates pain and inhibits gastrointestinal motility in mouse models mimicking diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sobczak, Marta; Cami-Kobeci, Gerta; Sałaga, Maciej; Husbands, Stephen M.; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Background The opioid and nociceptin systems play a crucial role in the maintenance of homeostasis in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The aim of this study was to characterize the effect of BU08070, a novel mixed MOP/NOP agonist, on mouse intestinal contractility in vitro and GI motility in vivo in physiological conditions and in animal models mimicking symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), including diarrhea and abdominal pain. Methods The effect of BU08070 on muscle contractility in vitro was characterized in the ileum and colon. To assess the effect of BU08070 in vivo, the following parameters were assessed: whole GI transit, gastric emptying, geometric center, colonic bead expulsion, fecal pellet output and time to castor oil-induced diarrhea. The antinociceptive activity of BU08070 was characterized in the mustard oil (MO)-induced abdominal pain model and the writhing test, alone and in the presence of MOP and NOP antagonists. Results In vitro, BU08070 (10−10–10−6 M) inhibited colonic and ileal smooth muscle contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, BU08070 prolonged the whole GI transit and inhibited colonic bead expulsion. The antitransit and antidiarrheal effect of BU08070 was observed already at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg (i.p.). BU08070 reversed hypermotility and reduced pain in mouse models mimicking IBS-D symptoms. Conclusion Our results suggest that BU08070 has a potential of becoming an efficient drug in IBS-D therapy. Here we also validate mixed NOP/MOP receptor targeting as possible future treatment of functional GI diseases. PMID:24815321

  7. Mouse model of Noonan syndrome reveals cell type- and gene dosage-dependent effects of Ptpn11 mutation.

    PubMed

    Araki, Toshiyuki; Mohi, M Golam; Ismat, Fraz A; Bronson, Roderick T; Williams, Ifor R; Kutok, Jeffery L; Yang, Wentian; Pao, Lily I; Gilliland, D Gary; Epstein, Jonathan A; Neel, Benjamin G

    2004-08-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common human autosomal dominant birth defect, characterized by short stature, facial abnormalities, heart defects and possibly increased risk of leukemia. Mutations of Ptpn11 (also known as Shp2), which encodes the protein-tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, occur in approximately 50% of individuals with Noonan syndrome, but their molecular, cellular and developmental effects, and the relationship between Noonan syndrome and leukemia, are unclear. We generated mice expressing the Noonan syndrome-associated mutant D61G. When homozygous, the D61G mutant is embryonic lethal, whereas heterozygotes have decreased viability. Surviving Ptpn11(D61G/+) embryos ( approximately 50%) have short stature, craniofacial abnormalities similar to those in Noonan syndrome, and myeloproliferative disease. Severely affected Ptpn11(D61G/+) embryos ( approximately 50%) have multiple cardiac defects similar to those in mice lacking the Ras-GAP protein neurofibromin. Their endocardial cushions have increased Erk activation, but Erk hyperactivation is cell and pathway specific. Our results clarify the relationship between Noonan syndrome and leukemia and show that a single Ptpn11 gain-of-function mutation evokes all major features of Noonan syndrome by acting on multiple developmental lineages in a gene dosage-dependent and pathway-selective manner.

  8. Heterozygous deletion of AKT1 rescues cardiac contractility, but not hypertrophy, in a mouse model of Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines.

    PubMed

    Roy, Rajika; Krenz, Maike

    2017-09-11

    Noonan Syndrome with Multiple Lentigines (NSML) is associated with congenital heart disease in form of pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Genetically, NSML is primarily caused by mutations in the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP2. Importantly, certain SHP2 mutations such as Q510E can cause a particularly severe form of HCM with heart failure in infancy. Due to lack of insight into the underlying pathomechanisms, an effective custom-tailored therapy to prevent heart failure in these patients has not yet been found. SHP2 regulates numerous signaling cascades governing cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Experimental models have shown that NSML mutations in SHP2 cause dysregulation of downstream signaling, in particular involving the protein kinase AKT. AKT, and especially the isoform AKT1, has been shown to be a major regulator of cardiac hypertrophy. We therefore hypothesized that hyperactivation of AKT1 is required for the development of Q510E-SHP2-induced HCM. We previously generated a transgenic mouse model of NSML-associated HCM induced by Q510E-SHP2 expression in cardiomyocytes starting before birth. Mice display neonatal-onset HCM with initially preserved contractile function followed by functional decline around 2months of age. As a proof-of-principle study, our current goal was to establish to which extent a genetic reduction in AKT1 rescues the Q510E-SHP2-induced cardiac phenotype in vivo. AKT1 deletion mice were crossed with Q510E-SHP2 transgenic mice and the resulting compound mutant offspring analyzed. Homozygous deletion of AKT1 greatly reduced viability in our NSML mouse model, whereas heterozygous deletion of AKT1 in combination with Q510E-SHP2 expression was well tolerated. Despite normalization of pro-hypertrophic signaling downstream of AKT, heterozygous deletion of AKT1 did not ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy induced by Q510E-SHP2. However, the functional decline caused by Q510E-SHP2 expression was

  9. Impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis and its partial reversal by chronic treatment of fluoxetine in a mouse model of Angelman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Godavarthi, Swetha K; Dey, Parthanarayan; Sharma, Ankit; Jana, Nihar Ranjan

    2015-09-04

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe cognitive and motor deficits, caused by the loss of function of maternally inherited Ube3a. Ube3a-maternal deficient mice (AS model mice) recapitulate many essential features of AS, but how the deficiency of Ube3a lead to such behavioural abnormalities is poorly understood. Here we have demonstrated significant impairment of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice brain. Although, the number of BrdU and Ki67-positive cell in the hippocampal DG region was nearly equal at early postnatal days among wild type and AS mice, they were significantly reduced in adult AS mice compared to wild type controls. Reduced number of doublecortin-positive immature neurons in this region of AS mice further indicated impaired neurogenesis. Unaltered BrdU and Ki67-positive cells number in the sub ventricular zone of adult AS mice brain along with the absence of imprinted expression of Ube3a in the neural progenitor cell suggesting that Ube3a may not be directly linked with altered neurogenesis. Finally, we show that the impaired hippocampal neurogenesis in these mice can be partially rescued by the chronic treatment of antidepressant fluoxetine. These results suggest that the chronic stress may lead to reduced hippocampal neurogenesis in AS mice and that impaired neurogenesis could contribute to cognitive disturbances observed in these mice.

  10. A mouse model of the ATR-Seckel Syndrome reveals that replicative stress during embryogenesis limits mammalian lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Murga, Matilde; Bunting, Samuel; Montaña, Maria F.; Soria, Rebeca; Mulero, Francisca; Cañamero, Marta; Lee, Youngsoo; McKinnon, Peter J.; Nussenzweig, Andre; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    The progressive accumulation of DNA damage is thought to be one of the driving forces that initiates ageing. However, the nature of the damage that arises endogenously is still ill-defined. A known source of endogenous damage is replicative stress (RS), which is intrinsically associated to DNA replication and prevented mainly by the ATR kinase. Here, we have developed a murine model of the human Seckel Syndrome characterized by a severe deficiency in ATR. Seckel mice suffer high levels of RS during embryogenesis when proliferation is widespread, but which decrease to marginal levels in postnatal life. In spite of this decrease, adult Seckel mice present accelerated ageing, which is further aggravated in the absence of p53 due to a further increase of RS. Together, these results support the concept that endogenous RS, particularly in utero, contributes to the onset of ageing in postnatal life and this is counterbalanced by the RS-limiting role of the checkpoint proteins ATR and p53. PMID:19620979

  11. Expression of α4, αv, β1 and β3 integrins during the implantation window on blastocyst of a mouse model of polycystic ovarian syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Peyghambari, Fatemeh; Amanpour, Saeid; Fayazi, Mehri; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Muhammadnejad, Samad; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Salimi, Mehdi; Mazaheri, Zohreh

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been hypothesized that blastocyst integrin expression changes can affect the spontaneous miscarriage in polycystic ovarian syndromes (PCOS). Objective: In this study, the profile of integrin genes and proteins was investigated on blastocyst of the PCOS experimental mouse model. Materials and Methods: 30 NMRI female mice were equally divided into 3 groups: control, experimental [PCOS that was injected estradiol valerate (40 mg/kg)]. After 8 weeks, each group was hyper stimulated by PMSG and HCG. Vaginal plaque was checked, and mice were investigated 5 days after the test. Progesterone and estradiol levels were determined; α4, αv, β1 and β3 integrin genes and protein of blastocysts were examined by real time PCR method and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: Estradiol level was significantly increased (p≤0.035) in PCOS group. Based on our finding, the ratio of genes' expressions αv, β3, β1 and α4 in PCOS to control group was 0.479±0.01, 0.5±0.001, 2.7±0.4 and 1.023±0.2 respectively. Genes expression showed a great difference (p≤0.001) between β3, β1 and αv in PCOS compared to other groups. αv and β3 integrin proteins expressed in all groups but intensity of these proteins in PCOS groups, was lower than other groups. Conclusion: Pattern of αv and β3 integrins expression on the mouse blastocyst surface has an important effect during the implantation window. This pattern has changed in PCOS model and might have a great influence on implantation failure. Therefore, this experimental study suggests that a great attention to this problem may be essential in patients who are involved. PMID:25469135

  12. Behavioral validation of the Ts65Dn mouse model for Down syndrome of a genetic background free of the retinal degeneration mutation Pdebrd1

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto C. S.; Stasko, Melissa R.; Schmidt, Cecilia; Davisson, Muriel T.

    2009-01-01

    The Ts65Dn mouse is the most studied and complete aneuploid model of Down syndrome (DS) widely available. As a model for human trisomy 21, these mice display many attractive features, including performance deficits in different behavioral tasks, alterations in synaptic plasticity and adult neurogenesis, motor dysfunction, and age-dependent cholinergic neurodegeneration. Currently, Ts65Dn mice are maintained on a genetic background that leads to blindness in about 25% of their offspring, because it segregates for the retinal degeneration 1 (Pde6brd1) mutation of C3H/HeSnJ. This means that 25% of the mice have to be discarded in most experiments involving these animals, which is particularly problematic because the Ts65Dn stock has low reproductive performance. To circumvent this problem, we have bred the Ts65Dn extra chromosome many generations into a closely related genetic background that does not carry the Pde6brd1 mutation. Although the new genetic background is expected to be nearly identical to the original, differences in genetic background have the potential to alter mouse performance in certain behavioral tests. Therefore, we designed the present study primarily as a behavioral validation of Ts65Dn mice of the new background. We compared side-by-side their performance with that of Ts65Dn mice of the original background on the following set of assessments: 1) body length and weight; 2) 24-hour locomotor activity; 3) the Morris water maze; 4) fear conditioning; and 5) grip strength. Except for very subtle differences on water maze performance, we found no significant differences between Ts65Dn mice on the two backgrounds in the measures assessed. PMID:19720087

  13. Penetrance of craniofacial anomalies in mouse models of Smith-Magenis syndrome is modified by genomic sequence surrounding Rai1: not all null alleles are alike.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiong; Bi, Weimin; Lupski, James R

    2007-03-01

    Craniofacial abnormality is one of the major clinical manifestations of Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Previous analyses in a mixed genetic background of several SMS mouse models--including Df(11)17/+ and Df(11)17-1/+, which have 2-Mb and 590-kb deletions, respectively, and Rai1(-/+)--revealed that the penetrance of the craniofacial phenotype appears to be influenced by deletion size and genetic background. We generated an additional strain with a 1-Mb deletion intermediate in size between the two described above. Remarkably, the penetrance of its craniofacial anomalies in the mixed background was between those of Df(11)17 and Df(11)17-1. We further analyzed the deletion mutations and the Rai1(-/+) allele in a pure C57BL/6 background, to control for nonlinked modifier loci. The penetrance of the craniofacial anomalies was markedly increased for all the strains in comparison with the mixed background. Mice with Df(11)17 and Df(11)17-1 deletions had a similar penetrance, suggesting that penetrance may be less influenced by deletion size, whereas that of