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Sample records for synthase kinase-3 inhibitors

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors: Rescuers of cognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    King, Margaret K.; Pardo, Marta; Cheng, Yuyan; Downey, Kimberlee; Jope, Richard S.; Beurel, Eléonore

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of cognitive processes is a devastating outcome of many diseases, injuries, and drugs affecting the central nervous system (CNS). Most often, very little can be done by available therapeutic interventions to improve cognitive functions. Here we review evidence that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) ameliorates cognitive deficits in a wide variety of animal models of CNS diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Fragile X syndrome, Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, traumatic brain injury, and others. GSK3 inhibitors also improve cognition following impairments caused by therapeutic interventions, such as cranial irradiation for brain tumors. These findings demonstrate that GSK3 inhibitors are able to ameliorate cognitive impairments caused by a diverse array of diseases, injury, and treatments. The improvements in impaired cognition instilled by administration of GSK3 inhibitors appear to involve a variety of different mechanisms, such as supporting long-term potentiation and diminishing long-term depression, promotion of neurogenesis, reduction of inflammation, and increasing a number of neuroprotective mechanisms. The potential for GSK3 inhibitors to repair cognitive deficits associated with many conditions warrants further investigation of their potential for therapeutic interventions, particularly considering the current dearth of treatments available to reduce loss of cognitive functions. PMID:23916593

  2. Investigation of potential glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors using pharmacophore mapping and virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Dessalew, Nigus; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2006-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has attracted significant drug discovery attention in recent years. To investigate the identification of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors, a pharmacophore mapping study was carried out using a set of 21 structurally diverse glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. A hypothesis containing four features: two hydrophobic, one hydrogen bond donor and another hydrogen bond acceptor was found to be the best from the 10 common feature hypotheses produced by HipHop module of Catalyst. The best hypothesis has a high cost of 156.592 and higher best fit values were obtained for the 21 inhibitors using this best hypothesis than the other HipHop hypotheses. The best hypothesis was then used to screen electronically the NCI2000 database. The hits obtained were docked into glycogen synthase kinase-3beta active site. A total of five novel potential leads were proposed after: (i) visual examination of how well they dock into the glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site, (ii) comparative analysis of their FlexX, G-Score, PMF-Score, ChemScore and D-Scores values, (iii) comparison of their best fit value with the known inhibitors and (iv) examination of the how the hits retain interactions with the important amino acid residues of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta-binding site.

  3. Evaluation of Improved Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3α Inhibitors in Models of Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Theresa; Benajiba, Lina; Göring, Stefan; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Schmidt, Boris

    2016-01-01

    The challenge for Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor design lies in achieving high selectivity for one isoform over the other. The therapy of certain diseases, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may require α-isoform specific targeting. The scorpion shaped GSK-3 inhibitors developed by our group achieved the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported so far, but suffered from insufficient aqueous solubility. This work presents the solubility-driven optimization of our isoform-selective inhibitors using a scorpion shaped lead. Among 15 novel compounds, compound 27 showed high activity against GSK-3α/β with the highest GSK-3α selectivity reported to date. Compound 27 was profiled for bioavailability and toxicity in a zebrafish embryo phenotype assay. Selective GSK-3α targeting in AML cell lines was achieved with compound 27, resulting in a strong differentiation phenotype and colony formation impairment, confirming the potential of GSK-3α inhibition in AML therapy. PMID:26496242

  4. Monte Carlo method based QSAR modeling of maleimide derivatives as glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Živković, Jelena V; Trutić, Nataša V; Veselinović, Jovana B; Nikolić, Goran M; Veselinović, Aleksandar M

    2015-09-01

    The Monte Carlo method was used for QSAR modeling of maleimide derivatives as glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors. The first QSAR model was developed for a series of 74 3-anilino-4-arylmaleimide derivatives. The second QSAR model was developed for a series of 177 maleimide derivatives. QSAR models were calculated with the representation of the molecular structure by the simplified molecular input-line entry system. Two splits have been examined: one split into the training and test set for the first QSAR model, and one split into the training, test and validation set for the second. The statistical quality of the developed model is very good. The calculated model for 3-anilino-4-arylmaleimide derivatives had following statistical parameters: r(2)=0.8617 for the training set; r(2)=0.8659, and r(m)(2)=0.7361 for the test set. The calculated model for maleimide derivatives had following statistical parameters: r(2)=0.9435, for the training, r(2)=0.9262 and r(m)(2)=0.8199 for the test and r(2)=0.8418, r(av)(m)(2)=0.7469 and ∆r(m)(2)=0.1476 for the validation set. Structural indicators considered as molecular fragments responsible for the increase and decrease in the inhibition activity have been defined. The computer-aided design of new potential glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors has been presented by using defined structural alerts.

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors as Potent Therapeutic Agents for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Because the current therapies only lead to temporary, limited improvement and have severe side effects, new approaches to treat PD need to be developed. To discover new targets for potential therapeutic intervention, a chemical genetic approach involving the use of small molecules as pharmacological tools has been implemented. First, a screening of an in-house chemical library on a well-established cellular model of PD was done followed by a detailed pharmacological analysis of the hits. Here, we report the results found for the small heterocyclic derivative called SC001, which after different enzymatic assays was revealed to be a new glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor with IC50 = 3.38 ± 0.08 μM. To confirm that GSK-3 could be a good target for PD, the evaluation of a set of structurally diverse GSK-3 inhibitors as neuroprotective agents for PD was performed. Results show that inhibitors of GSK-3 have neuroprotective effects in vitro representing a new pharmacological option for the disease-modifying treatment of PD. Furthermore, we show that SC001 is able to cross the blood–brain barrier, protects dopaminergic neurons, and reduces microglia activation in in vivo models of Parkinson disease, being a good candidate for further drug development. PMID:23421686

  6. Chelation of extracellular calcium-induced cell death was prevented by glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Takadera, Tsuneo; Ohtsuka, Megumi; Aoki, Haruka

    2010-03-01

    Calcium ion is a secondary messenger that mediates a variety of physiological responses of neurons, including cell survival responses. To determine the role of calcium in regulating neuronal survival and death, we examined whether chelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA induces caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death and whether glycogen synthase kinase-3 is involved in EGTA-induced cell death in PC12 cells. EGTA increased apoptotic cell death with morphological changes characterized by cell shrinkage and nuclear condensation and fragmentation accompanied by caspase activation. EGTA increased GRP78 protein expression, suggesting that EGTA induces ER stress. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors prevented EGTA-induced apoptosis. In addition, nerve growth factor and insulin growth factor-I completely blocked EGTA-induced cell death. Moreover, caspase-3 activation was inhibited by glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors. These results suggest that chelation of extracellular calcium with EGTA induces caspase-dependent apoptosis, and the activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 is involved in the death of PC12 cells.

  7. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3[beta] Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara

    2012-05-02

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called 'mood-stabilizing drugs', such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3{beta}. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC{sub 50} values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3{beta}. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg{sup -1} resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg{sup -1}) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg{sup -1}). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3{beta} in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3{beta} as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  8. Identification of a glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitor that attenuates hyperactivity in CLOCK mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Kozikowski, Alan P; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N; Walter, Richard L; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A; Mesecar, Andrew D; Caldarone, Barbara

    2011-09-05

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called "mood-stabilizing drugs", such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3β. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC₅₀ values in the range of 4 to 680 nM against human GSK-3β. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mg kg⁻¹ resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mg kg⁻¹) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg kg⁻¹). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3β in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3β as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients.

  9. Identification of a Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibitor that Attenuates Hyperactivity in CLOCK Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kozikowski, Alan P.; Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Guo, Songpo; Gaisina, Irina N.; Walter, Richard L.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McClung, Colleen A.; Mesecar, Andrew D.; Caldarone, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by a cycle of mania and depression, which affects approximately 5 million people in the United States. Current treatment regimes include the so-called “mood-stabilizing drugs”, such as lithium and valproate that are relatively dated drugs with various known side effects. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a central role in regulating circadian rhythms, and lithium is known to be a direct inhibitor of GSK-3β. We designed a series of second generation benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides containing a piperidine ring that possess IC50 values in the range of 4 to 680 nm against human GSK-3β. One of these compounds exhibits reasonable kinase selectivity and promising preliminary absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) data. The administration of this compound at doses of 10 to 25 mgkg−1 resulted in the attenuation of hyperactivity in amphetamine/ chlordiazepoxide-induced manic-like mice together with enhancement of prepulse inhibition, similar to the effects found for valproate (400 mgkg−1) and the antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mgkg−1). We also tested this compound in mice carrying a mutation in the central transcriptional activator of molecular rhythms, the CLOCK gene, and found that the same compound attenuates locomotor hyperactivity in response to novelty. This study further demonstrates the use of inhibitors of GSK-3β in the treatment of manic episodes of bipolar/mood disorders, thus further validating GSK-3β as a relevant therapeutic target in the identification of new therapies for bipolar patients. PMID:21732538

  10. Identification of lead small molecule inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta using a fragment-linking strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhee; Moon, Yonghoon; Hong, Sungwoo

    2016-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK3β) kinase serves as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of various human diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we report lead GSK3β inhibitors identified using a fragment-linking strategy. Through the systematic exploration, a six-atom chain unit bearing the rigid double bond was found to be a suitable linker connecting two fragments, which enables favorable contacts with backbone groups of residues in the pockets. As a consequence, potent GSK3β inhibitor 9i was found with IC50 values of 19nM. The binding mode analysis indicates that the activities of the inhibitors appear to be achieved by the establishment of multiple hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions in the ATP-binding site of GSK3β. The good biochemical potencies and structural uniqueness of the inhibitors support consideration in the further study to optimize the biological activity.

  11. Marine Fungi as Producers of Benzocoumarins, a New Class of Inhibitors of Glycogen-Synthase-Kinase 3β

    PubMed Central

    Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F.; Gulder, Tobias A. M.; Labes, Antje; Schmaljohann, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    The glycogen-synthase-kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an important target in drug discovery. This enzyme is involved in the signaling pathways of type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of GSK-3 are promising drug candidates for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Here we report pannorin (1), alternariol (2), and alternariol-9-methylether (3) to be promising inhibitors of the isoform GSK-3β showing sub-μM IC50 values. The in vitro inhibition is in the range of the known highly active GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8. Compounds 1–3 have a highly oxygenated benzocoumarin core structure in common, which suggests that this may be a new structural feature for efficient GSK-3β inhibition. PMID:27801816

  12. Marine Fungi as Producers of Benzocoumarins, a New Class of Inhibitors of Glycogen-Synthase-Kinase 3β.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Jutta; Imhoff, Johannes F; Gulder, Tobias A M; Labes, Antje; Schmaljohann, Rolf

    2016-10-28

    The glycogen-synthase-kinase 3 (GSK-3) is an important target in drug discovery. This enzyme is involved in the signaling pathways of type 2 diabetes, neurological disorders, cancer, and other diseases. Therefore, inhibitors of GSK-3 are promising drug candidates for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Here we report pannorin (1), alternariol (2), and alternariol-9-methylether (3) to be promising inhibitors of the isoform GSK-3β showing sub-μM IC50 values. The in vitro inhibition is in the range of the known highly active GSK-3β inhibitor TDZD-8. Compounds 1-3 have a highly oxygenated benzocoumarin core structure in common, which suggests that this may be a new structural feature for efficient GSK-3β inhibition.

  13. An inhibitor-driven study for enhancing the selectivity of indirubin derivatives towards leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 over leishmanial cdc2-related protein kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, Antonia; Gaboriaud-Kolar, Nicolas; Smirlis, Despina; Myrianthopoulos, Vassilios; Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Alexandratos, Alexandros; Kritsanida, Marina; Mikros, Emmanuel; Soteriadou, Ketty; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2014-05-20

    In search of new antiparasitic agents for overcoming the limitations of current leishmaniasis chemotherapy, we have previously shown that 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (6BIO) and several other 6-substituted analogues of indirubin, a naturally occurring bis-indole present in mollusks and plants, displayed reverse selectivity from the respective mammalian kinases, targeting more potently the leishmanial Cyclin-Dependent Kinase-1 (CDK1) homologue [cdc2-related protein kinase 3 (LCRK3)] over leishmanial Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (LGSK-3). This reversal of selectivity in Leishmania parasites compared to mammalian cells makes the design of specific indirubin-based LGSK-3 inhibitors difficult. In this context, the identification of compounds bearing specific substitutions that shift indirubin inhibition towards LGSK-3, previously found to be a potential drug target, over LCRK3 is imperative for antileishmanial targeted drug discovery. A new in-house indirubin library, composed of 35 compounds, initially designed to target mammalian kinases (CDKs, GSK-3), was tested against Leishmania donovani promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes using the Alamar blue assay. Indirubins with antileishmanial activity were tested against LGSK-3 and LCRK3 kinases, purified from homologous expression systems. Flow cytometry (FACS) was used to measure the DNA content for cell-cycle analysis and the mode of cell death. Comparative structural analysis of the involved kinases was then performed using the Szmap algorithm. We have identified 7 new indirubin analogues that are selective inhibitors of LGSK-3 over LCRK3. These new inhibitors were also found to display potent antileishmanial activity with GI50 values of <1.5 μΜ. Surprisingly, all the compounds that displayed enhanced selectivity towards LGSK-3, were 6BIO analogues bearing an additional 3'-bulky amino substitution, namely a piperazine or pyrrolidine ring. A comparative structural analysis of the two aforementioned leishmanial

  14. New applications for known drugs: Human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of Aspergillus fumigatus growth.

    PubMed

    Sebastián, Víctor; Manoli, Maria-Tsampika; Pérez, Daniel I; Gil, Carmen; Mellado, Emilia; Martínez, Ana; Espeso, Eduardo A; Campillo, Nuria E

    2016-06-30

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. IA disease is mainly due to Aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. Mortality rate caused by IA is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. The aim of this work is, using Aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat IA. The recent discovered role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 homologue, GskA, in A. fumigatus human infection and our previous experience on human GSK-3 inhibitors focus our attention on this kinase as a target for the development of antifungal drugs. With the aim to identify effective inhibitors of colonial growth of A. fumigatus we use A. nidulans as an accurate model for in vivo and in silico studies. Several well-known human GSK-3β inhibitors were tested for inhibition of A. nidulans colony growth. Computational tools as docking studies and binding site prediction was used to explain the different biological profile of the tested inhibitors. Three of the five tested hGSK3β inhibitors are able to reduce completely the colonial growth by covalent bind to the enzyme. Therefore these compounds may be useful in different applications to eradicate IA.

  15. Anti-obesity effects of 3-hydroxychromone derivative, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooho; Yang, Woo Kyeom; Song, Ji Ho; Ra, Young Min; Jeong, Jin-Hyun; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Kim, Sung-Soo; Ha, Joohun

    2013-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) plays a central role in cellular energy metabolism, and dysregulation of GSK-3 activity is implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. Hence, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive target molecule for the treatment of metabolic disorders. Therefore, this research focused on identification and characterization of a novel small-molecule GSK-3 inhibitor. Compound 1a, a structure based on 3-hydroxychromone bearing isothiazolidine-1,1-dione, was identified from chemical library as a highly potent GSK-3 inhibitor. An in vitro kinase assay utilizing a panel of kinases demonstrated that compound 1a strongly inhibits GSK-3β. The potential effects of compound 1a on the inactivation of GSK-3 were confirmed in human liver HepG2 and human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. Stabilization of glycogen synthase and β-catenin, which are direct targets of GSK-3, by compound 1a was assessed in comparison with two other GSK-3 inhibitors: LiCl and SB-415286. In mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, compound 1a markedly blocked adipocyte differentiation. Consistently, intraperitoneal administration of compound 1a to diet-induced obese mice significantly ameliorated their key symptoms such as body weight gain, increased adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis due to the marked reduction of whole-body lipid level. In vitro and in vivo effects were accompanied by upregulation of β-catenin stability and downregulation of the expression of several critical genes related to lipid metabolism. From these results, it can be concluded that compound 1a, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of GSK-3, has potential as a new class of therapeutic agent for obesity treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitors as Stimulators of Steroidogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N.; Sabath, Emily V.; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P.

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of GSK-3β has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3β inhibitors, in particular analogs 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube® behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3β inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo. PMID:23725591

  17. Characterization of maleimide-based glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors as stimulators of steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gunosewoyo, Hendra; Midzak, Andrew; Gaisina, Irina N; Sabath, Emily V; Fedolak, Allison; Hanania, Taleen; Brunner, Dani; Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2013-06-27

    Inhibition of GSK-3β has been well documented to account for the behavioral actions of the mood stabilizer lithium in various animal models of mood disorders. Recent studies have showed that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in anxiolytic-like and pro-social behavior. In our ongoing efforts to develop GSK-3β inhibitors for the treatment of mood disorders, SAR studies on maleimide-based compounds were undertaken. We present herein for the first time that some of these GSK-3β inhibitors, in particular analogues 1 and 9, were able to stimulate progesterone production in the MA-10 mouse tumor Leydig cell model of steroidogenesis without any significant toxicity. These two compounds were tested in the SmartCube behavioral assay and showed anxiolytic-like signatures following daily dose administration (50 mg/kg, ip) for 13 days. Taken together, these results support the hypothesis that GSK-3β inhibition could influence neuroactive steroid production thereby mediating the modulation of anxiety-like behavior in vivo.

  18. Discovery of Isonicotinamides as Highly Selective, Brain Penetrable, and Orally Active Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Guanglin; Chen, Ling; Burton, Catherine R; Xiao, Hong; Sivaprakasam, Prasanna; Krause, Carol M; Cao, Yang; Liu, Nengyin; Lippy, Jonathan; Clarke, Wendy J; Snow, Kimberly; Raybon, Joseph; Arora, Vinod; Pokross, Matt; Kish, Kevin; Lewis, Hal A; Langley, David R; Macor, John E; Dubowchik, Gene M

    2016-02-11

    GSK-3 is a serine/threonine kinase that has numerous substrates. Many of these proteins are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions, including metabolism, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. Inhibition of GSK-3 may be useful in treating a number of diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD), type II diabetes, mood disorders, and some cancers, but the approach poses significant challenges. Here, we present a class of isonicotinamides that are potent, highly kinase-selective GSK-3 inhibitors, the members of which demonstrated oral activity in a triple-transgenic mouse model of AD. The remarkably high kinase selectivity and straightforward synthesis of these compounds bode well for their further exploration as tool compounds and therapeutics.

  19. The Design and Synthesis of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 for the Treatment of Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a genetically validated drug target for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also called African sleeping sickness. We report the synthesis and biological evaluation of aminopyrazole derivatives as Trypanosoma brucei GSK3 short inhibitors. Low nanomolar inhibitors, which had high selectivity over the off-target human CDK2 and good selectivity over human GSK3β enzyme, have been prepared. These potent kinase inhibitors demonstrated low micromolar levels of inhibition of the Trypanosoma brucei brucei parasite grown in culture. PMID:25198388

  20. Discovery of novel potent and highly selective glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease: design, synthesis, and characterization of pyrazines.

    PubMed

    Berg, Stefan; Bergh, Margareta; Hellberg, Sven; Högdin, Katharina; Lo-Alfredsson, Yvonne; Söderman, Peter; von Berg, Stefan; Weigelt, Tatjana; Ormö, Mats; Xue, Yafeng; Tucker, Julie; Neelissen, Jan; Jerning, Eva; Nilsson, Yvonne; Bhat, Ratan

    2012-11-08

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β, also called tau phosphorylating kinase, is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase which was originally identified due to its role in glycogen metabolism. Active forms of GSK3β localize to pretangle pathology including dystrophic neuritis and neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. By using a high throughput screening (HTS) approach to search for new chemical series and cocrystallization of key analogues to guide the optimization and synthesis of our pyrazine series, we have developed highly potent and selective inhibitors showing cellular efficacy and blood-brain barrier penetrance. The inhibitors are suitable for in vivo efficacy testing and may serve as a new treatment strategy for Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Discovery of a highly selective glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor (PF-04802367) that modulates tau phosphorylation in brain: Translation for PET neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Steven H.; Chen, Jinshan Michael; Normandin, Marc D.; Chang, Jeanne S.; Chang, George C.; Taylor, Christine K.; Trapa, Patrick; Plummer, Mark S.; Para, Kimberly S.; Conn, Edward L.; Lopresti-Morrow, Lori; Lanyon, Lorraine F.; Cook, James M.; Richter, Karl E. G.; Nolan, Charlie E.; Schachter, Joel B.; Janat, Fouad; Che, Ye; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu; Lefker, Bruce A.; Enerson, Bradley E.; Livni, Elijahu; Wang, Lu; Guehl, Nicolas; Patnaik, Debasis; Wagner, Florence F.; Perlis, Roy; Holson, Edward B.; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Fakhri, Georges El

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) regulates multiple cellular processes in diabetes, oncology and neurology. We have identified N-(3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(3-chloro-4-methoxyphenyl)oxazole-4-carboxamide (PF-04802367 or PF-367) as a highly potent inhibitor, which is among the most selective antagonists of GSK-3 to date. We demonstrated its efficacy in modulation of tau phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Whereas the kinetics of PF-367 binding in brain tissues are too fast for an effective therapeutic agent, the pharmacokinetic profile of PF-367 is ideal for discovery of radiopharmaceuticals for GSK-3 in the central nervous system. A 11C-isotopologue of PF-367 was synthesized and preliminary PET imaging studies in non-human primates confirmed that we have overcome the two major obstacles for imaging GSK-3, namely, reasonable brain permeability and displaceable binding. PMID:27355874

  2. Screening of inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3β from traditional Chinese medicines using enzyme-immobilized magnetic beads combined with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfang; Xu, Jia; Chen, Yu; Mei, Zhinan; Xiao, Yuxiu

    2015-12-18

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) was immobilized on magnetic beads (MBs) by affinity method for the first time. The enzyme-immobilized MBs were coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) technique to establish a cost-effective and reliable method for screening of inhibitors of GSK-3β. A peptide substrate of GSK-3β containing a tyrosine residue was employed since it can be sensitively detected by UV detector at 214nm. The substrate and its phosphorylated product were separated by baseline within 10min. The enzyme activity was determined by the quantification of peak area of the product. Parameters including enzyme immobilization, enzyme reaction and the performance of immobilized-enzyme were investigated. The immobilized enzyme can be reused for 10 times and remain stable for 4 days at 4°C. The inhibitory activities of extracts of 15 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) were screened. As a result, three of them including Euonymus fortunei, Amygdalus communis and Garcinia xanthochymus were found possessing high inhibitory activities (inhibition rate >90%). From G. xanthochymus, a new inhibitor of GSK-3β, fukugetin, was discovered with an IC50 value of 3.18±0.07μM. Enzyme kinetics and molecular docking experiments further revealed the inhibitory mechanism, indicating fukugetin was a non-ATP competitive inhibitor interacting with the phosphate recognizing substrate binding site of GSK-3β.

  3. The marine natural-derived inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3β phenylmethylene hydantoins: In vitro and in vivo activities and pharmacophore modeling

    PubMed Central

    Khanfar, Mohammad A.; Asal, Bilal Abu; Mudit, Mudit; Kaddoumi, Amal; El Sayed, Khalid A.

    2009-01-01

    The Red Sea sponge Hemimycale arabica afforded the known (Z)-5-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-hydantoin (1). This natural phenylmethylene hydantoin (PMH) 1 and the synthetic (Z)-5-(4-(ethylthio)benzylidene)-hydantoin (2) showed potent in vitro and in vivo anti-growth and anti-invasive properties against PC-3M prostate cancer cells in MTT, spheroid disaggregation, and in mice models. To explore a possible molecular target of PMHs, the most potent synthetic analogue 2 has been virtually screened against various protein kinases. Molecular modeling study has shown that 2 can be successfully docked within the binding pocket of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) similar to the well-known GSK-3β inhibitor I-5. Several PMHs showed potent in vitro GSK-3β inhibitory activity with an IC50 range of 4–20 µM. The most potent analogue 3 showed a significant increase in liver glycogen level at the 5, 15, and 25 mg/kg dose levels, in vivo. Pharmacophore model was built and validated using in-house database of active and inactive GSK-3β inhibitors. The GSK-3β inhibitory activity of PMHs entitles them to be potential leads for the treatment of cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, bipolar disorders, stroke, different tau pathologies, and type-2 diabetes. PMID:19616957

  4. Nuclear glycogen and glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Ragano-Caracciolo, M; Berlin, W K; Miller, M W; Hanover, J A

    1998-08-19

    Glycogen is the principal storage form of glucose in animal cells. It accumulates in electron-dense cytoplasmic granules and is synthesized by glycogen synthase (GS), the rate-limiting enzyme of glycogen deposition. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a protein kinase that phosphorylates GS. Two nearly identical forms of GSK-3 exist: GSK-3 alpha and GSK-3 beta. Both are constitutively active in resting cells and their activity can be modulated by hormones and growth factors. GSK-3 is implicated in the regulation of many physiological responses in mammalian cells by phosphorylating substrates including neuronal cell adhesion molecule, neurofilaments, synapsin I, and tau. Recent observations point to functions for glycogen and glycogen metabolism in the nucleus. GSK-3 phosphorylates several transcription factors, and we have recently shown that it modifies the major nuclear pore protein p62. It also regulates PK1, a protein kinase required for maintaining the interphase state and for DNA replication in cycling Xenopus egg extracts. Recently, glycogen was shown to be required for nuclear reformation in vitro using ovulated Xenopus laevis egg lysates. Because neither glycogen nor GSK-3 has been localized to the nuclear envelope or intranuclear sites, glycogen and GSK-3 activites were measured in rat liver nuclei and nuclear reformation extracts. Significant quantities of glycogen-like material co-purified with the rat-liver nuclear envelope. GSK-3 is also highly enriched in the glycogen pellet of egg extracts of Xenopus that is required for nuclear assembly in vitro. Based on the finding that enzymes of glycogen metabolism copurify with glycogen, we propose that glycogen may serve a structural role as a scaffold for nuclear assembly and sequestration of critical kinases and phosphatases in the nucleus. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3)-Targeted Therapy and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Mukesh K.; DeGrado, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 <20 nM for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-competitive inhibitors and IC50 <5 μM for non-ATP-competitive inhibitors, were analyzed for structure activity relationships. Furthermore, ubiquitous expression of GSK-3 and its possible impact on therapy and imaging are also highlighted. Finally, a rational perspective and possible route to selective and effective GSK-3 inhibitors is discussed. PMID:26941849

  6. Structure determination of glycogen synthase kinase-3 from Leishmania major and comparative inhibitor structure-activity relationships with Trypanosoma brucei GSK-3

    SciTech Connect

    Ojo, Kayode K; Arakaki, Tracy L; Napuli, Alberto J; Inampudi, Krishna K; Keyloun, Katelyn R; Zhang, Li; Hol, Wim G.J.; Verlind, Christophe L.M.J.; Merritt, Ethan A; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2012-04-24

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a drug target under intense investigation in pharmaceutical companies and constitutes an attractive piggyback target for eukaryotic pathogens. Two different GSKs are found in trypanosomatids, one about 150 residues shorter than the other. GSK-3 short (GeneDB: Tb927.10.13780) has previously been validated genetically as a drug target in Trypanosoma brucei by RNAi induced growth retardation; and chemically by correlation between enzyme and in vitro growth inhibition. Here, we report investigation of the equivalent GSK-3 short enzymes of L. major (LmjF18.0270) and L. infantum (LinJ18_V3.0270, identical in amino acid sequences to LdonGSK-3 short) and a crystal structure of LmajGSK-3 short at 2 Å resolution. The inhibitor structure-activity relationships (SARs) of L. major and L. infantum are virtually identical, suggesting that inhibitors could be useful for both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Leishmania spp. GSK-3 short has different inhibitor SARs than TbruGSK-3 short, which can be explained mostly by two variant residues in the ATP-binding pocket. Indeed, mutating these residues in the ATP-binding site of LmajGSK-3 short to the TbruGSK-3 short equivalents results in a mutant LmajGSK-3 short enzyme with SAR more similar to that of TbruGSK-3 short. The differences between human GSK-3β (HsGSK-3β) and LmajGSK-3 short SAR suggest that compounds which selectively inhibit LmajGSK-3 short may be found.

  7. Kinase Inhibitor Screening Identifies Cyclin-Dependent Kinases and Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 as Potential Modulators of TDP-43 Cytosolic Accumulation during Cell Stress.

    PubMed

    Moujalled, Diane; James, Janine L; Parker, Sarah J; Lidgerwood, Grace E; Duncan, Clare; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Nonaka, Takashi; Hasegawa, Masato; Kanninen, Katja M; Grubman, Alexandra; Liddell, Jeffrey R; Crouch, Peter J; White, Anthony R

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal processing of TAR DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) has been identified as a major factor in neuronal degeneration during amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). It is unclear how changes to TDP-43, including nuclear to cytosolic translocation and subsequent accumulation, are controlled in these diseases. TDP-43 is a member of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) RNA binding protein family and is known to associate with cytosolic RNA stress granule proteins in ALS and FTLD. hnRNP trafficking and accumulation is controlled by the action of specific kinases including members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. However, little is known about how kinase pathways control TDP-43 movement and accumulation. In this study, we used an in vitro model of TDP-43-positve stress granule formation to screen for the effect of kinase inhibitors on TDP-43 accumulation. We found that while a number of kinase inhibitors, particularly of the MAPK pathways modulated both TDP-43 and the global stress granule marker, human antigen R (HuR), multiple inhibitors were more specific to TDP-43 accumulation, including inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Close correlation was observed between effects of these inhibitors on TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR, but often with different effects on HuR accumulation. This may indicate a potential interaction between TDP-43, hnRNP K and TIAR. CDK inhibitors were also found to reverse pre-formed TDP-43-positive stress granules and both CDK and GSK3 inhibitors abrogated the accumulation of C-terminal TDP-43 (219-414) in transfected cells. Further studies are required to confirm the specific kinases involved and whether their action is through phosphorylation of the TDP-43 binding partner hnRNP K. This knowledge provides a valuable insight into the mechanisms controlling abnormal cytoplasmic TDP-43 accumulation and may herald new opportunities

  8. Identification and in vitro evaluation of new leads as selective and competitive glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibitors through ligand and structure based drug design.

    PubMed

    Darshit, B S; Balaji, B; Rani, P; Ramanathan, M

    2014-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β elicits multi-functional effects on intracellular signaling pathways, thereby making the kinase a therapeutic target in multiple pathologies. Hence, it is important to selectively inhibit GSK-3β over structurally and biologically similar targets, such as CDK5. The current study was designed to identify and evaluate novel ATP-competitive GSK-3β inhibitors. The study was designed to identify new leads by ligand based drug design, structure based drug design and in vitro evaluation. The best validated pharmacophore model (AADRRR) identified using LBDD was derived from a dataset of 135 molecules. There were 357 primary hits within the SPECS database using this pharmacophore model. A SBDD approach to the GSK-3β and CDK5 proteins was applied to all primary hits, and 5 selective inhibitors were identified for GSK-3β. GSK-3β and CDK5 in vitro kinase inhibition assays were performed with these molecules to confirm their selectivity for GSK-3β. The molecules showed IC50 values ranging from 0.825μM to 1.116μM and were 23- to 57-fold selective for GSK-3β. Of all the molecules, molecule 3 had the lowest IC50 value of 0.825μM. Our research identified molecules possessing benzothiophene, isoquinoline, thiazolidinedione imidazo-isoquinoline and quinazolinone scaffolds. Potency of these molecules may be due to H-bond interaction with backbone residues of Val135, Asp133 and side chain interaction with Tyr134. Selectivity over CDK5 may be due to side chain interactions with Asp200, backbone of Val61, ionic interaction with Lys60 and π-cationic interaction with Arg141. These selective molecules were also exhibited small atom hydrophobicity and H-bond interaction with water molecule.

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitors suppress the AR-V7-mediated transcription and selectively inhibit cell growth in AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Daisuke; Koyama, Ryokichi; Nakayama, Kazuhide; Kitazawa, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tatsuya; Hara, Takahito

    2017-06-01

    Recent evidence suggests that androgen receptor (AR) splice variants, including AR-V7, play a pivotal role in resistance to androgen blockade in prostate cancer treatment. The development of new therapeutic agents that can suppress the transcriptional activities of AR splice variants has been anticipated as the next generation treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer. High-throughput screening of AR-V7 signaling inhibitors was performed using an AR-V7 reporter system. The effects of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitor, LY-2090314, on endogenous AR-V7 signaling were evaluated in an AR-V7-positive cell line, JDCaP-hr, by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The relationship between AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling was assessed using RNA interference. The effect of LY-2090314 on cell growth in various prostate cancer cell lines was also evaluated. We identified GSK3 inhibitors as transcriptional suppressors of AR-V7 using a high-throughput screen with an AR-V7 reporter system. LY-2090314 suppressed the reporter activity and endogenous AR-V7 activity in JDCaP-hr cells. Because silencing of β-catenin partly rescued the suppression, it was evident that the suppression was mediated, at least partially, via the activation of β-catenin signaling. AR-V7 signaling and β-catenin signaling reciprocally regulate each other in JDCaP-hr cells, and therefore, GSK3 inhibition can repress AR-V7 transcriptional activity by accumulating intracellular β-catenin. Notably, LY-2090314 selectively inhibited the growth of AR-V7-positive prostate cancer cells in vitro. Our findings demonstrate the potential of GSK3 inhibitors in treating advanced prostate cancer driven by AR splice variants. In vivo evaluation of AR splice variant-positive prostate cancer models will help illustrate the overall significance of GSK3 inhibitors in treating prostate cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis mediated by novel glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors induces bone formation and a unique bone turnover biomarker profile in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gilmour, Peter S.; O'Shea, Patrick J.; Fagura, Malbinder; Pilling, James E.; Sanganee, Hitesh; Wada, Hiroki; Courtney, Paul F.; Kavanagh, Stefan; Hall, Peter A.; Escott, K. Jane

    2013-10-15

    Wnt activation by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) causes bone anabolism in rodents making GSK-3 a potential therapeutic target for osteoporotic and osteolytic metastatic bone disease. To understand the wnt pathway related to human disease translation, the ability of 3 potent inhibitors of GSK-3 (AZD2858, AR79, AZ13282107) to 1) drive osteoblast differentiation and mineralisation using human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSC) in vitro; and 2) stimulate rat bone formation in vivo was investigated. Bone anabolism/resorption was determined using clinically relevant serum biomarkers as indicators of bone turnover and bone formation assessed in femurs by histopathology and pQCT/μCT imaging. GSK-3 inhibitors caused β-catenin stabilisation in human and rat mesenchymal stem cells, stimulated hADSC commitment towards osteoblasts and osteogenic mineralisation in vitro. AZD2858 produced time-dependent changes in serum bone turnover biomarkers and increased bone mass over 28 days exposure in rats. After 7 days, AZD2858, AR79 or AZ13282107 exposure increased the bone formation biomarker P1NP, and reduced the resorption biomarker TRAcP-5b, indicating increased bone anabolism and reduced resorption in rats. This biomarker profile was differentiated from anabolic agent PTH{sub 1–34} or the anti-resorptive Alendronate-induced changes. Increased bone formation in cortical and cancellous bone as assessed by femur histopathology supported biomarker changes. 14 day AR79 treatment increased bone mineral density and trabecular thickness, and decreased trabecular number and connectivity assessed by pQCT/μCT. GSK-3 inhibition caused hADSC osteoblastogenesis and mineralisation in vitro. Increased femur bone mass associated with changes in bone turnover biomarkers confirmed in vivo bone formation and indicated uncoupling of bone formation and resorption. - Highlights: • Wnt modulation with 3 novel GSK-3 inhibitors alters bone growth. • Human stem cell osteoblastogenesis

  11. Constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β correlates with better prognosis and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) has been implicated in several human cancers; however, it has not been reported in the gastric cancer tissues to date. The present study was performed to determine the expression status of active form of GSK-3β phosphorylated at Tyr216 (pGSK-3β) and its relationship with other tumor-associated proteins in human gastric cancers. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on tissue array slides containing 281 human gastric carcinoma specimens. In addition, gastric cancer cells were cultured and treated with a GSK-3β inhibitor lithium chloride (LiCl) for immunoblot analysis. Results We found that pGSK-3β was expressed in 129 (46%) of 281 cases examined, and was higher in the early-stages of pathologic tumor-node-metastasis (P < 0.001). The expression of pGSK-3β inversely correlated with lymphatic invasion (P < 0.001) and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001) and correlated with a longer patient survival (P < 0.001). In addition, pGSK-3β expression positively correlated with that of p16, p21, p27, p53, APC, PTEN, MGMT, SMAD4, or KAI1 (P < 0.05), but not with that of cyclin D1. This was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using SNU-668 gastric cancer cells treated with LiCl. Conclusions GSK-3β activation was frequently observed in early-stage gastric carcinoma and was significantly correlated with better prognosis. Thus, these findings suggest that GSK-3β activation is a useful prognostic marker for the early-stage gastric cancer. PMID:20704706

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor AR-A014418 suppresses pancreatic cancer cell growth via inhibition of GSK-3-mediated Notch1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Kunnimalaiyaan, Selvi; Gamblin, T Clark; Kunnimalaiyaan, Muthusamy

    2015-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) can act as either a tumour promoter or suppressor by its inactivation depending on the cell type. There are conflicting reports on the roles of GSK-3 isoforms and their interaction with Notch1 in pancreatic cancer. It was hypothesized that GSK-3α stabilized Notch1 in pancreatic cancer cells thereby promoting cellular proliferation. Methods The pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa2, PANC-1 and BxPC-3, were treated with 0–20 μM of AR-A014418 (AR), a known GSK-3 inhibitor. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay and Live-Cell Imaging. The levels of Notch pathway members (Notch1, HES-1, survivin and cyclinD1), phosphorylated GSK-3 isoforms, and apoptotic markers were determined by Western blot. Immunoprecipitation was performed to identify the binding of GSK-3 specific isoform to Notch1. Results AR-A014418 treatment had a significant dose-dependent growth reduction (P < 0.001) in pancreatic cancer cells compared with the control and the cytotoxic effect is as a result of apoptosis. Importantly, a reduction in GSK-3 phosphorylation lead to a reduction in Notch pathway members. Overexpression of active Notch1 in AR-A014418-treated cells resulted in the negation of growth suppression. Immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that GSK-3α binds to Notch1. Conclusions This study demonstrates for the first time that the growth suppressive effect of AR-A014418 on pancreatic cancer cells is mainly mediated by a reduction in phosphorylation of GSK-3α with concomitant Notch1 reduction. GSK-3α appears to stabilize Notch1 by binding and may represent a target for therapeutic development. Furthermore, downregulation of GSK-3 and Notch1 may be a viable strategy for possible chemosensitization of pancreatic cancer cells to standard therapeutics. PMID:26147011

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of 8-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3(2H)-one derivatives as glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chun, Kwangwoo; Park, Ji-Seon; Lee, Han-Chang; Kim, Young-Ha; Ye, In-Hea; Kim, Kang-Jeon; Ku, Il-Whea; Noh, Min-Young; Cho, Goang-Won; Kim, Heejaung; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongmin

    2013-07-01

    New potent glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitors, 8-amino-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyridin-3(2H)-one derivatives, were designed by modeling, synthesized and evaluated in vitro. Compound 17c showed good potency in enzyme and cell-based assays (IC50=111 nM, EC50=1.78 μM). Moreover, it has demonstrated desirable water solubility, PK profile, and moderate brain penetration.

  14. A Screen for Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase-Primed Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Substrates Identifies the p53 Inhibitor iASPP

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Crystal; Liao, Gangling; Goodwin, C. Rory; Hu, Jianfei; Xie, Zhi; dos Reis, Thaila F.; Newman, Rob; Rho, Heesool; Qian, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) LANA protein is essential for the replication and maintenance of virus genomes in latently KSHV-infected cells. LANA also drives dysregulated cell growth through a multiplicity of mechanisms that include altering the activity of the cellular kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). To investigate the potential impact of these changes in enzyme activity, we used protein microarrays to identify cell proteins that were phosphorylated by the combination of ERK and GSK-3. The assays identified 58 potential ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates, of which 23 had evidence for in vivo phosphorylation in mass spectrometry databases. Two of these, SMAD4 and iASPP, were selected for further analysis and were confirmed as ERK-primed GSK-3 substrates. Cotransfection experiments revealed that iASPP, but not SMAD4, was targeted for degradation in the presence of GSK-3. iASPP interferes with apoptosis induced by p53 family members. To determine the importance of iASPP to KSHV-infected-cell growth, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cells were treated with an iASPP inhibitor in the presence or absence of the MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3. Drug inhibition of iASPP activity induced apoptosis in BC3 and BCBL1 PEL cells but did not induce poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in virus-negative BJAB cells. The effect of iASPP inhibition was additive with that of Nutlin-3. Interfering with iASPP function is therefore another mechanism that can sensitize KSHV-positive PEL cells to cell death. IMPORTANCE KSHV is associated with several malignancies, including primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The KSHV-encoded LANA protein is multifunctional and promotes both cell growth and resistance to cell death. LANA is known to activate ERK and limit the activity of another kinase, GSK-3. To discover ways in which LANA manipulation of these two kinases might impact PEL cell survival, we screened a human

  15. From a natural product lead to the identification of potent and selective benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides as glycogen synthase kinase 3beta inhibitors that suppress proliferation and survival of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gaisina, Irina N; Gallier, Franck; Ougolkov, Andrei V; Kim, Ki H; Kurome, Toru; Guo, Songpo; Holzle, Denise; Luchini, Doris N; Blond, Sylvie Y; Billadeau, Daniel D; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2009-04-09

    Recent studies have demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is overexpressed in human colon and pancreatic carcinomas, contributing to cancer cell proliferation and survival. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of benzofuran-3-yl-(indol-3-yl)maleimides, potent GSK-3beta inhibitors. Some of these compounds show picomolar inhibitory activity toward GSK-3beta and an enhanced selectivity against cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK-2). Selected GSK-3beta inhibitors were tested in the pancreatic cancer cell lines MiaPaCa-2, BXPC-3, and HupT3. We determined that some of these compounds, namely compounds 5, 6, 11, 20, and 26, demonstrate antiproliferative activity against some or all of the pancreatic cancer cells at low micromolar to nanomolar concentrations. We found that the treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with GSK-3beta inhibitors 5 and 26 resulted in suppression of GSK-3beta activity and a distinct decrease of the X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) expression, leading to significant apoptosis. The present data suggest a possible role for GSK-3beta inhibitors in cancer therapy, in addition to their more prominent applications in CNS disorders.

  16. Activation of the Wnt pathway through use of AR79, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor, promotes prostate cancer growth in soft tissue and bone

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan; Dai, Jinlu; Zhang, Honglai; Sottnik, Joe L.; Keller, Jill M.; Escott, Katherine J.; Sanganee, Hitesh J.; Yao, Zhi; McCauley, Laurie K.; Keller, Evan T.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its bone anabolic activity, methods to increase Wnt activity, such as inhibitors of dickkopf-1 and sclerostin, are being clinically explored. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3β) inhibits Wnt signaling through inducing β-catenin degradation. Therefore, AR79, an inhibitor of GSK3β, is being evaluated as a bone anabolic agent. However, Wnt activation has potential to promote tumor growth. The goal of this study was to determine if AR79 impacted progression of prostate cancer (PCa). PCa tumors were established in subcutaneous and bone sites of mice followed by AR79 administration. Tumor growth, β-catenin activation, proliferation (Ki67 expression) and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity) were measured. Additionally, PCa and osteoblast cell lines were treated with AR79 and β-catenin status, proliferation (with β-catenin knocked down in some cases) and proportion of the ALDH+CD133+ stem-like cells was determined. AR79 promoted PCa growth, decreased phospho-β-catenin expression and increased total and nuclear β-catenin expression in tumors and increased tumor-induced bone remodeling. Additionally, it decreased caspase 3 and increased Ki67 expression. In addition, AR79 increased bone formation in normal mouse tibiae. AR79 inhibited β-catenin phosphorylation, increased nuclear β-catenin accumulation in PCa and osteoblast cell lines and increased proliferation of PCa cells in vitro through β-catenin. Furthermore, AR79 increased the ALDH+CD133+ cancer stem cell-like proportion of the PCa cell lines. We conclude that AR79, while being bone anabolic, promotes PCa cell growth through Wnt pathway activation. PMID:24088787

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 in the world of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Rodriguez, Marbelys; Kim, Leung

    2009-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is one of the few master switch kinases that regulate many aspects of cell functions. Recent studies on cell polarization and migration have shown that GSK3 is also essential for proper regulation of these processes. GSK3 influences cell migration as one of the regulators of the spatiotemporally controlled dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton, microtubules, and cell-to-matrix adhesions. In this mini-review, the effects of GSK3 on these three aspects of cell migration will be discussed.

  18. Identification of a Maleimide-Based Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) Inhibitor, BIP-135, that Prolongs the Median Survival Time of Δ7 SMA KO Mouse Model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Po C; Gaisina, Irina N; El-Khodor, Bassem F; Ramboz, Sylvie; Makhortova, Nina R; Rubin, Lee L; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-01-18

    The discovery of upregulated glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in various pathological conditions has led to the development of a host of chemically diverse small molecule GSK-3 inhibitors, such as BIP-135. GSK-3 inhibition emerged as an alternative therapeutic target for treating spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) when a number of GSK-3 inhibitors were shown to elevate survival motor neuron (SMN) levels in vitro and to rescue motor neurons when their intrinsic SMN level was diminished by SMN-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Despite their cellular potency, the in vivo efficacy of GSK-3 inhibitors has yet to be evaluated in an animal model of SMA. Herein, we disclose that a potent and reasonably selective GSK-3 inhibitor, namely BIP-135, was tested in a transgenic Δ7 SMA KO mouse model of SMA, and found to prolong the median survival of these animals. In addition, this compound was shown to elevate the SMN protein level in SMA patient-derived fibroblast cells as determined by western blot, and was neuroprotective in a cell-based, SMA-related model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration.

  19. Hyperactivity: glycogen synthase kinase-3 as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Mines, Marjelo A

    2013-05-15

    The diagnosis of hyperactivity-associated disorders has increased within the past few years. The prevalence of hyperactivity-associated disorders is indicative of the need to more fully understand the underlying causes and to develop improved therapeutic interventions. There is increasing evidence that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) mediates locomotor hyperactivity in a number of animal models, and therefore may be a potential target for therapeutic intervention in hyperactivity-associated behaviors. In this review, we discuss 1) the effect of manipulations of GSK3 in the absence of drugs and disorders on locomotor activity, 2) the role of GSK3 in drug-induced hyperactivity in rodents, and 3) regulation of locomotor activity by GSK3 in transgenic mouse models related to specific disorders. These studies link GSK3 regulation and activity to hyperactivity-associated behaviors and disease pathologies.

  20. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-inhibitor SB216763 promotes the conversion of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into neural precursors in adherent culture.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Li, Peng; Kong, Junchao; Liu, Zhijun; Chen, Yonghua; Huang, Rui; Chu, Jiaqi; Quan, Juanhua; Zeng, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The ability to generate neural progenitor cells from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) has provided an option to treat neurodegenerative diseases. To establish a method for this purpose, we characterized the early neural markers of hUC-MSCs-derived cells under different conditions. We found that neither the elimination of signals for alternative fate nor N2 supplement was sufficient to differentiate hUC-MSCs into neural precursor cells, but the GSK3 inhibitor SB216763 could promote an efficient neural commitment of hUC-MSCs. The results indicated that Wnt/β-catenin might play an important role during the early neural differentiation of hUC-MSCs. Here, we report a method for hUC-MSCs to commit efficiently into a neural fate within a short period of time. This protocol provides an efficient method for hUC-MSCs-based neural regeneration.

  1. GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3 REGULATES MICROGLIAL MIGRATION, INFLAMMATION, AND INFLAMMATION-INDUCED NEUROTOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Jope, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Microglia play a prominent role in the brain’s inflammatory response to injury or infection by migrating to affected locations, secreting inflammatory molecules, and phagocytosing damaged tissue. However, because severe or chronic neuroinflammation exacerbates many neurological conditions, controlling microglia actions may provide therapeutic benefits in a diverse array of diseases. Since glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes inflammatory responses in peripheral immune cells, we investigated if inhibitors of GSK3 attenuated microglia responses to inflammatory stimuli. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with GSK3 inhibitors greatly reduced the migration of microglia in both a scratch assay and in a transwell migration assay. Treatment of BV-2 microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated the production of interleukin-6 and increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production. Each of these microglia responses to inflammatory stimulation were greatly attenuated by GSK3 inhibitors. However, GSK3 inhibitors did not cause a general impairment of microglia functions, as the LPS-induced stimulated expression of cylcooxygenase-2 was unaltered. Regulation of microglia functions were also evident in cultured mouse hippocampal slices where GSK3 inhibitors reduced cytokine production and microglial migration, and provided protection from inflammation-induced neuronal toxicity. These findings demonstrate that GSK3 promotes microglial responses to inflammation and that the utilization of GSK3 inhibitors provides a means to limit the inflammatory actions of microglia. PMID:19007880

  2. The role of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koros, Eliza; Dorner-Ciossek, Cornelia

    2007-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta is recognized as a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme involved in the modulation of many aspects of neuronal function. Inhibitory control of GSK-3beta has been identified to be crucial for the phosphoinositide 3'-kinase (PI3K)-protein kinase B (Akt)-mediated cell survival. Several lines of evidence converge in implicating abnormal GSK-3beta activity in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Preclinical evidence showing that both typical and atypical antipsychotics can indirectly inhibit the activity of GSK-3beta, has pointed to GSK-3beta as a possible therapeutic target for schizophrenia. It is well known that GSK-3beta can be indirectly inhibited via regulation of several intracellular signaling cascades, including the canonical Wnt, Reelin and tyrosine kinase receptor (Trk)-PI3K-Akt. Recently, direct inhibition of GSK-3beta has emerged as a possible option in the pharmacotherapy of several neuropsychiatric disorders. There is, however, a number of issues that need to be considered regarding therapeutic utility of GSK-3beta inhibitors. This article reviews the evidence supporting the possible role of aberrant GSK-3beta in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and thus suggesting GSK-3beta to be a potential therapeutic target for this disorder.

  3. Role and regulation of Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in bovine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Belenky, Michael; Breitbart, Haim

    2017-01-01

    The serine/threonine kinase Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a master switch that regulates a multitude of cellular pathways, including the acrosome reaction in sperm. In epididymal sperm cells, for example, GSK-3 activity correlates with inhibition of motility-yet no direct pathways connecting GSK-3 activation with loss of motility have been described. Indeed, the details of how GSK-3 is regulated during sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction remains obscure. To this end, we addressed the involvement of the GSK-3 beta isoform in several known pathways that contribute to motility and the acrosome reaction. We established that Protein kinase A (PKA) is the main regulator of GSK-3β in sperm, as pre-treatment of cells with a GSK-3 inhibitor prior to addition of H89, an inhibitor of PKA, attenuated the motility loss induced by blocking PKA activity. Both induced and spontaneous acrosome reactions also occurred less frequently in sperm treated with GSK-3 inhibitors. Finally, we observed a slow decline in phosphorylation of GSK-3β on Ser 9, which represents an inhibited state, during sperm capacitation; this phenotype is reversed during the induced acrosome reaction, in parallel to activation of Protein phosphatase 1. These results suggest that maintenance of sperm motility and acrosome reaction timing are mediated by PKA through the regulation of GSK-3 beta activity. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 84: 8-18, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 increases the cytotoxicity of enzastaurin.

    PubMed

    Rovedo, Mark A; Krett, Nancy L; Rosen, Steven T

    2011-07-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) represent a spectrum of several distinct non-Hodgkin's lymphomas that are characterized by an invasion of the skin by malignant, clonal lymphocytes. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that the protein kinase C (PKC) β inhibitor Enzastaurin increases apoptosis in malignant lymphocytes of CTCL. These results directly led to a clinical trial for Enzastaurin in CTCL in which it was well tolerated and showed modest activity. To ascertain a means of improving the efficacy of Enzastaurin, we investigated complementary signaling pathways and identified glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) as important in survival signaling in CTCL. Enzastaurin combined with GSK3 inhibitors demonstrated an enhancement of cytotoxicity. Treatment with a combination of Enzastaurin and the GSK3 inhibitor AR-A014418 resulted in upregulation of β-catenin total protein and β-catenin-mediated transcription. Inhibition of β-catenin-mediated transcription or small hairpin RNA (shRNA) knockdown of β-catenin decreased the cytotoxic effects of Enzastaurin plus AR-A014418. In addition, treatment with Enzastaurin and AR-A014418 decreased the mRNA levels and surface expression of CD44. shRNA knockdown of β-catenin also restored CD44 surface expression. Our observations provide a rationale for the combined targeting of PKC and GSK3 signaling pathways in CTCL to enhance the therapeutic outcome.

  5. Small molecules targeting glycogen synthase kinase 3 as potential drug candidates for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Marchena, Miguel; Villarejo-Zori, Beatriz; Zaldivar-Diez, Josefa; Palomo, Valle; Gil, Carmen; Hernández-Sánchez, Catalina; Martínez, Ana; de la Rosa, Enrique J

    2017-12-01

    Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy that courses with progressive degeneration of retinal tissue and loss of vision. Currently, RP is an unpreventable, incurable condition. We propose glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) inhibitors as potential leads for retinal cell neuroprotection, since the retina is also a part of the central nervous system and GSK-3 inhibitors are potent neuroprotectant agents. Using a chemical genetic approach, diverse small molecules with different potency and binding mode to GSK-3 have been used to validate and confirm GSK-3 as a pharmacological target for RP. Moreover, this medicinal chemistry approach has provided new leads for the future disease-modifying treatment of RP.

  6. Molecular Pathways: Revisiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β as a target for the treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Walz, Amy; Ugolkov, Andrey; Chandra, Sunandana; Kozikowski, Alan; Carneiro, Benedito A; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Giles, Francis J; Billadeau, Daniel D; Mazar, Andrew P

    2017-01-04

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, is a complex regulator of numerous cellular functions. GSK-3β is a unique kinase which is constitutively active in resting and non-stimulated cells. GSK-3β has been implicated in a wide range of diseases including neurodegeneration, inflammation and fibrosis, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and cancer. It is a regulator of NF-κB-mediated survival of cancer cells, which provided a rationale for the development of GSK-3 inhibitors targeting malignant tumors. Recent studies, many of them reported over the past decade, have identified GSK-3β as a potential therapeutic target in at over 15 different types of cancer. Whereas only active GSK-3β is expressed in cancer cell nucleus, aberrant nuclear accumulation of GSK-3β has been identified as a hallmark of cancer cells in malignant tumors of different origin. This review focuses on the preclinical and clinical development of GSK-3 inhibitors, and the potential therapeutic impact of targeting GSK-3β in human cancer.

  7. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 mitigates the hematopoietic acute radiation syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E; Castle, Katherine D; Chao, Nelson J; Kirsch, David G

    2014-05-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit(+) Lin(-) Sca1(+) (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system.

  8. Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Mitigates the Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Lung; Lento, William E.; Castle, Katherine D.; Chao, Nelson J.; Kirsch, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to a nuclear accident or radiological attack can cause death from acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which results from radiation injury to vital organs such as the hematopoietic system. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not approved any medical countermeasures for this specific purpose. With growing concern over nuclear terrorism, there is an urgent need to develop small molecule deliverables that mitigate mortality from ARS. One emerging modulator of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) activity is glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). The inhibition of GSK-3 has been shown to augment hematopoietic repopulation in mouse models of bone marrow transplantation. In this study, we performed an in vitro screen using irradiated bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM-MNCs) to test the effects of four GSK-3 inhibitors: CHIR99021; 6-Bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (BIO); SB415286; and SB216763. This screen showed that SB216763 significantly increased the frequency of c-Kit+ Lin− Sca1+ (KLS) cells and hematopoietic colony-forming cells in irradiated BM-MNCs. Importantly, administration of a single dose of SB216763 to C57BL/6J mice by subcutaneous injection 24 h after total-body irradiation significantly improved hematopoietic recovery and mitigated hematopoietic ARS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 is an effective medical countermeasure against acute radiation injury of the hematopoietic system. PMID:24720754

  9. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Accelerated Liver Regeneration after Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Poudel, Samikshya; Manley, Michael W; Roy, Nairita; Apte, Udayan

    2017-03-01

    Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States. Timely initiation of compensatory liver regeneration after APAP hepatotoxicity is critical for final recovery, but the mechanisms of liver regeneration after APAP-induced ALF have not been extensively explored yet. Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that activation of β-catenin signaling after APAP overdose is associated with timely liver regeneration. Herein, we investigated the role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in liver regeneration after APAP hepatotoxicity using a pharmacological inhibition strategy in mice. Treatment with specific GSK3 inhibitor (L803-mts), starting from 4 hours after 600 mg/kg dose of APAP, resulted in early initiation of liver regeneration in a dose-dependent manner, without modifying the peak regenerative response. Acceleration of liver regeneration was not secondary to alteration of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, which remained unchanged after GSK3 inhibition. Early cell cycle initiation in hepatocytes after GSK3 inhibition was because of rapid induction of cyclin D1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. This was associated with increased activation of β-catenin signaling after GSK3 inhibition. Taken together, our study has revealed a novel role of GSK3 in liver regeneration after APAP overdose and identified GSK3 as a potential therapeutic target to improve liver regeneration after APAP-induced ALF. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 is involved in glycogen metabolism control and embryogenesis of Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Mury, Flávia B; Lugon, Magda D; DA Fonseca, Rodrigo Nunes; Silva, Jose R; Berni, Mateus; Araujo, Helena M; Fontenele, Marcio Ribeiro; Abreu, Leonardo Araujo DE; Dansa, Marílvia; Braz, Glória; Masuda, Hatisaburo; Logullo, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Rhodnius prolixus is also a classical model in insect physiology, and the recent availability of R. prolixus genome has opened new avenues on triatomine research. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is classically described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism, also acting as a downstream component of the Wnt pathway during embryogenesis. GSK-3 has been shown to be highly conserved among several organisms, mainly in the catalytic domain region. Meanwhile, the role of GSK-3 during R. prolixus embryogenesis or glycogen metabolism has not been investigated. Here we show that chemical inhibition of GSK-3 by alsterpaullone, an ATP-competitive inhibitor of GSK3, does not affect adult survival rate, though it alters oviposition and egg hatching. Specific GSK-3 gene silencing by dsRNA injection in adult females showed a similar phenotype. Furthermore, bright field and 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining analysis revealed that ovaries and eggs from dsGSK-3 injected females exhibited specific morphological defects. We also demonstrate that glycogen content was inversely related to activity and transcription levels of GSK-3 during embryogenesis. Lastly, after GSK-3 knockdown, we observed changes in the expression of the Wingless (Wnt) downstream target β-catenin as well as in members of other pathways such as the receptor Notch. Taken together, our results show that GSK-3 regulation is essential for R. prolixus oogenesis and embryogenesis.

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3/Shaggy mediates ethanol-induced excitotoxic cell death of Drosophila olfactory neurons

    PubMed Central

    French, Rachael L.; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    It has long been known that heavy alcohol consumption leads to neuropathology and neuronal death. While the response of neurons to an ethanol insult is strongly influenced by genetic background, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that even a single intoxicating exposure to ethanol causes non-cell-autonomous apoptotic death specifically of Drosophila olfactory neurons, which is accompanied by a loss of a behavioral response to the smell of ethanol and a blackening of the third antennal segment. The Drosophila homolog of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)β, Shaggy, is required for ethanol-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this requirement, the GSK-3β inhibitor lithium protects against the neurotoxic effects of ethanol, indicating the possibility for pharmacological intervention in cases of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration. Ethanol-induced death of olfactory neurons requires both their neural activity and functional NMDA receptors. This system will allow the investigation of the genetic and molecular basis of ethanol-induced apoptosis in general and provide an understanding of the molecular role of GSK-3β in programmed cell death. PMID:19923438

  12. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Dictates Podocyte Motility and Focal Adhesion Turnover by Modulating Paxillin Activity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Weiwei; Ge, Yan; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Rujun

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant focal adhesion turnover is centrally involved in podocyte actin cytoskeleton disorganization and foot process effacement. The structural and dynamic integrity of focal adhesions is orchestrated by multiple cell signaling molecules, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multitasking kinase lately identified as a mediator of kidney injury. However, the role of GSK3β in podocytopathy remains obscure. In doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-injured podocytes, lithium, a GSK3β inhibitor and neuroprotective mood stabilizer, obliterated the accelerated focal adhesion turnover, rectified podocyte hypermotility, and restored actin cytoskeleton integrity. Mechanistically, lithium counteracted the doxorubicin-elicited GSK3β overactivity and the hyperphosphorylation and overactivation of paxillin, a focal adhesion–associated adaptor protein. Moreover, forced expression of a dominant negative kinase dead mutant of GSK3β highly mimicked, whereas ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3β mutant abolished, the effect of lithium in doxorubicin-injured podocytes, suggesting that the effect of lithium is mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of GSK3β. Furthermore, paxillin interacted with GSK3β and served as its substrate. In mice with doxorubicin nephropathy, a single low dose of lithium ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Consistently, lithium therapy abrogated GSK3β overactivity, blunted paxillin hyperphosphorylation, and reinstated actin cytoskeleton integrity in glomeruli associated with an early attenuation of podocyte foot process effacement. Thus, GSK3β-modulated focal adhesion dynamics might serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy. PMID:25239564

  13. Phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 by glycogen synthase kinase 3 impairs insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Krebs, Edwin G.

    1997-01-01

    The phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase is involved in most of the biological responses of insulin. IRS-1 mediates insulin signaling by recruiting SH2 proteins through its multiple tyrosine phosphorylation sites. The phosphorylation of IRS-1 on serine/threonine residues also occurs in cells; however, the particular protein kinase(s) promoting this type of phosphorylation are unknown. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is capable of phosphorylating IRS-1 and that this modification converts IRS-1 into an inhibitor of IR tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Expression of wild-type GSK-3 or an “unregulated” mutant of the kinase (S9A) in CHO cells overexpressing IRS-1 and IR, resulted in increased serine phosphorylation levels of IRS-1, suggesting that IRS-1 is a cellular target of GSK-3. Furthermore, insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and IR was markedly suppressed in cells expressing wild-type or the S9A mutant, indicating that expression of GSK-3 impairs IR tyrosine kinase activity. Taken together, our studies suggest a new role for GSK-3 in attenuating insulin signaling via its phosphorylation of IRS-1 and may provide new insight into mechanisms important in insulin resistance. PMID:9275179

  14. Expression and regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Giambelluca, Miriam S; Cloutier, Nathalie; Rollet-Labelle, Emmanuelle; Boilard, Eric; Pouliot, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase involved in the regulation of cellular processes ranging from glycogen metabolism to cell cycle regulation. Its two known isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues throughout the body and exert distinct but often overlapping functions. GSK-3 is typically active in resting cells, inhibition by phosphorylation of Ser21 (GSK-3α) or Ser9 (GSK-3β) being the most common regulatory mechanism. GSK-3 activity has been linked recently with immune system function, yet little is known about the role of this enzyme in neutrophils, the most abundant leukocyte type. In the present study, we examined GSK-3 expression and regulation in human neutrophils. GSK-3α was found to be the predominant isoform, it was constitutively expressed and cell stimulation with different agonists did not alter its expression. Stimulation by fMLP, LPS, GM-CSF, Fcγ receptor engagement, or adenosine A2A receptor engagement all resulted in phosphorylation of Ser21. The use of metabolic inhibitors revealed that combinations of Src kinase, PKC, PI3K/AKT, ERK/RSK and PKA signaling pathways could mediate phosphorylation, depending on the agonist. Neither PLC nor p38 were involved. We conclude that GSK-3α is the main isoform expressed in neutrophils and that many different pathways can converge to inhibit GSK-3α activity via Ser21-phosphorylation. GSK-3α thus might be a hub of cellular regulation.

  15. Efficacy of glycogen synthase kinase-3β targeting against osteosarcoma via activation of β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Norio; Nishida, Hideji; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Akihiko; Miwa, Shinji; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kato, Takashi; Aoki, Yu; Higuchi, Takashi; Hirose, Mayumi; Hoffman, Robert M; Minamoto, Toshinari; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Development of innovative more effective therapy is required for refractory osteosarcoma patients. We previously established that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK- 3β) is a therapeutic target in various cancer types. In the present study, we explored the therapeutic efficacy of GSK-3β inhibition against osteosarcoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms in an orthotopic mouse model. Expression and phosphorylation of GSK-3β in osteosarcoma and normal osteoblast cell lines was examined, together with efficacy of GSK-3β inhibition on cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis and on the growth of orthotopically-transplanted human osteosarcoma in nude mice. We also investigated changes in expression, phosphorylation and co-transcriptional activity of β-catenin in osteosarcoma cells following GSK-3β inhibition. Expression of the active form of GSK- 3β (tyrosine 216-phosphorylated) was higher in osteosarcoma than osteoblast cells. Inhibition of GSK-3β activity by pharmacological inhibitors or of its expression by RNA interference suppressed proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and induced apoptosis. Treatment with GSK-3β-specific inhibitors attenuated the growth of orthotopic osteosaroma in mice. Inhibition of GSK-3β reduced phosphorylation at GSK- 3β-phospho-acceptor sites in β-catenin and increased β-catenin expression, nuclear localization and co-transcriptional activity. These results suggest the efficacy of GSK-3β inhibitors is associated with activation of β-catenin, a putative tumor suppressor in bone and soft tissue sarcoma and an important component of osteogenesis. Our study thereby demonstrates a critical role for GSK-3β in sustaining survival and proliferation of osteosarcoma cells, and identifies this kinase as a potential therapeutic target against osteosarcoma. PMID:27780915

  16. Probing the PI3K/Akt/mTor pathway using 31P-NMR spectroscopy: routes to glycogen synthase kinase 3

    PubMed Central

    Phyu, Su M.; Tseng, Chih-Chung; Fleming, Ian N.; Smith, Tim A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Akt is an intracellular signalling pathway that serves as an essential link between cell surface receptors and cellular processes including proliferation, development and survival. The pathway has many downstream targets including glycogen synthase kinase3 which is a major regulatory kinase for cell cycle transit as well as controlling glycogen synthase activity. The Akt pathway is frequently up-regulated in cancer due to overexpression of receptors such as the epidermal growth factor receptor, or mutation of signalling pathway kinases resulting in inappropriate survival and proliferation. Consequently anticancer drugs have been developed that target this pathway. MDA-MB-468 breast and HCT8 colorectal cancer cells were treated with inhibitors including LY294002, MK2206, rapamycin, AZD8055 targeting key kinases in/associated with Akt pathway and the consistency of changes in 31P-NMR-detecatable metabolite content of tumour cells was examined. Treatment with the Akt inhibitor MK2206 reduced phosphocholine levels in MDA-MB-468 cells. Treatment with either the phosphoinositide-3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 and pan-mTOR inhibitor, AZD8055 but not pan-Akt inhibitor MK2206 increased uridine-5′-diphosphate-hexose cell content which was suppressed by co-treatment with glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitor SB216763. This suggests that there is an Akt-independent link between phosphoinositol-3-kinase and glycogen synthase kinase3 and demonstrates the potential of 31P-NMR to probe intracellular signalling pathways. PMID:27811956

  17. Decreased glycogen synthase kinase-3 levels and activity contribute to Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Nogales, Marta; Hernández, Félix; Miguez, Andrés; Alberch, Jordi; Ginés, Silvia; Pérez-Navarro, Esther; Lucas, José J

    2015-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder characterized by brain atrophy particularly in striatum leading to personality changes, chorea and dementia. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine kinase in the crossroad of many signaling pathways that is highly pleiotropic as it phosphorylates more than hundred substrates including structural, metabolic, and signaling proteins. Increased GSK-3 activity is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and GSK-3 inhibitors have been postulated as therapeutic agents for neurodegeneration. Regarding HD, GSK-3 inhibitors have shown beneficial effects in cell and invertebrate animal models but no evident efficacy in mouse models. Intriguingly, those studies were performed without interrogating GSK-3 level and activity in HD brain. Here we aim to explore the level and also the enzymatic activity of GSK-3 in the striatum and other less affected brain regions of HD patients and of the R6/1 mouse model to then elucidate the possible contribution of its alteration to HD pathogenesis by genetic manipulation in mice. We report a dramatic decrease in GSK-3 levels and activity in striatum and cortex of HD patients with similar results in the mouse model. Correction of the GSK-3 deficit in HD mice, by combining with transgenic mice with conditional GSK-3 expression, resulted in amelioration of their brain atrophy and behavioral motor and learning deficits. Thus, our results demonstrate that decreased brain GSK-3 contributes to HD neurological phenotype and open new therapeutic opportunities based on increasing GSK-3 activity or attenuating the harmful consequences of its decrease.

  18. Modulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β following TRAIL combinatorial treatment in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Santha, Sreevidya; Davaakhuu, Gantulga; Basu, Aninda; Ke, Rong; Das, Subhasis; Rana, Ajay; Rana, Basabi

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β) is a serine/threonine kinase, known to regulate various cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, survival, apoptosis as well as TRAIL-resistance. Thus pathways that can modulate GSK3β axis are important targets for cancer drug development. Our earlier studies have shown that combinatorial treatment with Troglitazone (TZD) and TRAIL can induce apoptosis in TRAIL-resistant cancer cells. The current studies were undertaken to investigate whether GSK3β pathway was modulated during this apoptosis. Our results indicated an increase in inhibitory GSK3βSer9 phosphorylation during apoptosis, mediated via AKT. At a later time, however, TZD alone and TRAIL-TZD combination produced a dramatic reduction of GSK3β expression, which was abolished by cycloheximide. Luciferase assays with GSK3β-luc promoter reporter showed that TZD can effectively antagonize GSK3β promoter activity. Since TZD is a ligand for transcription factor PPARγ and can activate AMPK, we determined their roles on antagonism of GSK3β. Knockdown of PPARγ was unable to restore GSK3β expression or antagonize GSK3βSer9 phosphorylation. Although pretreatment with Compound C (pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK) partially rescued GSK3β expression, knockdown of AMPKα1 or α2 alone or in combination were ineffective. These studies suggested a novel PPARγ-AMPK-independent mechanism of targeting GSK3β by TZD, elucidation of which might provide newer insights to improve our understanding of TRAIL-resistance. PMID:27602497

  19. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 increased subventricular zone stem cells proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pachenari, Narges; Kiani, Sahar; Javan, Mohammad

    2017-09-01

    The effects of Wnt signaling modifiers on cell proliferation, seem to be cell specific. Enhancing the proliferation of subventricular zone (SVZ) progenitors has been in the focus of research in recent years. Here we investigate the effect of CHIR99021, a Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSk-3) inhibitor, on SVZ progenitor's proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Neural stem cells were extracted from the adult C57bl/6 by mincing and trypsin treatment followed by culturing in specific medium. Sphere cells formed within about 7-10days and were characterized by immunostaining. Number of spheres and their size was assessed following exposure to different concentration of CHIR99021 or vehicle. For in vivo studies, animals received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of CHIR99021 or vehicle for four days. A subgroup of animals, after 4days treatment with CHIR99021 received intranasal kainic acid to induce local neurodegeneration in CA3 area of hippocampus. Inhibition of GSk-3 by CHIR99021 increased neural progenitor proliferation and the effect of CHIR99021 was long lasting so that the treated cells showed higher proliferation even after CHIR99021 removal. In vivo administration of CHIR99021 increased the number of neural progenitors at the rims of lateral ventricles especially when the treatment was followed by kainic acid administration which induces neural insult. Results showed that direct administration of CHIR99021 into the culture medium or animal brain increased the number of SVZ progenitors, especially when a neural insult was induced in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Examination of methylphenidate-mediated behavior regulation by glycogen synthase kinase-3 in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mines, Marjelo A.; Beurel, Eleonore; Jope, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in dopaminergic activity have been implicated in psychiatric diseases, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and are treated with therapeutic stimulants, commonly methylphenidate or amphetamine. Amphetamine administration increases glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activation, which is necessary for certain acute behavioral responses to amphetamine, including increased locomotor activity and impaired sensorimotor gating. Here, we tested if modulating GSK3 by administration of the GSK3 inhibitor lithium or expression of constitutively active GSK3 altered behavioral responses to methylphenidate administered to mice acutely or daily for 8 days. Methylphenidate or amphetamine was administered to mice intraperitoneally for 1 or 8 days. Open-field activity and pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) were measured. In contrast to lithium’s blockade of acute amphetamine-induced locomotor hyperactivity, lithium treatment did not significantly reduce methylphenidate-induced locomotor hyperactivity in wild-type mice after acute or 8 days of repeated methylphenidate administration. Lithium treatment significantly increased the impairment in PPI caused by methylphenidate, but significantly reduced the amphetamine-induced PPI deficit. In GSK3 knockin mice, expression of constitutively active GSK3β, but not GSK3α, significantly increased locomotor hyperactivity after acute methylphenidate treatment, and significantly impaired PPI, preventing further methylphenidate-induced impairment of PPI that was evident in wild-type mice and GSK3α knockin mice. Lithium does not counteract locomotor activity and PPI responses to methylphenidate as it does these responses to amphetamine, indicating that different mechanisms mediate these behavioral responses to methylphenidate and amphetamine. Only active GSK3β, not GSK3α, modulates behavioral responses to MPH, indicating selectivity in the actions of GSK3 isoforms. PMID:23099259

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a potential preventive target for prostate cancer management.

    PubMed

    Li, Benyi; Thrasher, James Brantley; Terranova, Paul

    2015-11-01

    Prostate cancers are the frequently diagnosed cancers in men, and patients with metastatic disease only have 28% chance for 5-year survival. Patients with low-risk tumors are subjected to active surveillance, whereas high-risk cases are actively treated. Unfortunately, there is no cure for patients with late-stage disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3, α and β) is a protein serine/threonine kinase and has diverse cellular functions and numerous substrates. We sought to summarize all the studies done with GSK-3 in prostate cancers and to provide a prospective direction for future work. A comprehensive search of the literature on the electronic databases PubMed was conducted for the subject terms of GSK-3 and prostate cancer. Gene mutation and expression information was extracted from Oncomine and COSMIC databases. Case reports were not included. Accumulating evidence indicates that GSK-3α is mainly expressed in low-risk prostate cancers and is related to hormone-dependent androgen receptor (AR)-mediated gene expression, whereas GSK-3β is mainly expressed in high-risk prostate cancers and is related to hormone-independent AR-mediated gene expression. GSK-3 has been demonstrated as a positive regulator in AR transactivation and prostate cancer growth independent of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Different types of GSK-3inhibitors including lithium show promising results in suppressing tumor growth in different animal models of prostate cancer. Importantly, clinical use of lithium is associated with reduced cancer incidence in psychiatric patients. Taken together, GSK-3 inhibition might be implicated in prostate cancer management as a preventive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 is a potential drug target for African trypanosomiasis therapy.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Kayode K; Gillespie, J Robert; Riechers, Aaron J; Napuli, Alberto J; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Buckner, Frederick S; Gelb, Michael H; Domostoj, Mathias M; Wells, Susan J; Scheer, Alexander; Wells, Timothy N C; Van Voorhis, Wesley C

    2008-10-01

    Development of a safe, effective, and inexpensive therapy for African trypanosomiasis is an urgent priority. In this study, we evaluated the validity of Trypanosoma brucei glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) as a potential drug target. Interference with the RNA of either of two GSK-3 homologues in bloodstream-form T. brucei parasites led to growth arrest and altered parasite morphology, demonstrating their requirement for cell survival. Since the growth arrest after RNA interference appeared to be more profound for T. brucei GSK-3 "short" (Tb10.161.3140) than for T. brucei GSK-3 "long" (Tb927.7.2420), we focused on T. brucei GSK-3 short for further studies. T. brucei GSK-3 short with an N-terminal maltose-binding protein fusion was cloned, expressed, and purified in a functional form. The potency of a GSK-3-focused inhibitor library against the recombinant enzyme of T. brucei GSK-3 short, as well as bloodstream-form parasites, was evaluated with the aim of determining if compounds that inhibit enzyme activity could also block the parasites' growth and proliferation. Among the compounds active against the cell, there was an excellent correlation between activity inhibiting the T. brucei GSK-3 short enzyme and the inhibition of T. brucei growth. Thus, there is reasonable genetic and chemical validation of GSK-3 short as a drug target for T. brucei. Finally, selective inhibition may be required for therapy targeting the GSK-3 enzyme, and a molecular model of the T. brucei GSK-3 short enzyme suggests that compounds that selectively inhibit T. brucei GSK-3 short over the human GSK-3 enzymes can be found.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: cryoprotection and glycogen metabolism in the freeze-tolerant wood frog.

    PubMed

    Dieni, Christopher A; Bouffard, Melanie C; Storey, Kenneth B

    2012-02-01

    The terrestrial anuran Rana sylvatica tolerates extended periods of whole-body freezing during the winter. Freezing survival is facilitated by extensive glycogen hydrolysis and distribution of high concentrations of the cryoprotectant glucose into blood and all tissues. As glycogenesis is both an energy-expensive process and counter-productive to maintaining sustained high cryoprotectant levels, we proposed that glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) would be activated when wood frogs froze and would phosphorylate its downstream substrates to inactivate glycogen synthesis. Western blot analysis determined that the amount of phosphorylated (inactive) GSK-3 decreased in all five tissues tested in 24 h frozen frogs compared with unfrozen controls. Total GSK-3 protein levels did not change, with the exception of heart GSK-3, indicating that post-translational modification was the primary regulatory mechanism for this kinase. Kinetic properties of skeletal muscle GSK-3 from control and frozen frogs displayed differential responses to a temperature change (22 versus 4°C) and high glucose. For example, when assayed at 4°C, the K(m) for the GSK-3 substrate peptide was ∼44% lower for frozen frogs than the corresponding value in control frogs, indicating greater GSK-3 affinity for its substrates in the frozen state. This indicates that at temperatures similar to the environment encountered by frogs, GSK-3 in frozen frogs will phosphorylate its downstream targets more readily than in unfrozen controls. GSK-3 from skeletal muscle of control frogs was also allosterically regulated. AMP and phosphoenolpyruvate activated GSK-3 whereas inhibitors included glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, pyruvate, ATP, glutamate, glutamine, glycerol, NH(4)Cl, NaCl and KCl. The combination of phosphorylation and allosteric control argues for a regulatory role of GSK-3 in inactivating glycogenesis to preserve high glucose cryoprotectant levels throughout each freezing bout.

  4. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β, NF-κB Signaling, and Tumorigenesis of Human Osteosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Qing-Lian; Xie, Xian-Biao; Wang, Jin; Chen, Qiong; Han, An-Jia; Zou, Chang-Ye; Yin, Jun-Qiang; Liu, Da-Wei; Liang, Yi; Zhao, Zhi-Qiang; Yong, Bi-Cheng; Zhang, Ru-Hua; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Deng, Wu-Guo; Zhu, Xiao-Feng; Zhou, Binhua P.; Zeng, Yi-Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine protein kinase, may function as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene, depending on the tumor type. We sought to determine the biological function of GSK-3β in osteosarcoma, a rare pediatric cancer for which the identification of new therapeutic targets is urgent. Methods We used cell viability assays, colony formation assays, and apoptosis assays to analyze the effects of altered GSK-3β expression in U2OS, MG63, SAOS2, U2OS/MTX300, and ZOS osteosarcoma cell lines. Nude mice (n = 5–8 mice per group) were injected with U2OS/MTX300, and ZOS cells to assess the role of GSK-3β in osteosarcoma growth in vivo and to evaluate the effects of inhibitors and/or anticancer drugs on tumor growth. We used an antibody array, polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, and a luciferase reporter assay to establish the effect of GSK-3β inhibition on the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Immunochemistry was performed on primary tumor specimens from osteosarcoma patients (n = 74) to determine the relationship of GSK-3β activity with overall survival. Results Osteosarcoma cells with low levels of inactive p-Ser9-GSK-3β formed colonies in vitro and tumors in vivo more readily than cells with higher levels and cells in which GSK-3β had been silenced formed fewer colonies and smaller tumors than parental cells. Silencing or pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells. Inhibition of GSK-3β resulted in inhibition of the NF-κB pathway and reduction of NF-κB-mediated transcription. Combination treatments with GSK-3β inhibitors, NF-κB inhibitors, and chemotherapy drugs increased the effectiveness of chemotherapy drugs in vitro and in vivo. Patients whose osteosarcoma specimens had hyperactive GSK-3β, and nuclear NF-κB had a shorter median overall survival time (49.2 months) compared with patients whose tumors had inactive GSK-3β and NF-κB (109.2 months). Conclusion GSK

  5. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein Functions as an A-kinase Anchoring Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Hundsrucker, Christian; Skroblin, Philipp; Christian, Frank; Zenn, Hans-Michael; Popara, Viola; Joshi, Mangesh; Eichhorst, Jenny; Wiesner, Burkhard; Herberg, Friedrich W.; Reif, Bernd; Rosenthal, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2010-01-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) include a family of scaffolding proteins that target protein kinase A (PKA) and other signaling proteins to cellular compartments and thereby confine the activities of the associated proteins to distinct regions within cells. AKAPs bind PKA directly. The interaction is mediated by the dimerization and docking domain of regulatory subunits of PKA and the PKA-binding domain of AKAPs. Analysis of the interactions between the dimerization and docking domain and various PKA-binding domains yielded a generalized motif allowing the identification of AKAPs. Our bioinformatics and peptide array screening approaches based on this signature motif identified GSKIP (glycogen synthase kinase 3β interaction protein) as an AKAP. GSKIP directly interacts with PKA and GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β). It is widely expressed and facilitates phosphorylation and thus inactivation of GSK3β by PKA. GSKIP contains the evolutionarily conserved domain of unknown function 727. We show here that this domain of GSKIP and its vertebrate orthologues binds both PKA and GSK3β and thereby provides a mechanism for the integration of PKA and GSK3β signaling pathways. PMID:20007971

  6. Expression and characterization of glycogen synthase kinase-3 mutants and their effect on glycogen synthase activity in intact cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eldar-Finkelman, H; Argast, G M; Foord, O; Fischer, E H; Krebs, E G

    1996-01-01

    In these studies we expressed and characterized wild-type (WT) GSK-3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) and its mutants, and examined their physiological effect on glycogen synthase activity. The GSK-3 mutants included mutation at serine-9 either to alanine (S9A) or glutamic acid (S9E) and an inactive mutant, K85,86MA. Expression of WT and the various mutants in a cell-free system indicated that S9A and S9E exhibit increased kinase activity as compared with WT. Subsequently, 293 cells were transiently transfected with WT GSK-3 and mutants. Cells expressing the S9A mutant exhibited higher kinase activity (2.6-fold of control cells) as compared with cells expressing WT and S9E (1.8- and 2.0-fold, respectively, of control cells). Combined, these results suggest serine-9 as a key regulatory site of GSK-3 inactivation, and indicate that glutamic acid cannot mimic the function of the phosphorylated residue. The GSK-3-expressing cell system enabled us to examine whether GSK-3 can induce changes in the endogenous glycogen synthase activity. A decrease in glycogen synthase activity (50%) was observed in cells expressing the S9A mutant. Similarly, glycogen synthase activity was suppressed in cells expressing WT and the S9E mutant (20-30%, respectively). These studies indicate that activation of GSK-3 is sufficient to inhibit glycogen synthase in intact cells, and provide evidence supporting a physiological role for GSK-3 in regulating glycogen synthase and glycogen metabolism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8816781

  7. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Jodi R.; Dewoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-11-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Jeong, Hyung Min; Choi, You Hee; Lee, Sung Ho; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2013-05-10

    Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3α) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3α regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3α up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3α regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.

  10. Regulation of persistent sodium currents by glycogen synthase kinase 3 encodes daily rhythms of neuronal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jodi R.; DeWoskin, Daniel; McMeekin, Laura J.; Cowell, Rita M.; Forger, Daniel B.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    How neurons encode intracellular biochemical signalling cascades into electrical signals is not fully understood. Neurons in the central circadian clock in mammals provide a model system to investigate electrical encoding of biochemical timing signals. Here, using experimental and modelling approaches, we show how the activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) contributes to neuronal excitability through regulation of the persistent sodium current (INaP). INaP exhibits a day/night difference in peak magnitude and is regulated by GSK3. Using mathematical modelling, we predict and confirm that GSK3 activation of INaP affects the action potential afterhyperpolarization, which increases the spontaneous firing rate without affecting the resting membrane potential. Together, these results demonstrate a crucial link between the molecular circadian clock and electrical activity, providing examples of kinase regulation of electrical activity and the propagation of intracellular signals in neuronal networks. PMID:27841351

  11. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta in the inflammatory response caused by bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) plays a fundamental role during the inflammatory response induced by bacteria. Depending on the pathogen and its virulence factors, the type of cell and probably the context in which the interaction between host cells and bacteria takes place, GSK3β may promote or inhibit inflammation. The goal of this review is to discuss recent findings on the role of the inhibition or activation of GSK3β and its modulation of the inflammatory signaling in monocytes/macrophages and epithelial cells at the transcriptional level, mainly through the regulation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activity. Also included is a brief overview on the importance of GSK3 in non-inflammatory processes during bacterial infection. PMID:22691598

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylates kinesin light chains and negatively regulates kinesin-based motility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfini, Gerardo; Szebenyi, Gyorgyi; Elluru, Ravindhra; Ratner, Nancy; Brady, Scott T.

    2002-01-01

    Membrane-bounded organelles (MBOs) are delivered to different domains in neurons by fast axonal transport. The importance of kinesin for fast antero grade transport is well established, but mechanisms for regulating kinesin-based motility are largely unknown. In this report, we provide biochemical and in vivo evidence that kinesin light chains (KLCs) interact with and are in vivo substrates for glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Active GSK3 inhibited anterograde, but not retrograde, transport in squid axoplasm and reduced the amount of kinesin bound to MBOs. Kinesin microtubule binding and microtubule-stimulated ATPase activities were unaffected by GSK3 phosphorylation of KLCs. Active GSK3 was also localized preferentially to regions known to be sites of membrane delivery. These data suggest that GSK3 can regulate fast anterograde axonal transport and targeting of cargos to specific subcellular domains in neurons.

  13. Development of Selective Covalent Janus Kinase 3 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li; Akahane, Koshi; McNally, Randall; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ficarro, Scott B; Liu, Suhu; Herter-Sprie, Grit S; Koyama, Shohei; Pattison, Michael J; Labella, Katherine; Johannessen, Liv; Akbay, Esra A; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Frank, David A; Marto, Jarrod A; Look, Thomas A; Arthur, J Simon C; Eck, Michael J; Gray, Nathanael S

    2015-08-27

    The Janus kinases (JAKs) and their downstream effectors, signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins (STATs), form a critical immune cell signaling circuit, which is of fundamental importance in innate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis, and dysregulation is frequently observed in immune disease and cancer. The high degree of structural conservation of the JAK ATP binding pockets has posed a considerable challenge to medicinal chemists seeking to develop highly selective inhibitors as pharmacological probes and as clinical drugs. Here we report the discovery and optimization of 2,4-substituted pyrimidines as covalent JAK3 inhibitors that exploit a unique cysteine (Cys909) residue in JAK3. Investigation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) utilizing biochemical and transformed Ba/F3 cellular assays resulted in identification of potent and selective inhibitors such as compounds 9 and 45. A 2.9 Å cocrystal structure of JAK3 in complex with 9 confirms the covalent interaction. Compound 9 exhibited decent pharmacokinetic properties and is suitable for use in vivo. These inhibitors provide a set of useful tools to pharmacologically interrogate JAK3-dependent biology.

  14. Hypothalamic glycogen synthase kinase 3β has a central role in the regulation of food intake and glucose metabolism.

    PubMed

    Benzler, Jonas; Ganjam, Goutham K; Krüger, Manon; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Kutschke, Maria; Stöhr, Sigrid; Steger, Juliane; Koch, Christiane E; Ölkrug, Rebecca; Schwartz, Michael W; Shepherd, Peter R; Grattan, David R; Tups, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    GSK3β (glycogen synthase kinase 3β) is a ubiquitous kinase that plays a key role in multiple intracellular signalling pathways, and increased GSK3β activity is implicated in disorders ranging from cancer to Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we provide the first evidence of increased hypothalamic signalling via GSK3β in leptin-deficient Lep(ob/ob) mice and show that intracerebroventricular injection of a GSK3β inhibitor acutely improves glucose tolerance in these mice. The beneficial effect of the GSK3β inhibitor was dependent on hypothalamic signalling via PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), a key intracellular mediator of both leptin and insulin action. Conversely, neuron-specific overexpression of GSK3β in the mediobasal hypothalamus exacerbated the hyperphagia, obesity and impairment of glucose tolerance induced by a high-fat diet, while having little effect in controls fed standard chow. These results demonstrate that increased hypothalamic GSK3β signalling contributes to deleterious effects of leptin deficiency and exacerbates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance.

  15. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in Fragile X mice: key metabolic regulator with evidence for treatment potential.

    PubMed

    Min, Wenzhong William; Yuskaitis, Christopher J; Yan, Qijiang; Sikorski, Christopher; Chen, Shengqiang; Jope, Richard S; Bauchwitz, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the underlying defects of and developing potential treatments for Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable mental retardation. It has been shown that neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling is affected in FX animal models, with consequent alterations in activity-dependent protein translation and synaptic spine functionality. We demonstrate here that a central metabolic regulatory enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is present in a form indicating elevated activity in several regions of the FX mouse brain. Furthermore, we show that selective GSK3 inhibitors, as well as lithium, are able to revert mutant phenotypes of the FX mouse. Lithium, in particular, remained effective with chronic administration, although its effects were reversible even when given from birth. The combination of an mGluR5 antagonist and GSK3 inhibitors was not additive. Instead, it was discovered that mGluR5 signaling and GSK3 activation in the FX mouse are coordinately elevated, with inhibition of mGluR5 leading to inhibition of GSK3. These findings raise the possibility that GSK3 is a fundamental and central component of FXS pathology, with a substantial treatment potential.

  17. Elevated glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in Fragile X mice: Key metabolic regulator with evidence for treatment potential

    PubMed Central

    Min, Wenzhong William; Yuskaitis, Christopher J.; Yan, Qijiang; Sikorski, Christopher; Chen, Shengqiang; Jope, Richard S.; Bauchwitz, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding the underlying defects of and developing potential treatments for Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable mental retardation. It has been shown that neuronal metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling is affected in FX animal models, with consequent alterations in activity-dependent protein translation and synaptic spine functionality. We demonstrate here that a central metabolic regulatory enzyme, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is present in a form indicating elevated activity in several regions of the FX mouse brain. Furthermore, we show that selective GSK3 inhibitors, as well as lithium, are able to revert mutant phenotypes of the FX mouse. Lithium, in particular, remained effective with chronic administration, although its effects were reversible even when given from birth. The combination of an mGluR5 antagonist and GSK3 inhibitors was not additive. Instead, it was discovered that mGluR5 signaling and GSK3 activation in the FX mouse are coordinately elevated, with inhibition of mGluR5 leading to inhibition of GSK3. These findings raise the possibility that GSK3 is a fundamental and central component of FXS pathology, with a substantial treatment potential. PMID:18952114

  18. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β enhances cognitive recovery after stroke: the role of TAK1

    PubMed Central

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Benashski, Sharon E.; Chauhan, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    Memory deficits are common among stroke survivors. Identifying neuroprotective agents that can prevent memory impairment or improve memory recovery is a vital area of research. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is involved in several essential intracellular signaling pathways. Unlike many other kinases, GSK-3β is active only when dephosphorylated and activation promotes inflammation and apoptosis. In contrast, increased phosphorylation leads to reduced GSK-3β (pGSK-3β) activity. GSK-3β inhibition has beneficial effects on memory in other disease models. GSK-3β regulates both the 5′AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and transforming growth factor-β-activated kinase (TAK1) pathways. In this work, we examined the effect of GSK-3β inhibition, both independently, in conjunction with a TAK inhibitor, and in AMPK-α2 deficient mice, after stroke to investigate mechanistic interactions between these pathways. GSK-3β inhibition was neuroprotective and ameliorated stroke-induced cognitive impairments. This was independent of AMPK signaling as the protective effects of GSK-3β inhibition were seen in AMPK deficient mice. However, GSK-3β inhibition provided no additive protection in mice treated with a TAK inhibitor suggesting that TAK1 is an upstream regulator of GSK-3β. Targeting GSK-3β could be a novel therapeutic strategy for post-stroke cognitive deficits. PMID:26077686

  19. Lithium Blocks the c-Jun Stress Response and Protects Neurons via Its Action on Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

    PubMed Central

    Hongisto, Vesa; Smeds, Nina; Brecht, Stephan; Herdegen, Thomas; Courtney, Michael J.; Coffey, Eleanor T.

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has been used as an effective mood-stabilizing drug for the treatment of manic episodes and depression for 50 years. More recently, lithium has been found to protect neurons from death induced by a wide array of neurotoxic insults. However, the molecular basis for the prophylactic effects of lithium have remained obscure. A target of lithium, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), is implicated in neuronal death after trophic deprivation. The mechanism whereby GSK-3 exerts its neurotoxic effects is also unknown. Here we show that lithium blocks the canonical c-Jun apoptotic pathway in cerebellar granule neurons deprived of trophic support. This effect is mimicked by the structurally independent inhibitors of GSK-3, FRAT1, and indirubin. Like lithium, these prevent the stress induced c-Jun protein increase and subsequent apoptosis. These events are downstream of c-Jun transactivation, since GSK-3 inhibitors block neuronal death induced by constitutively active c-Jun (Ser/Thr→Asp) and FRAT1 expression inhibits AP1 reporter activity. Consistent with this, AP1-dependent expression of proapoptotic Bim requires GSK-3-like activity. These data suggest that a GSK-3-like kinase acts in tandem with c-Jun N-terminal kinase to coordinate the full execution of the c-Jun stress response and neuronal death in response to trophic deprivation. PMID:12917327

  20. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3ß Enhances Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: The Role of TAK1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Benashski, Sharon E.; Chauhan, Anjali; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Memory deficits are common among stroke survivors. Identifying neuroprotective agents that can prevent memory impairment or improve memory recovery is a vital area of research. Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) is involved in several essential intracellular signaling pathways. Unlike many other kinases, GSK-3ß is active only when…

  1. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3ß Enhances Cognitive Recovery after Stroke: The Role of TAK1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venna, Venugopal Reddy; Benashski, Sharon E.; Chauhan, Anjali; McCullough, Louise D.

    2015-01-01

    Memory deficits are common among stroke survivors. Identifying neuroprotective agents that can prevent memory impairment or improve memory recovery is a vital area of research. Glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) is involved in several essential intracellular signaling pathways. Unlike many other kinases, GSK-3ß is active only when…

  2. Critical role of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß in regulating the avian heterophil response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microarray-assisted gene expression screen of chicken heterophils revealed glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß), a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase, to be consistently up-regulated 30-180 min following stimulation with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis). The present study was ...

  3. Transcriptional regulation of pig GYS1 gene by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilin; Wang, Yan; Zhong, Tao; Guo, Jiazhong; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wang, Linjie

    2017-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase and has important roles in glycogen metabolism biosynthesis. Studies have revealed that GSK3β can directly regulate the glycogen synthase activity, yet little is known about the regulation of GSK3β on GYS1 gene transcription. Here, we show that overexpression of GSK3β decreased the mRNA expression level of GYS1. Then we cloned approximately 1.5 kb of pig GYS1 gene promoter region, generated sequential deletion constructs, and evaluated their activity. A gradual increase of the promoter activity was seen with increasing length of the promoter sequence, reaching its highest activity to the sequence corresponding to nt -350 to +224, and then decreased. However, the activities of constructed promoter fragments show different responses to GSK3β co-transfection. By analyzing a series of GYS1 promoter reporter constructs, we have defined two crucial regions (-1488 to -539, -350 to -147) that are responsible for GSK3β-induced transcriptional repression. Furthermore, the ChIP results revealed that only the first and second NF-κB sites of GYS1 promoter could bind to p65, and overexpression of GSK3β induced a significant decrease in p65 binding to the second NF-κB binding site, suggesting that GSK3β may regulate expression of GYS1 gene through binding to the second rather than the first NF-κB site. These data suggest that the NF-κB plays important roles in the transcriptional activity of pig GYS1 gene regulated by GSK3β.

  4. The PPLA motif of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta is required for interaction with Fe65.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Jeoung; Hyun, Sunghee; Chun, Jaesun; Shin, Sung Hwa; Lee, Kyung Eun; Yeon, Kwang Hum; Park, Tae Yoon; Kang, Sang Sun

    2008-07-31

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK 3 beta) is a serine/ threonine kinase that phosphorylates substrates such as beta-catenin and is involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, metabolism, tumorigenesis, and cell death. Here, we present evidence that human GSK 3beta is associated with Fe65, which has the characteristics of an adaptor protein, possessing a WW domain, and two phosphotyrosine interaction domains, PID1 and PID2. The GSK 3beta catalytic domain also contains a putative WW domain binding motif ((371)PPLA(374)), and we observed, using a pull down approach and co-immuno-precipitation, that it interacts physically with Fe65 via this motif. In addition, we detected co-localization of GSK 3beta and Fe65 by confocal microscopy, and this co-localization was disrupted by mutation of the putative WW domain binding motif of GSK 3beta.Finally, in transient transfection assays interaction of GSK 3 beta (wt) with Fe65 induced substantial cell apoptosis, whereas interaction with the GSK 3beta AALA mutant ((371)AALA(374)) did not, and we noted that phosphorylation of the Tyr 216 residue of the GSK 3beta AALA mutant was significantly reduced compared to that of GSK 3beta wild type. Thus, our observations indicate that GSK 3beta binds to Fe65 through its (371)PPLA(374) motif and that this interaction regulates apoptosis and phosphorylation of Tyr 216 of GSK 3beta.

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β suppresses polyglutamine aggregation by inhibiting Vaccinia-related kinase 2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunju; Ryu, Hye Guk; Kim, Sangjune; Lee, Dohyun; Jeong, Young-Hun; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by an abnormal expansion of polyglutamine repeats in the N-terminal of huntingtin. The amount of aggregate-prone protein is controlled by various mechanisms, including molecular chaperones. Vaccinia-related kinase 2 (VRK2) is known to negatively regulate chaperonin TRiC, and VRK2-facilitated degradation of TRiC increases polyQ protein aggregation, which is involved in HD. We found that VRK2 activity was negatively controlled by glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). GSK3β directly bound to VRK2 and inhibited the catalytic activity of VRK2 in a kinase activity-independent manner. Furthermore, GSK3β increased the stability of TRiC and decreased the formation of HttQ103-GFP aggregates by inhibiting VRK2. These results indicate that GSK3β signaling may be a regulatory mechanism of HD progression and suggest targets for further therapeutic trials for HD. PMID:27377031

  6. Aberrant spindle dynamics and cytokinesis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells that lack glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Adrian J; Forde-Thomas, Josephine E; Williams, Hazel; Samereier, Matthias; Müller-Taubenberger, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic cell division requires the co-ordinated assembly and disassembly of the mitotic spindle, accurate chromosome segregation and temporal control of cytokinesis to generate two daughter cells. While the absolute details of these processes differ between organisms, there are evolutionarily conserved core components common to all eukaryotic cells, whose identification will reveal the key processes that control cell division. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a major protein kinase found throughout the eukaryotes and regulates many processes, including cell differentiation, growth, motility and apoptosis. In animals, GSK-3 associates with mitotic spindles and its inhibition causes mis-regulation of chromosome segregation. Two suppressor screens in yeast point to a more general effect of GSK-3 on cell division, however the direct role of GSK-3 in control of mitosis has not been explored outside the animal kingdom. Here we report that the Dictyostelium discoideum GSK-3 orthologue, GskA, associates with the mitotic spindle during cell division, as seen for its mammalian counterparts. Dictyostelium possesses only a single GSK-3 gene that can be deleted to eliminate all GSK-3 activity. We found that gskA-null mutants failed to elongate their mitotic spindle and were unable to divide in shaking culture, but have no chromosome segregation defect. These results suggest further conservation for the role of GSK-3 in the regulation of spindle dynamics during mitosis, but also reveal differences in the mechanisms ensuring accurate chromosome segregation.

  7. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Haploinsufficiency Mimics the Behavioral and Molecular Effects of Lithium

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, W. Timothy; Harper, Amber DeAra; Jové, Fernando; Woodgett, James R.; Maretto, Silvia; Piccolo, Stefano; Klein, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder, but its mechanism of action in this disorder is unknown. Several molecular targets of lithium have been identified, but these putative targets have not been shown to be responsible for the behavioral effects of lithium in vivo. A robust model for the effects of chronic lithium on behavior in mice would greatly facilitate the characterization of lithium action. We describe behaviors in mice that are robustly affected by chronic lithium. Remarkably, these lithium-sensitive behaviors are also observed in mice lacking one copy of the gene encoding glycogen synthase kinase-3β (Gsk-3β), a well established direct target of lithium. In addition, chronic lithium induces molecular changes consistent with inhibition of GSK-3 within regions of the brain that are paralleled in Gsk-3β+/− heterozygous mice. We also show that lithium therapy activates Wnt signaling in vivo, as measured by increased Wnt-dependent gene expression in the amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus. These observations support a central role for GSK-3β in mediating behavioral responses to lithium. PMID:15282284

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and cyclin D1 expression in cervical carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsoo; Lee, Myunghwa; Kim, Dae Woon; Hong, Seo Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is a pluripotent protein kinase involved in the development of cancers through regulation of numerous oncogenic molecules. Cyclin D1, an important regulator of G1 to S phase transition in various cells, is one of target proteins that GSK3β regulate. Our objective was to assess the expression of GSK3β and cyclin D1 in cervical neoplasm of different histologic grades and to identify their correlation in cervical carcinogenesis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of GSK3β and cyclin D1 was performed in a total of 137 patients with 12 normal, 62 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) (31 CIN1 and 31 CIN3) and 63 invasive cancers including 56 squamous cell carcinomas and 7 adenocarcinomas. Results The expression of GSK3β increased in parallel with the lesion grade, while that of cyclin D1 decreased with severity of the lesion (P<0.001). There was a significant inverse correlation between GSK3β and cyclin D1 expression in overall cervical neoplasia (Φ=-0.413, P<0.001). GSK3β expression was higher in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma (P=0.049). Conclusion These results suggest that the expressional increase in GSK3β plays a role in cervical carcinogenesis and has inverse correlation with cyclin D1 expression in this process. In addition, GSK3β expression appears to be associated with the histologic type of cervical cancer, especially squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27896249

  9. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-01-01

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts. PMID:27092510

  10. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 is an Intermediate Modulator of Serotonin Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Polter, Abigail M.; Li, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin is a neurotransmitter with broad functions in brain development, neuronal activity, and behaviors; and serotonin is the prominent drug target in several major neuropsychiatric diseases. The multiple actions of serotonin are mediated by diverse serotonin receptor subtypes and associated signaling pathways. However, the key signaling components that mediate specific function of serotonin neurotransmission have not been fully identified. This review will provide evidence from biochemical, pharmacological, and animal behavioral studies showing that serotonin regulates the activation states of brain glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) via type 1 and type 2 serotonin receptors. In return, GSK3 directly interacts with serotonin receptors in a highly selective manner, with a prominent effect on modulating serotonin 1B receptor activity. Therefore, GSK3 acts as an intermediate modulator in the serotonin neurotransmission system, and balanced GSK3 activity is essential for serotonin-regulated brain function and behaviors. Particularly important, several classes of serotonin-modulating drugs, such as antidepressants and atypical antipsychotics, regulate GSK3 by inhibiting its activity in brain, which reinforces the importance of GSK3 as a potential therapeutic target in neuropsychiatric diseases associated with abnormal serotonin function. PMID:22028682

  11. Identification of glycogen synthase kinase 3α as a therapeutic target in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Sharma, Arati; Gowda, Raghavendra; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Deregulated expression or activity of kinases can lead to melanomas, but often the particular kinase isoform causing the effect is not well established, making identification and validation of different isoforms regulating disease development especially important. To accomplish this objective, an siRNA screen was undertaken that which identified glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α) as an important melanoma growth regulator. Melanocytes and melanoma cell lines representing various stages of melanoma tumor progression expressed both GSK3α and GSK3β, but analysis of tumors in patients with melanoma showed elevated expression of GSK3α in 72% of samples, which was not observed for GSK3β. Furthermore, 80% of tumors in patients with melanoma expressed elevated levels of catalytically active phosphorylated GSK3α (pGSK3αY279), but not phosphorylated GSK3β (pGSK3βY216). siRNA-mediated reduction in GSK3α protein levels reduced melanoma cell survival and proliferation, sensitized cells to apoptosis-inducing agents and decreased xenografted tumor development by up to 56%. Mechanistically, inhibiting GSK3α expression using siRNA or the pharmacological agent AR-A014418 arrested melanoma cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and induced apoptotic death to retard tumorigenesis. Therefore, GSK3α is a key therapeutic target in melanoma. PMID:24034838

  12. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β promotes cyst expansion in polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shixin; Kakade, Vijayakumar; Woodgett, James; Pandey, Pankaj; Suderman, Erin; Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Rao, Reena

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic kidney diseases (PKDs) are inherited disorders characterized by the formation of fluid filled renal cysts. Elevated cAMP levels in PKDs stimulate progressive cyst enlargement involving cell proliferation and transepithelial fluid secretion often leading to end stage renal disease. The glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) family of protein kinases consists of GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms and plays a crucial role in multiple cellular signaling pathways. We previously found that GSK3β, a regulator of cell proliferation, is also crucial for cAMP generation and vasopressin mediated urine concentration by the kidneys. However, the role of GSK3β in the pathogenesis of PKDs is not known. Here we found that GSK3β expression and activity were markedly up-regulated and associated with cyst-lining epithelia in the kidneys of mice and humans with PKD. Renal collecting duct specific gene knockout of GSK3β or pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 effectively slowed the progression of PKD in mouse models of autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant PKD. GSK3 inactivation inhibited cAMP generation and cell proliferation resulting in reduced cyst expansion, improved renal function and extended lifespan. GSK3β inhibition also reduced pERK, c-Myc and Cyclin-D1, known mitogens in proliferation of cystic epithelial cells. Thus, GSK3β plays a novel functional role in PKD pathophysiology and its inhibition may be therapeutically useful to slow cyst expansion and progression of PKD. PMID:25629553

  13. Rapid Detection of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Activity in Mouse Sperm Using Fluorescent Gel Shift Electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoseok; Choi, Bomi; Seo, Ju Tae; Lee, Kyung Jin; Gye, Myung Chan; Kim, Young-Pil

    2016-04-16

    Assaying the glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) activity in sperm is of great importance because it is closely implicated in sperm motility and male infertility. While a number of studies on GSK3 activity have relied on labor-intensive immunoblotting to identify phosphorylated GSK3, here we report the simple and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in mouse sperm using conventional agarose gel electrophoresis and a fluorescent peptide substrate. When a dye-tethered and prephosphorylated (primed) peptide substrate for GSK3 was employed, a distinct mobility shift in the fluorescent bands on the agarose was observed by GSK3-induced phosphorylation of the primed peptides. The GSK3 activity in mouse testes and sperm were quantifiable by gel shift assay with low sample consumption and were significantly correlated with the expression levels of GSK3 and p-GSK3. We suggest that our assay can be used for reliable and rapid detection of GSK3 activity in cells and tissue extracts.

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibition promotes lysosomal biogenesis and autophagic degradation of the amyloid-β precursor protein.

    PubMed

    Parr, Callum; Carzaniga, Raffaela; Gentleman, Steve M; Van Leuven, Fred; Walter, Jochen; Sastre, Magdalena

    2012-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been associated with altered activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) isozymes, which are proposed to contribute to both neurofibrillary tangles and amyloid plaque formation. However, the molecular basis by which GSK3 affects the formation of Aβ remains unknown. Our aim was to identify the underlying mechanisms of GSK3-dependent effects on the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). For this purpose, N2a cells stably expressing APP carrying the Swedish mutation were treated with specific GSK3 inhibitors or transfected with GSK3α/β short interfering RNA. We show that inhibition of GSK3 leads to decreased expression of APP by enhancing its degradation via an increase in the number of lysosomes. This induction of the lysosomal/autophagy pathway was associated with nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis. Our data indicate that GSK3 inhibition reduces Aβ through an increase of the degradation of APP and its carboxy-terminal fragment (CTF) by activation of the lysosomal/autophagy pathway. These results suggest that an increased propensity toward autophagic/lysosomal alterations in AD patients could have consequences for neuronal function.

  15. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K) Signaling via Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (Gsk-3) Regulates DNA Methylation of Imprinted Loci*

    PubMed Central

    Popkie, Anthony P.; Zeidner, Leigh C.; Albrecht, Ashley M.; D'Ippolito, Anthony; Eckardt, Sigrid; Newsom, David E.; Groden, Joanna; Doble, Bradley W.; Aronow, Bruce; McLaughlin, K. John; White, Peter; Phiel, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) isoforms, Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β, are constitutively active, largely inhibitory kinases involved in signal transduction. Underscoring their biological significance, altered Gsk-3 activity has been implicated in diabetes, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Here, we demonstrate that deletion of both Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β in mouse embryonic stem cells results in reduced expression of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a2, causing misexpression of the imprinted genes Igf2, H19, and Igf2r and hypomethylation of their corresponding imprinted control regions. Treatment of wild-type embryonic stem cells and neural stem cells with the Gsk-3 inhibitor, lithium, phenocopies the DNA hypomethylation at these imprinted loci. We show that inhibition of Gsk-3 by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mediated activation of Akt also results in reduced DNA methylation at these imprinted loci. Finally, we find that N-Myc is a potent Gsk-3-dependent regulator of Dnmt3a2 expression. In summary, we have identified a signal transduction pathway that is capable of altering the DNA methylation of imprinted loci. PMID:21047779

  16. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    SciTech Connect

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-07-02

    The Apical Junctional Complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin.

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) influences epithelial barrier function by regulating Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression

    PubMed Central

    Severson, Eric A.; Kwon, Mike; Hilgarth, Roland S; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2010-01-01

    The apical junctional complex (AJC) encompassing the tight junction (TJ) and adherens junction (AJ) plays a pivotal role in regulating epithelial barrier function and epithelial cell proliferative processes through signaling events that remain poorly characterized. A potential regulator of AJC protein expression is Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3). GSK-3 is a constitutively active kinase that is repressed during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In the present study, we report that GSK-3 activity regulates the structure and function of the AJC in polarized model intestinal (SK-CO15) and kidney (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK)) epithelial cells. Reduction of GSK-3 activity, either by small molecule inhibitors or siRNA targeting GSK-3 alpha and beta mRNA, resulted in increased permeability to both ions and bulk solutes. Immunofluorescence labeling and immunoblot analyses revealed that the barrier defects correlated with decreased protein expression of AJC transmembrane proteins Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin without influencing other TJ proteins, Zonula Occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Junctional Adhesion Molecule A (JAM-A). The decrease in Occludin and E-cadherin protein expression correlated with downregulation of the corresponding mRNA levels for these respective proteins following GSK-3 inhibition. These observations implicate an important role of GSK-3 in the regulation of the structure and function of the AJC that is mediated by differential modulation of mRNA transcription of key AJC proteins, Occludin, Claudin-1 and E-cadherin. PMID:20617560

  18. Up-regulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 by ketamine requires glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Steven F; Cheng, Yuyan; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Jope, Richard S; Beurel, Eléonore

    2017-01-04

    An antidepressant dose of the rapidly-acting ketamine inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in mouse hippocampus, and this inhibition is required for the antidepressant effect of ketamine in learned helplessness depression-like behavior. Here we report that treatment with an antidepressant dose of ketamine (10mg/kg) increased expression of insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) in mouse hippocampus, an effect that required ketamine-induced inhibition of GSK3. Ketamine also inhibited hippocampal GSK3 and increased expression of hippocampal IGF2 in mice when administered after the induction of learned helplessness. Treatment with the specific GSK3 inhibitor L803-mts was sufficient to up-regulate hippocampal IGF2 expression. Administration of IGF2 siRNA reduced ketamine's antidepressant effect in the learned helplessness paradigm. Mice subjected to the learned helplessness paradigm were separated into two groups, those that were resilient (non-depressed) and those that were susceptible (depressed). Non-depressed resilient mice displayed higher expression of IGF2 than susceptible mice. These results indicate that IGF2 contributes to ketamine's antidepressant effect and that IGF2 may confer resilience to depression-like behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β in the nucleus accumbens core is critical for methamphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chun-Mei; Wang, Jun; Wu, Ping; Xue, Yan-Xue; Zhu, Wei-Li; Li, Qian-Qian; Zhai, Hai-Feng; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2011-07-01

    As a ubiquitous serine/threonine protein kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) has been considered to be important in the synaptic plasticity that underlies dopamine-related behaviors and diseases. We recently found that GSK-3β activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core is critically involved in cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization. The present study further explored the association between the changes in GSK-3β activity in the NAc and the chronic administration of methamphetamine. We also examined whether blocking GSK-3β activity in the NAc could alter the initiation and expression of methamphetamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced locomotor sensitization in rats using systemic administration of lithium chloride (LiCl, 100 mg/kg, i.p) and brain region-specific administration of the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 (1 ng/side). We found that GSK-3β activity increased in the NAc core, but not NAc shell, after chronic methamphetamine administration. The initiation and expression of methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization was attenuated by systemic administration of LiCl and direct infusion of SB216763 into the NAc core, but not NAc shell. These results indicate that GSK-3β activity in the NAc core mediates the initiation and expression of methamphetamine-induced locomotor sensitization, suggesting that GSK-3β may be a potential target for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction.

  20. Lithium Regulates Keratinocyte Proliferation Via Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 and NFAT2 (Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells 2)

    PubMed Central

    Hampton, Philip J; Jans, Ralph; Flockhart, Ross J; Parker, Graeme; Reynolds, Nick J

    2012-01-01

    Certain environmental factors including drugs exacerbate or precipitate psoriasis. Lithium is the commonest cause of drug-induced psoriasis but underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). As lithium does not exacerbate other T-cell-mediated chronic inflammatory diseases, we investigated whether lithium may be acting directly on epidermal keratinocytes by inhibiting GSK-3. We report that lithium-induced keratinocyte proliferation at therapeutically relevant doses (1–2 mM) and increased the proportion of cells in S phase of the cell cycle. Inhibition of GSK-3 in keratinocytes by retroviral transduction of GSK-binding protein (an endogenous inhibitory protein) or through a highly selective pharmacological inhibitor also resulted in increased keratinocyte proliferation. Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) is an important substrate for GSK-3 and for cyclosporin, an effective treatment for psoriasis that inhibits NFAT activation in keratinocytes as well as in lymphocytes. Both lithium and genetic/pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 resulted in increased nuclear localization of NFAT2 (NFATc1) and increased NFAT transcriptional activation. Finally, retroviral transduction of NFAT2 increased keratinocyte proliferation whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFAT2 reduced keratinocyte proliferation and decreased epidermal thickness in an organotypic skin equivalent model. Taken together, these data identify GSK-3 and NFAT2 as key regulators of keratinocyte proliferation and as potential molecular targets relevant to lithium-provoked psoriasis. J. Cell. Physiol. 227: 1529–1537, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21678407

  1. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by 3-anilino-4-phenylmaleimides: insights from 3D-QSAR and docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasanna, Sivaprakasam; Daga, Pankaj R.; Xie, Aihua; Doerksen, Robert J.

    2009-02-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3, a serine/threonine kinase, has been implicated in a wide variety of pathological conditions such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, stroke, bipolar disorder, malaria and cancer. Herein we report 3D-QSAR analyses using CoMFA and CoMSIA and molecular docking studies on 3-anilino-4-phenylmaleimides as GSK-3α inhibitors, in order to better understand the mechanism of action and structure-activity relationship of these compounds. Comparison of the active site residues of GSK-3α and GSK-3β isoforms shows that all the key amino acids involved in polar interactions with the maleimides for the β isoform are the same in the α isoform, except that Asp133 in the β isoform is replaced by Glu196 in the α isoform. We prepared a homology model for GSK-3α, and showed that the change from Asp to Glu should not affect maleimide binding significantly. Docking studies revealed the binding poses of three subclasses of these ligands, namely anilino, N-methylanilino and indoline derivatives, within the active site of the β isoform, and helped to explain the difference in their inhibitory activity.

  2. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta as a target for the therapy of shock and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Dugo, Laura; Collin, Marika; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2007-02-01

    After the discovery that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3beta plays a fundamental role in the regulation of the activity of nuclear factor kappaB, a number of studies have investigated the effects of this protein kinase in the regulation of the inflammatory process. The GSK-3beta inhibition, using genetically modified cells and chemically different pharmacological inhibitors, affects the regulation of various inflammatory mediators in vitro and in vivo. Insulin, an endogenous inhibitor of GSK-3 in the pathway leading to the regulation of glycogen synthase activity, has recently been clinically used in the therapy for septic shock. The beneficial anti-inflammatory effects of insulin in preclinical and clinical studies could possibly be due, at least in part, to the inhibition of GSK-3 and not directly correlated to the regulation of blood glucose. We describe the latest studies describing the effects of GSK-3 inhibition as potential target of the therapy for diseases associated with inflammation, ischemia/reperfusion, and shock.

  3. Enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3β activity mediates podocyte apoptosis under diabetic conditions.

    PubMed

    Paeng, Jisun; Chang, Jae Hyun; Lee, Sun Ha; Nam, Bo Young; Kang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seonghun; Oh, Hyung Jung; Park, Jung Tak; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kang, Shin-Wook

    2014-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is involved in the pathogenesis of various kidney diseases. This study was undertaken to examine the changes in GSK-3β activity in podocytes under diabetic conditions and to elucidate the functional role of GSK-3β in podocyte apoptosis. In vivo, 32 rats were injected with either diluent (n = 16, C) or with streptozotocin intraperitoneally (n = 16, DM), and 8 rats from each group were treated with 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO) for 3 months. In vitro, immortalized mouse podocytes were exposed to 5.6 mM glucose or 30 mM glucose (HG) with or without 10 μM BIO. Western blot analysis and TUNEL or Hoechst 33342 staining were performed to identify apoptosis. Urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher in DM rats, and this increase was significantly abrogated in DM rats by BIO treatment. The protein expression of Tyr216-phospho-GSK-3β was significantly increased in DM glomeruli and in cultured podocytes exposed to HG. Western blot analysis revealed that the protein expression of Bax and active fragments of caspase-3 were significantly increased, whereas phospho-Akt, β-catenin, and Bcl-2 protein expression were significantly decreased in DM glomeruli and HG-stimulated podocytes. Apoptosis, determined by TUNEL assay and Hoechst 33342 staining, was also significantly increased in podocytes under diabetic conditions. The changes in the expression of apoptosis-related molecules and the increase in the number of apoptotic cells in DM glomeruli as well as in HG-stimulated podocytes were significantly ameliorated by BIO. These findings suggest that enhanced GSK-3β activity within podocytes under diabetic conditions is associated with podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy.

  4. Loss of glycogen synthase kinase 3 isoforms during murine oocyte growth induces offspring cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Monteiro da Rocha, André; Ding, Jun; Slawny, Nicole; Wolf, Amber M; Smith, Gary D

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a constitutively active serine threonine kinase with 1) two isoforms (GSK3A and GSK3B) that have unique and overlapping functions, 2) multiple molecular intracellular mechanisms that involve phosphorylation of diverse substrates, and 3) implications in pathogenesis of many diseases. Insulin causes phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3 and mammalian oocytes have a functional insulin-signaling pathway whereby prolonged elevated insulin during follicle/oocyte development causes GSK3 hyperphosphorylation, reduced GSK3 activity, and altered oocyte chromatin remodeling. Periconceptional diabetes and chronic hyperinsulinemia are associated with congenital malformations and onset of adult diseases of cardiovascular origin. Objectives were to produce transgenic mice with individual or concomitant loss of GSK3A and/or GSK3B and investigate the in vivo role of oocyte GSK3 on fertility, fetal development, and offspring health. Wild-type males bred to females with individual or concomitant loss of oocyte GSK3 isoforms did not have reduced fertility. However, concomitant loss of GSK3A and GSK3B in the oocyte significantly increased neonatal death rate due to congestive heart failure secondary to ventricular hyperplasia. Individual loss of oocyte GSK3A or GSK3B did not induce this lethal phenotype. In conclusion, absence of oocyte GSK3 in the periconceptional period does not alter fertility yet causes offspring cardiac hyperplasia, cardiovascular defects, and significant neonatal death. These results support a developmental mechanism by which periconceptional hyperinsulinemia associated with maternal metabolic syndrome, obesity, and/or diabetes can act on the oocyte and affect offspring cardiovascular development, function, and congenital heart malformation.

  5. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates photic signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jodi R; McKeown, Alex S; Davis, Jennifer A; Totsch, Stacie K; Mintz, Eric M; Kraft, Timothy W; Cowell, Rita M; Gamble, Karen L

    2017-04-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine-threonine kinase that regulates mammalian circadian rhythms at the behavioral, molecular and neurophysiological levels. In the central circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3 exhibits a rhythm across the 24 h day. We have recently shown that GSK3 is capable of influencing both the molecular clock and SCN neuronal activity rhythms. However, it is not known whether GSK3 regulates the response to environmental cues such as light. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GSK3 activation mediates light-induced SCN excitability and photic entrainment. Immunofluorescence staining in the SCN of mice showed that late-night light exposure significantly increased GSK3 activity (decreased pGSK3β levels) 30-60 min after the light-pulse. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 blocked the expected light-induced excitability in SCN neurons; however, this effect was not associated with changes in resting membrane potential or input resistance. Behaviorally, mice with constitutively active GSK3 (GSK3-KI) re-entrained to a 6-h phase advance in the light-dark cycle in significantly fewer days than WT control animals. Furthermore, the behavioral and SCN neuronal activity of GSK3-KI mice was phase-advanced compared to WT, in both normal and light-exposed conditions. Finally, GSK3-KI mice exhibited normal negative-masking behavior and electroretinographic responses to light, suggesting that the enhanced photic entrainment is not due to an overall increased sensitivity to light in these animals. Taken together, these results provide strong evidence that GSK3 activation contributes to light-induced phase-resetting at both the neurophysiological and behavioral levels. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Disruption of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta activity leads to abnormalities in physiological measures in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahnaou, A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2011-08-01

    Dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3-beta (GSK-3β) signaling pathways is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of mood disorders. In order to demonstrate that the loss of normal GSK-3β activity results in disturbances of physiological measures, we attempted to determine whether sleep-wake architecture, circadian rhythms of core body temperature and activity were altered in transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity specifically in the brain. Cortical electroencephalographic activity, body temperature (BT) and body locomotor activity (LMA) were continuously monitored using a biopotential telemetry probe. Normal circadian patterns were maintained for different measurements in both genotypes. No differences were found in total time spent asleep and waking over the 24-h recording session. However, transgenic animals overexpressing GSK-3β showed alteration in sleep continuity characterized by an increases in number of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep episodes (GSK-3β, 227.2 ± 1.7 vs. WT, 172.6 ± 1.4, p < 0.05) and decreases in mean episode duration (GSK-3β, 3.0 ± 0.1 vs. WT, 4.4 ± 0.2, p < 0.05). Additionally, transgenic animals exhibited marked enhancement of basal LMA and BT levels during the first part of the dark period, under both light-dark and free running dark-dark circadian cycles. Our findings indicate that transgenic mice overexpressing GSK-3β activity exhibit severe fragmentation of sleep-wake cycle during both the light and dark periods, without showing deviancy in total durations of vigilance states. The results strongly suggest that GSK-3β activity is elemental for the maintenance of circadian motor behavior levels required for proper regulation of BT and sleep-wake organization.

  7. The Antimalarial Effect of Curcumin Is Mediated by the Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amatul Hamizah; Sudi, Suhaini; Basir, Rusliza; Embi, Noor; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin, a bioactive compound in Curcuma longa, exhibits various pharmacological activities, including antimalarial effects. In silico docking simulation studies suggest that curcumin possesses glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory properties. The involvement of GSK3 in the antimalarial effects in vivo is yet to be demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether the antimalarial effects of curcumin involve phosphorylation of host GSK3β. Intraperitoneal administration of curcumin into Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected mice resulted in dose-dependent chemosuppression of parasitemia development. At the highest dose tested (30 mg/kg body weight), both therapeutic and prophylactic administrations of curcumin resulted in suppression exceeding 50% and improved median survival time of infected mice compared to control. Western analysis revealed a 5.5-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.8-fold (prophylactic group) increase in phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β and 1.6-fold (therapeutic group) and 1.7-fold (prophylactic group) increase in Ser 473 Akt in liver of curcumin-treated infected animals. Following P. berghei infection, levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-10, and IL-4 were elevated by 7.5-, 35.0-, 33.0-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Curcumin treatment (therapeutic) caused a significant decrease (by 6.0- and 2.0-fold, respectively) in serum TNF-α and IFN-γ level, while IL-10 and IL-4 were elevated (by 1.4- and 1.8-fold). Findings from the present study demonstrate for the first time that the antimalarial action of curcumin involved inhibition of GSK3β.

  8. Identification and characterization of two wheat Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/ SHAGGY-like kinases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/ SHAGGY-like kinases (GSKs) have been implicated in numerous biological processes ranging from embryonic, flower, stomata development to stress and wound responses. They are key regulators of brassinosteroid signaling and are also involved in the cross-talk between auxin and brassinosteroid pathways. In contrast to the human genome that contains two genes, plant GSKs are encoded by a multigene family. Little is known about Liliopsida resp. Poaceae in comparison to Brassicaceae GSKs. Here, we report the identification and structural characterization of two GSK homologs named TaSK1 and TaSK2 in the hexaploid wheat genome as well as a widespread phylogenetic analysis of land plant GSKs. Results Genomic and cDNA sequence alignments as well as chromosome localization using nullisomic-tetrasomic lines provided strong evidence for three expressed gene copies located on homoeolog chromosomes for TaSK1 as well as for TaSK2. Predicted proteins displayed a clear GSK signature. In vitro kinase assays showed that TaSK1 and TaSK2 possessed kinase activity. A phylogenetic analysis of land plant GSKs indicated that TaSK1 and TaSK2 belong to clade II of plant GSKs, the Arabidopsis members of which are all involved in Brassinosteroid signaling. Based on a single ancestral gene in the last common ancestor of all land plants, paralogs were acquired and retained through paleopolyploidization events, resulting in six to eight genes in angiosperms. More recent duplication events have increased the number up to ten in some lineages. Conclusions To account for plant diversity in terms of functionality, morphology and development, attention has to be devoted to Liliopsida resp Poaceae GSKs in addition to Arabidopsis GSKs. In this study, molecular characterization, chromosome localization, kinase activity test and phylogenetic analysis (1) clarified the homologous/paralogous versus homoeologous status of TaSK sequences, (2) pointed out their

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in patients with bipolar I disorder: results from a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, Anne S; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Joaquim, Helena Gp; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Kessing, Lars V

    2016-06-01

    The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is involved in the mechanisms of action of lithium and may play a role in relation to affective states in bipolar disorder. The objectives of the present study were to compare the activity of GSK-3β (measured as levels of phosphorylated GSK-3β [p-GSK-3β]) between patients with bipolar disorder in the euthymic state and healthy control subjects, and to investigate whether GSK-3β activity varies with affective states in patients with bipolar I disorder. In a prospective 6-12-month follow-up study, we investigated state-specific, intraindividual alterations in the activity of GSK-3β in 60 patients with bipolar I disorder with an acute severe manic index episode and in subsequent euthymic, depressive and manic states and compared this with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From baseline to the end of follow-up, blood samples were drawn from the 60 patients during 181 affective states, comprising 60 manic, 11 mixed, 23 depressive, and 87 states of euthymia. A total of 69 blood samples were drawn from 35 healthy control subjects, with two samples from the same subject taken three months apart. In mixed-model analysis, p-GSK-3β was decreased in the euthymic state of subjects with bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects (b=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.96, P=.03). In addition, p-GSK-3β varied with affective states, being increased in depressive (b=1.68, 95% CI: 1.08-2.62, P=.02) and mixed (b=2.07, 95% CI: 1.12-3.84, P=.02) states but not in mania compared with euthymia. The activity of GSK-3β is altered in euthymic bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects and varies with affective states. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Genetic and Pharmacologic Targeting of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Reinforces the Nrf2 Antioxidant Defense against Podocytopathy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sijie; Wang, Pei; Qiao, Yingjin; Ge, Yan; Wang, Yingzi; Quan, Songxia; Yao, Ricky; Zhuang, Shougang; Wang, Li Juan; Du, Yong; Liu, Zhangsuo; Gong, Rujun

    2016-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)-dictated nuclear exclusion and degradation of Nrf2 is pivotal in switching off the self-protective antioxidant stress response after injury. Here, we examined the mechanisms underlying this regulation in glomerular disease. In primary podocytes, doxorubicin elicited cell death and actin cytoskeleton disorganization, concomitant with overactivation of GSK3β (the predominant GSK3 isoform expressed in glomerular podocytes) and minimal Nrf2 activation. SB216763, a highly selective small molecule inhibitor of GSK3, exerted a protective effect that depended on the potentiated Nrf2 antioxidant response, marked by increased Nrf2 expression and nuclear accumulation and augmented production of the Nrf2 target heme oxygenase-1. Ectopic expression of the kinase-dead mutant of GSK3β in cultured podocytes reinforced the doxorubicin-induced Nrf2 activation and prevented podocyte injury. Conversely, a constitutively active GSK3β mutant blunted the doxorubicin-induced Nrf2 response and exacerbated podocyte injury, which could be abolished by treatment with SB216763. In murine models of doxorubicin nephropathy or nephrotoxic serum nephritis, genetic targeting of GSK3β by doxycycline-inducible podocyte-specific knockout or pharmacologic targeting by SB216763 significantly attenuated albuminuria and ameliorated histologic signs of podocyte injury, including podocytopenia, loss of podocyte markers, podocyte de novo expression of desmin, and ultrastructural lesions of podocytopathy (such as foot process effacement). This beneficial outcome was likely attributable to an enhanced Nrf2 antioxidant response in glomerular podocytes because the selective Nrf2 antagonist trigonelline abolished the proteinuria-reducing and podocyte-protective effect. Collectively, our results suggest the GSK3β-regulated Nrf2 antioxidant response as a novel therapeutic target for protecting podocytes and treating proteinuric glomerulopathies.

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 is essential for β-arrestin-2 complex formation and lithium-sensitive behaviors in mice

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, W. Timothy; Huang, Jian; Buccafusca, Roberto; Garskof, Julie; Valvezan, Alexander J.; Berry, Gerard T.; Klein, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is the first-line therapy for bipolar disorder. However, its therapeutic target remains controversial. Candidates include inositol monophosphatases, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), and a β-arrestin-2/AKT/protein phosphatase 2A (β-arrestin-2/AKT/PP2A) complex that is known to be required for lithium-sensitive behaviors. Defining the direct target(s) is critical for the development of new therapies and for elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of this major psychiatric disorder. Here, we show what we believe to be a new link between GSK-3 and the β-arrestin-2 complex in mice and propose an integrated mechanism that accounts for the effects of lithium on multiple behaviors. GSK-3β (Gsk3b) overexpression reversed behavioral defects observed in lithium-treated mice and similar behaviors observed in Gsk3b+/– mice. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation of striatial tissue from WT mice revealed that lithium disrupted the β-arrestin-2/Akt/PP2A complex by directly inhibiting GSK-3. GSK-3 inhibitors or loss of one copy of the Gsk3b gene reduced β-arrestin-2/Akt/PP2A complex formation in mice, while overexpression of Gsk3b restored complex formation in lithium-treated mice. Thus, GSK-3 regulates the stability of the β-arrestin-2/Akt/PP2A complex, and lithium disrupts the complex through direct inhibition of GSK-3. We believe these findings reveal a new role for GSK-3 within the β-arrestin complex and demonstrate that GSK-3 is a critical target of lithium in mammalian behaviors. PMID:21821916

  12. Regulation of skeletal muscle plasticity by glycogen synthase kinase-3β: a potential target for the treatment of muscle wasting.

    PubMed

    Verhees, Koen J P; Pansters, Nicholas A M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Langen, Ramon C J

    2013-01-01

    Muscle wasting is a prevalent and disabling condition in chronic disease and cancer and has been associated with increased mortality and impaired efficacy of surgical and medical interventions. Pharmacological therapies to combat muscle wasting are currently limited but considered as an important unmet medical need. Muscle wasting has been attributed to increased muscle proteolysis, and in particular ubiquitin 26S-proteasome system (UPS)-dependent protein breakdown. However, rates of muscle protein synthesis are also subject to extensive (patho) physiological regulation, and the balance between synthesis and degradation ultimately determines net muscle protein turnover. As multinucleated muscle fibers accommodate threshold changes in muscle protein content by the accretion and loss of muscle nuclei, myonuclear turnover may additionally determine muscle mass. Current insights in the mechanisms dictating muscle mass plasticity not only reveal intricate interactions and crosstalk between these processes, but imply the existence of signaling molecules that act as molecular switchboards, which coordinate and integrate cellular responses upon conditions that evoke changes in muscle mass. These "master regulators" of skeletal muscle mass plasticity are preferred targets for pharmacological modulation of skeletal muscle wasting. In this review Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is highlighted as a master regulator of muscle mass plasticity since, in addition to its role in UPS-mediated muscle protein degradation, it also controls protein synthesis, and influences myonuclear accretion and cell death. Moreover, the regulation of GSK-3β activity as well as currently available pharmacological inhibitors are described and discussed in the context of multimodal treatment strategies aimed at the inhibition of GSK-3β, and optimal exploitation of its potential role as a central regulator of skeletal muscle mass plasticity for the treatment of muscle wasting.

  13. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta activity with lithium prevents and attenuates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Mei; Yan, Xisheng; Weng, Han-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Paclitaxel (taxol) is a first-line chemotherapy-drug used to treat many types of cancers. Neuropathic pain and sensory dysfunction are the major toxicities, which are dose-limiting and significantly reduce the quality of life in patients. Two known critical spinal mechanisms underlying taxol-induced neuropathic pain are an increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and suppressed glial glutamate transporter activities. In this study, we uncovered that increased activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3β) in the spinal dorsal horn was concurrently associated with increased protein expressions of GFAP, IL-1β and a decreased protein expression of glial glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), as well as the development and maintenance of taxol-induced neuropathic pain. The enhanced GSK3β activities were supported by the concurrently decreased AKT and mTOR activities. The changes of all these biomarkers were basically prevented when animals received pre-emptive lithium (a GSK3β inhibitor) treatment, which also prevented the development of taxol-induced neuropathic pain. Further, chronic lithium treatment, which began on day 11 after the first taxol injection, reversed the existing mechanical and thermal allodynia induced by taxol. The taxol-induced increased GSK3β activities and decreased AKT and mTOR activities in the spinal dorsal horn were also reversed by lithium. Meanwhile, protein expressions of GLT-1, GFAP and IL-1β in the spinal dorsal horn were improved. Hence, suppression of spinal GSK3β activities is a key mechanism used by lithium to reduce taxol-induced neuropathic pain, and targeting spinal GSK3β is an effective approach to ameliorate GLT-1 expression and suppress activation of astrocytes and IL-1β over-production in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:24070631

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3α regulates urine concentrating mechanism in mice.

    PubMed

    Nørregaard, Rikke; Tao, Shixin; Nilsson, Line; Woodgett, James R; Kakade, Vijayakumar; Yu, Alan S L; Howard, Christiana; Rao, Reena

    2015-03-15

    In mammals, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)3 comprises GSK3α and GSK3β isoforms. GSK3β has been shown to play a role in the ability of kidneys to concentrate urine by regulating vasopressin-mediated water permeability of collecting ducts, whereas the role of GSK3α has yet to be discerned. To investigate the role of GSK3α in urine concentration, we compared GSK3α knockout (GSK3αKO) mice with wild-type (WT) littermates. Under normal conditions, GSK3αKO mice had higher water intake and urine output. GSK3αKO mice also showed reduced urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 levels but higher urinary vasopressin. When water deprived, they failed to concentrate their urine to the same level as WT littermates. The addition of 1-desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin to isolated inner medullary collecting ducts increased the cAMP response in WT mice, but this response was reduced in GSK3αKO mice, suggesting reduced responsiveness to vasopressin. Gene silencing of GSK3α in mpkCCD cells also reduced forskolin-induced aquaporin-2 expression. When treated with LiCl, an isoform nonselective inhibitor of GSK3 and known inducer of polyuria, WT mice developed significant polyuria within 6 days. However, in GSK3αKO mice, the polyuric response was markedly reduced. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that GSK3α could play a crucial role in renal urine concentration and suggest that GSK3α might be one of the initial targets of Li(+) in LiCl-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  15. Anti-malarial Activities of Two Soil Actinomycete Isolates from Sabah via Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β

    PubMed Central

    Dahari, Dhiana Efani; Salleh, Raifana Mohamad; Mahmud, Fauze; Chin, Lee Ping; Embi, Noor; Sidek, Hasidah Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting natural resources for bioactive compounds is an attractive drug discovery strategy in search for new anti-malarial drugs with novel modes of action. Initial screening efforts in our laboratory revealed two preparations of soil-derived actinomycetes (H11809 and FH025) with potent anti-malarial activities. Both crude extracts showed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory activities in a yeast-based kinase assay. We have previously shown that the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), was able to suppress parasitaemia development in a rodent model of malarial infection. The present study aims to evaluate whether anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 involve the inhibition of GSK3β. The acetone crude extracts of H11809 and FH025 each exerted strong inhibition on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.57 ± 0.09 and 1.28 ± 0.11 µg/mL, respectively. The tested extracts exhibited Selectivity Index (SI) values exceeding 10 for the 3D7 strain. Both H11809 and FH025 showed dosage-dependent chemo-suppressive activities in vivo and improved animal survivability compared to non-treated infected mice. Western analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of serine (Ser 9) GSK3β (by 6.79 to 6.83-fold) in liver samples from infected mice treated with H11809 or FH025 compared to samples from non-infected or non-treated infected mice. A compound already identified in H11809 (data not shown), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed active anti-plasmodial activity against 3D7 (IC50 4.87 ± 1.26 µg/mL which is equivalent to 17.50 µM) and good chemo-suppressive activity in vivo (60.80% chemo-suppression at 300 mg/kg body weight [bw] dosage). DBP administration also resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β compared to controls. Findings from the present study demonstrate that the potent anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 were mediated via inhibition of host GSK3β. In addition

  16. An acute increase in fructose concentration increases hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase mRNA via mechanisms that are independent of glycogen synthase kinase-3 in rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuren; Bizeau, Michael E; Pagliassotti, Michael J

    2004-03-01

    It appears that low amounts of fructose improve, whereas increased concentrations impair glucose tolerance and hepatic glucose metabolism. In this study, we compared directly the effects of low vs. high portal vein fructose concentrations on hepatic glucose metabolism in rats, using glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression as an endpoint. In the control group (C; n = 7), pancreatic clamps were performed using somatostatin and replacement of insulin such that basal glucose levels were maintained. In the experimental groups (n = 8/group), hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic pancreatic clamps were performed in which glucose (G) or glucose + fructose was infused into a jejunal vein. Fructose was infused to achieve either low (F1; <0.3 mmol/L) or high (F2; >1.0 mmol/L) portal vein concentrations. Total sugar load to the liver was equalized among the 3 experimental groups. Compared with C, liver glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit mRNA was reduced by approximately 55% in G and F1, whereas it was increased approximately 180% in F2. F2 did not differentially affect glucose-6-phosphate translocase or phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels in liver, nor kidney glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit mRNA. Livers from the F2 group were characterized by an accumulation of pentose phosphate intermediates and reduced phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (active form). However, in separate studies (n = 5/group), the infusion of a glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor did not prevent the effects of F2 on glucose-6-phosphatase gene expression. We hypothesize that elevated fructose concentrations, similar to levels achieved after ingestion of sucrose- or fructose-enriched meals, initiate signals within the liver that elicit selective changes in hepatic gene expression.

  17. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β regulates leucine-309 demethylation of protein phosphatase-2A via PPMT1 and PME-1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiu-Qing; Li, Xia-Chun; Zhang, Xiao-Xue; Yin, Yang-Yang; Liu, Bin; Luo, Dan-Ju; Wang, Qun; Wang, Jian-Zhi; Liu, Gong-Ping

    2012-07-30

    Protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) activity is significantly suppressed in Alzheimer's disease. We have reported that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) inhibits PP2A via upregulating the phosphorylation of PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2A(C)). Here we studied the effects of GSK-3β on the inhibitory demethylation of PP2A at leucine-309 (dmL309-PP2A(C)). We found that GSK-3β regulates dmL309-PP2A(C) level by regulating PME-1 and PPMT1. Knockdown of PME-1 or PPMT1 eliminated the effects of GSK-3β on PP2A(C). GSK-3 could negatively regulate PP2A regulatory subunit protein level. We conclude that GSK-3β can inhibit PP2A by increasing the inhibitory L309-demethylation involving upregulation of PME-1 and inhibition of PPMT1.

  18. Cyclin-Dependent kinase 5 targeting prevents β-Amyloid aggregation involving glycogen synthase kinase 3β and phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alvarez, John Fredy; Uribe-Arias, Alejandro; Cardona-Gómez, Gloria Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Inappropriate activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) resulting from proteolytic release of the activator fragment p25 from the membrane contributes to the formation of neurofibrillary tangles, β-amyloid (βA) aggregation, and chronic neurodegeneration. At 18 months of age, 3× Tg-AD mice were sacrificed after either 3 weeks (short term) or 1 year (long term) of CDK5 knockdown. In short-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown reversed βA aggregation in the hippocampi via inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β Ser9 and activation of phosphatase PP2A. In long-term-treated animals, CDK5 knockdown induced a persistent reduction in CDK5 and prevented βA aggregation, but the effect on amyloid precursor protein processing was reduced, suggesting that yearly booster therapy would be required. These findings further validate CDK5 as a target for preventing or blocking amyloidosis in older transgenic mice.

  19. Inhibitors of specific ceramide synthases.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, Susanne; Hartmann, Daniela; Fuchs, Sina; Birod, Kerstin; Ferreiròs, Nerea; Schreiber, Yannick; Zivkovic, Aleksandra; Geisslinger, Gerd; Grösch, Sabine; Stark, Holger

    2012-02-01

    Ceramide synthases (CerSs) are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of ceramides and display a group of at least six different isoenzymes (CerS1-6). Ceramides itself are bioactive molecules. Ceramides with different N-acyl side chains (C(14:0)-Cer - C(26:0)-Cer) possess distinct roles in cell signaling. Therefore, the selective inhibition of specific CerSs which are responsible for the formation of a specific ceramide holds promise for a number of new clinical treatment strategies, e.g., cancer. Here, we identified four of hitherto unknown functional inhibitors of CerSs derived from the FTY720 (Fingolimod) lead structure and showed their inhibitory effectiveness by two in vitro CerS activity assays. Additionally, we tested the substances in two cell lines (HCT-116 and HeLa) with different ceramide patterns. In summary, the in vitro activity assays revealed out that ST1058 and ST1074 preferentially inhibit CerS2 and CerS4, while ST1072 inhibits most potently CerS4 and CerS6. Importantly, ST1060 inhibits predominately CerS2. First structure-activity relationships and the potential biological impact of these compounds are discussed.

  20. Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity.

    PubMed

    Valvezan, Alexander J; Zhang, Fang; Diehl, J Alan; Klein, Peter S

    2012-02-03

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is essential for many signaling pathways and cellular processes. As Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) functions in many of the same processes, we investigated a role for APC in the regulation of GSK-3-dependent signaling. We find that APC directly enhances GSK-3 activity. Furthermore, knockdown of APC mimics inhibition of GSK-3 by reducing phosphorylation of glycogen synthase and by activating mTOR, revealing novel roles for APC in the regulation of these enzymes. Wnt signaling inhibits GSK-3 through an unknown mechanism, and this results in both stabilization of β-catenin and activation of mTOR. We therefore hypothesized that Wnts may regulate GSK-3 by disrupting the interaction between APC and the Axin-GSK-3 complex. We find that Wnts rapidly induce APC dissociation from Axin, correlating with β-catenin stabilization. Furthermore, Axin interaction with the Wnt co-receptor LRP6 causes APC dissociation from Axin. We propose that APC regulates multiple signaling pathways by enhancing GSK-3 activity, and that Wnts induce APC dissociation from Axin to reduce GSK-3 activity and activate downstream signaling. APC regulation of GSK-3 also provides a novel mechanism for Wnt regulation of multiple downstream effectors, including β-catenin and mTOR.

  1. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 and transforming growth factor-β signaling to promote epithelial transition of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Melina; Tan, Xiao-Wei; Goh, Tze-Wei; Hin-Fai Yam, Gary; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2017-09-02

    This study was aimed to investigate the epithelial differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. STEMPRO human ADSCs at passage 2 were treated with CHIR99021 (GSK3 inhibitor), E-616452 (TGFβ1 receptor kinase inhibitor), A-83-01 (TGFβ type 1 receptor inhibitor), valproic acid (histone deacetylase inhibitor), tranylcypromine (monoamine oxidase inhibitor) and all-trans retinoic acid for 72 h. The mesenchymal-epithelial transition was shown by down-regulation of mesenchymal genes (Slug, Zinc Finger E-box Binding Homeobox 1 ZEB1, integrin α5 ITGA5 and vimentin VIM) and up-regulation of epithelial genes (E-cadherin, Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule EpCAM, Zonula Occludens-1 ZO-1, occludin, deltaN p63 δNp63, Transcription Factor 4 TCF4 and Twist Family bHLH Transcription Factor TWIST), compared to untreated ADSCs. Cell morphology and stress fiber pattern were examined and the treated cells became less migratory in scratch wound closure assay. The formation of cell junction complexes was observed under transmission electron microscopy. Global gene expression using GeneChip(®) Human Genome U133 Array (Affymetrix) showed that the treatment up-regulated 540 genes (containing genes for cell cycle, cytoskeleton reorganization, chemotaxis, epithelium development and regulation of cell migration) and down-regulated 483 genes. Human ADSCs were transited to epithelial lineage by inhibiting GSK3 and TGFβ signaling. It can be an adult stem cell source for epithelial cell-based therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Trypanosoma brucei Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3, A Target for Anti-Trypanosomal Drug Development: A Public-Private Partnership to Identify Novel Leads

    PubMed Central

    Oduor, Richard O.; Ojo, Kayode K.; Williams, Gareth P.; Bertelli, Francois; Mills, James; Maes, Louis; Pryde, David C.; Parkinson, Tanya; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Holler, Tod P.

    2011-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), expresses two proteins with homology to human glycogen synthase kinase 3β (HsGSK-3) designated TbruGSK-3 short and TbruGSK-3 long. TbruGSK-3 short has previously been validated as a potential drug target and since this enzyme has also been pursued as a human drug target, a large number of inhibitors are available for screening against the parasite enzyme. A collaborative industrial/academic partnership facilitated by the World Health Organisation Tropical Diseases Research division (WHO TDR) was initiated to stimulate research aimed at identifying new drugs for treating HAT. Methodology/Principal Findings A subset of over 16,000 inhibitors of HsGSK-3 β from the Pfizer compound collection was screened against the shorter of two orthologues of TbruGSK-3. The resulting active compounds were tested for selectivity versus HsGSK-3β and a panel of human kinases, as well as in vitro anti-trypanosomal activity. Structural analysis of the human and trypanosomal enzymes was also performed. Conclusions/Significance We identified potent and selective compounds representing potential attractive starting points for a drug discovery program. Structural analysis of the human and trypanosomal enzymes also revealed hypotheses for further improving selectivity of the compounds. PMID:21483717

  3. Maintained activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} despite of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in okadaic acid-induced neurodegenerative model

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Yong-Whan; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Choi, Jung-Eun; Kim, Sang-Min; Lee, Hui-Sun; Choe, Han; Lee, Seung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2010-04-30

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) is recognized as one of major kinases to phosphorylate tau in Alzheimer's disease (AD), thus lots of AD drug discoveries target GSK3{beta}. However, the inactive form of GSK3{beta} which is phosphorylated at serine-9 is increased in AD brains. This is also inconsistent with phosphorylation status of other GSK3{beta} substrates, such as {beta}-catenin and collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) since their phosphorylation is all increased in AD brains. Thus, we addressed this paradoxical condition of AD in rat neurons treated with okadaic acid (OA) which inhibits protein phosphatase-2A (PP2A) and induces tau hyperphosphorylation and cell death. Interestingly, OA also induces phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at serine-9 and other substrates including tau, {beta}-catenin and CRMP2 like in AD brains. In this context, we observed that GSK3{beta} inhibitors such as lithium chloride and 6-bromoindirubin-3'-monoxime (6-BIO) reversed those phosphorylation events and protected neurons. These data suggest that GSK3{beta} may still have its kinase activity despite increase of its phosphorylation at serine-9 in AD brains at least in PP2A-compromised conditions and that GSK3{beta} inhibitors could be a valuable drug candidate in AD.

  4. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inactivation and stabilization of beta-catenin induce nephron differentiation in isolated mouse and rat kidney mesenchymes.

    PubMed

    Kuure, Satu; Popsueva, Anna; Jakobson, Madis; Sainio, Kirsi; Sariola, Hannu

    2007-04-01

    Wnt proteins are required for induction of nephrons in mouse metanephric kidneys, but the downstream pathways that mediate tubule induction and epithelial differentiation have remained obscure. The intracellular mechanisms by which Wnt signaling mediates nephron induction in embryonic kidney mesenchymes were studied. First is shown that transient exposure of isolated kidney mesenchymes to structurally different glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) inhibitors lithium or 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime results in abundant epithelial differentiation and full segregation of nephrons. Shown further by mice with genetically disrupted ureteric bud or Wolffian duct development is that this nephrogenic competence arises independent of the influence of Wolffian duct-derived epithelia. Analysis of the intracellular signaling cascades downstream of GSK3 inhibition revealed stabilization of beta-catenin and upregulation of Lef1 and Tcf1, both events that are associated with the active canonical Wnt signaling. Last, genetic evidence that metanephric mesenchyme-specific stabilization of beta-catenin is sufficient to induce nephron differentiation in isolated kidney mesenchymes, similar to that induced by GSK3 inhibitors, is provided. These data show that activation of canonical Wnt pathway is sufficient to induce nephrogenesis and suggest that this pathway mediates the nephron induction in murine kidney mesenchymes.

  5. Discovery, synthesis, and characterization of an orally bioavailable, brain penetrant inhibitor of mixed lineage kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Val S; Loweth, Colin J; Ravula, Satheesh B; Wiemann, Torsten; Nguyen, Thong; Xu, Yang; Todd, Daniel E; Sheppard, David; Pollack, Scott; Polesskaya, Oksana; Marker, Daniel F; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A

    2013-10-24

    Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a potential strategy for treatment of Parkinson's disease and HIV-1 associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), requiring an inhibitor that can achieve significant brain concentration levels. We report here URMC-099 (1) an orally bioavailable (F = 41%), potent (IC50 = 14 nM) MLK3 inhibitor with excellent brain exposure in mouse PK models and minimal interference with key human CYP450 enzymes or hERG channels. The compound inhibits LPS-induced TNFα release in microglial cells, HIV-1 Tat-induced release of cytokines in human monocytes and up-regulation of phospho-JNK in Tat-injected brains of mice. Compound 1 likely functions in HAND preclinical models by inhibiting multiple kinase pathways, including MLK3 and LRRK2 (IC50 = 11 nM). We compare the kinase specificity and BBB penetration of 1 with CEP-1347 (2). Compound 1 is well tolerated, with excellent in vivo activity in HAND models, and is under investigation for further development.

  6. Discovery, Synthesis and Characterization of an Orally Bioavailable, Brain Penetrant Inhibitor of Mixed Lineage Kinase 3

    PubMed Central

    Goodfellow, Val S.; Loweth, Colin J.; Ravula, Satheesh B.; Wiemann, Torsten; Nguyen, Thong; Xu, Yang; Todd, Daniel E.; Sheppard, David; Pollack, Scott; Polesskaya, Oksana; Marker, Daniel F.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3) is a potential strategy for treatment of Parkinson’s Disease and HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND), requiring an inhibitor that can achieve significant brain concentration levels. We report here URMC-099 (1) an orally bioavailable (F = 41%), potent (IC50 = 14 nM) MLK3 inhibitor with excellent brain exposure in mouse PK models and minimal interference with key human CYP450 enzymes or hERG channels. The compound inhibits LPS-induced TNFα release in microglial cells, HIV-1 Tat-induced release of cytokines in human monocytes, and up-regulation of phospho-JNK in Tat-injected brains of mice. Compound 1 likely functions in HAND preclinical models by inhibiting multiple kinase pathways, including MLK3 and LRRK2 (IC50 = 11 nM). We compare the kinase specificity and BBB penetration of 1 with CEP-1347 (2). Compound 1 is well tolerated, with excellent in vivo activity in HAND models, and is under investigation for further development. PMID:24044867

  7. Unfolded protein response activates glycogen synthase kinase-3 via selective lysosomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Nijholt, Diana A T; Nölle, Anna; van Haastert, Elise S; Edelijn, Hessel; Toonen, Ruud F; Hoozemans, Jeroen J M; Scheper, Wiep

    2013-07-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response that is activated upon disturbed homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum. In Alzheimer's disease, as well as in other tauopathies, the UPR is activated in neurons that contain early tau pathology. A recent genome-wide association study identified genetic variation in a UPR transducer as a risk factor for tauopathy, supporting a functional connection between UPR activation and tau pathology. Here we show that UPR activation increases the activity of the major tau kinase glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 in vitro via a selective removal of inactive GSK-3 phosphorylated at Ser(21/9). We demonstrate that this is mediated by the autophagy/lysosomal pathway. In brain tissue from patients with different tauopathies, lysosomal accumulations of pSer(21/9) GSK-3 are found in neurons with markers for UPR activation. Our data indicate that UPR activation increases the activity of GSK-3 by a novel mechanism, the lysosomal degradation of the inactive pSer(21/9) GSK-3. This may provide a functional explanation for the close association between UPR activation and early tau pathology in neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is a pivotal mediator of cancer invasion and resistance to therapy.

    PubMed

    Domoto, Takahiro; Pyko, Ilya V; Furuta, Takuya; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Uehara, Masahiro; Shimasaki, Takeo; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Minamoto, Toshinari

    2016-10-01

    Tumor cell invasion and resistance to therapy are the most intractable biological characteristics of cancer and, therefore, the most challenging for current cancer research and treatment paradigms. Refractory cancers, including pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma, show an inextricable association between the highly invasive behavior of tumor cells and their resistance to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies. These aggressive properties of cancer share distinct cellular pathways that are connected to each other by several molecular hubs. There is increasing evidence to show that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β is aberrantly activated in various cancer types and this has emerged as a potential therapeutic target. In many but not all cancer types, aberrant GSK3β sustains the survival, immortalization, proliferation and invasion of tumor cells, while also rendering them insensitive or resistant to chemotherapeutic agents and radiation. Here we review studies that describe associations between therapeutic stimuli/resistance and the induction of pro-invasive phenotypes in various cancer types. Such cancers are largely responsive to treatment that targets GSK3β. This review focuses on the role of GSK3β as a molecular hub that connects pathways responsible for tumor invasion and resistance to therapy, thus highlighting its potential as a major cancer therapeutic target. We also discuss the putative involvement of GSK3β in determining tumor cell stemness that underpins both tumor invasion and therapy resistance, leading to intractable and refractory cancer with dismal patient outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β modulation of glucocorticoid responsiveness in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Roland F.; Durham, Andrew L.; Marwick, John A.; Brandenburg, Simone M.; de Bruin, Harold G.; Jonker, Marnix R.; Rossios, Christos; Tsitsiou, Eleni; Caramori, Gaetano; Contoli, Marco; Casolari, Paolo; Monaco, Francesco; Andò, Filippo; Speciale, Giuseppe; Kilty, Iain; Chung, Kian F.; Papi, Alberto; Lindsay, Mark A.; ten Hacken, Nick H. T.; van den Berge, Maarten; Timens, Wim; Barnes, Peter J.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J.; Kirkham, Paul A.; Heijink, Irene H.

    2015-01-01

    In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), oxidative stress regulates the inflammatory response of bronchial epithelium and monocytes/macrophages through kinase modulation and has been linked to glucocorticoid unresponsiveness. Glycogen synthase-3β (GSK3β) inactivation plays a key role in mediating signaling processes upon reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure. We hypothesized that GSK3β is involved in oxidative stress-induced glucocorticoid insensitivity in COPD. We studied levels of phospho-GSK3β-Ser9, a marker of GSK3β inactivation, in lung sections and cultured monocytes and bronchial epithelial cells of COPD patients, control smokers, and nonsmokers. We observed increased levels of phospho-GSK3β-Ser9 in monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial epithelial cells from COPD patients and control smokers compared with nonsmokers. Pharmacological inactivation of GSK3β did not affect CXCL8 or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) expression but resulted in glucocorticoid insensitivity in vitro in both inflammatory and structural cells. Further mechanistic studies in monocyte and bronchial epithelial cell lines showed that GSK3β inactivation is a common effector of oxidative stress-induced activation of the MEK/ERK-1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways leading to glucocorticoid unresponsiveness. In primary monocytes, the mechanism involved modulation of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) activity in response to GSK3β inactivation. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that ROS-induced glucocorticoid unresponsiveness in COPD is mediated through GSK3β, acting as a ROS-sensitive hub. PMID:26320152

  10. Lithium Enhances Axonal Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huanxing; Yuan, Qiuju; Qin, Dajiang; Yang, Xiaoying; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN) is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3β activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3β in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3β activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3β inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS. PMID:24967390

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3: a new therapeutic target in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bilim, V; Ougolkov, A; Yuuki, K; Naito, S; Kawazoe, H; Muto, A; Oya, M; Billadeau, D; Motoyama, T; Tomita, Y

    2009-01-01

    Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is highly resistant to chemotherapy because of a high apoptotic threshold. Recent evidences suggest that GSK-3β positively regulates human pancreatic cancer and leukaemia cell survival in part through regulation of nuclear factor (NF-κB)-mediated expression of anti-apoptotic molecules. Our objectives were to determine the expression pattern of GSK-3β and to assess the anti-cancer effect of GSK-3β inhibition in RCC. Methods: Immunohistochemistry and nuclear/cytosolic fractionation were performed to determine the expression pattern of GSK-3β in human RCCs. We used small molecule inhibitor, RNA interference, western blotting, quantitative RT–PCR, BrDU incorporation and MTS assays to study the effect of GSK-3β inactivation on renal cancer cell proliferation and survival. Results: We detected aberrant nuclear accumulation of GSK-3β in RCC cell lines and in 68 out of 74 (91.89%) human RCCs. We found that pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 led to a decrease in proliferation and survival of renal cancer cells. We observed that inhibition of GSK-3 results in decreased expression of NF-κB target genes Bcl-2 and XIAP and a subsequent increase in renal cancer cell apoptosis. Moreover, we show that GSK-3 inhibitor and Docetaxel synergistically suppress proliferation and survival of renal cancer cells. Conclusions: Our results show nuclear accumulation of GSK-3β as a new marker of human RCC, identify that GSK-3 positively regulates RCC cell survival and proliferation and suggest inhibition of GSK-3 as a new promising approach in the treatment of human renal cancer. PMID:19920820

  12. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and Nuclear Factor Kappa-B (NFKB) in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Tovar, Cristian Fabian Layton; Zerón, Hugo Mendieta; Romero, Maria Del Socorro Camarillo; Sánchez, Yanko V Fabila; Romero, Isidoro Tejocote

    2016-01-01

    Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most common hematologic malignancy in early childhood. In children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the activity of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-3β) has been associated with changes in the transcriptional activity and expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) in the mononuclear cells of bone marrow. The aim of the study was to determine the possible role of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3β) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NFKB) as prognostic variables in pediatric patients with ALL. This was a descriptive, transversal, and observational study. Bone marrow and blood samples were obtained from 30 children with newly-diagnosed ALL, who were seen at the Hematology-Oncology Service, Hospital para el Niño (HPN), Toluca, Mexico, from 2014‒2015. Anthropometric variables, clinical lab results, immunophenotype and cytogenetic abnormalities were registered. GSK-3β was evaluated through immunohistochemistry, and NFKB messenger RNA (mRNA) with real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The cases of ALL were classified into two groups of risk: high and habitual. Thirty patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 7.1 years (range 2‒13 years). Twenty-one were male and 9 female. Employing the morphological classification, 26 patients had type L1 ALL and the remaining 4 patients had type L2 ALL. Abnormal genes were found in 7 (23.33%) patients, ETV-RUNX1 in 3, followed by TCF3-PBX1 (two), STL1-TAL1 (one), and BCR-ABL1 (one). NFKB relative expression levels, in comparison to the GSK-3β immunohistochemistry results of the bone marrow samples, showed significant differences between positive and negative cases (p = 0.001) and between weak-positive and negative cases (p = 0.002). These results suggest that GSK-3β may be a prognostic biomarker in childhood ALL.

  13. Evidence for Irreversible Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β by Tideglusib*

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Fuertes, Ana; Orozco, Leyre; del Monte-Millán, María; Delgado, Elena; Medina, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Tideglusib is a GSK-3 inhibitor currently in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and progressive supranuclear palsy. Sustained oral administration of the compound to a variety of animal models decreases Tau hyperphosphorylation, lowers brain amyloid plaque load, improves learning and memory, and prevents neuronal loss. We report here that tideglusib inhibits GSK-3β irreversibly, as demonstrated by the lack of recovery in enzyme function after the unbound drug has been removed from the reaction medium and the fact that its dissociation rate constant is non-significantly different from zero. Such irreversibility may explain the non-competitive inhibition pattern with respect to ATP shown by tideglusib and perhaps other structurally related compounds. The replacement of Cys-199 by an Ala residue in the enzyme seems to increase the dissociation rate, although the drug retains its inhibitory activity with decreased potency and long residence time. In addition, tideglusib failed to inhibit a series of kinases that contain a Cys homologous to Cys-199 in their active site, suggesting that its inhibition of GSK-3β obeys to a specific mechanism and is not a consequence of nonspecific reactivity. Results obtained with [35S]tideglusib do not support unequivocally the existence of a covalent bond between the drug and GSK-3β. The irreversibility of the inhibition and the very low protein turnover rate observed for the enzyme are particularly relevant from a pharmacological perspective and could have significant implications on its therapeutic potential. PMID:22102280

  14. Association of cellular localization of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in the digestive tract with cancer development.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Shibata, Kenichiro; Sekine, Ichiro

    2009-09-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta) is a multifunctional serine/threonine kinase involved in several signaling pathways. Recently, we reported the polarized localization of GSK-3beta on the apical membrane of normal colon epithelium. To investigate the functions of this molecule, we studied stomach and colorectal cancer tissues. In normal simple columnar epithelium, GSK-3beta was localized with tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 in a single line at the apical cell border. GSK-3beta and ZO-1 were localized in the apical regions of tubular adenocarcinoma, similar to their localization in normal epithelium; however, their localization was different at the invasive front of the cancer and was found to be associated with lymphatic invasion. In signet-ring cell carcinoma of the stomach, the expression of these proteins was reduced and dot-like expression was observed in each cell of the signet-ring cell carcinoma. We speculated that GSK-3beta is involved in glandular structure formation and that the non-apical localization of membrane-localized GSK-3beta in tubular adenocarcinoma is associated with cancer development.

  15. Regulation of autophagic cell death by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in adult hippocampal neural stem cells following insulin withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Ha, Shinwon; Ryu, Hye Young; Chung, Kyung Min; Baek, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Yu, Seong-Woon

    2015-05-19

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) hold great potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, programmed cell death (PCD) provoked by the harsh conditions evident in the diseased brain greatly undermines the potential of NSCs. Currently, the mechanisms of PCD that effect NSCs remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells derived from the adult rat brain undergo autopahgic cell death (ACD) following insulin withdrawal without hallmarks of apoptosis despite their normal apoptotic capabilities. In this study, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) induces ACD in insulin-deprived HCN cells. Both pharmacological and genetic inactivation of GSK-3β significantly decreased ACD, while activation of GSK-3β increased autophagic flux and caused more cell death without inducing apoptosis following insulin withdrawal. In contrast, knockdown of GSK-3α barely affected ACD, lending further support to the critical role of GSK-3β. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GSK-3β is a key regulator of ACD in HCN cells following insulin withdrawal. The absence of apoptotic indices in GSK-3β-induced cell death in insulin-deprived HCN cells corroborates the notion that HCN cell death following insulin withdrawal represents the genuine model of ACD in apoptosis-intact mammalian cells and identifies GSK-3β as a key negative effector of NSC survival downstream of insulin signaling.

  16. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 influences cell motility and chemotaxis by regulating PI3K membrane localization in Dictyostelium.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tong; Kim, Bohye; Kim, Lou W

    2013-10-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is a multifunctional kinase involved in diverse cellular activities such as metabolism, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Recent studies showed that GSK3 in Dictyostelium affects chemotaxis via TorC2 pathway and Daydreamer. Now we report that GSK3 affects PI3K membrane localization, of which the mechanism has remained to be fully understood in Dictyostelium. The membrane localization domain (LD) of Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase 1 (PI3K1) is phosphorylated on serine residues in a GSK3 dependent mechanism and PI3K1-LD exhibited biased membrane localization in gsk3(-) cells compared to the wild type cells. Furthermore, multiple GSK3-phosphorylation consensus sites exist in PI3K1-LD, of which phosphomimetic substitutions restored cAMP induced transient membrane localization of PI3K1-LD in gsk3(-) cells. Serine to alanine substitution mutants of PI3K1-LD, in contrast, displayed constitutive membrane localization in wild type cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation of PI3K1-LD is constitutive during the course of cAMP stimulation. Together, these data suggest that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for chemoattractant cAMP induced PI3K membrane localization.

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 influences cell motility and chemotaxis by regulating PI3K membrane localization in Dictyostelium

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tong; Kim, Bohye; Kim, Lou W.

    2013-01-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is a multifunctional kinase involved in diverse cellular activities such as metabolism, differentiation, and morphogenesis. Recent studies showed that GSK3 in Dictyostelium affects chemotaxis via TorC2 pathway and Daydreamer. Now we report that GSK3 affects PI3K membrane localization, of which mechanism has remained to be fully understood in Dictyostelium. The membrane localization domain (LD) of Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase 1 (PI3K1) is phosphorylated on serine residues in a GSK3 dependent mechanism and PI3K1-LD exhibited biased membrane localization in gsk3− cells compared to the wild type cells. Furthermore, multiple GSK3-phosphorylation consensus sites exist in PI3K1-LD, of which phosphomimetic substitutions restored cAMP induced transient membrane localization of PI3K1-LD in gsk3− cells. Serine to alanine substitution mutants of PI3K1-LD, in contrast, displayed constitutive membrane localization in wild type cells. Biochemical analysis revealed that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation of PI3K1-LD is constitutive during the course of cAMP stimulation. Together, these data suggest that GSK3 dependent serine phosphorylation is a prerequisite for chemoattractant cAMP induced PI3K membrane localization. PMID:24102085

  18. A role for Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 as integrators of dopamine and serotonin neurotransmission in mental health

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, depression and schizophrenia are a major public health concern worldwide. Several pharmacologic agents acting on monoamine neurotransmission are used for the management of these disorders. However, there is still little understanding of the ultimate molecular mechanisms responsible for the therapeutic effects of these drugs or their relations with disease etiology. Here I provide an overview of recent advances on the involvement of the signalling molecules Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in the regulation of behaviour by the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT). I examine the possible participation of these signalling molecules to the effects of antidepressants, lithium and antipsychotics, as well as their possible contribution to mental disorders. Regulation of Akt and GSK3 may constitute an important signalling hub in the subcellular integration of 5-HT and DA neurotransmission. It may also provide a link between the action of these neurotransmitters and gene products, like disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) and neuregulin (NRG), that are associated with increased risk for mental disorders. However, changes in Akt and GSK3 signalling are not restricted to a single disorder, and their contribution to specific behavioural symptoms or therapeutic effects may be modulated by broader changes in biologic contexts or signalling landscapes. Understanding these interactions may provide a better understanding of mental illnesses, leading to better efficacy of new therapeutic approaches. PMID:21711983

  19. Wound healing activity and docking of glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-beta-protein with isolated triterpenoid lupeol in rats.

    PubMed

    Harish, B G; Krishna, V; Santosh Kumar, H S; Khadeer Ahamed, B M; Sharath, R; Kumara Swamy, H M

    2008-09-01

    A triterpene compound lupeol isolated from petroleum ether extract of leaves of Celastrus paniculatus was screened for wound healing activity (8 mg/ml of 0.2% sodium alginate gel) by excision, incision and dead space wound models on Swiss Albino rats (175-225 g). In lupeol treated groups wound healing activity was more significant (17.83+/-0.48) than the standard skin ointment nitrofurazone (18.33+/-0.42). Epithelialization of the incision wound was faster with a high rate of wound contraction (571.50+/-5.07) as compared with the control group. In dead space wound model also the weight of the granulation tissue of the lupeol treated animal was increased indicating increase of collagenation and absence of monocytes. The comparative docking of isolated lupeol molecule and standard drug nitrofurazone to glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta protein by Wnt signaling pathway also supported the wound healing property of lupeol. The activation domain of GSK3-beta consisted of Tyr216, with residues Asn64, Gly65, Ser66, Phe67, Gly68, Val70, Lys85, Leu132, Val135, Asp181 in the active pocket docked with lupeol at the torsional degree of freedom 0.5 units with Lamarckian genetic algorithm showed the inhibition constant of 1.38 x 10(-7). The inhibition constant of nitrofurazone was only 1.35 x 10(-4).

  20. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Is Positively Regulated by Protein Kinase Cζ-Mediated Phosphorylation Induced by Wnt Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Tejeda-Muñoz, Nydia; González-Aguilar, Héctor; Santoyo-Ramos, Paula; Castañeda-Patlán, M. Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The molecular events that drive Wnt-induced regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) activity are poorly defined. In this study, we found that protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and GSK-3β interact mainly in colon cancer cells. Wnt stimulation induced a rapid GSK-3β redistribution from the cytoplasm to the nuclei in malignant cells and a transient PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β at a different site from serine 9. In addition, while Wnt treatment induced a decrease in PKC-mediated phosphorylation of GSK-3β in nonmalignant cells, in malignant cells, this phosphorylation was increased. Pharmacological inhibition and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of PKCζ abolished all of these effects, but unexpectedly, it also abolished the constitutive basal activity of GSK-3β. In vitro activity assays demonstrated that GSK-3β phosphorylation mediated by PKCζ enhanced GSK-3β activity. We mapped Ser147 of GSK-3β as the site phosphorylated by PKCζ, i.e., its mutation into alanine abolished GSK-3β activity, resulting in β-catenin stabilization and increased transcriptional activity, whereas phosphomimetic replacement of Ser147 by glutamic acid maintained GSK-3β basal activity. Thus, we found that PKCζ phosphorylates GSK-3β at Ser147 to maintain its constitutive activity in resting cells and that Wnt stimulation modifies the phosphorylation of Ser147 to regulate GSK-3β activity in opposite manners in normal and malignant colon cells. PMID:26711256

  1. Lithium Chloride Promotes Apoptosis in Human Leukemia NB4 Cells by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 Beta.

    PubMed

    Li, Liu; Song, Hao; Zhong, Liang; Yang, Rong; Yang, Xiao-Qun; Jiang, Kai-Ling; Liu, Bei-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). With the application of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO), APL becomes one of best prognosis of leukemia. However, ATRA and ATO are not effective against all APLs. Therefore, a new strategy for APL treatment is necessary. Here, we investigated whether lithium chloride (LiCl), a drug used for the treatment of mental illness, could promote apoptosis in human leukemia NB4 cells. We observed that treatment with LiCl significantly accelerated apoptosis in NB4 cells and led to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase. Moreover, LiCl significantly increased the level of Ser9-phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β(p-GSK-3β), and decreased the level of Akt1 protein in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, LiCl inhibition of c-Myc also enhanced cell death with a concomitant increase in β-catnin. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that LiCl promoted apoptosis in NB4 cells through the Akt signaling pathway and that G2/M phase arrest was induced by increase of p-GSK-3β(S9).

  2. Chitin synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Preeti M; Tupe, Santosh G; Deshpande, Mukund V

    2013-02-01

    Increased risk of fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients, emerging fungal pathogens, limited repertoire of antifungal drugs and resistance development against the drugs demands for development of new and effective antifungal agents. With greater knowledge of fungal metabolism efforts are being made to inhibit specific enzymes involved in different biochemical pathways for the development of antifungal drugs. Chitin synthase is one such promising target as it is absent in plants and mammals. Nikkomycin Z, a chitin synthase inhibitor is under clinical development. Chitin synthesis in fungi, chitin synthase as a target for antifungal agent development, different chitin synthase inhibitors isolated from natural sources, randomly synthesized and modified from nikkomycin and polyoxin are discussed in this review.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β dictates podocyte motility and focal adhesion turnover by modulating paxillin activity: implications for the protective effect of low-dose lithium in podocytopathy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weiwei; Ge, Yan; Liu, Zhihong; Gong, Rujun

    2014-10-01

    Aberrant focal adhesion turnover is centrally involved in podocyte actin cytoskeleton disorganization and foot process effacement. The structural and dynamic integrity of focal adhesions is orchestrated by multiple cell signaling molecules, including glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), a multitasking kinase lately identified as a mediator of kidney injury. However, the role of GSK3β in podocytopathy remains obscure. In doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-injured podocytes, lithium, a GSK3β inhibitor and neuroprotective mood stabilizer, obliterated the accelerated focal adhesion turnover, rectified podocyte hypermotility, and restored actin cytoskeleton integrity. Mechanistically, lithium counteracted the doxorubicin-elicited GSK3β overactivity and the hyperphosphorylation and overactivation of paxillin, a focal adhesion-associated adaptor protein. Moreover, forced expression of a dominant negative kinase dead mutant of GSK3β highly mimicked, whereas ectopic expression of a constitutively active GSK3β mutant abolished, the effect of lithium in doxorubicin-injured podocytes, suggesting that the effect of lithium is mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of GSK3β. Furthermore, paxillin interacted with GSK3β and served as its substrate. In mice with doxorubicin nephropathy, a single low dose of lithium ameliorated proteinuria and glomerulosclerosis. Consistently, lithium therapy abrogated GSK3β overactivity, blunted paxillin hyperphosphorylation, and reinstated actin cytoskeleton integrity in glomeruli associated with an early attenuation of podocyte foot process effacement. Thus, GSK3β-modulated focal adhesion dynamics might serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy.

  4. Inhibition of hippocampal long-term potentiation by high-fat diets: is it related to an effect of palmitic acid involving glycogen synthase kinase-3?

    PubMed

    Contreras, Ana; Del Rio, Danila; Martínez, Ana; Gil, Carmen; Morales, Lidia; Ruiz-Gayo, Mariano; Del Olmo, Nuria

    2017-04-12

    High-fat diets (HFD) impair hippocampal-dependent learning and memory and produce important changes in synaptic transmission by enhancing glutamate uptake, decreasing synaptic efficacy, and inhibiting plasticity mechanisms such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated long-term depression (LTD) within the hippocampus. Adolescent animals seem to be particularly susceptible to the detrimental effect of HFD as dietary treatments carried out between weaning and early adulthood are much more efficient in terms of hippocampal damage that those carried out during the adult period. As palmitic acid is the most abundant saturated fatty acid in HFD, its effect on hippocampal function needs to be studied. However, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), a pleiotropic enzyme highly expressed in the central nervous system, modulates both hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and LTD, and has been implicated in neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we have characterized in mice hippocampus the effect of (i) a 48 h HFD intervention and (ii) in-vitro palmitic acid, as well as the possible involvement of GSK-3 in the above-mentioned plasticity mechanisms. Our results show that both 48 h HFD and palmitic acid inhibit LTP in hippocampal slices, whereas no effect on LTD was observed. Moreover, tideglusib, an ATP-noncompetitive inhibitor of GSK-3, induced hippocampal LTP and partially reversed the impairment of LTP induced by palmitic acid.

  5. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase3 β mediate ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Hee Young; Sohn, Eun Jung; Lee, Jang-Hoon; Woo, Hong-Jung; Yun, Miyong; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Chul

    2013-11-01

    Despite the antitumour effect of ursolic acid observed in several cancers, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Thus, in the present study, the roles of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) were examined in ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Ursolic acid significantly exerted cytotoxicity, increased the sub-G1 population and the number of ethidium homodimer and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase(TdT) mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive cells in HepG2 cells. Also, ursolic acid enhanced the cleavages of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) and caspase3, attenuated the expression of astrocyte elevated gene (AEG1) and survivin in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, ursolic acid increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and coenzyme A carboxylase and also enhanced phosphorylation of GSK3β at inactive form serine 9, whereas ursolic acid attenuated the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR in HepG2 cells. Conversely, AMPK inhibitor compound C or GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 blocked the cleavages of PARP and caspase 3 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, proteosomal inhibitor MG132 suppressed AMPK activation, GSK3β phosphorylation, cleaved PARP and deceased AEG-1 induced by ursolic acid in HepG2 cells. Overall, our findings suggest that ursolic acid induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via AMPK activation and GSK3β phosphorylation as a potent chemopreventive agent. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Specific activin receptor-like kinase 3 inhibitors enhance liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Ray, Kevin; Engers, Darren W; Dib, Martin; Do, Nhue; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Ho, Karen; Frist, Audrey; Yu, Paul B; Bloch, Kenneth D; Lindsley, Craig W; Hopkins, Corey R; Hong, Charles C; Karp, Seth J

    2014-12-01

    Pharmacologic agents to enhance liver regeneration after injury would have wide therapeutic application. Based on previous work suggesting inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling stimulates liver regeneration, we tested known and novel BMP inhibitors for their ability to accelerate regeneration in a partial hepatectomy (PH) model. Compounds were produced based on the 3,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine core of the BMP antagonist dorsomorphin and evaluated for their ability to inhibit BMP signaling and enhance liver regeneration. Antagonists of the BMP receptor activin receptor-like kinase 3 (ALK3), including LDN-193189 (LDN; 4-[6-[4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-quinoline), DMH2 (4-(2-(4-(3-(quinolin-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)morpholine; VU0364849), and the novel compound VU0465350 (7-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)-3-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine; VU5350), blocked SMAD phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced liver regeneration after PH. In contrast, an antagonist of the BMP receptor ALK2, VU0469381 (5-(6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)quinolone; 1LWY), did not affect liver regeneration. LDN did not affect liver synthetic or metabolic function. Mechanistically, LDN increased serum interleukin-6 levels and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the liver, and modulated other factors known to be important for liver regeneration, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of ALK3 may be part of a therapeutic strategy for treating human liver disease.

  7. Specific Activin Receptor–Like Kinase 3 Inhibitors Enhance Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tsugawa, Daisuke; Oya, Yuki; Masuzaki, Ryota; Ray, Kevin; Engers, Darren W.; Dib, Martin; Do, Nhue; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Ho, Karen; Frist, Audrey; Yu, Paul B.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Hopkins, Corey R.; Hong, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacologic agents to enhance liver regeneration after injury would have wide therapeutic application. Based on previous work suggesting inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling stimulates liver regeneration, we tested known and novel BMP inhibitors for their ability to accelerate regeneration in a partial hepatectomy (PH) model. Compounds were produced based on the 3,6-disubstituted pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidine core of the BMP antagonist dorsomorphin and evaluated for their ability to inhibit BMP signaling and enhance liver regeneration. Antagonists of the BMP receptor activin receptor–like kinase 3 (ALK3), including LDN-193189 (LDN; 4-[6-[4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl]-quinoline), DMH2 (4-(2-(4-(3-(quinolin-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-6-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)morpholine; VU0364849), and the novel compound VU0465350 (7-(4-isopropoxyphenyl)-3-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine; VU5350), blocked SMAD phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo, and enhanced liver regeneration after PH. In contrast, an antagonist of the BMP receptor ALK2, VU0469381 (5-(6-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-3-yl)quinolone; 1LWY), did not affect liver regeneration. LDN did not affect liver synthetic or metabolic function. Mechanistically, LDN increased serum interleukin-6 levels and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 phosphorylation in the liver, and modulated other factors known to be important for liver regeneration, including suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 and p53. These findings suggest that inhibition of ALK3 may be part of a therapeutic strategy for treating human liver disease. PMID:25271257

  8. Brain derived neurotrophic factor is involved in the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signalling.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Chitranshi, Nitin; You, Yuyi; Gupta, Veer; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart

    2014-11-21

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is involved in several biochemical processes in neurons regulating cellular survival, gene expression, cell fate determination, metabolism and proliferation. GSK3β activity is inhibited through the phosphorylation of its Ser-9 residue. In this study we sought to investigate the role of BDNF/TrkB signalling in the modulation of GSK3β activity. BDNF/TrkB signalling regulates the GSK3β activity both in vivo in the retinal tissue as well as in the neuronal cells under culture conditions. We report here for the first time that BDNF can also regulate GSK3β activity independent of its effects through the TrkB receptor signalling. Knockdown of BDNF lead to a decline in GSK3β phosphorylation without having a detectable effect on the TrkB activity or its downstream effectors Akt and Erk1/2. Treatment with TrkB receptor agonist had a stimulating effect on the GSK3β phosphorylation, but the effect was significantly less pronounced in the cells in which BDNF was knocked down. The use of TrkB receptor antagonist similarly, manifested itself in the form of downregulation of GSK3β phosphorylation, but a combined TrkB inhibition and BDNF knockdown exhibited a much stronger negative effect. In vivo, we observed reduced levels of GSK3β phosphorylation in the retinal tissues of the BDNF(+/-) animals implicating critical role of BDNF in the regulation of the GSK3β activity. Concluding, BDNF/TrkB axis strongly regulates the GSK3β activity and BDNF also exhibits GSK3β regulatory effect independent of its actions through the TrkB receptor signalling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lithium and neuropsychiatric therapeutics: neuroplasticity via glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, beta-catenin, and neurotrophin cascades.

    PubMed

    Wada, Akihiko

    2009-05-01

    Mood disorders are not merely attributed to the functional defect of neurotransmission, but also are due to the structural impairment of neuroplasticity. Chronic stress decreases neurotrophin levels, precipitating or exacerbating depression; conversely, antidepressants increase expression of various neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor), thereby blocking or reversing structural and functional pathologies via promoting neurogenesis. Since the worldwide approval of lithium therapy in 1970, lithium has been used for its anti-manic, antidepressant, and anti-suicidal effects, yet the therapeutic mechanisms at the cellular level remain not-fully defined. During the last five years, multiple lines of evidence have shown that the mood stabilization and neurogenesis by lithium are due to the lithium-induced inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), allowing accumulation of beta-catenin and beta-catenin-dependent gene transcriptional events. Altered levels of GSK-3beta and beta-catenin are associated with various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, while various classical neuropsychiatric drugs inhibit GSK-3beta and up-regulate beta-catenin expression. In addition, evidence has emerged that insulin-like growth factor-I enhances antidepression, anti-anxiety, memory, neurogenesis, and angiogenesis; antidepressants up-regulate expression of insulin-like growth factor-I, while insulin-like growth factor-I up-regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression and its receptor TrkB level, as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced synaptic protein levels. More importantly, physical exercise and healthy diet raise transport of peripheral circulating insulin-like growth factor I into the brain, reinforcing the expression of neurotrophins (e.g., brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and the strength of cell survival signalings (e.g., phosphoinositide 3-kinase / Akt / GSK-3beta pathway

  10. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β: Variation over Time and the Possible Association with Mood and Cognition in Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Munkholm, Klaus; Lenskjold, Toke; Jacoby, Anne Sophie; Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Vinberg, Maj; Joaquim, Helena Giroud Passarelli; Talib, Leda Leme; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates a role for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and in cognitive disturbances; however, the natural variation in GSK-3β activity over time is unknown. We aimed to investigate GSK-3β activity over time and its possible correlation with emotional lability, subjective mood fluctuations and cognitive function in healthy individuals. Thirty-seven healthy subjects were evaluated with neuropsychological tests and blood samples at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Total GSK-3β and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantitated using enzyme immunometric assays. The activity of GSK-3β (serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β/total GSK-3β) was lower at baseline compared with follow-up. No significant mean change over time was observed in levels of total GSK-3β and serine-9-phosphorylated GSK-3β. Exploratory analysis revealed lower activity of GSK-3β in spring and summer compared with the fall season. No correlation was observed between GSK-3β activity and emotional lability, subjective mood fluctuations or cognitive function. The results suggest that intra- and interindividual variation in GSK-3β activity over time could contribute to the heterogeneity of findings in clinical studies. The stability of GSK-3β activity and the role of potential moderators of GSK-3β activity warrant further investigation. Clinical studies of GSK-3β should consider including repeated measures of both cases and healthy individuals. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. CB1 cannabinoid receptors increase neuronal precursor proliferation through AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin signaling.

    PubMed

    Trazzi, Stefania; Steger, Martin; Mitrugno, Valentina Maria; Bartesaghi, Renata; Ciani, Elisabetta

    2010-03-26

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of many physiological effects in the central and peripheral nervous system. Recent findings have demonstrated the presence of a functional endocannabinoid system within neuronal progenitors located in the hippocampus and ventricular/subventricular zone that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation. It is presently unknown whether the endocannabinoid system exerts a widespread effect on neuronal precursors from different neurogenic regions, and very little is known about the signaling by which it regulates neuronal precursor proliferation. Herein, we demonstrate the presence of cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in granule cell precursors (GCPs) during early cerebellar development. Activation of CB(1) receptors by HU-210 promoted GCP proliferation in vitro, an effect that was prevented by a selective CB(1) antagonist. Accordingly, in vivo experiments showed that GCP proliferation was increased by chronic HU-210 treatment and that in CB(1)-deficient mice cell proliferation was significantly lower than in wild-type littermates, indicating that the endocannabinoid system is physiologically involved in regulation of GCP proliferation. The pro-proliferative effect of cannabinoids in GCPs was mediated through the CB(1)/AKT/glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin pathway. Involvement of this pathway was also observed in cultures of neuronal precursors from the subventricular zone, suggesting that this pathway may be a general mechanism by which endocannabinoids regulate proliferation of neuronal precursors. These observations suggest that endocannabinoids constitute a new family of lipid signaling cues that may exert a widespread effect on neuronal precursor proliferation during brain development.

  12. Dihydromyricetin protects neurons in an MPTP-induced model of Parkinson's disease by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta activity

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhao-xiang; Zhao, Ya-fei; Cao, Ting; Zhen, Xue-chu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It is general believed that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play critical roles in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid extracted from Ampelopsis grossedentata, has recently been found to elicit potent anti-oxidative effects. In the present study, we explored the role of DHM in protecting dopaminergic neurons. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1-methyl4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) for 7 d to induce PD. Additionally, mice were treated with either 5 or 10 mg/kg DHM for a total of 13 d (3 d before the start of MPTP, during MPTP administration (7 d) and 3 d after the end of MPTP). For the saline or DHM alone treatment groups, mice were injected with saline or DHM for 13 d. On d 14, behavioral tests (locomotor activity, the rotarod test and the pole test) were administered. After the behavioral tests, the mice were sacrificed, and brain tissue was collected for immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting. In addition, MES23.5 cells were treated with MPP+ and DHM, and evaluated using cell viability assays, reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurements, apoptosis analysis and Western blotting. Results: DHM significantly attenuated MPTP-induced mouse behavioral impairments and dopaminergic neuron loss. In the MES23.5 cells, DHM attenuated MPP+-induced cell injury and ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, DHM increased glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which may be associated with DHM-induced dopaminergic neuronal protection. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that DHM is a potent neuroprotective agent for DA neurons by modulating the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, which suggests that DHM may be a promising therapeutic candidate for PD. PMID:27374489

  13. Lovastatin Modulates Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Pathway and Inhibits Mossy Fiber Sprouting after Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Yao; Jaw, Thomas; Tseng, Huan-Chin; Chen, I-Chun; Liou, Horng-Huei

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assay the effect of lovastatin on the glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) and collapsin responsive mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2) signaling pathway and mossy fiber sprouting (MFS) in epileptic rats. MFS in the dentate gyrus (DG) is an important feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and is highly related to the severity and the frequency of spontaneous recurrent seizures. However, the molecular mechanism of MFS is mostly unknown. GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are the genes responsible for axonal growth and neuronal polarity in the hippocampus, therefore this pathway is a potential target to investigate MFS. Pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus animal model was taken as our researching material. Western blot, histological and electrophysiological techniques were used as the studying tools. The results showed that the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 were elevated after seizure induction, and the administration of lovastatin reversed this effect and significantly reduced the extent of MFS in both DG and CA3 region in the hippocampus. The alteration of expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 after seizure induction proposes that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are crucial for MFS and epiletogenesis. The fact that lovastatin reversed the expression level of GSK-3β and CRMP-2 indicated that GSK-3β and CRMP-2 are possible to be a novel mechanism of lovatstain to suppress MFS and revealed a new therapeutic target and researching direction for studying the mechanism of MFS and epileptogenesis. PMID:22761705

  14. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β gene polymorphisms may be associated with bipolar I disorder and the therapeutic response to lithium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Feng; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Liu, Hsing-Cheng

    2013-05-01

    Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK-3β) is thought to be a key feature in the therapeutic mechanism of mood stabilizers (e.g., lithium). Overexpression of GSK-3β might play a role in the pathogenesis of bipolar I disorder. Within the GSK-3β gene, a promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs334558 was identified associated with transcriptional strength, and an intronic SNP rs6438552 was found to regulate selection of splice acceptor sites. The aim of this study is to test the association between the two polymorphisms and bipolar I disorder. We genotyped the two SNPs in 138 Taiwanese bipolar I disorder patients and 131 controls. Lithium treatment efficacy was evaluated for 83 patients who had been treated with lithium carbonate for at least 24 months. We found no association between each of the two SNPs and the risk of bipolar I disorder. Following correction for multiple testing, CT genotype at rs6438552 was associated with an older age of onset than other genotypes (P=0.042) in female patients. Patients with genotype TT at rs334558 (P=0.044) had poorer response to lithium treatment. There was a trend that haplotype C-T increased the risk for bipolar I disorder (adjusted OR=4.22, corrected P=0.084), and patients with haplotype T-T had poorer treatment response to lithium than those with haplotype C-C. Limitations included small sample size, retrospective data collection, and a potential sampling bias. Despite the several limitations of the study, our results suggested GSK-3β genetic variants may be associated with the risk of bipolar I disorder, age of disease onset in females, and the therapeutic response to lithium. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Constitutive glycogen synthase kinase-3α/β activity protects against chronic β-adrenergic remodelling of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Ian G.; Nishino, Yasuhiro; Clark, James E.; Murdoch, Colin; Walker, Simon J.; Makowski, Marcus R.; Botnar, Rene M.; Redwood, Simon R.; Shah, Ajay M.; Marber, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    Aims Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) signalling is implicated in the growth of the heart during development and in response to stress. However, its precise role remains unclear. We set out to characterize developmental growth and response to chronic isoproterenol (ISO) stress in knockin (KI) mice lacking the critical N-terminal serines, 21 of GSK-3α and 9 of GSK-3β respectively, required for inactivation by upstream kinases. Methods and results Between 5 and 15 weeks, KI mice grew more rapidly, but normalized heart weight and contractile performance were similar to wild-type (WT) mice. Isolated hearts of both genotypes responded comparably to acute ISO infusion with increases in heart rate and contractility. In WT mice, chronic subcutaneous ISO infusion over 14 days resulted in cardiac hypertrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and impaired contractility, accompanied by foetal gene reactivation. These effects were all significantly attenuated in KI mice. Indeed, ISO-treated KI hearts demonstrated reversible physiological remodelling traits with increased stroke volume and a preserved contractile response to acute adrenergic stimulation. Furthermore, simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of GSK-3 in KI mice treated with chronic subcutaneous ISO recapitulated the adverse remodelling phenotype seen in WT hearts. Conclusion Expression of inactivation-resistant GSK-3α/β does not affect eutrophic myocardial growth but protects against pathological hypertrophy induced by chronic adrenergic stimulation, maintaining cardiac function and attenuating interstitial fibrosis. Accordingly, strategies to prevent phosphorylation of Ser-21/9, and consequent inactivation of GSK-3α/β, may enable a sustained cardiac response to chronic β-agonist stimulation while preventing pathological remodelling. PMID:20299330

  16. Valproate Inhibits Methamphetamine Induced Hyperactivity via Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Core.

    PubMed

    Xing, Bo; Liang, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Yan; Chu, Zheng; Dang, Yong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Valproate (VPA) has recently been shown to influence the behavioral effects of psycho-stimulants. Although glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a key role in mediating dopamine (DA)-dependent behaviors, there is less direct evidence that how VPA acts on the GSK3β signaling in the functionally distinct sub-regions of the NAc, the NAc core (NAcC) and the NAc shell (NAcSh), during psycho-stimulant-induced hyperactivity. In the present study, we applied locomotion test after acute methamphetamine (MA) (2 mg/kg) injection to identify the locomotor activity of rats received repeated VPA (300 mg/kg) pretreatment. We next measured phosphor-GSK3β at serine 9 and total GSK3β levels in NAcC and NAcSh respectively to determine the relationship between the effect of VPA on MA-induced hyperlocomotor and changes in GSK3β activity. We further investigated whether microinjection of VPA (300 μg/0.5 μl/side, once daily for 7 consecutive days) into NAcC or NAcSh could affect hyperactivity induced by MA. Our data indicated that repeated VPA treatment attenuated MA-induced hyperlocomotor, and the effect was associated with decreased levels of phosphorylated GSK3β at Ser 9 in the NAcC. Moreover, repeated bilateral intra-NAcC, but not intra-NAcSh VPA treatment, significantly attenuated MA-induced hyperactivity. Our results suggested that GSK3β activity in NAcC contributes to the inhibitory effects of VPA on MA-induced hyperactivity.

  17. Phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 and stimulation of T-cell factor signaling following activation of EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors by prostaglandin E2.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Hiromichi; West, Kimberly A; Regan, John W

    2002-01-25

    Recently we have shown that the FP(B) prostanoid receptor, a G-protein-coupled receptor that couples to Galpha(q), activates T-cell factor (Tcf)/lymphoid enhancer factor (Lef)-mediated transcriptional activation (Fujino, H., and Regan, J. W. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 12489-12492). We now report that the EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors, which couple to Galpha(s), also activate Tcf/Lef signaling. By using a Tcf/Lef-responsive luciferase reporter gene, transcriptional activity was stimulated approximately 10-fold over basal by 1 h of treatment with prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in HEK cells that were stably transfected with the human EP(2) and EP(4) receptors. This stimulation of reporter gene activity was accompanied by a PGE(2)-dependent increase in the phosphorylation of both glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) and Akt kinase. H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A (PKA), completely blocked the agonist-dependent phosphorylation of GSK-3 in both EP(2)- and EP(4)-expressing cells. However, H-89 pretreatment only blocked PGE(2)-stimulated Lef/Tcf reporter gene activity by 20% in EP(4)-expressing cells compared with 65% inhibition in EP(2)-expressing cells. On the other hand wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, had the opposite effect and inhibited PGE(2)-stimulated reporter gene activity to a much greater extent in EP(4)-expressing cells as compared with EP(2)-expressing cells. These findings indicate that the activation of Tcf/Lef signaling by EP(2) receptors occurs primarily through a PKA-dependent pathway, whereas EP(4) receptors activate Tcf/Lef signaling mainly through a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway. This is the first indication of a fundamental difference in the signaling potential of EP(2) and EP(4) prostanoid receptors.

  18. Progress towards clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the high degree of similarity between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and cortisol synthase (CYP11B1), the design of selective inhibitors of one or the other of these two enzymes was, at one time, thought to be impossible. Through development of novel enzyme screening assays and significant medicinal chemistry efforts, highly potent inhibitors of CYP11B2 have been identified with selectivities approaching 1000-fold between the two enzymes. Many of these molecules also possess selectivity against other steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) as well as hepatic drug metabolizing P450s. Though not as well developed or explored, inhibitors of CYP11B1, with selectivities approaching 50-fold, have also been identified. The therapeutic benefits of affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been well established with the therapeutically useful angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Data regarding the additional benefits of an aldosterone synthase inhibitor (ASi) are beginning to emerge from animal models and human clinical trials. Despite great promise and much progress, additional challenges still exist in the path towards development of a therapeutically useful ASi.

  19. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3α Limits Ischemic Injury, Cardiac Rupture, Post–Myocardial Infarction Remodeling and Death

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Hind; Zhou, Jibin; Ahmad, Firdos; Zaka, Raihana; Vagnozzi, Ronald J.; DeCaul, Morgan; Woodgett, James; Gao, Erhe; Force, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The molecular pathways that regulate the extent of ischemic injury and post–myocardial infarction (MI) remodeling are not well understood. We recently demonstrated that glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α) is critical to the heart’s response to pressure overload. However, the role, if any, of GSK-3α in regulating ischemic injury and its consequences is not known. Methods and Results MI was induced in wild-type (WT) versus GSK-3α(−/−) (KO) littermates by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation. Pre-MI, WT, and KO hearts had comparable chamber dimensions and ventricular function, but as early as 1 week post-MI, KO mice had significantly more left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction than WT mice. KO mice also had increased mortality during the first 10 days post-MI (43% versus 22%; P=0.04), and postmortem examination confirmed cardiac rupture as the cause of most of the deaths. In the mice that survived the first 10 days, left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction remained worse in the KO mice throughout the study (8 weeks). Hypertrophy, fibrosis, and heart failure were all increased in the KO mice. Given the early deaths due to rupture and the significant reduction in left ventricular function evident as early as 1 week post-MI, we examined infarct size following a 48-hour coronary artery ligation and found it to be increased in the KO mice. This was accompanied by increased apoptosis in the border zone of the MI. This increased susceptibility to ischemic injury–induced apoptosis was also seen in cardiomyocytes isolated from the KO mice that were exposed to hypoxia. Finally, Bax translocation to the mitochondria and cytochrome C release into the cytosol were increased in the KO mice. Conclusion GSK-3α confers resistance to ischemic injury, at least in part, via limiting apoptosis. Loss of GSK-3α promotes ischemic injury, increases risk of cardiac rupture, accentuates post-MI remodeling and left ventricular dysfunction, and

  20. Brain derived neurotrophic factor is involved in the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Vivek; Chitranshi, Nitin; You, Yuyi; Gupta, Veer; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart

    2014-11-21

    Highlights: • BDNF knockdown leads to activation of GSK3β in the neuronal cells. • BDNF knockdown can induce GSK3β activation beyond TrkB mediated effects. • BDNF impairment in vivo leads to age dependent activation of GSK3β in the retina. • Systemic treatment with TrkB agonist induces inhibition of retinal GSK3β. - Abstract: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) is involved in several biochemical processes in neurons regulating cellular survival, gene expression, cell fate determination, metabolism and proliferation. GSK3β activity is inhibited through the phosphorylation of its Ser-9 residue. In this study we sought to investigate the role of BDNF/TrkB signalling in the modulation of GSK3β activity. BDNF/TrkB signalling regulates the GSK3β activity both in vivo in the retinal tissue as well as in the neuronal cells under culture conditions. We report here for the first time that BDNF can also regulate GSK3β activity independent of its effects through the TrkB receptor signalling. Knockdown of BDNF lead to a decline in GSK3β phosphorylation without having a detectable effect on the TrkB activity or its downstream effectors Akt and Erk1/2. Treatment with TrkB receptor agonist had a stimulating effect on the GSK3β phosphorylation, but the effect was significantly less pronounced in the cells in which BDNF was knocked down. The use of TrkB receptor antagonist similarly, manifested itself in the form of downregulation of GSK3β phosphorylation, but a combined TrkB inhibition and BDNF knockdown exhibited a much stronger negative effect. In vivo, we observed reduced levels of GSK3β phosphorylation in the retinal tissues of the BDNF{sup +/−} animals implicating critical role of BDNF in the regulation of the GSK3β activity. Concluding, BDNF/TrkB axis strongly regulates the GSK3β activity and BDNF also exhibits GSK3β regulatory effect independent of its actions through the TrkB receptor signalling.

  1. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathways Contribute to DNA Synthesis, Cell Cycle Progression, and Proliferation in Human Islets

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Remedi, Maria S.; Pappan, Kirk L.; Kwon, Guim; Rohatgi, Nidhi; Marshall, Connie A.; McDaniel, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Our previous studies demonstrated that nutrient regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling promotes regenerative processes in rodent islets but rarely in human islets. Our objective was to extend these findings by using therapeutic agents to determine whether the regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)/β-catenin and mTOR signaling represent key components necessary for effecting a positive impact on human β-cell mass relevant to type 1 and 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Primary adult human and rat islets were treated with the GSK-3 inhibitors, LiCl and the highly potent 1-azakenpaullone (1-Akp), and with nutrients. DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and proliferation of β-cells were assessed. Measurement of insulin secretion and content and Western blot analysis of GSK-3 and mTOR signaling components were performed. RESULTS—Human islets treated for 4 days with LiCl or 1-Akp exhibited significant increases in DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and proliferation of β-cells that displayed varying degrees of sensitivity to rapamycin. Intermediate glucose (8 mmol/l) produced a striking degree of synergism in combination with GSK-3 inhibition to enhance bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and Ki-67 expression in human β-cells. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin responsible for cell proliferation was found to be particularly sensitive to rapamycin. CONCLUSIONS—A combination of GSK-3 inhibition and nutrient activation of mTOR contributes to enhanced DNA synthesis, cell cycle progression, and proliferation of human β-cells. Identification of therapeutic agents that appropriately regulate GSK-3 and mTOR signaling may provide a feasible and available approach to enhance human islet growth and proliferation. PMID:19073772

  2. Identification of an N-terminal glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation site which regulates the functional localisation of polycystin-2 in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Streets, Andrew J; Moon, David J; Kane, Michelle E; Obara, Tomoko; Ong, Albert CM

    2008-01-01

    PKD2 is mutated in 15% of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Polycystin-2 (PC2), the PKD2 protein, is a nonselective Ca2+-permeable cation channel which may function at the cell surface and ER. Nevertheless, the factors that regulate the dynamic translocation of PC2 between the ER and other compartments are not well understood. Constitutive phosphorylation of PC2 at a single C-terminal site (Ser812) has been previously reported. Since we were unable to abolish phospholabelling of PC2 in HEK293 cells by site-directed mutagenesis of Ser812 or all 5 predicted phosphorylation sites in the C-terminus, we hypothesised that PC2 could also be phosphorylated at the N-terminus. In this paper, we report the identification of a new phosphorylation site for PC2 within its N-terminal domain (Ser76) and demonstrate that this residue is phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). The consensus recognition sequence for GSK-3 (Ser76/Ser80) is evolutionarily conserved down to lower vertebrates. In the presence of specific GSK-3 inhibitors, the lateral plasma membrane pool of endogenous PC2 redistributes into an intracellular compartment in MDCK cells without a change in primary cilia localization. Finally, co-injection of wild-type but not a S76A/S80A mutant PKD2 capped mRNA could rescue the cystic phenotype induced by an antisense morpholino oligonucleotide to pkd2 in zebrafish pronephric kidney. We conclude that surface localization of PC2 is regulated by phosphorylation at a unique GSK-3 site in its N-terminal domain in vivo and in vitro. This site is functionally significant for the maintenance of normal glomerular and tubular morphology. PMID:16551655

  3. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Is Involved in Ligand-Dependent Activation of Transcription and Cellular Localization of the Glucocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Patiño, Camila; Palmeri, Claudia M.; Pérez-Perarnau, Alba; Cosialls, Ana M.; Moncunill-Massaguer, Cristina; González-Gironès, Diana M.; Pons-Hernández, Lluís; López, José M.; Ventura, Francesc; Gil, Joan; Iglesias-Serret, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different cell types and therefore are widely used to treat a variety of diseases including autoimmune disorders and cancer. This effect is mediated by the GC receptor (GR), a ligand-activated transcription factor that translocates into the nucleus where it modulates transcription of target genes in a promoter-specific manner. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates GR response by genomic and nongenomic mechanisms, although the specific role of each isoform is not well defined. We used GSK3 pharmacological inhibitors and isoform-specific small interfering RNA to evaluate the role of GSK3 in the genomic regulation induced by GC. GSK3 inhibition resulted in the reduction of GC-induced mRNA expression of GC-induced genes such as BIM, HIAP1, and GILZ. Knockdown of GSK3β but not GSK3α reduced endogenous GILZ induction in response to dexamethasone and GR-dependent reporter gene activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3 inhibition impaired the dexamethasone-mediated binding of GR and RNA polymerase II to endogenous GILZ promoter. These results indicate that GSK3β is important for GR transactivation activity and that GSK3β inhibition suppresses GC-stimulated gene expression. Furthermore, we show that genomic regulation by the GR is independent of known GSK3β phosphorylation sites. We propose that GC-dependent transcriptional activation requires functional GSK3β signaling and that altered GSK3β activity influences cell response to GC. PMID:22771494

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of [11C]PyrATP-1, a novel radiotracer for PET imaging of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β)

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Erin L.; Shao, Xia; Sherman, Phillip; Quesada, Carole; Fawaz, Maria V.; Desmond, Timothy J.; Scott, Peter J. H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The dysfunction of glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β) has been implicated in a number of diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease. The ability to non-invasively quantify GSK-3βactivity in vivo is therefore of critical importance, and this work is focused upon development of inhibitors of GSK-3βradiolabeled with carbon-11 to examine quantification of the enzyme using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. Methods [11C]PyrATP-1 was prepared from the corresponding desmethyl-piperazine precursor in an automated synthesis module. In vivo rodent and primate imaging studies were conducted on a Concorde MicroPET P4 scanner to evaluate imaging properties, and in vitro autoradiography studies with rat brain samples were carried out to examine specific binding. Results 2035 ± 518 MBq (55 ± 14 mCi) of [11C]PyrATP-1 were obtained (1–2% noncorrected radiochemical yield at end-of-synthesis based upon [11C]CO2) with high chemical (>95%) and radiochemical (>99%) purities, and good specific activities (143 ± 52 GBq/µmol (3874 ± 1424 Ci/mmol)), n = 5. In vivo microPET imaging studies revealed poor brain uptake in rodents and non-human primates. Pretreatment of rodents with cyclosporin A resulted in moderately increased brain uptake suggesting Pgp transporter involvement. Autoradiography demonstrated high levels of specific binding in areas of the rodent brain known to be rich in GSK-3β. Conclusion [11C]PyrATP-1 is readily synthesized using standard carbon-11 radiochemistry. However, the poor brain uptake in rodents and non-human primates indicates that the radiotracer is not suitable for the purposes of quantifying GSK-3βin neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24768148

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated glycogen synthase kinase 3β aggravates liver inflammation and hepatotoxicity in mice with acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Xiangying; Wen, Tao; Shi, Hongbo; Xie, Bangxiang; Li, Zhuo; Chen, Dexi; Wang, Zheling; Duan, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) has been increasingly recognized as an important mechanism in various liver diseases. However, its intrinsic physiological role in acute liver failure (ALF) remains largely undetermined. This study aimed to examine how ER stress orchestrates glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and inflammation to affect ALF. In a murine ALF model induced by D-galactosamine (D-GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) is to be administered to relieve ER stress. The lethality rate, liver damage, cytokine expression, and the activity of GSK3β were evaluated. How to regulate LPS-induced inflammation and TNF-α-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by ER stress was investigated in vitro. In vivo, ER stress was triggered in the liver with the progression of mice ALF model. ER stress was essential for the development of ALF because ER stress inhibition by 4-PBA ameliorated the liver damage through decreasing liver inflammation and hepatocyte apoptosis. 4-PBA also decreased GSK3β activity in the livers of ALF mice. In vitro, ER stress induced by tunicamycin synergistically increased LPS-triggered pro-inflammatory cytokine induction and promoted the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in bone marrow-derived macrophages; moreover, tunicamycin also cooperated with TNF-α to increase hepatocyte apoptosis. ER stress promoted LPS-triggered inflammation depending on GSK3β activation because inhibition of GSK3β by SB216763, the specific inhibitor of GSK3β, resulted in downregulation of pro-inflammatory genes. ER stress contributes to liver inflammation and hepatotoxicity in ALF, particularly by regulating GSK3β, and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for ALF.

  6. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the ventral tegmental area mediates diurnal variations in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Su-Xia; Wei, Yi-Ming; Shi, Hai-Shui; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Ding, Zeng-Bo; Xue, Yan-Xue; Lu, Lin; Yu, Chang-Xi

    2014-11-01

    Cocaine sensitization and reward are reported to be under the influence of diurnal rhythm. However, no previous studies have reported brain areas that play a role as modulators and underlie the mechanism of diurnal variations in cocaine reward. We examined (1) the diurnal rhythm of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and reward-related brain areas in naive rats; (2) the effect of day and night on the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP); (3) the influence of cocaine-induced CPP on GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas; and (4) the effect of the GSK-3β inhibitor SB216763 microinjected bilaterally into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine-induced CPP. A significant diurnal rhythm of GSK-3β activity was found in the SCN and reward-related brain areas, with diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP. GSK-3β activity in the SCN and reward-related brain areas exhibited marked diurnal variations in rats treated with saline. GSK-3β activity in rats treated with cocaine exhibited distinct diurnal variations only in the prefrontal cortex and VTA. Cocaine decreased the expression of phosphorylated GSK-3β (i.e. increased GSK-3β activity) only in the VTA in rats trained and tested at ZT4 and ZT16. SB216763 microinjected into the VTA bilaterally eliminated the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, but did not affect the acquisition of cocaine-induced CPP. These findings suggest that the VTA may be a critical area involved in the diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP, and GSK-3β may be a regulator of diurnal variations in cocaine-induced CPP. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation is important for anthrax edema toxin-induced dendritic cell maturation and anthrax toxin receptor 2 expression in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Larabee, Jason L; Maldonado-Arocho, Francisco J; Pacheco, Sergio; France, Bryan; DeGiusti, Kevin; Shakir, Salika M; Bradley, Kenneth A; Ballard, Jimmy D

    2011-08-01

    Anthrax edema toxin (ET) is one of two binary toxins produced by Bacillus anthracis that contributes to the virulence of this pathogen. ET is an adenylate cyclase that generates high levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP), causing alterations in multiple host cell signaling pathways. We previously demonstrated that ET increases cell surface expression of the anthrax toxin receptors (ANTXR) in monocyte-derived cells and promotes dendritic cell (DC) migration toward the lymph node-homing chemokine MIP-3β. In this work, we sought to determine if glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is important for ET-induced modulation of macrophage and DC function. We demonstrate that inhibition of GSK-3 dampens ET-induced maturation and migration processes of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Additional studies reveal that the ET-induced expression of ANTXR in macrophages was decreased when GSK-3 activity was disrupted with chemical inhibitors or with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting GSK-3. Further examination of the ET induction of ANTXR revealed that a dominant negative form of CREB could block the ET induction of ANTXR, suggesting that CREB or a related family member was involved in the upregulation of ANTXR. Because CREB and GSK-3 activity appeared to be important for ET-induced ANTXR expression, the impact of GSK-3 on ET-induced CREB activity was examined in RAW 264.7 cells possessing a CRE-luciferase reporter. As with ANTXR expression, the ET induction of the CRE reporter was decreased by reducing GSK-3 activity. These studies not only provide insight into host pathways targeted by ET but also shed light on interactions between GSK-3 and CREB pathways in host immune cells.

  8. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by SB 216763 affects acquisition at lower doses than expression of amphetamine-conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Wickens, Rebekah H; Quartarone, Susan E; Beninger, Richard J

    2016-12-14

    Dopamine (DA) drives incentive learning, whereby neutral stimuli acquire the ability to elicit responses. DA influences the signaling molecule glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3). Inhibition of GSK3 attenuates the development of behavioral sensitization to stimulant drugs and conditioned place preference (CPP), a measure of incentive learning. We examined the role of GSK3 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats in CPP produced by amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p. or 20.0 μg/0.5 μl/side intra-NAc) by administering the inhibitor SB 216763 (1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/kg, i.p. or 0.03, 0.30, 3.00, and 5.00 μg/0.5 μl/side intra-NAc) during acquisition or expression. We hypothesized a dose-dependent effect of SB 216763 and that acquisition would be affected by smaller doses than expression. For the systemic groups, 1.0 mg/kg of SB 216763 did not block CPP; 2.0 mg/kg administered in acquisition but not expression blocked CPP; and 2.5 mg/kg administered in either phase blocked CPP. For the central groups, 0.03 μg/0.5 μl/side of SB 216763 prevented acquisition but not expression, whereas larger doses administered in either phase blocked CPP. Thus, systemic or NAc inhibition of GSK3 by SB 216763 during acquisition or expression blocks amphetamine-produced CPP and acquisition is sensitive to lower doses than expression.

  9. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Ameliorates D-GalN/LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Triggered Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Wen, Tao; Piao, Zhengfu; Zhou, Li; Zheng, Sujun; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Yu; Han, Yuanping; Duan, Zhongping; Ma, Yingji

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine-threonine protein kinase that participates in numerous cellular processes and disease pathophysiology. We aimed to determine therapeutic potential of GSK3β inhibition and its mechanism in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of acute liver failure (ALF). Methodology In a murine ALF model induced by D-GalN(700 mg/kg)/LPS(10 µg/kg), we analyzed GSK3β mechanisms using a specific chemical inhibitor, SB216763, and detected the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Mice were administered SB216763 at 2 h before or after D-GalN/LPS injection, respectively, and then sacrificed 6 h after D-GalN/LPS treatment to evaluate its prophylactic and therapeutic function. The lethality rate, liver damage, ERS, cytokine expression, MAP kinase, hepatocyte apoptosis and expression of TLR 4 were evaluated, respectively. Whether the inhibition of GSK3β activation protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced apoptosis was investigated in vitro. Principal Findings GSK3β became quickly activated (dephosphorylated) upon D-GalN/LPS exposure. Administration of SB216763 not only ameliorated liver injury, as evidenced by reduced transaminase levels, and well-preserved liver architecture, but also decreased lethality. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition resulted in down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins C/EBP–homologous protein(CHOP) and caspase-12, which are related to ERS. To further demonstrate the role of ERS, we found that GSK3β inhibition protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced cell death. GSK3β inhibition down-regulated the MAPK pathways, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of TLR4. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate the key function of GSK3β signaling in the pathophysiology of ALF, especially in regulating the ERS, and provide a rationale for targeting GSK3β as a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF. PMID:23028846

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates paradoxical amphetamine action in a mouse model of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Gassen, Nils C; Zellner, Andreas; Rein, Theo; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T; Anderzhanova, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants show therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is generally assumed that they ameliorate ADHD symptoms via interfering with monoaminergic signaling. We combined behavioral pharmacology, neurochemistry and molecular analyses to identify mechanisms underlying the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in low trait anxiety behavior (LAB) mice, a novel multigenetic animal model of ADHD. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) elicited similar dopamine and norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the striatum of LAB mice. In contrast, amphetamine decreased, while methylphenidate increased locomotor activity. This argues against changes in dopamine and/or norepinephrine release as mediators of amphetamine paradoxical effects. Instead, the calming activity of amphetamine corresponded to the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, specifically in the mPFC. Accordingly, not only systemic administration of the GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (20 mg/kg), but also local microinjections of TDZD-8 and amphetamine into the mPFC, but not into the striatum, decreased locomotor activity in LAB mice. Amphetamine effects seem to depend on NMDA receptor signaling, since pre- or co-treatment with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg) abolished the effects of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) on the locomotion and on the phosphorylation of GSK3β at the level of the mPFC. Taken together, the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in hyperactive LAB mice concurs with a decreased GSK3β activity in the mPFC. This effect appears to be independent of dopamine or norepinephrine release, but contingent on NMDA receptor signaling.

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β inhibition in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates paradoxical amphetamine action in a mouse model of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Gassen, Nils C.; Zellner, Andreas; Rein, Theo; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Anderzhanova, Elmira

    2015-01-01

    Psychostimulants show therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is generally assumed that they ameliorate ADHD symptoms via interfering with monoaminergic signaling. We combined behavioral pharmacology, neurochemistry and molecular analyses to identify mechanisms underlying the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in low trait anxiety behavior (LAB) mice, a novel multigenetic animal model of ADHD. Amphetamine (1 mg/kg) and methylphenidate (10 mg/kg) elicited similar dopamine and norepinephrine release in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the striatum of LAB mice. In contrast, amphetamine decreased, while methylphenidate increased locomotor activity. This argues against changes in dopamine and/or norepinephrine release as mediators of amphetamine paradoxical effects. Instead, the calming activity of amphetamine corresponded to the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity, specifically in the mPFC. Accordingly, not only systemic administration of the GSK3β inhibitor TDZD-8 (20 mg/kg), but also local microinjections of TDZD-8 and amphetamine into the mPFC, but not into the striatum, decreased locomotor activity in LAB mice. Amphetamine effects seem to depend on NMDA receptor signaling, since pre- or co-treatment with MK-801 (0.3 mg/kg) abolished the effects of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) on the locomotion and on the phosphorylation of GSK3β at the level of the mPFC. Taken together, the paradoxical calming effect of amphetamine in hyperactive LAB mice concurs with a decreased GSK3β activity in the mPFC. This effect appears to be independent of dopamine or norepinephrine release, but contingent on NMDA receptor signaling. PMID:25852508

  12. Ventricular hypertrophy abrogates intralipid-induced cardioprotection by alteration of reperfusion injury salvage kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3β signal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei-Lei; Ge, Hong-Wei; Kong, Fei-Juan; Qian, Ling-Bo; Hu, Bang-Chuan; Li, Qian; Xu, Liang; Liu, Jing-Quan; Xu, Yun-Xiang; Sun, Ren-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that intralipid (ILP) conferred myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through activation of reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway. As RISK signal has been shown to be impaired in hypertrophied myocardium, we investigated whether ILP-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypertrophied rat hearts. Transverse aortic constriction was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce left ventricular hypertrophy, then sham-operated or hypertrophied rat hearts were isolated and perfused retrogradely by the Langendorff for 30 min (equilibration) followed by 40 min of ischemia and then 120 min of reperfusion. The isolated hearts received 15-min episode of 1% ILP separated by 15 min of washout or three episodes of 5-min ischemia followed by 5-min reperfusion before ischemia. The hemodynamics, infarct size, apoptosis, phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), Bcl-2, phosphorylated Bad, and Bax were determined. We found that ILP significantly improved left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and the number of TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive cells in the sham-operated rat hearts exposed to IR. However, such myocardial infarct-sparing effect of ILP was completely blocked by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin, but only partially by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor PD98059 in sham-operated hearts. Intralipd upregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and their downstream target of GSK3β and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 expression in healthy rat hearts. Nonetheless, ILP failed to improve left ventricular hemodynamics and reduced infarct size and apoptosis and increase the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, GSK3β, and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 in hypertrophied myocardium

  13. Tissue kallikrein promotes neovascularization and improves cardiac function by the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yu-Yu; Yin, Hang; Shen, Bo; Smith, Robert S.; Liu, Yuying; Gao, Lin; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Aims We investigated the role of the Akt-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β signalling pathway in mediating the protective effects of tissue kallikrein on myocardial injury by promoting angiogenesis and blood flow in rats after myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results Human tissue kallikrein gene in an adenoviral vector, with or without co-administration of dominant-negative Akt (Ad.DN-Akt) or constitutively active GSK-3β (Ad.GSK-3βS9A), was injected into rat myocardium after MI. The expression of recombinant human kallikrein in rat heart significantly improved cardiac function and reduced infarct size 10 days after gene delivery. Kallikrein administration significantly increased myocardial blood flow as well as capillary and arteriole densities in the infarcted myocardium. Kallikrein increased cardiac Akt and GSK-3β phosphorylation in conjunction with decreased GSK-3β activity and the upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). All of kallikrein’s effects on the myocardium were abrogated by Ad.DN-Akt and Ad.GSK-3βS9A. Moreover, in cultured human aortic endothelial cells, tissue kallikrein stimulated capillary tube formation and promoted cell migration; however, these effects were blocked by Ad.DN-Akt, Ad.GSK-3βS9A, icatibant (a kinin B2 receptor antagonist), Tki (a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor), and a neutralizing VEGF antibody. In addition, tissue kallikrein decreased GSK-3β activity via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt pathway and enhanced VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression in endothelial cells. Conclusion These data provide the first direct evidence that tissue kallikrein protects against acute-phase MI by promoting neovascularization, restoring regional blood flow and improving cardiac function through the kinin B2 receptor-Akt-GSK-3β and VEGF signalling pathways. PMID:18689794

  14. A negative feedback control of transforming growth factor-beta signaling by glycogen synthase kinase 3-mediated Smad3 linker phosphorylation at Ser-204.

    PubMed

    Millet, Caroline; Yamashita, Motozo; Heller, Mary; Yu, Li-Rong; Veenstra, Timothy D; Zhang, Ying E

    2009-07-24

    Through the action of its membrane-bound type I receptor, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) elicits a wide range of cellular responses that regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apo ptosis. Many of these signaling responses are mediated by Smad proteins. As such, controlling Smad activity is crucial for proper signaling by TGF-beta and its related factors. Here, we show that TGF-beta induces phosphorylation at three sites in the Smad3 linker region in addition to the two C-terminal residues, and glycogen synthase kinase 3 is responsible for phosphorylation at one of these sites, namely Ser-204. Alanine substitution at Ser-204 and/or the neighboring Ser-208, the priming site for glycogen synthase kinase 3 in vivo activity, strengthened the affinity of Smad3 to CREB-binding protein, suggesting that linker phosphorylation may be part of a negative feedback loop that modulates Smad3 transcriptional activity. Thus, our findings reveal a novel aspect of the Smad3 signaling mechanism that controls the final amplitude of cellular responses to TGF-beta.

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) regulates TNF production and haemocyte phagocytosis in the immune response of Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaowei; Jia, Zhihao; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Zhaoqun; Yang, Bin; Jia, Yunke; Song, Xiaorui; Yi, Qilin; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2017-03-29

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase firstly identified as a regulator of glycogen synthesis. Recently, it has been proved to be a key regulator of the immune reaction. In the present study, a GSK3 homolog gene (designated as EsGSK3) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) was 1824 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 607 amino acids. There was a conserved Serine/Threonine Kinase domain and a DNA binding domain found in EsGSK3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EsGSK3 was firstly clustered with GSK3-β from oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in the invertebrate branch, while GSK3s from vertebrates formed the other distinct branch. EsGSK3 mRNA transcripts could be detected in all tested tissues of the crab including haepatopancreas, eyestalk, muscle, gonad, haemocytes and haematopoietic tissue with the highest expression level in haepatopancreas. And EsGSK3 protein was mostly detected in the cytoplasm of haemocyte by immunofluorescence analysis. The expression levels of EsGSK3 mRNA increased significantly at 6 h after Aeromonas hydrophila challenge (p < 0.05) in comparison with control group, and then gradually decreased to the initial level at 48 h (p > 0.05). The mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α factor (EsLITAF) was also induced by A. hydrophila challenge. However, the mRNA expression of EsLITAF and TNF-α production was significantly suppressed after EsGSK3 was blocked in vivo with specific inhibitor lithium, while the phagocytosis of crab haemocytes was significantly promoted. These results collectively demonstrated that EsGSK3 could regulate the innate immune responses of E. sinensis by promoting TNF-α production and inhibiting haemocyte phagocytosis.

  16. Insufficient Astrocyte-Derived Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Contributes to Propofol-Induced Neuron Death Through Akt/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β/Mitochondrial Fission Pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanan; Yan, Yasheng; Inagaki, Yasuyoshi; Logan, Sarah; Bosnjak, Zeljko J; Bai, Xiaowen

    2017-07-01

    Growing animal evidence demonstrates that prolonged exposure to propofol during brain development induces widespread neuronal cell death, but there is little information on the role of astrocytes. Astrocytes can release neurotrophic growth factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which can exert the protective effect on neurons in paracrine fashion. We hypothesize that during propofol anesthesia, BDNF released from developing astrocytes may not be sufficient to prevent propofol-induced neurotoxicity. Hippocampal astrocytes and neurons isolated from neonatal Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to propofol at a clinically relevant dose of 30 μM or dimethyl sulfoxide as control for 6 hours. Propofol-induced cell death was determined by propidium iodide (PI) staining in astrocyte-alone cultures, neuron-alone cultures, or cocultures containing either low or high density of astrocytes (1:9 or 1:1 ratio of astrocytes to neurons ratio [ANR], respectively). The astrocyte-conditioned medium was collected 12 hours after propofol exposure and measured by protein array assay. BDNF concentration in astrocyte-conditioned medium was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neuron-alone cultures were treated with BDNF, tyrosine receptor kinase B inhibitor cyclotraxin-B, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor CHIR99021, or mitochondrial fission inhibitor Mdivi-1 before propofol exposure. Western blot was performed for quantification of the level of protein kinase B and GSK3β. Mitochondrial shape was visualized through translocase of the outer membrane 20 staining. Propofol increased cell death in neurons by 1.8-fold (% of PI-positive cells [PI%] = 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.2-21.9, P < .05) but did not influence astrocyte viability. The neuronal death was attenuated by a high ANR (1:1 cocultures; fold change [FC] = 1.17, 95% CI, 0.96-1.38, P < .05), but not with a low ANR [1:9 cocultures; FC = 1.87, 95% CI, 1.48-2.26, P > .05

  17. Proteasome inhibition-induced p38 MAPK/ERK signaling regulates autophagy and apoptosis through the dual phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta}

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and, to a lesser extent, of GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MG132 induces dephosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389} and phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 dephosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and phosphorylates GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 phosphorylates p70S6K{sup Thr389} and increases the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactivation of p38 decreases autophagy and increases apoptosis induced by MG132. -- Abstract: Proteasome inhibition is a promising approach for cancer treatment; however, the underlying mechanisms involved have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that proteasome inhibition-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase regulates autophagy and apoptosis by modulating the phosphorylation status of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}) and 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K). The treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with MG132 induced endoplasmic reticulum stress through the induction of ATF6a, PERK phosphorylation, and CHOP, and apoptosis through the cleavage of Bax and procaspase-3. MG132 caused the phosphorylation of GSK3{beta} at Ser{sup 9} and, to a lesser extent, Thr{sup 390}, the dephosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 389}, and the phosphorylation of p70S6K at Thr{sup 421} and Ser{sup 424}. The specific p38 inhibitor SB203080 reduced the p-GSK3{beta}{sup Ser9} and autophagy through the phosphorylation of p70S6K{sup Thr389}; however, it augmented the levels of p-ERK, p-GSK3{beta}{sup Thr390}, and p-70S6K{sup Thr421/Ser424} induced by MG132, and increased apoptotic cell death. The GSK inhibitor SB216763, but not lithium, inhibited the MG132-induced phosphorylation of p38, and the downstream signaling pathway was consistent with that in SB203580-treated cells. Taken together, our

  18. Subcutaneous liraglutide ameliorates methylglyoxal-induced Alzheimer-like tau pathology and cognitive impairment by modulating tau hyperphosphorylation and glycogen synthase kinase-3β

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Liqin; Chen, Zhou; Wang, Yanping; Liu, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiaohong; Ke, Linfang; Zheng, Zhongjie; Lin, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Lijuan; Liu, Libin

    2017-01-01

    Memory deterioration and synapse damage with accumulation of β-amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau are hallmark lesions of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methylglyoxal (MG), a key intermediate of glucose metabolism, is elevated in AD brains and modifies Aβ42, increasing misfolding and leading to the accumulation of senile plaques. Liraglutide, an analog of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is neurotrophic and neuroprotective. However, whether liraglutide can protect against AD-like memory-related deficits and tau hyperphosphorylation caused by MG in vivo is not known. Here, we report that MG induces tau hyperphosphorylation and causes ultrastructural hippocampal damage and cognitive impairment in C57BL/6J mice. Liraglutide reduced these effects via activation of the protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathways. Our data reveal that liraglutide may alleviate AD-like cognitive impairment by decreasing the phosphorylation of tau. PMID:28337257

  19. Treadmill exercise decreases incidence of Alzheimer's disease by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3β expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Jung, Sun-Young; Kim, Tae-Woon; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Kijeong

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disorder, and it is considered as a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we evaluated whether treadmill exercise ameliorates progression of AD in relation with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. For this study, step-down avoidance task, immunohistochemistry for glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and tau, and western blot for phosphor-phosphoinositide 3 kinase (p-PI3K)/PI3K and phosphor-Akt (p-Akt)/Akt were performed. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on the treadmill for 30 min per one day, five times a week, during 12 weeks. The present results showed that short-term and long-term latencies in the step-down avoidance task were decreased by induction of diabetes, and treadmill exercise inhibited these latencies in the diabetic rats. Induction of diabetes suppressed the ratio of p-PI3K to PI3K and the ratio of p-Akt to Akt, and treadmill exercise increased these ratios in the diabetic rats. The numbers of GSK-3β-positive and tau-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was higher in the diabetes-induction group than that in the control group, and treadmill exercise inhibited these numbers in the diabetic rats. In the present study, treadmill exercise suppressed hyperphosphorylation of tau in the hippocampus by decreased GSK-3β activity through PI3K/Akt pathway activation in the diabetic rats. Based on the present results, treadmill exercise may helpful to prevent diabetes-associated AD occurrence.

  20. Silencing Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibits Acetaminophen Hepatotoxicity and Attenuates JNK Activation and Loss of Glutamate Cysteine Ligase and Myeloid Cell Leukemia Sequence 1*

    PubMed Central

    Shinohara, Mie; Ybanez, Maria D.; Win, Sanda; Than, Tin Aung; Jain, Shilpa; Gaarde, William A.; Han, Derick; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a central role in acetaminophen (APAP)-induced liver injury. In the current work, we examined other possible signaling pathways that may also contribute to APAP hepatotoxicity. APAP treatment to mice caused glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activation and translocation to mitochondria during the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury (∼1 h). The silencing of GSK-3β, but not Akt-2 (protein kinase B) or glycogen synthase kinase-3α (GSK-3α), using antisense significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury. The silencing of GSK-3β affected several key pathways important in conferring protection against APAP-induced liver injury. APAP treatment was observed to promote the loss of glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL, rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis) in liver. The silencing of GSK-3β decreased the loss of hepatic GCL, and promoted greater GSH recovery in liver following APAP treatment. Silencing JNK1 and -2 also prevented the loss of GCL. APAP treatment also resulted in GSK-3β translocation to mitochondria and the degradation of myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1) in mitochondrial membranes in liver. The silencing of GSK-3β reduced Mcl-1 degradation caused by APAP treatment. The silencing of GSK-3β also resulted in an inhibition of the early phase (0–2 h), and blunted the late phase (after 4 h) of JNK activation and translocation to mitochondria in liver following APAP treatment. Taken together our results suggest that activation of GSK-3β is a key mediator of the initial phase of APAP-induced liver injury through modulating GCL and Mcl-1 degradation, as well as JNK activation in liver. PMID:20061376

  1. Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid-Insensitive dwarf12 Mutants Are Semidominant and Defective in a Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β-Like Kinase1

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Sunghwa; Schmitz, Robert J.; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Lee, Mi-Ok; Yoshida, Shigeo; Feldmann, Kenneth A.; Tax, Frans E.

    2002-01-01

    Mutants defective in the biosynthesis or signaling of brassinosteroids (BRs), plant steroid hormones, display dwarfism. Loss-of-function mutants for the gene encoding the plasma membrane-located BR receptor BRI1 are resistant to exogenous application of BRs, and characterization of this protein has contributed significantly to the understanding of BR signaling. We have isolated two new BR-insensitive mutants (dwarf12-1D and dwf12-2D) after screening Arabidopsis ethyl methanesulfonate mutant populations. dwf12 mutants displayed the characteristic morphology of previously reported BR dwarfs including short stature, short round leaves, infertility, and abnormal de-etiolation. In addition, dwf12 mutants exhibited several unique phenotypes, including severe downward curling of the leaves. Genetic analysis indicates that the two mutations are semidominant in that heterozygous plants show a semidwarf phenotype whose height is intermediate between wild-type and homozygous mutant plants. Unlike BR biosynthetic mutants, dwf12 plants were not rescued by high doses of exogenously applied BRs. Like bri1 mutants, dwf12 plants accumulated castasterone and brassinolide, 43- and 15-fold higher, respectively, providing further evidence that DWF12 is a component of the BR signaling pathway that includes BRI1. Map-based cloning of the DWF12 gene revealed that DWF12 belongs to a member of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β family. Unlike human glycogen synthase kinase 3β, DWF12 lacks the conserved serine-9 residue in the auto-inhibitory N terminus. In addition, dwf12-1D and dwf12-2D encode changes in consecutive glutamate residues in a highly conserved TREE domain. Together with previous reports that both bin2 and ucu1 mutants contain mutations in this TREE domain, this provides evidence that the TREE domain is of critical importance for proper function of DWF12/BIN2/UCU1 in BR signal transduction pathways. PMID:12428015

  2. Progesterone receptor A stability is mediated by glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohui; Li, Ying; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Lee, Sou-Ying; Kim, Yoon; Lee, Eva Y-H P

    2013-09-06

    Germ line mutations of the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but the basis of this tissue-specific tumor predisposition is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that the progesterone receptors are stabilized in Brca1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, and treating with anti-progesterone delays mammary tumorigenesis in Brca1/p53 conditional knock-out mice, suggesting that the progesterone has a critical role in breast carcinogenesis. To further explore how the stability of progesterone receptor is modulated, here, we have found that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation of progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) facilitates its ubiquitination. GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of serine 390 in PR-A regulates its subsequent ubiquitination and protein stability. Expression of PR-A(S390A) mutant in the human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, results in enhanced proliferation and formation of aberrant acini structure in the three-dimensional culture. Consistently, reduction of phosphorylation of serine 390 of PR-A and GSK-3β activity is observed in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland. Taken together, these results provide important aspects of tissue specificity of BRCA1-mediated suppression of breast carcinogenesis.

  3. Progesterone Receptor A Stability Is Mediated by Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in the Brca1-deficient Mammary Gland*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohui; Li, Ying; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Lee, Sou-Ying; Kim, Yoon; Lee, Eva Y.-H. P.

    2013-01-01

    Germ line mutations of the BRCA1 gene increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, but the basis of this tissue-specific tumor predisposition is not fully understood. Previously, we reported that the progesterone receptors are stabilized in Brca1-deficient mammary epithelial cells, and treating with anti-progesterone delays mammary tumorigenesis in Brca1/p53 conditional knock-out mice, suggesting that the progesterone has a critical role in breast carcinogenesis. To further explore how the stability of progesterone receptor is modulated, here, we have found that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β phosphorylation of progesterone receptor-A (PR-A) facilitates its ubiquitination. GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation of serine 390 in PR-A regulates its subsequent ubiquitination and protein stability. Expression of PR-AS390A mutant in the human breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, results in enhanced proliferation and formation of aberrant acini structure in the three-dimensional culture. Consistently, reduction of phosphorylation of serine 390 of PR-A and GSK-3β activity is observed in the Brca1-deficient mammary gland. Taken together, these results provide important aspects of tissue specificity of BRCA1-mediated suppression of breast carcinogenesis. PMID:23880761

  4. Biological basis and clinical study of glycogen synthase kinase- 3β-targeted therapy by drug repositioning for glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Takuya; Sabit, Hemragul; Dong, Yu; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Kinoshita, Masashi; Uchiyama, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Yutaka; Minamoto, Toshinari; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β has emerged as an appealing therapeutic target for glioblastoma (GBM). Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of the current approved drugs against GBM via inhibition of GSK3β activity both, in experimental setting and in a clinical study for recurrent GBM patients by repositioning existent drugs in combination with temozolomide (TMZ). Materials and Methods Progression-free and overall survival rates were compared between patients with low or high expression of active GSK3β in the primary tumor. GBM cells and a mouse model were examined for the effects of GSK3β-inhibitory drugs, cimetidine, lithium, olanzapine, and valproate. The safety and efficacy of the cocktail of these drugs (CLOVA cocktail) in combination with TMZ were tested in the mouse model and in a clinical study for recurrent GBM patients. Results Activation of GSK3β in the tumor inversely correlated with patient survival as an independent prognostic factor. CLOVA cocktail significantly inhibited cell invasion and proliferation. The patients treated with CLOVA cocktail in combination with TMZ showed increased survival compared to the control group treated with TMZ alone. Conclusions Repositioning of the GSK3β-inhibitory drugs improved the prognosis of refractory GBM patients with active GSK3β in tumors. Combination of CLOVA cocktail and TMZ is a promising approach for recurrent GBM. PMID:28423558

  5. Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-3 Is a Key Inhibitor of Inflammation in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Keyzer, Dieuwke; Mertens, Ann; Lannoo, Matthias; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoylaerts, Marc; Benhabilès, Nora; Tsatsanis, Christos; Mathieu, Chantal; Holvoet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background Visceral obesity is associated with the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Low-grade chronic inflammation and oxidative stress synergize in obesity and obesity-induced disorders. Objective We searched a cluster of molecules that support interactions between these stress conditions in monocytes. Methods RNA expressions in blood monocytes of two independent cohorts comprising 21 and 102 obese persons and 46 age-matched controls were determined by microarray and independently validated by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The effect of three-month weight loss after bariatric surgery was determined. The effect of RNA silencing on inflammation and oxidative stress was studied in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Results Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-3 (IRAK3), key inhibitor of IRAK/NFκB-mediated chronic inflammation, is downregulated in monocytes of obese persons. Low IRAK3 was associated with high superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2), a marker of mitochondrial oxidative stress. A comparable expression profile was also detected in visceral adipose tissue of the same obese subjects. Low IRAK3 and high SOD2 was associated with a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (odds ratio: 9.3; sensitivity: 91%; specificity: 77%). By comparison, the odds ratio of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a widely used marker of systemic inflammation, was 4.3 (sensitivity: 69%; specificity: 66%). Weight loss was associated with an increase in IRAK3 and a decrease in SOD2, in association with a lowering of systemic inflammation and a decreasing number of metabolic syndrome components. We identified the increase in reactive oxygen species in combination with obesity-associated low adiponectin and high glucose and interleukin-6 as cause of the decrease in IRAK3 in THP-1 cells in vitro. Conclusion IRAK3 is a key inhibitor of inflammation in association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Our data warrant further evaluation of IRAK3 as a diagnostic and

  6. Utilizing glycogen synthase kinase-3β as a marker for the diagnosis of graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Orbach, A; Bassan-Levin, T; Dan, P; Hihinashvilli, B; Marx, S

    2013-06-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a deadly complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Timely diagnosis is critical, because mortality rates for GVHD are high, increasing with disease severity. A diagnostic tool to predict GVHD before the onset of clinical symptoms could save many lives. On the cellular level, GVHD occurs when T cells from the transplant attack the tissues of the host, after perceiving them to be foreign. T-cell proliferation occurs even before clinical symptoms appear. Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β is a protein which regulates proliferation in many cell types including T-cells. GSK-3β has never been directly connected with GVHD and we applied GSK-3β as a novel marker for GVHD prediction, seeking herein to determine whether GSK-3β can be utilized as a marker for the early diagnosis of GVHD. For the mouse model of acute GVHD, irradiated mice underwent allogeneic splenocyte transplantation and GSK-3β expression levels and phosphorylation states were monitored in harvested spleens by western blot. FACS analysis was used to measure the number of T cells within the harvested spleens. Mice developed observable GVHD symptoms by day 5 post-transplantation, with severe symptoms on day 6 requiring mice to be killed for humane reasons. A significantly increased number of T cells in the allogeneic mice correlated with GVHD development. GSK-3β protein expression levels and phosphorylation levels were significantly lower in allogeneic (GVHD) mice compared with negative (untreated) and positive (syngeneic transplant; non-GVHD) controls over time. GSK-3β was directly connected with the onset and progression of GVHD. Therefore, it can be utilized as a marker for GVHD diagnosis in animals and potentially in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Pinsky, David J; Bentley, J Kelley

    2010-06-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3beta phosphorylation. GSK-3beta inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3beta mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-beta1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3beta phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3beta-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-beta1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH.

  8. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle hypertrophy: roles of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Huan; Hershenson, Marc B.; Lei, Jing; Anyanwu, Anuli C.; Pinsky, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Increased medial arterial thickness is a structural change in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The role of smooth muscle hypertrophy in this process has not been well studied. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, serotonin (or 5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), and endothelin (ET)-1 have been implicated in PAH pathogenesis. We examined the effect of these mediators on human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, and contractile function, as well on the roles of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K), two proteins involved in translational control, in this process. Unlike epidermal growth factor, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 each increased smooth muscle cell size, contractile protein expression, fractional cell shortening, and GSK-3β phosphorylation. GSK-3β inhibition by lithium or SB-216763 increased cell size, protein synthesis, and contractile protein expression. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable GSK-3β mutant blocked BMP-4-, TGF-β1-, 5-HT-, and ET-1-induced cell size enlargement, suggesting that GSK-3β phosphorylation is required and sufficient for cellular hypertrophy. However, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 stimulation was accompanied by an increase in serum response factor transcriptional activation but not eIF2 phosphorylation, suggesting that GSK-3β-mediated hypertrophy occurs via transcriptional, not translational, control. Finally, BMP-4, TGF-β1, 5-HT, and ET-1 treatment induced phosphorylation of p70S6K and ribosomal protein S6, and siRNAs against p70S6K and S6 blocked the hypertrophic response. We conclude that mediators implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH induce pulmonary arterial smooth muscle hypertrophy. Identification of the signaling pathways regulating vascular smooth muscle hypertrophy may define new therapeutic targets for PAH. PMID:20190034

  9. Airway smooth muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy correlate with glycogen synthase kinase-3(beta) phosphorylation in a mouse model of asthma.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J Kelley; Deng, Huan; Linn, Marisa J; Lei, Jing; Dokshin, Gregoriy A; Fingar, Diane C; Bitar, Khalil N; Henderson, William R; Hershenson, Marc B

    2009-02-01

    Increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, a characteristic finding in asthma, may be caused by hyperplasia or hypertrophy. Cell growth requires increased translation of contractile apparatus mRNA, which is controlled, in part, by glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta, a constitutively active kinase that inhibits eukaryotic initiation factor-2 activity and binding of methionyl tRNA to the ribosome. Phosphorylation of GSK-3beta inactivates it, enhancing translation. We sought to quantify the contributions of hyperplasia and hypertrophy to increased ASM mass in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice and the role of GSK-3beta in this process. Immunofluorescent probes, confocal microscopy, and stereological methods were used to analyze the number and volume of cells expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin and phospho-Ser(9) GSK-3beta (pGSK). OVA treatment caused a 3-fold increase in ASM fractional unit volume or volume density (Vv) (PBS, 0.006 +/- 0.0003; OVA, 0.014 +/- 0.001), a 1.5-fold increase in ASM number per unit volume (Nv), and a 59% increase in volume per cell (Vv/Nv) (PBS, 824 +/- 76 microm(3); OVA, 1,310 +/- 183 mum(3)). In OVA-treated mice, there was a 12-fold increase in the Vv of pGSK (+) ASM, a 5-fold increase in the Nv of pGSK (+) ASM, and a 1.6-fold increase in Vv/Nv. Lung homogenates from OVA-treated mice showed increased GSK-3beta phosphorylation and lower GSK-3beta activity. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy are responsible for increased ASM mass in OVA-treated mice. Phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3beta are associated with ASM hypertrophy, suggesting that this kinase may play a role in asthmatic airway remodeling.

  10. Altered Wnt signalling in the teenage suicide brain: focus on glycogen synthase kinase-3β and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinguo; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Khan, Mansoor A; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Pandey, Ghanshyam N

    2013-06-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and β-catenin are important components of the Wnt signalling pathway, which is involved in numerous physiological functions such as cognition, brain development and cell survival. Their abnormalities have been implicated in mood disorders and schizophrenia. Teenage suicide is a major public health concern; however, very little is known about its neurobiology. In order to examine if abnormalities of GSK-3β and β-catenin are associated with teenage suicide, we determined the gene and protein expression of GSK-3β and β-catenin in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus obtained from 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 normal control subjects. Protein expression was determined using Western blot with specific antibodies and gene expression (mRNA levels) was determined using the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. No significant change was observed in the GSK-3β protein levels either in the PFC or hippocampus of suicide victims compared to controls. However, protein levels of pGSK-3β-ser(9) were significantly decreased in the PFC and hippocampus of suicide victims compared to normal controls. We also found that GSK-3β mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the PFC but not in the hippocampus of teenage suicide victims compared to controls. Mean protein and mRNA levels of β-catenin were significantly decreased in both the PFC and hippocampus of teenage suicide group compared to controls. The observation that there is a decrease in β-catenin and pGSK-3β-ser(9) in the PFC and hippocampus of teenage suicide victims does indicate a disturbance in the Wnt signalling pathway in teenage suicide.

  11. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Protein kinase A negatively modulates the nuclear accumulation of NF-ATc1 by priming for subsequent phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase-3.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Colleen M; Heist, E Kevin; Beals, Chan R; Crabtree, Gerald R; Gardner, Phyllis

    2002-12-13

    The nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of the NF-ATc family of transcription factors, essential to many developmental, differentiation, and adaptation processes, are determined by the opposing activities of the phosphatase calcineurin, which promotes nuclear accumulation of NF-ATc, and several kinases, which promote cytoplasmic accumulation. Many reports suggest that protein kinase A (PKA) negatively modulates calcineurin-mediated NF-ATc activation. Here we show that overexpression of PKA causes phosphorylation and cytoplasmic accumulation of NF-ATc1 in direct opposition to calcineurin by phosphorylating Ser-245, Ser-269, and Ser-294 in the conserved serine-proline repeat domain, and that mutation of these serines blocks the effect of PKA. Activation of endogenous PKA is similarly able to promote phosphorylation of these sites on NF-ATc1 in two lymphoid cell lines. We further show that a complete block of NF-ATc1 nuclear localization by PKA requires a second kinase activity that can be supplied by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3), and that mutation of either the PKA phosphorylation sites or the upstream GSK-3 sites prevents the effect of PKA. Thus, we propose that PKA functions cooperatively as a priming kinase for further phosphorylation by GSK-3 to oppose calcineurin-mediated nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity of NF-ATc1 and that, through this mechanism, PKA may be an important modulator of many NF-ATc-dependent processes.

  13. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 regulates expression of nuclear factor-erythroid-2 related transcription factor-1 (Nrf1) and inhibits pro-survival function of Nrf1

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Madhurima; Kwong, Erick K.; Park, Eujean; Nagra, Parminder; Chan, Jefferson Y.

    2013-08-01

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor-1 (Nrf1) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is known to regulate antioxidant and cytoprotective gene expression. It was recently shown that Nrf1 is regulated by SCF–Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. However our knowledge of upstream signals that targets Nrf1 for degradation by the UPS is not known. We report here that Nrf1 expression is negatively regulated by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in Fbw7-dependent manner. We show that GSK3 interacts with Nrf1 and phosphorylates the Cdc4 phosphodegron domain (CPD) in Nrf1. Mutation of serine residue in the CPD of Nrf1 to alanine (S350A), blocks Nrf1 from phosphorylation by GSK3, and stabilizes Nrf1. Knockdown of Nrf1 and expression of a constitutively active form of GSK3 results in increased apoptosis in neuronal cells in response to ER stress, while expression of the GSK3 phosphorylation resistant S350A–Nrf1 attenuates apoptotic cell death. Together these data suggest that GSK3 regulates Nrf1 expression and cell survival function in response to stress activation. Highlights: • The effect of GSK3 on Nrf1 expression was examined. • GSK3 destabilizes Nrf1 protein via Fbw7 ubiquitin ligase. • GSK3 binds and phosphorylates Nrf1. • Protection from stress-induced apoptosis by Nrf1 is inhibited by GSK3.

  14. Protein Kinase A Opposes the Phosphorylation-dependent Recruitment of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β to A-kinase Anchoring Protein 220*

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Jennifer L.; Nygren, Patrick J.; Tunquist, Brian J.; Langeberg, Lorene K.; Seternes, Ole-Morten; Scott, John D.

    2015-01-01

    The proximity of an enzyme to its substrate can influence rate and magnitude of catalysis. A-kinase anchoring protein 220 (AKAP220) is a multivalent anchoring protein that can sequester a variety of signal transduction enzymes. These include protein kinase A (PKA) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Using a combination of molecular and cellular approaches we show that GSK3β phosphorylation of Thr-1132 on AKAP220 initiates recruitment of this kinase into the enzyme scaffold. We also find that AKAP220 anchors GSK3β and its substrate β-catenin in membrane ruffles. Interestingly, GSK3β can be released from the multienzyme complex in response to PKA phosphorylation on serine 9, which suppresses GSK3β activity. The signaling scaffold may enhance this regulatory mechanism, as AKAP220 has the capacity to anchor two PKA holoenzymes. Site 1 on AKAP220 (residues 610–623) preferentially interacts with RII, whereas site 2 (residues 1633–1646) exhibits a dual specificity for RI and RII. In vitro affinity measurements revealed that site 2 on AKAP220 binds RII with ∼10-fold higher affinity than site 1. Occupancy of both R subunit binding sites on AKAP220 could provide a mechanism to amplify local cAMP responses and enable cross-talk between PKA and GSK3β. PMID:26088133

  15. Hyperinsulinemia enhances interleukin-17-induced inflammation to promote prostate cancer development in obese mice through inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of interleukin-17 receptor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sen; Zhang, Qiuyang; Chen, Chong; Ge, Dongxia; Qu, Yine; Chen, Rongyi; Fan, Yi-Ming; Li, Nan; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Alun R; Rowan, Brian G; Hill, Steven M; Sartor, Oliver; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B; Myers, Leann; Lin, Qishan; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-22

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays important roles in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. Obese people are in a chronic inflammatory state with increased serum levels of IL-17, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). How these factors contribute to the chronic inflammatory status that promotes development of aggressive prostate cancer in obese men is largely unknown. We found that, in obese mice, hyperinsulinemia enhanced IL-17-induced expression of downstream proinflammatory genes with increased levels of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), resulting in development of more invasive prostate cancer. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) constitutively bound to and phosphorylated IL-17RA at T780, leading to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of IL-17RA, thus inhibiting IL-17-mediated inflammation. IL-17RA phosphorylation was reduced, while the IL-17RA levels were increased in the proliferative human prostate cancer cells compared to the normal cells. Insulin and IGF1 enhanced IL-17-induced inflammatory responses through suppressing GSK3, which was shown in the cultured cell lines in vitro and obese mouse models of prostate cancer in vivo. These findings reveal a mechanism underlying the intensified inflammation in obesity and obesity-associated development of aggressive prostate cancer, suggesting that targeting GSK3 may be a potential therapeutic approach to suppress IL-17-mediated inflammation in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in obese men.

  16. Hyperinsulinemia enhances interleukin-17-induced inflammation to promote prostate cancer development in obese mice through inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of interleukin-17 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Ge, Dongxia; Qu, Yine; Chen, Rongyi; Fan, Yi-Ming; Li, Nan; Tang, Wendell W.; Zhang, Wensheng; Zhang, Kun; Wang, Alun R.; Rowan, Brian G.; Hill, Steven M.; Sartor, Oliver; Abdel, Asim B.; Myers, Leann; Lin, Qishan; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays important roles in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. Obese people are in a chronic inflammatory state with increased serum levels of IL-17, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). How these factors contribute to the chronic inflammatory status that promotes development of aggressive prostate cancer in obese men is largely unknown. We found that, in obese mice, hyperinsulinemia enhanced IL-17-induced expression of downstream proinflammatory genes with increased levels of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), resulting in development of more invasive prostate cancer. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) constitutively bound to and phosphorylated IL-17RA at T780, leading to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of IL-17RA, thus inhibiting IL-17-mediated inflammation. IL-17RA phosphorylation was reduced, while the IL-17RA levels were increased in the proliferative human prostate cancer cells compared to the normal cells. Insulin and IGF1 enhanced IL-17-induced inflammatory responses through suppressing GSK3, which was shown in the cultured cell lines in vitro and obese mouse models of prostate cancer in vivo. These findings reveal a mechanism underlying the intensified inflammation in obesity and obesity-associated development of aggressive prostate cancer, suggesting that targeting GSK3 may be a potential therapeutic approach to suppress IL-17-mediated inflammation in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in obese men. PMID:26871944

  17. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β) Negatively Regulates PTTG1/Human Securin Protein Stability, and GSK3β Inactivation Correlates with Securin Accumulation in Breast Tumors*

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M. Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á.; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCFβTrCP E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers. PMID:21757741

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) negatively regulates PTTG1/human securin protein stability, and GSK3beta inactivation correlates with securin accumulation in breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Mora-Santos, Mar; Limón-Mortés, M Cristina; Giráldez, Servando; Herrero-Ruiz, Joaquín; Sáez, Carmen; Japón, Miguel Á; Tortolero, Maria; Romero, Francisco

    2011-08-26

    PTTG1, also known as securin, is an inactivating partner of separase, the major effector for chromosome segregation during mitosis. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, securin is targeted for proteasomal destruction by the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome, allowing activation of separase. In addition, securin is overexpressed in metastatic or genomically instable tumors, suggesting a relevant role for securin in tumor progression. Stability of securin is regulated by phosphorylation; some phosphorylated forms are degraded out of mitosis, by the action of the SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein (SCF) complex. The kinases targeting securin for proteolysis have not been identified, and mechanistic insight into the cause of securin accumulation in human cancers is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) phosphorylates securin to promote its proteolysis via SCF(βTrCP) E3 ubiquitin ligase. Importantly, a strong correlation between securin accumulation and GSK3β inactivation was observed in breast cancer tissues, indicating that GSK3β inactivation may account for securin accumulation in breast cancers.

  19. N-(4-bromophenethyl) Caffeamide Inhibits Melanogenesis by Regulating AKT/Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta/Microphthalmia-associated Transcription Factor and Tyrosinase-related Protein 1/Tyrosinase.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Chia; Lin, Ping; You, Ya-Jhen; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Skin color is primarily produced by melanin, which is a crucial pigment that protects the skin from UV-induced damage and prevents carcinogenesis. However, accumulated melanin in the skin may cause hyperpigmentation and related disorders. Melanin synthesis comprises consecutive oxidative reactions, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting process of melanogenesis. In this study, tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TRP-1) and TRP-2 contributed to melanin formation. N-(4-bromophenethyl) caffeamide ((E)-N-(4-bromophenethyl)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)acrylamide; K36H), a caffeic acid phenyl amide derivative, inhibited α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced melanogenesis and tyrosinase activity in B16F0 cells. In addition, K36H reduced the protein expression of the phospho-cAMP response element binding protein (p-CREB), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, and TRP-1. Moreover, K36H promoted AKT and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting MITF transcription activity. Thus, K36H attenuated α-MSH-induced cAMP pathways, contributing to hypopigmentation. The results of a safety assay revealed that K36H did not exhibit cytotoxicity or irritate the skin or eyes. According to these results, K36H may have the potential to be used as a whitening agent in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.

  20. Focal adhesion kinase-mediated activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulates IL-33 receptor internalization and IL-33 signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Wei, Jianxin; Bowser, Rachel K; Traister, Russell S; Fan, Ming-Hui; Zhao, Yutong

    2015-01-15

    IL-33, a relatively new member of the IL-1 cytokine family, plays a crucial role in allergic inflammation and acute lung injury. Long form ST2 (ST2L), the receptor for IL-33, is expressed on immune effector cells and lung epithelia and plays a critical role in triggering inflammation. We have previously shown that ST2L stability is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system; however, its upstream internalization has not been studied. In this study, we demonstrate that glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) regulates ST2L internalization and IL-33 signaling. IL-33 treatment induced ST2L internalization, and an effect was attenuated by inhibition or downregulation of GSK3β. GSK3β was found to interact with ST2L on serine residue 446 in response to IL-33 treatment. GSK3β binding site mutant (ST2L(S446A)) and phosphorylation site mutant (ST2L(S442A)) are resistant to IL-33-induced ST2L internalization. We also found that IL-33 activated focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Inhibition of FAK impaired IL-33-induced GSK3β activation and ST2L internalization. Furthermore, inhibition of ST2L internalization enhanced IL-33-induced cytokine release in lung epithelial cells. These results suggest that modulation of the ST2L internalization by FAK/GSK3β might serve as a unique strategy to lessen pulmonary inflammation.

  1. Neuropilin 2 Signaling Is Involved in Cell Positioning of Adult-born Neurons through Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK3β).

    PubMed

    Ng, Teclise; Hor, Catherine H H; Chew, Benjamin; Zhao, Jing; Zhong, Zhong; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Goh, Eyleen L K

    2016-11-25

    Proper positioning of neurons is fundamental for brain functions. However, little is known on how adult-born neurons generated in the hilar side of hippocampal dentate gyrus migrate into the granular cell layer. Because class 3 Semaphorins (Sema3) are involved in dendritic growth of these newborn neurons, we examined whether they are essential for cell positioning. We disrupted Sema3 signaling by silencing neuropilin 1 (NRP1) or 2 (NRP2), the main receptors for Sema3A and Sema3F, in neural progenitors of adult mouse dentate gyrus. Silencing of NRP2, but not NRP1, affected cell positioning of adult newborn neurons. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) knockdown phenocopied this NRP2 silencing-mediated cell positioning defect, but did not affect dendritic growth. Furthermore, GSK3β is activated upon stimulation with Sema3F, and GSK3β overexpression rescued the cell positioning phenotypes seen in NRP2-deficient neurons. These results point to a new role for NRP2 in the positioning of neurons during adult hippocampal neurogenesis, acting via the GSK3β signaling pathway. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. Selective deletion of forebrain glycogen synthase kinase 3β reveals a central role in serotonin-sensitive anxiety and social behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Latapy, Camille; Rioux, Véronique; Guitton, Matthieu J.; Beaulieu, Jean-Martin

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission is thought to underlie mental illnesses, such as bipolar disorder, depression, autism and schizophrenia. Independent studies have indicated that 5-HT or drugs acting on 5-HT neurotransmission regulate the serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Furthermore, GSK3β inhibition rescues behavioural abnormalities in 5-HT-deficient mice with a loss-of-function mutation equivalent to the human variant (R441H) of tryptophan hydroxylase 2. In an effort to define neuroanatomical correlates of GSK3β activity in the regulation of behaviour, we generated CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice in which the gsk3b gene is postnatally inactivated in forebrain pyramidal neurons. Behavioural characterization showed that suppression of GSK3β in these brain areas has anxiolytic and pro-social effects. However, while a global reduction of GSK2β expression reduced responsiveness to amphetamine and increased resilience to social defeat, these behavioural effects were not found in CamKIIcre-floxGSK3β mice. These findings demonstrate a dissociation of behavioural effects related to GSK3 inhibition, with forebrain GSK3β being involved in the regulation of anxiety and sociability while social preference, resilience and responsiveness to psychostimulants would involve a function of this kinase in subcortical areas such as the hippocampus and striatum. PMID:22826345

  3. Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) as potent therapeutic strategy to ameliorates L-dopa-induced dyskinesia in 6-OHDA parkinsonian rats

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Cheng-long; Lin, Jing-Ya; Wang, Mei-Hua; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Su-fang; Wang, Xi-Jin; Liu, Zhen-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) is the dominating therapy drug for exogenous dopaminergic substitution and can alleviate most of the manifestations of Parkinson’s disease (PD), but long-term therapy is associated with the emergence of L-dopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). Evidence points towards an involvement of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in development of LID. In the present study, we found that animals rendered dyskinetic by L-dopa treatment, administration of TDZD8 (2mg/kg) obviously prevented the severity of AIM score, as well as improvement in motor function (P < 0.05). Moreover, the TDZD8-induced reduction in dyskinetic behavior correlated with a reduction in molecular correlates of LID. TDZD8 reduced the phosphorylation levels of tau, DARPP32, ERK and PKA protein, which represent molecular markers of LID, as well as reduced L-dopa-induced FosB mRNA and PPEB mRNA levels in the lesioned striatum. In addition, we found that TDZD8 antidyskinetic properties were overcome by D1 receptor, as pretreatment with SKF38393 (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg, reapectively), a D1 receptor agonist, blocked TDZD8 antidyskinetic actions. This study supported the hypothesis that GSK-3β played an important role in the development and expression of LID. Inhibition of GSK-3β with TDZD8 reduced the development of ALO AIM score and associated molecular changes in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. PMID:26997328

  4. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta regulates Snail and β-catenin expression during Fas-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haoxuan; Li, Wenjing; Wang, Yadong; Liu, Zhizhong; Cai, Yidong; Xie, Tingting; Shi, Meng; Wang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Bo

    2013-08-01

    Fas signalling has been shown to induce the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote gastrointestinal (GI) cancer metastasis, but its mechanism of action is still unknown. The effects of Fas-ligand (FasL) treatment and inhibition of Fas signalling on GI cancer cells were tested using invasion assay, immunofluorescence, immunoblot, Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assay. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse the EMT-associated molecules in GI cancer specimens. FasL treatment inhibited E-cadherin transcription by upregulation of Snail in GI cancer cells. The nuclear expression and transcriptional activity of Snail and β-catenin were increased by inhibitory phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) at Ser9 by FasL-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling. Snail associated with β-catenin in the nucleus and, thus, increased β-catenin transcriptional activity. Evaluation of human GI cancer specimens showed that the expression of FasL, phospho-GSK-3β, Snail and β-catenin increase during GI cancer progression. An EMT phenotype was shown to correlate with an advanced cancer stage, and a non-EMT phenotype significantly correlated with a better prognosis. Collectively, these data indicate that GSK-3β regulates Snail and β-catenin expression during Fas-induced EMT in gastrointestinal cancer.

  5. Effect of Imipramine, Paroxetine, and Lithium Carbonate on Neurobehavioral Changes of Streptozotocin in Rats: Impact on Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 and Blood Glucose Level.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Rania I; Ahmed, Hebatalla I; El-Denshary, Ezz-El-Din S

    2015-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a scrutinized association of diabetes mellitus with depressive symptoms and major depression. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is a protein kinase enzyme constitutively active in non-stimulated cells and in multiple signalings. Independent lines of research provide a converging evidence for an involvement of GSK-3 in the regulation of behavior and hyperglycemia. The present study revealed that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were found to show lengthened duration of immobility in the forced-swimming test (FST) and reduced locomotor and exploratory activities in the open-field test (OFT). Imipramine (15 mg/kg), Paroxetine (10 mg/kg) and lithium carbonate (36.94 mg/kg) for 14 days reduced immobility behavior in FST. Paroxetine and lithium carbonate increased the locomotor and exploratory activities, while imipramine decreased the locomotor activity in the OFT. Imipramine and lithium carbonate reduced the blood glucose level while paroxetine didn't alter it. STZ-induced diabetes increased GSK-3 gene expression which was determined using the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction test, while the three drugs decreased its expression. It can be concluded that lithium carbonate and imipramine can control both hyperglycemia and the associated symptoms of depression at the same time by inhibiting GSK-3 activity. On the other hand, paroxetine may only manage the depressive-like symptoms associated with diabetes through modulating the enzyme GSK-3, without changing blood glucose levels.

  6. Valproic Acid Modifies Synaptic Structure and Accelerates Neurite Outgrowth Via the Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Signaling Pathway in an Alzheimer's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Long, Zhi-Min; Zhao, Lei; Jiang, Rong; Wang, Ke-Jian; Luo, Shi-Fang; Zheng, Min; Li, Xiao-Feng; He, Gui-Qiong

    2015-11-01

    Tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid β-peptide overproduction, caused by altered localization or abnormal activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), is a pathogenic mechanism in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Valproic acid (VPA) attenuates senile plaques and neuronal loss. Here, we confirmed that VPA treatment improved spatial memory in amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS 1) double-transgenic mice and investigated the effect of VPA on synaptic structure and neurite outgrowth. We used ultrastructural analysis, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence staining, and Western blot analysis to assess the effect of VPA treatment in mice. VPA treatment thickened the postsynaptic density, increased the number of presynaptic vesicles, and upregulated the expression of synaptic markers PSD-95 and GAP43. VPA increased neurite length of hippocampal neurons in vivo and in vitro. In VPA-treated AD mouse brain, inactivated GSK-3β (pSer9-GSK-3β) was markedly increased, while hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser396 and Ser262 was decreased; total tau levels remained similar. VPA treatment notably improved pSer133-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which are associated with synaptic function and neurite outgrowth. VPA improves behavioral deficits in AD, modifies synaptic structure, and accelerates neurite outgrowth, by inhibiting the activity of GSK-3β, decreasing hyperphosphorylated tau, enhancing CREB and BDNF expression. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Expression pattern of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), p53, Akt, and glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the striatum of rats treated with 3-nitropropionic acid.

    PubMed

    Duran-Vilaregut, Joaquim; Manich, Gemma; Del Valle, Jaume; Camins, Antoni; Pallàs, Mercè; Vilaplana, Jordi; Pelegrí, Carme

    2012-09-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) is a mitochondrial toxin used in the laboratory to replicate neurodegenerative conditions that are accompanied by degeneration of the caudate-putamen. 3-NPA induces depletion in ATP production, reactive oxygen species production, and secondary excitotoxicity mediated by activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors that culminates in the triggering of cell death mechanisms, including apoptosis. We here examined by immunohistochemical methods whether cellular expression of phospho(Ser1981) -ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), phospho(Ser15) -p53, phospho(Ser473) -Akt, and phospho(Ser9) -glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which are key signal molecules that play a critical role in regulating cellular processes related to cell survival and demise, were involved in the striatal neurodegeneration in the brains of rats treated with 3-NPA. Our results indicate that the toxin induced the activation of ATM and p53 only in astrocytes, and a role for these proteins in neuronal degeneration was ruled out. On the other hand, striatal neurons lost the active form of Akt as soon as they began to appear pyknotic, indicating impairment of the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 pathway in their degenerative process. The inactive form of GSK3β was detected extensively, mainly in the rim of the striatal lesions around degenerating neurons, which could be attributed to a cell death or cell survival response.

  8. Tanshinone I Enhances Neurogenesis in the Mouse Hippocampal Dentate Gyrus via Increasing Wnt-3, Phosphorylated Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and β-Catenin Immunoreactivities.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bai Hui; Park, Joon Ha; Cho, Jeong Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Lee, Jae Chul; Lee, Tae-Kyeong; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Tae, Hyun Jin; Shin, Bich Na; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kang, Il Jun; Won, Moo-Ho; Lee, Yun Lyul

    2016-08-01

    Tanshinone I (TsI), a lipophilic diterpene extracted from Danshan (Radix Salvia miltiorrhizae), exerts neuroprotection in cerebrovascular diseases including transient ischemic attack. In this study, we examined effects of TsI on cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the mouse dentate gyrus (DG) using Ki-67, BrdU and doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry. Mice were treated with 1 and 2 mg/kg TsI for 28 days. In the 1 mg/kg TsI-treated-group, distribution patterns of BrdU, Ki-67 and DCX positive ((+)) cells in the SGZ were similar to those in the vehicle-treated-group. However, in the 2 mg/kg TsI-treated-group, double labeled BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells, which are mature neurons, as well as Ki-67(+), DCX(+) and BrdU(+) cells were significantly increased compared with those in the vehicle-treated-group. On the other hand, immunoreactivities and protein levels of Wnt-3, β-catenin and serine-9-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (p-GSK-3β), which are related with morphogenesis, were significantly increased in the granule cell layer of the DG only in the 2 mg/kg TsI-treated-group. Therefore, these findings indicate that TsI can promote neurogenesis in the mouse DG and that the neurogenesis is related with increases of Wnt-3, p-GSK-3β and β-catenin immunoreactivities.

  9. Intracellular domains of amyloid precursor-like protein 2 interact with CP2 transcription factor in the nucleus and induce glycogen synthase kinase-3beta expression.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Kim, H-S; Joo, Y; Choi, Y; Chang, K-A; Park, C H; Shin, K-Y; Kim, S; Cheon, Y-H; Baik, T-K; Kim, J-H; Suh, Y-H

    2007-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a member of a gene family that includes two APP-like proteins, APLP1 and 2. Recently, it has been reported that APLP1 and 2 undergo presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase cleavage, as does APP, resulting in the release of an approximately 6 kDa intracellular C-terminal domain (ICD), which can translocate into the nucleus. In this study, we demonstrate that the APLP2-ICDs interact with CP2/LSF/LBP1 (CP2) transcription factor in the nucleus and induce the expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK-3beta), which has broad-ranged substrates such as tau- and beta-catenin. The significance of this finding is substantiated by the in vivo evidence of the increase in the immunoreactivities for the nuclear C-terminal fragments of APLP2, and for GSK-3beta in the AD patients' brain. Taken together, these results suggest that APLP2-ICDs contribute to the AD pathogenesis, by inducing GSK-3beta expression through the interaction with CP2 transcription factor in the nucleus.

  10. Protective Effects of Kaempferol against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart via Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Mingjie; Ren, Huanhuan; Han, Jichun; Wang, Wenjuan; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Method. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and its maximum up/down rate (±dp/dtmax) were recorded as myocardial function. Infarct size was detected with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, total glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phospho-GSK-3β (P-GSK-3β), precaspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and cytoplasm cytochrome C were assayed using Western blot analysis. Results. Pretreatment with kaempferol significantly improved the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dtmax, as well as increased the levels of SOD and P-GSK-3β and GSH/GSSG ratio. However, the pretreatment reduced myocardial infarct size and TUNEL-positive cell rate, as well as decreased the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cytoplasm cytochrome C, CK, LDH, MDA, and TNF-α. Conclusion. These results suggested that kaempferol provides cardioprotection via antioxidant activity and inhibition of GSK-3β activity in rats with I/R. PMID:26265983

  11. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β facilitates cell apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation through acceleration of Bax translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Shengnan; Xing, Da

    2011-03-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is a critical activator of cell apoptosis induced by a diverse array of insults. However, the effects of GSK-3β on the human lung adenocarcinoma cell (ASTC-a-1) apoptosis induced by high fluence low-power laser irradiation (HF-LPLI) are not clear. Here, we showed that GSK-3β was constantly translocated from cytoplasm to nucleus and activated during HF-LPLI-induced cell apoptosis. In addition, we found that co-overexpression of YFP-GSK-3β and CFP-Bax in ASTC-a-1 cells accelerated both Bax translocations to mitochondria and cell apoptosis, compared to the cells expressed CFP-Bax only under HF-LPLI treatment, indicating that GSK-3β facilitated ASTC-a-1 cells apoptosis through acceleration mitochondrial translocation of Bax. Our results demonstrate that GSK-3β exerts some of its pro-apoptotic effects in ASTC-a-1 cells by regulating the mitochondrial localization of Bax, a key component of the intrinsic apoptotic cascade.

  12. Nimbolide, a neem limonoid inhibits Phosphatidyl Inositol-3 Kinase to activate Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Josephraj; Kiran Kishore T., Kranthi; Kowshik, Jaganathan; Mishra, Rajakishore; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), a serine/threonine kinase is frequently inactivated by the oncogenic signalling kinases PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK in diverse malignancies. The present study was designed to investigate GSK-3β signalling circuits in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model and the therapeutic potential of the neem limonoid nimbolide. Inactivation of GSK-3β by phosphorylation at serine 9 and activation of PI3K/Akt, MAPK/ERK and β-catenin was associated with increased cell proliferation and apoptosis evasion during stepwise evolution of HBP carcinomas. Administration of nimbolide inhibited PI3K/Akt signalling with consequent activation of GSK-3β thereby inducing trafficking of β-catenin away from the nucleus and enhancing the expression of miR-126 and let-7. Molecular docking studies confirmed interaction of nimbolide with PI3K, Akt, ERK and GSK-3β. Furthermore, nimbolide attenuated cell proliferation and induced apoptosis as evidenced by increased p-cyclin D1Thr286 and pro-apoptotic proteins. The present study has unravelled aberrant phosphorylation as a key determinant for oncogenic signalling and acquisition of cancer hallmarks in the HBP model. The study has also provided mechanistic insights into the chemotherapeutic potential of nimbolide that may be a useful addition to the armamentarium of natural compounds targeting PI3K for oral cancer treatment. PMID:26902162

  13. Anexelekto /MER Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor ONO-7475 growth arrests and kills FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3-Internal Tandem Duplication Mutant Acute Myeloid Leukemia cells by diverse mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ruvolo, Peter P; Ma, Huaxian; Ruvolo, Vivian R; Zhang, Xiaorui; Mu, Hong; Schober, Wendy; Hernandez, Ivonne; Gallardo, Miguel; Khoury, Joseph; Cortes, Jorge; Andreeff, Michael; Post, Sean M

    2017-09-14

    Nearly one-third of patients with acute myeloid leukemia have FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 mutations and thus have poor survival prospects. Receptor tyrosine kinase Anexelekto is critical for FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 signaling and participates in FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 inhibitor resistance mechanisms. Thus, strategies targeting Anexelekto could prove useful for acute myeloid leukemia therapy. ONO-7475 is an inhibitor with high specificity for Anexelekto and MER Tyrosine Kinase. Here we report that ONO-7475 potently arrested growth and induced apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia with internal tandem duplication mutation of FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3. MER Tyrosine Kinase-lacking MOLM13 cells were sensitive to ONO-7475 while MER Tyrosine Kinase -expressing OCI-AML3 cells were resistant, suggesting that the drug acts via Anexelekto in acute myeloid leukemia cells. Reverse phase protein analysis of ONO-7475 treated cells revealed that cell cycle regulators like Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1, Cyclin B1, Polo-like Kinase 1, and Retinoblastoma were suppressed. ONO-7475 suppressed Cyclin Dependent Kinase 1, Cyclin B1, Polo-like Kinase 1gene expression suggesting that Anexelekto may regulate the cell cycle at least in part via transcriptional mechanisms. Importantly, ONO-7475 was effective in a human FMS-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 with Internal Tandem Duplication mutant murine xenograft model. Mice fed a diet containing ONO-7475 exhibited significantly longer survival and, interestingly, blocked leukemia cell infiltration in the liver. In summary, ONO-7475 effectively kills acute myeloid leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo by mechanisms that involve disruption of diverse survival and proliferation pathways. Copyright © 2017, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  14. An essential role for the integrin-linked kinase-glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta pathway during dendrite initiation and growth.

    PubMed

    Naska, Sibel; Park, Katya J; Hannigan, Gregory E; Dedhar, Shoukat; Miller, Freda D; Kaplan, David R

    2006-12-20

    Multiple cues, including growth factors and circuit activity, signal to regulate the initiation and growth of mammalian dendrites. In this study, we have asked how these environmental cues regulate dendrite formation, and in particular, whether dendrite initiation and growth requires integrin-linked kinase (ILK) or its downstream effector, glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta). In cultured sympathetic neurons, NGF and neuronal depolarization activated ILK and promoted dendrite initiation and growth, and inhibition of ILK (either pharmacologically, with a dominant-negative form of ILK, or by genetic knockdown) reduced depolarization-induced dendrite formation. In sympathetic neurons, ILK phosphorylated and inhibited GSK-3beta, and inhibition of GSK-3beta (either pharmacologically, with dominant-negative GSK-3beta, or by genetic knockdown) caused robust dendrite initiation. GSK-3beta inhibition also caused dendrite initiation in cultured cortical neurons and growth of hippocampal neurons in slice cultures. GSK-3beta functioned downstream of ILK to regulate dendrite formation, because inhibition of GSK-3beta promoted dendrite initiation even when ILK was simultaneously inhibited. Moreover, GSK-3beta promoted dendrite formation in sympathetic neurons by regulating the activity of a key dendrite formation effector, the MAP (microtubule-associated protein) kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Specifically, inhibition of GSK-3beta led to increased ERK phosphorylation, and inhibition of MEK completely blocked the effects of GSK-3beta inhibition on dendrite initiation and growth. Thus, the ILK-GSK-3beta pathway plays a key role in regulating dendrite formation in developing mammalian neurons.

  15. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Is a Negative Regulator of Growth Factor-induced Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuying; Yu, Shuangxing; Hasegawa, Yutaka; LaPushin, Ruth; Xu, Hong-Ji; Woodgett, James R.; Mills, Gordon B.; Fang, Xianjun

    2016-01-01

    The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress activated protein kinase is preferentially activated by stress stimuli. Growth factors, particularly ligands for G protein-coupled receptors, usually induce only modest JNK activation, although they may trigger marked activation of the related extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In the present study, we demonstrated that homozygous disruption of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) dramatically sensitized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to JNK activation induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine-1-phosphate, two prototype ligands for G protein-coupled receptors. To a lesser degree, a lack of GSK-3β also potentiated JNK activation in response to epidermal growth factor. In contrast, the absence of GSK-3β decreased UV light-induced JNK activation. The increased JNK activation induced by LPA in GSK-3β null MEFs was insufficient to trigger apoptotic cell death or growth inhibition. Instead, the increased JNK activation observed in GSK-3β−/− MEFs was associated with an increased proliferative response to LPA, which was reduced by the inhibition of JNK. Ectopic expression of GSK-3β in GSK-3β-negative MEFs restrained LPA-triggered JNK phosphorylation and induced a concomitant decrease in the mitogenic response to LPA compatible with GSK-3β through the inhibition of JNK activation, thus limiting LPA-induced cell proliferation. Mutation analysis indicated that GSK-3β kinase activity was required for GSK-3β to optimally inhibit LPA-stimulated JNK activation. Thus GSK-3β serves as a physiological switch to specifically repress JNK activation in response to LPA, sphingosine-1-phosphate, or the epidermal growth factor. These results reveal a novel role for GSK-3β in signal transduction and cellular responses to growth factors. PMID:15466414

  16. Disruption of circadian rhythmicity and suprachiasmatic action potential frequency in a mouse model with constitutive activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3.

    PubMed

    Paul, J R; Johnson, R L; Jope, R S; Gamble, K L

    2012-12-13

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in psychiatric diseases, neurodevelopment, and circadian regulation. Both GSK3 isoforms, α and β, exhibit a 24-h variation of inhibitory phosphorylation within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the primary circadian pacemaker. We examined the hypothesis that rhythmic GSK3 activity is critical for robust circadian rhythmicity using GSK3α(21A/21A)/β(9A/9A) knock-in mice with serine-alanine substitutions at the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, making both forms constitutively active. We monitored wheel-running locomotor activity of GSK3 knock-in mice and used loose-patch electrophysiology to examine the effect of chronic GSK3 activity on circadian behavior and SCN neuronal activity. Double transgenic GSK3α/β knock-in mice exhibit disrupted behavioral rhythmicity, including significantly decreased rhythmic amplitude, lengthened active period, and increased activity bouts per day. This behavioral disruption was dependent on chronic activation of both GSK3 isoforms and was not seen in single transgenic GSK3α or GSK3β knock-in mice. Underlying the behavioral changes, SCN neurons from double transgenic GSK3α/β knock-in mice exhibited significantly higher spike rates during the subjective night compared to those from wild-type controls, with no differences detected during the subjective day. These results suggest that constitutive activation of GSK3 results in the loss of the typical day/night variation of SCN neuronal activity. Together, these results implicate GSK3 activity as a critical regulator of circadian behavior and neurophysiological rhythms. Because GSK3 has been implicated in numerous pathologies, understanding how GSK3 modulates circadian rhythms and neurophysiological activity may lead to novel therapeutics for pathological disorders and circadian rhythm dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. DISRUPTION OF CIRCADIAN RHYTHMICITY AND SUPRACHIASMATIC ACTION POTENTIAL FREQUENCY IN A MOUSE MODEL WITH CONSTITUTIVE ACTIVATION OF GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE-3

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Jodi R.; Johnson, Russell L.; Jope, Richard S.; Gamble, Karen L.

    2012-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) is a serine/threonine kinase that has been implicated in psychiatric diseases, neurodevelopment, and circadian regulation. Both GSK3 isoforms, α and β, exhibit a 24-hour variation of inhibitory phosphorylation within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the primary circadian pacemaker. We examined the hypothesis that rhythmic GSK3 activity is critical for robust circadian rhythmicity using GSK3α21A/21A/β9A/9A knock-in mice with serine-alanine substitutions at the inhibitory phosphorylation sites, making both forms constitutively active. We monitored wheel-running locomotor activity of GSK3 knock-in mice and used loose-patch electrophysiology to examine the effect of chronic GSK3 activity on circadian behavior and SCN neuronal activity. Double transgenic GSK3α/β knock-in mice exhibit disrupted behavioral rhythmicity, including significantly decreased rhythmic amplitude, lengthened active period, and increased activity bouts per day. This behavioral disruption was dependent on chronic activation of both GSK3 isoforms and was not seen in single transgenic GSK3α or GSK3β knock-in mice. Underlying the behavioral changes, SCN neurons from double transgenic GSK3α/β knock-in mice exhibited significantly higher spike rates during the subjective night compared to those from WT controls, with no differences detected during the subjective day. These results suggest that constitutive activation of GSK3 results in loss of the typical day/night variation of SCN neuronal activity. Together, these results implicate GSK3 activity as a critical regulator of circadian behavior and neurophysiological rhythms. Because GSK3 has been implicated in numerous pathologies, understanding how GSK3 modulates circadian rhythms and neurophysiological activity may lead to novel therapeutics for pathological disorders and circadian rhythm dysfunction. PMID:22986169

  18. Regulation of Ribosomal S6 Protein Kinase-p90rsk, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3, and β-Catenin in Early Xenopus Development

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Monica A.; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit; Krebs, Edwin G.; Moon, Randall T.

    1999-01-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that binds cadherins at the plasma membrane, HMG box transcription factors in the nucleus, and several cytoplasmic proteins that are involved in regulating its stability. In developing embryos and in some human cancers, the accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and subsequently the nuclei of cells may be regulated by the Wnt-1 signaling cascade and by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3). This has increased interest in regulators of both GSK-3 and β-catenin. Searching for kinase activities able to phosphorylate the conserved, inhibitory-regulatory GSK-3 residue serine 9, we found p90rsk to be a potential upstream regulator of GSK-3. Overexpression of p90rsk in Xenopus embryos leads to increased steady-state levels of total β-catenin but not of the free soluble protein. Instead, p90rsk overexpression increases the levels of β-catenin in a cell fraction containing membrane-associated cadherins. Consistent with the lack of elevation of free β-catenin levels, ectopic p90rsk was unable to rescue dorsal cell fate in embryos ventralized by UV irradiation. We show that p90rsk is a downstream target of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling during early Xenopus development, since ectopic FGF signaling activates both endogenous and overexpressed p90rsk. Moreover, overexpression of a dominant negative FGF receptor, which blocks endogenous FGF signaling, leads to decreased p90rsk kinase activity. Finally, we report that FGF inhibits endogenous GSK-3 activity in Xenopus embryos. We hypothesize that FGF and p90rsk play heretofore unsuspected roles in modulating GSK-3 and β-catenin. PMID:9891076

  19. Glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} regulation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells isoform c1 in the vascular smooth muscle cell response to injury

    SciTech Connect

    Chow Winsion; Hou Guangpei; Bendeck, Michelle P.

    2008-10-01

    The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are critical events in neointima formation during atherosclerosis and restenosis. The transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T-cells-isoform c1 (NFATc1) is regulated by atherogenic cytokines, and has been implicated in the migratory and proliferative responses of vSMCs through the regulation of gene expression. In T-cells, calcineurin de-phosphorylates NFATc1, leading to its nuclear import, while glycogen synthase kinase 3 {beta} (GSK3{beta}) phosphorylates NFATc1 and promotes its nuclear export. However, the relationship between NFATc1 and GSK3{beta} has not been studied during SMC migration and proliferation. We investigated this by scrape wounding vSMCs in vitro, and studying wound repair. NFATc1 protein was transiently increased, reaching a peak at 8 h after wounding. Cell fractionation and immunocytochemistry revealed that NFATc1 accumulation in the nucleus was maximal at 4 h after injury, and this was coincident with a significant 9 fold increase in transcriptional activity. Silencing NFATc1 expression with siRNA or inhibition of NFAT with cyclosporin A (CsA) attenuated wound closure by vSMCs. Phospho-GSK3{beta} (inactive) increased to a peak at 30 min after injury, preceding the nuclear accumulation of NFATc1. Overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3{beta} delayed the nuclear accumulation of NFATc1, caused a 50% decrease in NFAT transcriptional activity, and attenuated vSMC wound repair. We conclude that NFATc1 promotes the vSMC response to injury, and that inhibition of GSK3{beta} is required for the activation of NFAT during wound repair.

  20. Mechanical Stretch Up-regulates MicroRNA-26a and Induces Human Airway Smooth Muscle Hypertrophy by Suppressing Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β*

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Junaith S.; Lopez, Michael A.; Boriek, Aladin M.

    2010-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle hypertrophy is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in severe asthma. Several human diseases have been now associated with dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression. miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we identify miR-26a as a hypertrophic miRNA of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). We show that stretch selectively induces the transcription of miR-26a located in the locus 3p21.3 of human chromosome 3. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) directly activates miR-26a expression through the transcriptional machinery upon stretch. Furthermore, stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a induces HASMC hypertrophy, and miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a is a hypertrophic gene. We identify glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), an anti-hypertrophic protein, as a target gene of miR-26a. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that miR-26a directly interact with the 3′-untranslated repeat of the GSK-3β mRNA. Stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a attenuates the endogenous GSK-3β protein levels followed by the induction of HASMC hypertrophy. miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a-induced hypertrophy occurs via its target gene GSK-3β. Overall, as a first time, our study unveils that miR-26a is a mechanosensitive gene, and it plays an important role in the regulation of HASMC hypertrophy. PMID:20525681

  1. Mechanical stretch up-regulates microRNA-26a and induces human airway smooth muscle hypertrophy by suppressing glycogen synthase kinase-3β.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Junaith S; Lopez, Michael A; Boriek, Aladin M

    2010-09-17

    Airway smooth muscle hypertrophy is one of the hallmarks of airway remodeling in severe asthma. Several human diseases have been now associated with dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression. miRNAs are a class of small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Here, we identify miR-26a as a hypertrophic miRNA of human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). We show that stretch selectively induces the transcription of miR-26a located in the locus 3p21.3 of human chromosome 3. The transcription factor CCAAT enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) directly activates miR-26a expression through the transcriptional machinery upon stretch. Furthermore, stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a induces HASMC hypertrophy, and miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a is a hypertrophic gene. We identify glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), an anti-hypertrophic protein, as a target gene of miR-26a. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that miR-26a directly interact with the 3'-untranslated repeat of the GSK-3β mRNA. Stretch or enforced expression of miR-26a attenuates the endogenous GSK-3β protein levels followed by the induction of HASMC hypertrophy. miR-26 knockdown reverses this effect, suggesting that miR-26a-induced hypertrophy occurs via its target gene GSK-3β. Overall, as a first time, our study unveils that miR-26a is a mechanosensitive gene, and it plays an important role in the regulation of HASMC hypertrophy.

  2. Interactions between glycogen synthase kinase 3beta, protein kinase B, and protein phosphatase 2A in tau phosphorylation in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin-Wen; Winblad, Bengt; Guan, Zhizhong; Pei, Jin-Jing

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how tau phosphorylation is regulated by protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3 beta), protein kinase B (PKB), and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells. Results showed that GSK3 beta overexpression significantly increased PKB phosphorylation at the S473 site but not the T308 site. Neither GSK3 beta nor PKB overexpression could reduce the PP2AC phosphorylation at the Y307 site. In contrast, either PKB or GSK3 beta knockdown could increase PP2A phosphorylation at the Y307 site. PP2AC knockdown increased GSK3 beta phosphorylation at the S9 site but not at the Y216 site, and PKB phosphorylation at the T308 site but not at the S473 site. Tau phosphorylation at the S396 site was increased by GSK3 beta or PKB overexpression. Tau phosphorylation at the S214 site was only induced by PKB overexpression in the study. While GSK3 beta knockdown decreased tau phosphorylation at the S396 site, PKB knockdown increased tau phosphorylation at both the S396 and S214 sites. PP2AC knockdown decreased tau phosphorylation at the S396 and S214 sites. These findings suggest that tau phosphorylation at the S396 and S214 sites is differentially regulated by GSK3 beta, PKB, and PP2A in N2a cells. The final phosphorylation state of tau is possibly caused by the synergic action of the three enzymes.

  3. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta alters anxiety-, depression-, and addiction-related behaviors and neuronal activity in the nucleus accumbens shell.

    PubMed

    Crofton, Elizabeth J; Nenov, Miroslav N; Zhang, Yafang; Scala, Federico; Page, Sean A; McCue, David L; Li, Dingge; Hommel, Jonathan D; Laezza, Fernanda; Green, Thomas A

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression and addiction are often comorbid brain pathologies thought to share common mechanistic biology. As part of the cortico-limbic circuit, the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) plays a fundamental role in integrating information in the circuit, such that modulation of NAcSh circuitry alters anxiety, depression, and addiction-related behaviors. Intracellular kinase cascades in the NAcSh have proven important mediators of behavior. To investigate glycogen-synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) beta signaling in the NAcSh in vivo we knocked down GSK3beta expression with a novel adeno-associated viral vector (AAV2) and assessed changes in anxiety- and depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration in GSK3beta knockdown rats. GSK3beta knockdown reduced anxiety-like behavior while increasing depression-like behavior and cocaine self-administration. Correlative electrophysiological recordings in acute brain slices were used to assess the effect of AAV-shGSK3beta on spontaneous firing and intrinsic excitability of tonically active interneurons (TANs), cells required for input and output signal integration in the NAcSh and for processing reward-related behaviors. Loose-patch recordings showed that TANs transduced by AAV-shGSK3beta exhibited reduction in tonic firing and increased spike half width. When assessed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings these changes were mirrored by reduction in action potential firing and accompanied by decreased hyperpolarization-induced depolarizing sag potentials, increased action potential current threshold, and decreased maximum rise time. These results suggest that silencing of GSK3beta in the NAcSh increases depression- and addiction-related behavior, possibly by decreasing intrinsic excitability of TANs. However, this study does not rule out contributions from other neuronal sub-types. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Coupling of mammalian target of rapamycin with phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway regulates protein phosphatase 2A- and glycogen synthase kinase-3 -dependent phosphorylation of Tau.

    PubMed

    Meske, Volker; Albert, Frank; Ohm, Thomas Georg

    2008-01-04

    Tau is an important microtubule-stabilizing protein in neurons. In its hyperphosphorylated form, Tau protein loses its ability to bind to microtubules and then accumulates and is part of pathological lesions characterizing tauopathies, e.g. Alzheimer disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta), antagonized by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), regulates Tau phosphorylation at many sites. Diabetes mellitus is linked to an increased risk of developing Alzheimer disease. This could be partially caused by dysregulated GSK-3beta. In a long term experiment (-16 h) using primary murine neuron cultures, we interfered in the insulin/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002 treatment and insulin boost) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTor) (AICAR and rapamycin treatment) signaling pathways and examined consequent changes in the activities of PP2A, GSK-3beta, and Tau phosphorylation. We found that the coupling of PI3K with mTor signaling, in conjunction with a regulatory interaction between PP2A and GSK-3beta, changed activities of both enzymes always in the same direction. These balanced responses seem to ensure the steady Tau phosphorylation at GSK/PP2A-dependent sites observed over a long period of time (>/=6 h). This may help in preventing severe changes in Tau phosphorylation under conditions when neurons undergo transient fluctuations either in insulin or nutrient supply. On the other hand, the investigation of Tau protein at Ser-262 showed that interference in the insulin/PI3K and mTor signaling potentially influenced the Tau phosphorylation status at sites where only one of two enzymes (in this case PP2A) is involved in the regulation.

  5. Increased Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Hexose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Expression in Adipose Tissue May Contribute to Glucocorticoid-Induced Mouse Visceral Adiposity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chaoying; Yang, Huabing; Wang, Ying; Dong, Yunzhou; Yu, Fei; Wu, Yong; Wang, Wei; Ume, Adaku; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.; Tian, Shiliu; Liu, Yanjun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increased adiposity in visceral depots is a crucial feature associated with glucocorticoid (GC) excess. The action of GCs in target tissue is regulated by GC receptor (GR) and 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) coupled with hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6pdh). Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is known to be a crucial mediator of ligand-dependent gene transcription. We hypothesized that the major effects of corticosteroids on adipose fat accumulation are in part medicated by changes in GSK3β and H6pdh. METHODS We characterized the alterations of GSK3β and GC metabolic enzymes, and determined the impact of GR antagonist mifepristone on obesity-related genes and the expression of H6pdh and 11ß-HSD1 in adipose tissue of mice exposed to excess GC as well as in in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with GCs. RESULTS Corticosterone (CORT) exposure increased abdominal fat mass and induced expression of lipid synthase ACC and ACL with activation of GSK3β phosphorylation in abdominal adipose tissue of C57BL/6J mice. Increased pSer9 GSK3β was correlated with induction of H6pdh and 11ß-HSD1. Additionally, mifepristone treatment reversed the production of H6pdh and attenuated CORT-mediated production of 11ß-HSD1 and lipogenic gene expression with reduction of pSer9 GSK3β, thereby leading to improvement of phenotype of adiposity within adipose tissue in mice treated with excess GCs. Suppression of pSer9 GSK3β by mifepristone was accompanied by activation of pThr308 Akt and blockade of CORT-induced adipogenic transcriptor C/EBPα and PPARγ. In addition, mifepristone also attenuated CORT-mediated activation of IRE1α/XBP1. Additionally, reduction of H6pdh by shRNA showed comparable effects to mifepristone on attenuating CORT-induced expression of GC metabolic enzymes and improved lipid accumulation in vitro in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that elevated adipose GSK3β and H6pdh expression contribute

  6. Substituted 2-aminopyridines as inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Hagmann, W K; Caldwell, C G; Chen, P; Durette, P L; Esser, C K; Lanza, T J; Kopka, I E; Guthikonda, R; Shah, S K; MacCoss, M; Chabin, R M; Fletcher, D; Grant, S K; Green, B G; Humes, J L; Kelly, T M; Luell, S; Meurer, R; Moore, V; Pacholok, S G; Pavia, T; Williams, H R; Wong, K K

    2000-09-04

    A series of substituted 2-aminopyridines was prepared and evaluated as inhibitors of human nitric oxide synthases (NOS). 4,6-Disubstitution enhanced both potency and specificity for the inducible NOS with the most potent compound having an IC50 of 28 nM.

  7. Altered Wnt Signaling Pathway in Cognitive Impairment Caused by Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia: Focus on Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yue-Ying; Deng, Yan; Xie, Sheng; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Wang, Yu; Ren, Jie; Liu, Hui-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a severe complication caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of causation are still unclear. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in cognition, and abnormalities in it are implicated in neurological disorders. Here, we explored the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway abnormalities caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), the most characteristic pathophysiological component of OSA. Methods: We divided 32 4-week-old male C57/BL mice into four groups of eight each: a CIH + normal saline (NS) group, CIH + LiCl group, sham CIH + NS group, and a sham CIH + LiCl group. The spatial learning performance of each group was assessed by using the Morris water maze (MWM). Protein expressions of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and β-catenin in the hippocampus were examined using the Western blotting test. EdU labeling and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining methods were used, respectively, to determine the proliferation and apoptosis of neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. Results: Mice exposed to CIH showed impaired spatial learning performance in the MWM, including increased mean escape latencies to reach the target platform, decreased mean times passing through the target platform and mean duration in the target quadrant. The GSK-3β activity increased, and expression of β-catenin decreased significantly in the hippocampus of the CIH-exposed mice. Besides, CIH significantly increased hippocampal neuronal apoptosis, with an elevated apoptosis index. Meanwhile, LiCl decreased the activity of GSK-3β and increased the expression of β-catenin and partially reversed the spatial memory deficits in MWM and the apoptosis caused by CIH. Conclusions: Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway abnormalities possibly play an important role in the development of cognitive deficits among mice exposed to CIH and that LiCl might attenuate CIH-induced cognitive

  8. Lithium Suppresses Astrogliogenesis by Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells by Inhibiting STAT3 Pathway Independently of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhenzhong; Kremer, Penny; Tadmori, Iman; Ren, Yi; Sun, Dongming; He, Xijing; Young, Wise

    2011-01-01

    Transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) produce mostly astrocytes in injured spinal cords. Lithium stimulates neurogenesis by inhibiting GSK3b (glycogen synthetase kinase 3-beta) and increasing WNT/beta catenin. Lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis but the mechanisms were unclear. We cultured NSCs from subventricular zone of neonatal rats and showed that lithium reduced NSC production of astrocytes as well as proliferation of glia restricted progenitor (GRP) cells. Lithium strongly inhibited STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) activation, a messenger system known to promote astrogliogenesis and cancer. Lithium abolished STAT3 activation and astrogliogenesis induced by a STAT3 agonist AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribofuranoside), suggesting that lithium suppresses astrogliogenesis by inhibiting STAT3. GSK3β inhibition either by a specific GSK3β inhibitor SB216763 or overexpression of GID5-6 (GSK3β Interaction Domain aa380 to 404) did not suppress astrogliogenesis and GRP proliferation. GSK3β inhibition also did not suppress STAT3 activation. Together, these results indicate that lithium inhibits astrogliogenesis through non-GSK3β-mediated inhibition of STAT. Lithium may increase efficacy of NSC transplants by increasing neurogenesis and reducing astrogliogenesis. Our results also may explain the strong safety record of lithium treatment of manic depression. Millions of people take high-dose (>1 gram/day) lithium carbonate for a lifetime. GSK3b inhibition increases WNT/beta catenin, associated with colon and other cancers. STAT3 inhibition may reduce risk for cancer. PMID:21931595

  9. Inhibition of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 5 but Not of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3-β Prevents Neurite Retraction and Tau Hyperphosphorylation Caused by Secretable Products of Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type I-Infected Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Horacio; Ramírez, Eugenio; Utreras, Elias; Pando, María E.; Kettlun, Ana M.; Chiong, Mario; Kulkarni, Ashok B.; Collados, Lucía; Puente, Javier; Cartier, Luis; Valenzuela, María A.

    2012-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective loss of axons and myelin in the corticospinal tracts. This central axonopathy may originate from the impairment of anterograde axoplasmic transport. Previous work showed tau hyperphosphorylation at T181 in cerebrospinal fluid of HAM/TSP patients. Similar hyperphosphorylation occurs in SH-SY5Y cells incubated with supernatant from MT-2 cells (HTLV-I-infected lymphocytes secreting viral proteins, including Tax) that produce neurite shortening. Tau phosphorylation at T181 is attributable to glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) activation. Here we investigate whether neurite retraction in the SH-SY5Y model associates with concurrent changes in other tau hyperphosphorylable residues. Threonine 181 turned out to be the only tau hyperphosphorylated residue. We also evaluate the role of GSK3-β and CDK5 in this process by using specific kinase inhibitors (LiCl, TDZD-8, and roscovitine). Changes in both GSK3-β active and inactive forms were followed by measuring the regulatory phosphorylable sites (S9 and Y216, inactivating and activating phosphorylation, respectively) together with changes in β-catenin protein levels. Our results showed that LiCl and TDZD-8 were unable to prevent MT-2 supernatant-mediated neurite retraction and also that neither Y216 nor S9 phosphorylations were changed in GSK3-β. Thus, GSK3-β seems not to play a role in T181 hyperphosphorylation. On the other hand, the CDK5 involvement in tau phosphorylation was confirmed by both the increase in its enzymatic activity and the absence of MT-2 neurite retraction in the presence of roscovitine or CDK5 siRNA transfection. PMID:21671254

  10. Fine-Tuning of the RIG-I-Like Receptor/Interferon Regulatory Factor 3-Dependent Antiviral Innate Immune Response by the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3/β-Catenin Pathway.

    PubMed

    Khan, Kashif Aziz; Dô, Florence; Marineau, Alexandre; Doyon, Priscilla; Clément, Jean-François; Woodgett, James R; Doble, Bradley W; Servant, Marc J

    2015-09-01

    Induction of an antiviral innate immune response relies on pattern recognition receptors, including retinoic acid-inducible gene 1-like receptors (RLR), to detect invading pathogens, resulting in the activation of multiple latent transcription factors, including interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). Upon sensing of viral RNA and DNA, IRF3 is phosphorylated and recruits coactivators to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and selected sets of IRF3-regulated IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) such as those for ISG54 (Ifit2), ISG56 (Ifit1), and viperin (Rsad2). Here, we used wild-type, glycogen synthase kinase 3α knockout (GSK-3α(-/-)), GSK-3β(-/-), and GSK-3α/β double-knockout (DKO) embryonic stem (ES) cells, as well as GSK-3β(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast cells in which GSK-3α was knocked down to demonstrate that both isoforms of GSK-3, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, are required for this antiviral immune response. Moreover, the use of two selective small-molecule GSK-3 inhibitors (CHIR99021 and BIO-acetoxime) or ES cells reconstituted with the catalytically inactive versions of GSK-3 isoforms showed that GSK-3 activity is required for optimal induction of antiviral innate immunity. Mechanistically, GSK-3 isoform activation following Sendai virus infection results in phosphorylation of β-catenin at S33/S37/T41, promoting IRF3 DNA binding and activation of IRF3-regulated ISGs. This study identifies the role of a GSK-3/β-catenin axis in antiviral innate immunity.

  11. Alendronate is a specific, nanomolar inhibitor of farnesyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J D; Bostedor, R G; Masarachia, P J; Reszka, A A; Rodan, G

    2000-01-01

    Alendronate, a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. Recent findings suggest that alendronate and other N-containing bisphosphonates inhibit the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway and interfere with protein prenylation, as a result of reduced geranylgeranyl diphosphate levels. This study identified farnesyl disphosphate synthase as the mevalonate pathway enzyme inhibited by bisphosphonates. HPLC analysis of products from a liver cytosolic extract narrowed the potential targets for alendronate inhibition (IC(50) = 1700 nM) to isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase and farnesyl diphosphate synthase. Recombinant human farnesyl diphosphate synthase was inhibited by alendronate with an IC(50) of 460 nM (following 15 min preincubation). Alendronate did not inhibit isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase or GGPP synthase, partially purified from liver cytosol. Recombinant farnesyl diphosphate synthase was also inhibited by pamidronate (IC(50) = 500 nM) and risedronate (IC(50) = 3.9 nM), negligibly by etidronate (IC50 = 80 microM), and not at all by clodronate. In osteoclasts, alendronate inhibited the incorporation of [(3)H]mevalonolactone into proteins of 18-25 kDa and into nonsaponifiable lipids, including sterols. These findings (i) identify farnesyl diphosphate synthase as the selective target of alendronate in the mevalonate pathway, (ii) show that this enzyme is inhibited by other N-containing bisphosphonates, such as risendronate, but not by clodronate, supporting a different mechanism of action for different bisphosphonates, and (iii) document in purified osteoclasts alendronate inhibition of prenylation and sterol biosynthesis.

  12. Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-31

    targeting. Ursolic acid , a pentacyclic triterpenoid acid , as well as the tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epicatechin gallate...2007,  6(7), 2120‐2126.  73.  Liu, Y., Tian, W., Ma, X., and Ding, W. Evaluation of  inhibition of  fatty  acid  synthase by  ursolic   acid : positive...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0204 TITLE: Inhibitors of Fatty Acid Synthase for

  13. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2000-01-01

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0-3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amnino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  14. Inhibitors of glycogen synthase 3 kinase

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Peter; Ring, David B.; Harrison, Stephen D.; Bray, Andrew M.

    2006-05-30

    Compounds of formula 1: ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is alkyl, cycloalkyl, aryl, aralkyl, heteroaryl, or heteroaralkyl, substituted with 0 3 substituents selected from lower alkyl, halo, hydroxy, lower alkoxy, amino, lower alkyl-amino, and nitro; R.sub.2 is hydroxy, amino, or lower alkoxy; R.sub.3 is H, lower alkyl, lower acyl, lower alkoxy-acyl, or amino-acyl; R.sub.4 is H or lower alkyl; and pharmaceutically acceptable salts and esters thereof; are effective inhibitors of GSK3.

  15. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β positively regulates protein synthesis and cell proliferation through the regulation of translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1.

    PubMed

    Shin, S; Wolgamott, L; Tcherkezian, J; Vallabhapurapu, S; Yu, Y; Roux, P P; Yoon, S-O

    2014-03-27

    Protein synthesis has a key role in the control of cell proliferation, and its deregulation is associated with pathological conditions, notably cancer. Rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), was known to inhibit protein synthesis. However, it does not substantially inhibit protein synthesis and cell proliferation in many cancer types. We were interested in finding a novel target in rapamycin-resistant cancer. The rate-limiting factor for translation is eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is negatively regulated by eIF4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). Here, we provide evidence that glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β promotes cell proliferation through positive regulation of protein synthesis. We found that GSK-3β phosphorylates and inactivates 4E-BP1, thereby increasing eIF4E-dependent protein synthesis. Considering the clinical relevance of pathways regulating protein synthesis, our study provides a promising new strategy and target for cancer therapy.

  16. [Protective effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibition via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation in mice with acute liver failure].

    PubMed

    Shi, H B; Shi, H L; Zhang, X Y; Chen, D X; Duan, Z P; Ren, F

    2017-03-20

    Objective: To investigate the role of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) signaling pathway in acute liver failure and related mechanisms in a mouse model of acute liver failure induced by D-galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS). Methods: C57BL/6 mice were given intraperitoneal injection of D-GalN/LPS to establish a mouse model of acute liver failure. SB216763 was used to inhibit the activity of GSK3β and PPARα siRNA was used to inhibit the expression of PPARα. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of PPARα protein. The changes in liver pathology were observed to evaluate liver injury, and the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were measured to assess liver function. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to measure the mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), and PPARα. A one-way analysis of variance was used for comparison of means between multiple groups; the least significant difference test was used for data with homogeneity of variance, and the Games-Howell method was used for data with heterogeneity of variance. Results: In the mice with liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS, GSK3β inhibition promoted the mRNA and protein expression of PPARα (F = 13.18 and 301.36, P = 0.00 and 0.00). In the mice with acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS, GSK3β inhibition alleviated liver bleeding, inflammation, and necrosis and reduced the serum levels of ALT (F = 25.16, P = 0.000) and AST (F = 12.96, P = 0.001), as well as the mRNA expression of TNF-α (F = 32.17, P = 0.00), IL-1β (F = 11.57, P = 0.005), and IL-12p40 (F = 14.17, P = 0.015) in liver tissue. The inhibition of PPARα expression reversed the liver-protecting effect of GSK3β inhibition, which manifested as aggravation in liver bleeding, inflammation, and necrosis, increases in the serum levels

  17. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 inhibitors: a patent review.

    PubMed

    Psarra, Anastasia; Nikolaou, Aikaterini; Kokotou, Maroula G; Limnios, Dimitris; Kokotos, George

    2017-09-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes the terminal step of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation. It is strongly upregulated in inflamed tissues and overexpressed in tumors and it has been recognized as a key enzyme in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, stroke and cancer. Thus, a great effort has been devoted in developing synthetic mPGES-1 inhibitors as novel anti-inflammatory agents. Areas covered: This review article summarizes the mPGES-1 inhibitors presented in patent literature from 2000 to August 2016 and their biological evaluation, discussing their activities in vitro and in vivo. Expert opinion: The side effects of NSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors on the gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system showcase the urgent need for the discovery of novel potent and safe anti-inflammatory drugs. mPGES-1 inhibitors may present superior safety in comparison to existing anti-inflammatory drugs. The first synthetic inhibitor of mPGES-1 was reported in 2001 and up to now a variety of structurally different inhibitors has been developed. However, only recently two inhibitors entered clinical trials and none has reached yet the market. More preclinical and clinical studies on mPGES-1 inhibitors are needed to realize if indeed they may become novel agents for the treatment of inflammation and cancer.

  18. Kallikrein/kinin protects against myocardial apoptosis after ischemia/reperfusion via Akt-glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt-Bad.14-3-3 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Hang; Chao, Lee; Chao, Julie

    2005-03-04

    Our previous study has shown that human tissue kallikrein protected against ischemia/reperfusion-induced myocardial injury. In the present study, we investigated the protective role of local kallikrein gene delivery in ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and its signaling mechanisms in promoting cardiomyocyte survival. Adenovirus carrying the human tissue kallikrein gene was delivered locally into the heart using a catheter-based technique. Expression and localization of recombinant human kallikrein in rat myocardium after gene transfer were determined immunohistochemically. Kallikrein gene delivery markedly reduced reperfusion-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis identified by both in situ nick end-labeling and DNA fragmentation. Delivery of the kallikrein gene increased phosphorylation of Src, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta, and Bad(Ser-136) but reduced caspase-3 activation in rat myocardium after reperfusion. The protective effect of kallikrein on apoptosis and its signaling mediators was blocked by icatibant and dominant-negative Akt, indicating a kinin B2 receptor-Akt-mediated event. Similarly, kinin or transduction of kallikrein in cultured cardiomyocytes promoted cell viability and attenuated apoptosis induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation. The effect of kallikrein on cardiomyocyte survival was blocked by dominant-negative Akt and a constitutively active mutant of GSK-3beta, but it was facilitated by constitutively active Akt, catalytically inactive GSK-3beta, lithium, and caspase-3 inhibitor. Moreover, kallikrein promoted Bad.14-3-3 complex formation and inhibited Akt-GSK-3beta-dependent activation of caspase-3, whereas caspase-3 administration caused reduction of the Bad.14-3-3 complex, indicating an interaction between Akt-GSK-caspase-3 and Akt-Bad.14-3-3 signaling pathways. In conclusion, kallikrein/kinin protects against cardiomyocyte apoptosis in vivo and in vitro via Akt-Bad.14-3-3 and Akt-GSK-3beta-caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  19. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β is required for epithelial-mesenchymal transition and barrier dysfunction in mouse podocytes under high glucose conditions

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jia; Yang, Lili; Qiao, Yingjin; Liu, Zhangsuo

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is important for diabetic nephropathy (DN). Podocytes are specialized epithelial cells, which form a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier. Podocyte damage has been suggested to be the primary mechanism behind the albuminuria associated with DN. The present study aimed to determine the function of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β in EMT and barrier dysfunction of mouse podocytes exposed to high glucose (HG) conditions. Matured and differentiated podocytes were treated with normal glucose (NG), HG or NG + mannitol. Podocytes were also transfected with a small interfering RNA (siRNA) against GSK-3β or a scrambled siRNA, or were treated with lithium chloride (LiCl), a GSK-3β inhibitor, under NG or HG conditions. The expression levels of the epithelial cell markers, nephrin and podocin, and the myofibroblast cell markers, α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and fibronectin, in podocytes by western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining, respectively. The monolayer barrier function was assessed by albumin inflow. The phosphorylation and activity levels of GSK-3β were also quantified. It was observed that HG promotes EMT in podocytes, due to the increased levels of podocin and nephrin expression and the reduced α-SMA and fibronectin expression levels. HG also induced barrier dysfunction and increased the expression level of total GSK-3β, Try216-phosphorylated-GSK-3β and the GSK-3β activity in podocytes. Transfection of GSK-3β siRNA or treatment with LiCl reversed the HG-induced EMT and barrier dysfunction in podocytes. In conclusion, the present study determined that GSK-3β is required for EMT and barrier dysfunction in podocytes under HG conditions; therefore, GSK-3β may be a novel target for the treatment of DN. PMID:27748847

  20. Targeting Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) with an inhibitor induces secretion of TGF-β by CD4+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Olson, Marin; Ghate, Ketaki

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the peripheral maintenance of the autoreactive T cells in autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Pharmacological inhibition of Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) has been proposed as a basis for new treatment modalities against autoimmunity and allogeneic responses. Targeting JAK3 with an inhibitor has previously been shown to exhibit protective action against the development of T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As the mechanism of such preventative action has been unknown, we hypothesized that JAK3 inhibition induces generation of Tregs. Here, we show that the JAK3 inhibitor 4-(4′-hydroxyphenyl)-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (WHI-P131) suppresses proliferation of short-term cultured NOD CD4+ T cells through induction of apoptosis, while promoting survival of a particular population of long-term cultured cells. It was found that the surviving cells were not of the CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ phenotype. They secreted decreased amounts of IL-10, IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ compared to the cells not exposed to the optimal concentrations of JAK3 inhibitor. However, an elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β secretion was detected in their supernatants. In vivo treatment of prediabetic NOD mice with WHI-P131 did not affect the frequency and number of splenic and pancreatic lymph node CD4+FoxP3+ Tregs, while generating an elevated numbers of CD4+FoxP3− TGF-β-secreting T cells. In conclusion, our data suggest an induction of TGF-β-secreting CD4+ T cells as the underlying mechanism for antidiabetogenic effects obtained by the treatment with a JAK3 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the JAK3 inhibitor activity in the context of the murine Tregs. PMID:22728763

  1. Targeting Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) with an inhibitor induces secretion of TGF-β by CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Cetkovic-Cvrlje, Marina; Olson, Marin; Ghate, Ketaki

    2012-07-01

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical for the peripheral maintenance of the autoreactive T cells in autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). Pharmacological inhibition of Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) has been proposed as a basis for new treatment modalities against autoimmunity and allogeneic responses. Targeting JAK3 with an inhibitor has previously been shown to exhibit protective action against the development of T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. As the mechanism of such preventative action has been unknown, we hypothesized that JAK3 inhibition induces generation of Tregs. Here, we show that the JAK3 inhibitor 4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-amino-6,7-dimethoxyquinazoline (WHI-P131) suppresses proliferation of short-term cultured NOD CD4(+) T cells through induction of apoptosis, while promoting survival of a particular population of long-term cultured cells. It was found that the surviving cells were not of the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) phenotype. They secreted decreased amounts of IL-10, IL-4 and interferon (IFN)-γ compared to the cells not exposed to the optimal concentrations of JAK3 inhibitor. However, an elevated transforming growth factor (TGF)-β secretion was detected in their supernatants. In vivo treatment of prediabetic NOD mice with WHI-P131 did not affect the frequency and number of splenic and pancreatic lymph node CD4(+)FoxP3(+) Tregs, while generating an elevated numbers of CD4(+)FoxP3(-) TGF-β-secreting T cells. In conclusion, our data suggest an induction of TGF-β-secreting CD4(+) T cells as the underlying mechanism for antidiabetogenic effects obtained by the treatment with a JAK3 inhibitor. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the JAK3 inhibitor activity in the context of the murine Tregs.

  2. Synthesis of antifungal glucan synthase inhibitors from enfumafungin.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yong-Li; Gauthier, Donald R; Shi, Yao-Jun; McLaughlin, Mark; Chung, John Y L; Dagneau, Philippe; Marcune, Benjamin; Krska, Shane W; Ball, Richard G; Reamer, Robert A; Yasuda, Nobuyoshi

    2012-04-06

    An efficient, new, and scalable semisynthesis of glucan synthase inhibitors 1 and 2 from the fermentation product enfumafungin 3 is described. The highlights of the synthesis include a high-yielding ether bond-forming reaction between a bulky sulfamidate 17 and alcohol 4 and a remarkably chemoselective, improved palladium(II)-mediated Corey-Yu allylic oxidation at the highly congested C-12 position of the enfumafungin core. Multi-hundred gram quantities of the target drug candidates 1 and 2 were prepared, in 12 linear steps with 25% isolated yield and 13 linear steps with 22% isolated yield, respectively.

  3. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Holden, Jeffrey K; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A; Li, Huiying; Lim, Nathan; Chen, Steven; Huang, He; Xue, Fengtian; Tang, Wei; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2015-01-22

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial ( Holden , , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2013 , 110 , 18127 ). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.

  4. Structure-Based Design of Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial (Holden, , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.2013, 110, 1812724145412). Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Together, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors. PMID:25522110

  5. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    DOE PAGES

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A.; ...

    2014-12-18

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial. Here wemore » present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Lastly, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.« less

  6. Structure-based design of bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Kang, Soosung; Hollingsworth, Scott A.; Li, Huiying; Lim, Nathan; Chen, Steven; Huang, He; Xue, Fengtian; Tang, Wei; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2014-12-18

    Inhibition of bacterial nitric oxide synthase (bNOS) has the potential to improve the efficacy of antimicrobials used to treat infections by Gram-positive pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis. However, inhibitor specificity toward bNOS over the mammalian NOS (mNOS) isoforms remains a challenge because of the near identical NOS active sites. One key structural difference between the NOS isoforms is the amino acid composition of the pterin cofactor binding site that is adjacent to the NOS active site. Previously, we demonstrated that a NOS inhibitor targeting both the active and pterin sites was potent and functioned as an antimicrobial. Here we present additional crystal structures, binding analyses, and bacterial killing studies of inhibitors that target both the active and pterin sites of a bNOS and function as antimicrobials. Lastly, these data provide a framework for continued development of bNOS inhibitors, as each molecule represents an excellent chemical scaffold for the design of isoform selective bNOS inhibitors.

  7. Structure-Based Discovery of Inhibitors of Thymidylate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoichet, Brian K.; Stroud, Robert M.; Santi, Daniel V.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Perry, Kathy M.

    1993-03-01

    A molecular docking computer program (DOCK) was used to screen the Fine Chemical Directory, a database of commercially available compounds, for molecules that are complementary to thymidylate synthase (TS), a chemotherapeutic target. Besides retrieving the substrate and several known inhibitors, DOCK proposed putative inhibitors previously unknown to bind to the enzyme. Three of these compounds inhibited Lactobacillus caser TS at submillimolar concentrations. One of these inhibitors, sulisobenzone, crystallized with TS in two configurations that differed from the DOCK-favored geometry: a counterion was bound in the substrate site, which resulted in a 6 to 9 angstrom displacement of the inhibitor. The structure of the complexes suggested another binding region in the active site that could be exploited. This region was probed with molecules sterically similar to sulisobenzone, which led to the identification of a family of phenolphthalein analogs that inhibit TS in the 1 to 30 micromolar range. These inhibitors do not resemble the substrates of the enzyme. A crystal structure of phenolphthalein with TS shows that it binds in the target site in a configuration that resembles the one suggested by DOCK.

  8. Structural Studies of Pterin-Based Inhibitors of Dihydropteroate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Hevener, Kirk E.; Yun, Mi-Kyung; Qi, Jianjun; Kerr, Iain D.; Babaoglu, Kerim; Hurdle, Julian G.; Balakrishna, Kanya; White, Stephan W.; Lee, Richard E.

    2010-01-12

    Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) is a key enzyme in bacterial folate synthesis and the target of the sulfonamide class of antibacterials. Resistance and toxicities associated with sulfonamides have led to a decrease in their clinical use. Compounds that bind to the pterin binding site of DHPS, as opposed to the p-amino benzoic acid (pABA) binding site targeted by the sulfonamide agents, are anticipated to bypass sulfonamide resistance. To identify such inhibitors and map the pterin binding pocket, we have performed virtual screening, synthetic, and structural studies using Bacillus anthracis DHPS. Several compounds with inhibitory activity have been identified, and crystal structures have been determined that show how the compounds engage the pterin site. The structural studies identify the key binding elements and have been used to generate a structure-activity based pharmacophore map that will facilitate the development of the next generation of DHPS inhibitors which specifically target the pterin site.

  9. Inhibitors of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases: synthesis, molecular docking, and implications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Chen, Chao; Cao, Ruikai; Maurmann, Leila; Li, Ping

    2015-01-02

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthases (PhaCs) catalyze the formation of biodegradable PHAs that are considered to be ideal alternatives to non-biodegradable synthetic plastics. However, study of PhaCs has been challenging because the rate of PHA chain elongation is much faster than that of initiation. This difficulty, along with lack of a crystal structure, has become the main hurdle to understanding and engineering PhaCs for economical PHA production. Here we report the synthesis of two carbadethia CoA analogues--sT-CH2-CoA (26 a) and sTet-CH2-CoA (26 b)--as well as sT-aldehyde (saturated trimer aldehyde, 29), as new PhaC inhibitors. Study of these analogues with PhaECAv revealed that 26 a/b and 29 are competitive and mixed inhibitors, respectively. Both the CoA moiety and extension of PHA chain will increase binding affinity; this is consistent with our docking study. Estimation of the Kic values of 26 a and 26 b predicts that a CoA analogue incorporating an octameric hydroxybutanoate (HB) chain might facilitate the formation of a kinetically well-behaved synthase. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [The influence of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthases on experimental hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Krushinskiĭ, A L; Kuzenkov, V S; D'iakonova, V E; Reutov, V P

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To study the effect of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase on the development of hemorrhagic stroke in rats Krushinsky-Molodkina (KM) without adaptation to hypoxia and with short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Material and methods. Ninety rats were included in the study. Experiments with short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia were performed on 48 rats. The inhibitor of inducible NO-synthase (aminoguanidine, "Sigma") or the inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (7-nitroindasol, "Sigma") were injected in dosage 2.5 mg/100g intraperitoneally. Results. Selective inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase had a protective effect on stress injuries in KM rats. The inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase was more effective than the inhibitor of inducible NO-synthase in the experiments without adaptation to hypoxia. Markedly greater protective effect was achieved by the simultaneous introduction of inhibitors of neuronal and inducible NO-synthase. The greatest protective effect in the development of stress damage in rats of KM was observed in short-term adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia with simultaneous introduction of both inhibitors. Conclusions. It can be assumed that an excessive amount of NO produced by neuronal and inducible NO-synthases during the acoustic exposure in KM rats leads to stress damage. Use of selective inhibitors reduce the excess NO synthesis and the development of audiogenic stress damage caused by hemorrhagic stroke.

  11. Subcutaneous administration of liraglutide ameliorates learning and memory impairment by modulating tau hyperphosphorylation via the glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway in an amyloid β protein induced alzheimer disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Qi, Liqin; Ke, Linfang; Liu, Xiaohong; Liao, Lianming; Ke, Sujie; Liu, Xiaoying; Wang, Yanping; Lin, Xiaowei; Zhou, Yu; Wu, Lijuan; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Libin

    2016-07-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide, a novel long-lasting incretin hormone, has been used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, liraglutide has been shown to be neurotrophic and neuroprotective. Here, we investigated the effects of liraglutide on amyloid β protein (Aβ)-induced AD in mice and explored its mechanism of action. The results showed that subcutaneous administration of liraglutide (25nmol/day), once daily for 8 weeks, prevented memory impairments in the Y Maze and Morris Water Maze following Aβ1-42 intracerebroventricular injection, and alleviated the ultra-structural changes of pyramidal neurons and chemical synapses in the hippocampal CA1 region. Furthermore, liraglutide reduced Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation via the protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathways. Thus liraglutide may alleviate cognitive impairment in AD by at least decreasing the phosphorylation of tau.

  12. A new motif for inhibitors of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase.

    PubMed

    Foust, Benjamin J; Allen, Cheryl; Holstein, Sarah A; Wiemer, David F

    2016-08-15

    The enzyme geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGDPS) is believed to receive the substrate farnesyl diphosphate through one lipophilic channel and release the product geranylgeranyl diphosphate through another. Bisphosphonates with two isoprenoid chains positioned on the α-carbon have proven to be effective inhibitors of this enzyme. Now a new motif has been prepared with one isoprenoid chain on the α-carbon, a second included as a phosphonate ester, and the potential for a third at the α-carbon. The pivaloyloxymethyl prodrugs of several compounds based on this motif have been prepared and the resulting compounds have been tested for their ability to disrupt protein geranylgeranylation and induce cytotoxicity in myeloma cells. The initial biological studies reveal activity consistent with GGDPS inhibition, and demonstrate a structure-function relationship which is dependent on the nature of the alkyl group at the α-carbon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Structure-based inhibitor discovery of Helicobacter pylori dehydroquinate synthase.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jai-Shin; Cheng, Wen-Chi; Wang, Hung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Cheng; Wang, Wen-Ching

    2008-08-15

    Dehydroquinate synthase (DHQS) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent enzyme that converts 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate (DAHP) into 3-dehydroquinate (DHQ). Since it catalyzes the second key step in the shikimate pathway, which is crucial for the aromatic amino acid metabolism in bacteria, fungi, and plants, but not in mammals, DHQS is a potential target for new antimicrobial agents, anti-parasitic agents and herbicides. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori DHQS (HpDHQS) complexed with NAD has been determined at 2.4-A resolution and was found to possess an N-terminal Rossmann-fold domain and a C-terminal alpha-helical domain. Structural comparison reveals that the binary complex adopts an open-state conformation and shares conserved residues in the binding pocket. Virtual docking of compounds into the active site of the HpDHQS structure using the GOLD docking program led to the identification of several inhibitors. The most active compound had an IC(50) value of 61 microM, which may serve as a lead for potent inhibitors.

  14. Fine-tuning of NFκB by Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β directs the fate of glomerular podocytes upon injury

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hui; Ge, Yan; Peng, Ai; Gong, Rujun

    2014-01-01

    NFκB is regulated by a myriad of signaling cascades including glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β and plays a Janus role in podocyte injury. In vitro, lipopolysaccharide or adriamycin elicited podocyte injury and cytoskeletal disruption, associated with NFκB activation and induced expression of NFκB target molecules, including pro-survival Bcl-xL and podocytopathic mediators like MCP-1, cathepsin L and B7-1. Broad range inhibition of NFκB diminished the expression of all NFκB target genes, restored cytoskeleton integrity, but potentiated apoptosis. In contrast, blockade of GSK3β by lithium or TDZD-8, mitigated the expression of podocytopathic mediators, ameliorated podocyte injury, but barely affected Bcl-xL expression or sensitized apoptosis. Mechanistically, GSK3β was sufficient and essential for RelA/p65 phosphorylation specifically at serine 467, which specifies the expression of selective NFκB target molecules, including podocytopathic mediators, but not Bcl-xL. In vivo, lithium or TDZD-8 therapy improved podocyte injury and proteinuria in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide or adriamycin, concomitant with suppression of podocytopathic mediators but retained Bcl-xL in glomerulus. Broad range inhibition of NFκB conferred similar but much weakened antiproteinuric and podoprotective effects accompanied with a blunted glomerular expression of Bcl-xL and marked podocyte apoptosis. Thus, the GSK3β dictated fine-tuning of NFκB may serve as a novel therapeutic target for podocytopathy. PMID:25629551

  15. Aminodeoxychorismate synthase inhibitors from one-bead one-compound combinatorial libraries: "staged" inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Seth; Ziebart, Kristin T; He, Ze; Jeddeloh, Melissa; Yoo, Choong Leol; Wang, Xiaobing; Lehman, Alan; Lam, Kit S; Toney, Michael D; Kurth, Mark J

    2006-12-14

    4-Amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase (ADCS) catalyzes the first step in the conversion of chorismate into p-aminobenzoate, which is incorporated into folic acid. We aim to discover compounds that inhibit ADCS and serve as leads for a new class of antimicrobial compounds. This report presents (1) synthesis of a mass-tag encoded library based on a "staged" design, (2) massively parallel fluorescence-based on-bead screening, (3) rapid structural identification of hits, and (4) full kinetic analysis of ADCS. All inhibitors are competitive against chorismate and Mg(2+). The most potent ADCS inhibitor identified has a K(i) of 360 microM. We show that the combinatorial diversity elements add substantial binding affinity by interacting with residues outside of but proximal to the active site. The methods presented here constitute a paradigm for inhibitor discovery through active site targeting, enabled by rapid library synthesis, facile massively parallel screening, and straightforward hit identification.

  16. Convergence of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate/protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin signaling in corpus luteum progesterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Lynn; McDonald, Claudia A; Jiang, Chao; Maroni, Dulce; Zeleznik, Anthony J; Wyatt, Todd A; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S

    2009-11-01

    Progesterone secretion by the steroidogenic cells of the corpus luteum (CL) is essential for reproduction. Progesterone synthesis is under the control of LH, but the exact mechanism of this regulation is unknown. It is established that LH stimulates the LH receptor/choriogonadotropin receptor, a G-protein coupled receptor, to increase cAMP and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that cAMP/PKA-dependent regulation of the Wnt pathway components glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta and beta-catenin contributes to LH-dependent steroidogenesis in luteal cells. We observed that LH via a cAMP/PKA-dependent mechanism stimulated the phosphorylation of GSK3beta at N-terminal Ser9 causing its inactivation and resulted in the accumulation of beta-catenin. Overexpression of N-terminal truncated beta-catenin (Delta90 beta-catenin), which lacks the phosphorylation sites responsible for its destruction, significantly augmented LH-stimulated progesterone secretion. In contrast, overexpression of a constitutively active mutant of GSK3beta (GSK-S9A) reduced beta-catenin levels and inhibited LH-stimulated steroidogenesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the association of beta-catenin with the proximal promoter of the StAR gene, a gene that expresses the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, which is a cholesterol transport protein that controls a rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis. Collectively these data suggest that cAMP/PKA regulation of GSK3beta/beta-catenin signaling may contribute to the acute increase in progesterone production in response to LH.

  17. Protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: the role of PI3-kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3β/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Selvaraju, Vaithinathan; Tapias, Leonidas; Sanchez, Juan A; Palesty, J Alexander; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-12-01

    Clinical studies of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) have shown that it increases production of nitric oxide, glutathione, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL); decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); and significantly inhibits platelet aggregation. The following study was designed to examine the effect of P. emblica treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and identify the molecular targets and its underlying mechanism(s). Experimental animals were divided into four groups: control sham (CS), P. emblica sham (PS), control I/R (CIR), and P. emblica I/R (PIR). Rats in the P. emblica groups were gavaged with aqueous P. emblica solution (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After 30 days of gavaging, the I/R group underwent I/R surgery (45-min ischemia) followed by 4 or 30 days of reperfusion. Rats in the sham group underwent surgery without ligation. Left ventricular tissue samples, 4 and 30 days after I/R, were used for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Western blot analysis showed upregulation of phosphorylated Akt and GSK3-β and increased nuclear translocation of β-catenin in the PIR group versus CIR. PIR rats also indicated reduced 3-nitrotyrosine and Caspase-3 expression. Increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) and upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were found in the PIR group. Echocardiography showed increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreased left ventricular internal diameter in experimental subjects compared to controls. There was decreased fibrosis in P. emblica-treated rats compared to controls. The results of this study indicate that P. emblica is capable of upregulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin cardioprotective pathway, thereby preserving cardiac tissue during ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta heterozygote knockout mice as a model of findings in postmortem schizophrenia brain or as a model of behaviors mimicking lithium action: negative results.

    PubMed

    Bersudsky, Yuly; Shaldubina, Alona; Kozlovsky, Nitzan; Woodgett, James R; Agam, Galila; Belmaker, R H

    2008-05-01

    In mice glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3beta heterozygote knockout status was reported to cause reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim test and reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, behaviors that mimic the effects of lithium. GSK-3beta protein and mRNA level and activity have been reported to be reduced in the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients and this could suggest the involvement of GSK-3beta in the etiology of schizophrenia. However, apomorphine-induced stereotyping was reported to be unchanged in GSK-3beta heterozygote (HZ) knockout (KO) mice. As such behaviors are not always robust, study in another laboratory seemed indicated. Motor activity and coordination were assessed in the rotarod test. Behavior was studied in the following tests: pilocarpine-induced seizures model for lithium action, Porsolt forced swim test, tail suspension test, elevated plus-maze, large open field, startle response and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle response, amphetamine-induced hyperactivity, and apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing. We could not confirm the report that GSK-3beta HZ KO mice exhibit reduced immobility in the Porsolt forced swim or reduced amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in a manner mimicking the behavioral effects of lithium. We did not find increased apomorphine-induced stereotypic climbing or disruption of prepulse inhibition, suggesting that human postmortem findings regarding GSK-3beta in schizophrenia are not mediated by changes in dopamine receptors and are not the cause of prepulse inhibition deficits in schizophrenia. These data do not support the role of GSK-3beta in schizophrenia or in the mechanism of therapeutic action of lithium. Although differences in the genetic background of the GSK-3beta HZ KOs used in the present study compared with that of the previous study could be responsible, such results could suggest that the previously reported effects of GSK-3beta knockout on behavior are not robust.

  19. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

  20. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) promotes the neural differentiation of full-term amniotic fluid-derived stem cells towards neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Liyang; Zhao, Mingyan; Ye, Wei; Huang, Jinzhi; Chu, Jiaqi; Yan, Shouquan; Wang, Chaojun; Zeng, Rong

    2016-08-01

    The amniotic fluid has a heterogeneous population of cells. Some human amniotic fluid-derived stem (hAFS) cells have been shown to harbor the potential to differentiate into neural cells. However, the neural differentiation efficiency of hAFS cells remains low. In this study, we isolated CD117-positive hAFS cells from amniotic fluid and then examined the pluripotency of these cells through the formation of embryoid bodies (EBs). Additionally, we induced the neural differentiation of these cells using neuroectodermal medium. This study revealed that the GSK3-beta inhibitor SB216763 was able to stimulate the proliferation of CD117-positive hAFS cells without influencing their undifferentiated state. Moreover, SB216763 can efficiently promote the neural differentiation of CD117-positive hAFS cells towards neural progenitor cells in the presence of DMEM/F12 and N2 supplement. These findings provide an easy and low-cost method to maintain the proliferation of hAFS cells, as well as induce an efficacious generation of neural progenitor cells from hAFS cells. Such induction of the neural commitment of hAFS cells may provide an option for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by hAFS cells-based therapies.

  1. Studies on 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase using chorismate mutase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Birck, M R; Husain, A; Sheflyan, G Y; Ganem, B; Woodard, R W

    2001-11-05

    The proposed cyclic mechanism of 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid 8-phosphate synthase and the mechanism of chorismate mutase share certain structural and electronic similarities. In this report, we examine several inhibitors of chorismate mutase for their efficacy against KDO 8-P synthase.

  2. Brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like protein-1 cooperates with glycogen synthase kinase-3β to regulate osteogenesis of bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoguang; Liu, Na; Wang, Yizhu; Liu, Jinglong; Shi, Haigang; Qu, Zhenzhen; Du, Tingting; Guo, Bin; Gu, Bin

    2017-01-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with inhibited osteogenesis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1 (BMAL1) has been linked to the T2DM-related bone remodeling, however, the specific mechanism is still unclear. Herein, we aimed to determine the role of BMAL1 in T2DM-induced suppression of BMSCs osteogenesis. Inhibited osteogenesis and BMAL1 expression were showed in diabetic BMSCs. And while β-catenin and T cell factor (TCF) expression were decreased, the glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and nemo-like kinase (NLK) expression were increased in diabetic BMSCs. Moreover, over-expression of BMAL1 led to recovered osteogenesis ability and activation of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which was partially due to inhibition of GSK-3β caused by over-expression of BMAL1. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into the role of BMAL1 in T2DM-induced suppression of BMSCs osteogenesis. Over-expressed BMAL1 could recover BMSCs osteogenesis in T2DM partially by decreasing GSK-3β expression to activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway. BMAL1 may have a potential use in repairing diabetic bone metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Galangin suppresses the proliferation of β-catenin response transcription-positive cancer cells by promoting adenomatous polyposis coli/Axin/glycogen synthase kinase-3β-independent β-catenin degradation.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jungsug; Oh, Jingyo; Cho, Munju; Bae, Soo Kyung; Song, Im-Sook; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Jeong, Yongsu; Kim, Dong-Eun; Chung, Young-Hwa; Oh, Sangtaek

    2011-06-01

    Galangin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid with anticancer activity against certain human cancers, yet little is known about its mechanism of action. Here, we used a chemical biology approach to reveal that galangin suppresses β-catenin response transcription (CRT), which is aberrantly up-regulated in colorectal and liver cancers, by promoting the degradation of intracellular β-catenin. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) activity or mutation of the GSK-3β-targeted sequence from β-catenin was unable to abrogate the galangin-mediated degradation of β-catenin. In addition, galangin down-regulated the intracellular β-catenin levels in cancer cells with inactivating mutations of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or Axin, which are components of the β-catenin destruction complex. Galangin repressed the expression of β-catenin/T-cell factor-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, and thus inhibited the proliferation of CRT-positive cancer cells. Structure-activity data indicated that the major structural requirements for galangin-mediated β-catenin degradation are hydroxyl groups at positions 3, 5, and 7. Our findings suggest that galangin exerts its anticancer activity by promoting APC/Axin/GSK-3β-independent proteasomal degradation of β-catenin.

  4. Mutational Analysis of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Protein Kinase Together with Kinome-Wide Binding and Stability Studies Suggests Context-Dependent Recognition of Kinases by the Chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90

    PubMed Central

    Pasculescu, Adrian; Dai, Anna Yue; Williton, Kelly; Taylor, Lorne; Savitski, Mikhail M.; Bantscheff, Marcus; Woodgett, James R.; Pawson, Tony; Colwill, Karen

    2016-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) and cell division cycle 37 (CDC37) chaperones are key regulators of protein kinase folding and maturation. Recent evidence suggests that thermodynamic properties of kinases, rather than primary sequences, are recognized by the chaperones. In concordance, we observed a striking difference in HSP90 binding between wild-type (WT) and kinase-dead (KD) glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) forms. Using model cell lines stably expressing these two GSK3β forms, we observed no interaction between WT GSK3β and HSP90, in stark contrast to KD GSK3β forming a stable complex with HSP90 at a 1:1 ratio. In a survey of 91 ectopically expressed kinases in DLD-1 cells, we compared two parameters to measure HSP90 dependency: static binding and kinase stability following HSP90 inhibition. We observed no correlation between HSP90 binding and reduced stability of a kinase after pharmacological inhibition of HSP90. We expanded our stability study to >50 endogenous kinases across four cell lines and demonstrated that HSP90 dependency is context dependent. These observations suggest that HSP90 binds to its kinase client in a particular conformation that we hypothesize to be associated with the nucleotide-processing cycle. Lastly, we performed proteomics profiling of kinases and phosphopeptides in DLD-1 cells to globally define the impact of HSP90 inhibition on the kinome. PMID:26755559

  5. New insights concerning insulin synthesis and its secretion in rat hippocampus and cerebral cortex: amyloid-β1-42-induced reduction of proinsulin level via glycogen synthase kinase-3β.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Takayuki; Toyoshima-Aoyama, Fumiyo; Yanagita, Toshihiko; Maruta, Toyoaki; Fujita, Hiroshi; Koshida, Tomohiro; Yonaha, Tetsu; Wada, Akihiko; Sawaguchi, Akira; Murakami, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    The reduction of insulin levels in hippocampal areas is associated with Alzheimer's disease. The present study using rat brain explores the mechanisms of insulin synthesis and secretion, as well as amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ(1-42))-induced reduction of proinsulin expression. After confirming the expression of insulin mRNA and proinsulin in rat brain, we visualized and analyzed the motion of insulin secretion in rat hippocampal neurons using pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (pHluorin) fused to the insulin. In the rat hippocampal neurons expressing insulin-pHluorin, time-lapse confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed the appearance of fluorescent spots induced by depolarization after stimulation with 50 mM KCl. In these fluorescent spots, Ca(2+)-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2), which is the regulator of the dense-core vesicle involving neuronal peptides, was co-localized with insulin-pHluorin. However, Aβ(1-42)-induced reduction of proinsulin in rat hippocampal neurons was inhibited by treatment with lithium and transfection with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) siRNA. These results demonstrate that synthesized insulin is secreted from rat hippocampal and cortical neuron's dense-core vesicles, and that activation of GSK-3β in Aβ(1-42)-induced Alzheimer's model hippocampal neurons decreases the insulin synthesis.

  6. Phosphorylations of Serines 21/9 in Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3α/β Are Not Required for Cell Lineage Commitment or WNT Signaling in the Normal Mouse Intestine.

    PubMed

    Hey, Fiona; Giblett, Susan; Forrest, Stephanie; Herbert, Chelsea; Pritchard, Catrin

    2016-01-01

    The WNT signalling pathway controls many developmental processes and plays a key role in maintenance of intestine renewal and homeostasis. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3) is an important component of the WNT pathway and is involved in regulating β-catenin stability and expression of WNT target genes. The mechanisms underpinning GSK3 regulation in this context are not completely understood, with some evidence suggesting this occurs through inhibitory N-terminal serine phosphorylation in a similar way to GSK3 inactivation in insulin signaling. To investigate this in a physiologically relevant context, we have analysed the intestinal phenotype of GSK3 knockin mice in which N-terminal serines 21/9 of GSK3α/β have been mutated to non-phosphorylatable alanine residues. We show that these knockin mutations have very little effect on overall intestinal integrity, cell lineage commitment, β-catenin localization or WNT target gene expression although a small increase in apoptosis at villi tips is observed. Our results provide in vivo evidence that GSK3 is regulated through mechanisms independent of N-terminal serine phosphorylation in order for β-catenin to be stabilised.

  7. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 promotes amyloid precursor protein (APP) turnover by inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) activity: novel mechanism for Pin1 to protect against Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Ma, Suk Ling; Pastorino, Lucia; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-03-02

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of senile plaques of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from amyloid precursor protein (APP) and neurofibrillary tangles made of hyperphosphorylated Tau. Increasing APP gene dosage or expression has been shown to cause familial early-onset AD. However, whether and how protein stability of APP is regulated is unclear. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) have been shown to have the opposite effects on APP processing and Tau hyperphosphorylation, relevant to the pathogenesis of AD. However, nothing is known about their relationship. In this study, we found that Pin1 binds to the pT330-P motif in GSK3β to inhibit its kinase activity. Furthermore, Pin1 promotes protein turnover of APP by inhibiting GSK3β activity. A point mutation either at Thr-330, the Pin1-binding site in GSK3β, or at Thr-668, the GSK3β phosphorylation site in APP, abolished the regulation of GSK3β activity, Thr-668 phosphorylation, and APP stability by Pin1, resulting in reduced non-amyloidogenic APP processing and increased APP levels. These results uncover a novel role of Pin1 in inhibiting GSK3β kinase activity to reduce APP protein levels, providing a previously unrecognized mechanism by which Pin1 protects against Alzheimer disease.

  8. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Di Gregorio, Jacopo; Sferra, Roberta; Speca, Silvia; Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new PPAR-γ modulator GED-0507-34 Levo through

  9. Role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β and PPAR-γ on epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DSS-induced colorectal fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Vetuschi, Antonella; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Desreumaux, Pierre; Pompili, Simona; Cristiano, Loredana; Gaudio, Eugenio; Flati, Vincenzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Background Intestinal fibrosis is characterized by abnormal production and deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by activated myofibroblasts. The main progenitor cells of activated myofibroblasts are the fibroblasts and the epithelial cells, the latter through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Aim To evaluate the action of the new PPAR-γ modulator, GED-0507-34 Levo (GED) on the expression of EMT associated and regulatory proteins such as TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, and GSK-3β, in a mouse model of DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis. Methods Chronic colitis and fibrosis were induced by oral administration of 2.5% DSS (w/v) for 6 weeks. GW9662 (GW), a selective PPAR-γ inhibitor, was also administered by intraperitoneal injection at the dose of 1 mg/kg/day combined with GED treatment. All drugs were administered at the beginning of the second cycle of DSS (day 12). 65 mice were randomly divided into five groups (H2O as controls n = 10, H2O+GED n = 10, DSS n = 15, DSS+GED n = 15, DSS+GED+GW n = 15). The colon was excised for macroscopic examination and histological and morphometric analyses. The level of expression of molecules involved in EMT and fibrosis, like TGF-β, Smad3, E-cadherin, Snail, ZEB1, β-catenin, GSK-3β and PPAR-γ, was assessed by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and Real Time PCR. Results GED improved the DSS-induced chronic colitis and fibrosis. GED was able to reduce the expression of the main fibrosis markers (α-SMA, collagen I-III and fibronectin) as well as the pivotal pro-fibrotic molecules IL-13, TGF-β and Smad3, while it increased the anti-fibrotic PPAR-γ. All these GED effects were nullified by co-administration of GW with GED. Furthermore, GED was able to normalize the expression levels of E-cadherin and β-catenin and upregulated GSK-3β, that are all known to be involved both in EMT and fibrosis. Conclusions The DSS-induced intestinal fibrosis was improved by the new

  10. The inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 by insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1 in the rat skeletal muscle cell line L6 is blocked by wortmannin, but not by rapamycin: evidence that wortmannin blocks activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in L6 cells between Ras and Raf.

    PubMed Central

    Cross, D A; Alessi, D R; Vandenheede, J R; McDowell, H E; Hundal, H S; Cohen, P

    1994-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) is inactivated in vitro by p70 S6 kinase or MAP kinase-activated protein kinase-1 beta (MAPKAP kinase-1 beta; also known as Rsk-2). Here we show that GSK3 isoforms are inhibited by 40% within minutes after stimulation of the rat skeletal-muscle cell line L6 with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) or insulin. GSK3 was similarly inhibited in rabbit skeletal muscle after an intravenous injection of insulin. Inhibition resulted from increased phosphorylation of GSK3, probably at a serine/threonine residue(s), because it was reversed by incubation with protein phosphatase-2A. Rapamycin blocked the activation of p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 in L6 cells, but had no effect on the inhibition of GSK3 or the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta. In contrast, wortmannin, a potent inhibitor of PtdIns 3-kinase, prevented the inactivation of GSK3 and the activation of MAPKAP kinase-1 beta and p70 S6 kinase by IGF-1 or insulin. Wortmannin also blocked the activation of p74raf-1. MAP kinase kinase and p42 MAP kinase, but not the formation of GTP-Ras by IGF-1. The results suggest that the stimulation of glycogen synthase by insulin/IGF-1 in skeletal muscle involves the MAP-KAP kinase-1-catalysed inhibition of GSK3, as well as the previously described activation of the glycogen-associated form of protein phosphatase-1. Images Figure 1 PMID:7945242

  11. The A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP) Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Interaction Protein (GSKIP) Regulates β-Catenin through Its Interactions with Both Protein Kinase A (PKA) and GSK3β.

    PubMed

    Dema, Alessandro; Schröter, Micha Friedemann; Perets, Ekaterina; Skroblin, Philipp; Moutty, Marie Christine; Deàk, Veronika Anita; Birchmeier, Walter; Klussmann, Enno

    2016-09-09

    The A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) GSK3β interaction protein (GSKIP) is a cytosolic scaffolding protein binding protein kinase A (PKA) and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β). Here we show that both the AKAP function of GSKIP, i.e. its direct interaction with PKA, and its direct interaction with GSK3β are required for the regulation of β-catenin and thus Wnt signaling. A cytoplasmic destruction complex targets β-catenin for degradation and thus prevents Wnt signaling. Wnt signals cause β-catenin accumulation and translocation into the nucleus, where it induces Wnt target gene expression. GSKIP facilitates control of the β-catenin stabilizing phosphorylation at Ser-675 by PKA. Its interaction with GSK3β facilitates control of the destabilizing phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser-33/Ser-37/Thr-41. The influence of GSKIP on β-catenin is explained by its scavenger function; it recruits the kinases away from the destruction complex without forming a complex with β-catenin. The regulation of β-catenin by GSKIP is specific for this AKAP as AKAP220, which also binds PKA and GSK3β, did not affect Wnt signaling. We find that the binding domain of AKAP220 for GSK3β is a conserved GSK3β interaction domain (GID), which is also present in GSKIP. Our findings highlight an essential compartmentalization of both PKA and GSK3β by GSKIP, and ascribe a function to a cytosolic AKAP-PKA interaction as a regulatory factor in the control of canonical Wnt signaling. Wnt signaling controls different biological processes, including embryonic development, cell cycle progression, glycogen metabolism, and immune regulation; deregulation is associated with diseases such as cancer, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory, and Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  12. Effects of Valproic Acid Derivatives on Inositol Trisphosphate Depletion, Teratogenicity, Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Inhibition, and Viral Replication: A Screening Approach for New Bipolar Disorder Drugs Derived from the Valproic Acid Core Structure

    PubMed Central

    Eickholt, B. J.; Towers, G. J.; Ryves, W. J.; Eikel, D.; Adley, K.; Ylinen, L. M. J.; Chadborn, N. H.; Harwood, A. J.; Nau, H.; Williams, R. S. B.

    2005-01-01

    Inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) depletion has been implicated in the therapeutic action of bipolar disorder drugs, including valproic acid (VPA). It is not currently known whether the effect of VPA on InsP3 depletion is related to the deleterious effects of teratogenicity or elevated viral replication, or if it occurs via putative inhibitory effects on glycogen synthase kinase-3β(GSK-3β). In addition, the structural requirements of VPA-related compounds to cause InsP3 depletion are unknown. In the current study, we selected a set of 10 VPA congeners to examine their effects on InsP3 depletion, in vivo teratogenic potency, HIV replication, and GSK-3β activity in vitro. We found four compounds that function to deplete InsP3 in the model eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum, and these drugs all cause growth-cone enlargement in mammalian primary neurons, consistent with the effect of InsP3 depletion. No relationship was found between InsP3 depletion and teratogenic or elevated viral replication effects, and none of the VPA congeners were found to affect GSK-3β activity. Structural requirements of VPA congers to maintain InsP3 depletion efficacy greater than that of lithium are a carboxylic-acid function without dependence on side-chain length, branching, or saturation. Noteworthy is the enantiomeric differentiation if a chiral center exists, suggesting that InsP3 depletion is mediated by a stereoselective mode of action. Thus, the effect of InsP3 depletion can be separated from that of teratogenic potency and elevated viral replication effect. We have used this to identify two VPA derivatives that share the common InsP3-depleting action of VPA, lithium and carbamazepine, but do not show the side effects of VPA, thus providing promising novel candidates for bipolar disorder treatment. PMID:15687223

  13. Baicalin attenuates high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and ectopic fat storage in skeletal muscle, through modulating the protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta pathway.

    PubMed

    Xi, You-Li; Li, Hong-Xia; Chen, Chen; Liu, Ya-Qun; Lv, Hong-Mei; Dong, Shi-Qi; Luo, Er-Fei; Gu, Ming-Bo; Liu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance is the pathophysiological basis of many diseases. Overcoming early insulin resistance highly significant in prevention diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver, and atherosclerosis. The present study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic effects of baicalin on insulin resistance and skeletal muscle ectopic fat storage in high fat diet-induced mice, and exploring the potential molecular mechanisms. Insulin resistance in mice was induced with a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Animals were then treated with three different doses of baicalin (100, 200, and 400 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) for 14 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, glucose tolerance test (GTT), insulin tolerance test (ITT), and skeletal muscle lipid deposition were measured. Additionally, the AMP-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase and protein kinase B/Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta pathways in skeletal muscle were further evaluated. Baicalin significantly reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose and fasting serum insulin and attenuated high fat diet induced glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Moreover, insulin resistance was significantly reversed. Pathological analysis revealed baicalin dose-dependently decreased the degree of the ectopic fat storage in skeletal muscle. The properties of baicalin were mediated, at least in part, by inhibition of the AMPK/ACC pathway, a key regulator of de novo lipogenesis and activation of the Akt/GSK-3β pathway, a key regulator of Glycogen synthesis. These data suggest that baicalin, at dose up to 400 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), is safe and able to attenuate insulin resistance and skeletal muscle ectopic fat storage, through modulating the skeletal muscle AMPK/ACC pathway and Akt/GSK-3β pathway.

  14. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β (GSK-3β) Inhibition Enhances Dendritic Cell-based Cancer Vaccine Potency via Suppression of Interferon-γ-induced Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase Expression.

    PubMed

    Noh, Kyung Tae; Son, Kwang Hee; Jung, In Duk; Kang, Tae Heung; Choi, Chang Hun; Park, Yeong-Min

    2015-05-08

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) functions as a crucial mediator of tumor-mediated immune tolerance by causing T-cell suppression via tryptophan starvation in a tumor environment. Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) is also involved in immune and anti-tumor responses. However, the relativity of these proteins has not been as well defined. Here, we found that GSK-3β-dependent IDO expression in the dendritic cell (DC) plays a role in anti-tumor activity via the regulation of CD8(+) T-cell polarization and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity. By the inhibition of GSK-3β, attenuated IDO expression and impaired JAK1/2-Stat signaling crucial for IDO expression were observed. Protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) activity and the interaction between JAK1/2 and Stat3, which are important for IDO expression, were also reduced by GSK-3β inhibition. CD8(+) T-cell proliferation mediated by OVA-pulsed DC was blocked by interferon (IFN)-γ-induced IDO expression via GSK-3β activity. Specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity mediated by OVA-pulsed DC against OVA-expressing EG7 thymoma cells but not OVA-nonexpressing EL4 thymoma cells was also attenuated by the expressed IDO via IFN-γ-induced activation of GSK-3β. Furthermore, tumor growth that was suppressed with OVA-pulsed DC vaccination was restored by IDO-expressing DC via IFN-γ-induced activation of GSK-3β in an OVA-expressing murine EG7 thymoma model. Taken together, DC-based immune response mediated by interferon-γ-induced IDO expression via GSK-3β activity not only regulates CD8(+) T-cell proliferation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity but also modulates OVA-pulsed DC vaccination against EG7 thymoma.

  15. Studies of inositol 1-phosphate analogues as inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol phosphate synthase in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Morii, Hiroyuki; Okauchi, Tatsuo; Nomiya, Hiroki; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi

    2013-03-01

    We previously reported a novel pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol in mycobacteria via phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) [Morii H., Ogawa, M., Fukuda, K., Taniguchi, H., and Koga, Y (2010) J. Biochem. 148, 593-602]. PIP synthase in the pathway is a promising target for the development of new anti-mycobacterium drugs. In the present study, we evaluated the characteristics of the PIP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Four types of compounds were chemically synthesized based on the assumption that structural homologues of inositol 1-phosphate, a PIP synthase substrate, would act as PIP synthase inhibitors, and the results confirmed that all synthesized compounds inhibited PIP synthase activity. The phosphonate analogue of inositol 1-phosphate (Ino-C-P) had the greatest inhibitory effect among the synthesized compounds examined. Kinetic analysis indicated that Ino-C-P acted as a competitive inhibitor of inositol 1-phosphate. The IC(50) value for Ino-C-P inhibition of the PIP synthase activity was estimated to be 2.0 mM. Interestingly, Ino-C-P was utilized in the same manner as the normal PIP synthase substrate, leading to the synthesis of a phosphonate analogue of PIP (PI-C-P), which had a structure similar to that of the natural product, PIP. In addition, PI-C-P had high inhibitory activity against PIP synthase.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors do not alter functional hyperemia in canine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Barclay, J K; Woodley, N E

    1994-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endothelium-derived products contribute to functional hyperemia in skeletal muscle, we infused nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, either 200 microM N omega-nitro-L-arginine (NNA) (N = 4) or 1 mM N gamma-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMMA) (N = 4), before and during 6 min of 4 Hz stimulation of canine gastrocnemius in situ. We infused saline (N = 4) as a control. NNA significantly decreased steady-level resting flow by 3.8 +/- 0.4 mL.kg-1.s-1. The increase in flow from rest to 5 min of stimulation was not changed by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. We also stimulated muscles for 60 min either with saline infusion (N = 4) or with the infusion of saline during the first 15 min and NNA for the remaining 45 min (n = 4). There was no difference in the flow during contractions. To clarify the effect of these inhibitors on canine vessels, we challenged rings of canine femoral artery with and without endothelium with acetylcholine and bradykinin (both 1 microM) before and after the addition of NNA and NMMA (both 10 microM). The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors decreased the relaxation accompanying acetylcholine. Both inhibitors caused only endothelium-intact rings to contract. Thus, the presence of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor identified an endothelium-dependent contribution to the regulation of blood flow to skeletal muscle at rest but had no effect on functional hyperemia.

  17. Reviewing Ligand-Based Rational Drug Design: The Search for an ATP Synthase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Hsien; Huang, Hsuan-Cheng; Juan, Hsueh-Fen

    2011-01-01

    Following major advances in the field of medicinal chemistry, novel drugs can now be designed systematically, instead of relying on old trial and error approaches. Current drug design strategies can be classified as being either ligand- or structure-based depending on the design process. In this paper, by describing the search for an ATP synthase inhibitor, we review two frequently used approaches in ligand-based drug design: The pharmacophore model and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method. Moreover, since ATP synthase ligands are potentially useful drugs in cancer therapy, pharmacophore models were constructed to pave the way for novel inhibitor designs. PMID:21954360

  18. Chloropropionyl-CoA: a mechanism-based inhibitor of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Miziorko, H.M.; Ahmad, F.; Behnke, C.E.

    1986-05-01

    Recent work on the mechanisms of inactivation of HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase by chloropropionyl-CoA (Cl-prop-CoA) suggests that this analog is a mechanism-based (suicide) inhibitor; the acyl group is enzymatically converted to an acrylyl derivative prior to alkylation of the target proteins. When Cl-(/sup 3/H)prop-CoA is incubated with the target enzymes, /sup 3/H/sub 2/O is produced concomitantly with enzyme inactivation; this suggests that deprotonation and chloride elimination to form an acrylyl moiety occurs. Difficulty in cleanly synthesizing acrylyl-CoA complicates direct demonstration of the intermediacy of this species. However, synthesis of a functionally equivalent reactive substrate analog, S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine has been accomplished. This analog irreversibly inhibits both HMG-CoA synthase and fatty acid synthase in a site directed fashion. Concentrations required for effective inhibition (K/sub i/ values of 1.9 mM and 3.6 mM, respectively) are much higher than observed with Cl-prop-CoA. Maximal rates of inactivation (as vertical bar ..-->.. infinity) are comparable to those measured with Cl-prop-CoA, indicating that an acrylyl derivative is kinetically competent to function as an intermediate, as required if Cl-prop-CoA is a mechanism-based inhibitor. S-acrylyl-N-acetylcysteamine also inactivates HMG-CoA lyase. In this case, kinetic studies indicate that a bimolecular process is involved (k/sub 2/ = 86.7M/sup -1/min/sup -1/ at 30/sup 0/, pH 7.0).

  19. Discovery of two new inhibitors of Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase by a chemical library screening.

    PubMed

    Magellan, Hervé; Boccara, Martine; Drujon, Thierry; Soulié, Marie-Christine; Guillou, Catherine; Dubois, Joëlle; Becker, Hubert F

    2013-09-01

    Chitin synthases polymerize UDP-GlcNAC to form chitin polymer, a key component of fungal cell wall biosynthesis. Furthermore, chitin synthases are desirable targets for fungicides since chitin is absent in plants and mammals. Two potent Botrytis cinerea chitin synthase inhibitors, 2,3,5-tri-O-benzyl-d-ribose (compound 1) and a 2,5-functionalized imidazole (compound 2) were identified by screening a chemical library. We adapted the wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) test for chitin synthase activity detection to allow miniaturization and robotization of the screen. Both identified compounds inhibited chitin synthases in vitro with IC50 values of 1.8 and 10μM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antifungal activity and were found to be active against B. cinerea BD90 strain with MIC values of 190 and 100μM, respectively. Finally, we discovered that both compounds confer resistance to plant leaves against the attack of the fungus by reducing the propagation of lesions by 37% and 23%, respectively. Based on the inhibitory properties found in different assays, compounds 1 and 2 can be considered as antifungal hit inhibitors of chitin synthase, allowing further optimization of their pharmacological profile to improve their antifungal properties.

  20. The leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple (Malus baccata (Linn.) Borkh) contains potential fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiang; Zhao, Ran; Sun, Ying-Hui; Cong, Jian-Ping; Meng, Fan-Guo; Zhou, Hai-Meng

    2009-02-01

    The present work focused on the kinetics of the inhibitory effects of the leaf extract of Siberian Crabapple, named Shan jingzi in China, on chicken liver fatty acid synthase. The results showed that this extract had much stronger inhibitory ability on fatty acid synthase than that from green teas described in many previous reports. The inhibitory ability of this extract is closely related to the extracting solvent, and the time of extraction was also an important influencing factor. The inhibitory types of this extract on diffeerent substrates of chicken liver fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA and NADPH, were found to be noncompetitive, uncompetitive and mixed, respectively. The studies here shed a new light on the exploration for inhibitors of fatty acid synthase.

  1. Synthesis of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-boranomono phosphate as a potential thymidylate synthase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shoeb I; Dobrikov, Mikhail I; Shaw, Barbara Ramsay

    2005-01-01

    The 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine nucleoside and the 5'-boranomonophosphate nucleotide were synthesized as analogs of 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine monophosphate (5-FdUMP), a widely used mechanism-based inhibitor of thymidylate synthase. Synthesis was carried out from protected 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and trimethylsilylacetylene by Sonogashira palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction followed by selective phosphorylation and finally boronation.

  2. Structural and biological studies on bacterial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Jeffrey K.; Li, Huiying; Jing, Qing; Kang, Soosung; Richo, Jerry; Silverman, Richard B.; Poulos, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced by bacterial NOS functions as a cytoprotective agent against oxidative stress in Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus subtilis. The screening of several NOS-selective inhibitors uncovered two inhibitors with potential antimicrobial properties. These two compounds impede the growth of B. subtilis under oxidative stress, and crystal structures show that each compound exhibits a unique binding mode. Both compounds serve as excellent leads for the future development of antimicrobials against bacterial NOS-containing bacteria. PMID:24145412

  3. Transcriptional regulation, stabilization, and subcellular redistribution of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) by glycogen synthase kinase 3αβ: novel insights on modes of cadmium-induced cell death stimulated by MRP1.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Lee, Kang-Yo; Lee, Kang-Yoo; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Jung, Ki-Tae; Yoon, Jung-Hoon; Yoon, Hyo-Eun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) resistance is associated with the suppression of autophagy in H460 lung cancer cells, which is regulated by phospho(p)serine-glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3αβ. However, the involvement of multidrug resistance (MDR) in this signaling pathway and its underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this study, we used Cd-resistant cells (RH460), developed from H460 lung cancer cells, to demonstrate that the induction of MDR-associated protein (MRP1) in response to Cd is enhanced in H460 cells compared to RH460. Treating RH460 cells with Cd induced large cytoplasmic vacuoles, which was inhibited by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine. MRP1 was detected in the nuclear-rich membrane fractions and redistributed from the perinuclear to the cytoplasmic compartment following exposure to Cd. Cd-induced MRP1, p-Ser/p-Tyr GSK3αβ, and LC3-II were all suppressed by the GSK3 inhibitor SB216763, but increased by lithium. Furthermore, MRP1 was upregulated by the Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid and downregulated by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, suggesting that MRP1 protein was stabilized by p-Ser GSK3αβ. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization analyzes revealed a physical interaction between MRP1 and p-Ser GSK3αβ. Genetic knockdown of GSK3β decreased Cd-induced MRP1 mRNA and protein levels, whereas its overexpression upregulated MRP1 protein expression. MRP1 also co-localized with lysosomal membrane protein-2, which may cause lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the subsequent release of cathepsins into the cytosol. In mice chronically injected with Cd, MRP1 localized to the perinuclear region of bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that Cd toxicity is regulated by the transcriptional regulation, stabilization, and subcellular redistribution of MRP1 via the posttranslational modification of GSK3αβ. Therefore, the serine phosphorylation of GSK3αβ plays a critical role in

  4. Small-molecule inhibitor binding to an N-acyl-homoserine lactone synthase.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jiwoung; Goo, Eunhye; Yu, Sangheon; Choi, Okhee; Lee, Jeehyun; Kim, Jinwoo; Kim, Hongsup; Igarashi, Jun; Suga, Hiroaki; Moon, Jae Sun; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2011-07-19

    Quorum sensing (QS) controls certain behaviors of bacteria in response to population density. In gram-negative bacteria, QS is often mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs). Because QS influences the virulence of many pathogenic bacteria, synthetic inhibitors of acyl-HSL synthases might be useful therapeutically for controlling pathogens. However, rational design of a potent QS antagonist has been thwarted by the lack of information concerning the binding interactions between acyl-HSL synthases and their ligands. In the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia glumae, QS controls virulence, motility, and protein secretion and is mediated by the binding of N-octanoyl-L-HSL (C8-HSL) to its cognate receptor, TofR. C8-HSL is synthesized by the acyl-HSL synthase TofI. In this study, we characterized two previously unknown QS inhibitors identified in a focused library of acyl-HSL analogs. Our functional and X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the first inhibitor, J8-C8, binds to TofI, occupying the binding site for the acyl chain of the TofI cognate substrate, acylated acyl-carrier protein. Moreover, the reaction byproduct, 5'-methylthioadenosine, independently binds to the binding site for a second substrate, S-adenosyl-L-methionine. Closer inspection of the mode of J8-C8 binding to TofI provides a likely molecular basis for the various substrate specificities of acyl-HSL synthases. The second inhibitor, E9C-3oxoC6, competitively inhibits C8-HSL binding to TofR. Our analysis of the binding of an inhibitor and a reaction byproduct to an acyl-HSL synthase may facilitate the design of a new class of QS-inhibiting therapeutic agents.

  5. Synthesis of Bi-substrate State Mimics of Dihydropteroate Synthase as Potential Inhibitors and Molecular Probes

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianjun; Virga, Kristopher G.; Das, Sourav; Zhao, Ying; Yun, Mi-Kyung; White, Stephen W.; Lee, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing emergence of resistant bacteria drives us to design and develop new antimicrobial agents. Pursuant to that goal, a new targeting approach of the dihydropteroate synthase enzyme, which serves as the site of action for the sulfonamide class of antimicrobial agents, is being explored. Using structural information, a new class of transition state mimics has been designed and synthesized that have the capacity to bind to the pterin, phosphate and para-amino binding sites. The design, synthesis and evaluation of these compounds as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis dihydropteroate synthase is described herein. Outcomes from this work have identified the first trivalent inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase whose activity displayed slow binding inhibition. The most active compounds in this series contained an oxidized pterin ring. The binding of these inhibitors was modeled into the dihydropteroate synthase active site and demonstrated a good correlation with the observed bioassay data, as well as provided important insight for the future design of higher affinity transition state mimics. PMID:21216602

  6. Natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents for cancers: A review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jia-Sui; Lei, Jie-Ping; Wei, Guo-Qing; Chen, Hui; Ma, Chao-Ying; Jiang, He-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Context Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is the only mammalian enzyme to catalyse the synthesis of fatty acid. The expression level of FAS is related to cancer progression, aggressiveness and metastasis. In recent years, research on natural FAS inhibitors with significant bioactivities and low side effects has increasingly become a new trend. Herein, we present recent research progress on natural fatty acid synthase inhibitors as potent therapeutic agents. Objective This paper is a mini overview of the typical natural FAS inhibitors and their possible mechanism of action in the past 10 years (2004-2014). Method The information was collected and compiled through major databases including Web of Science, PubMed, and CNKI. Results Many natural products induce cancer cells apoptosis by inhibiting FAS expression, with fewer side effects than synthetic inhibitors. Conclusion Natural FAS inhibitors are widely distributed in plants (especially in herbs and foods). Some natural products (mainly phenolics) possessing potent biological activities and stable structures are available as lead compounds to synthesise promising FAS inhibitors.

  7. Discovery of Novel Antifungal (1,3)-β-d-Glucan Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, J.; Meinz, M.; Thompson, J.; Curotto, J.; Dreikorn, S.; Rosenbach, M.; Douglas, C.; Abruzzo, G.; Flattery, A.; Kong, L.; Cabello, A.; Vicente, F.; Pelaez, F.; Diez, M. T.; Martin, I.; Bills, G.; Giacobbe, R.; Dombrowski, A.; Schwartz, R.; Morris, S.; Harris, G.; Tsipouras, A.; Wilson, K.; Kurtz, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing incidence of life-threatening fungal infections has driven the search for new, broad-spectrum fungicidal agents that can be used for treatment and prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Natural-product inhibitors of cell wall (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase such as lipopeptide pneumocandins and echinocandins as well as the glycolipid papulacandins have been evaluated as potential therapeutics for the last two decades. As a result, MK-0991 (caspofungin acetate; Cancidas), a semisynthetic analogue of pneumocandin Bo, is being developed as a broad-spectrum parenteral agent for the treatment of aspergillosis and candidiasis. This and other lipopeptide antifungal agents have limited oral bioavailability. Thus, we have sought new chemical structures with the mode of action of lipopeptide antifungal agents but with the potential for oral absorption. Results of natural-product screening by a series of newly developed methods has led to the identification of four acidic terpenoid (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase inhibitors. Of the four compounds, the in vitro antifungal activity of one, enfumafungin, is comparable to that of L-733560, a close analogue of MK-0991. Like the lipopeptides, enfumafungin specifically inhibits glucan synthesis in whole cells and in (1,3)-β-d-glucan synthase assays, alters the morphologies of yeasts and molds, and produces a unique response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with point mutations in FKS1, the gene which encodes the large subunit of glucan synthase. PMID:10639364

  8. Differential in radiosensitizing potency of enantiomers of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75

    PubMed Central

    Babich, John W.; Mairs, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer‐killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase‐1. C75 is administered in the form of a racemic mixture of (−) and (+) enantiomers that may differ in their regulation of fatty acid synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase‐1. Therefore, we assessed the relative cancer‐killing potency of different enantiomeric forms of C75 in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that (−)‐C75 is the more cytotoxic enantiomer and has greater radiosensitizing capacity than (+)‐C75. These observations will stimulate the development of fatty acid synthase inhibitors that are selective for cancer cells and enhance the tumor‐killing activity of ionizing radiation, while minimizing weight loss in cancer patients. PMID:27901292

  9. Differential in radiosensitizing potency of enantiomers of the fatty acid synthase inhibitor C75.

    PubMed

    Rae, Colin; Babich, John W; Mairs, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    The elevated activity of fatty acid synthase has been reported in a number of cancer types. Inhibition of this enzyme has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell death and reduce tumor growth. In addition, the fatty acid synthase inhibitor drug C75 has been reported to synergistically enhance the cancer-killing ability of ionizing radiation. However, clinical use of C75 has been limited due to its producing weight loss, believed to be caused by alterations in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. C75 is administered in the form of a racemic mixture of (-) and (+) enantiomers that may differ in their regulation of fatty acid synthase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1. Therefore, we assessed the relative cancer-killing potency of different enantiomeric forms of C75 in prostate cancer cells. These results suggest that (-)-C75 is the more cytotoxic enantiomer and has greater radiosensitizing capacity than (+)-C75. These observations will stimulate the development of fatty acid synthase inhibitors that are selective for cancer cells and enhance the tumor-killing activity of ionizing radiation, while minimizing weight loss in cancer patients.

  10. Structural study and thermodynamic characterization of inhibitor binding to lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis

    SciTech Connect

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Illarionov, Boris; Saller, Sabine; Popov, Aleksander; Sambaiah, Thota; Bacher, Adelbert; Cushman, Mark; Fischer, Markus; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2010-09-01

    Crystallographic studies of lumazine synthase, the penultimate enzyme of the riboflavin-biosynthetic pathway in B. anthracis, provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotic inhibitors, together with calorimetric and kinetic investigations of inhibitor binding. The crystal structure of lumazine synthase from Bacillus anthracis was solved by molecular replacement and refined to R{sub cryst} = 23.7% (R{sub free} = 28.4%) at a resolution of 3.5 Å. The structure reveals the icosahedral symmetry of the enzyme and specific features of the active site that are unique in comparison with previously determined orthologues. The application of isothermal titration calorimetry in combination with enzyme kinetics showed that three designed pyrimidine derivatives bind to lumazine synthase with micromolar dissociation constants and competitively inhibit the catalytic reaction. Structure-based modelling suggested the binding modes of the inhibitors in the active site and allowed an estimation of the possible contacts formed upon binding. The results provide a structural framework for the design of antibiotics active against B. anthracis.

  11. Profiling of in vitro activities of urea-based inhibitors against cysteine synthases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Katharina; Steiner, Eva Maria; Reshma, Rudraraju Srilakshmi; Sriram, Dharmarajan; Schnell, Robert; Schneider, Gunter

    2017-10-01

    CysK1 and CysK2 are two members of the cysteine/S-sulfocysteine synthase family in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, responsible for the de novo biosynthesis of l-cysteine, which is subsequently used as a building block for mycothiol. This metabolite is the first line defense of this pathogen against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species released by host macrophages after phagocytosis. In a previous medicinal chemistry campaign we had developed urea-based inhibitors of the cysteine synthase CysM with bactericidal activity against dormant M. tuberculosis. In this study we extended these efforts by examination of the in vitro activities of a library consisting of 71 urea compounds against CysK1 and CysK2. Binding was established by fluorescence spectroscopy and inhibition by enzyme assays. Several of the compounds inhibited these two cysteine synthases, with the most potent inhibitor displaying an IC50 value of 2.5µM for CysK1 and 6.6µM for CysK2, respectively. Four of the identified molecules targeting CysK1 and CysK2 were also among the top ten inhibitors of CysM, suggesting that potent compounds could be developed with activity against all three enzymes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Identification and evaluation of novel acetolactate synthase inhibitors as antifungal agents.

    PubMed

    Richie, Daryl L; Thompson, Katherine V; Studer, Christian; Prindle, Vivian C; Aust, Thomas; Riedl, Ralph; Estoppey, David; Tao, Jianshi; Sexton, Jessica A; Zabawa, Thomas; Drumm, Joseph; Cotesta, Simona; Eichenberger, Jürg; Schuierer, Sven; Hartmann, Nicole; Movva, N Rao; Tallarico, John A; Ryder, Neil S; Hoepfner, Dominic

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput phenotypic screening against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae revealed a series of triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds with broad-spectrum antifungal activity, no significant cytotoxicity, and low protein binding. To elucidate the target of this series, we have applied a chemogenomic profiling approach using the S. cerevisiae deletion collection. All compounds of the series yielded highly similar profiles that suggested acetolactate synthase (Ilv2p, which catalyzes the first common step in branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis) as a possible target. The high correlation with profiles of known Ilv2p inhibitors like chlorimuron-ethyl provided further evidence for a similar mechanism of action. Genome-wide mutagenesis in S. cerevisiae identified 13 resistant clones with 3 different mutations in the catalytic subunit of acetolactate synthase that also conferred cross-resistance to established Ilv2p inhibitors. Mapping of the mutations into the published Ilv2p crystal structure outlined the chlorimuron-ethyl binding cavity, and it was possible to dock the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compound into this pocket in silico. However, fungal growth inhibition could be bypassed through supplementation with exogenous branched-chain amino acids or by the addition of serum to the medium in all of the fungal organisms tested except for Aspergillus fumigatus. Thus, these data support the identification of the triazolopyrimidine-sulfonamide compounds as inhibitors of acetolactate synthase but suggest that targeting may be compromised due to the possibility of nutrient bypass in vivo.

  13. In search of potent and selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase with more simple structures

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Qing; Li, Huiying; Fang, Jianguo; Roman, Linda J.; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2013-01-01

    In certain neurodegenerative diseases damaging levels of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). It, therefore, is important to develop inhibitors selective for nNOS that do not interfere with other NOS isoforms, especially endothelial NOS (eNOS), which is critical for proper functioning of the cardiovascular system. While we have been successful in developing potent and isoform-selective inhibitors, such as lead compounds 1 and 2, the ease of synthesis and bioavailability have been problematic. Here we describe a new series of compounds including crystal structures of NOS-inhibitor complexes that integrate the advantages of easy synthesis and good biological properties compared to the lead compounds. These results provide the basis for additional structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies to guide further improvement of isozyme selective inhibitors. PMID:23867386

  14. Distinct Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)-associated Janus Kinase 3 (JAK3) Mutants Exhibit Different Cytokine-Receptor Requirements and JAK Inhibitor Specificities.

    PubMed

    Losdyck, Elisabeth; Hornakova, Tekla; Springuel, Lorraine; Degryse, Sandrine; Gielen, Olga; Cools, Jan; Constantinescu, Stefan N; Flex, Elisabetta; Tartaglia, Marco; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Knoops, Laurent

    2015-11-27

    JAK1 and JAK3 are recurrently mutated in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. These tyrosine kinases associate with heterodimeric cytokine receptors such as IL-7 receptor or IL-9 receptor, in which JAK1 is appended to the specific chain, and JAK3 is appended to the common gamma chain. Here, we studied the role of these receptor complexes in mediating the oncogenic activity of JAK3 mutants. Although JAK3(V674A) and the majority of other JAK3 mutants needed to bind to a functional cytokine receptor complex to constitutively activate STAT5, JAK3(L857P) was unexpectedly found to not depend on such receptor complexes for its activity, which was induced without receptor or JAK1 co-expression. Introducing a mutation in the FERM domain that abolished JAK-receptor interaction did not affect JAK3(L857P) activity, whereas it inhibited the other receptor-dependent mutants. The same cytokine receptor independence as for JAK3(L857P) was observed for homologous Leu(857) mutations of JAK1 and JAK2 and for JAK3(L875H). This different cytokine receptor requirement correlated with different functional properties in vivo and with distinct sensitivity to JAK inhibitors. Transduction of murine hematopoietic cells with JAK3(V674A) led homogenously to lymphoblastic leukemias in BALB/c mice. In contrast, transduction with JAK3(L857P) induced various types of lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. Moreover, ruxolitinib, which preferentially blocks JAK1 and JAK2, abolished the proliferation of cells transformed by the receptor-dependent JAK3(V674A), yet proved much less potent on cells expressing JAK3(L857P). These particular cells were, in contrast, more sensitive to JAK3-specific inhibitors. Altogether, our results showed that different JAK3 mutations induce constitutive activation through distinct mechanisms, pointing to specific therapeutic perspectives. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. VX-509 (decernotinib) is a potent and selective janus kinase 3 inhibitor that attenuates inflammation in animal models of autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Sudipta; Hogan, James K; Shlyakhter, Dina; Oh, Luke; Salituro, Francesco G; Farmer, Luc; Hoock, Thomas C

    2015-05-01

    Cytokines, growth factors, and other chemical messengers rely on a class of intracellular nonreceptor tyrosine kinases known as Janus kinases (JAKs) to rapidly transduce intracellular signals. A number of these cytokines are critical for lymphocyte development and mediating immune responses. JAK3 is of particular interest due to its importance in immune function and its expression, which is largely confined to lymphocytes, thus limiting the potential impact of JAK3 inhibition on nonimmune physiology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potency and selectivity of the investigational JAK3 inhibitor VX-509 (decernotinib) [(R)-2-((2-(1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-3-yl)pyrimidin-4-yl)amino)-2-methyl-N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)butanamide] against JAK3 kinase activity and inhibition of JAK3-mediated signaling in vitro and JAK3-dependent physiologic processes in vivo. These results demonstrate that VX-509 potently inhibits JAK3 in enzyme assays (Ki = 2.5 nM + 0.7 nM) and cellular assays dependent on JAK3 activity (IC50 range, 50-170 nM), with limited or no measurable potency against other JAK isotypes or non-JAK kinases. VX-509 also showed activity in two animal models of aberrant immune function. VX-509 treatment resulted in dose-dependent reduction in ankle swelling and paw weight and improved paw histopathology scores in the rat collagen-induced arthritis model. In a mouse model of oxazolone-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, VX-509 reduced the T cell-mediated inflammatory response in skin. These findings demonstrate that VX-509 is a selective and potent inhibitor of JAK3 in vitro and modulates proinflammatory response in models of immune-mediated diseases, such as collagen-induced arthritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity. The data support evaluation of VX-509 for treatment of patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 6-carboxyalkyl and 6-phosphonoxyalkyl derivatives of 7-oxo-8-ribitylaminolumazines as inhibitors of riboflavin synthase and lumazine synthase.

    PubMed

    Cushman, Mark; Yang, Donglai; Gerhardt, Stefan; Huber, Robert; Fischer, Markus; Kis, Klaus; Bacher, Adelbert

    2002-08-09

    A series of 6-carboxyalkyl and 6-phosphonoxyalkyl derivatives of 7-oxo-8-D-ribityllumazine were synthesized as inhibitors of both Escherichia coli riboflavin synthase and Bacillus subtilis lumazine synthase. The compounds were designed to bind to both the ribitylpurine binding site and the phosphate binding site of lumazine synthase. In the carboxyalkyl series, maximum activity against both enzymes was observed with the 3'-carboxypropyl compound 22. Lengthening or shortening the chain linking the carboxyl group to the lumazine by one carbon resulted in decreased activity. In the phosphonoxyalkyl series, the 3'-phosphonoxypropyl compound 33 was more potent than the 4'-phosphonoxybutyl derivative 39 against lumazine synthase, but it was less potent against riboflavin synthase. Molecular modeling suggested that the terminal carboxyl group of 6-(3'-carboxypropyl)-7-oxo-8-D-ribityllumazine (22) may bind to the side chains of Arg127 and Lys135 of the enzyme. A hypothetical molecular model was also constructed for the binding of 6-(2'-carboxyethyl)-7-oxolumazine (15) in the active site of E. coli riboflavin synthase, which demonstrated that the active site could readily accommodate two molecules of the inhibitor.

  17. Effect of a selective thromboxane synthase inhibitor on arterial graft patency and platelet deposition in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, M.D.; Huntsman, W.T.; Miett, T.O.; Cronenwett, J.L.

    1987-08-01

    This study examined the effect of selective thromboxane synthase inhibition and nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibition on vascular graft patency and indium 111-labeled platelet deposition in 35 mongrel dogs undergoing carotid artery replacement with 4 mm X 4 cm polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) (one side) and Dacron (opposite side) end-to-end grafts. Aspirin-dipyridamole therapy improved one-week graft patency, from 46% in untreated dogs to 93% in treated dogs. Thromboxane synthase inhibition (U-63557A) improved graft patency in these dogs to 81%. Both drug treatments reduced platelet deposition on Dacron and PTFE grafts by 48% to 68% compared with control dogs. Dacron grafts accumulated significantly more platelets than PTFE grafts but had comparable patency rates. Low-dose aspirin therapy had no significant effect on either graft patency or platelet deposition. All treatment groups showed a 60% to 76% reduction in serum thromboxane B2, but only thromboxane synthase inhibitor treatment increased plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha by 100%. Selective thromboxane synthase inhibition improved small-caliber prosthetic graft patency to the same extent as did conventional cyclooxygenase inhibition in this preliminary study.

  18. Arginine-Based Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Synthase: Therapeutic Potential and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Víteček, Jan; Lojek, Antonín; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Kubala, Lukáš

    2012-01-01

    In the past three decades, nitric oxide has been well established as an important bioactive molecule implicated in regulation of cardiovascular, nervous, and immune systems. Therefore, it is not surprising that much effort has been made to find specific inhibitors of nitric oxide synthases (NOS), the enzymes responsible for production of nitric oxide. Among the many NOS inhibitors developed to date, inhibitors based on derivatives and analogues of arginine are of special interest, as this category includes a relatively high number of compounds with good potential for experimental as well as clinical application. Though this group of inhibitors covers early nonspecific compounds, modern drug design strategies such as biochemical screening and computer-aided drug design have provided NOS-isoform-specific inhibitors. With an emphasis on major advances in this field, a comprehensive list of inhibitors based on their structural characteristics is discussed in this paper. We provide a summary of their biochemical properties as well as their observed effects both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we focus in particular on their pharmacology and use in recent clinical studies. The potential of newly designed specific NOS inhibitors developed by means of modern drug development strategies is highlighted. PMID:22988346

  19. Ligand-based and e-pharmacophore modeling, 3D-QSAR and hierarchical virtual screening to identify dual inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and janus kinase 3 (JAK3).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Silakari, Om

    2016-11-11

    The clinical efficacy of multiple kinase inhibitors has caught the interest of Pharmaceutical and Biotech researchers to develop potential drugs with multi-kinase inhibitory activity for complex diseases. In the present work, we attempted to identify dual inhibitors of spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and janus kinase 3 (JAK3), keys players in immune signaling, by developing ideal pharmacophores integrating Ligand-based pharmacophore models (LBPMs) and Structure-based pharmacophore models (SBPMs), thereby projecting the optimum pharmacophoric required for inhibition of both the kinases. The four point LBPM; ADPR.14 suggested the presence of one hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, one positive ionizable, and one ring aromatic feature for Syk inhibitory activity and AADH.54 proposed the necessity of two hydrogen bond acceptor, one hydrogen bond donor, and one hydrophobic feature for JAK3 inhibitory activity. To our interest, SBPMs identified additional ring aromatic features required for inhibition of both the kinases. For Syk inhibitory activity, the hydrogen bond acceptor feature indicated by LBPM was devoid of forming hydrogen bonding interaction with the hinge region amino acid residue (Ala451). Thus merging the information revealed by both LBPMs and SBPMs, ideal pharmacophore models i.e. ADPRR.14 (Syk) and AADHR.54 (JAK3) were generated. These models after rigorous statistical validation were used for screening of Asinex database. The systematic virtual screening protocol, including pharmacophore and docking-based screening, ADME property, and MM-GBSA energy calculations, retrieved final 10 hits as dual inhibitors of Syk and JAK3. Final 10 hits thus obtained can aid in the development of potential therapeutic agents for autoimmune disorders. Also the top two hits were evaluated against both the enzymes.

  20. Geranyl and Neryl Triazole Bisphosphonates as Inhibitors of Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Ferree, Sarah D.; Wills, Veronica S.; Born, Ella J.; Tong, Huaxiang; Holstein, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    When inhibitors of enzymes that utilize isoprenoid pyrophosphates are based on the natural substrates, a significant challenge can be to achieve selective inhibition of a specific enzyme. One element in the design process is the stereochemistry of the isoprenoid olefins. We recently reported preparation of a series of isoprenoid triazoles as potential inhibitors of geranylgeranyl transferase II but these compounds were obtained as a mixture of olefin isomers. We now have accomplished the stereoselective synthesis of these triazoles through the use of epoxy azides for the cycloaddition reaction followed by regeneration of the desired olefin. Both geranyl and neryl derivatives have been prepared as single olefin isomers through parallel reaction sequences. The products were assayed against multiple enzymes as well as in cell culture studies and surprisingly a Z-olefin isomer was found to be a potent and selective inhibitor of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. PMID:24726306

  1. Biomimetic Design Results in a Potent Allosteric Inhibitor of Dihydrodipicolinate Synthase from Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Skovpen, Yulia V; Conly, Cuylar J T; Sanders, David A R; Palmer, David R J

    2016-02-17

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS), an enzyme required for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of pyruvate and β-aspartate semialdehyde (ASA) to form a cyclic product which dehydrates to form dihydrodipicolinate. DHDPS has, for several years, been considered a putative target for novel antibiotics. We have designed the first potent inhibitor of this enzyme by mimicking its natural allosteric regulation by lysine, and obtained a crystal structure of the protein-inhibitor complex at 2.2 Å resolution. This novel inhibitor, which we named "bislysine", resembles two lysine molecules linked by an ethylene bridge between the α-carbon atoms. Bislysine is a mixed partial inhibitor with respect to the first substrate, pyruvate, and a noncompetitive partial inhibitor with respect to ASA, and binds to all forms of the enzyme with a Ki near 200 nM, more than 300 times more tightly than lysine. Hill plots show that the inhibition is cooperative, indicating that the allosteric sites are not independent despite being located on opposite sides of the protein tetramer, separated by approximately 50 Å. A mutant enzyme resistant to lysine inhibition, Y110F, is strongly inhibited by this novel inhibitor, suggesting this may be a promising strategy for antibiotic development.

  2. ATP Synthase and the Actions of Inhibitors Utilized To Study Its Roles in Human Health, Disease, and Other Scientific Areas

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sangjin; Pedersen, Peter L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary: ATP synthase, a double-motor enzyme, plays various roles in the cell, participating not only in ATP synthesis but in ATP hydrolysis-dependent processes and in the regulation of a proton gradient across some membrane-dependent systems. Recent studies of ATP synthase as a potential molecular target for the treatment of some human diseases have displayed promising results, and this enzyme is now emerging as an attractive molecular target for the development of new therapies for a variety of diseases. Significantly, ATP synthase, because of its complex structure, is inhibited by a number of different inhibitors and provides diverse possibilities in the development of new ATP synthase-directed agents. In this review, we classify over 250 natural and synthetic inhibitors of ATP synthase reported to date and present their inhibitory sites and their known or proposed modes of action. The rich source of ATP synthase inhibitors and their known or purported sites of action presented in this review should provide valuable insights into their applications as potential scaffolds for new therapeutics for human and animal diseases as well as for the discovery of new pesticides and herbicides to help protect the world's food supply. Finally, as ATP synthase is now known to consist of two unique nanomotors involved in making ATP from ADP and Pi, the information provided in this review may greatly assist those investigators entering the emerging field of nanotechnology. PMID:19052322

  3. A novel inhibitor of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase: a twist in the tail.

    PubMed

    Burger, Pieter B; Williams, Marni; Sprenger, Janina; Reeksting, Shaun B; Botha, Mariëtte; Müller, Ingrid B; Joubert, Fourie; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Louw, Abraham I

    2015-02-05

    Plasmodium falciparum is the most pathogenic of the human malaria parasite species and a major cause of death in Africa. It's resistance to most of the current drugs accentuates the pressing need for new chemotherapies. Polyamine metabolism of the parasite is distinct from the human pathway making it an attractive target for chemotherapeutic development. Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdS) catalyzes the synthesis of spermidine and spermine. It is a major polyamine flux-determining enzyme and spermidine is a prerequisite for the post-translational activation of P. falciparum eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (elF5A). The most potent inhibitors of eukaryotic SpdS's are not specific for PfSpdS. 'Dynamic' receptor-based pharmacophore models were generated from published crystal structures of SpdS with different ligands. This approach takes into account the inherent flexibility of the active site, which reduces the entropic penalties associated with ligand binding. Four dynamic pharmacophore models were developed and two inhibitors, (1R,4R)-(N1-(3-aminopropyl)-trans-cyclohexane-1,4-diamine (compound 8) and an analogue, N-(3-aminopropyl)-cyclohexylamine (compound 9), were identified. A crystal structure containing compound 8 was solved and confirmed the in silico prediction that its aminopropyl chain traverses the catalytic centre in the presence of the byproduct of catalysis, 5'-methylthioadenosine. The IC50 value of compound 9 is in the same range as that of the most potent inhibitors of PfSpdS, S-adenosyl-1,8-diamino-3-thio-octane (AdoDATO) and 4MCHA and 100-fold lower than that of compound 8. Compound 9 was originally identified as a mammalian spermine synthase inhibitor and does not inhibit mammalian SpdS. This implied that these two compounds bind in an orientation where their aminopropyl chains face the putrescine binding site in the presence of the substrate, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine. The higher binding affinity and lower

  4. Potent, Highly Selective, and Orally Bioavailable Gem-Difluorinated Monocationic Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fengtian; Li, Huiying; Delker, Silvia L.; Fang, Jianguo; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    In our efforts to discover neuronal isoform selective nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors we have developed a series of compounds containing a pyrrolidine ring with two stereogenic centers. The enantiomerically pure compounds, (S,S) vs. (R,R), exhibited two different binding orientations, with (R,R) inhibitors showing much better potency and selectivity. To improve the bioavailability of these inhibitors we have introduced a CF2 moiety geminal to an amino group in the long tail of one of these inhibitors, which reduced its basicity, resulting in compounds with monocationic character under physiological pH conditions. Biological evaluations have led to a nNOS inhibitor with a Ki of 36 nM and high selectivity for nNOS over eNOS (3800-fold) and iNOS (1400-fold). MM-PBSA calculations indicated that the low pKa NH is, at least, partially protonated when bound to the active site. A comparison of rat oral bioavailability of the difluorinated compound to the parent molecule shows 22% for the difluorinated compound versus essentially no oral bioavailability for the parent compound. This indicates that the goal of this research to make compounds with only one protonated nitrogen atom at physiological pH to allow for membrane permeability, but which can become protonated when bound to NOS, has been accomplished. PMID:20843082

  5. Reinforcement therapy using nitric oxide synthase inhibitors against endotoxin shock in dogs.

    PubMed

    Suga, Hiroyasu; Nakagawa, Takao; Soga, Yukihiro; Deguchi, Yoshizumi; Suzuki, Tadashi; Miyoshi, Norio; Imamura, Yoshiaki; Fukuda, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors were confirmed to correct the hypotension associated with septic shock, but the overall prognosis is often pessimistic. The histological findings failed to show any improvement. In fact, some patients even exhibited signs of exacerbation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of NOS inhibitors and catecholamines in dogs suffering from endotoxin shock. The histological changes produced by these agents were also evaluated. Mongrel dogs were used under midazolam anesthesia. A PiCCO continuous cardiac output monitoring catheter was placed in the femoral artery, and a central venous monitoring catheter was placed in the external carotid artery. Endotoxin (0.5 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered to cause shock. After this shock state was observed, the NOS inhibitors and catecholamines raised the blood pressure, and norepinephrine (NA, 2 microg/kg/h) was found to be more potent than S-methylisothiourea (SMT, 20 microg/kg/h). The combined effects of SMT-NA or SMT-DOB were greater than those of NA or dobutamine (DOB) alone. The histological changes induced by endotoxin shock were not ameliorated by the administration of NOS inhibitors but instead appeared to be exacerbated to some degree. NOS inhibitors combined with cathecholamines were thus suggested to be able to reduce the cathecolamine dosage in patients suffering from septic shock; They are thus considered to be hemodynamically effective agents.

  6. Inhibitor-bound complexes of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase from Babesia bovis

    PubMed Central

    Begley, Darren W.; Edwards, Thomas E.; Raymond, Amy C.; Smith, Eric R.; Hartley, Robert C.; Abendroth, Jan; Sankaran, Banumathi; Lorimer, Donald D.; Myler, Peter J.; Staker, Bart L.; Stewart, Lance J.

    2011-01-01

    Babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by eukaryotic Babesia parasites which are morphologically similar to Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of malaria in humans. Like Plasmodium, different species of Babesia are tuned to infect different mammalian hosts, including rats, dogs, horses and cattle. Most species of Plasmodium and Babesia possess an essential bifunctional enzyme for nucleotide synthesis and folate metabolism: dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase. Although thymidylate synthase is highly conserved across organisms, the bifunctional form of this enzyme is relatively uncommon in nature. The structural characterization of dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase in Babesia bovis, the causative agent of babesiosis in livestock cattle, is reported here. The apo state is compared with structures that contain dUMP, NADP and two different antifolate inhibitors: pemetrexed and raltitrexed. The complexes reveal modes of binding similar to that seen in drug-resistant malaria strains and point to the utility of applying structural studies with proven cancer chemotherapies towards infectious disease research. PMID:21904052

  7. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors of phenolic constituents isolated from Garcinia mangostana.

    PubMed

    Jiang, He Zhong; Quan, Xiao Fang; Tian, Wei Xi; Hu, Jiang Miao; Wang, Peng Cheng; Huang, Sheng Zhuo; Cheng, Zhong Quan; Liang, Wen Juan; Zhou, Jun; Ma, Xiao Feng; Zhao, You Xing

    2010-10-15

    Natural inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FAS) are emerging as potential therapeutic agents to treat cancer and obesity. The bioassay-guided chemical investigation of the hulls of Garcinia mangostana led to the isolation of 13 phenolic compounds (1-13) mainly including xanthone and benzophenone, in which compounds 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 were isolated from this plant for the first time and compound 9 was a new natural product. These isolates possess strong inhibitory activity of FAS with the IC(50) values ranging from 1.24 to 91.07 μM. The study indicates that two types of natural products, xanthones and benzophenones, could be considered as promising FAS inhibitors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-03-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery.

  9. CETSA screening identifies known and novel thymidylate synthase inhibitors and slow intracellular activation of 5-fluorouracil

    PubMed Central

    Almqvist, Helena; Axelsson, Hanna; Jafari, Rozbeh; Dan, Chen; Mateus, André; Haraldsson, Martin; Larsson, Andreas; Molina, Daniel Martinez; Artursson, Per; Lundbäck, Thomas; Nordlund, Pär

    2016-01-01

    Target engagement is a critical factor for therapeutic efficacy. Assessment of compound binding to native target proteins in live cells is therefore highly desirable in all stages of drug discovery. We report here the first compound library screen based on biophysical measurements of intracellular target binding, exemplified by human thymidylate synthase (TS). The screen selected accurately for all the tested known drugs acting on TS. We also identified TS inhibitors with novel chemistry and marketed drugs that were not previously known to target TS, including the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine. By following the cellular uptake and enzymatic conversion of known drugs we correlated the appearance of active metabolites over time with intracellular target engagement. These data distinguished a much slower activation of 5-fluorouracil when compared with nucleoside-based drugs. The approach establishes efficient means to associate drug uptake and activation with target binding during drug discovery. PMID:27010513

  10. [Hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase inhibitors for the treatment of duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kamauchi, Shinya; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2011-11-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe X-linked muscle disease, characterized by progressive skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness. DMD is caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, which encodes for the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin. DMD is one of the most common types of muscular dystrophies, affecting approximately 1 in 3,500 boys. There is no complete cure for this disease. Clinical trials for gene transfer therapy as a treatment for DMD have been performed but mainly in animal models. Hematopoietic prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (H-PGDS) was found to be induced in grouped necrotic muscle fibers of DMD patients and animal models, mdx mice, and DMD dogs. We found an orally active H-PGDS inhibitor (HQL-79) and determined the 3D structure of the inhibitor-human H-PGDS complex by X-ray crystallography. Oral administration of HQL-79 markedly suppressed prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) production, reduced necrotic muscle volume, and improved muscle strength in mdx dystrophic mice. Based on the high-resolution 3D structures of the inhibitor-H-PGDS complex, we designed alternative H-PGDS inhibitors, which were 100- to 3000-times more potent than HQL-79, as assessed by in vitro and in vivo analyses. We used these novel inhibitors for the treatment of DMD dogs and confirmed that oral administration of these inhibitors prevented skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness by decreasing PGD2 production. These results indicate that PGD2, synthesized by H-PGDS, is involved in the expansion of muscle necrosis in DMD. Thus, inhibition of H-PGDS by using inhibitors is a novel therapy for DMD.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Novel Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Inhibitors for Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Harvey, Anita K; Yu, Xiao-Peng; Chambers, Mark G; Oskins, Jennifer L; Lin, Chaohua; Seng, Thomas W; Thibodeaux, Stefan J; Norman, Bryan H; Hughes, Norman E; Schiffler, Matthew A; Fisher, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) E2 plays a critical role in eliciting inflammation. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase, which block PGE2 production, have been used as key agents in treating inflammation and pain associated with arthritis and other conditions. However, these agents have significant side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and myocardial infarction, since they also block the production of prostanoids that are critical for other normal physiologic functions. Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 is a membrane-bound terminal enzyme in the prostanoid pathway, which acts downstream of cyclooxygenase 2 and is responsible for PGE2 production during inflammation. Thus, inhibition of this enzyme would be expected to block PGE2 production without inhibiting other prostanoids and would provide analgesic efficacy without the side effects. In this report, we describe novel microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 inhibitors that are potent in blocking PGE2 production and are efficacious in a guinea pig monoiodoacetate model of arthralgia. These molecules may be useful in treating the signs and symptoms associated with arthritis.

  12. A high-throughput screen for quorum-sensing inhibitors that target acyl-homoserine lactone synthases.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Quin H; Grove, Tyler L; Booker, Squire J; Greenberg, E Peter

    2013-08-20

    Many Proteobacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactone (acyl-HSL) quorum sensing to control specific genes. Acyl-HSL synthesis requires unique enzymes that use S-adenosyl methionine as an acyl acceptor and amino acid donor. We developed and executed an enzyme-coupled high-throughput cell-free screen to discover acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors. The three strongest inhibitors were equally active against two different acyl-HSL synthases: Burkholderia mallei BmaI1 and Yersinia pestis YspI. Two of these inhibitors showed activity in whole cells. The most potent compound behaves as a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 0.7 µM and showed activity in a cell-based assay. Quorum-sensing signal synthesis inhibitors will be useful in attempts to understand acyl-HSL synthase catalysis and as a tool in studies of quorum-sensing control of gene expression. Because acyl-HSL quorum-sensing controls virulence of some bacterial pathogens, anti-quorum-sensing chemicals have been sought as potential therapeutic agents. Our screen and identification of acyl-HSL synthase inhibitors serve as a basis for efforts to target quorum-sensing signal synthesis as an antivirulence approach.

  13. Selective Monocationic Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase. Binding Mode Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, He; Ji, Haitao; Li, Huiying; Jing, Qing; Labby, Kristin Jansen; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of pathophysiologic levels of nitric oxide through inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has the potential to be therapeutically beneficial in various neurodegenerative diseases. We have developed a series of pyrrolidine-based nNOS inhibitors that exhibit excellent potencies and isoform selectivities (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 5437). However, there are still important challenges, such as how to decrease the multiple positive charges derived from basic amino groups, which contribute to poor bioavailability, without losing potency and/or selectivity. Here we present an interdisciplinary study combining molecular docking, crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, synthesis, and enzymology to explore potential pharmacophoric features of nNOS inhibitors and to design potent and selective monocationic nNOS inhibitors. The simulation results indicate that different hydrogen bond patterns, electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and a water molecule bridge are key factors for stabilizing ligands and controlling ligand orientation. We find that a heteroatom in the aromatic head or linker chain of the ligand provides additional stability and blocks the substrate binding pocket. Finally, the computational insights are experimentally validated with double-headed pyridine analogs. The compounds reported here are among the most potent and selective monocationic pyrrolidine-based nNOS inhibitors reported to date, and 10 shows improved membrane permeability. PMID:22731813

  14. Recent advances in targeting the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway using fatty acid synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Angeles, Thelma S; Hudkins, Robert L

    2016-12-01

    Elevated lipogenesis has been associated with a variety of diseases including obesity, cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) plays a pivotal role in de novo lipogenesis, making this multi-catalytic protein an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Recently, the first FASN inhibitor successfully advanced through the drug development process and entered clinical evaluation in oncology. Areas covered: This review discusses the biological roles of FASN in three prominent disease areas: cancer, obesity-related disorders and NAFLD. Recent advances in drug discovery strategies and design of newer FASN inhibitors are also highlighted. Expert opinion: Despite the abundance of evidence linking the lipogenic pathway to cancer, progression of FASN-targeted molecules has been rather slow and challenging and no compounds have moved past the preclinical phase. The landscape has recently changed with the recent advancement of the first FASN inhibitor into clinical evaluation for solid tumors. Needless to say, the successful translation into the clinical setting will open opportunities for expanding the therapeutic utility of FASN inhibitors not just in oncology but in other diseases associated with elevated lipogenesis such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and NAFLD.

  15. Cooperative inhibition of human thymidylate synthase by mixtures of active site binding and allosteric inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Leslie L; Gibson, Lydia M; Lebioda, Lukasz

    2007-03-13

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a target in the chemotherapy of colorectal cancer and some other neoplasms. It catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methylenetetrahydrofolate to dUMP to form dTMP. On the basis of structural considerations, we have introduced 1,3-propanediphosphonic acid (PDPA) as an allosteric inhibitor of human TS (hTS); it is proposed that PDPA acts by stabilizing an inactive conformer of loop 181-197. Kinetic studies showed that PDPA is a mixed (noncompetitive) inhibitor versus dUMP. In contrast, versus methylenetrahydrofolate at concentrations lower than 0.25 microM, PDPA is an uncompetitive inhibitor, while at PDPA concentrations higher than 1 microM the inhibiton is noncompetive, as expected. At the concentrations corresponding to uncompetitive inhibition, PDPA shows positive cooperativity with an antifolate inhibitor, ZD9331, which binds to the active conformer. PDPA binding leads to the formation of hTS tetramers, but not higher oligomers. These data are consistent with a model in which hTS exists preferably as an asymmetric dimer with one subunit in the active conformation of loop 181-197 and the other in the inactive conformation.

  16. Novel prostaglandin D synthase inhibitors generated by fragment-based drug design.

    PubMed

    Hohwy, Morten; Spadola, Loredana; Lundquist, Britta; Hawtin, Paul; Dahmén, Jan; Groth-Clausen, Ib; Nilsson, Ewa; Persdotter, Sofia; von Wachenfeldt, Karin; Folmer, Rutger H A; Edman, Karl

    2008-04-10

    We describe the discovery of novel inhibitors of prostaglandin D2 synthase (PGDS) through fragment-based lead generation and structure-based drug design. A library of 2500 low-molecular-weight compounds was screened using 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), leading to the identification of 24 primary hits. Structure determination of protein-ligand complexes with the hits enabled a hit optimization process, whereby we harvested increasingly more potent inhibitors out of our corporate compound collection. Two iterative cycles were carried out, comprising NMR screening, molecular modeling, X-ray crystallography, and in vitro biochemical testing. Six novel high-resolution PGDS complex structures were determined, and 300 hit analogues were tested. This rational drug design procedure culminated in the discovery of 24 compounds with an IC 50 below 1 microM in the in vitro assay. The best inhibitor (IC 50 = 21 nM) is one of the most potent inhibitors of PGDS to date. As such, it may enable new functional in vivo studies of PGDS and the prostaglandin metabolism pathway.

  17. Binding and Inhibition of Spermidine Synthase from Plasmodium falciparum and Implications for In Vitro Inhibitor Testing

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Janina; Carey, Jannette; Svensson, Bo; Wengel, Verena

    2016-01-01

    The aminopropyltransferase spermidine synthase (SpdS) is a promising drug target in cancer and in protozoan diseases including malaria. Plasmodium falciparum SpdS (PfSpdS) transfers the aminopropyl group of decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcAdoMet) to putrescine or to spermidine to form spermidine or spermine, respectively. In an effort to understand why efficient inhibitors of PfSpdS have been elusive, the present study uses enzyme activity assays and isothermal titration calorimetry with verified or predicted inhibitors of PfSpdS to analyze the relationship between binding affinity as assessed by KD and inhibitory activity as assessed by IC50. The results show that some predicted inhibitors bind to the enzyme with high affinity but are poor inhibitors. Binding studies with PfSpdS substrates and products strongly support an ordered sequential mechanism in which the aminopropyl donor (dcAdoMet) site must be occupied before the aminopropyl acceptor (putrescine) site can be occupied. Analysis of the results also shows that the ordered sequential mechanism adequately accounts for the complex relationship between IC50 and KD and may explain the limited success of previous efforts at structure-based inhibitor design for PfSpdS. Based on PfSpdS active-site occupancy, we suggest a classification of ligands that can help to predict the KD−IC50 relations in future design of new inhibitors. The present findings may be relevant for other drug targets that follow an ordered sequential mechanism. PMID:27661085

  18. Structure-based discovery and in-parallel optimization of novel competitive inhibitors of thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Tondi, D; Slomczynska, U; Costi, M P; Watterson, D M; Ghelli, S; Shoichet, B K

    1999-05-01

    The substrate sites of enzymes are attractive targets for structure-based inhibitor design. Two difficulties hinder efforts to discover and elaborate new (nonsubstrate-like) inhibitors for these sites. First, novel inhibitors often bind at nonsubstrate sites. Second, a novel scaffold introduces chemistry that is frequently unfamiliar, making synthetic elaboration challenging. In an effort to discover and elaborate a novel scaffold for a substrate site, we combined structure-based screening with in-parallel synthetic elaboration. These techniques were used to find new inhibitors that bound to the folate site of Lactobacillus casei thymidylate synthase (LcTS), an enzyme that is a potential target for proliferative diseases, and is highly studied. The available chemicals directory was screened, using a molecular-docking computer program, for molecules that complemented the three-dimensional structure of this site. Five high-ranking compounds were selected for testing. Activity and docking studies led to a derivative of one of these, dansyltyrosine (Ki 65 microM). Using solid-phase in-parallel techniques 33 derivatives of this lead were synthesized and tested. These analogs are dissimilar to the substrate but bind competitively with it. The most active analog had a Ki of 1.3 microM. The tighter binding inhibitors were also the most specific for LcTS versus related enzymes. TS can recognize inhibitors that are dissimilar to, but that bind competitively with, the folate substrate. Combining structure-based discovery with in-parallel synthetic techniques allowed the rapid elaboration of this series of compounds. More automated versions of this approach can be envisaged.

  19. A novel aldosterone synthase inhibitor ameliorates mortality in pressure-overload mice with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Furuzono, Shinji; Meguro, Masaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Inoue, Shinichi; Homma, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Keisuke; Tagawa, Yoh-Ichi; Nara, Futoshi; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2017-01-15

    It has been elucidated that mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists reduce mortality in patients with congestive heart failure and post-acute myocardial infarction. A direct inhibition of aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is also expected to have therapeutic benefits equal in quality to mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in terms of reducing mineralocorticoid receptor signaling. Therefore, we have screened our chemical libraries and identified a novel and potent aldosterone synthase inhibitor, 2,2,2-trifluoro-1-{4-[(4-fluorophenyl)amino]pyrimidin-5-y}-1-[1-(methylsulfonyl)piperidin-4-yl]ethanol (compound 1), by lead optimization. Pharmacological properties of compound 1 were examined in in vitro cell-based assays and an in vivo mouse model of pressure-overload hypertrophy by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Compound 1 showed potent CYP11B2 inhibition against human and mouse enzymes (IC50; 0.003μM and 0.096μM, respectively) in a cell-based assay. The oral administration of 0.06% compound 1 in the food mixture of a mouse TAC model significantly reduced the plasma aldosterone level and ameliorated mortality rate. This study is the first to demonstrate that a CYP11B2 inhibitor improved survival rates of heart failure induced by pressure-overload in mice. The treatment of 0.06% compound 1 did not elevate plasma potassium level in this model, although further evaluation of hyperkalemia is needed. These results suggest that compound 1 can be developed as a promising oral CYP11B2 inhibitor for pharmaceutical applications. Compound 1 could also be a useful compound for clarifying the role of aldosterone in cardiac hypertrophy.

  20. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis by squalene synthase inhibitors does not induce myotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flint, O P; Masters, B A; Gregg, R E; Durham, S K

    1997-07-01

    The cholesterol-lowering HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (HMGRI), pravastatin and lovastatin, have been associated with skeletal myopathy in humans and in rats. In a previous in vitro study, HMGRI-induced changes in neonatal rat skeletal muscle cells were characterized by reversible inhibition of protein synthesis and loss of differentiated myotubes at concentrations markedly lower than those inducing enzyme leakage. Myotoxicity was determined to be directly related to inhibition of HMG CoA reductase, since mevalonate, the immediate product of HMG CoA reductase metabolism, abrogated the drug-induced changes. Farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and squalene are metabolites of mevalonate. Squalene, formed from farnesol by squalene synthase, is the first metabolite solely committed to cholesterol synthesis. In contrast, geranylgeraniol, formed by the addition of an isoprene group to farnesol, is the first metabolite uncommitted to cholesterol synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine the role of inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in HMGRI-induced in vitro myotoxicity. HMGRI-treated neonatal rat skeletal muscle cultures were supplemented with farnesol and geranylgeraniol, and in another study, muscle cultures were exposed to two squalene synthase inhibitors (SSI), BMS-187745 and its prodrug ester, BMS-188494. Endpoints evaluated for both studies included protein synthesis ([3H]leucine incorporation), total cellular protein (a measure of cell loss), intra- and extracellular lactate dehydrogenase activity (a measure of membrane integrity), cholesterol biosynthesis ([14C]acetate incorporation), and morphology. HMG CoA reductase inhibitor-induced morphologic changes and inhibition of protein synthesis were significantly ameliorated by supplementation with farnesol and geranylgeraniol. In contrast to HMGRI-induced in vitro myotoxicity, SSI induced an irreversible, minimal cytotoxicity at close to maximum soluble concentrations. These results indicate that

  1. Quinazolinones, Quinazolinthiones, and Quinazolinimines as Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors: Synthetic Study and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Camacho, M Encarnación; Chayah, Mariem; García, M Esther; Fernández-Sáez, Nerea; Arias, Fabio; Gallo, Miguel A; Carrión, M Dora

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of different compounds with a quinazolinone, quinazolinthione, or quinazolinimine skeleton and their in vitro biological evaluation as inhibitors of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nNOS) isoforms are described. These derivatives were obtained from substituted 2-aminobenzylamines, using diverse cyclization procedures. Furthermore, the diamines were synthesized by two routes: A conventional pathway and an efficient one-pot synthesis in a continuous-flow hydrogenator. The structures of these heterocycles were confirmed by (1) H and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectroscopy data. The structure-activity relationships of the target molecules are discussed in terms of the effects of both the R radical and the X heteroatom in the 2-position. In general, the assayed compounds behave as better iNOS than nNOS inhibitors, with the quinazolinone 11e being the most active inhibitor of all tested compounds and the most iNOS/nNOS selective one.

  2. Crystal structure of an archaeal pentameric riboflavin synthase in complex with a substrate analog inhibitor: stereochemical implications.

    PubMed

    Ramsperger, Arne; Augustin, Martin; Schott, Ann-Kathrin; Gerhardt, Stefan; Krojer, Tobias; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Illarionov, Boris; Cushman, Mark; Bacher, Adelbert; Huber, Robert; Fischer, Markus

    2006-01-13

    Whereas eubacterial and eukaryotic riboflavin synthases form homotrimers, archaeal riboflavin synthases from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and Methanothermobacter thermoautrophicus are homopentamers with sequence similarity to the 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase catalyzing the penultimate step in riboflavin biosynthesis. Recently it could be shown that the complex dismutation reaction catalyzed by the pentameric M. jannaschii riboflavin synthase generates riboflavin with the same regiochemistry as observed for trimeric riboflavin synthases. Here we present crystal structures of the pentameric riboflavin synthase from M. jannaschii and its complex with the substrate analog inhibitor, 6,7-dioxo-8-ribityllumazine. The complex structure shows five active sites located between adjacent monomers of the pentamer. Each active site can accommodate two substrate analog molecules in anti-parallel orientation. The topology of the two bound ligands at the active site is well in line with the known stereochemistry of a pentacyclic adduct of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine that has been shown to serve as a kinetically competent intermediate. The pentacyclic intermediates of trimeric and pentameric riboflavin synthases are diastereomers.

  3. Presence of fatty acid synthase inhibitors in the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum hance.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing-Hui; Tian, Wei-Xi

    2003-08-01

    The galangal (the rhizome of Alpinia officinarum, Hance) is popular in Asia as a traditional herbal medicine. The present study reports that the galangal extract (GE) can potently inhibit fatty-acid synthase (FAS, E.C.2.3.1.85). The inhibition consists of both reversible inhibition with an IC50 value of 1.73 microg dried GE/ml, and biphasic slow-binding inactivation. Subsequently the reversible inhibition and slow-binding inactivation to FAS were further studied. The inhibition of FAS by galangin, quercetin and kaempferol, which are the main flavonoids existing in the galangal, showed that quercetin and kaempferol had potent reversible inhibitory activity, but all three flavonoids had no obvious slow-binding inactivation. Analysis of the kinetic results led to the conclusion that the inhibitory mechanism of GE is totally different from that of some other previously reported inhibitors of FAS, such as cerulenin, EGCG (epigallocatechin gallate) and C75.

  4. Potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors with improved cellular permeability

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fengtian; Fang, Jianguo; Lewis, William W.; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, a series of potent and selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors containing two basic nitrogen atoms was reported (Ji, H.; Stanton, B. Z.; Igarashi, J.;, Li, H.; Martásek, P.; Roman, L. J.; Poulos, T. L.; Silverman, R. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130(12), 3900–3914). In an effort to improve their bioavailability, three compounds (2a–c) were designed with electron-withdrawing groups near one of the basic nitrogen atoms to lower its pKa. Inhibition studies with these compounds showed that two of them not only retained most of the potency and selectivity of the best analogue of the earlier series, but also showed improved membrane permeability based on data from a cell-based assay. PMID:19963381

  5. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine potentiates iminodipropionitrile-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Khan, H A; Al Deeb, S; Al Moutaery, K

    1999-11-26

    This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, aminoguanidine on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity in rats. The dyskinetic syndrome was produced in male Wistar rats by i.p. injections of IDPN (100 mg/kg) for 6 days. Aminoguanidine was administered orally in the doses of 50, 150 and 300 mg/kg, 60 min before IDPN in three different groups. Control rats received vehicle only, whereas another group was treated with 300 mg/kg of aminoguanidine alone (without IDPN). Our results showed that aminoguanidine significantly and dose dependently exacerbated the incidence and intensity of IDPN-induced dyskinetic head movements. Aminoguanidine potentiated IDPN-induced loss of air righting reflex. The histopathological examination of inner ear showed aggravation of IDPN-induced degeneration of sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris by aminoguanidine. These results suggest the role of nitric oxide in IDPN-induced neurobehavioral and vestibular toxicity.

  6. Activation of Casein Kinase II and Inhibition of Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10 Phosphatase by Nerve Growth Factor/p75NTR Inhibit Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Stimulate Axonal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, María-Angeles

    2006-01-01

    Axonal elongation and guidance are controlled by extracellular factors such as the neurotrophins. Indeed, nerve growth factor (NGF) seems to promote axon growth through binding to its p75NTR receptor and inactivating RhoA. Furthermore, the local inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by NGF also favors microtubule polymerization and axon extension. Inactivation of GSK-3β may be due to the NGF/TrkA-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase), which increases the levels of phosphatydilinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P]. However, we show here that NGF may inactivate GSK-3β through an alternative mechanism. In cultured hippocampal neurons, the capacity of NGF to promote axon elongation is mostly mediated by p75NTR, and the activation of this pathway leads to the inactivation of GSK-3β. However, the signaling pathway triggered by NGF/p75NTR acts through casein kinase II (CK2). NGF/p75NTR-activated CK2 phosphorylates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), thus rendering this phosphatase inactive. Like activation of the PI-3 kinase, PTEN inactivation allows PI(3)P levels to increase, thus favoring GSK-3β inactivation and axon outgrowth. This newly disclosed mechanism may help to extend the repertoire of pharmacological agents that activate CK2 or that inhibit PTEN to stimulate axon regeneration after trauma or disease. PMID:16723502

  7. Synthesis of 2-arylindole derivatives and evaluation as nitric oxide synthase and NFκB inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xufen; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Pezzuto, John M; Sun, Dianqing

    2012-11-28

    Development of small molecule drug-like inhibitors blocking both nitric oxide synthase and NFκB could offer a synergistic therapeutic approach in the prevention and treatment of inflammation and cancer. During the course of evaluating the biological potential of a commercial compound library, 2-phenylindole (1) displayed inhibitory activity against nitrite production and NFκB with IC(50) values of 38.1 ± 1.8 and 25.4 ± 2.1 μM, respectively. Based on this lead, synthesis and systematic optimization have been undertaken in an effort to find novel and more potent nitric oxide synthase and NFκB inhibitors with antiinflammatory and cancer preventive potential. First, chemical derivatizations of 1 and 2-phenylindole-3-carboxaldehyde (4) were performed to generate a panel of N-alkylated indoles and 3-oxime derivatives 2–7. Second, a series of diversified 2-arylindole derivatives (10) were synthesized from an array of substituted 2-iodoanilines (8) and terminal alkynes (9) by applying a one-pot palladium catalyzed Sonogashira-type alkynylation and base-assisted cycloaddition. Subsequent biological evaluations revealed 3-carboxaldehyde oxime and cyano substituted 2-phenylindoles 5 and 7 exhibited the strongest nitrite inhibitory activities (IC(50) = 4.4 ± 0.5 and 4.8 ± 0.4 μM, respectively); as well as NFκB inhibition (IC(50) = 6.9 ± 0.8 and 8.5 ± 2.0 μM, respectively). In addition, the 6′-MeO-naphthalen-2′-yl indole derivative 10at displayed excellent inhibitory activity against NFκB with an IC(50) value of 0.6 ± 0.2 μM.

  8. Imidazopyridine-Based Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors That Show Anti-HCV Activity and in Vivo Target Modulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Potent imidazopyridine-based inhibitors of fatty acid synthase (FASN) are described. The compounds are shown to have antiviral (HCV replicon) activities that track with their biochemical activities. The most potent analogue (compound 19) also inhibits rat FASN and inhibits de novo palmitate synthesis in vitro (cell-based) as well as in vivo. PMID:24900571

  9. Early glycogen synthase kinase-3β and protein phosphatase 2A independent tau dephosphorylation during global brain ischaemia and reperfusion following cardiac arrest and the role of the adenosine monophosphate kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Majd, Shohreh; Power, John H T; Koblar, Simon A; Grantham, Hugh J M

    2016-08-01

    Abnormal tau phosphorylation (p-tau) has been shown after hypoxic damage to the brain associated with traumatic brain injury and stroke. As the level of p-tau is controlled by Glycogen Synthase Kinase (GSK)-3β, Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and Adenosine Monophosphate Kinase (AMPK), different activity levels of these enzymes could be involved in tau phosphorylation following ischaemia. This study assessed the effects of global brain ischaemia/reperfusion on the immediate status of p-tau in a rat model of cardiac arrest (CA) followed by cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We reported an early dephosphorylation of tau at its AMPK sensitive residues, Ser(396) and Ser(262) after 2 min of ischaemia, which did not recover during the first two hours of reperfusion, while the tau phosphorylation at GSK-3β sensitive but AMPK insensitive residues, Ser(202) /Thr(205) (AT8), as well as the total amount of tau remained unchanged. Our data showed no alteration in the activities of GSK-3β and PP2A during similar episodes of ischaemia of up to 8 min and reperfusion of up to 2 h, and 4 weeks recovery. Dephosphorylation of AMPK followed the same pattern as tau dephosphorylation during ischaemia/reperfusion. Catalase, another AMPK downstream substrate also showed a similar pattern of decline to p-AMPK, in ischaemic/reperfusion groups. This suggests the involvement of AMPK in changing the p-tau levels, indicating that tau dephosphorylation following ischaemia is not dependent on GSK-3β or PP2A activity, but is associated with AMPK dephosphorylation. We propose that a reduction in AMPK activity is a possible early mechanism responsible for tau dephosphorylation.

  10. Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta/beta-catenin promotes angiogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling through the induction of VEGF, Bcl-2 and survivin expression in rat ischemic preconditioned myocardium.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Shigeaki; Zhan, Lijun; Altaf, Elham; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2006-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) enhances vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), Bcl-2 and survivin expression after myocardial infarction (MI). Mechanisms of angiogenic and anti-apoptotic effects due to IP still remain unclear. The present study attempts to address whether GSK-3beta-beta-catenin signaling in turn interacts with T-cell transcription factor/lymphoid-enhancer binding factor (TCF/LEF) and regulates these genes in the ischemic preconditioned myocardium. In a rat MI model with permanent occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), IP (four cycles of 4-min of ischemia and 4-min of reperfusion) significantly phosphorylated and inhibited GSK-3beta and accumulated beta-catenin in the cytosol and nucleus. Wortmannin, a PI-3 kinase inhibitor, repressed this effect in our model. We examined whether pretreatment with GSK-3beta inhibitor lithium or SB216763, mimicked IP-mediated angiogenesis and cardioprotection. Lithium- or SB216763- treated rats revealed accumulation of cytosolic and nuclear beta-catenin. This was followed by increased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity and the upregulation of VEGF, Bcl-2 and survivin mRNA expression accompanied by reduction of apoptotic cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells and increased capillary density after MI. The results of this study demonstrate, first time that inhibition of GSK-3beta followed by accumulation of beta-catenin in the cytosol and nucleus has potent anti-apoptotic and angiogenic effects after MI and that the PI3-kinase/GSK-3beta/beta-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in IP.

  11. Correction of Cystathionine β-synthase Deficiency in Mice by Treatment with Proteasome Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sapna; Wang, Liqun; Anderl, Janet; Slifker, Michael J.; Kirk, Christopher; Kruger, Warren D.

    2013-01-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is an inborn error of metabolism characterized by extremely elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine. The vast majority of CBS-deficient patients have missense mutations located in the CBS gene that result in the production of either misfolded or unstable protein. Here, we examine the effect of proteasome inhibitors on mutant CBS function using two different mouse models of CBS deficiency. These mice lack mouse CBS and express a missense mutant human CBS enzyme (either p.I278T or p.S466L) that has less than 5% of normal liver CBS activity, resulting in a 10–30 fold elevation in plasma homocysteine levels. We show that treatment of these mice with two different proteasome inhibitors can induce liver Hsp70, Hsp40, and Hsp27, increase levels of active CBS, and lower plasma homocysteine levels to within the normal range. However, response rates varied, with 100% (8/8) of the p.S466L animals showing correction, but only 38% (10/26) of the p.I278T animals. In total, our data shows that treatment with proteostasis modulators can restore significant enzymatic activity to mutant misfolded CBS enzymes and suggests that they may be useful in treating certain types of genetic diseases caused by missense mutations. PMID:23592311

  12. Occurrence of Different Resistance Mechanisms to Acetolactate Synthase Inhibitors in European Sorghum halepense.

    PubMed

    Panozzo, Silvia; Milani, Andrea; Scarabel, Laura; Balogh, Ákos; Dancza, Istvan; Sattin, Maurizio

    2017-08-30

    Four Hungarian and two Italian Sorghum halepense populations harvested in maize fields were investigated to elucidate the levels and mechanisms underlying acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors resistance. The two Italian populations were highly cross-resistant to all ALS inhibitors tested, and the variant ALS allele Leu574 was identified in most of the plants; no differences were observed when the plants were treated with herbicide plus malathion. This suggests that the main resistance mechanism is target-site mediated. The Hungarian populations proved to be controlled by imazamox, while they were resistant to sulfonylureas and bispyribac-Na. All Hungarian populations, but not all plants of population 12-49H, presented the variant allele Glu376. This is the first documented occurrence of the Asp-376-Glu substitution in S. halepense. ALS enzyme bioassay and treatment with malathion confirmed that at least in plants of two populations the resistance is very likely due to both target-site and enhanced metabolism of P450 enzymes.

  13. Molecular Docking Analysis of Selected Clinacanthus nutans Constituents as Xanthine Oxidase, Nitric Oxide Synthase, Human Neutrophil Elastase, Matrix Metalloproteinase 2, Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 and Squalene Synthase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswamy, Radhakrishnan; Isha, Azizul; Wai, Lam Kok; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau has gained popularity among Malaysians as a traditional plant for anti-inflammatory activity. Objective: This prompted us to carry out the present study on a selected 11 constituents of C. nutans which are clinacoside A–C, cycloclinacoside A1, shaftoside, vitexin, orientin, isovitexin, isoorientin, lupeol and β-sitosterol. Materials and Methods: Selected 11 constituents of C. nutans were evaluated on the docking behavior of xanthine oxidase (XO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), human neutrophil elastase (HNE), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP 2 and 9), and squalene synthase (SQS) using Discovery Studio Version 3.1. Also, molecular physicochemical, bioactivity, absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET), and toxicity prediction by computer assisted technology analyzes were also carried out. Results: The molecular physicochemical analysis revealed that four ligands, namely clinacoside A–C and cycloclinacoside A1 showed nil violations and complied with Lipinski's rule of five. As for the analysis of bioactivity, all the 11 selected constituents of C. nutans exhibited active score (>0) toward enzyme inhibitors descriptor. ADMET analysis showed that the ligands except orientin and isoorientin were predicted to have Cytochrome P4502D6 inhibition effect. Docking studies and binding free energy calculations revealed that clinacoside B exhibited the least binding energy for the target enzymes except for XO and SQS. Isovitexin and isoorientin showed the potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted enzymes, whereas vitexin and orientin docked and bound with only NOS and HNE. Conclusion: This present study has paved a new insight in understanding these 11 C. nutans ligands as potential inhibitors against XO, NOS, HNE, MMP 2, MMP 9, and SQS. SUMMARY Isovitexin and isoorientin (Clinacanthus nutans constituent) showed potentials in the docking and binding with all of the six targeted

  14. Structure-based design of oxygen-linked macrocyclic kinase inhibitors: discovery of SB1518 and SB1578, potent inhibitors of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulsen, Anders; William, Anthony; Blanchard, Stéphanie; Lee, Angeline; Nagaraj, Harish; Wang, Haishan; Teo, Eeling; Tan, Evelyn; Goh, Kee Chuan; Dymock, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Macrocycles from our Aurora project were screened in a kinase panel and were found to be active on other kinase targets, mainly JAKs, FLT3 and CDKs. Subsequently these compounds became leads in our JAK2 project. Macrocycles with a basic nitrogen in the linker form a salt bridge with Asp86 in CDK2 and Asp698 in FLT3. This residue is conserved in most CDKs resulting in potent pan CDK inhibition. One of the main project objectives was to achieve JAK2 potency with 100-fold selectivity against CDKs. Macrocycles with an ether linker have potent JAK2 activity with the ether oxygen forming a hydrogen bond to Ser936. A hydrogen bond to the equivalent residues of JAK3 and most CDKs cannot be formed resulting in good selectivity for JAK2 over JAK3 and CDKs. Further optimization of the macrocyclic linker and side chain increased JAK2 and FLT3 activity as well as improving DMPK properties. The selective JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor 11 (Pacritinib, SB1518) has successfully finished phase 2 clinical trials for myelofibrosis and lymphoma. Another selective JAK2/FLT3 inhibitor, 33 (SB1578), has entered phase 1 clinical development for the non-oncology indication rheumatoid arthritis.

  15. Hybrid inhibitor of peripheral cannabinoid-1 receptors and inducible nitric oxide synthase mitigates liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Malliga R.; Liu, Ziyi; Cao, Zongxian; Jourdan, Tony; Erdelyi, Katalin; Godlewski, Grzegorz; Szanda, Gergő; Liu, Jie; Park, Joshua K.; Mukhopadhyay, Bani; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Liow, Jeih-San; Lorenz, Robin G.; Pacher, Pal; Innis, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis, a consequence of chronic liver injury and a way station to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, lacks effective treatment. Endocannabinoids acting via cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1R) induce profibrotic gene expression and promote pathologies that predispose to liver fibrosis. CB1R antagonists produce opposite effects, but their therapeutic development was halted due to neuropsychiatric side effects. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also promotes liver fibrosis and its underlying pathologies, but iNOS inhibitors tested to date showed limited therapeutic efficacy in inflammatory diseases. Here, we introduce a peripherally restricted, orally bioavailable CB1R antagonist, which accumulates in liver to release an iNOS inhibitory leaving group. In mouse models of fibrosis induced by CCl4 or bile duct ligation, the hybrid CB1R/iNOS antagonist surpassed the antifibrotic efficacy of the CB1R antagonist rimonabant or the iNOS inhibitor 1400W, without inducing anxiety-like behaviors or CB1R occupancy in the CNS. The hybrid inhibitor also targeted CB1R-independent, iNOS-mediated profibrotic pathways, including increased PDGF, Nlrp3/Asc3, and integrin αvβ6 signaling, as judged by its ability to inhibit these pathways in cnr1–/– but not in nos2–/– mice. Additionally, it was able to slow fibrosis progression and to attenuate established fibrosis. Thus, dual-target peripheral CB1R/iNOS antagonists have therapeutic potential in liver fibrosis. PMID:27525312

  16. Structural requirements for human inducible nitric oxide synthase substrates and substrate analogue inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Grant, S K; Green, B G; Stiffey-Wilusz, J; Durette, P L; Shah, S K; Kozarich, J W

    1998-03-24

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS; EC 1.14.13.39) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent oxidation of one of the free guanidino nitrogens of L-Arg to form nitric oxide and L-citrulline. Analogues of L-Arg and the inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, were used to define structural elements required for the binding and catalysis of compounds. L-Arg analogues with sequentially shorter methylene spacing between the guanidino group and the amino acid portion of the molecule were not iNOS substrates but were reversible inhibitors. L-Arg analogues such as agmatine with a hydroxyl substitution at the 2-amino position were substrates. Desaminoarginine was not a substrate but a reversible inhibitor. Desaminoarginine, agmatine, and argininic acid bound to the enzyme to give type I difference spectra similar to that of L-Arg. The amidino compounds L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, L-N5-(1-iminoethyl)ornithine, and N5-(1-iminoethyl)cadaverdine, but not N6-(1-iminoethyl)-6-aminocaproic acid, were NADPH-dependent, irreversible inactivators of iNOS. For both the L-Arg and L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine analogues, the 2-amino group appeared to play an important role in catalytic events leading to either substrate turnover or mechanism-based inactivation. Inactivation of iNOS by L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine was NADPH- and dioxygen-dependent, but low incorporation of radiolabel with DL--4, 5-3H]-N6-(1-iminoethyl)lysine indicates that the mechanism of enzyme inactivation is not covalent modification of the protein.

  17. Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Improves De Novo and Long-Term l-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia in Hemiparkinsonian Rats

    PubMed Central

    Padovan-Neto, Fernando Eduardo; Echeverry, Marcela Bermúdez; Chiavegatto, Silvana; Del-Bel, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Inhibitors of neuronal and endothelial nitric oxide synthase decrease l-3,4-dihidroxifenilalanine (l-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias in rodents. The mechanism of nitric oxide inhibitor action is unknown. The aims of the present study were to investigate the decrease of l-DOPA-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats by nitric oxide inhibitors following either acute or chronic treatment. The primary findings of this study were that NG-nitro-l-Arginine, an inhibitor of endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase, attenuated AIMs induced by chronic and acute l-DOPA. In contrast, rotational behavior was attenuated only after chronic l-DOPA. The 6-OHDA lesion and the l-DOPA treatment induced a bilateral increase (1.5 times) in the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) protein and nNOS mRNA in the striatum and in the frontal cortex. There was a parallel increase, bilaterally, of the FosB/ΔFosB, primarily in the ipsilateral striatum. The exception was in the contralateral striatum and the ipsilateral frontal cortex, where chronic l-DOPA treatment induced an increase of approximately 10 times the nNOS mRNA. Our results provided further evidence of an anti-dyskinetic effect of NOS inhibitor. The effect appeared under l-DOPA acute and chronic treatment. The l-DOPA treatment also revealed an over-expression of the neuronal NOS in the frontal cortex and striatum. Our results corroborated findings that l-DOPA-induced rotation differs between acute and chronic treatment. The effect of the NOS inhibitor conceivably relied on the l-DOPA structural modifications in the Parkinsonian brain. Taken together, these data provided a rationale for further evaluation of NOS inhibitors in the treatment of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia. PMID:21713068

  18. Circadian variation in the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on body temperature, feeding and activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Kamerman, Peter; Mitchell, Duncan; Laburn, Helen

    2002-02-01

    We have investigated whether there is circadian variation in the effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on body temperature, physical activity and feeding. We used nocturnally active Sprague-Dawley rats, housed at approximately 24 degrees C with a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (lights on 07:00 hours) and provided with food and water ad libitum. Nitric oxide synthesis was inhibited by intraperitoneal injection of the unspecific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N-nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME, 100, 50, 25, 10 mg/kg), or the relatively selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor aminoguanidine (100, 50 mg/kg), during the day ( approximately 09:00 hours) or night ( approximately 21:00 hours). Body temperature and physical activity were measured using radiotelemetry, while food intake was calculated by weighing each animal's food before as well as 12 and 24 h after each injection. We found that daytime injection of L-NAME and aminoguanidine had no effect on daytime body temperature. However, daytime injection of both drugs did decrease nocturnal food intake ( P<0.05) and activity ( P<0.05). When injected at night, L-NAME reduced night-time body temperature ( P<0.01), activity ( P<0.05) and food intake ( P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner, but night-time injection of aminoguanidine inhibited only night-time activity ( P<0.05). The effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition on body temperature, feeding and activity therefore are primarily a consequence of inhibiting constitutively expressed nitric oxide synthase, and are subject to circadian variation.

  19. Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chien-Yi; Krishnan, Thiba; Wang, Hao; Chen, Ye; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chong, Yee-Meng; Tan, Li Ying; Chong, Teik Min; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach. PMID:25430794

  20. Non-antibiotic quorum sensing inhibitors acting against N-acyl homoserine lactone synthase as druggable target.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chien-Yi; Krishnan, Thiba; Wang, Hao; Chen, Ye; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chong, Yee-Meng; Tan, Li Ying; Chong, Teik Min; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-11-28

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach.

  1. Quinazoline antifolate thymidylate synthase inhibitors: nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and chlorine substituents in the C2 position.

    PubMed

    Marsham, P R; Chambers, P; Hayter, A J; Hughes, L R; Jackman, A L; O'Connor, B M; Bishop, J A; Calvert, A H

    1989-03-01

    The synthesis of 16 new N10-propargylquinazoline antifolates with methylamino, ethylamino, (2-aminoethyl)amino, [2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]amino, (2-hydroxyethyl)amino, (carboxymethyl)amino, dimethylamino, imidazol-1-yl, methoxy, ethoxy, phenoxy, 2-methoxyethoxy, 2-hydroxyethoxy, mercapto, methylthio, and chloro substituents at C2 is described. In general, the synthetic route involved the coupling of diethyl N-[4-(prop-2-ynylamino)benzoyl]-L-glutamate (5a) with 6-(bromomethyl)-2-chloro-3,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinazoline in N,N-dimethylformamide with calcium carbonate as the base, displacement of the C2-chloro substituent with nitrogen and sulfur nucleophiles, and deprotection using mild alkali. The C2-ether analogues were most conveniently prepared by coupling 5a with 6-(bromomethyl)-2,4-diakoxy(or diphenoxy)quinazolines. In this series the final deprotection step with aqueous alkali gave simultaneous selective hydrolysis of the C4-alkoxy or C4-phenoxy substituent. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of partially purified L1210 thymidylate synthase (TS). As a measure of cytotoxicity, they were examined for their inhibition of the growth of L1210 cells in culture. The C2-methoxy analogue 11a was equivalent to the previously described tight binding TS inhibitor N10-propargyl-5,8-dideazafolic acid (CB3717, ICI 155387, 1a) against the TS enzyme and exhibited enhanced potency in culture. The C2-methoxy substituent also gave a 110-fold enhancement in aqueous solubility relative to the C2-amine. These results suggest that 11a will be an interesting compound for further study as a potential antitumor agent in vivo. A further series of 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates with modified alkyl substituents at N10 is also described. None of these analogues equalled the activity of 11a. Thus the propargyl group appears to be the optimum N10 substituent in both 2-amino- and 2-methoxyquinazoline antifolates.

  2. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors improve prepulse inhibition responses of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Issy, A C; Lazzarini, M; Szawka, R E; Carolino, R O G; Anselmo-Franci, J A; Del Bel, E A

    2011-03-01

    Cognitive and attentional deficits in schizophrenia include impairment of the sensorimotor filter as measured by prepulse inhibition (PPI). In this way, the study of animals that naturally present low PPI responses could be a useful approach for screening new antipsychotic drugs. Several pieces of evidence suggest that dopamine and nitric oxide (NO) can modulate PPI but their role in those animals is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dopamine and NO in Wistar rats with naturally low PPI response. Male Wistar rats with low PPI responses received an i.p. injection of the antipsychotics haloperidol (0.1, 0.3 or 1mg/kg) or clozapine (0.5, 1.5 or 5mg/kg), the anxiolytic diazepam (1 or 3mg/kg) or the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors, N(G)- nitro-l-arginine (l-NOARG; 40mg/kg, acutely or sub-chronically) or 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI; 3, 10 or 30mg/kg). All animals were submitted to the PPI test 1h after injection. Striatal and cortical dopamine, DOPAC, and noradrenaline levels of rats with low PPI responses were compared to rats with normal PPI responses. We found increased levels of catecholamines on the striatum and prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats with low PPI. In these animals, both antipsychotics, typical and atypical, and NOS inhibitors significantly increased PPI. Taken together, our findings suggest that the low PPI phenotype may be driven by an overactive catecholamine system. Additionally, our results corroborate the hypothesis of dopamine and NO interaction on PPI modulation and suggest that Wistar rats with low PPI may represent an interesting non-pharmacological model to evaluate new potential antipsychotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cell-permeable inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase open new prospects for the treatment of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Annedi, Subhash C

    2015-02-12

    The disubstituted pyrimidines based SAR study by Silverman et al. ( J. Med. Chem. 2014 , DOI: 10.1021/jm501719e ) was focused on improving bioavailability and physicochemical properties of the designed inhibitors while retaining the potency for neural nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and selectivity over the other two nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms (endothelial NOS and inducible NOS). One of the new promising lead compounds, compound 7, displayed nanomolar potency for nNOS (Ki = 19 nM), good selectivity over endothelial (260-fold), and inducible (41-fold) NOS isoforms and also showed potential for oral bioavailability (good cell permeability with efflux ratio of 1.8) and broad safety profile with minimal off-target activities at 50 CNS based receptors. This remarkable achievement not only serves as a template for next generation selective NOS inhibitor design but also opens new prospects for the treatment of neurological disorders.

  4. CNS-accessible Inhibitor of Glucosylceramide Synthase for Substrate Reduction Therapy of Neuronopathic Gaucher Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, John; Sun, Ying; Bangari, Dinesh S; Budman, Eva; Park, Hyejung; Nietupski, Jennifer B; Allaire, Amy; Cromwell, Mary A; Wang, Bing; Grabowski, Gregory A; Leonard, John P; Cheng, Seng H

    2016-01-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is caused by a deficiency of glucocerebrosidase and the consequent lysosomal accumulation of unmetabolized glycolipid substrates. Enzyme-replacement therapy adequately manages the visceral manifestations of nonneuronopathic type-1 Gaucher patients, but not the brain disease in neuronopathic types 2 and 3 GD. Substrate reduction therapy through inhibition of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) has also been shown to effectively treat the visceral disease. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel small molecule inhibitor of GCS with central nervous system (CNS) access (Genz-682452) to treat the brain disease. Treatment of the conduritol β epoxide-induced mouse model of neuronopathic GD with Genz-682452 reduced the accumulation of liver and brain glycolipids (>70% and >20% respectively), extent of gliosis, and severity of ataxia. In the genetic 4L;C* mouse model, Genz-682452 reduced the levels of substrate in the brain by >40%, the extent of gliosis, and paresis. Importantly, Genz-682452-treated 4L;C* mice also exhibited an ~30% increase in lifespan. Together, these data indicate that an orally available antagonist of GCS that has CNS access is effective at attenuating several of the neuropathologic and behavioral manifestations associated with mouse models of neuronopathic GD. Therefore, Genz-682452 holds promise as a potential therapeutic approach for patients with type-3 GD. PMID:26948439

  5. Aggravation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) by administration of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    RUULS, S. R.; VAN DER LINDEN, S.; SONTROP, K.; HUITINGA, I.; DIJKSTRA, C. D.

    1996-01-01

    Macrophages constitute a large proportion of the inflammatory cells that infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) of animals with EAE. Through the production of inflammatory mediators these infiltrating macrophages can contribute to the regulation of the immune reaction within the CNS, that eventually results in neurological deficits associated with EAE. NO, a free radical produced by macrophages and other cell types, has been put forward as such an immune mediator. In the present study we show that macrophages isolated from the CNS of Lewis rats with clinical signs of EAE produce elevated amounts of NO. We treated rats, in which EAE was induced, with Nw-nitro-L-arginine-methylester or NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, inhibitors of NO synthase, either systemically via intraperitoneal injection, or intracerebrally via a cannula placed in the lateral ventricle. Both treatments resulted in a marked aggravation of clinical signs of EAE. These data point to an important role of NO, produced by infiltrating macrophages, as an immune-suppressor in the disease process during EAE. PMID:8608648

  6. Selective Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors and the Prevention of Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haitao; Tan, Sidhartha; Igarashi, Jotaro; Li, Huiying; Derrick, Matthew; Martásek, Pavel; Roman, Linda J.; Vásquez-Vivar, Jeannette; Poulos, Thomas L.; Silverman, Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To design a new class of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors and demonstrate that administration in a rabbit model for cerebral palsy (CP) prevents hypoxia-ischemia induced deaths and reduces the number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP. Methods We used a novel computer-based drug design method called fragment hopping to identify new chemical entities, synthesized them, carried out in vitro enzyme inhibition studies with the three isozymes of NOS and in vivo experiments to monitor cardiovascular effects on pregnant rabbit dams, NOS activity and NOx concentration in fetal brain, and assess neurobehavioral effects on kits born to saline- and compound treated dams. Results The computer-based design led to the development of powerful and highly selective compounds for inhibition of nNOS over the other isozymes. Following maternal administration in a rabbit model of CP, these compounds were found to distribute to fetal brain, to be non-toxic, without cardiovascular effects, inhibit fetal brain NOS activity in vivo, reduce NO concentration in fetal brain, and dramatically ameliorate deaths and number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP. Interpretation This approach may lead to new preventive strategies for cerebral palsy. PMID:19235180

  7. Target-site basis for resistance to acetolactate synthase inhibitor in Water chickweed (Myosoton aquaticum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitang; Bi, Yaling; Li, Lingxu; Yuan, Guohui; Du, Long; Wang, Jinxin

    2013-09-01

    Water chickweed is a widespread and competitive winter annual or biennial weed of wheat in China. One Water chickweed population (HN02) resistant to several acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors was found in Henan province of China. Whole-plant bioassays showed that HN02 was high resistance to tribenuron (292.05-flod). In vitro ALS assays revealed that resistance was due to reduced sensitivity of the ALS enzyme to tribenuron. The I50 value for HN02 was 85.53 times greater respectively than that of susceptible population (SD05). This altered ALS sensitivity in the resistant population was due to a mutation in the ALS gene resulting in a Pro197 to Ser substitution. Cross-resistance experiments indicated that HN02 exhibited various resistance patterns to pyrithiobac-sodium, florasulam and pyroxsulam, without resistance to imazethapyr. This is the first report of tribenuron-resistant Water chickweed in Henan province of China, target-site based resistance was established as being due to an insensitive form of ALS, resulting from a Pro to Ser substitution at amino acid position 197 in the ALS gene. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. FAD286, an aldosterone synthase inhibitor, reduced atherosclerosis and inflammation in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gamliel-Lazarovich, Aviva; Gantman, Anna; Coleman, Raymond; Jeng, Arco Y; Kaplan, Marielle; Keidar, Shlomo

    2010-09-01

    Aldosterone is known to be involved in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease and blockade of its receptor was shown to improve cardiovascular function. It was, therefore, hypothesized that inhibition of aldosterone synthesis would also reduce atherosclerosis development. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of FAD286 (FAD), an aldosterone synthase inhibitor, on the development of atherosclerosis in spontaneous atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Mice were divided into three treatment groups: normal diet, low-salt diet (LSD) and LSD treated with FAD at 30 mg/kg per day (LSD + FAD) for 10 weeks. Histomorphometry of the aortas obtained from these mice showed that atherosclerotic lesion area increased by three-fold under LSD compared with normal diet and FAD significantly reduced lesion area to values similar to normal diet. Changes in atherosclerosis were paralleled by changes in the expression of the inflammation markers (C-reactive protein, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin-6, nuclear factor kappa B and intercellular adhesion molecule-1) in peritoneal macrophages obtained from these mice. Surprisingly, whereas LSD increased serum or urine aldosterone levels, FAD did not alter these levels when evaluated at the end of the study. In J774A.1 macrophage-like cell line stimulated with lipopolysaccharide, FAD was shown to have a direct dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effect. In apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, FAD reduces atherosclerosis and inflammation. However, these actions appeared to be dissociated from its effect on inhibition of aldosterone synthesis.

  9. Discovery and Characterization of 2-Acylaminoimidazole Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1 Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Schiffler, Matthew A; Antonysamy, Stephen; Bhattachar, Shobha N; Campanale, Kristina M; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Condon, Bradley; Desai, Prashant V; Fisher, Matthew J; Groshong, Christopher; Harvey, Anita; Hickey, Michael J; Hughes, Norman E; Jones, Scott A; Kim, Euibong J; Kuklish, Steven L; Luz, John G; Norman, Bryan H; Rathmell, Richard E; Rizzo, John R; Seng, Thomas W; Thibodeaux, Stefan J; Woods, Timothy A; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2016-01-14

    As part of a program aimed at the discovery of antinociceptive therapy for inflammatory conditions, a screening hit was found to inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) with an IC50 of 17.4 μM. Structural information was used to improve enzyme potency by over 1000-fold. Addition of an appropriate substituent alleviated time-dependent cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibition. Further structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to 8, which had desirable potency (IC50 = 12 nM in an ex vivo human whole blood (HWB) assay) and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties. Studies on the formulation of 8 identified 8·H3PO4 as suitable for clinical development. Omission of a lipophilic portion of the compound led to 26, a readily orally bioavailable inhibitor with potency in HWB comparable to celecoxib. Furthermore, 26 was selective for mPGES-1 inhibition versus other mechanisms in the prostanoid pathway. These factors led to the selection of 26 as a second clinical candidate.

  10. Sulfonylureas have antifungal activity and are potent inhibitors of Candida albicans acetohydroxyacid synthase.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Ting; Cui, Chang-Jun; Chow, Eve W L; Pue, Nason; Lonhienne, Thierry; Wang, Jian-Guo; Fraser, James A; Guddat, Luke W

    2013-01-10

    The sulfonylurea herbicides exert their activity by inhibiting plant acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), the first enzyme in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway. It has previously been shown that if the gene for AHAS is deleted in Candida albicans , attenuation of virulence is achieved, suggesting AHAS as an antifungal drug target. Herein, we have cloned, expressed, and purified C. albicans AHAS and shown that several sulfonylureas are inhibitors of this enzyme and possess antifungal activity. The most potent of these compounds is ethyl 2-(N-((4-iodo-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yl)carbamoyl)sulfamoyl)benzoate (10c), which has a K(i) value of 3.8 nM for C. albicans AHAS and an MIC₉₀ of 0.7 μg/mL for this fungus in cell-based assays. For the sulfonylureas tested there was a strong correlation between inhibitory activity toward C. albicans AHAS and fungicidal activity, supporting the hypothesis that AHAS is the target for their inhibitory activity within the cell.

  11. Structural studies provide clues for analog design of specific inhibitors of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vidya P; Cisneros, Jose A; Frey, Kathleen M; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Wang, Yiqiang; Gangjee, Aleem; White, A Clinton; Jorgensen, William L; Anderson, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of a gastrointestinal disease, cryptosporidiosis, which is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals and children. Thymidylate synthase (TS) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) are essential enzymes in the folate biosynthesis pathway and are well established as drug targets in cancer, bacterial infections, and malaria. Cryptosporidium hominis has a bifunctional thymidylate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase enzyme, compared to separate enzymes in the host. We evaluated lead compound 1 from a novel series of antifolates, 2-amino-4-oxo-5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium hominis thymidylate synthase with selectivity over the human enzyme. Complementing the enzyme inhibition compound 1 also has anti-cryptosporidial activity in cell culture. A crystal structure with compound 1 bound to the TS active site is discussed in terms of several van der Waals, hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions with the protein residues and the substrate analog 5-fluorodeoxyuridine monophosphate (TS), cofactor NADPH and inhibitor methotrexate (DHFR). Another crystal structure in complex with compound 1 bound in both the TS and DHFR active sites is also reported here. The crystal structures provide clues for analog design and for the design of ChTS-DHFR specific inhibitors. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Temperature-dependent spin crossover in neuronal nitric oxide synthase bound with the heme-coordinating thioether inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Doukov, Tzanko; Li, Huiying; Sharma, Ajay; Martell, Jeffrey D; Soltis, S Michael; Silverman, Richard B; Poulos, Thomas L

    2011-06-01

    A series of L-arginine analogue nitric oxide synthase inhibitors with a thioether tail have been shown to form an Fe-S thioether interaction as evidenced by continuous electron density between the Fe and S atoms. Even so, the Fe-S thioether interaction was found to be far less important for inhibitor binding than the hydrophobic interactions between the alkyl group in the thioether tail and surrounding protein (Martell et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010 , 132 , 798). However, among the few thioether inhibitors that showed Fe-S thioether interaction in crystal structures, variations in spin state (high-spin or low-spin) were observed dependent upon the heme iron oxidation state and temperature. Since modern synchrotron X-ray data collection is typically carried out at cryogenic temperatures, we reasoned that some of the discrepancies between cryo-crystal structures and room-temperature UV-visible spectroscopy could be the result of temperature-dependent spin-state changes. We, therefore, have characterized some of these neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-thioether inhibitor complexes in both crystal and solution using EPR and UV-visible absorption spectrometry as a function of temperature and the heme iron redox state. We found that some thioether inhibitors switch from high to low spin at lower temperatures similar to the "spin crossover" phenomenon observed in many transition metal complexes.

  13. An EPSP synthase inhibitor joining shikimate 3-phosphate with glyphosate: synthesis and ligand binding studies.

    PubMed

    Marzabadi, M R; Gruys, K J; Pansegrau, P D; Walker, M C; Yuen, H K; Sikorski, J A

    1996-04-02

    A novel EPSP synthase inhibitor 4 has been designed and synthesized to probe the configurational details of glyphosate recognition in its herbicidal ternary complex with enzyme and shikimate 3-phosphate (S3P). A kinetic evaluation of the new 3-dephospho analog 12, as well as calorimetric and (31)P NMR spectroscopic studies of enzyme-bound 4, now provides a more precise quantitative definition for the molecular interactions of 4 with this enzyme. The very poor binding, relative to 4, displayed by the 3-dephospho analog 12 is indicative that 4 has a specific interaction with the S3P site. A comparison of Ki(calc) for 12 versus the Ki(app) for 4 indicates that the 3-phosphate group in 4 contributes about 4.8 kcal/mol to binding. This compares well with the 5.2 kcal/mol which the 3-phosphate group in S3P contributes to binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that 4 binds to free enzyme with an observed Kd of 0.53 +/- 0.04 microM. As such, 4 binds only 3-fold weaker than glyphosate and about 150-fold better than N-methylglyphosate. Consequently, 4 represents the most potent N-alkylglyphosate derivative identified to date. However, the resulting thermodynamic binding parameters clearly demonstrate that the formation of EPSPS x 4 is entropy driven like S3P. The binding characteristics of 4 are fully consistent with a primary interaction localized at the S3P subsite. Furthermore, (31)P NMR studies of enzyme-bound 4 confirm the expected interaction at the shikimate 3-phosphate site. However, the chemical shift observed for the phosphonate signal of EPSPS x 4 is in the opposite direction than that observed previously when glyphosate binds with enzyme and S3P. Therefore, when 4 occupies the S3P binding site, there is incomplete overlap at the glyphosate phosphonate subsite. As a glyphosate analog inhibitor, the potency of 4 most likely arises from predominant interactions which occur outside the normal glyphosate binding site. Consequently, 4 is best described

  14. Novel and potent inhibitors of fatty acid synthase derived from catechins and their inhibition on MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shu-Yan; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Zheng, Chao-Gu; Wang, Yan; Cao, Xue-Li; Tian, Wei-Xi

    2009-06-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a potential target for cancer, but potent inhibitors against FAS are scarce. In this study, we found that activities of catechins on inhibiting FAS increased greatly by heating them in acid. The enhancement was positively correlated to H(+) concentration. The inhibitory activities of the final products from different catechins were similar, all of which were less than 1 microg/mL. The product from (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) was stable at room temperature, and its inhibitory kinetics and reacting sites on FAS were obviously different from the known FAS inhibitors. It also affected the viability of MCF-7 cells more obviously than EGCG. A putative route of the reaction progress was proposed and the effective inhibitors were deduced to be oligomers of 2-hydroxy-3-(3', 4', 5'-trihydroxyphenyl) propenoic acid by analysis of their spectra. The work affords new and potent FAS inhibitors that would be promising candidates for the treatment of cancer.

  15. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Potential Transition-State Inhibitor of the Salicylate Synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2015-07-02

    Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge buildup at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps.

  16. Nitric oxide synthase inhibitors attenuate transforming-growth-factor-beta 1-stimulated capillary organization in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Papapetropoulos, A.; Desai, K. M.; Rudic, R. D.; Mayer, B.; Zhang, R.; Ruiz-Torres, M. P.; García-Cardeña, G.; Madri, J. A.; Sessa, W. C.

    1997-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a complex process involving endothelial cell (EC) proliferation, migration, differentiation, and organization into patent capillary networks. Nitric oxide (NO), an EC mediator, has been reported to be antigenic as well as proangiogenic in different models of in vivo angiogenesis. Our aim was to investigate the role of NO in capillary organization using rat microvascular ECs (RFCs) grown in three-dimensional (3D) collagen gels. RFCs placed in 3D cultures exhibited extensive tube formation in the presence of transforming growth factor-beta 1. Addition of the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors L-nitro-arginine methylester (L-NAME, 1 mmol/L) or L-monomethyl-nitro-l-arginine (1 mmol/L) inhibited tube formation and the accumulation of nitrite in the media by approximately 50%. Incubation of the 3D cultures with excess L-arginine reversed the inhibitory effect of L-NAME on tube formation. In contrast to the results obtained in 3D cultures, inhibition of NO synthesis by L-NAME did not influence RFC proliferation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or antagonize the ability of transforming growth factor-beta 1 to suppress EC proliferation in 2D cultures. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction revealed the constitutive expression of all three NOS isoforms, neuronal, inducible, and endothelial NOSs, in 2D and 3D cultures. Moreover, Western blot analysis demonstrated the presence of immunoreactive protein for all NOS isoforms in 3D cultures of RFCs. In addition, in the face of NOS blockade, co-treatment with the NO donor sodium nitroprusside or the stable analog of cGMP, 8-bromo-cGMP, restored capillary tube formation. Thus, the autocrine production of NO and the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase are necessary events in the process of differentiation and in vitro capillary tube organization of RFCs. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9137106

  17. Induction of intrachromosomal homologous recombination in human cells by raltitrexed, an inhibitor of thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Barbara Criscuolo; Wang, Yibin; Kilaru, Kasturi; Yang, Zhengguan; Bhasin, Alaukik; Wyatt, Michael D; Waldman, Alan S

    2008-10-01

    Thymidylate deprivation brings about "thymineless death" in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Although the precise mechanism for thymineless death has remained elusive, inhibition of the enzyme thymidylate synthase (TS), which catalyzes the de novo synthesis of TMP, has served for many years as a basis for chemotherapeutic strategies. Numerous studies have identified a variety of cellular responses to thymidylate deprivation, including disruption of DNA replication and induction of DNA breaks. Since stalled or collapsed replication forks and strand breaks are generally viewed as being recombinogenic, it is not surprising that a link has been demonstrated between recombination induction and thymidylate deprivation in bacteria and lower eukaryotes. A similar connection between recombination and TS inhibition has been suggested by studies done in mammalian cells, but the relationship between recombination and TS inhibition in mammalian cells had not been demonstrated rigorously. To gain insight into the mechanism of thymineless death in mammalian cells, in this work we undertook a direct investigation of recombination in human cells treated with raltitrexed (RTX), a folate analog that is a specific inhibitor of TS. Using a model system to study intrachromosomal homologous recombination in cultured fibroblasts, we provide definitive evidence that treatment with RTX can stimulate accurate recombination events in human cells. Gene conversions not associated with crossovers were specifically enhanced several-fold by RTX. Additional experiments demonstrated that recombination events provoked by a double-strand break (DSB) were not impacted by treatment with RTX, nor was error-prone DSB repair via nonhomologous end-joining. Our work provides evidence that thymineless death in human cells is not mediated by corruption of DSB repair processes and suggests that an increase in chromosomal recombination may be an important element of cellular responses leading to thymineless death.

  18. Insulin resistance: potential role of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA.

    PubMed

    Sydow, Karsten; Mondon, Carl E; Cooke, John P

    2005-07-01

    The insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) is considered to be a new target of risk-reduction therapy. The IRS is a cluster of closely associated and interdependent abnormalities and clinical outcomes that occur more commonly in insulin-resistant/hyperinsulinemic individuals. This syndrome predisposes individuals to type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, essential hypertension, certain forms of cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and sleep apnea. In patients at high risk for cardiovascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is observed in morphologically intact vessels even before the onset of clinically manifest vascular disease. Indeed, there are several lines of evidence that indicate that endothelial function is compromised in situations where there is reduced sensitivity to endogenous insulin. It is well established that a decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) contributes to endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, NO may modulate insulin sensitivity. Activation of NO synthase (NOS) augments blood flow to insulin-sensitive tissues (i.e. skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue), and its activity is impaired in insulin resistance. Inhibition of NOS reduces the microvascular delivery of nutrients and blunts insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, induction of hypertension by administration of the NOS inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine is also associated with insulin resistance in rats. Increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) are associated with endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. An intriguing relationship exists between insulin resistance and ADMA. Plasma levels of ADMA are positively correlated with insulin resistance in nondiabetic, normotensive people. New basic research insights that provide possible mechanisms underlying the development of insulin resistance in the setting of impaired NO bioavailability will be discussed.

  19. NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE INHIBITOR L-NAMEAFFECTS ARABIDOPSIS ROOT GROWTH, MORPHOLOGY AND MICROTUBULE ORGANIZATION.

    PubMed

    Yu A, Krasylenko; A I, Yemets; Ya B, Blume

    2017-10-05

    The presence of evolutionarily conserved NOS or NOS-like enzymes in land plants different than those in animals is still unclear, despite their activity has been revealed in cytosol and some organelles. At the same time, the emerging evidence for the importance of L-arginine-dependent pathways of NO synthesis in plant cells is still accumulating. The aim of our study was to reveal physiological effects on growth and differentiation processes and microtubular cytoskeleton organization of the competitive mammalian NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME. Thus, the treatment of Arabidopsis with L-NAME (50 μM-1 mM) caused dose- and time-dependent inhibition of primary roots growth. Moreover, the morphology of primary roots under the influence of L-NAME also underwent changes. L-NAME (>100 μM) induced the formation of novel over-elongated root hairs in shortened elongation zone, while in higher concentrations (500 μM) it caused a slight swelling of epidermal cells in differentiation zone. L-NAME also provoked microtubule reorganization in epidermal cells of different root growth zones. Thus, L-NAME at concentrations of 50 μM-1 mM induces cortical microtubules randomization and/or depolymerization in epidermal cells of the root apex, meristem, transition, elongation and differentiation zones after 2 h of treatment. Disordered microtubules in trichoblasts could initiate the formation of actively elongating root hairs that reveals longitudinal microtubules ensuring their active growth at 24 h of treatment. Therefore, L-NAME inhibits primary root growth, induces the differentiation processes in roots and reorganizes cortical microtubules in epidermal root cells suggesting the importance of L-arginine-dependent pathways of NO synthesis in plants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and thermodynamic insights into the binding mode of five novel inhibitors of lumazine synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Morgunova, Ekaterina; Illarionov, Boris; Sambaiah, Thota; Haase, Ilka; Bacher, Adelbert; Cushman, Mark; Fischer, Markus; Ladenstein, Rudolf

    2006-10-01

    Recently published genomic investigations of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis have revealed that genes coding the proteins involved in riboflavin biosynthesis are essential for the growth of the organism. Because the enzymes involved in cofactor biosynthesis pathways are not present in humans, they appear to be promising candidates for the development of therapeutic drugs. The substituted purinetrione compounds have demonstrated high affinity and specificity to lumazine synthase, which catalyzes the penultimate step of riboflavin biosynthesis in bacteria and plants. The structure of M. tuberculosis lumazine synthase in complex with five different inhibitor compounds is presented, together with studies of the binding reactions by isothermal titration calorimetry. The inhibitors showed the association constants in the micromolar range. The analysis of the structures demonstrated the specific features of the binding of different inhibitors. The comparison of the structures and binding modes of five different inhibitors allows us to propose the ribitylpurinetrione compounds with C4-C5 alkylphosphate chains as most promising leads for further development of therapeutic drugs against M. tuberculosis.

  1. Identification of natural inhibitors of Entamoeba histolytica cysteine synthase from microbial secondary metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Mihoko; Jeelani, Ghulam; Masuda, Yui; Sakai, Kazunari; Tsukui, Kumiko; Waluyo, Danang; Tarwadi; Watanabe, Yoshio; Nonaka, Kenichi; Matsumoto, Atsuko; Ōmura, Satoshi; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shiomi, Kazuro

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis is a common worldwide diarrheal disease, caused by the protozoan parasite, Entamoeba histolytica. Metronidazole has been a drug of choice against amebiasis for decades despite its known side effects and low efficacy against asymptomatic cyst carriers. E. histolytica is also capable of surviving sub-therapeutic levels of metronidazole in vitro. Novel drugs with different mode of action are therefore urgently needed. The sulfur assimilatory de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is essential for various cellular activities, including the proliferation and anti-oxidative defense of E. histolytica. Since the pathway, consisting of two reactions catalyzed by serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS, O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase), does not exist in humans, it is a rational drug target against amebiasis. To discover inhibitors against the CS of E. histolytica (EhCS), the compounds of Kitasato Natural Products Library were screened against two recombinant CS isozymes: EhCS1 and EhCS3. Nine compounds inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3 with IC50 values of 0.31–490 μM. Of those, seven compounds share a naphthoquinone moiety, indicating the structural importance of the moiety for binding to the active site of EhCS1 and EhCS3. We further screened >9,000 microbial broths for CS inhibition and purified two compounds, xanthofulvin and exophillic acid from fungal broths. Xanthofulvin inhibited EhCS1 and EhCS3. Exophillic acid showed high selectivity against EhCS1, but exhibited no inhibition against EhCS3. In vitro anti-amebic activity of the 11 EhCS inhibitors was also examined. Deacetylkinamycin C and nanaomycin A showed more potent amebicidal activity with IC50 values of 18 and 0.8 μM, respectively, in the cysteine deprived conditions. The differential sensitivity of trophozoites against deacetylkinamycin C in the presence or absence of L-cysteine in the medium and the IC50 values against EhCS suggest the amebicidal effect of deacetylkinamycin C is due to

  2. Attenuation of malonate-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal pathway by inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Connop, B P; Boegman, R J; Beninger, R J; Jhamandas, K

    1996-04-01

    Focal infusions of the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor, malonate, into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats resulted in a substantial depletion of ipsilateral striatal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity. The percentage decrease in striatal TH activity following intranigral malonate (0.5 mumol/0.5 microliter) infusion was similar at 4 (58%) and 7 days (62%) post-infusion. To assess the role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation in malonate neurotoxicity, animals were pretreated with the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (2 x 5 mg/kg, i.p.). Four days post-infusion of malonate (0.5 mumol/0.5 microliter) into the SNc, striatal TH activity was depleted by 58% in vehicle pretreated animals and 14% in the presence of MK-801 indicating a significant neuroprotective effect of MK-801 on malonate action. To determine the role of nitric oxide (NO) in malonate-induced nigral toxicity, the actions of malonate were evaluated in the presence of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, 7-nitro indazole (7-NI) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L- NAME). Systemic injections of 7-NI (20, 30, 40, 50 and 75 mg/kg, i.p.) produced a dose-related inhibition of nigral NOS activity which was maximal at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Intranigral infusion of malonate with 20 and 50 mg/kg 7-NI pretreatment produced a 46 and 31% decrease in striatal TH activity, respectively. Thus, a significant protective effect at the higher but not lower dose of 7-NI was observed. Pretreatment with a L- NAME regimen (2 x 250 mg/kg; i.p.), previously shown to inhibit brain NOS activity by greater than 86%, also produced a significant neuroprotective effect against malonate-induced neurotoxicity (30% decrease). The results of this study suggest that malonate-induced toxicity to the dopaminergic neurons of the nigrostriatal pathway is mediated, at least in part, by NMDA receptor activation and the formation of NO.

  3. Structure-guided Discovery of Phenyl diketo-acids as Potent Inhibitors of M. tuberculosis Malate Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, Inna V.; Freundlich, Joel S.; Gawandi, Vijay B.; Roberts, Justin P.; Gawandi, Vidyadhar B.; Sun, Qingan; Owen, Joshua L.; Fraile, Maria T.; Huss, Sofia I.; Lavandera, Jose-Luis; Ioerger, Thomas R.; Sacchettini, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The glyoxylate shunt plays an important role in fatty-acid metabolism, and has been shown to be critical to survival of several pathogens involved in chronic infections. For Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a strain with a defective glyoxylate shunt was previously shown to be unable to establish infection in a mouse model. We report the development of novel phenyl-diketo acid (PDKA) inhibitors of malate synthase (GlcB), one of two glyoxylate shunt enzymes, using structure-based methods. PDKA inhibitors were active against Mtb grown on acetate, and over-expression of GlcB ameliorated this inhibition. Crystal structures of complexes of GlcB with PDKA inhibitors were used to guide optimization of potency. A selected PDKA compound demonstrated efficacy in a mouse model of tuberculosis. The discovery of these PDKA derivatives provides chemical validation of GlcB as an attractive target for tuberculosis therapeutics. PMID:23261599

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of M. tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) inhibitors designed to probe plasticity in the active site.

    PubMed

    Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; Cergol, Katie M; Salam, Noeris K; Bulloch, Esther M M; Chi, Gamma; Pang, Angel; Britton, Warwick J; West, Nicholas P; Baker, Edward N; Lott, J Shaun; Payne, Richard J

    2012-12-14

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis salicylate synthase (MbtI) catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of mycobactin T, an iron-chelating siderophore essential for the virulence and survival of M. tuberculosis. Co-crystal structures of MbtI with members of a first generation inhibitor library revealed large inhibitor-induced rearrangements within the active site of the enzyme. This plasticity of the MbtI active site was probed via the preparation of a library of inhibitors based on a 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate scaffold with a range of substituted phenylacrylate side chains appended to the C3 position. Most compounds exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against the enzyme, with inhibition constants in the micromolar range, while several dimethyl ester variants possessed promising anti-tubercular activity in vitro.

  5. Implications of binding mode and active site flexibility for inhibitor potency against the salicylate synthase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chi, Gamma; Manos-Turvey, Alexandra; O'Connor, Patrick D; Johnston, Jodie M; Evans, Genevieve L; Baker, Edward N; Payne, Richard J; Lott, J Shaun; Bulloch, Esther M M

    2012-06-19

    MbtI is the salicylate synthase that catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of the iron chelating compound mycobactin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We previously developed a series of aromatic inhibitors against MbtI based on the reaction intermediate for this enzyme, isochorismate. The most potent of these inhibitors had hydrophobic substituents, ranging in size from a methyl to a phenyl group, appended to the terminal alkene of the enolpyruvyl group. These compounds exhibited low micromolar inhibition constants against MbtI and were at least an order of magnitude more potent than the parental compound for the series, which carries a native enolpyruvyl group. In this study, we sought to understand how the substituted enolpyruvyl group confers greater potency, by determining cocrystal structures of MbtI with six inhibitors from the series. A switch in binding mode at the MbtI active site is observed for inhibitors carrying a substituted enolpyruvyl group, relative to the parental compound. Computational studies suggest that the change in binding mode, and higher potency, is due to the effect of the substituents on the conformational landscape of the core inhibitor structure. The crystal structures and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays indicate that substituents larger than a methyl group are accommodated in the MbtI active site through significant but localized flexibility in the peptide backbone. These findings have implications for the design of improved inhibitors of MbtI, as well as other chorismate-utilizing enzymes from this family.

  6. A novel bisphosphonate inhibitor of squalene synthase combined with a statin or a nitrogenous bisphosphonate in vitro[S

    PubMed Central

    Wasko, Brian M.; Smits, Jacqueline P.; Shull, Larry W.; Wiemer, David F.; Hohl, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Statins and nitrogenous bisphosphonates (NBP) inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase (HMGCR) and farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDPS), respectively, leading to depletion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) and disruption of protein prenylation. Squalene synthase (SQS) utilizes FPP in the first committed step from the mevalonate pathway toward cholesterol biosynthesis. Herein, we have identified novel bisphosphonates as potent and specific inhibitors of SQS, including the tetrasodium salt of 9-biphenyl-4,8-dimethyl-nona-3,7-dienyl-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (compound 5). Compound 5 reduced cholesterol biosynthesis and lead to a substantial intracellular accumulation of FPP without reducing cell viability in HepG2 cells. At high concentrations, lovastatin and zoledronate impaired protein prenylation and decreased cell viability, which limits their potential use for cholesterol depletion. When combined with lovastatin, compound 5 prevented lovastatin-induced FPP depletion and impairment of protein farnesylation. Compound 5 in combination with the NBP zoledronate completely prevented zoledronate-induced impairment of both protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation. Cotreatment of cells with compound 5 and either lovastatin or zoledronate was able to significantly prevent the reduction of cell viability caused by lovastatin or zoledronate alone. The combination of an SQS inhibitor with an HMGCR or FDPS inhibitor provides a rational approach for reducing cholesterol synthesis while preventing nonsterol isoprenoid depletion. PMID:21903868

  7. Mechanistic analysis of a synthetic inhibitor of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI quorum-sensing signal synthase

    PubMed Central

    Lidor, O.; Al-Quntar, A.; Pesci, E. C.; Steinberg, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative pathogen responsible for many human infections. LasI is an acyl-homoserine lactone synthase that produces a quorum-sensing (QS) signal that positively regulates numerous P. aeruginosa virulence determinants. The inhibition of the LasI protein is therefore an attractive drug target. In this study, a novel in silico to in vitro complementation was applied to screen thiazolidinedione-type compounds for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation at concentrations not affecting bacterial growth. The compound (z)-5-octylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione (TZD-C8) was a strong inhibitor of biofilm formation and chosen for further study. Structural exploration of in silico docking predicted that the compound had high affinity for the LasI activity pocket. The TZD-C8 compound was also predicted to create hydrogen bonds with residues Arg30 and Ile107. Site-directed mutagenesis (SDM) of these two sites demonstrated that TZD-C8 inhibition was abolished in the lasI double mutant PAO-R30D, I107S. In addition, in vitro swarming motility and quorum sensing signal production were affected by TZD-C 8, confirming this compound alters the cell to cell signalling circuitry. Overall, this novel inhibitor of P. aeruginosa quorum sensing shows great promise and validates our mechanistic approach to discovering inhibitors of LuxI-type acyl-homoserine lactone synthases. PMID:26593271

  8. Reevaluating glyphosate as a transition-state inhibitor of EPSP synthase: identification of an EPSP synthase.EPSP.glyphosate ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Sammons, R D; Gruys, K J; Anderson, K S; Johnson, K A; Sikorski, J A

    1995-05-16

    Numerous studies have confirmed that glyphosate forms a tight ternary complex with EPSP synthase and shikimate 3-phosphate. It has been proposed [Anton, D., Hedstrom, L., Fish, S., & Abeles, R. (1983) Biochemistry 22, 5903-5908; Steinrücken, H. C., & Amrhein, N. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 143, 351-357] that in this complex glyphosate functions as a transition-state analog of the putative phosphoenolpyruvoyl oxonium ion. For this to be true, glyphosate must occupy the space in the enzyme active site that is normally associated with PEP and, through turnover, the carboxyvinyl group of the product EPSP. According to this model, one would predict that, in the reverse EPSP synthase reaction with EPSP and phosphate as substrates, there should be little if any interaction of glyphosate with enzyme or enzyme.substrate complexes. In contrast to this expectation, rapid gel filtration experiments provided direct evidence that glyphosate could be trapped on the enzyme in the presence of EPSP to form a ternary complex of EPSPS.EPSP.glyphosate. The experimentally determined stoichiometry for this complex, 0.62 equiv of glyphosate/mole of EPSPS, is similar to that found for the EPSPS.S3P.glyphosate ternary complex (0.66). This direct binding result was corroborated and quantitated by fluorescence titration experiments which demonstrated that glyphosate forms a reasonably tight (Kd = 56 +/- 1 microM) ternary complex with enzyme and EPSP. This finding was further verified, and its impact on substrate turnover analyzed, by steady-state kinetics. Glyphosate was found to be an uncompetitive inhibitor versus EPSP with Kii(app) = 54 +/- 2 microM.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Discovery of Potential Inhibitors of Aldosterone Synthase from Chinese Herbs Using Pharmacophore Modeling, Molecular Docking, and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fang; Qiao, Liansheng; Chen, Xi; Li, Gongyu

    2016-01-01

    Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) is a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of aldosterone, which plays a significant role for the regulation of blood pressure. Excess aldosterone can cause the dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and lead to hypertension. Therefore, research and development of CYP11B2 inhibitor are regarded as a novel approach for the treatment of hypertension. In this study, the pharmacophore models of CYP11B2 inhibitors were generated and the optimal model was used to identify potential CYP11B2 inhibitors from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD, Version 2009). The hits were further refined by molecular docking and the interactions between compounds and CYP11B2 were analyzed. Compounds with high Fitvalue, high docking score, and expected interactions with key residues were selected as potential CYP11B2 inhibitors. Two most promising compounds, ethyl caffeate and labiatenic acid, with high Fitvalue and docking score were reserved for molecular dynamics (MD) study. All of them have stability of ligand binding which suggested that they might perform the inhibitory effect on CYP11B2. This study provided candidates for novel drug-like CYP11B2 inhibitors by molecular simulation methods for the hypertension treatment. PMID:27781210

  10. Sulfa and trimethoprim-like drugs - antimetabolites acting as carbonic anhydrase, dihydropteroate synthase and dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Clemente; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-06-01

    Recent advances in microbial genomics, synthetic organic chemistry and X-ray crystallography provided opportunities to identify novel antibacterial targets for the development of new classes of antibiotics and to design more potent antimicrobial compounds derived from existing antibiotics in clinical use for decades. The antimetabolites, sulfa drugs and trimethoprim (TMP)-like agents, are inhibitors of three families of enzymes. One family belongs to the carbonic anhydrases, which catalyze a simple but physiologically relevant reaction in all life kingdoms, carbon dioxide hydration to bicarbonate and protons. The other two enzyme families are involved in the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate (THF), i.e. dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) and dihydrofolate reductase. The antibacterial agents belonging to the THF and DHPS inhibitors were developed decades ago and present significant bacterial resistance problems. However, the molecular mechanisms of drug resistance both to sulfa drugs and TMP-like inhibitors were understood in detail only recently, when several X-ray crystal structures of such enzymes in complex with their inhibitors were reported. Here, we revue the state of the art in the field of antibacterials based on inhibitors of these three enzyme families.

  11. L-leucine availability regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, p70 S6 kinase and glycogen synthase kinase-3 activity in L6 muscle cells: evidence for the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in the L-leucine-induced up-regulation of system A amino acid transport.

    PubMed Central

    Peyrollier, K; Hajduch, E; Blair, A S; Hyde, R; Hundal, H S

    2000-01-01

    Amino acid availability is known to regulate diverse cell processes including the activation of p70 S6 kinase, initiation factors involved in mRNA translation, gene expression and cellular amino acid uptake. Essential amino acids, in particular the branched-chain amino acids (e.g. leucine), have been shown to be the dominant players in mediating these effects, although the precise nature by which they regulate these processes remain poorly understood. In this study we have investigated the mechanisms involved in the leucine-induced modulation of p70 S6 kinase and addressed whether this kinase participates in the up-regulation of the System A amino acid transporter in L6 muscle cells. Incubation of muscle cells that had been amino acid-deprived for 1 h with L-leucine (2 mM) led to a rapid (>2-fold) activation of p70 S6 kinase, which was suppressed by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Consistent with this finding, addition of leucine caused a rapid ( approximately 5-fold) but transient stimulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activation was inhibited by wortmannin and was not dependent upon insulin receptor substrate-1 activation. Unlike stimulation by insulin, activation of neither protein kinase B nor p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase accompanied the leucine-induced stimulation of PI3K. However, the leucine-induced activation of PI3K and p70 S6 kinase did result in the concomitant inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3). Leucine enhanced System A transport by approximately 50%. We have shown previously that this stimulation is protein-synthesis-dependent and in the current study we show that it was blocked by both wortmannin and rapamycin. Our findings indicate that PI3K and the mammalian target of rapamycin are components of a nutrient signalling pathway that regulates the activation of p70 S6 kinase and induction of System A in L6 cells. The activation of this pathway by leucine is also responsible for the inactivation of GSK-3

  12. Use of aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, to evaluate the role of nitric oxide in periapical inflammation.

    PubMed

    Farhad, Ali R; Razavi, Seyedmohammad; Jahadi, Sanaz; Saatchi, Masoud

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aminoguanidine (AG) as a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) on the degree of inflammatory response in periapical lesions in the canine teeth of cats. Root canals from 52 cat canine teeth were exposed to the oral cavity and sealed after 7 days. One day before pulp exposure, cats were administered either AG (experimental group) or normal saline (control group), which was continued on a daily basis until the day of sacrifice. Animals were sacrificed at 28 days after pulp exposure. Inflammatory response in the periapical zones was analyzed histologically. The degree of periapical inflammation in the AG group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05). Selective iNOS inhibitors such as AG thus reduce the intensity of inflammatory responses in periapical lesions.

  13. A human fatty acid synthase inhibitor binds β-ketoacyl reductase in the keto-substrate site.

    PubMed

    Hardwicke, Mary Ann; Rendina, Alan R; Williams, Shawn P; Moore, Michael L; Wang, Liping; Krueger, Julie A; Plant, Ramona N; Totoritis, Rachel D; Zhang, Guofeng; Briand, Jacques; Burkhart, William A; Brown, Kristin K; Parrish, Cynthia A

    2014-09-01

    Human fatty acid synthase (hFAS) is a complex, multifunctional enzyme that is solely responsible for the de novo synthesis of long chain fatty acids. hFAS is highly expressed in a number of cancers, with low expression observed in most normal tissues. Although normal tissues tend to obtain fatty acids from the diet, tumor tissues rely on de novo fatty acid synthesis, making hFAS an attractive metabolic target for the treatment of cancer. We describe here the identification of GSK2194069, a potent and specific inhibitor of the β-ketoacyl reductase (KR) activity of hFAS; the characterization of its enzymatic and cellular mechanism of action; and its inhibition of human tumor cell growth. We also present the design of a new protein construct suitable for crystallography, which resulted in what is to our knowledge the first co-crystal structure of the human KR domain and includes a bound inhibitor.

  14. Use of structure-based drug design approaches to obtain novel anthranilic acid acyl carrier protein synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Joseph-McCarthy, Diane; Parris, Kevin; Huang, Adrian; Failli, Amedeo; Quagliato, Dominick; Dushin, Elizabeth Glasfeld; Novikova, Elena; Severina, Elena; Tuckman, Margareta; Petersen, Peter J; Dean, Charles; Fritz, Christian C; Meshulam, Tova; DeCenzo, Maureen; Dick, Larry; McFadyen, Iain J; Somers, William S; Lovering, Frank; Gilbert, Adam M

    2005-12-15

    Acyl carrier protein synthase (AcpS) catalyzes the transfer of the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl group from the coenzyme A to a serine residue in acyl carrier protein (ACP), thereby activating ACP, an important step in cell wall biosynthesis. The structure-based design of novel anthranilic acid inhibitors of AcpS, a potential antibacterial target, is presented. An initial high-throughput screening lead and numerous analogues were modeled into the available AcpS X-ray structure, opportunities for synthetic modification were identified, and an iterative process of synthetic modification, X-ray complex structure determination with AcpS, biological testing, and further modeling ultimately led to potent inhibitors of the enzyme. Four X-ray complex structures of representative anthranilic acid ligands bound to AcpS are described in detail.

  15. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor orlistat reduces experimental metastases and angiogenesis in B16-F10 melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Seguin, F; Carvalho, M A; Bastos, D C; Agostini, M; Zecchin, K G; Alvarez-Flores, M P; Chudzinski-Tavassi, A M; Coletta, R D; Graner, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is overexpressed and associated with poor prognosis in several human cancers. Here, we investigate the effect of FASN inhibitors on the metastatic spread and angiogenesis in experimental melanomas and cultured melanoma cells. Methods: The lung colonisation assay and cutaneous melanomas were performed by the inoculation of mouse melanoma B16-F10 cells in C57BL6 mice. Blood vessel endothelial cells (RAEC and HUVEC) were applied to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, and the formation of capillary-like structures. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) expression was evaluated by quantitative RT–PCR and ELISA in B16-F10, human melanoma (SK-MEL-25), and human oral squamous carcinoma (SCC-9) cells. Conditioned media from these cancer cell lines were used to study the effects of FASN inhibitors on endothelial cells. Results: B16-F10 melanoma-induced metastases and angiogenesis were significantly reduced in orlistat-treated mice. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors reduced the viability, proliferation, and the formation of capillary-like structures by RAEC cells, as well as the tumour cell-mediated formation of HUVEC capillary-like structures. Cerulenin and orlistat stimulated the production of total VEGFA in B16-F10, SK-MEL-25, and SCC-9 cells. Both drugs also enhanced VEGFA121, 165, 189, and 165b in SK-MEL-25 and SCC-9 cells. Conclusion: FASN inhibitors reduce metastasis and tumour-induced angiogenesis in experimental melanomas, and differentially modulate VEGFA expression in B16-F10 cells. PMID:22892389

  16. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bhupesh Sharma, P.M.

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in

  17. L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, as a potential countermeasure to post-suspension hypotension in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayorh, M. A.; Socci, R. R.; Watts, S.; Wang, M.; Eatman, D.; Emmett, N.; Thierry-Palmer, M.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of astronauts returning from spaceflight experience orthostatic hypotension. This hypotension may be due to overproduction of vasodilatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. To evaluate the role of the NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) as a countermeasure against the post-suspension reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP), we assessed the cardiovascular responses and vascular reactivity to 7-day 30 degrees tail-suspension and a subsequent 6 hr post-suspension period in conscious rats. After a pre-suspension reading, direct MAP and heart rate (HR) were measured daily and every 2 hrs post-suspension. The NO synthase inhibitor L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.v.), or saline, were administered after the 7th day reading prior to release from suspension and at 2 and 4 hrs post-suspension. At 6 hrs post-suspension, vascular reactivity was assessed. While MAP did not change during the suspension period, it was reduced post-suspension. Heart rate was not significantly altered. L-NAME administration reversed the post-suspension reduction in MAP. In addition, the baroreflex sensitivity for heart rate was modified by L-NAME. Thus, the post-suspension reduction in MAP may be due to overproduction of NO and altered baroreflex activity.

  18. Effects of the glucolipid synthase inhibitor, P4, on functional and phenotypic parameters of murine myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    Manning, L S; Radin, N S

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the effects of the glucolipid synthase inhibitor P4, (DL-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol), on various functional and phenotypic parameters of 5T33 murine myeloma cells. Cell recovery was reduced by >85% following incubation of the cells for 3 days in the presence of 4 μM P4 (the IC50 concentration). Both cytostatic and cytotoxic inhibition was observed with tumour cell metabolic activity and clonogenic potential reduced to 42% and 14% of controls, respectively, and viability reduced to 52%. A dose-dependent increase in cells undergoing apoptosis (from 7% to 26%) was also found. P4 induced a decrease in the number of cells expressing H-2 Class I and CD44, and a large increase in cells expressing H-2 Class II and the IgG2b paraprotein. It did not affect surface expression of CD45 or CD54 (ICAM-1). Based on these alterations in tumour cell growth, adhesion molecule expression and potential immunogenicity, it is anticipated that P4 will provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple myeloma. In addition, given that essentially all tumours rely heavily on overexpressed or abnormal glucosphingolipids for growth, development and metastasis, glucolipid synthase inhibitors may prove to be universally effective anti-cancer agents. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10576650

  19. Protective effects of a squalene synthase inhibitor, lapaquistat acetate (TAK-475), on statin-induced myotoxicity in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Ishikawa, Eiichiro; Anayama, Hisashi; Hamajyo, Hitomi; Nagai, Hirofumi; Hirakata, Masao; Tozawa, Ryuichi

    2007-08-15

    High-dose statin treatment has been recommended as a primary strategy for aggressive reduction of LDL cholesterol levels and protection against coronary artery disease. The effectiveness of high-dose statins may be limited by their potential for myotoxic side effects. There is currently little known about the molecular mechanisms of statin-induced myotoxicity. Previously we showed that T-91485, an active metabolite of the squalene synthase inhibitor lapaquistat acetate (lapaquistat: a previous name is TAK-475), attenuated statin-induced cytotoxicity in human skeletal muscle cells [Nishimoto, T., Tozawa, R., Amano, Y., Wada, T., Imura, Y., Sugiyama, Y., 2003a. Comparing myotoxic effects of squalene synthase inhibitor, T-91485, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A. Biochem. Pharmacol. 66, 2133-2139]. In the current study, we investigated the effects of lapaquistat administration on statin-induced myotoxicity in vivo. Guinea pigs were treated with either high-dose cerivastatin (1 mg/kg) or cerivastatin together with lapaquistat (30 mg/kg) for 14 days. Treatment with cerivastatin alone decreased plasma cholesterol levels by 45% and increased creatine kinase (CK) levels by more than 10-fold (a marker of myotoxicity). The plasma CK levels positively correlated with the severity of skeletal muscle lesions as assessed by histopathology. Co-administration of lapaquistat almost completely prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity. Administration of mevalonolactone (100 mg/kg b.i.d.) prevented the cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity, confirming that this effect is directly related to HMG-CoA reductase inhibition. These results strongly suggest that cerivastatin-induced myotoxicity is due to depletion of mevalonate derived isoprenoids. In addition, squalene synthase inhibition could potentially be used clinically to prevent statin-induced myopathy.

  20. The current state of resistance to acetohydroxyacid/acetolactate synthase inhibitors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The acetohydroxyacid/acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides are used for weed management in multiple crop and non-crop situations. Herbicides with this mechanism of action were introduced in the early 1980s and quickly came to dominate many cropping situations due to their broad spectrum...

  1. Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhupesh; Sharma, P M

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate & brain GSH levels along with increase in serum & brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. © 2013.

  2. Stereocontrolled Synthesis of a Potential Transition-State Inhibitor of the Salicylate Synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zheng; Liu, Feng; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators (siderophores) produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) for iron mobilization. The bifunctional salicylate synthase MbtI catalyzes the first step of mycobactin biosynthesis through the conversion of the primary metabolite chorismate into salicylic acid via isochorismate. We report the design, synthesis and biochemical evaluation of an inhibitor based on the putative transition-state (TS) for the isochorismatase partial reaction of MbtI. The inhibitor mimics the hypothesized charge build-up at C-4 of chorismate in the TS as well as C-O bond-formation at C-6. Another important design element of the inhibitor is replacement of the labile pyruvate side-chain in chorismate with a stable C-linked propionate isostere. We developed a stereocontrolled synthesis of the highly functionalized cyclohexene inhibitor that features an asymmetric aldol reaction using a titanium enolate, diastereoselective Grignard addition to a tert-butanesulfinyl aldimine, and ring closing olefin metathesis as key steps. PMID:26035083

  3. Novel 2,4-Disubstituted Pyrimidines as Potent, Selective, and Cell-Permeable Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Selective inhibition of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an important therapeutic approach to target neurodegenerative disorders. However, the majority of the nNOS inhibitors developed are arginine mimetics and, therefore, suffer from poor bioavailability. We designed a novel strategy to combine a more pharmacokinetically favorable 2-imidazolylpyrimidine head with promising structural components from previous inhibitors. In conjunction with extensive structure–activity studies, several highly potent and selective inhibitors of nNOS were discovered. X-ray crystallographic analysis reveals that these type II inhibitors utilize the same hydrophobic pocket to gain strong inhibitory potency (13), as well as high isoform selectivity. Interestingly, select compounds from this series (9) showed good permeability and low efflux in a Caco-2 assay, suggesting potential oral bioavailability, and exhibited minimal off-target binding to 50 central nervous system receptors. Furthermore, even with heme-coordinating groups in the molecule, modifying other pharmacophoric fragments minimized undesirable inhibition of cytochrome P450s from human liver microsomes. PMID:25489882

  4. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    SciTech Connect

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-03-01

    In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of spermidine synthase from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5′-methylthioadenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethylaniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS.

  5. Three-dimensional structures of Plasmodium falciparum spermidine synthase with bound inhibitors suggest new strategies for drug design

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Janina; Svensson, Bo; Hålander, Jenny; Carey, Jannette; Persson, Lo; Al-Karadaghi, Salam

    2015-01-01

    The enzymes of the polyamine-biosynthesis pathway have been proposed to be promising drug targets in the treatment of malaria. Spermidine synthase (SpdS; putrescine aminopropyltransferase) catalyzes the transfer of the aminopropyl moiety from decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine to putrescine, leading to the formation of spermidine and 5′-methylthio­adenosine (MTA). In this work, X-ray crystallography was used to examine ligand complexes of SpdS from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum (PfSpdS). Five crystal structures were determined of PfSpdS in complex with MTA and the substrate putrescine, with MTA and spermidine, which was obtained as a result of the enzymatic reaction taking place within the crystals, with dcAdoMet and the inhibitor 4-methylaniline, with MTA and 4-aminomethyl­aniline, and with a compound predicted in earlier in silico screening to bind to the active site of the enzyme, benzimidazol-(2-yl)pentan-1-amine (BIPA). In contrast to the other inhibitors tested, the complex with BIPA was obtained without any ligand bound to the dcAdoMet-binding site of the enzyme. The complexes with the aniline compounds and BIPA revealed a new mode of ligand binding to PfSpdS. The observed binding mode of the ligands, and the interplay between the two substrate-binding sites and the flexible gatekeeper loop, can be used in the design of new approaches in the search for new inhibitors of SpdS. PMID:25760598

  6. A nanotherapy strategy significantly enhances anticryptosporidial activity of an inhibitor of bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase from Cryptosporidium.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, Anindita; Iyidogan, Pinar; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Cisneros, José A; Czyzyk, Daniel; Ranjan, Amalendu Prakash; Jorgensen, William L; White, A Clinton; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K; Anderson, Karen S

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by protozoans of the genus Cryptosporidium, is a common cause of diarrheal diseases and often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Bifunctional thymidylate synthase-dihydrofolate reductase (TS-DHFR) from Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) has been a molecular target for inhibitor design. C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitors with nM potency at a biochemical level have been developed however drug delivery to achieve comparable antiparasitic activity in Cryptosporidium infected cell culture has been a major hurdle for designing effective therapies. Previous mechanistic and structural studies have identified compound 906 as a nM C. hominis TS-DHFR inhibitor in vitro, having μM antiparasitic activity in cell culture. In this work, proof of concept studies are presented using a nanotherapy approach to improve drug delivery and the antiparasitic activity of 906 in cell culture. We utilized PLGA nanoparticles that were loaded with 906 (NP-906) and conjugated with antibodies to the Cryptosporidium specific protein, CP2, on the nanoparticle surface in order to specifically target the parasite. Our results indicate that CP2 labeled NP-906 (CP2-NP-906) reduces the level of parasites by 200-fold in cell culture, while NP-906 resulted in 4.4-fold decrease. Moreover, the anticryptosporidial potency of 906 improved 15 to 78-fold confirming the utility of the antibody conjugated nanoparticles as an effective drug delivery strategy.

  7. TOWARDS A TREATMENT FOR DIABETIC RETINOPATHY: Intravitreal Toxicity and Preclinical Safety Evaluation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Carr, B Cameron; Emigh, Caitlyn E; Bennett, Lea D; Pansick, Andrew D; Birch, David G; Nguyen, Chan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a single intravitreal injection of aminoguanidine and 1400W, 2 inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase, in rabbit eyes. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase has already been shown to be beneficial in various animal models of diabetic eye disease. Groups of 4 New Zealand white rabbits were injected with balanced salt solution in the right eye and a single dose of either aminoguanidine (5, 1, 0.25 mg) or 1400W (2 mg and 0.4 mg) in the left eye. Toxicity was assessed by slit-lamp and fundus examination, intraocular pressure and pachymetric measurements, and electrophysiologic and histologic analysis. Eyes injected with high doses of aminoguanidine (5 mg) or 1400W (2 mg) demonstrated severe retinal vascular attenuation and infarction. Lower doses of intravitreal aminoguanidine (1 mg) and 1400W (0.4 mg) caused no significant toxic ocular effects in rabbit eyes. If the difference in vitreal volume between rabbit eyes and human eyes is taken into account, aminoguanidine (2.7 mg) and 1400W (1 mg) would be reasonable intravitreal doses to test for safety and efficacy in early clinical trials.

  8. Pyrazinamide, but not pyrazinoic acid, is a competitive inhibitor of NADPH binding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I.

    PubMed

    Sayahi, Halimah; Zimhony, Oren; Jacobs, William R; Shekhtman, Alexander; Welch, John T

    2011-08-15

    Pyrazinamide (PZA), an essential component of short-course anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy, was shown by Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) NMR methods to act as a competitive inhibitor of NADPH binding to purified Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I (FAS I). Both PZA and pyrazinoic acid (POA) reversibly bind to FAS I but at different binding sites. The competitive binding of PZA and NADPH suggests potential FAS I binding sites. POA was not previously known to have any specific binding interactions. The STD NMR of NADPH bound to the mycobacterial FAS I was consistent with the orientation reported in published single crystal X-ray diffraction studies of fungal FAS I. Overall the differences in binding between PZA and POA are consistent with previous recognition of the importance of intracellular accumulation of POA for anti-mycobacterial activity.

  9. Characterization of 3,3-dimethyl substituted N-aryl piperidines as potent microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kuklish, Steven L; Antonysamy, Stephen; Bhattachar, Shobha N; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Fretland, Adrian J; Gooding, Karen; Harvey, Anita; Hughes, Norman E; Luz, John G; Manninen, Peter R; McGee, James E; Navarro, Antonio; Norman, Bryan H; Partridge, Katherine M; Quimby, Steven J; Schiffler, Matthew A; Sloan, Ashley V; Warshawsky, Alan M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Here we report on novel, potent 3,3-dimethyl substituted N-aryl piperidine inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthases-1(mPGES-1). Example 14 potently inhibited PGE2 synthesis in an ex vivo human whole blood (HWB) assay with an IC50 of 7nM. In addition, 14 had no activity in human COX-1 or COX-2 assays at 30μM, and failed to inhibit human mPGES-2 at 62.5μM in a microsomal prep assay. These data are consistent with selective mPGES-1-mediated reduction of PGE2. In dog, 14 had oral bioavailability (74%), clearance (3.62mL/(min*kg)) and volume of distribution (Vd,ss=1.6L/kg) values within our target ranges. For these reasons, 14 was selected for further study.

  10. Inhibitors of the Salicylate Synthase (MbtI) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis Discovered by High-Throughput Screening

    PubMed Central

    Vasan, Mahalakshmi; Neres, João; Williams, Jessica; Wilson, Daniel J.; Teitelbaum, Aaron M.; Remmel, Rory P.; Aldrich, Courtney C.

    2010-01-01

    A simple steady-state kinetic high-throughput assay was developed for the salicylate synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis. The mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators produced by M. tuberculosis, and their biosynthesis has been identified as a promising target for the development of new antitubercular agents. The assay was miniaturized to a 384-well plate format and high-throughput screening was performed at the National Screening Laboratory for the Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (NSRB). Three classes of compounds were identified comprising the benzisothiazolones (class I), diarylsulfones (class II), and benzimidazole-2-thiones (class III). Each of these compound series was further pursued to investigate their biochemical mechanism and structure–activity relationships. Benzimidazole-2-thione 4 emerged as the most promising inhibitor owing to its potent reversible inhibition. PMID:21053346

  11. Inhibitors of the salicylate synthase (MbtI) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis discovered by high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Mahalakshmi; Neres, João; Williams, Jessica; Wilson, Daniel J; Teitelbaum, Aaron M; Remmel, Rory P; Aldrich, Courtney C

    2010-12-03

    A simple steady-state kinetic high-throughput assay was developed for the salicylate synthase MbtI from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which catalyzes the first committed step of mycobactin biosynthesis. The mycobactins are small-molecule iron chelators produced by M. tuberculosis, and their biosynthesis has been identified as a promising target for the development of new antitubercular agents. The assay was miniaturized to a 384-well plate format and high-throughput screening was performed at the National Screening Laboratory for the Regional Centers of Excellence in Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases (NSRB). Three classes of compounds were identified comprising the benzisothiazolones (class I), diarylsulfones (class II), and benzimidazole-2-thiones (class III). Each of these compound series was further pursued to investigate their biochemical mechanism and structure-activity relationships. Benzimidazole-2-thione 4 emerged as the most promising inhibitor owing to its potent reversible inhibition.

  12. Design and structure-activity relationships of potent and selective inhibitors of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS): tetramic, tetronic acids and dihydropyridin-2-ones.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Stefan; Sun, Yingchuan; Zhang, Rui; Hurley, Brian; Sabio, Mike; Shen, Xiaoyu; Gray, Christen; Dzink-Fox, JoAnn; Tao, Jianshi; Cebula, Regina; Wattanasin, Sompong

    2008-03-15

    Based on a pharmacophore hypothesis substituted tetramic and tetronic acid 3-carboxamides as well as dihydropyridin-2-one-3-carboxamides were investigated as inhibitors of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthase (UPPS) for use as novel antimicrobial agents. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship patterns for this class of compounds are discussed. Selectivity data and antibacterial activities for selected compounds are provided.

  13. Effect of inhibitors of inducible and neuronal NO synthases on the development of audiogenic stress-induced damage in Krushinskii-Molodkina rats.

    PubMed

    Krushinskii, A L; Kuzenkov, V S; D'yakonova, V E; Reutov, V P

    2010-12-01

    Experiments on the models of epileptiform seizure and hemorrhagic stroke (Krushinskii-Molodkina rats) showed that selective inhibitors of inducible and neuronal NO synthases (aminoguanidine and 7-nitroindazole) significantly decrease the mortality rate, reduce the severity of motor disorders, and prevent the development of intracranial hemorrhages under conditions of audiogenic stress.

  14. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin and feeding, like leptin, activate hypothalamic pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons.

    PubMed

    Shu, I-Wei; Lindenberg, Daniel L; Mizuno, Tooru M; Roberts, James L; Mobbs, Charles V

    2003-09-19

    Hypothalamic POMC neurons mediate catabolic responses such as decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure by, in part, monitoring levels of metabolic factors such as glucose, insulin and leptin. Recently, fatty acid synthase inhibitors were reported to reduce body weight, inhibit food intake, and increase metabolic rate, possibly by acting on hypothalamic neurons through a mechanism involving malonyl-CoA accumulation. Given the observation that leptin mediates similar catabolic effects by, in part, activating hypothalamic POMC neurons, it is possible that other catabolic signals such as feeding and fatty acid synthase inhibition may also activate POMC neurons. To test this hypothesis, hypothalamic sections from mice that were fed or injected with the fatty acid synthase inhibitor cerulenin were examined for Fos (a marker for neuronal activation) and POMC product immunoreactivity and compared with similarly processed sections from leptin-injected mice. Feeding increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral peri-arcuate area of the hypothalamus of both wild-type and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice (P<0.05), indicating that nutritional activation of the hypothalamus can be leptin-independent. Furthermore, feeding significantly induced Fos immunoreactivity in neurons expressing POMC (P<0.003), indicating that feeding, like leptin, activates POMC neurons. Injection with cerulenin, like feeding and leptin, also increased Fos immunoreactivity in the lateral peri-arcuate area (P<0.03) and, more specifically, in neurons expressing POMC. In contrast, injection with cerulenin had no grossly observable effects on cortical Fos immunoreactivity and appeared to suppress fasting-induced Fos immunoreactivity by about 35% (although the decrease did not reach statistical significance) in the medial arcuate nucleus, an area associated with anabolic responses such as increased food intake. Injection with cerulenin also decreased Fos immunoreactivity in the granular layer of the

  15. Fatty acid synthase inhibitors induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic melan-a cells associated with inhibition of mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Franco A; Zecchin, Karina G; La Guardia, Paolo G; Ortega, Rose M; Alberici, Luciane C; Costa, Rute A P; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F; Vercesi, Aníbal E

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat induce

  16. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Non-Tumorigenic Melan-A Cells Associated with Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration

    PubMed Central

    Rossato, Franco A.; Zecchin, Karina G.; La Guardia, Paolo G.; Ortega, Rose M.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Costa, Rute A. P.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F.; Vercesi, Aníbal E.

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat

  17. Pharmacological characterization of KLYP961, a dual inhibitor of inducible and neuronal nitric-oxide synthases.

    PubMed

    Symons, Kent T; Nguyen, Phan M; Massari, Mark E; Anzola, John V; Staszewski, Lena M; Wang, Li; Yazdani, Nahid; Dorow, Steven; Muhammad, Jerry; Sablad, Marciano; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Bonefous, Celine; Payne, Joseph E; Rix, Peter J; Shiau, Andrew K; Noble, Stewart A; Smith, Nicholas D; Hassig, Christian A; Zhang, Yan; Rao, Tadimeti S

    2011-02-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) plays a key role in various pain and inflammatory states. KLYP961 (4-((2-cyclobutyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyrazin-1-yl)methyl)-7,8-difluoroquinolin-2(1H)-one) inhibits the dimerization, and hence the enzymatic activity of human, primate, and murine iNOS and nNOS (IC(50) values 50-400 nM), with marked selectivity against endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (IC(50) >15,000 nM). It has ideal drug like-properties, including excellent rodent and primate pharmacokinetics coupled with a minimal off-target activity profile. In mice, KLYP961 attenuated endotoxin-evoked increases in plasma nitrates, a surrogate marker of iNOS activity in vivo, in a sustained manner (ED(50) 1 mg/kg p.o.). KLYP961 attenuated pain behaviors in a mouse formalin model (ED(50) 13 mg/kg p.o.), cold allodynia in the chronic constriction injury model (ED(50) 25 mg/kg p.o.), or tactile allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation model (ED(50) 30 mg/kg p.o.) with similar efficacy, but superior potency relative to gabapentin, pregabalin, or duloxetine. Unlike morphine, the antiallodynic activity of KLYP961 did not diminish upon repeated dosing. KLYP961 also attenuated carrageenin-induced edema and inflammatory hyperalgesia and writhing response elicited by phenylbenzoquinone with efficacy and potency similar to those of celecoxib. In contrast to gabapentin, KLYP961 did not impair motor coordination at doses as high as 1000 mg/kg p.o. KLYP961 also attenuated capsaicin-induced thermal allodynia in rhesus primates in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose (≤ 10 mg/kg p.o.) and a greater potency than gabapentin. In summary, KLYP961 represents an ideal tool with which to probe the physiological role of NO derived from iNOS and nNOS in human pain and inflammatory states.

  18. A small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor increases localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase to the macrophage phagosome and enhances bacterial killing.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Kristin M; Perry, Jeffrey W; Wobus, Christiane E; Donato, Nicholas J; Showalter, Hollis D; Kapuria, Vaibhav; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2011-12-01

    Macrophages are key mediators of antimicrobial defense and innate immunity. Innate intracellular defense mechanisms can be rapidly regulated at the posttranslational level by the coordinated addition and removal of ubiquitin by ubiquitin ligases and deubiquitinases (DUBs). While ubiquitin ligases have been extensively studied, the contribution of DUBs to macrophage innate immune function is incompletely defined. We therefore employed a small molecule DUB inhibitor, WP1130, to probe the role of DUBs in the macrophage response to bacterial infection. Treatment of activated bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) with WP1130 significantly augmented killing of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. WP1130 also induced killing of phagosome-restricted bacteria, implicating a bactericidal mechanism associated with the phagosome, such as the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). WP1130 had a minimal antimicrobial effect in macrophages lacking iNOS, indicating that iNOS is an effector mechanism for WP1130-mediated bacterial killing. Although overall iNOS levels were not notably different, we found that WP1130 significantly increased colocalization of iNOS with the Listeria-containing phagosome during infection. Taken together, our data indicate that the deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 increases bacterial killing in macrophages by enhancing iNOS localization to the phagosome and suggest a potential role for ubiquitin regulation in iNOS trafficking.

  19. Catechol-based substrates of chalcone synthase as a scaffold for novel inhibitors of PqsD.

    PubMed

    Allegretta, Giuseppe; Weidel, Elisabeth; Empting, Martin; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2015-01-27

    A new strategy for treating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections could be disrupting the Pseudomonas Quinolone Signal (PQS) quorum sensing (QS) system. The goal is to impair communication among the cells and, hence, reduce the expression of virulence factors and the formation of biofilms. PqsD is an essential enzyme for the synthesis of PQS and shares some features with chalcone synthase (CHS2), an enzyme expressed in Medicago sativa. Both proteins are quite similar concerning the size of the active site, the catalytic residues and the electrostatic surface potential at the entrance of the substrate tunnel. Hence, we evaluated selected substrates of the vegetable enzyme as potential inhibitors of the bacterial protein. This similarity-guided approach led to the identification of a new class of PqsD inhibitors having a catechol structure as an essential feature for activity, a saturated linker with two or more carbons and an ester moiety bearing bulky substituents. The developed compounds showed PqsD inhibition with IC50 values in the single-digit micromolar range. The binding mode of these compounds was investigated by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments revealing that their interaction with the protein is not influenced by the presence of the anthranilic acid bound to active site cysteine. Importantly, some compounds reduced the signal molecule production in cellulo.

  20. Phenyl Ether- and Aniline-Containing 2-Aminoquinolines as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Maris A; Li, Huiying; Pensa, Anthony V; Kang, Soosung; Roman, Linda J; Martásek, Pavel; Poulos, Thomas L; Silverman, Richard B

    2015-11-12

    Excess nitric oxide (NO) produced by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, inhibition of nNOS and reduction of NO levels is desirable therapeutically, but many nNOS inhibitors are poorly bioavailable. Promising members of our previously reported 2-aminoquinoline class of nNOS inhibitors, although orally bioavailable and brain-penetrant, suffer from unfavorable off-target binding to other CNS receptors, and they resemble known promiscuous binders. Rearranged phenyl ether- and aniline-linked 2-aminoquinoline derivatives were therefore designed to (a) disrupt the promiscuous binding pharmacophore and diminish off-target interactions and (b) preserve potency, isoform selectivity, and cell permeability. A series of these compounds was synthesized and tested against purified nNOS, endothelial NOS (eNOS), and inducible NOS (iNOS) enzymes. One compound, 20, displayed high potency, selectivity, and good human nNOS inhibition, and retained some permeability in a Caco-2 assay. Most promisingly, CNS receptor counterscreening revealed that this rearranged scaffold significantly reduces off-target binding.

  1. Intracellular quantitative detection of human thymidylate synthase engagement with an unconventional inhibitor using tetracysteine-diarsenical-probe technology

    PubMed Central

    Ponterini, Glauco; Martello, Andrea; Pavesi, Giorgia; Lauriola, Angela; Luciani, Rosaria; Santucci, Matteo; Pelà, Michela; Gozzi, Gaia; Pacifico, Salvatore; Guerrini, Remo; Marverti, Gaetano; Costi, Maria Paola; D’Arca, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Demonstrating a candidate drug’s interaction with its target protein in live cells is of pivotal relevance to the successful outcome of the drug discovery process. Although thymidylate synthase (hTS) is an important anticancer target protein, the efficacy of the few anti-hTS drugs currently used in clinical practice is limited by the development of resistance. Hence, there is an intense search for new, unconventional anti-hTS drugs; there are approximately 1600 ongoing clinical trials involving hTS-targeting drugs, both alone and in combination protocols. We recently discovered new, unconventional peptidic inhibitors of hTS that are active against cancer cells and do not result in the overexpression of hTS, which is a known molecular source of resistance. Here, we propose an adaptation of the recently proposed tetracysteine-arsenic-binding-motif technology to detect and quantitatively characterize the engagement of hTS with one such peptidic inhibitor in cell lysates. This new model can be developed into a test for high-throughput screening studies of intracellular target-protein/small-molecule binding. PMID:27250901

  2. In vitro efficacy of acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibitors against clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from a hospital in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Mei; Wang, Di; Jiang, Ying; Zhao, Li; Yang, Caie; Wu, Chun

    2011-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis from China, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) strains. In this study, the tube dilution method and Middlebrook 7H10 agar media were used to describe the in vitro efficacy of 3 AHAS inhibitors (sulfometuron methyl, monosulfuron, and monosulfuron-ester) against H37Rv and 26 clinical isolates, which include MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains, from the 309th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA 309), Beijing, China. Cytotoxity of these compounds were then evaluated using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl]-2,5-dipheny tetrazolium bromide assay with HBE cells. All the experiments were performed from January 2010 to November 2010 in the Department of Clinical Laboratory of the PLA 309 hospital. Sulfometuron methyl (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] range, 8-16 mg/L), monosulfuron-ester (MIC range, 8-16 mg/L), and monosulfuron (MIC range, 16-64 mg/L) showed significant activity against all Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains tested in this study in vitro, and they exhibited the same degree of activity against MDR and XDR isolates with that shown against the susceptible strains. All 3 compounds showed little cytotoxicity, with an IC50 against HBE cells greater than 300 mg/L. The results suggest that AHAS could serve as a target protein for the development of novel anti-TB therapeutics in China.

  3. Pharmacophore Modeling and Virtual Screening for Novel Acidic Inhibitors of Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1 (mPGES-1)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1 (mPGES-1) catalyzes prostaglandin E2 formation and is considered as a potential anti-inflammatory pharmacological target. To identify novel chemical scaffolds active on this enzyme, two pharmacophore models for acidic mPGES-1 inhibitors were developed and theoretically validated using information on mPGES-1 inhibitors from literature. The models were used to screen chemical databases supplied from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Specs. Out of 29 compounds selected for biological evaluation, nine chemically diverse compounds caused concentration-dependent inhibition of mPGES-1 activity in a cell-free assay with IC50 values between 0.4 and 7.9 μM, respectively. Further pharmacological characterization revealed that also 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) was inhibited by most of these active compounds in cell-free and cell-based assays with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. Together, nine novel chemical scaffolds inhibiting mPGES-1 are presented that may possess anti-inflammatory properties based on the interference with eicosanoid biosynthesis. PMID:21466167

  4. Effects of an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor on phorbol myristate acetate-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Wang, David; Chen, Hsing I; Hsu, Kang

    2003-01-01

    1. In the present study, we determined whether the endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) inhibitor Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) could ameliorate the acute lung injury (ALI) induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in rat isolated lung. 2. Typical ALI was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. At 2 micro g/kg, PMA elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/bodyweight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. 3. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (5 mmol/L) significantly attenuated ALI. None of the parameters reflective of lung injury showed significant increase, except for PAP (P < 0.001). The addition of l-arginine (4 mmol/L) blocked the protective effective of l-NAME. Pretreatment with l-arginine exacerbated PMA-induced lung injury. 4. These data suggest that l-NAME significantly ameliorates ALI induced by PMA in rats, indicating that endogenous NO plays a key role in the development of lung oedema in PMA-induced lung injury.

  5. The potent inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ONO-1714 inhibits neuronal NOS and exerts antinociception in rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Mita, Yoko; Kamanaka, Yoshihisa; Kawao, Naoyuki; Matsuya, Hidekazu; Taga, Chiyomi; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2004-07-22

    We evaluated if ONO-1714, known as an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, could inhibit neuronal NOS (nNOS) and exert antinociception. ONO-1714 potently inhibited both crude rat cerebellar NOS and recombinant human nNOS in vitro. Systemic ONO-1714 at 1-10 mg/kg suppressed carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia in rats, an effect being equivalent to the antinociception caused by L-NAME or 7-nitroindazole at 25 mg/kg. The same doses of ONO-1714 also caused hypertension. Intrathecal (i.t.) ONO-1714 potently reduced the hyperalgesia, the effective dose range (0.2-0.6 microg/rat) being much lower than the antinociceptive dose (150 microg/rat) of i.t. L-NAME. Thus, ONO-1714 is considered a potent inhibitor of nNOS in addition to iNOS. The distinct relative antinociceptive activities of systemic and i.t. ONO-1714 are attributable to its possible poor blood-brain barrier permeability.

  6. Decreased spontaneous motor activity and startle response in nitric oxide synthase inhibitor-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Sandi, C; Venero, C; Guaza, C

    1995-04-13

    In the central nervous system, nitric oxide has been proposed to be a retrograde messenger mediating learning and synaptic plasticity. Since only pretraining injections of nitric oxide synthesis inhibitors were shown to impair learning, we examined the possibility that systemic administration of these inhibitors might influence some non-specific aspects related to the organism's general psychophysiological status. Intraperitoneal administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (30 or 100 mg/kg) 60 min pre-test to adult rats resulted in: (i) altered exploratory pattern and reduced locomotion in a novel environment; (ii) reduced startle response to either acoustic or electric stimuli; and (iii) cardiovascular alterations. In addition, intracerebroventricular administration of N-nitro-L-arginine (10 microliters of a 10 mM solution) diminished the acoustic startle response. Specificity of these effects through nitric oxide was supported by the ability of the nitric oxide precursor, L-arginine, to prevent the inhibitors actions. These findings indicate that nitric oxide inhibitors interfere with the general psychophysiological status of the organism.

  7. KLYP956 is a non-imidazole-based orally active inhibitor of nitric-oxide synthase dimerization.

    PubMed

    Symons, Kent T; Massari, Mark E; Nguyen, Phan M; Lee, Tom T; Roppe, Jeffrey; Bonnefous, Céline; Payne, Joseph E; Smith, Nicholas D; Noble, Stewart A; Sablad, Marciano; Rozenkrants, Natasha; Zhang, Yan; Rao, Tadimeti S; Shiau, Andrew K; Hassig, Christian A

    2009-07-01

    Nitric-oxide synthases (NOS) generate nitric oxide (NO) through the oxidation of l-arginine. Inappropriate or excessive production of NO by NOS is associated with the pathophysiology of various disease states. Efforts to treat these disorders by developing arginine mimetic, substrate-competitive NOS inhibitors as drugs have met with little success. Small-molecule-mediated inhibition of NOS dimerization represents an intriguing alternative to substrate-competitive inhibition. An ultra-high-throughput cell-based screen of 880,000 small molecules identified a novel quinolinone with inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitory activity. Exploratory chemistry based on this initial screening hit resulted in the synthesis of KLYP956, which inhibits iNOS at low nanomolar concentrations. The iNOS inhibitory potency of KLYP956 is insensitive to changes in concentrations of the substrate arginine, or the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin. Mechanistic analysis suggests that KLYP956 binds the oxygenase domain in the vicinity of the active site heme and inhibits iNOS and neuronal NOS (nNOS) by preventing the formation of enzymatically active dimers. Oral administration of KLYP956 [N-(3-chlorophenyl)-N-((8-fluoro-2-oxo-1,2-dihydroquinolin-4-yl)methyl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxamide] inhibits iNOS activity in a murine model of endotoxemia and blocks pain behaviors in a formalin model of nociception. KLYP956 thus represents the first nonimidazole-based inhibitor of iNOS and nNOS dimerization and provides a novel pharmaceutical alternative to previously described substrate competitive inhibitors.

  8. The Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor Platensimycin Improves Insulin Resistance without Inducing Liver Steatosis in Mice and Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Nawrocki, Andrea R.; Zhou, Dan; Wu, Margaret; Previs, Stephen; Miller, Corey; Liu, Haiying; Hines, Catherine D. G.; Madeira, Maria; Cao, Jin; Herath, Kithsiri; Wang, Liangsu; Kelley, David E.; Li, Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and enhanced glucose oxidation, which in turn led to net reduction of liver triglycerides (TG), reduced ambient glucose, and improved insulin sensitivity. The present study was conducted to explore translatability and the therapeutic potential of FAS inhibition for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Methods We tested PTM in animal models with different DNL tones, i.e. intrinsic synthesis rates, which vary among species and are regulated by nutritional and disease states, and confirmed glucose-lowering efficacy of PTM in lean NHPs with quantitation of liver lipid by MRS imaging. To understand the direct effect of PTM on liver metabolism, we performed ex vivo liver perfusion study to compare FAS inhibitor and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) inhibitor. Results The efficacy of PTM is generally reproduced in preclinical models with DNL tones comparable to humans, including lean and established diet-induced obese (eDIO) mice as well as non-human primates (NHPs). Similar effects of PTM on DNL reduction were observed in lean and type 2 diabetic rhesus and lean cynomolgus monkeys after acute and chronic treatment of PTM. Mechanistically, PTM lowers plasma glucose in part by enhancing hepatic glucose uptake and glycolysis. Teglicar, a CPT1 inhibitor, has similar effects on glucose uptake and glycolysis. In sharp contrast, Teglicar but not PTM significantly increased hepatic TG production, thus caused liver steatosis in eDIO mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrate unique properties of PTM and provide proof-of-concept of FAS inhibition having potential utility for the treatment of diabetes and related metabolic

  9. Discovery and characterization of [(cyclopentyl)ethyl]benzoic acid inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1.

    PubMed

    Partridge, Katherine M; Antonysamy, Stephen; Bhattachar, Shobha N; Chandrasekhar, Srinivasan; Fisher, Matthew J; Fretland, Adrian; Gooding, Karen; Harvey, Anita; Hughes, Norman E; Kuklish, Steven L; Luz, John G; Manninen, Peter R; McGee, James E; Mudra, Daniel R; Navarro, Antonio; Norman, Bryan H; Quimby, Steven J; Schiffler, Matthew A; Sloan, Ashley V; Warshawsky, Alan M; Weller, Jennifer M; York, Jeremy S; Yu, Xiao-Peng

    2017-03-15

    We describe a novel class of acidic mPGES-1 inhibitors with nanomolar enzymatic and human whole blood (HWB) potency. Rational design in conjunction with structure-based design led initially to the identification of anthranilic acid 5, an mPGES-1 inhibitor with micromolar HWB potency. Structural modifications of 5 improved HWB potency by over 1000×, reduced CYP2C9 single point inhibition, and improved rat clearance, which led to the selection of [(cyclopentyl)ethyl]benzoic acid compound 16 for clinical studies. Compound 16 showed an IC80 of 24nM for inhibition of PGE2 formation in vitro in LPS-stimulated HWB. A single oral dose resulted in plasma concentrations of 16 that exceeded its HWB IC80 in both rat (5mg/kg) and dog (3mg/kg) for over twelve hours.

  10. 9-Hydroxycanthin-6-one, a β-Carboline Alkaloid from Eurycoma longifolia, Is the First Wnt Signal Inhibitor through Activation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β without Depending on Casein Kinase 1α.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Kensuke; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Koyano, Takashi; Kowithayakorn, Thaworn; Mizoguchi, Takamasa; Itoh, Motoyuki; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-05-22

    Wnt signaling regulates various processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and embryo development. However, numerous diseases have been attributed to the aberrant transduction of Wnt signaling. We screened a plant extract library targeting TCF/β-catenin transcriptional modulating activity with a cell-based luciferase assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of the E. longifolia root led to the isolation of 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one (1). Compound 1 exhibited TCF/β-catenin inhibitory activity. Compound 1 decreased the expression of Wnt signal target genes, mitf and zic2a, in zebrafish embryos. Treatment of SW480 cells with 1 decreased β-catenin and increased phosphorylated β-catenin (Ser 33, 37, Tyr 41) protein levels. The degradation of β-catenin by 1 was suppressed by GSK3β-siRNA, while compound 1 decreased β-catenin even in the presence of CK1α-siRNA. These results suggest that 1 inhibits Wnt signaling through the activation of GSK3β independent of CK1α.

  11. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sadowski, Martin C; Pouwer, Rebecca H; Gunter, Jennifer H; Lubik, Amy A; Quinn, Ronald J; Nelson, Colleen C

    2014-10-15

    Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular effects of triclosan in a panel of eight malignant and non-malignant prostate cell lines to the well-known FASN inhibitors C75 and orlistat, which target different partial catalytic activities of FASN. Triclosan displayed a superior cytotoxic profile with a several-fold lower IC50 than C75 or orlistat. Structure-function analysis revealed that alcohol functionality of the parent phenol is critical for inhibitory action. Rescue experiments confirmed that end product starvation was a major cause of cytotoxicity. Importantly, triclosan, C75 and orlistat induced distinct changes to morphology, cell cycle, lipid content and the expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism, demonstrating that inhibition of different partial catalytic activities of FASN activates different metabolic pathways. These finding combined with its well-documented pharmacological safety profile make triclosan a promising drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  12. Discovery of Bacterial Fatty Acid Synthase Type II Inhibitors Using a Novel Cellular Bioluminescent Reporter Assay

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Joselynn; Bowlin, Nicholas O.; Mills, Debra M.; Saenkham, Panatda; Kwasny, Steven M.; Opperman, Timothy J.; Williams, John D.; Rock, Charles O.; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel, cellular, gain-of-signal, bioluminescent reporter assays for fatty acid synthesis type II (FASII) inhibitors were constructed in an efflux-deficient strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and based on the discovery that FASII genes in P. aeruginosa are coordinately upregulated in response to pathway disruption. A screen of 115,000 compounds identified a series of sulfonamidobenzamide (SABA) analogs, which generated strong luminescent signals in two FASII reporter strains but not in four control reporter strains designed to respond to inhibitors of pathways other than FASII. The SABA analogs selectively inhibited lipid biosynthesis in P. aeruginosa and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity to mammalian cells (50% cytotoxic concentration [CC50] ≥ 80 μM). The most potent SABA analogs had MICs of 0.5 to 7.0 μM (0.2 to 3.0 μg/ml) against an efflux-deficient Escherichia coli (ΔtolC) strain but had no detectable MIC against efflux-proficient E. coli or against P. aeruginosa (efflux deficient or proficient). Genetic, molecular genetic, and biochemical studies revealed that SABA analogs target the enzyme (AccC) catalyzing the biotin carboxylase half-reaction of the acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase step in the initiation phase of FASII in E. coli and P. aeruginosa. These results validate the capability and the sensitivity of this novel bioluminescent reporter screen to identify inhibitors of E. coli and P. aeruginosa FASII. PMID:26169404

  13. The fatty acid synthase inhibitor triclosan: repurposing an anti-microbial agent for targeting prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin C.; Pouwer, Rebecca H.; Gunter, Jennifer H.; Lubik, Amy A.; Quinn, Ronald J.; Nelson, Colleen C.

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of FASN has emerged as a promising therapeutic target in cancer, and numerous inhibitors have been investigated. However, severe pharmacological limitations have challenged their clinical testing. The synthetic FASN inhibitor triclosan, which was initially developed as a topical antibacterial agent, is merely affected by these pharmacological limitations. Yet, little is known about its mechanism in inhibiting the growth of cancer cells. Here we compared the cellular and molecular effects of triclosan in a panel of eight malignant and non-malignant prostate cell lines to the well-known FASN inhibitors C75 and orlistat, which target different partial catalytic activities of FASN. Triclosan displayed a superior cytotoxic profile with a several-fold lower IC50 than C75 or orlistat. Structure-function analysis revealed that alcohol functionality of the parent phenol is critical for inhibitory action. Rescue experiments confirmed that end product starvation was a major cause of cytotoxicity. Importantly, triclosan, C75 and orlistat induced distinct changes to morphology, cell cycle, lipid content and the expression of key enzymes of lipid metabolism, demonstrating that inhibition of different partial catalytic activities of FASN activates different metabolic pathways. These finding combined with its well-documented pharmacological safety profile make triclosan a promising drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:25313139

  14. Allosteric Inhibitors at the Heterodimer Interface of Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snoeberger, Ning-Shiuan Nicole

    Imidazole glycerol phosphate synthase (IGPS) from Thermotoga maritima is a heterodimeric enzyme composed of the HisH and HisF proteins. It is attractive as a pathological target since it is absent in mammals but found in plant and opportunistic human pathogens. IGPS was experimentally determined to be a V-type allosteric enzyme that is involved in an essential biosynthetic pathway of microorganisms. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of glutamine to form NH3 in the HisH protein, followed by cyclization of NH3 with N'-[(5'-phosphoribulosyl)imino]-5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribonucleotide (PRFAR) in the HisF subunit, forming imidazole glycerol phosphate (IGP) and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribotide (AICAR) that enter the histidine and purine biosynthetic pathways. Allosteric motions induced upon the binding of the effector PRFAR to HisF propagate through the non-covalent HisH/HisF interface and synchronize catalytic activity at the two distant active sites. However, the nature of the allosteric pathway and the feasibility of manipulating signal transduction by using allosteric drug-like molecules remain to be established. Molecular docking studies of commercial drugs at the HisH/HisF interface were used to identify stable candidates with a potential allosteric effect on the reaction mechanism. Molecular dynamic simulations and calculations of NMR chemical shifts were combined to elucidate the allosteric pathway of IGPS.

  15. (-)-UB006: A new fatty acid synthase inhibitor and cytotoxic agent without anorexic side effects.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Kamil; Mir, Joan Francesc; Mera, Paula; Ariza, Xavier; Asins, Guillermina; Hegardt, Fausto G; Herrero, Laura; García, Jordi; Serra, Dolors

    2017-05-05

    C75 is a synthetic anticancer drug that inhibits fatty acid synthase (FAS) and shows a potent anorexigenic side effect. In order to find new cytotoxic compounds that do not impact food intake, we synthesized a new family of C75 derivatives. The most promising anticancer compound among them was UB006 ((4SR,5SR)-4-(hydroxymethyl)-3-methylene-5-octyldihydrofuran-2(3H)-one). The effects of this compound on cytotoxicity, food intake and body weight were studied in UB006 racemic mixture and in both its enantiomers separately. The results showed that both enantiomers inhibit FAS activity and have potent cytotoxic effects in several tumour cell lines, such as the ovarian cell cancer line OVCAR-3. The (-)-UB006 enantiomer's cytotoxic effect on OVCAR-3 was 40-fold higher than that of racemic C75, and 2- and 38-fold higher than that of the racemic mixture and its opposite enantiomer, respectively. This cytotoxic effect on the OVCAR-3 cell line involves mechanisms that reduce mitochondrial respiratory capacity and ATP production, DDIT4/REDD1 upregulation, mTOR activity inhibition, and caspase-3 activation, resulting in apoptosis. In addition, central and peripheral administration of (+)-UB006 or (-)-UB006 into rats and mice did not affect food intake or body weight. Altogether, our data support the discovery of a new potential anticancer compound (-)-UB006 that has no anorexigenic side effects.

  16. Isoeugenin, a Novel Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Isolated from the Rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    An, Hyo-Jin; Nugroho, Agung; Song, Byong-Min; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2015-12-01

    Phytochemical studies on the constituents of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica (Gramineae) were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We also aimed to search for any biologically active substance capable of inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) formation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophage 264.7 cells, by testing four compounds isolated from this plant. Four compounds, including a new chromone, isoeugenin, along with ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, and caffeic acid were isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of isoeugenin was determined as 7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-2-methylchromone by the 2D-NMR technique. Among the four compounds, isoeugenin has the lowest IC50 value on the inhibition of NO production in LPS-activated macrophage RAW264.7 cells (IC50, 9.33 μg/mL). In addition, isoeugenin significantly suppressed the LPS-induced expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and proinflammatory cytokines mRNA levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of isoeugenin is associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in RAW264.7 cells. Accordingly, our results suggest that the new chromone isoegenin should be considered a potential treatment for inflammatory disease.

  17. Bcl2L13 is a ceramide synthase inhibitor in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Samuel A.; Calvert, Andrea E.; Volpert, Giora; Kouri, Fotini M.; Hurley, Lisa A.; Luciano, Janina P.; Wu, Yongfei; Chalastanis, Alexandra; Futerman, Anthony H.; Stegh, Alexander H.

    2014-01-01

    Therapy resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of cancer. Here, we identify Bcl2-like 13 (Bcl2L13), an atypical member of the Bcl-2 family, as a therapy susceptibility gene with elevated expression in solid and blood cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). We demonstrate that mitochondria-associated Bcl2L13 inhibits apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of chemo- and targeted therapies upstream of Bcl2-associated X protein activation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro and promotes GBM tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 (CerS2) and 6 (CerS6) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2/6 complex formation and activity. Correspondingly, CerS2/6 activity and Bcl2L13 abundance are inversely correlated in GBM tumors. Thus, our genetic and functional studies identify Bcl2L13 as a regulator of therapy susceptibility and point to the Bcl2L13–CerS axis as a promising target to enhance responses of therapy-refractory cancers toward conventional and targeted regimens currently in clinical use. PMID:24706805

  18. Bcl2L13 is a ceramide synthase inhibitor in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Samuel A; Calvert, Andrea E; Volpert, Giora; Kouri, Fotini M; Hurley, Lisa A; Luciano, Janina P; Wu, Yongfei; Chalastanis, Alexandra; Futerman, Anthony H; Stegh, Alexander H

    2014-04-15

    Therapy resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of cancer. Here, we identify Bcl2-like 13 (Bcl2L13), an atypical member of the Bcl-2 family, as a therapy susceptibility gene with elevated expression in solid and blood cancers, including glioblastoma (GBM). We demonstrate that mitochondria-associated Bcl2L13 inhibits apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of chemo- and targeted therapies upstream of Bcl2-associated X protein activation and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization in vitro and promotes GBM tumor growth in vivo. Mechanistically, Bcl2L13 binds to proapoptotic ceramide synthases 2 (CerS2) and 6 (CerS6) via a unique C-terminal 250-aa sequence located between its Bcl-2 homology and membrane anchor domains and blocks homo- and heteromeric CerS2/6 complex formation and activity. Correspondingly, CerS2/6 activity and Bcl2L13 abundance are inversely correlated in GBM tumors. Thus, our genetic and functional studies identify Bcl2L13 as a regulator of therapy susceptibility and point to the Bcl2L13-CerS axis as a promising target to enhance responses of therapy-refractory cancers toward conventional and targeted regimens currently in clinical use.

  19. ttCH, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression with antiarthritic properties.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Javier; Payá, Miguel; Domínguez, José N; Ferrándiz, Ma Luisa

    2003-03-28

    In a previous work, we investigated the effects of a series of dimethoxy- and trimethoxychalcone derivatives, with various patterns of fluorination, on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 cells. The present study was designed to determine if 2,4,6-trimethoxy-2'-trifluoromethylchalcone (ttCH) could modulate the production of nitric oxide (NO) and/or prostaglandins in vitro and in vivo. On the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, ttCH inhibited dose-dependently NO and prostaglandin E(2) production, with IC(50) in the micromolar range. This compound had no direct inhibitory effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 activities. NO reduction was the consequence of inhibition of the expression of iNOS. This compound also exhibited in vivo an inhibitory behaviour on nitrite and prostaglandin E(2) levels. We have assessed the effect of ttCH in the treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory processes such as the mouse carrageenan paw oedema and the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis. The present study demonstrated that ttCH exerts acute and chronic anti-inflammatory effects that may be related with the inhibition of iNOS expression.

  20. Pterin-sulfa conjugates as dihydropteroate synthase inhibitors and antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Shadrick, William R; Wallace, Miranda J; Wu, Yinan; Griffith, Elizabeth C; Qi, Jianjun; Yun, Mi-Kyung; White, Stephen W; Lee, Richard E

    2016-08-15

    The sulfonamide class of antibiotics has been in continuous use for over 70years. They are thought to act by directly inhibiting dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and also acting as prodrugs that sequester pterin pools by forming dead end pterin-sulfonamide conjugates. In this study, eight pterin-sulfonamide conjugates were synthesized using a novel synthetic strategy and their biochemical and microbiological properties were investigated. The conjugates were shown to competitively inhibit DHPS, and inhibition was enhanced by the presence of pyrophosphate that is crucial to catalysis and is known to promote an ordering of the DHPS active site. The co-crystal structure of Yersinia pestis DHPS bound to one of the more potent conjugates revealed a mode of binding that is similar to that of the enzymatic product analog pteroic acid. The antimicrobial activities of the pterin-sulfonamide conjugates were measured against Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of folate precursors and dependent metabolites. These results show that the conjugates have appreciable antibacterial activity and act by an on target, anti-folate pathway mechanism rather than as simple dead end products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pharmacological characterization of guanidinoethyldisulphide (GED), a novel inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase with selectivity towards the inducible isoform.

    PubMed

    Szabó, C; Bryk, R; Zingarelli, B; Southan, G J; Gahman, T C; Bhat, V; Salzman, A L; Wolff, D J

    1996-08-01

    1. Guanidines, amidines, S-alkylisothioureas, and recently, mercaptoalkylguanidines have been described as inhibitors of the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOS). We have recently demonstrated that guanidinoethyldisulphide (GED), formed from the dimerisation of mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG), is a novel inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases. Here we describe the pharmacological properties of GED on purified NOS isoforms, various cultured cell types, vascular ring preparations, and in endotoxin shock. 2. GED potently inhibited NOS activity of purified inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelial NOS (ecNOS), and brain NOS (bNOS) enzymes with Ki values of 4.3, 18 and 25 microM, respectively. Thus, GED has a 4 fold selectivity for iNOS over ecNOS at the enzyme level. The inhibitory effect of GED on ecNOS and iNOS was competitive vs. L-arginine and non-competitive vs. tetrahydrobiopterin. 3. Murine J774 macrophages, rat aortic smooth muscle cells, murine lung epithelial cells, and human intestinal DLD-1 cells were stimulated with appropriate mixtures of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharide to express iNOS. In these cells, GED potently inhibited nitrite formation (EC50 values: 11, 9, 1 and 30 microM, respectively). This suggests that uptake of GED may be cell type and species-dependent. The inhibitory effect of GED on nitrite production was independent of whether GED was given together with immunostimulation or 6 h afterwards, indicating that GED does not interfere with the process of iNOS induction. 4. GED caused relaxations in the precontracted vascular ring preparations (EC50: 20 microM). Part of this relaxation was endothelium-dependent, but was not blocked by methylene blue (100 microM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. In precontracted rings, GED enhanced the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxations at 10 microM and caused a slight inhibition of the relaxations at 100 microM. The vascular studies

  2. Pharmacological characterization of guanidinoethyldisulphide (GED), a novel inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase with selectivity towards the inducible isoform.

    PubMed Central

    Szabó, C.; Bryk, R.; Zingarelli, B.; Southan, G. J.; Gahman, T. C.; Bhat, V.; Salzman, A. L.; Wolff, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. Guanidines, amidines, S-alkylisothioureas, and recently, mercaptoalkylguanidines have been described as inhibitors of the generation of nitric oxide (NO) from L-arginine by NO synthases (NOS). We have recently demonstrated that guanidinoethyldisulphide (GED), formed from the dimerisation of mercaptoethylguanidine (MEG), is a novel inhibitor of nitric oxide synthases. Here we describe the pharmacological properties of GED on purified NOS isoforms, various cultured cell types, vascular ring preparations, and in endotoxin shock. 2. GED potently inhibited NOS activity of purified inducible NOS (iNOS), endothelial NOS (ecNOS), and brain NOS (bNOS) enzymes with Ki values of 4.3, 18 and 25 microM, respectively. Thus, GED has a 4 fold selectivity for iNOS over ecNOS at the enzyme level. The inhibitory effect of GED on ecNOS and iNOS was competitive vs. L-arginine and non-competitive vs. tetrahydrobiopterin. 3. Murine J774 macrophages, rat aortic smooth muscle cells, murine lung epithelial cells, and human intestinal DLD-1 cells were stimulated with appropriate mixtures of pro-inflammatory cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharide to express iNOS. In these cells, GED potently inhibited nitrite formation (EC50 values: 11, 9, 1 and 30 microM, respectively). This suggests that uptake of GED may be cell type and species-dependent. The inhibitory effect of GED on nitrite production was independent of whether GED was given together with immunostimulation or 6 h afterwards, indicating that GED does not interfere with the process of iNOS induction. 4. GED caused relaxations in the precontracted vascular ring preparations (EC50: 20 microM). Part of this relaxation was endothelium-dependent, but was not blocked by methylene blue (100 microM), an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. In precontracted rings, GED enhanced the acetylcholine-induced, endothelium-dependent relaxations at 10 microM and caused a slight inhibition of the relaxations at 100 microM. The vascular studies

  3. Ozagrel hydrochloride, a selective thromboxane A2 synthase inhibitor, alleviates liver injury induced by acetaminophen overdose in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Overdosed acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-acetyl-p-aminophenol; APAP) causes severe liver injury. We examined the effects of ozagrel, a selective thromboxane A2 (TXA2) synthase inhibitor, on liver injury induced by APAP overdose in mice. Methods Hepatotoxicity was induced to ICR male mice by an intraperitoneal injection with APAP (330 mg/kg). The effects of ozagrel (200 mg/kg) treatment 30 min after the APAP injection were evaluated with mortality, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and hepatic changes, including histopathology, DNA fragmentation, mRNA expression and total glutathione contents. The impact of ozagrel (0.001-1 mg/mL) on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity in mouse hepatic microsome was examined. RLC-16 cells, a rat hepatocytes cell line, were exposed to 0.25 mM N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI), a hepatotoxic metabolite of APAP. In this model, the cytoprotective effects of ozagrel (1–100 muM) were evaluated by the WST-1 cell viability assay. Results Ozagel treatment significantly attenuated higher mortality, elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels, excessive hepatic centrilobular necrosis, hemorrhaging and DNA fragmentation, as well as increase in plasma 2,3-dinor thromboxane B2 levels induced by APAP injection. Ozagrel also inhibited the hepatic expression of cell death-related mRNAs induced by APAP, such as jun oncogene, FBJ osteosarcoma oncogene (fos) and C/EBP homologous protein (chop), but did not suppress B-cell lymphoma 2-like protein11 (bim) expression and hepatic total glutathione depletion. These results show ozagrel can inhibit not all hepatic changes but can reduce the hepatic necrosis. Ozagrel had little impact on CYP2E1 activity involving the NAPQI production. In addition, ozagrel significantly attenuated cell injury induced by NAPQI in RLC-16. Conclusions We demonstrate that the TXA2 synthase inhibitor, ozagrel, dramatically alleviates liver injury induced by APAP in mice, and suggest that it is a

  4. Salicylate is a transcriptional inhibitor of the inducible nitric oxide synthase in cultured cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Farivar, R S; Brecher, P

    1996-12-06

    We have previously reported that salicylate inhibits the inducible NO synthase (NOS 2) in cytokine-induced cardiac fibroblasts (Farivar, R. S., Chobanian, A. V., and Brecher, P. (1996) Circ. Res. 78, 759-768). To define further the mechanism of inhibition of NOS 2 by salicylate, we investigated NOS 2 mRNA induction by cytokines and determined the kinetics of inhibition by salicylate as compared to dexamethasone. Interferon-gamma plus tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced NOS 2 mRNA synergistically in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Both dexamethasone and salicylate equally inhibited the induction of NOS 2 mRNA in a time- and dose-dependent fashion, both before and after cytokine induction. Salicylate also inhibited interferon-gamma plus interleukin-1beta-induced NOS 2 mRNA. After 24 h of cytokine stimulation, salicylate stopped the induction of NOS 2 mRNA, whereas dexamethasone delayed the accumulation of transcript. In half-life experiments of NOS 2 mRNA, we found that dexamethasone reduced the half-life of NOS 2 mRNA from 7 to 4 h, whereas salicylate had no effect on mRNA stability. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interferon-gamma induced NF-kappaB (p50/p65) and STAT-1, respectively, as assessed by gel shift assays. Salicylate did not inhibit the cytokine induction of NF-kappaB or STAT-1. This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory mechanism of salicylate involves inhibition of NOS 2 transcription and shows that the effect is independent of NF-kappaB activation.

  5. Fluorinated indazoles as novel selective inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS): synthesis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Claramunt, Rosa M; López, Concepción; Pérez-Medina, Carlos; Pérez-Torralba, Marta; Elguero, José; Escames, Germaine; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2009-09-01

    In order to find new compounds with neuroprotective activity and NOS-I/NOS-II selectivity, we have designed, synthesized, and characterized 14 new NOS inhibitors with an indazole structure. The first group corresponds to 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroindazoles (4-8), the second to the N-methyl derivatives (9-12) of 7-nitro-1H-indazole (1) and 3-bromo-7-nitro-1H-indazole (2), and the latter to 4,5,6,7-tetrafluoroindazoles (13-17). Compound 13 (4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-3-methyl-1H-indazole) inhibited NOS-I by 63% and NOS-II by 83%. Interestingly, compound 16 (4,5,6,7-tetrafluoro-3-perfluorophenyl-1H-indazole) inhibited NOS-II activity by 80%, but it did not affect to NOS-I activity. Structural comparison between these new indazoles further supports the importance of the aromatic indazole skeleton for NOS inhibition and indicate that bulky groups or N-methylation of 1 and 2 diminish their effect on NOS activity. The fluorination of the aromatic ring increased the inhibitory potency and NOS-II selectivity, suggesting that this is a promising strategy for NOS selective inhibitors.

  6. Preclinical and Early Clinical Profile of a Highly Selective and Potent Oral Inhibitor of Aldosterone Synthase (CYP11B2)

    PubMed Central

    Schwab, Dietmar; Delporte, Marie-Laure; Palermo, Giuseppe; Amrein, Kurt; Mohr, Susanne; De Vera Mudry, Maria Cristina; Brown, Morris J.; Ferber, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Primary hyperaldosteronism is a common cause of resistant hypertension. Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal by aldosterone synthase (AS, encoded by the gene CYP11B2). AS shares 93% homology to 11β-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP11B1), responsible for cortisol production. This homology has hitherto impeded the development of a drug, which selectively suppresses aldosterone but not cortisol production, as a new treatment for primary hyperaldosteronism. We now report the development of RO6836191 as a potent (Ki 13 nmol/L) competitive inhibitor of AS, with in vitro selectivity >100-fold over 11β-hydroxylase. In cynomolgus monkeys challenged with synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone, single doses of RO6836191 inhibited aldosterone synthesis without affecting the adrenocorticotropic hormone–induced rise in cortisol. In repeat-dose toxicity studies in monkeys, RO6836191 reproduced the adrenal changes of the AS−/− mouse: expansion of the zona glomerulosa; increased expression of AS (or disrupted green fluorescent protein gene in the AS−/− mouse); hypertrophy, proliferation, and apoptosis of zona glomerulosa cells. These changes in the monkey were partially reversible and partially preventable by electrolyte supplementation and treatment with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. In healthy subjects, single doses of RO6836191, across a 360-fold dose range, reduced plasma and urine aldosterone levels with maximum suppression at a dose of 10 mg, but unchanged cortisol, on adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge, up to 360 mg, and increase in the precursors 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol only at or >90 mg. In conclusion, RO6836191 demonstrates that it is possible to suppress aldosterone production completely in humans without affecting cortisol production. Clinical Trial Registration— URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01995383. PMID:27872236

  7. Selective Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor Reversed Zinc Chloride-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment via Increasing Cholinergic Marker Expression.

    PubMed

    Tabrizian, Kaveh; Azami, Kian; Belaran, Maryam; Soodi, Maliheh; Abdi, Khosrou; Fanoudi, Sahar; Sanati, Mehdi; Mottaghi Dastjerdi, Negar; Soltany Rezaee-Rad, Mohammad; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Zinc, an essential micronutrient and biochemical element of the human body, plays structural, catalytic, and regulatory roles in numerous physiological functions. In the current study, the effects of a pretraining oral administration of zinc chloride (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg) for 14 consecutive days and post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W as a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor (10, 50, and 100 μM/side), alone and in combination, on the spatial memory retention in Morris water maze (MWM) were investigated. Animals were trained for 4 days and tested 48 h after completion of training. Also, the molecular effects of these compounds on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), as a cholinergic marker in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and medial septal area (MSA), were evaluated. Behavioral and molecular findings of this study showed that a 2-week oral administration of zinc chloride (50 mg/kg) impaired spatial memory retention in MWM and decreased ChAT expression. Immunohistochemical analysis of post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W revealed a significant increase in ChAT immunoreactivity. Furthermore, post-training bilateral intra-hippocampal infusion of 1400W into the CA1 region of the hippocampus reversed zinc chloride-induced spatial memory impairment in MWM and significantly increased ChAT expression in comparison with zinc chloride-treated animals. Taken together, these results emphasize the role of selective iNOS inhibitors in reversing zinc chloride-induced spatial memory deficits via modulation of cholinergic marker expression.

  8. Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 14, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 4, and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Development of Periapical Lesions.

    PubMed

    Cassanta, Lorena Teodoro de Castro; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Violatti-Filho, Jose Roberto; Teixeira Neto, Benedito Alves; Tavares, Vinícius Marques; Bernal, Eduarda Castelo Branco Araujo; Souza, Danila Malheiros; Araujo, Marcelo Sivieri; de Lima Pereira, Sanivia Aparecida; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Periapical cysts and granulomas are chronic lesions caused by an inflammatory immune response against microbial challenge in the root canal. Different cell types, cytokines, and molecules have been associated with periapical lesion formation and expansion. Therefore, because of the chronic inflammatory state of these lesions, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 and -19, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and -4, CD68, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periapical cysts and granulomas. Sixteen cases of periapical cysts and 15 cases of periapical granulomas were analyzed. Ten normal dental pulps were used as the negative control. Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-MMP-19, anti-MMP-14, anti-TIMP-3, anti-TIMP-4, anti-iNOS, and anti-CD68 antibodies. The expression of TIMP-3, TIMP-4, iNOS, and CD68 was significantly higher in both the cyst and granuloma groups than in the control group. TIMP-4 was also significantly higher in cases of chronic apical abscess. There was also a significant difference in the expression of MMP-14 between the cyst and control groups. However, there were no differences in the expression of MMP-19 between the 3 groups. Our data suggest that the expression of MMP-14, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 is associated with the development of periapical lesions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phytotoxicity of Acetohydroxyacid Synthase Inhibitors Is Not Due to Accumulation of 2-Ketobutyrate and/or 2-Aminobutyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Shaner, D. L.; Singh, B. K.

    1993-01-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the site of action of herbicides of different chemical classes, such as imidazolinones, sulfonylureas, and triazolopyrimidines. Inhibition of AHAS causes the accumulation of 2-ketobutyrate (2-KB) and 2-aminobutyrate (2-AB) (the transamination product of 2-KB), and it has been proposed that the phytotoxicity of these inhibitors is due to this accumulation. Experiments were done to determine the relationship between accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB and the phytotoxicity of imazaquin to maize (Zea mays). Imazaquin concentrations that inhibit growth of maize plants also cause the accumulation of 2-KB and 2-AB in the shoots. Supplementation of imazaquin-treated plants with isoleucine reduced the pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant but did not protect plants from the growth inhibitory effects of imazaquin. Conversely, feeding 2-AB to maize plants increased 2-KB and 2-AB pools to much higher levels than those observed in imazaquin-treated plants, yet such high pools of 2-KB and 2-AB in the plant had no significant effect on growth. These results conclusively demonstrate that growth inhibition following imazaquin treatment is not due to accumulation of 2-KB and/or 2-AB in plants. Changes in the amino acid profiles after treatment with imazaquin suggest that starvation for the branched-chain amino acids may be the primary cause of growth retardation of maize. PMID:12232015

  10. Identification of two natural compound inhibitors of Leishmania donovani Spermidine Synthase (SpdS) through molecular docking and dynamic studies.

    PubMed

    V M, Vidhya; Dubey, Vikash Kumar; Ponnuraj, Karthe

    2017-09-05

    Visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan Leishmania donovani is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and it is potentially lethal if untreated. Despite the availability of drugs for treating the disease, the current drug regime suffers from drawbacks like antibiotic resistance and toxicity. New drugs have to be discovered in order to overcome these limitations. Our aim is to identify natural compounds from plant sources as putative inhibitors considering the occurrence of structural diversity in plant sources. Spermidine Synthase (SpdS) was chosen as the target enzyme as it plays a vital role in growth, survival, and due to its contribution in virulence. Our initial investigation started with a literature survey in identifying natural compounds that showed antileishmanial activity. Subsequently, we identified two monoterpenoid compounds, namely Geraniol and Linalool, that were structurally analogous to one of the substrates (putrescine) of SpdS. In the present study, homology model of L. donovani SpdS was generated and the binding affinity of the identified compounds was analyzed and also compared with the putrescine through molecular docking and dynamic studies. The pharmacokinetic properties of the identified compounds were validated and the binding efficiency of these ligands over the original substrate has been demonstrated. Based on these studies, Geraniol and Linalool can be considered as lead molecules for future investigations targeting SpdS. This study further emphasizes the choice of natural compounds as a good source of therapeutic agents.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and molecular docking studies of thiouracil derivatives as potent thymidylate synthase inhibitors and potential anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    El-Naggar, Abeer M; Abou-El-Regal, Mohsen M; El-Metwally, Souad A; Sherbiny, Farag F; Eissa, Ibrahim H

    2017-08-16

    Thymidylate synthase (TS), one of folate-dependent enzymes, is a key and well-recognized target for anticancer agents. In this study, a series of 6-aryl-5-cyano thiouracil derivatives were designed and synthesized in accordance with essential pharmacophoric features of known TS inhibitors. Nineteen compounds were screened in vitro for their anti-proliferative activities toward HePG-2, MCF-7, HCT-116, and PC-3 cell lines. Compounds [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and 24 exhibited high anti-proliferative activity, comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil. Additionally, ten compounds with potent anti-proliferative activities were further evaluated for their ability to inhibit TS enzyme. Six compounds ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], 22, 23 and 24) demonstrated potent dose-related TS inhibition with [Formula: see text] values ranging from 1.57 to [Formula: see text]. The in vitro TS activity results were consistent with those of the cytotoxicity assay where the most potent anti-proliferative compounds of the series showed good TS inhibitory activity comparable to that of 5-fluorouracil. Furthermore, molecular docking studies were carried out to investigate the binding pattern of the designed compounds with the prospective target, TS (PDB-code: 1JU6).

  12. Selective Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole Protects against Cocaine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Vitcheva, Vessela; Simeonova, Rumyana; Kondeva-Burdina, Magdalena; Mitcheva, Mitka

    2015-01-01

    One of the mechanisms involved in the development of addiction, as well as in brain toxicity, is the oxidative stress. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), a selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), on cocaine withdrawal and neurotoxicity in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: control; group treated with cocaine (15 mg/kg−1, i.p., 7 days); group treated with 7-NI (25 mg/kg−1, i.p., 7 days); and a combination group (7-NI + cocaine). Cocaine repeated treatment resulted in development of physical dependence, judged by withdrawal symptoms (decreased locomotion, increased salivation and breathing rate), accompanied by an increased nNOS activity and oxidative stress. The latter was discerned by an increased formation of malondialdehyde (MDA), depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, and impairment of the enzymatic antioxidant defense system measured in whole brain. In synaptosomes, isolated from cocaine-treated rats, mitochondrial activity and GSH levels were also decreased. 7-NI administered along with cocaine not only attenuated the withdrawal, due to its nNOS inhibition, but also reversed both the GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities near control levels. PMID:26576217

  13. Selective Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibitor 7-Nitroindazole Protects against Cocaine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain.</